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  1. System Ca3(VO4)2-Na3VO4-LaVO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the method of x-ray phase analysis, the phase equilibria in the system Ca3(VO4)2-Na3VO4-LaVO4 were studied. An extensive solid solution in calcium orthovanadate bounded by the compositions Ca3(VO4)2-Ca9La(VO4)7-Ca10Na(VO4)7-Ca8.5Na1.75La0.75(V)4)7 was found. The unit cell parameters of whitlockite vanadates increase with a rise in the sodium or lanthanum concentration. Ferroelectric phase transitions in Ca3-3xLa2x(VO4)2 vanadates were studied using thermal analysis, electrical conductivity measurements, and dielectric constant measurements

  2. Systems Li3VO4(Na3VO4)-Pb3(VO4)2-V2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase composition of Li3VO4-Pb3(VO4)2-V2O5 and Na3VO4-Pb3(VO4)-V2O5 systems is investigated. In the first system double vanadates are not produced, in the second one NaPbVO4, NaPb4(VO4)3 and Na5PbV3O11 compounds are identified. System phase ratio diagrams, related to subsolidus region (450-500 deg C), are plotted. 9 refs., 3 figs

  3. O'3-Na(x)VO2 system: a superstructure for Na(1/2)VO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Christophe; Guignard, Marie; Darriet, Jacques; Delmas, Claude

    2012-10-15

    The electrochemical cycling in a sodium battery of the lamellar oxide NaVO(2) is reversible in the Na(x)VO(2) composition range 1/2 ? x ? 1. The complex electrochemical curve reveals the presence of several transitions taking place during deintercalation. With the help of in situ X-ray diffraction, we observed the structural transitions taking place between Na(2/3)VO(2) and Na(1/2)VO(2). The diffractograms show the presence of several monophasic domains separated by biphasic domains. All phases present a monoclinic distortion of the ?-NaFeO(2) structure in the composition range 1/2 ? x ? 2/3. Moreover the presence of a superstructure is evidenced for Na(1/2)VO(2). It is the first time that an ordered structure is reported at the Na(1/2)MO(2) composition with an O'3 oxygen stacking. A thorough investigation of electrochemically obtained O'3-Na(1/2)VO(2) was performed. The structure refinement reveals the existence of a sodium/vacancy ordering, with a peculiar arrangement of the V-V distances hinting at a pairing of vanadium atoms. Our first measurements of the physical properties of O'3-Na(1/2)VO(2) show a semiconductor behavior and a complex thermal dependence of the magnetic susceptibility related to the pairing of the vanadium atoms. PMID:23009092

  4. Pyroxene-type (K,Na,Li)VO3 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase relations in the system were studied between 600 degrees and 350 degrees C. All three end members have the pyroxene-type structure. Both LiVO3 and NaVO3 are monoclinic, whereas KVO3 takes the orthorhombic symmetry. At 360 degrees C, the join LiVO3-NaVO3 is characterized by two series of pyroxene-type solid solutions: NaVO3-(Na0.44Li0.56)VO3 and LiVO3-(Na0.16Li0.84)-VO3 · (K0.5Na0.5)VO3 and (K0.5Li0.5)VO3 are two other stable phases at 360 degrees C. The pyroxene-type (K0.5Na0.5)VO3 has a range of solid solution from (K0.6Na0.4)VO3 to (K0.4Na0.6)VO3 along the join and extends into the ternary field with a maximum of 13 mol% LiVO3 · (K0.5Li0.5)VO3 has no detectable range of solid solution, and its x-ray powder diffraction data cannot be indexed based upon either the monoclinic or the orthorhombic unit cell

  5. Crystal structure and spectroscopic properties of Na2K6(VO)(2)(SO4)7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karydis, D.A.; Boghosian, S.

    2002-01-01

    Red-brown crystals of a new mixed alkali oxo sulfato vanadium(V) compound Na2K6(VO)(2)(SO4)(7), suitable for X-ray determination, have been obtained from the catalytically important binary molten salt system M2S2O7-V2O5 (M = 80% K and 20% Na). By slow cooling of a mixture with the mole fraction X-V2O5 = 0.24 from 325 degreesC, i.e., just below the liquidus temperature, to the solidus temperature of around 300 degreesC, a dark reddish amorphous phase was obtained containing crystals of the earlier described V(V)-V(IV) mixed valence compound K-6(VO)(4)(SO4)(8) and Na2K6-(VO)(2)(SO4)(7) described here. This compound crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2 (No. 96) with a = 9.540(3) Angstrom, c = 29.551(5) Angstrom at 20 degreesC and Z = 4. It contains a distorted VO6 octahedron with a short V-O bond of 1.552(6) Angstrom, a long one of 2.276(5) Angstrom trans to this, and four equatorial V-O bonds in the range 1.881(6)-1.960-(6) A. The deformation of the VO6 octahedron is less pronounced compared tothat of the known oxo sulfato V(V) compounds. Each VO3+ group is coordinated to five sulfate groups of which two are unidentately coordinated and three are bidentate bridging to neighboring VO3+ groups. The length of the S-O bonds in the S-O-V bridges of the two unidentately coordinated sulfato groups are 1.551(6) Angstrom and 1.568(6) Angstrom, respectively, which are unusually long compared to our earlier measurements of sulfate groups in other V(111), V(IV), and V(V) compounds.

  6. Cinética do VO2 durante o exercício realizado na potência crítica em ciclistas e indivíduos não-treinados no ciclismo / VO2 Kinetics during exercise performed at critical power in cyclists and untrained individuals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Aparecido Corrêa, Caritá; Camila Coelho, Greco; Dalton Müller, Pessôa Filho.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi analisar a cinética do consumo de oxigênio (VO2) na potência crítica (PC), em indivíduos com diferentes níveis de aptidão aeróbia no ciclismo. Seis ciclistas treinados (GT) e sete indivíduos não-treinados (GNT) realizaram os seguintes protocolos em cicloergômetro: (a) progressivo até [...] a exaustão para determinação do VO2max e sua respectiva intensidade (IVO2max); (b) três testes em cargas constantes até a exaustão a 95-110%IVO2max para determinação da PC; e (c) um teste em carga constante até a exaustão a 100%PC. No exercício a 100%PC, o componente lento expresso em valor absoluto (GT: 342,4±165,8 ml.min-1 vs. GNT: 571,3±170,1 ml.min-1) e relativo ao aumento do VO2 em exercício (GT: 10,0±4,6% vs. GNT: 26,6±7,3%) foram menores para GT. O VO2 ao final do exercício (GT: 89,8±8,4%VO2max vs. GNT: 97,4±2,8%VO2max) foi significativamente menor no grupo GT (? = 0,045), sendo similar ao VO2max no grupo GNT. Portanto, o nível de aptidão aeróbia pode influenciar as respostas do VO2 ao exercício em PC. Abstract in english The objective was to analyze the oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics during exercise performed at critical power (CP) in subjects with different aerobic status in cycling. Six trained cyclists (GT) and seven non-trained subjects (GNT) underwent to the following protocols in cyclergometer: (a) incremental t [...] o exhaustion to determine VO2max and its respective workload (IVO2max); b) three square-wave tests to exhaustion at 95-110% IVO2max to determine CP, and; (c) one square-wave test to exhaustion at 100%CP. During the exercise at CP the slow component expressed as absolute value (GT: 342.4±165.8 ml.min-1 vs. GNT: 571.3±170.1 ml.min-1) and as the relative contribution to the increase of VO2 during exercise (GT: 10.0±4.6% vs. GNT: 26.6±7.3%) were lower for trained subjects. The VO2 at the end of the exercise at PC (GT: 89.8±8.4%VO2max vs. GNT: 97.4±2.8%VO2max) was significantly lower in GT (? = 0.045), and similar to VO2max in GNT. Therefore, the aerobic level might influence the VO2 responses to exercise at PC.

  7. Relação entre modificações cinemáticas da corrida e o tempo limite na vVO2máx / Relationship between running kinematic changes and time limit at vVO2max

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo, De Lucca; Sebastião Iberes Lopes, Melo.

    Full Text Available A corrida realizada na velocidade do consumo máximo de oxigênio (vVO2máx) pode ocasionar modificações nos parâmetros cinemáticos e assim, aumentar o custo energético ao longo do tempo. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar características cinemáticas da articulação do tornozelo e joelho durante [...] a corrida na vVO2máx e a relação entre modificações cinemáticas e o tempo limite na vVO2máx(Tlim). Onze voluntários ativos fisicamente foram submetidos a um teste incremental de corrida para determinar a vVO2máx e posteriormente, a um teste de velocidade constante na vVO2máx. As variáveis cinemáticas foram adquiridas através de filmagem bidimensional a 210Hz no plano sagital esquerdo, no estágio inicial e final da corrida. De todas as variáveis angulares analisadas, a máxima plantiflexão no balanço (p Abstract in english Exhaustive running at maximal oxygen uptake velocity (vVO2max) can alter running kinematic parameters and increase energy cost along the time. The aims of the present study were to compare characteristics of ankle and knee kinematics during running at vVO2max and to verify the relationship between c [...] hanges in kinematic variables and time limit (Tlim). Eleven male volunteers, recreational players of team sports, performed an incremental running test until volitional exhaustion to determine vVO2max and a constant velocity test at vVO2max. Subjects were filmed continuously from the left sagittal plane at 210 Hz for further kinematic analysis. The maximal plantar flexion during swing (p

  8. Hot corrosion behaviour of Fe-Al based intermetallic in molten NaVO3 salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot corrosion of sprayed Fe-40 (at.%)Al intermetallic alloy with additions of boron and alumina whiskers in molten NaVO3 at 700 deg. C has been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS, techniques. For short exposure times, the corrosion mechanism under these conditions was observed to be controlled by an activation process, whereas for longer exposure times, the corrosion process was under diffusion control due to the growing of an Al2O3 oxide scale, which made the diffusion of both reducing and oxidizing species through the scale to the alloy or scale surfaces more difficult. Equivalent electric model used to simulate the EIS data showed that a finite length Warburg diffusion could properly characterize the diffusion process, which confirmed the formation of a compact corrosion product scales containing rich aluminium oxide. Thus, the corrosion process was under diffusion control of aggressive ions through the formed scale. The electrochemical study was complemented by scanning electronic microscopy characterization and micro chemical analysis.

  9. Reprodutibilidade do VO2Máx estimado na corrida pela frequência cardíaca e consumo de oxigênio de reserva Reliability of VO2Max estimated in treadmill running by heart rate reserve and power output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Meireles Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar os efeitos de utilização da frequência cardíaca máxima medida (FCpico vs. predita (FC Predita na estimativa do VO2Máx em esteira pelo método de FC e VO2 de reserva. Dezoito homens (27,5 ± 7,1 anos, 73,7 ± 12,6 kg, 174,8 ± 10,2 cm realizaram na primeira visita um teste progressivo máximo para determinar a FCpico. Nas duas visitas seguintes foram realizados os testes aeróbios submáximos em esteira com estágio de 6 min a 75% da FC de reserva. O VO2Máx foi estimado pelo uso conjunto das equações de FC, VO2 de reserva e equação de corrida do ACSM. Não foi observada diferença significativa (teste t entre as estimativas de VO2Máx a partir da FCpredita e FCpico. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e erro típico da medida utilizando FCpredita e FCpico foram 0,89, 2,43 mL.kg-1.min-1 (5% e 0,83, 2,43 mL.kg-1.min-1 (4,9%, respectivamente. O uso da abordagem estimada para determinação da FC máxima mostrou-se adequado para a determinação do VO2Máx com um pequeno erro típico da medida.The objective was to determine the reliability of the VO2Max estimate on a treadmill using the measured (HRpeak vs. the predicted (HRpredicted maximum heart rate (HR. Eighteen men (27.5 ± 7.1 years, 73.7± 12.6 kg, 174.8 ± 10.2 cm performed, in the first visit, a progressive test to determine the HRpeak. In the two following visits, submaximal aerobic tests were performed on a treadmill with a 6 min at 75% HR reserve. VO2Max was estimated by means of the equations of HR, VO2 reserve and the ACSM running equation. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the typical error of measurement using HRPredicted and HRpeak were 0.89, 2.43 ml.kg-1.min-1 (5% and 0.83, 2.43 mL.kg-1.min-1 (4.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference (t test between the estimates of VO2Max from the HRpeak and HRpredicted. The use of the HRpredicted was considered appropriate for VO2Max estimation, with a small typical error of measurement.

  10. Reprodutibilidade do VO2Máx estimado na corrida pela frequência cardíaca e consumo de oxigênio de reserva / Reliability of VO2Max estimated in treadmill running by heart rate reserve and power output

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tony Meireles, Santos; Bruno Ferreira, Viana; Alberto Souza, Sá Filho.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar os efeitos de utilização da frequência cardíaca máxima medida (FCpico) vs. predita (FC Predita) na estimativa do VO2Máx em esteira pelo método de FC e VO2 de reserva. Dezoito homens (27,5 ± 7,1 anos, 73,7 ± 12,6 kg, 174,8 ± 10,2 cm) realizaram na primeira visita um teste progre [...] ssivo máximo para determinar a FCpico. Nas duas visitas seguintes foram realizados os testes aeróbios submáximos em esteira com estágio de 6 min a 75% da FC de reserva. O VO2Máx foi estimado pelo uso conjunto das equações de FC, VO2 de reserva e equação de corrida do ACSM. Não foi observada diferença significativa (teste t) entre as estimativas de VO2Máx a partir da FCpredita e FCpico. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e erro típico da medida utilizando FCpredita e FCpico foram 0,89, 2,43 mL.kg-1.min-1 (5%) e 0,83, 2,43 mL.kg-1.min-1 (4,9%), respectivamente. O uso da abordagem estimada para determinação da FC máxima mostrou-se adequado para a determinação do VO2Máx com um pequeno erro típico da medida. Abstract in english The objective was to determine the reliability of the VO2Max estimate on a treadmill using the measured (HRpeak) vs. the predicted (HRpredicted) maximum heart rate (HR). Eighteen men (27.5 ± 7.1 years, 73.7± 12.6 kg, 174.8 ± 10.2 cm) performed, in the first visit, a progressive test to determine the [...] HRpeak. In the two following visits, submaximal aerobic tests were performed on a treadmill with a 6 min at 75% HR reserve. VO2Max was estimated by means of the equations of HR, VO2 reserve and the ACSM running equation. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the typical error of measurement using HRPredicted and HRpeak were 0.89, 2.43 ml.kg-1.min-1 (5%) and 0.83, 2.43 mL.kg-1.min-1 (4.9%), respectively. There was no significant difference (t test) between the estimates of VO2Max from the HRpeak and HRpredicted. The use of the HRpredicted was considered appropriate for VO2Max estimation, with a small typical error of measurement.

  11. Efeitos do estado e especificidade do treinamento aeróbio na relação %VO2max versus %FCmax durante o ciclismo / Effects of the state and specificity of aerobic training on the %VO2max versus %HRmax ratio during cycling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabrizio, Caputo; Camila Coelho, Greco; Benedito Sérgio, Denadai.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os efeitos do estado e especificidade de treinamento aeróbio na relação entre o percentual do consumo máximo de oxigênio (%VO2max) e o percentual da frequência cardíaca máxima (%FCmax) durante o exercício incremental realizado no cicloergômetro. MÉTODOS: Sete corredores, 9 cicli [...] stas, 11 triatletas e 12 sedentários, todos do sexo masculino e aparentemente saudáveis, foram submetidos a um teste incremental até a exaustão no cicloergômetro. Regressões lineares entre %VO2max e %FCmax foram determinadas para cada indivíduo. Com base nessas regressões, foram calculados %FCmax correspondentes a determinados %VO2max (50, 60, 70, 80 e 90%) de cada participante. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre todos os grupos nos %FCmax para cada um dos %VO2max avaliados. Analisando-se os voluntários como um único grupo, as médias dos %FCmax correspondentes a 50, 60, 70, 80 e 90% %VO2max foram 67, 73, 80, 87, e 93%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Nos grupos analisados, a relação entre o %VO2max e %FCmax durante o exercício incremental no ciclismo não é dependente do estado e especificidade do treinamento aeróbio. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of the status and specificity of exercise training in the ratio between maximum oxygen consumption (%VO2max) and the percentage of maximal heart rate (%HRmax) during incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer. METHODS: Seven runners, 9 cyclists, 11 triathletes, and [...] 12 sedentary individuals, all male and apparently healthy, underwent exhaustive incremental exercise on cycle ergometers. Linear regressions between %VO2max x %HRmax were determined for each individual. Based on these regressions, %HRmax was assessed corresponding to a determined %VO2max (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90%) from each participant. RESULTS: Significant differences were not found between the groups in %HRmax for each of the %VO2max assessed. Analyzing the volunteers as a single group, the average of the corresponding %HRmax to 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% %VO2max were 67, 73, 80, 87, and 93%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The ratio between %VO2max and %HRmax in the groups assessed during incremental exercise on the bicycle is not dependent on the status and specificity of aerobic exercise training.

  12. EVALUACIÓN DE ÍNDICES DE CONVERSIÓN ENERGÉTICA EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE GAS COMBUSTIBLE A PARTIR DE BIOMASA / EVALUATION THE RATES OF ENERGY CONVERSIONINTHE PRODUCTIONOFBIOMASSFUELGAS / DETERMINAÇÃOTAXAS DE CONVERSÃO DE ENERGIA NA PRODUÇÃO DE GÁS COMBUSTÍVEL DE BIOMASSA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GERARDO, CABRERA C.; SANTIAGO, MADRIÑAN M.; DEYANIRA, MUÑOZ M..

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Os rácios de conversão de energia em gaseificação de biomassa, permite comparações entre gaseificadores e decidir melhor desempenho em um processo industrial. A pesquisa utilizou um tipo de reactor experimental Imbert7 KW, a biomassa de bagaço de cana, madeira e alfarrobeira. Elemental análises fora [...] m realizadas e proximal, e os cálculos de equilíbrio de massa térmica na conversão de taxas volumétricas de energia e de massa (I).Os valores caloríficos de cada gás de biomassa, a uma temperatura mínima de 850 º C e 1050 º C a operação do reactor era óptimo: 3679 kJ / kg de carvão de alfarroba, 4,603 madeira Kj / Kg e 5.009 kJ / kg de bagaço cana. Enquanto as taxas de utilização volumétricasforam: carvão Kj/Nm3 alfarroba 3.509,39, 3.804,39 e 4.847,83 Kj/Nm3 bagaço de madeira Kj/Nm3 cana. Concluímos eficiência gaseificador é de 70%, a taxa de conversão é adequada para estimar a massa calorífica do gás combustível produzido pode ser recuperado em um valor de aquecimento de combustão do gás de síntese é poder cerca de 10% aquecimento a gás e perdas de calor são 30%. Abstract in spanish Los índices de conversión energética en la gasificación de biomasa, permitecomparaciones entregasificadores y obtenerelmejor desempeño enun proceso industrial. Se utilizó un reactor de prueba tipo Imbert de 7 KW y biomasa debagazo de caña de azúcar,madera y árbol de algarrobo. Se realizaron análisis [...] elementales, proximalesy los balances másicos y térmicos en el cálculo de los índices de conversión de energía volumétrica y másica ().Los valores del poder calorífico del gas generado a una temperatura mínima de 850ºC y óptima de 1050ºC, en el reactor fueron: 3679 Kj/Kg de carbón de algarrobo, 4603 Kj/Kg de madera y 5009 Kj/Kg de bagazo de caña. Mientras los índices de aprovechamiento volumétrico fueron: 3509,39 Kj/Nm3decarbón de algarrobo, 3804,39 Kj/Nm3demadera y4847,83 Kj/Nm3debagazo de caña de azúcar. Se concluye que una eficacia del 70% en el gasificador, el índice de conversión es apropiado para estimar el poder calorífico,la masa del gas producido combustible puede ser recuperada en una combustión, el poder calorífico del gas de síntesis es aproximadamente el 10% del poder calorífico de la gasolina y las pérdidas de calor son del 30%. Abstract in english The energy conversion ratios in biomass gasification, allows comparisons between gasifiers and decide best performing one in an industrial process. The research used a test reactor type Imbert 7 KW, biomass sugarcane bagasse, wood and carob tree. Elemental and proximal analyzes were performed and th [...] ermal mass balance calculations involved in the conversion rates volumetric energy and mass (I). The calorific values of each biomass gas at a minimum temperature of 850ºC and 1050ºC optimum reactor operation where: 36779 kJ/kg of coal carob, 4603 kJ/kg of wood and 5009 kJ/kg of bagasse cane. While volumetric utilization rateswhere: 3509.39 of coal carob, 3804.39 Kj/Nm3 wood and 4847.83 Kj/Nm3 sugarcane bagasse. We conclude gasifies efficiency is 70%, the conversion rate is appropriate for estimating the calorific mass of the fuel gas produced can be recovered in a combustion heating value of the synthesis gas is about 10% power gas heating and heat losses are 30%.

  13. DISTANCE LEARNING IN SLOVAKIA AND IN THE CHOSEN COUNTRIES OF EUROPEAN UNION / Dištan?né vzdelávanie na Slovensku a vo vybraných krajinách EÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan?ari? Drahoš

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Authors refer to the theme of distance learning and its application in Slovak republic and in the chosen countries of European Union. In the article there is a brief history of distance learning usage.Autori sa v príspevku venujú problematike využitia dištan?ného vzdelávania ako na Slovensku, tak aj vo vybraných krajinách Európskej únie. V príspevku uvádzajú stru?ný historický preh?ad používania dištan?ného vzdelávania a jednej z jeho foriem - e-learningu.

  14. Predição da potência aeróbia (VO2máx de crianças e adolescentes em teste incremental na esteira rolante Prediction of aerobic power (VO2max of children and adolescents during an incremental treadmill test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Andrade Machado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2máx é a quantidade máxima de energia que pode ser produzida pelo metabolismo aeróbio em determinada unidade de tempo, podendo ser determinado direta ou indiretamente através de equações preditivas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar uma equação preditiva específica para determinar o VO2máx de meninos de 10 a 16 anos. Quarenta e dois meninos realizaram teste ergoespirométrico de corrida em esteira rolante com velocidade inicial de 9 km/h até exaustão voluntária. Através da regressão linear múltipla foi possível desenvolver a seguinte equação para a determinação indireta do VO2máx: VO2máx (ml/min = -1574,06 + (141,38 x Vpico + (48,34 * Massa corporal, com erro padrão de estimativa = 191,5 ml/min (4,10 ml/kg/min e o coeficiente de determinação = 0,934. Sugerimos que esta é uma fórmula adequada para predizer o VO2máx para esta população.The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max is the maximal quantity of energy that can be produced by the aerobic metabolism in certain time unity. It can be determined direct or indirectly by predictive equations. The objective of this study was to make a specific predictive equation to determine the VO2max from boys aged 10-16 years-old. Forty-two boys underwent a treadmill running ergospirometric test, with the initial velocity set at 9 km/h, until voluntary exhaustion. By the multiple linear regression was possible to develop the following equation for the indirect determination of the VO2max: VO2max (ml/min = -1574.06 + (141.38 x Vpeak + (48.34 * Body mass, with standard error of estimate = 191.5 ml/min (4.10 ml/kg/min and coefficient of determination = 0.934. We suggest that this formula is appropriate to predict VO2max for this population.

  15. Predição da potência aeróbia (VO2máx) de crianças e adolescentes em teste incremental na esteira rolante / Prediction of aerobic power (VO2max) of children and adolescents during an incremental treadmill test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiana Andrade, Machado; Benedito Sérgio, Denadai.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2máx) é a quantidade máxima de energia que pode ser produzida pelo metabolismo aeróbio em determinada unidade de tempo, podendo ser determinado direta ou indiretamente através de equações preditivas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar uma equação preditiva específ [...] ica para determinar o VO2máx de meninos de 10 a 16 anos. Quarenta e dois meninos realizaram teste ergoespirométrico de corrida em esteira rolante com velocidade inicial de 9 km/h até exaustão voluntária. Através da regressão linear múltipla foi possível desenvolver a seguinte equação para a determinação indireta do VO2máx: VO2máx (ml/min) = -1574,06 + (141,38 x Vpico) + (48,34 * Massa corporal), com erro padrão de estimativa = 191,5 ml/min (4,10 ml/kg/min) e o coeficiente de determinação = 0,934. Sugerimos que esta é uma fórmula adequada para predizer o VO2máx para esta população. Abstract in english The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the maximal quantity of energy that can be produced by the aerobic metabolism in certain time unity. It can be determined direct or indirectly by predictive equations. The objective of this study was to make a specific predictive equation to determine the VO2max [...] from boys aged 10-16 years-old. Forty-two boys underwent a treadmill running ergospirometric test, with the initial velocity set at 9 km/h, until voluntary exhaustion. By the multiple linear regression was possible to develop the following equation for the indirect determination of the VO2max: VO2max (ml/min) = -1574.06 + (141.38 x Vpeak) + (48.34 * Body mass), with standard error of estimate = 191.5 ml/min (4.10 ml/kg/min) and coefficient of determination = 0.934. We suggest that this formula is appropriate to predict VO2max for this population.

  16. Polymorphism of NaVO2F2: a P21/c superstructure with pseudosymmetry of P21/m in the subcell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zi Qun; Wang, Jing Quan; Huang, Ya Xi; Botis, Sanda M; Pan, Yuanming; Mi, Jin Xiao

    2015-06-01

    The ADDSYM routine in the program PLATON [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] has helped researchers to avoid structures of (metal-)organic compounds being reported in an unnecessarily low symmetry space group. However, determination of the correct space group may get more complicated in cases of pseudosymmetric inorganic compounds. One example is NaVO2F2, which was reported [Crosnier-Lopez et al. (1994). Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 31, 957-965] in the acentric space group P21 based on properties but flagged by ADDSYM as (pseudo)centrosymmetric P21/m within default distance tolerances. Herein a systematic investigation reveals that NaVO2F2 exists in at least four polymorphs: P21, (I), P21/m, (II), P21/c, (III), and one or more low-temperature ones. The new centrosymmetric modification, (III), with the space group P21/c has a similar atomic packing geometry to phase (I), except for having a doubled c axis. The double-cell of phase (III) arises from atomic shifts from the glide plane c at (x, 1/4, z). With increasing temperature, the number of observed reflections decreases. The odd l reflections gradually become weaker and, correspondingly, all atoms shift towards the glide plane, resulting in a gradual second-order transformation of (III) into high-temperature phase (II) (P21/m) at below 493?K. At least one first-order enantiotropic phase transition was observed below 139?K from both the single-crystal X-ray diffraction and the differential scanning calorimetry analyses. Periodic first-principles calculations within density functional theory show that both P21/c superstructure (III) and P21 substructure (I) are more stable than P21/m structure (II), and that P21/c superstructure (III) is more stable that P21 substructure (I). PMID:26044323

  17. Growth of YbVO4 crystals evolved from hot corrosion reactions of Yb2Zr2O7 against V2O5 and Na2SO4 + V2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sa; Liu, Zhan-Guo; Ouyang, Jia-Hu

    2013-07-01

    Hot corrosion behavior of Yb2Zr2O7 ceramic against V2O5 and Na2SO4 + V2O5 (molar ratio = 1:1) was investigated at temperatures of 900-1100 °C for 2 h in air. YbVO4 was identified due to chemical interactions of these two corrosive agents with Yb2Zr2O7 ceramic. Although YbVO4 formed in these two hot corrosion reactions has the same crystallographic structural characteristic, its morphologies exhibit significant difference. YbVO4 evolved from hot corrosion of V2O5-coated Yb2Zr2O7 is particle-shaped, while it is rod-like in the (Na2SO4 + V2O5)-coated Yb2Zr2O7. A model describing the formation process of the hot corrosion products was presented and the growth mechanism of YbVO4 crystal was proposed on the basis of the hot corrosion model.

  18. A phase-transfer assisted solvo-thermal strategy for low-temperature synthesis of Na3(VO1-xPO4)2F1+2x cathodes for sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junmei; Mu, Linqin; Qi, Yuruo; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Huizhou; Dai, Sheng

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that a series of high-performance cathode materials, sodium vanadium polyanionic compounds, Na3(VO1-xPO4)2F1+2x (x = 0, 0.5 and 1), can be synthesized by a phase-transfer assisted solvo-thermal strategy at a rather low temperature (80-140 °C) in one simple step, exhibiting a high Na storage capacity of ca. 120 mA h g(-1) and excellent cycling performance. This study makes a significant step to extend this strategy to the synthesis of functional materials from simple binary to complex multicomponent compounds. PMID:25812049

  19. Reactor para el tratamiento electroquímico de biomasa

    OpenAIRE

    Guinea Díaz, Domingo; García Fierro, José Luis; Navarro Yerga, Rufino M.; Jurado Egea, José Ramón; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Heli Ricar

    2008-01-01

    [ES] La invención relaciona a una reacción para el tratamiento electroquímica de la biomasa, incluyendo por lo menos dos electrodos de la superficie plana situados equidistantly sobre la superficie completa y separados por más pequeño de 1 milímetro, el espacio entre el ser dicho de los electrodos ocupado por la solución electrolítica. Preferiblemente por lo menos uno de los electrodos es un ánodo y por lo menos uno de los electrodos es un cátodo. El ánodo se hace preferiblemente de un materi...

  20. Multicomponent polyanions. 40. A potentiometric and 51V NMR study of equilibria in the H+-H2VO4--C2O42- system in 0.6 M Na(Cl) medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The speciation in the H+-H2VO4--C2O42- system was determined from potentiometric (glass electrode) and 51V NMR measurements. The study was performed in 0.6 M Na(Cl) medium at 25deg C. The potentiometric data cover the range 2+]+]+)p(H2VO4-)q(C2O42-)r, having the (p,q,r) values (2,1,2) and (2,1,1) with lg ?2,1,2 = 17.11 ± 0.01 and lg ?=2,1,1 = 13.07 ± 0.02 explained all potentiometric and NMR data within the -lg[H+] range covered. The errors given are 3?. The equilibrium conditions are illustrated in distribution and predominance diagrams and possible structures discussed. (author)

  1. MVO3-Cd(VO3)2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Character of phase formation in MVO3-Cd(VO3)2 systems under heating was investigated. It is shown that components don't interact in systems with M=Li, Na, Ag; binary methavanadate of M2Cd(VO3)4 composition is the product of interaction in systems with M=K, Rb, Cs

  2. Potencial de producción de biomasa en una población natural de la ostra crassostrea rhizophorae, en la laguna grande de obispo, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela / Biomass production potential in a natural population of the oyster crassostrea rhizophorae in laguna grande de obispo; Cariaco Gulf; Venezuela / Potencial de produção de biomassa na população natural da ostra crassostrea rhizophorae, na lagoa grande de obispo, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antulio, Prieto; Andrés, Montes; Lilia J, Ruiz.

    2008-10-08

    Full Text Available A ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae é um bivalves de interesse comercial, comum nas comunidades de manglares no oriente da Venezuela. Para avaliar o potencial de geração de biomassa da espécie se realizaram amostras mensais desde maio de 2002 até maio de 2003, em duas estações da população natural de La [...] guna Grande do Obispo, estado Sucre, Venezuela. Utilizando um desenho de amostras aleatório simples se determinou a abundância e a biomassa de bivalves fixados a raízes de Rhizophora manglae, estimando a produção secundária pelo método da taxa específica de crescimento. Determinou-se uma densidade média de 818,13ind/m² de raiz com biomassa média em peso seco de 662,39g/m², sem diferenças significativas entre estações nem meses. Utilizando um modelo de crescimento com parâmetros finais de L¥= 87,68 e K= 0,19/mês, se obteve uma produção secundária total de 2.355,546g/m²/ano, sendo o intervalo de tamanho 50,01-60,00mm o que aportou a maior quantidade (382,353g/m²/ano). A máxima produção se obteve em jan-fev de 2003 (243,906g/m²/ano) e a mínima em mai-jun de 2002 (100,80g/m²/ano). A produção por indivíduo foi de 43,283g/m²/ano com a mesma tendência temporal da total. Ainda que não se determinasse correlação dos incrementos de produção com a temperatura e salinidade, a maior produção ocorreu durante a época de surgência costeira na zona. A relação produção/biomassa foi de 3,55/ano, resultados que indicam que C. rhizophorae apresenta um grande potencial para atividades de aqüicultura na zona por sua reprodução continua e altas taxas de crescimento e produtividade. Abstract in spanish La ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae es un bivalvo de interés comercial, común en las comunidades de manglar en el oriente de Venezuela. Para evaluar el potencial de generación de biomasa de la especie se realizaron muestreos mensuales desde mayo 2002 hasta mayo 2003, en dos estaciones de la población n [...] atural de Laguna Grande del Obispo, estado Sucre, Venezuela. Utilizando un diseño de muestreo al azar simple se determinó la abundancia y la biomasa de bivalvos fijados a raíces de Rhizophora manglae, estimando la producción secundaria por el método de la tasa específica de crecimiento. Se determinó una densidad promedio de 818,13ind/m² de raíz con biomasa promedio en peso seco de 662,39g/m², sin diferencias significativas entre estaciones ni meses. Utilizando un modelo de crecimiento con parámetros finales de L¥= 87,68 y K= 0,19/mes, se obtuvo una producción secundaria total de 2355,546g/m²/año, siendo el intervalo de talla 50,01-60,00mm el que aportó la mayor cantidad (382,353g/m²/año). La máxima producción se obtuvo en ene-feb 2003 (243,906g/m²/año) y la mínima en may-jun 2002 (100,80g/m²/año). La producción por individuo fue de 43,283g/m²/año con la misma tendencia temporal de la total. Aunque no se determinó correlación de los incrementos de producción con la temperatura y salinidad, la mayor producción ocurre durante la época de surgencia costera en la zona. La relación producción/biomasa fue de 3,55/año, resultados que indican que C. rhizophorae presenta un gran potencial para actividades de acuicultura en la zona por su reproducción continua y altas tasas de crecimiento y productividad. Abstract in english The oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is a bivalve of commercial interest, common in mangrove communities of eastern Venezuela. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the production of biomass of species in a natural population of Laguna Grande de Obispo, Cariaco Gulf, Venezuela. Monthly samplin [...] gs were carried out between May 2002 and May 2003 in two stations. Using a simple random sampling design, the abundance and biomass of bivalves fixed on mangrove roots Rhizophora manglae were determined, estimating the secondary production by the specific growth rate method. Mean density was 818.13ind/m² and mean biomass was 662.39g/m² of root, without significant differences between stations and months. Using a gr

  3. Benefícios do Uso do VoIP: um estudo de caso na GMBenefits from the VOIP Use: a case study at GMBeneficios del Uso del VoIP: un estudio de caso en la GM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEITERA, Carlos Henrique

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo traz uma visão do que é o VoIP, assim como suas principais aplicações, os fatores que as empresas buscam para minimizar custos em telefonia, as vantagens e desvantagens, a agregação de novas tecnologias, como WI-FI e o VOIP, e o futuro da telefonia no Brasil.Serão analisadas as diferenças entre Telefonia IP e VOIP paralelamente, e será tratada como base e estudo de caso a empresa General Motors do Brasil. O objetivo é mostrar o conteúdo que envolve essa inovadora tecnologia. Podemos dizer que a vontade de abordar esse tema foi despertada não somente por ser uma tecnologia inovadora que vem substituindo a telefonia convencional reduzindo os custos das empresas e trocando serviços e equipamentos obsoletos por uma série de novos serviços e oferecendo muitos recursos e benefícios, mas nos chamou a atenção também pelo fato de ser uma tecnologia que está revolucionando o mercado de telecomunicações, já que as empresas de telefonia prestadoras de serviços consomem uma boa parte da renda das empresas e pessoas, e também por exigir, nesse período de transição, muita habilidade em adequar as necessidades do cliente ao uso dessas ferramentas.ABSTRACTThis article brings a vision about Voip, as well as itself main applications, the factors with that the companies search to decrease costs in telephony, the advantages and disadvantages, aggregation of new technologies as wi-fi to the VOIP and the future of the telephony in Brazil. The differences between Telephony IP and VOIP will be analyzed parallel, and will be showed with as base study case of the General Motors. Our objective for this subject is to show the content that involves this fantastic technology. We can say that will to approach this subject it was influenced not only by being an innovative technology that comes substituting the conventional telephony, reducing the costs of the companies, and changing to services and obsolete equipments for a series of new services offering many resources and benefits, but it also called-us the attention for the fact being a technology whom making a revolution in telecommunications market where the rendering companies of telephony of services consumes a good part of the income of the companies and people, and also for This article brings a vision about VOIP, as well as its main applications, the factors with that the companies search to decrease costs in telephony, the advantages and disadvantages, aggregation of new technologies as wi-fi to the VOIP and the future of the telephony in Brazil. The differences between Telephony IP and VOIP will be analyzed in parallel, and will be showed having as base a case study of the General Motors. Our objective for this subject is to show the content that involves this fantastic technology. We can say that the will to approach this subject was influenced not only by being an innovative technology that comes to substitute the conventional telephony, reducing the costs of the companies, and changing services and obsolete equipment for a series of new services offering many resources and benefits, but it also called us the attention for the fact that this is a technology making a revolution in telecommunications market where the rendering companies of telephone services consumes a good part of the income of the companies and people, and also for demanding in this period of transition a great deal of ability to adequate the necessities of the customer to use of these tools and resources.RESUMENEste artículo aporta una visión de lo que es el VoIP, sus principales aplicaciones, los factores que las empresas buscan para minimizar costos en telefonía, las ventajas y desventajas, el agregado de nuevas tecnologías, como WI-FI y el VOIP y el futuro de la telefonía en Brasil.Se analizarán las diferencias entre Telefonía IP y VOIP y se tratará como base y estudio de caso la empresa General Motors de Brasil. La finalidad es mostrar el contenido que comprende esta innovadora tecnología. Podemos decir que el interés en este tema surgió prim

  4. ECUACIONES ALOMÉTRICAS PARA ESTIMAR BIOMASA Y CARBONO EN Quercus magnoliaefolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jes\\u00FAs D. G\\u00F3mez-D\\u00EDaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ejido El Zapote de la Reserva de la Biosfera "Sierra de Huautla", estado de Morelos, México, se seleccionaron doce árboles de Quercus magnoliaefolia Née y se determinó su biomasa en la parte aérea. El modelo alométrico quedó expresado como: B = 0.0345 * DAP2.9334 en donde B es la biomasa (kg y DAP es el diámetro a la altura del pecho (cm, con un coeficiente de determinación (R2= 0.98; P<0.001. Adicionalmente, se estimó la biomasa mediante una regresión lineal múltiple que consideró el área basal (AB, la densidad específica de la madera (DEM y la altura de los árboles (H. Una alta proporción de la varianza de la biomasa fue explicada solamente por el área basal. La DEM y H no incrementaron significativamente la precisión de los modelos. El porcentaje promedio de carbono en los árboles de Q. magnoliaefolia fue de 47.14 con valores de 46.29 % para el fuste, 46.83 % para las ramas y 48.31 % para el follaje. La proporción promedio de los componentes de la especie estudiada fue de 2.5 % para el fuste, 27.8 % para las ramas y 9.6 % para el follaje.

  5. Utjecaj alkohola na u?inak u zadatku sljepo?e zbog nepažnje u simuliranoj situaciji vožnje automobila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andro Pavuna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Akutna konzumacija etilnoga alkohola štetno utje?e na brojne vidne funkcije. U ovom smo se istraživanju usredoto?ili na specifi?ne procese vidne percepcije i pažnje te utjecaj relativno niskih razina alkohola na njih. U istraživanju je sudjelovalo 47 studenata raznih fakulteta Sveu?ilišta u Zagrebu. Sudionici u eksperimentalnoj skupini (N=22 konzumirali su alkoholni koktel stopostotnoga naran?inog soka i votke kako bi dostigli ciljanu razinu alkohola u krvi od 0.8 g/kg, dok su sudionici u kontrolnoj skupini (N=25 konzumirali placebo – samo naran?in sok sa snažnom aromom etilnoga alkohola. Nakon konzumacije pi?a sudionici su rješavali zadatak vidne percepcije i pažnje koji se sastojao od kratkoga video-isje?ka koji prikazuje režiranu realnu prometnu situaciju u kojoj jedno vozilo slijedi drugo s centralnim zadatkom brojanja paljenja ''štop'' svjetala na vozilu koje se kre?e ispred njega, te percepcije zna?ajnih objekata i detalja iz okoline poput dje?jih kolica, djeteta koje prelazi cestu, prometnih zakova i sl. Provedenim je istraživanjem utvr?eno kako sudionici pod utjecajem alkohola postižu statisti?ki zna?ajno slabiji rezultat u zadatku vidne percepcije od sudionika koji nisu pod utjecajem alkohola. Dobiven je umjereni efekt u kumulativnom zadatku vidne percepcije i pažnje, te nezna?ajan, ali jasan trend štetnoga utjecaja alkohola na pojedine zadatke vidne percepcije i pažnje.

  6. Cambios en la biomasa de raíces y micorrizas arbusculares en cultivos itinerantes del Amazonas Venezolano / Changes in root biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizae in shifting crops of the Venezuelan Amazon / Mudanças na biomassa de raízes e micorrizas arbusculares em cultivos itinerantes do Amazonas Venezolano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina, Kalinhoff; Alicia, Cáceres; Leonardo, Lugo.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A designação de biomassa a produção de raízes finas em plantas terrestres e a formação de associações simbióticas micorrízico arbusculares (MA) constituem adaptações de importância em condições de baixa fertilidade. Em um mosaico de agricultura itinerante, conformado por duas áreas de cultivo (parce [...] las), duas áreas de 2-4 e de 4-6 anos de abandono depois de ser cultivadas (pousios) e uma área de bosque chuvoso pouco perturbado, se compararam a biomassa de raízes finas (diâmetro Abstract in spanish La asignación de biomasa a la producción de raíces finas en plantas terrestres y la formación de asociaciones simbióticas micorrízico arbusculares (MA) constituyen de importantes adaptaciones en condiciones de baja fertilidad. En un mosaico de agricultura itinerante, conformado por dos áreas de cult [...] ivo (conucos), dos áreas de 2-4 y de 4-6 años de abandono después de ser cultivadas (barbechos) y un área de bosque lluvioso poco perturbado, se compararon la biomasa de raíces finas (diámetro Abstract in english The allocation of biomass to the production of fine roots in terrestrial plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiotic partnerships are important adaptations under conditions of low fertility. In a mosaic of shifting cultivation, comprising two growing areas (conucos) and two 2-4 and 4-6 years de [...] serted areas after being cultivated (fallow), and a little disturbed rain forest area, differences in fine root biomass (diameter

  7. Generación eléctrica a partir de biomasa en una destilería diversificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Rodr\\u00EDguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La instalación de una destilería de etanol diversificada, como una vía de generación de energía renovable integrada a la producción de alimentos, muestra relevantes ventajas en comparación con las destilerías tradicionales. En particular, para el caso de una planta de producción de etanol de este tipo, de 1200 hL/d, la generación de electricidad, con la biomasa que esta industria genera, alcanza el valor de 15,92 MW de potencia eléctrica excedente para el Sistema Electroenergético Nacional. Constituye un polo de desarrollo económico, social y estratégico, atendiendo al concepto de autosustentación dado por el Protocolo de Kyoto. El concepto de diversificación alcanza a todo el sector productivo. En las destilerías tradicionales la diversificación es incipiente. La biomasa constituye una de las principales fuentes de generación de energía limpia y barata, pasando de ser un subproducto, a un eslabón fundamental del proceso productivo.

  8. Enriquecimiento de biomasa de levadura con micronutrientes esenciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Otero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian las potencialidades de enriquecimiento de la biomasa de levaduras GRAS a partir de medios de cultivo ricos en micronutrientes de interés, básicamente, cromo y selenio. La levadura tiene la propiedad de incorporar a su biomasa cantidades elevadas de componentes del medio aún cuando no se utilicen metabólicamente. Las dietas diarias actuales, incluso en los países desarrollados, son regularmente deficitarias en Se y Cr, elementos esenciales para el comportamiento metabólico estable. El Cr es un componente del Factor de Tolerancia a la Glucosa (GTF que facilita las funciones de la insulina. Por medio de las técnicas del batch incrementado se puede llegar a concentraciones de Cr y Se de hasta 1000 ppm. Los productos puede ser empleado en la prevención y profilaxis de la Diabetes mellitus, en su variante senil, en tanto que el Se juega un rol antioxidante primordial.

  9. La biomasa en la producción de electricidad en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espejo Marín, Cayetano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The generation of electricity using biomass began in Spain in the mid-1990s. In this paper, we examine the combustible products used in the generation of this type of electricity, the legal framework protecting its production, the evolution of the installed power and its territorial distribution, the environmental impact of biomass as a renewable energy, the energy policy supporting this technology and the problems for the development of biomass as a energy source in Spain.

    [es] La producción de electricidad con biomasa comienza su desarrollo en España a mediados de los años noventa. En este artículo se analizan los productos combustibles de biomasa destinados a la generación de electricidad, el marco legal que protege esta producción, la evolución de la potencia instalada y su distribución territorial, el impacto ambiental de la biomasa como energía renovable, la política energética de apoyo a esta tecnología, y los problemas para el desarrollo de la biomasa como fuente energética en España. [fr] La biomasse dans la production d´électricité en Espagne. La production d'électricité avec biomasse commence son développement en Espagne vers le milieu des années quatre-vingt-dix. Dans cet article nous analysons les produits combustibles de biomasse destines à engendrer de l'électricité, le cadre légal qui protégé cette production, l'évolution de la puissance installée, la répercussion de l'environnement de la biomasse comme énergie renouvelable, la politique énergétique de soutien à cette technologie et les problèmes pour le développement de la biomasse comme source énergétique en Espagne.

  10. Cuantificación de ácidos grasos a partir de biomasa microalgal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Sánchez, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are focusing the interest of researchers as long as analytical techniques are being improved. The Lepage and Roy direct transesterification method is being widely used to measure fatty acid content of microalgae which are proposed as potential sources of these products. In this paper, the physical state of the biomass to be analyzed is studied. Comparison has been stated between lyophilized biomass and wet biomass just harvested. Furthermore, the amount of sample and the number of methyl ester extractions have also been studied. From the statistical analysis carried out, wet biomass to fatty acid determination and the adequate range of sample are proposed. Three methyl ester extractions improve the resolution of GC analysis.

    El interés creciente por los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga viene favorecido por la mejora de las técnicas de análisis. La metodología de transesterificación directa propuesta por Lepage y Roy está siendo ampliamente utilizada para la determinación del contenido en ácidos grasos de microalgas, consideradas como potenciales fuentes de estos productos. En el presente trabajo, se analiza la influencia del estado físico de la biomasa analizada, seca, normalmente por liofilización, o húmeda recién cosechada del cultivo. Asimismo, se analiza el efecto de la cantidad de biomasa empleada y del número de extracciones de los esteres metílicos obtenidos. Del estudio estadístico realizado se pone de manifiesto la importancia del estado físico de la muestra, aconsejándose el uso de biomasa directamente obtenida del cultivo. Se proponen los intervalos de cantidad de biomasa para metilación, así como la conveniencia de realizar tres extracciones previas a la inyección en el cromatógrafo, que favorece la resolución del análisis.

  11. Biomasa acústica y distribución del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marceliano Segura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los resultados de las evaluaciones hidroacústicas del recurso jurel Trachurus murphyi Nichols 1920 realizadas en aguas peruanas entre 1983 – 2012. Desde 1983 se incluyó al T. murphyicomo especie de estudio durante los cruceros de evaluación de recursos pelágicos ejecutados por el Instituto del Mar del Perú. Debido al énfasis en la estimación de biomasa de la anchoveta Engraulis ringens y de la sardina Sardinops sagax cuando esta última es más abundante, los cruceros se llevan a cabo durante el verano austral y las áreas de evaluación están circunscritas a las zonas más costeras hasta 100 mn, con sólo algunas exploraciones en otras estaciones y hasta 200 millas. El máximo valor de biomasa de 8.51 millones de toneladas de T. murphyien aguas peruanas estimado con las evaluaciones hidroacústicas fue encontrado durante el crucero realizado en otoño (marzo-mayo de 1983. En los años siguientes los estimados de biomasa acústica fluctuaron entre 180 mil toneladas en 1985 y otro máximo de 8.47 millones de toneladas en 1993, para luego disminuir gradualmente hasta un mínimo de 1239 t en 2010, con una ligera recuperación en los años 2011 y 2012. El área de distribución de T. murphyifue muy fluctuante en todo el periodo observado.

  12. Phase formation in the systems MVO3-Zn(VO3)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase formation in systems MVO3-Zn(VO3)2, where M=Li; Na,K,Rb,Cs,Ag,is investigated. It is shown that at M=Li, Na formation of Zn3V2O7 and compounds, existing in system MVO3-V2O5 takes place, at M=K,Rb,Cs,Ag double compounds of the composition M2Zn(VO3)4, coexisting with MVO3, are formed. In the range M2Zn(VO3)4-Zn(VO3)2 the systems are pseudobinary. In system AgVO3-Zn(VO3)2 transition into pseudobinary state is realized above 515 deg C from the mixtures of Ag2Zn(VO3)4 and Zn(VO3)2 formed at low temperatures. X-ray diffraction characteristics of double metavanadates M2Zn(VO3)4 are presented

  13. Remoción y recuperación de cromo (III) de soluciones acuosas por biomasa de sorgo

    OpenAIRE

    Edguez, I. Cano Rodr U.; Rez, J. A. P. U. E.; Rrez, M. Guti U. E.; Gardea, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    En este trabajo se investigó la capacidad de la biomasa de ?desecho de sorgo? para remover y recuperar iones de cromo(III) de soluciones acuosas, tanto en sistemas en lote como en flujo continuo. Los resultados muestran que los iones de cromo(III) se unen preferentemente a la biomasa de sorgo a pH 4.5-5, después de 15 minutos de contacto, con una capacidad de saturación de aproximadamente 10 mg/g de biomasa seca. La biomasa inmovilizada fue capaz de remover y recuperar eficientemente ion...

  14. Importancia energética y ambiental de la Biomasa en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Luis Alfredo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Entiéndase por energía de la biomasa aquélla que se origina al procesar parcial o totalmente cualquier sustancia o materia originada a través del proceso de fotosíntesis de los vegetales. Luego comprende especies y microespecies que cumplen para el hombre y el ecosistema una función especial ligada a factores climáticos, geomorfológicos y socioeconómicos. Antes de la aparición de los combustibles fósiles (otra forma concentrada de biomasa y de la electricidad, la biomasa constituía la principal oferta energética para el desarrollo y sobrevivencia del hombre. Si se tiene en cuenta que en el proceso de alimentación humana, el hombre y los animales utilizan menos del10% de la biomasa producida, queda un sobrante en estado sólido o en suspensión y que, por sus grandes volúmenes, genera problemas de contaminación en el campo y la ciudad, por ejemplo, basuras, residuos de plazas de mercado, pulpa de café, residuos de matadero, de procesamiento de vegetales, lácteos, y licoreras, residuos domésticos y residuos animales entre otros. Para el procesamiento o aprovechamiento de estos residuos existen tecnologías que buscan incorporarlos, en términos de materia y/o energía, a los procesos energéticos y agrícolas, captando de ellos, principalmente los valiosos elementos que los originaron. Dentro de estas tecnologías vale resaltar aquéllas basadas en los procesos microbiológicos, como las fermentaciones aeróbica y anaeróbica con un impacto ambiental nulo o positivo, reduciendo a nivel urbano los efectos de la contaminación y aportando fertilizantes y energía en el sector rural para la producción agrícola y bienestar social. Un efecto de su implantación sería la reducción de la contaminación de las aguas por material orgánico y sedimentos y la disminución en el consumo de, por lo menos unos diez millones de toneladas de leña al año que son utilizados por nuestros campesinos en sus actividades domésticas y de producción.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of two novel cis-dioxovanadium(v) complexes: [VO2(L)] and [VO2(Hlox)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natália M. L., Silva; Carlos B., Pinheiro; Eluzir P., Chacon; Jackson A. L. C., Resende; José Walkimar de M., Carneiro; Tatiana L., Fernández; Marciela, Scarpellini; Mauricio, Lanznaster.

    Full Text Available Dois novos complexos [VO2(L)] e [VO2(HLox)] foram sintetizados e caracterizados por espectroscopias no IV, UV-Vis e RMN, voltametria cíclica, análise elementar e difração de raios X. A síntese do ligante inédito H2Lox também é descrita. Os complexos 1 e 2 foram obtidos pela reação de [VO(acac)2] com [...] os respectivos ligantes HL e H2Lox. Alternativamente, 2 foi preparado a partir da reação de HL com [VO(acac)2] na presença de hidroxilamina, e através da reação de 1 com hidroxilamina. Dados cristalográficos mostram que 1 e 2 apresentam estruturas moleculares similares, onde o centro de vanádio(V) cis-dioxo encontra-se coordenado em um ambiente octaédrico distorcido formado pelos ligantes L- e HLox-, respectivamente. A atividade catalítica destes compostos foi avaliada na oxidação do cicloexano, utilizando H2O2 e t-BuOOH como oxidantes. Ambos apresentam seletividade > 70% para formação de cicloexilidroperóxido. Cálculos B3LYP/6-31G(d) foram empregados na otimização da geometria e para auxiliar na atribuição do espectro eletrônico. Abstract in english Two novel complexes, [VO2(L)] (1) and [VO2(HLox)] (2), were synthesized and characterized by IV, UV-Vis and NMR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction. The synthesis of a new ligand, H2Lox, is also described. Complexes 1 and 2 were obtained by the reaction of [VO( [...] acac)2] with the ligands HL and H2Lox, respectively. Alternatively, 2 was also obtained by the reaction of HL with [VO(acac)2] in the presence of hydroxylamine, and by the reaction of 1 with hydroxylamine. Crystallographic data show that complexes 1 and 2 have similar molecular structures, in which the cis-dioxovanadium(V) center is coordinated to L- or HLox-, respectively, in a distorted octahedral environment. The catalytic activity of these compounds towards cyclohexane oxidation was evaluated using H2O2 and t-BuOOH as oxidants. Both complexes presented > 70% selectivity for cyclohexylhydroperoxide formation. B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculations were used to confirm the geometry and to help assign the electronic spectra.

  16. VO for Education: Archive Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramella, M.; Iafrate, G.; De Marco, M.; Molinaro, M.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.; Cepparo, F.

    2014-05-01

    The number of remote control telescopes dedicated to education is increasing in many countries, leading to correspondingly larger and larger amount of stored educational data that are usually available only to local observers. Here we present the project for a new infrastructure that will allow teachers using educational telescopes to archive their data and easily publish them within the Virtual Observatory (VO) avoiding the complexity of professional tools. Students and teachers anywhere will be able to access these data with obvious benefits for the realization of grander scale collaborative projects. Educational VO data will also be an important resource for teachers not having direct access to any educational telescopes. We will use the educational telescope at our observatory in Trieste as a prototype for the future VO educational data archive resource. The publishing infrastructure will include: user authentication, content and curation validation, data validation and ingestion, VO compliant resource generation. All of these parts will be performed by means of server side applications accessible through a web graphical user interface (web GUI). Apart from user registration, that will be validated by a natural person responsible for the archive (after having verified the reliability of the user and inspected one or more test files), all the subsequent steps will be automated. This means that at the very first data submission through the webGUI, a complete resource including archive and published VO service will be generated, ready to be registered to the VO. The efforts required to the registered user will consist only in describing herself/himself at registration step and submitting the data she/he selects for publishing after each observation sessions. The infrastructure will be file format independent and the underlying data model will use a minimal set of standard VO keywords, some of which will be specific for outreach and education, possibly including VO field identification (astronomy, planetary science, solar physics). The VO published resource description will be suggested such as to allow selective access to educational data by VO aware tools, differentiating them from professional data while treating them with the same procedures, protocols and tools. The whole system will be very flexible, scalable and with the objective to leave as less work as possible to humans.

  17. Selective formation of VO2(A) or VO2(R) polymorph by controlling the hydrothermal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missing VO2(A) usually occurs during the preparation of VO2 polymorphs. This leads to an ambiguous understanding of the transformation between VO2 polymorphs. The calculation of the ground state energies for different VO2 polymorphs indicated that there is only a small energy gap between VO2(A) and VO2(R), which destined that the transformation from VO2(A) to VO2(R) should be pressure sensitive. This hypothesis was verified during the synthesizing of VO2 polymorphs by reducing V2O5 with oxalic acid through hydrothermal treatment process. Selective formation of pure phase VO2(A) or VO2(R) was achieved by controlling the hydrothermal pressure through varying the filling ratio at 270 deg. C. It was found that a filling ratio over 0.5 favors the formation of pure VO2(R) while a reduced filling ratio to 0.4 or lower results in the formation of VO2(A). Based on our experiments, VO2(B) nanobelts were always first formed and then it transformed to VO2(A) by assembling process at increased temperature or extended reaction time. Under further higher pressure, the VO2(A) transformed spontaneously to VO2(R) initialized from the volume shrinkage due to the formation of denser VO2(R). - Graphical abstract: Selective formation of VO2(A) or VO2(Rn of VO2(A) or VO2(R) could be achieved by controlling the system pressure through varying the filling ratio during hydrothermal treatment. Highlights: ? Selective formation of VO2 polymorphs by controlling hydrothermal pressure. ? Ground state energy characteristics were revealed for the first time. ? Phase transformation mechanism was clearly elucidated.

  18. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies of Cu2+ and VO2+ Spin Probes in RO-Li2O-Na2O-K2O-B2O3 (R = Zn, Mg, Sr and Ba Glass Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hameed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed alkali and alkaline earth oxide glasses of RO-Li2O-Na2O-K2O-B2O3(R = Zn, Mg, Sr and Ba system were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR and optical absorption spectroscopy. Cu2+ and VO2+ ions were used as the spin probes. The glasses containing 1 mole% of Cu2+ and 2mole% of VO2+ were prepared by the melt quenching method. X-ray diffraction studies of the samples did not reveal crystalline phases. EPR measurements were made at X-band frequencies with 100 kHz field modulation, at 310 K. Optical spectra were recorded in the wavelength range 300 nm - 800 nm. From the EPR spectra the spin-Hamiltonian parameters were evaluated. The spin-Hamiltonian parameter values in the case of Cu2+ indicated that the ground state of Cu2+ was orbital (2B1g and the site symmetry around Cu2+ is tetragonally distorted octahedral. The variation of gll and All with the alkaline earth oxide (RO composition was found to be non-linear which may be due to the change in the ligand field strength at the site of Cu2+ ions. From the spin-Hamiltonian parameters of VO2+, it was observed that the vanadyl ions exist as VO2+ ions in octahedral coordination with tetragonal compression and have C4V symmetry with ground state dxy. Tetragonality (?gll/?g of V4+ ion sites exhibited non-linear variation with RO content, which indicated change in the ligand field at the site of V4+. A broad optical absorption band was observed in the glass containing Cu2+ ions corresponding to the 2B1g ? 2B2g transition. From the EPR and optical data the bond parameters were evaluated. In the case of VO2+ ions, the covalency rates were estimated.

  19. VO2máx estimado e sua velocidade correspondente predizem o desempenho de corredores amadores / Estimated VO2max and its corresponding velocity predict performance of amateur runners

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tony Meireles, Santos; Allan Inoue, Rodrigues; Camila Coelho, Greco; Alan Lima, Marques; Bruno Souza, Terra; Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho, Oliveira.

    Full Text Available Observa-se, nos últimos anos, um importante crescimento do número de praticantes de corrida com proporcional aumento da adesão destes às provas de rua. Nesta população, a identificação dos determinantes do desempenho parece ser necessária para otimização do tempo dedicado ao treinamento. O objetivo [...] do estudo foi estabelecer a associação do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2máx) estimado, da velocidade crítica (VC) e da velocidade do VO2máx (V VO2máx), com os desempenhos nas provas de 3,6 km em subida e 10 e 21,1 km no plano. Doze corredores amadores (9 homens) com 36 ± 5 anos de idade foram submetidos a quatro testes: 1 e 5 km de corrida, no plano; 3,6 km de corrida, com inclinação (?8%); e um teste para determinação indireta do VO2máx. A VC foi determinada através da relação linear entre a distância e o tempo de corrida dos dois primeiros testes. Os sujeitos participaram de duas provas oficiais de 10 km e 21,1 km. A V VO2máx foi estimada a partir do VO2máx, através de equações metabólicas. O VO2máx apresentou a melhor associação com o desempenho da corrida em 10 e 21,1 km no plano. Já na subida, a V VO2máx apresentou melhor associação. Considerando todas as provas, a variável com maior média associativa foi o VO2máx (0,91±0,07), seguido do V VO2máx (0,90±0,04) e VC (0,87±0,06), respectivamente. Este estudo demonstrou elevadas associações entre variáveis fisiológicas estabelecidas por métodos indiretos, de baixo investimento e alta praticidade, com o desempenho da corrida em 10 e 21,1 km, no plano, e 3,6 km, em subida. Abstract in english In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of runners, with a proportional increase in their involvement in amateur street competition. Identification of the determinants of performance in this population appears necessary for optimization of time devoted to training. The o [...] bjective of this study was to ascertain the association between estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), critical velocity (CV) and VO2max velocity (V VO2max) and athletic performance in the 3.6 km (uphill) and 10 and 21.1 km (flatland) events. Twelve amateur runners (nine male), mean age 36 ± 5 years underwent five tests: 1 and 5 km race on level ground, 3.6 km race with slope (?8%), and indirect VO2max measurement. CV was determined from the linear relationship between distance and run time on the first two tests. The subjects then took part in two official 10 km and 21.1 km (half marathon) races. V VO2max was calculated from the VO2max through a metabolic equation. VO2max showed the best association with running performance in the 10 and 21.1 km events. For the uphill race, V VO2max showed a better association. Overall, the variable with the highest average association was VO2max (0.91±0.07), followed by V VO2max (0.90±0.04) and VC (0.87±0.06). This study showed strong associations between physiological variables established by low-cost, user-friendly indirect methods and running performance in the 10 and 21.1 km (flatland) and 3.6 km (uphill) running events.

  20. Estimación de biomasa por métodos alométricos, nutrimentos y carbono en plantaciones de palmito en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri\\u00E1n Ares

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El agroecosistema de palmito (Bactris gasipaes es un sistema de producción sostenible en los trópicos húmedos. Los métodos alométricos permiten predecir la producción de biomasa en forma no destructiva en cualquier momento y a partir de este dato determinar las fases de crecimiento del cultivo, los componentes de la biomasa y los nutrimentos asociados a cada componente, así como el rendimiento económico esperado de una plantación. Los objetivos generales del presente trabajo fueron obtener y validar funciones de predicción de la biomasa seca y de palmitos producidos en plantaciones comerciales, para correlacionarlos con la biomasa y la producción comercial de palmitos en las mismas. De esta manera, en varias fincas de la región Atlántica de Costa Rica se cosechó plantas de palmito y se separó sus componentes: follaje, pecíolos y tallos. Se utilizó modelos de regresión no lineales para calcular en forma independiente los coeficientes de las ecuaciones y así estimar los componentes de la biomasa y de la biomasa total. El diámetro basal fue una variable más efectiva para predecir la producción de biomasa que la altura hasta la hoja candela, la altura total y el número de

  1. COMPARACIÓN DE UN REACTOR DE BIOMASA SUSPENDIDA Y UN REACTOR DE BIOMASA ADHERIDA PARA LA BIODEGRADACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS TÓXICOS PRESENTES EN AGUAS RESIDUALES DE REFINERÍAS DE PETRÓLEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Marina NAVA URREGO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación comprende un estudio de tratamiento de aguas residuales de una refinería utilizando dos rectores biológicos discontinuos secuenciales (SBR, por sus siglas en inglés Sequencing Batch Reactor . El primero de ellos es un reactor de biomasa suspendida y el segundo es un reactor de biomasa adherida, en el cual se utilizaron soportes plásticos tipo Kaldnes K1. Debido a la diversidad y complejidad de las aguas residuales de refinerías, fue necesario aclimatar los microorganismos utilizando la estrategia de eficiencias fijas para garantizar una buena degradación de los compuestos difícilmente biodegradables o recalcitrantes. Los reactores operaron durante 45 días empleando ciclos de 24 h (llenado, tiempo de reacción, sedimentación, vaciado y tiempo muerto. La carga orgánica volumétrica aplicada a los reactores varió entre 0.44 - 0.54 kg DQO/m 3 d; las cargas orgánicas superficiales oscilaron entre 1.56 - 1.80 g DQO/m 2 d para el reactor de biomasa adherida. El desempeño de los reactores discontinuos secuenciales se evaluó mediante las eficiencias de remoción de DQO, COD y fenoles, obteniendo porcentajes de remoción de 75, 73 y 99 % en el reactor de biomasa suspendida, mientras que en el reactor de biomasa adherida se alcanzaron porcentajes de remoción de 77, 81 y 99 %, respectivamente. La concen - tración de sólidos suspendidos totales en el reactor de biomasa suspendida fue de aproximadamente 2200 mg SST/L mientras que en el reactor de biomasa adherida se registró entre 450 y 560 mg SST/L. La relación SSV/SST se mantuvo entre 0.8 y 1 en ambos reactores. La concentración de biomasa adherida a los soportes osciló entre 3.98 gST/m 2 y 5.45 gST/m 2 . En cada reactor se realizaron cuatro perfiles para evaluar la capacidad de los microorganismos para degradar el tipo sustrato al que fueron ex - puestos en un tiempo determinado. En ambos reactores, los perfiles de degradación 1 y 2 mostraron que la máxima remoción de DQO se presentó durante la primera hora de reacción, mientras que para los perfiles 3 y 4 la máxima remoción se alcanzó después de la segunda hora. En el caso de los fenoles, en todos los perfiles se obtuvo una remoción de más del 98 % durante la primera hora de reacción, indicando que en ambos reactores la biomasa fue capaz de degradar los compuestos tóxicos presentes en las aguas desflemadas sin importar el tipo de aglomeración microbiana utilizada

  2. Biomasa, proteína, taninos y rendimiento en haba en función del nitrógeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antioco Guadarrama Quiroz

    2007-01-01

    de la siembra (DDS; la floración, 60 DDS; y la madurez fisiológica, 125 DDS. El N no afectó la distribución o asignación (% de biomasa en las estructuras de la planta, pero incrementó la acumulación total de biomasa en cada estructura, el número de vainas m-2, el número de semillas m-2 y, en consecuencia, el rendimiento y la concentración de proteína. La concentración de taninos en haba no fue afectada por la aplicación de N.

  3. BIOMASA DE RAÍCES EN UN BOSQUE TEMPLADO CON Y SIN MANEJO FORESTAL EN HIDALGO, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numa P. Pav\\u00F3n

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las raíces son buenos indicadores funcionales del ecosistema ya que constituyen gran parte de la biomasa viva del suelo y ejercen un control sobre los procesos de pedogénesis, la producción de materia orgánica y la dinámica de los nutrientes. En este trabajo se comparó la biomasa de raíces gruesas y finas entre un bosque conservado y un bosque con manejo forestal de corte selectivo. La biomasa promedio de raíces no difirió significativamente entre sitios (P = 0.185. La biomasa en el bosque con manejo forestal fue de 3.05 Mg•ha-1 (E. E. = 0.25 y de 3.39 Mg•ha-1 (E. E. = 0.24 en el bosque conservado. Las raíces finas ocuparon el mayor porcentaje de la biomasa en ambos tipos de bosque, aunque sus valores no difirieron significativamente entre sitios (P = 0.095. De acuerdo con los resultados, al parecer, el manejo forestal de tipo de corte selectivo mantiene las condiciones ambientales y en particular del suelo, lo que permite contener una biomasa similar a la de un bosque conservado bajo condiciones naturales.

  4. VoIP Technology: Security Issues Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzez, Amor

    2013-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) is the technology allowing voice and multimedia transmissions as data packets over a private or a public IP network. Thanks to the benefits that it may provide, the VoIP technology is increasingly attracting attention and interest in the industry. Actually, VoIP allows significant benefits for customers and communication services providers such as cost savings, rich media service, phone and service portability, mobility, and the integration with other ap...

  5. Investigation of VoIP and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Ede, Aghedo

    2011-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is the technology used to transmit conversations digitally over the Internet. VoIP is being adopted globally and changing the landscape of telecommunications for businesses and consumers. This thesis describes the investigation of VoIP and how it compares to traditional phone systems, voice characteristics, implementation challenges, digital voice process, testing and result, the standards organizations promoting the technology, and what this means for us ...

  6. Empleo de la relación residuo producto para la estimación de biomasa cañera potencial. Caso de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Rodr\\u00EDguez-Mach\\u00EDn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El panorama energético de la biomasa va tomando un mayor auge ante el vaticinado agotamiento de los combustibles fósiles, el impacto ambiental que representa y la seguridad energética asociada. El presente trabajo se desarrolla en la Unidad Empresarial de Base (UEB Héctor Rodríguez. Esta unidad emplea el bagazo obtenido en el proceso industrial de producción de azúcar para la generación de calor y de electricidad sin estimar adecuadamente su potencial. El propósito de esta investigación es aplicar las ecuaciones matemáticas para la estimación de la biomasa herbácea potencial al caso de la biomasa cañera (bagazo y conocer su disponibilidad con fines energéticos. Se aplicó el método de evaluación con relación residuo producto (RRP, el valor calculado está dentro del rango de los reportados en la literatura, pero fue preciso emplear el RRP calculado para el país por ser este más representativo que el calculado para la UEB. Se estimó que la biomasa potencial en central azucarero entre 2007 y 2012 fue de 98 856 t de bagazo. El potencial bruto máximo fue de 3 222 MW-h/día, lo cual permite establecer el límite superior a alcanzar en cuanto a potencial de biomasa se refiere en el proceso industrial pero no tiene en cuenta la totalidad de la caña producida en el proceso agrícola.

  7. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Photocatalytic Properties of Cu-doped BiVO4 Microsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Guo-Cong, JING Zhen, ZHANG Xi-Bing, LI Xian-Feng, LIU Hong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Using Bi(NO33·5H2O, NaVO3 and Cu(NO32·3H2O as raw materials, Cu-doped BiVO4 microsheets were synthesized by ultrasonic-hydrothermal process with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as template. The as-prepared samples were investigated by XRD, XPS, SEM, HRTEM, UV-Vis and BET tests. The results reveal that uniform and well crystallized Cu/BiVO4 microsheets in monoclinic crystal structure, with length of 1.0–2.0 ?m, width of 0.5–2.0 ?m and thickness of 200–300 nm, could be obtained via an ultrasonic-hydrothermal route assisted by 2.0 g CTAB. Compared with BiVO4 particles, Cu/BiVO4 nanosheets show a little red shift in the absorption band, resulting in a narrowed band gap (<2.4 eV. For 5.0wt% Cu/ BiVO4 microsheet, its photodegradation rate constant K is5.89 ×10–2 /min and the best photocatalytic activity is found with a 100% degradation of methylene blue (MB with 10 mg/L concentration under visible-light irradiation for 60 min.

  8. Biomasa y densidad de dos especies de pastos marinos en el sur de Quintana Roo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Angélica Gutiérrez-Aguirre

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La biomasa y productividad de una comunidad de pastos marinos es útil para determinar el estado ecológico de la costa. Se comparó la biomasa foliar y la densidad de vainas en praderas de Thalassia testudinum Banks & Sol. ex K. D. Koenig, en dos ambientes de la costa del Caribe mexicano (N= 6 cuadrantes/sitio en Noviembre de 1998. Los valores de vainas y biomasa foliar fueron más bajos en la pradera asociada al manglar, que en la pradera establecida en una laguna arrecifal. Esto probablemente se deba a que las hojas del manglar tuvieron porcentaje más alto de epífitas. Por otro lado, T. testudinum tuvo mayor biomasa que Syringodium filiforme Kütz en la laguna arrecifal.The biomass and productivity of a seagrass community are useful for determining the ecological status of the coast. Leaf biomass and shoot density in beds of Thalassia testudinum Banks & Sol. ex K. D. Koenig, were compared for two environments in the Mexican Caribbean coast (N= 6 quadrants/site in November 1998. Shoot and leaf biomass values were lower in the mangrove-associated meadow than in the reef lagoon meadow. This could be related to the higher percentage of epiphytes on mangrove leaves. In addition, T. testudinum had more biomass than Syringodium filiforme Kütz in the reef lagoon.

  9. Biomasa y densidad de dos especies de pastos marinos en el sur de Quintana Roo, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha Angélica, Gutiérrez-Aguirre; María Gabriela, de la Fuente-Betancourt; Adrián, Cervantes-Martínez.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La biomasa y productividad de una comunidad de pastos marinos es útil para determinar el estado ecológico de la costa. Se comparó la biomasa foliar y la densidad de vainas en praderas de Thalassia testudinum Banks & Sol. ex K. D. Koenig, en dos ambientes de la costa del Caribe mexicano (N= 6 cuadran [...] tes/sitio) en Noviembre de 1998. Los valores de vainas y biomasa foliar fueron más bajos en la pradera asociada al manglar, que en la pradera establecida en una laguna arrecifal. Esto probablemente se deba a que las hojas del manglar tuvieron porcentaje más alto de epífitas. Por otro lado, T. testudinum tuvo mayor biomasa que Syringodium filiforme Kütz en la laguna arrecifal. Abstract in english The biomass and productivity of a seagrass community are useful for determining the ecological status of the coast. Leaf biomass and shoot density in beds of Thalassia testudinum Banks & Sol. ex K. D. Koenig, were compared for two environments in the Mexican Caribbean coast (N= 6 quadrants/site) in [...] November 1998. Shoot and leaf biomass values were lower in the mangrove-associated meadow than in the reef lagoon meadow. This could be related to the higher percentage of epiphytes on mangrove leaves. In addition, T. testudinum had more biomass than Syringodium filiforme Kütz in the reef lagoon.

  10. MODELOS MATEMÁTICOS PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DE BIOMASA DE ÓRGANOS AÉREOS DE LIMÓN 'PERSA' (Citrus latifolia Tan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Crespo-Herrera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En muchos de los estudios de crecimiento de las plantas se requiere evaluar la biomasa, lo cual normalmente implica la destrucción de los árboles. En el presente trabajo se generaron modelos matemáticos de alta confiabilidad que estiman la cantidad de biomasa de órganos aéreos de limón 'Persa' con base en otras variables que no requieren la destrucción del material vegetal y además son de fácil medición. Para ello, se separaron ramas, hojas y frutos de los árboles y se les midió la cantidad de biomasa además del área foliar de las hojas y otras características morfológicas inherentes a cada tipo de órgano. Se encontró que la cantidad de biomasa de cada órgano se encuentra estrechamente relacionada con las siguientes características: para las ramas, el volumen calculado por las fórmulas del cono y cono truncado, en los casos de las ramas no podadas y podadas, respectivamente; para los frutos, el diámetro ecuatorial, y para las hojas, la longitud de la lámina y su ancho máximo. Se generaron modelos para cada órgano con coeficientes de determinación muy elevados (entre 0.9528 y 0.9981 y C(p aceptable (entre 1.6696 y 16.3685, para modelos de 2 a 4 variables.

  11. Security in VoIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana GEREA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available VoIP relies on packet switching, similar to the way that e-mails are sent over the Internet. The technology breaks down a voice call into bite-size information packets. Instead of keeping the switch open all the time, the information is sent and received as needed, allowing excess line capacity to be used to carry other data. When the voice data arrives at its destination, it's reassembled into a voice call. As voice over IP services grow in popularity, the potential for viruses, worms and other security threats aimed at the technology also will grow. The current paper's purpose is presenting several security solutions and applying them to integrated systems at an economical and social level.

  12. Comprehensive Comparison of VoIP SIP Protocol Problems and Cisco VoIP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TALAL AL-KHAROBI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP, use of the packet switched internet for telephony, has improved substantially in the past few years. On the other hand, VoIP has many challenges that do not exist in the public switched telephone network (PSTN, a circuit switched system. VoIP is an application running on the internet, and therefore inherits the internet’s security issues. It is important to realise that VoIP is a relatively young technology, and with any new technology, security typically improves with maturity. This paper provides a comprehensive comparison of a VoIP SIP protocol and CISCO VoIP system. The comparison involves the investigation of the vulnerabilities that target both systems and how secure each system is. With this comparison we present our conclusion on which system is more secure.

  13. Biorefinery Technologies for Biomass Conversion Into Chemicals and Fuels Towards Zero Emissions (Review) / Nulles Emisiju Princips Biomasas Konversijas Tehnolo?ij?s Aizst?jot Fosilos Resursus (P?rskata Raksts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravitis, J.; Abolins, J.

    2013-10-01

    Exhausting of world resources, increasing pollution, and climate change are compelling the shift of the world economy from continuous growth to a kind of economy based on integration of technologies into zero emissions production systems. Transition from non-renewable fossil resources to renewable resources provided by solar radiation and the current processes in biosphere is seen in the bio-refinery approach - replacing crude oil refineries by biomass refineries. Biotechnology and nano-technologies are getting accepted as important players along with conventional biomass refinery technologies. Systems design is a significant element in the integration of bio-refinery technologies in clusters. A number of case-studies, steam explosion auto-hydrolysis (SEA) in particular, are reviewed to demonstrate conversion of biomass into value-added chemicals and fuels. Analysis of energy flows is made as part of modelling the SEA processes, the eMergy (energy memory) approach and sustainability indices being applied to assess environmental impacts. Resursu izs?kums, vides pies?r?ojums un glob?la m?roga klimatisk?s izmai?as ir civiliz?cijas izdz?vošanai b?tiski faktori, kas virza pasaules ekonomikas p?rmai?as, atsakoties no nep?rtrauktas izaugsmes idejas par labu t?dai ekonomikai, kas balst?s uz atjaunojošamies resursiem un daž?du tehnolo?iju integr?cijemisiju principam atbilstoš?s ražošanas sist?m?s. Saules radi?cijas ierosin?tajos plan?tas biosf?r? notiekošajos procesos rad?to organisko vielu p?rstr?des kompleksi, kas oper? iev?rojot sabalans?tu nulles emisiju principu, tiek uzl?koti k? t?s ekonomisk?s (ražošanas) strukt?ras, kur?m j?nodrošina p?reja uz atjaunojošos resursu izmantošanu, aizst?jot esoš?s fosilo resursu (naftas, og?u) p?rstr?des r?pn?cas. L?dz?s jau apg?taj?m biomasas rafin?šanas tehnolo?ij?m svar?ga un pieaugoša loma ekonomisk?s sist?mas resursu b?zes nomai?? ir bio- un nanotehnolo?ij?m, bet ražošanas sist?mu projekt?šanai - biomasas konversijas tehnolo?iju klasteriz?cij?. Apl?kojot virkni konkr?tu tehnolo?isko risin?jumu, TSA - biomasas autohidrol?zi tvaika spr?dzien? tai skait?, iztirz?tas ar biomasas konversiju, izmantošanu un augstas pievienot?s v?rt?bas produktiem - ??miskiem savienojumiem un degviel?m, saist?t?s ekololo?isk?s un energoefektivit?tes probl?mas. Uzsverot biomasas TSA pirmapstr?des univers?lo noz?mi daž?do tehnolo?isko kompleksu strukt?r?, apl?kota TSA ietekme uz vidi, demonstr?jot eMer?ijas (ener??tisk?s atmi?as) pieeju un „ilgtsp?jas" indeksu izmantošanu. Lai gan pie sasniegt? tehnolo?isk?s att?st?bas l?me?a un patreiz?jiem fosilo ener?ijas nes?ju pat?ri?a tempiem nav iesp?jams tos piln?b? aizst?t ar bioener?iju, bioener?ijas sektora tehnolo?iju pilnveidošana ir svar?ga ar? bioresursu racion?las izmantošanas un citos aspektos. Latvijas ener??tisk?s neatkar?bas kontekst? b?tiska noz?me ir tradicion?lo bioener?ijas resursu izmantošanas efektivit?tes celšanai un inovat?vo bioener?ijas tehnolo?iju valstiskam atbalstam.u nulles

  14. Comprehensive Comparison of VoIP SIP Protocol Problems and Cisco VoIP System

    OpenAIRE

    TALAL AL-KHAROBI; Mohmmed Abduallah Al-Mehdhar

    2012-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP), use of the packet switched internet for telephony, has improved substantially in the past few years. On the other hand, VoIP has many challenges that do not exist in the public switched telephone network (PSTN), a circuit switched system. VoIP is an application running on the internet, and therefore inherits the internet’s security issues. It is important to realise that VoIP is a relatively young technology, and with any new technology, security typically improves wit...

  15. Performance Evaluation for VoIP on Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendy Munadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The VoIP Campus implementation is to make the existing VoIP technology become more beneficial for campus stake holder. This VoIP on Campus (VoC technology make use of a web server, facilitating users to carry out VoIP registration, get and changing account, and also to see others who have register and active in this VoIP network. Basically, this VoC infrastructure uses asterisk as VoIP server and playVoIP as web server interface, those programs included in a server computer. Furthermore, the server interconnected with several servers, such as, PBX, SMS gateway, ENUM server, softphone and smartphone. At this moment, VoC network serve locally, but next time it will be developed so that it could be served in public network, and further VoC network could be connected to VoIP Rakyat, the biggest VoIP network in Indonesia. In this research, VoC network have been tested for several QoS parameters, such as throughput, delay, jitter, packet loss, and MOS. Average value for each parameter, are : 27 kbps throughput, 20.08 ms delay, 3.54 ms jitter, 0.08% packet loss, and 3.3 MOS. Those results  indicates that VoC network have a good performance.  

  16. Magnetostriction of DyVO4 monocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetostriction properties of DyVO4 crystal are investigated in the range of structural phase transition conditioned by Jahn-Teller cooperative effect (JTCE). Anomalies in magnetostriction are explained within the frames of the JTCE theory

  17. Integrating Existing Software Toolkits into VO System

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Chenzhou; Zhao, Yongheng; Wang, Xiaoqian; Sang, Jian; Luo, Ze

    2004-01-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is a collection of interoperating data archives and software tools. Taking advantages of the latest information technologies, it aims to provide a data-intensively online research environment for astronomers all around the world. A large number of high-qualified astronomical software packages and libraries are powerful and easy of use, and have been widely used by astronomers for many years. Integrating those toolkits into the VO system is a necess...

  18. LACK - a VoIP Steganographic Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Lubacz, Jozef

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a new steganographic method called LACK (Lost Audio PaCKets Steganography) which is intended mainly for VoIP. The method is presented in a broader context of network steganography and of VoIP steganography in particular. The analytical results presented in the paper concern the influence of LACK's hidden data insertion procedure on the method's impact on quality of voice transmission and its resistance to steganalysis.

  19. Multiple Escrow Agents in VoIP

    OpenAIRE

    Azfar, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Med en nyckel förvaringsinstitut som tillsammans med Röst över IP (VoIP) kommunikation säkerställer att brottsbekämpande organ (LEAs) kan hämta sessionsnyckeln används för att kryptera data mellan två användare i en VoIP-session. Däremot har användningen av ett enda förvaringsinstitut visa nackdelar. En bedräglig begäran av en ond arbetstagare från LEA kan leda till otillbörligt röjande av en sessionsnyckel. Efter förvaringsinstitut avslöjar nyckeln detta onda person kund...

  20. PiVoT GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennersten, Miriam Dvorak; Banes, Anthony Vince; Boegner, Gregory J.; Dougherty, Lamar; Edwards, Bernard L.; Roman, Joseph; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has built an open architecture, 24 channel space flight GPS receiver. The CompactPCI PiVoT GPS receiver card is based on the Mitel/GEC Plessey Builder-2 board. PiVoT uses two Plessey 2021 correlators to allow tracking of up to 24 separate GPS SV's on unique channels. Its four front ends can support four independent antennas, making it a useful card for hosting GPS attitude determination algorithms. It has been built using space quality, radiation tolerant parts. The PiVoT card will track a weaker signal than the original Builder 2 board. It also hosts an improved clock oscillator. The PiVoT software is based on the original Plessey Builder 2 software ported to the Linux operating system. The software is POSIX complaint and can easily be converted to other POSIX operating systems. The software is open source to anyone with a licensing agreement with Plessey. Additional tasks can be added to the software to support GPS science experiments or attitude determination algorithms. The next generation PiVoT receiver will be a single radiation hardened CompactPCI card containing the microprocessor and the GPS receiver optimized for use above the GPS constellation. PiVoT was flown successfully on a balloon in July, 2001, for its first non-simulated flight.

  1. Towards a VO compliant ESO science archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Paolo

    2007-08-01

    Data centres have a major role in the Virtual Observatory (VO), as they are the primary source of astronomical data. The VO cannot (and does not) dictate how a data centre handles its own archive. However, ‘VO-layer’ is needed to ‘translate’ any locally defined parameter to the standard (i.e., International Virtual Observatory Alliance compliant) ones. The longer term vision of the VO is also to hide away any observatory/telescope/instrument specific detail and work in astronomical units, for example, ‘wavelength range’ and not grism or filter name. Data providers are then advised to systematically collect metadata (‘data about data’) about the curation process, assign unique identifiers, describe the general content (e.g., physical coverage) of a collection, and provide interface and capability parameters of public services. Finally, the VO will work at its best with high-level (‘science-ready’) data, so that the VO user is spared as much as possible any complex and time consuming data reduction. Data centres should then make an effort to provide such data.

  2. Scalable architecture for VoIP privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvinsky, Alexander

    2001-07-01

    An access network for Voice over IP (VoIP) clients (e.g. DOCSIS-based HFC network) often provides a privacy service. However, such a privacy service is limited only to that access network. When VoIP packets are carried over an open IP network or over a network with some connections to the Internet, it is desirable to provide an end-to-end privacy service where each VoIP packet is encrypted at the source and decrypted at the terminating endpoint. Clearly, public key encryption cannot be applied to each voice packet; the performance would be unacceptable regardless of the choice of a public key algorithm. The only alternative is for the two VoIP endpoints to negotiate a shared symmetric key. Since VoIP connections are established only for duration of a phone call, the end-to-end key negotiation needs to occur during each call setup. And it should not noticeably delay the call setup phase. In order to provide end-to-end privacy, it is not sufficient to encrypt all messages between the two endpoints. It is important that the two endpoints authenticate each other - validate each other's identity. Without authentication an adversary might trick two VoIP clients to negotiate keys with her and then sit in the middle of their conversation and record each VoIP packet, before forwarding it to the intended destination. However, direct authentication of the two VoIP endpoints is not always possible in telephony networks - in particular when caller ID blocking services are enabled. To support such anonymity services, it may be sufficient to authenticate not the identity of the caller but the fact that it is a valid subscriber and that all subsequent signaling and voice traffic will be coming from the same source. The PacketCable specifications provide an example of a VoIP architecture with end-to-end privacy that meets the above stated criteria. This paper describes the PacketCable end-to-end privacy approach and suggests additional mechanisms that may be used to further strengthen VoIP privacy under the PacketCable architecture.

  3. Predicción del contenido intracelular de trehalosa en el proceso de producción de biomasa de Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Aranda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La trehalosa es un carbohidrato dimérico componente de la levadura de panificación Saccharomyces cerevisiae, y es considerado como indicador de la capacidad fermentativa y de la viabilidad de las células. En procesos de producción de levadura, se busca inducir una acumulación intracelular de trehalosa. Por ser un compuesto citoplásmico, la cuantificación de la trehalosa requiere de tomas de muestra y de métodos analíticos posteriores. Así, el conocimiento del contenido citoplásmico de trehalosa es siempre ulterior al desarrollo del proceso de producción de biomasa, y esto dificulta el ajuste en tiempo real de parámetros de operación para incrementar la cantidad de trehalosa en la biomasa. Por tanto, se requiere de alguna alternativa para estimación de la trehalosa intracelular en tiempo real. Este trabajo presenta una opción de predicción basada tanto en el metabolismo celular implicado durante la biosíntesis de trehalosa, como en un algoritmo de redes neuronales dinámicas para la estimación de la concentración intracelular del carbohidrato.

  4. COMPUTER SIMULATION IN THE ELECTRONICS EDUCATION FOCUSED TO INCREASE THE SPECIAL HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS MOTIVATION II. / Po?íta?ové modelovanie vo výu?be elektroniky zamerané na zvýšenie motivácie žiakov SOŠ II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpáš Július

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors interpret the particular results of their research in this contribution. It is focused to the impact of computer model on education. Anticipated result is the higher efficiency of special education here. This aim is achieved by application of motivation relations in coherence with exploitation easy reached free software. At the same time here is the latest technology, based on the computer design of circuits, applied here.Tento príspevok je pokra?ovaním prvej ?asti, ktorá bola zameraná na zvýšenie motivácie prostredníctvom bezplatne získate?ného softvéruzo siete internet. Obsahom druhej ?asti príspevku je súbor ukážok jednosmernej, striedavej a transiert analýzy elektronických obvodov.

  5. LA BIOMASA MICROBIANA EN SUELOS DE MONTAÑA CON DIFERENTES USOS: UN ESTUDIO DE LABORATORIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cruz Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso agrícola de los suelos del Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca (PNTT, conlleva prácticas como la utilización creciente de agroquímicos. Para investigar el efecto de la aplicación de fertilizantes nitrogenados y biocidas de uso generalizado en la zona de estudio sobre la biomasa microbiana y la mineralización del carbono (C, se realizó una incubación de suelos del PNNT con diferentes usos: bosque (bajo la copa de oyamel (Abies religiosa, destinados al pastoreo (pradera y cultivado con maíz. Con los siguientes tratamientos: sulfato deamonio (585.36 kg ha-1, urea (250 kg ha-1, 2, 4-D (1 L ha-1, captan (2 kg ha-1 y suelos sin aplicación. La mineralización del C, el nitrógeno de la biomasa microbiana (NBM y el carbono de la biomasa microbiana (CBM se midieron a los 56 días de incubación. Los resultados mostraron que el cambio de uso de suelo de bosque a cultivo disminuye la biomasa microbiana, la proporción de CBM y NBM en los suelos de cultivo fue menor en más del 55% en comparación con los suelos de bosque. Los tratamientos 2, 4-D y captan dieron lugar al decremento significativo del CBM en los suelos de bosque, hasta en un 40 %, con respecto al suelo sin aplicación. La aplicación de captan favoreció el incremento del CBM en los suelos de pradera y cultivo. El NBM aumentó en los tres suelos con diferente uso al aplicar urea. La adición de sulfato de amonio, urea, 2, 4-D amina o captan causa efectos diferenciados en los suelos de bosque, pradera y cultivo indicando que el impacto de los biocidas y fertilizantes está relacionado con la degradación de los mismos.

  6. DISTRIBUCIÓN DE BIOMASA Y ACUMULACIÓN DE PLOMO EN CALABACITA (Cucurbita pepo L. CULTIVADA EN SUELO CONTAMINADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriberto Solis-Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del suelo contaminado con plomo en el híbrido experimental de calabacita (Cucurbita pepo L. denominado 'Termo'. Se cultivó calabacita en bolsas negras de polietileno, a cielo abierto. Se evaluaron las variables distribución de la producción de biomasa, altura de planta, contenido de clorofila y acumulación de plomo en raíz, tallo, hoja, flor y fruto. Los tratamientos fueron 0, 65, 300 y 1000 ppm de plomo aplicado al suelo a través de Pb(NO32. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con seis repeticiones, y la unidad experimental fue una bolsa negra de polietileno con dos plantas. Las evaluaciones se hicieron 50 días después del trasplante para altura de planta y contenido de clorofila, y a los 52 días para peso fresco, peso seco y acumulación de plomo. Se observó que la altura de planta fue significativamente menor cuando se aplicó plomo a cualquier dosis. También se observó que la mayor acumulación de biomasa en raíz y tallo fue producida con la dosis 300 ppm y en fruto con 65 ppm de plomo, en tanto que la biomasa total y las unidades SPAD (clorofila no resultaron afectadas. De las estructuras comestibles, la flor presentó una mayor acumulación del metal que el fruto. A bajas dosis de plomo, la flor fue la estructura que más lo acumuló. Esto sugiere que es conveniente evaluar el contenido de metales pesados en productos agrícolas para consumo humano, aun cuando provengan de suelos contaminados sin intención.

  7. PRODUCCIÓN DE BIOMASA DE Artemia franciscana Kellogg 1906 UTILIZANDO DIFERENTES DIETAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Cisneros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el cultivo semiintensivo de Artemia franciscana, cepa Perú, utilizando diferentes dietas en base a microalgas e insumos alimenticios que forman parte de algunos ingredientes que se utilizan para preparar alimento formulado de peces y crustáceos, con el fin de determinar la factibilidad del uso de estos para la obtención de biomasa de adultos. El estudio se ejecutó en base a un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio con 7 tratamientos y 3 réplicas cada uno, aplicándose a los datos obtenidos un Análisis de Varianza de una vía (ANOVA y la prueba de Tukey para establecer diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos. Los resultados del análisis próximal de las dietas, mostraron que la harina de soya presentó la cantidad de proteínas requerida por A. franciscana durante su crecimiento (34.33 %, igualmente con esta dieta se obtuvo la mejor tasa de crecimiento (0.19, biomasa más alta (113.33 g y el mejor Factor de Conversión Alimenticia (1.4. Así mismo la biomasa de A. franciscana producida con harina de soya, presentó un nivel de proteínas adecuado para la maduración de reproductores de crustáceos (53.38 %.

  8. Orbital-ordering-induced phase transition in LaVO3 and CeVO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural phase transition in the orthovanadates LaVO3 and CeVO3 has been studied with high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. LaVO3 undergoes a second order phase transition at TN=143 K and a first order transition at Tt=141 K, while in CeVO3 there are phase transitions occurring at T0=154 K of second order and at TN=134 K of first order. These phase transitions are confirmed by specific heat measurements. The phase transition at Tt in LaVO3 or T0 in CeVO3 is due to a G-type orbital ordering which lowers the structure symmetry from orthorhombic Pbnm to monoclinic P21/b11. The structure change at TN in CeVO3 is ascribed to an orbital ordering enhanced magnetostrictive distortion, while that at TN in LaVO3 is most probably due to an ordered occupation of the vanadium 3d t2g orbitals associated with an antiferromagnetic ordering. We propose that the first order phase transition at Tt in LaVO3 should be associated with a sudden change of both spin and orbital configurations, similar to the phase transition at Ts=77 K in YVO3 [Ren et al., Nature (London) 396, 441 (1998)], causing a reversal of the net magnetization. However, the ordered state above Tt in LaVO3 is identical to that below Ts in YVO3s in YVO3. It is found that, with increasing lanthanide ionic radius, the Neel temperature TN increases while the orbital ordering onset temperature decreases in these orthovanadates

  9. Biomasa acumulada e indicadores de calidad nutritiva en cebadilla chaqueña (Bromus auleticus Trinius ex Nees)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.G.R, Bustamante; M.A, Ruiz; E, Morici; F.J, Babinec; A.B, Pordomingo.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bromus auleticus (cebadilla chaqueña) es considerada uno de los recursos forrajeros más promisorios del Cono Sur. Presenta variación entre poblaciones que ha sido determinada para diversos caracteres vegetativos, lo cual podría traducirse en diferencias de producción y calidad de forraje. El objetiv [...] o del presente estudio fue evaluar dos procedencias de cebadilla chaqueña (Argentina y Uruguay) para biomasa acumulada e indicadores de calidad nutritiva en dos períodos del año (verano-otoño y otoño-primavera). Se compararon cinco clones uruguayos (U) y cinco argentinos (A), dispuestos al azar en surcos distanciados a 1 m entre sí, con 10 plantas cada uno. Se determinó biomasa acumulada por planta (B) y calidad, midiendo Fibra Detergente Neutra (FDN), Proteína Bruta (PB) y Digestibilidad de la Materia Seca (DMS) en dos momentos del año. En general, la biomasa fue de baja calidad debido al momento en que se realizaron los cortes, lo que limita el alcance de los resultados. Sin embargo, las diferencias observadas entre los clones en este estado de desarrollo podrían indicar la existencia de variación entre genotipos de cebadilla chaqueña U y A en biomasa y calidad nutritiva. En biomasa acumulada no se observó efecto significativo de origen. En todas las variables de calidad evaluadas en verano-otoño, se encontraron diferencias significativas entre orígenes. En otoñoprimavera, las diferencias entre orígenes fueron significativas para DMS. Los clones U presentaron mayor PB, menor FDN y mayor DMS. Dentro de cada origen, los argentinos presentaron menos diferencias que los uruguayos, tanto en biomasa acumulada como en calidad. Para ninguno de los clones A o U se encontró coincidencia entre mayor biomasa y mayor calidad. Abstract in english Bromus auleticus (“chaqueña” bromegrass) may be considered as one of the most valuable forage species for the Southern Cone. This species shows variation among populations, determined in diverse vegetative characters, which could result in differences in production and forage quality. The objective [...] of this study was to evaluate two origins of Bromus auleticus (Argentina and Uruguay) for characters of biomass accumulated and quality in two periods of the year (Summer-Autumn and Autumn-Spring). Five Uruguayan (U) and Argentine (A) clones were compared, it were randomly arranged in rows spaced one meter of each other, with 10 plants each one. Biomass accumulated per plant (B) and biomass quality were determined in two times of the year measuring neutral detergent fiber (NDF), crude protein (CP) and dry mater digestibility (DMD). In general, quality of biomass was poor due to time cuttings, limiting the scope of the results. However, differences between the clones in this stage of development could be indicating the presence of variation among genotypes of “chaqueña” prairie grass U and A in biomass and nutritional quality. Significant effect of origin for B was not observed. In all biomass quality variables evaluated in Summer-Autumn, significant differences between origins were found. In Autumn-Spring, differences between origins were significant in DMD. U clones showed more CP, less NDF and higher DMD. Within each origin, A showed less differences than U both in B and quality. Concerning A or U clones, no coincidence between high biomass and high quality was found.

  10. Drowning in Data : VO to the rescue

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, A

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical datasets are growing in size and diversity, posing severe technical problems. At the same time scientific goals increasingly require the analysis of very large amounts of data, and data from multiple archives. The Virtual Observatory (VO) initiative aims to make multiwavelength science and large database science as seamless as possible. It can be seen as the latest stage of a long term trend towards standardisation and collectivisation in astronomy. Within this inevitable trend, we can avoid the high energy style of building large fixed hierarchical teams, and keep the individualist style of astronomical research, if the VO is used to build a facility class data infrastructure. I describe how the VO works and how it may change in the Web 2.0 era.

  11. Ca3(VO4)2-LaVO4 cation conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric conductivity, ionic numbers of transfer, phase transitions of vanadates Ca3-xLa2x/3(VO4)2, where 0 ? x ? 1 were studied experimentally. It was ascertained that the compounds are solid electrolytes in terms of calcium ions. At low temperatures the value of calcium conductivity is the maximum one in the vanadates Ca2La2/2(VO4)2 featuring palmierite structure, at high temperatures - in ?'-Ca3(VO4)2 vanadate with a whitlockite-like structure. Mechanisms of calcium ion transfer are discussed

  12. Estimativa das contribuições dos sistemas anaeróbio lático e alático durante exercícios de cargas constantes em intensidades abaixo do VO2max Estimation of contributions of the anaerobic lactic and alactic systems during constant-load exercises at intensities below the VO2max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Silva-Cavalcante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi estimar as contribuições do metabolismo anaeróbio lático (MAL e alático (MAA em intensidades abaixo do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max. Dez homens (23 ± 4 anos, 176,4 ± 6,8 cm, 72,4 ± 8,2 kg, 12,0 ± 4,5 % de gordura corporal realizaram um teste progressivo até a exaustão voluntária para identificação do VO2max, da potência correspondente ao VO2max (WVO2max e do segundo limiar ventilatório (LV2. Na segunda e na terceira visita foram realizados seis testes de cargas constantes (três testes por sessão com intensidades abaixo do VO2max. Houve uma predominância do MAL sobre o MAA durante os exercícios submáximos a partir da intensidade correspondente ao LV2, sendo significativamente maior em 90% VO2max (p The purpose this study was that estimated contributions of the anaerobic lactic (MAL and alactic (MAA metabolism during constant load exercises at intensities below the maximal oxygen capacity uptake (VO2max. Ten males (23 ± 4 years, 176.4 ± 6.8 cm, 72.4 ± 8.2 kg, 12.0 ± 4.5 % of fat body performed in the first visit a progressive test until exhaustion to identification of VO2max, power output corresponding to the VO2max (WVO2max and second ventilatory threshold (LV2. On the second and third visit, the participants performed six constant workload tests (3 per session with intensities below VO2max. There was a predominance of MAL about MAA during the exercises sub-maximal from intensity corresponding to the LV2, being significantly higher at 90% VO2max (p < 0.05. Thus, these results may help coaches to implement training loads appropriate to their athletes, according to the metabolic demand of the competition.

  13. Estimativa das contribuições dos sistemas anaeróbio lático e alático durante exercícios de cargas constantes em intensidades abaixo do VO2max / Estimation of contributions of the anaerobic lactic and alactic systems during constant-load exercises at intensities below the VO2max

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos David, Silva-Cavalcante; Renata Gonçalves, Silva; Rodrigo Poles, Urso; Rogério Carvalho, Silva; Carlos Rafaell, Correia-Oliveira; Victor Gustavo Ferreira, Santos; Adriano Eduardo, Lima-Silva; Rômulo, Bertuzzi.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi estimar as contribuições do metabolismo anaeróbio lático (MAL) e alático (MAA) em intensidades abaixo do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max). Dez homens (23 ± 4 anos, 176,4 ± 6,8 cm, 72,4 ± 8,2 kg, 12,0 ± 4,5 % de gordura corporal) realizaram um teste progressivo até a exaus [...] tão voluntária para identificação do VO2max, da potência correspondente ao VO2max (WVO2max) e do segundo limiar ventilatório (LV2). Na segunda e na terceira visita foram realizados seis testes de cargas constantes (três testes por sessão) com intensidades abaixo do VO2max. Houve uma predominância do MAL sobre o MAA durante os exercícios submáximos a partir da intensidade correspondente ao LV2, sendo significativamente maior em 90% VO2max (p Abstract in english The purpose this study was that estimated contributions of the anaerobic lactic (MAL) and alactic (MAA) metabolism during constant load exercises at intensities below the maximal oxygen capacity uptake (VO2max). Ten males (23 ± 4 years, 176.4 ± 6.8 cm, 72.4 ± 8.2 kg, 12.0 ± 4.5 % of fat body) perfor [...] med in the first visit a progressive test until exhaustion to identification of VO2max, power output corresponding to the VO2max (WVO2max) and second ventilatory threshold (LV2). On the second and third visit, the participants performed six constant workload tests (3 per session) with intensities below VO2max. There was a predominance of MAL about MAA during the exercises sub-maximal from intensity corresponding to the LV2, being significantly higher at 90% VO2max (p

  14. Euro-VO-Coordination of virtual observatory activities in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Françoise; Allen, Mark G.; Arviset, Christophe; Lawrence, Andy; Pasian, Fabio; Solano, Enrique; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    The European Virtual Observatory Euro-VO has been coordinating European VO activities through a series of projects co-funded by the European Commission over the last 15 years. The bulk of VO work in Europe is ensured by the national VO initiatives and those of intergovernmental agencies. VO activities at the European level coordinate the work in support of the three "pillars" of the Virtual Observatory: support to the scientific community, take-up by the data providers, and technological activities. Several Euro-VO projects have also provided direct support to selected developments and prototyping. This paper explains the methodology used by Euro-VO over the years. It summarises the activities which were performed and their evolutions at different stages of the development of the VO, explains the Euro-VO role with respect to the international and national levels of VO activities, details the lessons learnt for best practices for the coordination of the VO building blocks, and the liaison with other European initiatives, documenting the added-value of European coordination. Finally, the current status and next steps of Euro-VO are briefly addressed.

  15. Mapping electronic reconstruction at the metal/insulator interfaces in \\ce{LaVO_3/SrVO_3} heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Haiyan; Egoavil, Ricardo; Be?che?, Armand; Martinez, Gerardo T.; Aert, Sandra; Verbeeck, Jo; Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Rotella, He?le?ne; Boullay, Philippe; Pautrat, Alain; Prellier, Wilfrid

    2013-01-01

    A \\ce{(LaVO_3)_6/(SrVO_3)_3} superlattice is studied with a combination of sub-{\\AA} resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy and monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The V oxidation state is mapped with atomic spatial resolution enabling to investigate electronic reconstruction at the \\ce{LaVO_3}/\\ce{SrVO_3} interfaces. Surprisingly, asymmetric charge distribution is found at adjacent chemically symmetric interfaces. The local structure is proposed and...

  16. Properties of VO 2 thin film prepared with precursor VO(acac) 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mei; Zhong, Hongmei; Wang, Shaowei; Liu, Jie; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei

    2004-04-01

    Both pure and tungsten (W)- or chromium (Cr)-doped vanadium dioxide (VO 2) thin films have been deposited by the sol-gel method on Si substrate using VO(acac) 2 as a precursor. XRD, Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements showed the high (1 1 0) orientation of the films. It was found that the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) values of the films around room temperature could be adjusted by impurity doping. Compared with the un-doped VO 2 films, the W-doping leads to larger TCR values, while the Cr-doping leads to smaller ones. The TCR value is linearly dependent on the impurity at room temperature. The largest TCR value of 5.2/% K -1 was obtained for 20/at% W-doped VO 2 film.

  17. Electrochemical catalytic activity of tungsten trioxide- modified graphite felt toward VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel graphite felt electrode modified with tungsten trioxide (WO3) was developed to improve the electrochemical performance of graphite felt toward the VO2+/VO2+ redox pair. WO3 was prepared using a hydrothermal method, and the morphology of WO3 structures was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical property of WO3-modified graphite felt toward VO2+/VO2+ was carefully characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The hydrogen-vanadium redox flow battery (H-VRFB) test indicates that single cells using 1.1 mg cm?2 WO3-modified graphite felt exhibited excellent performance at 70 mA cm?2, and the corresponding coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiencies were 99.1%, 88.66% and 87.86%, respectively

  18. Efecto de nutrientes sobre la producción de biomasa del hongo medicinal Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Torres López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available  Effect of nutrients in the biomass production of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum Título corto: Efecto de nutrientes sobre la producción de G. lucidumResumen El hongo Ganoderma lucidum, en los constituyentes de su biomasa, tiene compuestos con propiedades benéficas para la salud; es por esto que el conocimiento de las condiciones nutricionales adecuadas para su crecimiento permitirá su producción industrial y a bajo costo. En este trabajo se evaluó a nivel de matraz el efecto de la relación C/N, y la presencia de diferentes fuentes de carbono, nitrógeno y micronutrientes sobre la producción de biomasa. Empleando glucosa y peptona como fuentes de carbono y nitrógeno, respectivamente, se encontró una relación C/N óptima de 16,7:1 para la cual la máxima producción de biomasa fue de 25 g/L. Manteniendo esta relación C/N, y sustituyendo la glucosa por lactosa o harina de cebada y la peptona por extracto de levadura, la producción de biomasa se incrementó a 35 g/L. En presencia de harina de cebada la adición al medio de cultivo de sales de Mg y K, y de tiamina, no generó un mayor incremento en la producción de biomasa. La producción de biomasa de G. lucidum se ve favorecida por la presencia en el medio de cultivo de relaciones C/N cercanas a las reportadas conforme a la composición típica de los hongos, así como por la presencia de sustratos complejos como la harina de cebada que le aportan además de la fuente de carbono micronutrientes necesarios para su desarrollo. Palabras clave: harina de cebada, relación C/N, micronutrientes, fuentes de carbono, fuentes de nitrógeno.  AbstractGanoderma lucidum fungus has some biomass components with beneficial health properties. The knowledge about its nutritionals requirements for growing will favor its industrial production at lower cost. In this work, the effect of C/N ratio, the presence of different carbon, nitrogen and micronutrients sources, on fungal biomass production, were evaluated. Using glucose and peptone as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, an optimal C/N ratio of 16,7:1 was found, for which the maximal biomass production was 25 g/L. Replacing glucose by lactose or barley flour and peptone by yeast extract at the same C/N ratio, the biomass production was enhanced to 35 g/L. With barley flour in the culture medium, the presence of Mg and K salts and thiamine did not turn out into a major increase of biomass. The G. lucidum biomass production is promoted by C/N ratios in the culture medium nearly equivalent to that found in the fungus, as well as the presence of complex substrates as barley flour which, additionally, contributes with important micronutrients along with the carbon source.  Key words: Barley flour, C/N ratio, micronutrients, carbon sources, nitrogen sources.

  19. Visible light driven photocatalysis and antibacterial activity of AgVO3 and Ag/AgVO3 nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/AgVO3 and pure AgVO3 nanowires synthesized by sonochemical process. • Characterization done using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and BET analysis. • Visible light degradation of RhB by Ag/AgVO3 within 45 min. • Antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO3 demonstrated. - Abstract: Ag/AgVO3 nanowires and AgVO3 nanorods were synthesized in aqueous media via a facile sonochemical route. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy together with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results revealed that inert atmosphere promotes the formation of Ag/AgVO3 nanowires. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the Ag/AgVO3 nanowires exhibited complete photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B within 45 min under visible light irradiation. The antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO3 nanowires was tested against Escherechia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum growth inhibitory concentration value was found to be 50 and 10 folds lower than for the antibiotic ciprofloxacin for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. The antibacterial properties of the ?-AgVO3 nanorods prove that in case of the Ag dispersed Ag/AgVO3 nanowires, the enhanced antibacterial action is also due to contribution from the AgVO3 support

  20. INCORPORACIÓN DE BIOMASA EN UN SUELO VERTISOL Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA DENSIDAD DE COMPACTACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euriel Millán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Un suelo compactado evidencia un deterioro en las propiedades físicas y afecta el crecimiento de las plantas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos que produce la incorporación de biomasa en un ensayo de compactación, a un suelo de explotación ganadera sobre las curvas de compactación del mismo. Se utilizó un suelo Vertisol de Sincelejo (Sucre. Se analizaron las propiedades físicas del suelo, como textura, densidad real y aparente; densidades máximas de compactación y contenidos de humedad en los que se alcanzaba dicha compactación. Se determinó mediante software estadístico la relación que existe entre la incorporación de materia orgánica y las variaciones en la densidad máxima y la humedad del suelo. Para determinar la densidad máxima del suelo y humedad crítica se utilizó diseño de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones. Los tratamientos estudiados corresponden a un factorial 2 X 4, siendo dos los tipos de materia orgánica (húmeda y seca, y cuatro las cantidades de materia orgánica. Se encontró que la densidad máxima en condiciones normales (sin incorporación de materia orgánica es de 1,421 g cm-3 y 26,573% de humedad; se alcanzaron valores de 1,406 g cm-3 y 28,074%, y 1,379 g cm-3 y 26,833% para incorporaciones de 20 Mg ha-1 de biomasa húmeda y seca respectivamente. La densidad máxima con respecto a la cantidad y tipo de materia orgánica incorporada señala un efecto estadísticamente significativo. La incorporación de biomasa al suelo Vertisol ayuda a disminuir las densidades máximas de compactación, y aumenta el contenido de humedad.

  1. Produccion de Biomasa de Scenedesmus Obliquus en diferentes medios de cultivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mart\\u00EDnez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los nutrientes son factores fundamentales que afectan el rendimiento de los cultivos de microalgas, de ahí la importancia de llevar a cabo estudios a escala de laboratorio con cepas de interés científico y comercial. El objetivo del trabajo fue investigar la producción de biomasa de Scenedesmus obliquus en diferentes medios de cultivo. Se utilizaron dos reactores tipo columnas de 2 L de capacidad empleando medio Extracto de Suelo, y medio Albañal Sintético respectivamente, a los cuales se les adicionó el inóculo del cultivo (1%, en la fase logarítmica de crecimiento. Para mantener agitado y homogéneo el sistema, se suministró aire a razón de 100 L/h, que fue medido con un regulador de flujo y se colocaron en un local cuya temperatura media era de 29,7 o C. Los reactores trabajaron en modo discontinuo (batch. Se mantuvieron con un régimen de luz/oscuridad de 8/16 horas durante 18 días. Para seguir el comportamiento del cultivo se determinó la Densidad óptica, la clorofila a, los sólidos suspendidos volátiles, se midió el pH y la producción de biomasa en el sistema. La velocidad de crecimiento específico fue ¿ = 0,16 d-1 para el cultivo en el medio Agar extracto de suelo y ¿ = 0,33 d-1 para el cultivo en medio Albañal sintético. El tiempo de duplicación fue de 4,33 d'-1 para el cultivo en medio AES y 2,10 d-1 para el medio de Albañal Sintético. Se alcanzaron los valores más altos en la producción de biomasa en el medio Albañal, lo que demostró un mejor desarrollo de la microalga investigada en este medio.

  2. Recuperación de la biomasa mediante la sucesión secundaria, Cordillera Central de los Andes, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Ignacio, del Valle; Héctor Iván, Restrepo; Mónica María, Londoño.

    1337-13-01

    Full Text Available En bosques secundarios premontanos tropicales es escasa la información sobre el tiempo requerido para recuperar la biomasa aérea y subterránea de los primarios. Por lo tanto, establecimos 33 parcelas de 0.1ha entre 550 y 1 700m en bosques secundarios que cubrían estadios serales de 3 a 36 años y est [...] imamos la biomasa de las plantas y de las raíces gruesas con ecuaciones locales. Así como la biomasa de las pasturas y barbechos por cosecha de 54 y 18 parcelas, respectivamente. También se calculó la edad de las parcelas con informantes locales, sensores remotos, C14 y anillos de crecimiento. En cada parcela medimos la biomasa aérea viva por hectárea (Bav) y la de las raíces gruesas por hectárea (Brg). Modelamos la Bav y Brg en función de la edad mediante la ecuación de von Bertalanfy con asíntotas de 247t/ha (Bav) y 66t/ha (Brg) resultantes de la medición de 33 parcelas de 0.1ha en los bosques primarios. Con la razón Brg/Bav=f(t) estimamos 87 años para que los bosques secundarios recuperen la Bav existente en los primarios y 217 años para recuperar la Brg. La tasa máxima de crecimiento instantáneo de la Bav fue 6.95t/ha/año a los 10 años y la tasa media máxima de crecimiento 6.26t/ha/año a los 17 años. La media ponderada de la tasa de crecimiento absoluto de la Bav alcanzó 4.57t/ha/año y la relativa 10% anual. La razón Brg/Bav inicialmente aumenta muy aceleradamente hasta 4-5 años (25%), luego disminuye hasta 25 años (18%) para luego incrementar hasta 26.7 Abstract in english Biomass recovery through secondary succession in the Cordillera Central de los Andes, Colombia. Estimations on biomass recovery rates by secondary tropical forests are needed to understand the complex tropical succession, and their importance on CO2 capture, to offset the warming of the planet. We c [...] onducted the study in the Porce River Canyon between 550 and 1 700m.a.s.l. covering tropical and premontane moist belts. We established 33 temporary plots of 50mx20m in secondary forests, including fallows to succesional forests, and ranging between 3 and 36 years old; we measured the diameter at breast height (D) of all woody plants with D?5cm. In each one of these plots we established five 10mx10m subplots, in which we measured the diameter betweem 1cm?D

  3. Estudio de la oxidación a elevada temperatura de ocho aleaciones en atmósferas de combustión de biomasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlanga-Labari, C.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The combustion of biomass, especially wheat straw, generates very corrosive media particularly near the superheater tubes. Chlorine is known to be the main corrosive agent in biomass-fired plants. This paper focuses on the study of the corrosivity of such environments composed of gases and ashes, at high temperature, on eight commercial alloys with different chromium and nickel contents. These have been: AISI 347 CG (1.4550, AISI 347 FG(1.4550, AISI 316LN (1.4910, ESSHETE 1250 (1.4982, AC 66 (1.4877, X20CrMoV12:1 (1.4922 and AISI 347 coated with Inconel 625 and Inconel 686. Corrosion tests in the boiler have been performed during 8.000 h and 15.000 h at temperatures between 500 °C y 550 °C in the biomass plant of Sangüesa (Navarra, Spain. Experimental results showed an unacceptable behaviour far the martensitic steel, acceptable far the austenitics and good far the inconels. The appearance of the corrosion attack was also investigated to obtain understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The corrosion mechanism by molten salts has been rejected. The active oxidation corrosion mechanism has been proposed as the most probable in order to interpretate the corrosion behaviour of these materials in these environments.

    La combustión de biomasa, especialmente de paja de cereal, genera un ambiente muy corrosivo, particularmente, cerca de los tubos sobrecalentadores. El cloro es el principal agente corrosivo en las plantas de biomasa. Este trabajo se centra en comprobar el comportamiento de ocho aleaciones comerciales en una ambiente de combustión de biomasa. Los materiales estudiados han sido las siguientes: AISI 347 CG (1.4550, AISI 347 FG (1.4550, AISI 316LN (1.4910, ESSHETE 1250 (1.4982, AC 66 (1.4877, X20CrMoV12:1 (1.4922 y AISI 347 recubiertos con Inconel 625 e Inconel 686. Los ensayos se han realizado en la caldera de la planta de biomasa de Sangüesa (Navarra, España durante 8.000 y 15.000 h a una temperatura de 500-550 °C. Los resultados indican un buen comportamiento de los aceros inoxidables austeníticos y de las aleaciones de Inconel, mientras que el del acero martensítico no ha sido aceptable. Se ha propuesto el mecanismo conocido como “oxidación activa” para interpretar el comportamiento a la corrosión de estos materiales en estos medios.

  4. Transformación de biomasa en biocombustibles de segunda generación / From biomass to second generation biofuels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Faba; Eva, Díaz; Salvador, Ordóñez.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El agotamiento de las materias primas no renovables, así como la creciente conciencia ambiental ha motivado la valorización de la biomasa para la producción de energía. Aunque los primeros esfuerzos se centraron en el desarrollo de los biocombustibles de primera generación -según la materia prima co [...] n que se producen-, la tendencia actual es hacia la investigación en los biocombustibles de segunda generación, que permiten la transformación de la biomasa lignocelulósica (obtenida a partir de residuos forestales o de cultivos, maderas de bajo precio o serrín) en energía. La transformación de la madera en biocombustibles puede llevarse a cabo por vías biológicas o químicas. Entre las rutas químicas, hay tres posibilidades principales: gasificación, pirólisis o hidrólisis. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo hacer una revisión de las posibilidades para obtener biocombustibles de segunda generación mediante procesos químicos hidrolíticos, que implica varios pasos: pretratamiento de la biomasa (que puede ser físico o químico), hidrólisis de la biomasa, deshidratación de los azúcares, condensación aldólica e hidrogenación/deshidratación completa para obtener los alcanos lineales (biodiesel). Abstract in english The depletion of the non-renewable raw materials as petroleum, coal or natural gas as well as the increasing environmental conscience has motivated the valorization of biomass for energy production. Although the first efforts were focused on the development of the first generation biofuels -accordin [...] g to the raw material-, nowadays the research is focused on the second generation biofuels, which allows the transformation of lignocellulosic biomass (from forest or crops wastes, low-priced woods or sawdust) into energy. The transformation of wood into biofuels can be carried out by biological or chemical means. Among the chemical routes, there are three main possibilities: gasification, pyrolisis or hydrolysis. This paper aims to review the technological advances to obtain biofuels by the third route, since it allows using the most abundant forms of biomass, cellulose and hemicelluloses. This chemical process involves several steps: pretreatment of the biomass (by physical or chemical route), hydrolysis of the biomass, dehydration of sugars, aldolization and hydrogenation/dehydration until n-alcanes (biofuels) are achieved.

  5. Lessons Learned in Building VO Resources: Binding Together Several VO Standards into an Operational Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, I.; Bonnarel, F.; Louys, M.; Le Sidaner, P.

    2012-09-01

    The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) developed numerous interoperability standards during the last several years. Most of them are quite simple to implement from the technical point of view and even contain “SIMPLE” in the title. Does it mean that it is also simple to build a working VO resource using those standards? Yes and no. “Yes” because the standards are indeed simple, and “no” because usually one needs to implement a lot more than it was thought in the beginning of the project so the time management of the team becomes difficult. In our presentation we will start with a basic case of a simple spectral data collection. Then we will describe several examples of “small” technologically advanced VO resources built in CDS and VO-Paris and will show that many standards are hidden from managers' eyes at the initial stage of the project development. The projects will be: (1) the GalMer database providing access to the results of numerical simulations of galaxy interactions; (2) the full spectrum fitting service that allows one to extract internal kinematics and stellar populations from spectra of galaxies available in the VO. We conclude that: (a) with the existing set of IVOA standards one can already build very advanced VO-enabled archives and tools useful for scientists; (b) managers have to be very careful when estimating the project development timelines for VO-enabled resources.

  6. Using VoIP to compete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbach, Kevin

    2005-09-01

    Internet telephony, or VoIP, is rapidly replacing the conventional kind. This year, for the first time, U.S. companies bought more new Internet-phone connections than standard lines. The major driver behind this change is cost. But VoIP isn't just a new technology for making old-fashioned calls cheaper, says consultant Kevin Werbach. It is fundamentally changing how companies use voice communications. What makes VoIP so powerful is that it turns voice into digital data packets that can be stored, copied, combined with other data, and distributed to virtually any device that connects to the Internet. And it makes it simple to provide all the functionality of a corporate phone-call features, directories, security-to anyone anywhere there's broadband access. That fosters new kinds of businesses such as virtual call centers, where widely dispersed agents work at all hours from their homes. The most successful early adopters, says Werbach, will focus more on achieving business objectives than on saving money. They will also consider how to push VoIP capabilities out to the extended organization, making use of everyone as a resource. Deployment may be incremental, but companies should be thinking about where VoIP could take them. Executives should ask what they could do if, on demand, they could bring all their employees, customers, suppliers, and partners together in a virtual room, with shared access to every modern communications and computing channel. They should take a fresh look at their business processes to find points at which richer and more customizable communications could eliminate bottlenecks and enhance quality. The important dividing line won't be between those who deploy Vol P and those who don't, or even between early adopters and laggards. It will be between those who see Vol P as just a new way to do the same old things and those who use itto rethink their entire businesses. PMID:16171218

  7. Euro-VO - Coordination of Virtual Observatory activities in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Genova, Francoise; Arviset, Christophe; Lawrence, Andy; Pasian, Fabio; Solano, Enrique; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The European Virtual Observatory Euro-VO has been coordinating European VO activities through a series of projects co-funded by the European Commission over the last 15 years. The bulk of VO work in Europe is ensured by the national VO initiatives and those of intergovernmental agencies. VO activities at the European level coordinate the work in support of the three "pillars" of the Virtual Observatory: support to the scientific community, take-up by the data providers, and technological activities. Several Euro-VO projects have also provided direct support to selected developments and prototyping. This paper explains the methodology used by Euro-VO over the years. It summarizes the activities which were performed and their evolutions at different stages of the development of the VO, explains the Euro-VO role with respect to the international and national levels of VO activities, details the lessons learnt for best practices for the coordination of the VO building blocks, and the liaison with other European i...

  8. Similar foliage area but contrasting foliage biomass between young beech and spruce stands / Porovnate?ná plocha avšak kontrastná biomasa asimila?ných orgánov medzi mladými porastmi buka a smreka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konôpka Bohdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Výskum sa zameral na mladé porasty buka lesného (Fagus sylvatica a smreka oby?ajného (Picea abies rovnakého veku (12 rokov, ve?mi podobných dimenzií stromov, rastúcich na totožnom stanovišti. Na základe odberu vzorníkov celých stromov (všetky ?asti okrem jemných kore?ov sme skonštruovali alometrické vz?ahy pre stromové komponenty. Ako nezávislá premenná sa použila hrúbka na báze kme?a (d0. Modely vyjadrili nielen biomasu konárov, kme?a, hrubých kore?ov a asimila?ných orgánov, ale aj plochu asimila?ných orgánov a špecifickú listovú plochu (specific leaf area; SLA. Zistili sme, že základné morfologické vlastnosti asimila?ných orgánov varírovali pri obidvoch drevinách pozd?ž vertikálneho profilu koruny. V prípade smreka sa zistili odlišné hodnoty plochy ihlíc a SLA medzi jednotlivými ro?níkmi ihlíc. Na úrovni stromu mali buky ove?a viac biomasy drevných ?astí ako smreky, opa?ná situácia bola pri asimila?ných orgánoch. Preto hodnoty podielu medzi biomasou asimila?ných orgánov a celkovou biomasou stromu, ako aj pomeru medzi plochou asimila?ných orgánov a celkovou biomasou stromu boli výrazne vyššie pri smreku než buku. Na úrovni porastu mala smre?ina vyššie hodnoty indexu listovej plochy, t. j. LAI (18,64 m2.m?2 v porovnaní s bu?inou (12,77 m2.m?2. Kým biomasa asimila?ných orgánov bola 4,6-krát vä?šia v smrekovom než v bukovom poraste, biomasa drevných ?asti bola porovnate?ná v obidvoch porastoch. Tieto kontrasty nazna?ujú výrazne odlišnú rastovú stratégiu, resp. alokáciu biomasy medzi bu?inami a smre?inami v mladých štádiách

  9. Control de una planta prototipo de gasificación de biomasa mediante redes neuronales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Forero N\\u00FA\\u00F1ez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de gasificación de Biomasa son una alternativa para emplear residuos agroindustriales y generar un combustible ga- seoso; sin embargo, estos procesos no lineales se ven afectados por las características típicas del material y por la variación en las temperaturas al interior del equipo, por lo tanto se requieren sistemas de control para alcanzar estados estables en el tiempo. Este trabajo analiza el desempeño de un control mediante redes neuronales aplicado a un gasificador de lecho fijo corriente descenden- te cuando se emplean cascaras de coco o cuesco de palma. Los resultados indican que el uso del sistema de control en el equipo, alimentado con cascaras de coco, permite aumentar las temperaturas en el reactor de 600°C a 800°C en la zona de inyección, superando así el problema derivado de la baja transferencia de energía por conducción a través del sistema. Cuando se emplea el control en la gasificación de cuesco, la temperatura promedio se mantuvo constante en 790°C, el CO presente en el gas estuvo alrededor de 10% mientras que el CO2 disminuyó a 4%. La aplicación de un sistema de control mediante redes neuronales es una gran alternativa puesto que se puede entrenar para cada tipo de biomasa mejorando la estabilidad del sistema y produciendo un gas de síntesis con menor contenido de CO2. Esto para un país con gran diversidad de recursos agroindustriales abre la posibilidad de usar estos subproductos en la generación de energía a partir de fuentes renovables.

  10. Análisis Exergético de la Gasificación de Biomasa Exergy Analysis of Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar el análisis exergético de la gasificación de biomasa residual con la finalidad de obtener energía útil. Se desarrolló un modelo para la gasificación de biomasa basado en el equilibrio químico de las reacciones. Este modelo permite predecir la evolución de la composición del gas de síntesis en función de la temperatura, las presiones y la composición elemental de los residuos del proceso de extracción de aceite de palma y orujo de lavado de uva (hidrogeno, oxigeno, carbono y nitrógeno, como también hacer un análisis exergético. Se encontró que independiente del agente gasificante, la concentración de monóxido de carbono e hidrógeno tienden a incrementar significativamente a altas presiones y elevadas temperaturas. Además, se muestra que la eficiencia exergética incrementa con la temperatura y disminuye con el aumento de la relación aire/combustible.This paper shows the exergy analysis applied to the gasification process of residual biomass with the purpose of obtaining useful energy. A model for the biomass gasification based on chemical equilibrium of the reactions is proposed. The model allows predicting the syngas composition as a function of temperature, pressure and ultimate analysis of palm oil and grapevine pruning waste (determining hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen. It was found that the carbon monoxide and hydrogen concentration significantly increase at high pressure and temperature independently of the gasifying agent. Furthermore, it was also noticed that the exergy efficiency increases as temperature increases, and decreases as the relative fuel/air ratio increases.

  11. Biomasa aérea, cantidad y calidad de semilla de Melinis repens (Willd. Zizka, en Aguascalientes, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham D\\u00EDaz Romo

    2012-01-01

    manualmente forraje y semilla. Se determinó la producción de forraje, producción de espiguillas y número de semillas por metro cuadrado. Se valoró la viabilidad, germinación y latencia de la semilla a diferentes tiempos después de la cosecha. La producción de biomasa aérea difirió (P<0.05 con promedios de 2913 a 1736 kg MS ha-1 en 2008 y de 1488 a 707 kg MS ha-1 en 2009 (menos lluvioso, con mayor producción en Calvillo. La producción de semillas varió (P<0.05 de 1,239 a 2,401 semillas m2 en 2008 y de 1,452 a 3,906 semillas m2 en 2009. La viabilidad en la semilla fue de 32 a 54 %, sin diferencias significativas. Calvillo presentó mayor germinación (25 %, la cual fue aumentando y a los 18 meses casi toda la semilla viable germinó (43 %. En El Llano la germinación fue menor (2 % debido a la latencia, con poco aumento aún después de 24 meses, llegando a 15 %. Este pasto presentó niveles altos de producción de biomasa aérea y semilla, lo que puede favorecer su capacidad invasora, aunque también puede ser una ventaja para la conservación de suelos. La semilla presentó mayor producción y latencia en condiciones de escasez de agua.

  12. Análisis Exergético de la Gasificación de Biomasa / Exergy Analysis of Biomass Gasification

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge M, Mendoza; Antonio J, Bula; Rafael D, Gómez; Lesmes A, Corredor.

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar el análisis exergético de la gasificación de biomasa residual con la finalidad de obtener energía útil. Se desarrolló un modelo para la gasificación de biomasa basado en el equilibrio químico de las reacciones. Este modelo permite predecir la evolución de la [...] composición del gas de síntesis en función de la temperatura, las presiones y la composición elemental de los residuos del proceso de extracción de aceite de palma y orujo de lavado de uva (hidrogeno, oxigeno, carbono y nitrógeno), como también hacer un análisis exergético. Se encontró que independiente del agente gasificante, la concentración de monóxido de carbono e hidrógeno tienden a incrementar significativamente a altas presiones y elevadas temperaturas. Además, se muestra que la eficiencia exergética incrementa con la temperatura y disminuye con el aumento de la relación aire/combustible. Abstract in english This paper shows the exergy analysis applied to the gasification process of residual biomass with the purpose of obtaining useful energy. A model for the biomass gasification based on chemical equilibrium of the reactions is proposed. The model allows predicting the syngas composition as a function [...] of temperature, pressure and ultimate analysis of palm oil and grapevine pruning waste (determining hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen). It was found that the carbon monoxide and hydrogen concentration significantly increase at high pressure and temperature independently of the gasifying agent. Furthermore, it was also noticed that the exergy efficiency increases as temperature increases, and decreases as the relative fuel/air ratio increases.

  13. BIOMASA Y RENDIMIENTO DE FRIJOL CON POTENCIAL EJOTERO EN UNICULTIVO Y ASOCIADO CON GIRASOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gardu\\u00F1o-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar la producción de biomasa, rendimiento y algunos de sus componentes de dos cultivares de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. con potencial ejotero ('Acerado' y 'Criollo', en unicultivo y asociado con dos cultivares de girasol (Helianthus annuus L. ('Sunbright' y 'Victoria'. El estudio se realizó durante el ciclo primavera verano 2006 bajo condiciones de temporal en Tenancingo, Méx. Las variables evaluadas fueron: índice de área foliar (IAF, tasa de asimilación neta (TAN, biomasa total (BT, diámetro de vaina (DV, longitud de vaina (LV, número de vainas·m-2 (NV y rendimiento de vaina·m-2 (RV; las cuales fueron analizadas en arreglo factorial, bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Para estimar el grado de asociación, entre las variables estudiadas y el rendimiento de vainas, se realizó un análisis de correlación lineal simple. En el factor cultivares se detectaron diferencias estadísticas significativas para la TAN y DV; para el factor sistemas de siembra hubo diferencias significativas para BT, DV, NV y RV. La interacción cultivares * sistema de siembra fue significativa en todas las variables, excepto en la TAN. En ese sentido, las asociaciones 'Criollo' + 'Sunbright', 'Acerado' + 'Victoria' y 'Acerado' en unicultivo, presentaron el mayor RV. Las variables IAF, BT y NV se correlacionaron positiva y significativamente con el rendimiento de vaina. Los resultados indican que 'Criollo' y 'Acerado', asociados con 'Sunbright' y 'Victoria', respectivamente, responden positivamente a la asociación, constituyendo una buena opción para los productores de la región de Tenancingo, México.

  14. CONCENTRACIÓN DE CARBONO EN LA BIOMASA AÉREA DEL MATORRAL ESPINOSO TAMAULIPECO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 I. Yerena-Yamallel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la concentración de carbono por unidad de biomasa base peso seco de 10 especies del matorral espinoso tamaulipeco y para cada uno de sus componentes (tallo, ramas, ramillas, hojas y corteza. La concentración de carbono expresado como porcentaje de la biomasa, se hizo con el equipo Solids TOC Analyzer, que determina la concentración de carbono en muestras sólidas a través de combustión completa. Mediante un ANAVA no se encontraron diferencias en la concentración promedio de carbono de las especies (P>0.05; esta concentración varió de 44.25 a 47.08 % con una media general de 45.4±1.32 %; Cordia boissieri (44.25±1.52 % y Acacia farnesiana (44.52±1.37 % son las especies que resultaron con los valores de concentración de carbono menores, y Forestiera angustifolia (47.08±1.27 % con el más alto. El componente corteza de Cordia boissieri obtuvo el menor porcentaje de concentración de carbono (39.62±0.70 %, y las hojas de Acacia schaffneri el mayor (50.14±1.21 %; la interacción de ambos factores resultó significativa (P<0.0001.

  15. El cultivo y el agua de riego sobre el carbono de la biomasa microbiana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magaly, Ruiz; Jorge, Paolini.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se determinó el carbono de la biomasa microbiana en ocho suelos cultivados con caña de azúcar y banano, regados con aguas de distinto origen (residuales, de pozo, de lago), y en dos suelos bajo vegetación natural (suelos testigo), localizados todos en la Cuenca del Lago de Valencia. [...] El carbono de la biomasa microbiana (C-BM) se determinó por el método de la respiración inducida por sustrato. Los valores obtenidos variaron entre 206 y 1.553 µg C-BM g-1 suelo, siendo más altos en los suelos testigos y en los suelos lacustrinos sembrados con caña de azúcar bajo riego con aguas residuales industriales y domésticas. Los valores del C-BM resultaron superiores en los suelos bajo banano (P Abstract in english In the present study, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) was determined in eight soils located in the Valencia Lake basin, cultivated with sugarcane or banana and irrigated with waters of different composition or origin (waste-, ground- and lake-water), and in two soils under natural vegetation (co [...] ntrol soils). MBC was estimated by substrate induced respiration method. MBC varied between 206 and 1.553 µg microbial C g-1 soil. Highest values occurred in control soils and in the lacustrine soil cultivated with sugar cane and irrigated with waste waters. The values of MBC were higher in the alluvial soils cultivated with sugarcane than in the alluvial soils cultivated with banana (P

  16. Correlação entre as medidas direta e indireta do VO2max em atletas de futsal Correlación entre las medidas directa e indirecta del VO2max en atletas de futsal Correlation between direct and indirect VO2max measurements in indoor soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Myrna Jaguaribe de Lima; Daniele Vanusca Gomes Silva; Alexandre Oscar Soares de Souza

    2005-01-01

    A importância das qualidades morfofuncionais na melhora do rendimento nos esportes aumentou o interesse no aprimoramento dos níveis de aptidão física dos atletas. No entanto, há poucos estudos sobre as variáveis fisiológicas do futsal disponíveis na literatura científica mundial. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a existência de correlação entre os testes de medida direta e indireta do VO2max, em jogadores de futsal. Foram analisados 13 jogadores de futsal, com id...

  17. Modular VO oriented Java EE service deployer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Marco; Cepparo, Francesco; De Marco, Marco; Knapic, Cristina; Apollo, Pietro; Smareglia, Riccardo

    2014-07-01

    The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) has produced many standards and recommendations whose aim is to generate an architecture that starts from astrophysical resources, in a general sense, and ends up in deployed consumable services (that are themselves astrophysical resources). Focusing on the Data Access Layer (DAL) system architecture, that these standards define, in the last years a web based application has been developed and maintained at INAF-OATs IA2 (Italian National institute for Astrophysics - Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Italian center of Astronomical Archives) to try to deploy and manage multiple VO (Virtual Observatory) services in a uniform way: VO-Dance. However a set of criticalities have arisen since when the VO-Dance idea has been produced, plus some major changes underwent and are undergoing at the IVOA DAL layer (and related standards): this urged IA2 to identify a new solution for its own service layer. Keeping on the basic ideas from VO-Dance (simple service configuration, service instantiation at call time and modularity) while switching to different software technologies (e.g. dismissing Java Reflection in favour of Enterprise Java Bean, EJB, based solution), the new solution has been sketched out and tested for feasibility. Here we present the results originating from this test study. The main constraints for this new project come from various fields. A better homogenized solution rising from IVOA DAL standards: for example the new DALI (Data Access Layer Interface) specification that acts as a common interface system for previous and oncoming access protocols. The need for a modular system where each component is based upon a single VO specification allowing services to rely on common capabilities instead of homogenizing them inside service components directly. The search for a scalable system that takes advantage from distributed systems. The constraints find answer in the adopted solutions hereafter sketched. The development of the new system using Java Enterprise technologies can better benefit from existing libraries to build up the single tokens implementing the IVOA standards. Each component can be built from single standards and each deployed service (i.e. service components instantiations) can consume the other components' exposed methods and services without the need of homogenizing them in dedicated libraries. Scalability can be achieved in an easier way by deploying components or sets of services on a distributed environment and using JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface) and RMI (Remote Method Invocation) technologies. Single service configuration will not be significantly different from the VO-Dance solution given that Java class instantiation that benefited from Java Reflection will only be moved to Java EJB pooling (and not, e.g. embedded in bundles for subsequent deployment).

  18. Biomassa de rotíferos em ambientes dulcícolas: Revisão de métodos e fatores influentes / Rotifer biomass in freshwater environments: Review of methods and influencing factors / Biomasa de rotíferos en ambientes dulciacuícolas: Revisión de métodos y factores influyentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dayane, Christian Rossa; Claudia, Costa Bonecker; Leandro, Junio Fulone.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A biomassa de uma comunidade aquática fornece informações quantitativas da matéria orgânica disponível nos diferentes níveis tróficos. As dificuldades metodológicas para se estimar a biomassa zooplanctônica explicam os poucos estudos existentes, principalmente no Brasil. Neste estudo objetiva-se des [...] crever as metodologias mais utilizadas na estimativa da biomassa de rotíferos, analisar suas vantagems e desvantagems, comparar resultados obtidos com cada técnica, e investigar alguns fatores que influenciam sua biomassa. A estimativa mais utilizada é a determinação do volume, a partir de dimensões lineares. Estudos apontam que os valores estimados da biomassa de rotíferos podem variar de acordo com as metodologias de amostragem, preservação dos indivíduos, características limnológicas dos ambientes e genotípicas dos indivíduos, predação, disponibilidade de alimento, além da sazonalidade. Todos esses fatores evidenciam a necessidade de se estimar a biomassa ao invés da utilização de equações já descritas na literatura, bem como a importância de se descrever detalhadamente a metodologia utilizada em cada amostragem, e algumas características limnológicas dos ambientes estudados. Abstract in spanish La biomasa de una comunidad acuática provee información cuantitativa de la materia orgánica disponible en los diferentes niveles tróficos. Las dificultades metodologías en la estimación de la biomasa zooplanctónica explican los pocos estudios existentes, principalmente en Brasil. Se describen los mé [...] todos más utilizados en la estimación de la biomasa de rotíferos, se analizan sus ventajas y desventajas, se comparan los resultados obtenidos con cada técnica, y se discuten algunos factores que influyen en su biomasa. El método más utilizado es la determinación del biovolumen, obtenido a partir de las dimensiones lineales de los rotíferos. La mayor parte de los estudios sugieren que la biomasa de rotíferos varía de acuerdo con los métodos de muestreo, la conservación de los individuos, la depredación y la disponibilidad de alimentos, además de la estacionalidad. Todos estos factores evidencian la necesidad de estimar la biomasa en lugar de utilizar ecuaciones ya descritas en la literatura, así como la importancia de describir el método utilizado en cada muestreo y algunas características limnológicas de los ambientes estudiados. Abstract in english The biomass of an aquatic community provides quantitative information from available organic matter in different trophic levels. The methodological difficulties in estimating zooplankton biomass explain the scarcity of existing studies, particularly in Brazil. The most used methodologies for rotifer [...] biomass estimation are described and their advantages and disadvantages analyzed. Results obtained with the different techniques are compared and some factors influencing the biomass are discussed. The most commonly used methodology is the biovolume, calculated from rotifer linear dimensions. Studies point out that rotifers biomass vary according to sampling methodologies, individual preservation, environments limnological characteristics, individual genotypical characteristics, predation, food resource availability and seasonality. All these factors emphasize the importance of estimating biomass instead of using equations already described in the literature, as well as the importance to describe in detail the methodology employed in each sampling and some limnological features of the studied environments.

  19. Vplyv pesticídov na spolo?enstvo aktinomycét vo vysokohorskej pôde.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Selešiová, Z.; Javoreková, S.; Krišt?fek, Václav; Chro?áková, Alica

    Bratislava : Vydavate?stvo Univerzity Komenského, 2010, s. 120-127. ISBN 978-80-223-2796-1. [Život v pôde /11./. Bratislava (SK), 26.01.2010-27.01.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Grant ostatní: SAV(SK) 1/0404/09; SAV(SK) 3/6228/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : pesticides * actinomycetes * grassland Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Inovatívne prístupy vo výu?be geológie na základných školách

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Bir?áková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contributes results of a pedagogical research on teaching geosciences at elementary schools. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the efficiency of using worksheets at geoscientific excursions and to determine the pupils’ and teachers’ attitudes against Natural History 8 classes. The work’s main purpose was to create such materials that could be useful for teachers by planning and undertaking fieldworks. As a result serves an electronic database of geoscientific POIs (points of interest of Slovakia and its software interface, GeoGuide. Another outcome is a set of 15 universal worksheets designed to be usable on any field trip within whole Slovakia. Both of these aids have already performed well at preparing and undertaking excursions. And at the same time, a pedagogical experiment has shown that pupils equipped with worksheets at the fieldworks generally acquire more valuable knowledge than those without it. Using worksheets has always significantly improved pupils’ score at final testing.

  1. Patterning of epitaxial VO2 microstructures by a high-temperature lift-off process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Tony; Havdala, Tal; Sharoni, Amos

    2014-12-01

    The growing field of oxide-electronics demands adequate fabrication methods that do not impair the material’s beneficial properties. To this end, we present a modified lift-off lithography method replacing the conventional polymer mask with an AlOx based mask. It can sustain the high-temperature and reactive gasses conditions commonly needed for oxide deposition, and is effectively wet-etched in dilute NaOH solutions. Here we demonstrate patterning of VO2 films. With its metal–insulator transition (MIT) near room temperature, it is attractive for various applications including sensors and transistors. But patterning is challenging since its properties are very sensitive to fabrication processes. We demonstrate patterning of 3 ?m wide VO2 electrodes and show they preserve the MIT magnitude and epitaxial growth of the non-patterned films. Some thinning of the VO2 is also observed. This process can be useful for patterning other materials that require harsh deposition conditions, and are resilient to low NaOH concentrations.

  2. Simulink based VoIP Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hardeep; Mian, M

    2010-01-01

    Voice communication over internet not be possible without a reliable data network, this was first available when distributed network topologies were used in conjunction with data packets. Early network used single centre node network in which a single workstation (Server) is responsible for the communication. This posed problems as if there was a fault with the centre node, (workstation) nothing would work. This problem was solved by the distributed system in which reliability increases by spreading the load between many nodes. The idea of packet switching & distributed network were combined, this combination were increased reliability, speed & responsible for voice communication over internet, Voice-over-IP (VoIP)These data packets travel through a packet-switched network such as the Internet and arrive at their destination where they are decompressed using a compatible Codec (audio coder/decoder) and converted back to analogue audio. This paper deals with the Simulink architecture for VoIP network.

  3. Drowning in Data : VO to the rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, A.

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical datasets are growing in size and diversity, posing severe technical problems. At the same time scientific goals increasingly require the analysis of very large amounts of data, and data from multiple archives. The Virtual Observatory (VO) initiative aims to make multiwavelength science and large database science as seamless as possible. It can be seen as the latest stage of a long term trend towards standardisation and collectivisation in astronomy. Within this ...

  4. Steganography of VoIP Streams

    OpenAIRE

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The paper concerns available steganographic techniques that can be used for creating covert channels for VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) streams. Apart from characterizing existing steganographic methods we provide new insights by presenting two new techniques. The first one is network steganography solution which exploits free/unused protocols' fields and is known for IP, UDP or TCP protocols but has never been applied to RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol) and RTCP (Rea...

  5. Componente lento do VO2 em crianças durante exercício pesado de corrida: análise com base em diferentes modelos matemáticos Componente lento de VO2 en niños durante ejercicio arduo de carrera: análisis con base en diferentes modelos matemáticos Slow component of VO2 in children during running exercise performed at heavy intensity domain: analysis with different mathematical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Andrade Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar e quantificar a magnitude do componente lento do consumo de oxigênio (CL em crianças submetidas a exercícios de corrida em esteira rolante, com cargas constantes de intensidade acima do limiar de lactato (75%D, utilizando para isso dois modelos de análise: a modelo matemático com três termos exponenciais; e b modelo deltaVO2 6-3min. Participaram do estudo oito crianças do sexo masculino (11,92 ± 0,63 anos; 44,06 ± 13,01kg; 146,63 ± 7,25cm; e níveis de maturação sexual 1 e 2, aparentemente saudáveis, não treinadas, que realizaram em diferentes dias: 1 teste incremental na esteira rolante para a determinação do consumo de oxigênio de pico (VO2pico e do limiar de lactato (LL; e 2 dois testes de carga constante em esteira rolante durante seis minutos na intensidade de 75%delta [75%delta = LL + 0,75 x (VO2pico - LL]. Para determinação do CL utilizaram-se: a modelo matemático de três termos (Exp3; e b a diferença no VO2 entre o sexto e o terceiro minuto de exercício (deltaVO2 6-3min. O CL foi expresso em valores absolutos (ml/min e também como a contribuição percentual do CL para o aumento do VO2 no final do exercício (%CL. O CL determinado pelo modelo Exp3 (129,69 ± 75,71ml/min e 8,4 ± 2,92% foi significantemente maior do que o obtido pelo modelo deltaVO2 6-3min (68,69 ± 102,54ml/min e 3,6 ± 7,34%. Portanto, os valores de CL obtidos em crianças durante o exercício de corrida realizado no domínio pesado (75%delta são dependentes do modelo de análise (Exp3 x deltaVO2 6-3min.El objetivo de este estudio ha sido el de verificar y cuantificar la magnitud del componente lento del consumo de oxígeno (CL en niños, sometidos a ejercicios de carrera en cinta rodante, con cargas constantes de intensidad por encima del límite de lactato (75%delta, utilizando para esto dos modelos de análisis: a modelo matemático con tres términos exponenciales; y b modelo deltaVO2 6-3 min. Participaron del estudio 8 niños del sexo masculino (11,92 ± 0,63 años; 44,06 ± 13,01 kg; 146,63 ± 7,25 cm; y niveles de madurez sexual 1 y 2, aparentemente saludables, no entrenados, que realizaron en diferentes días: 1 Test incremental en la cinta rodante para determinar el consumo de oxígeno de pico (VO2pico y del límite de lactato (LL; y 2 Dos tests de carga constante en cinta rodante durante seis minutos a intensidad de 75%delta [75%delta = LL + 0,75 x (VO2pico - LL]. Para determinar el CL usamos: a modelo matemático de tres términos (Exp3; y b la diferencia en el VO2 entre el sexto y el tercer minuto de ejercicio (deltaVO2 6-3 min. El CL fue expresado en valores absolutos (ml/min y también como contribución porcentual de CL para el aumento de VO2 al final del ejercicio (%CL. El CL determinado por el modelo Exp3 (129,69 ± 75,71 ml/min y 8,4 ± 2,92% fue significativamente mayor al que fue obtenido por el modelo deltaVO2 6-3 min (68,69 ± 102,54 ml/min y 3,6 ± 7,34%. Por tanto, los valores de CL obtenidos en niños durante el ejercicio de carrera realizado en dominio pesado (75%delta son dependientes del modelo de análisis (Exp3 x deltaVO2 6-3 min.The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify the magnitude of the slow component of VO2 (SC in children during running exercise, performed at heavy intensity domain (75%delta, using two different mathematical models: a three-exponential model and; b deltaVO2 6-3 min. Eight healthy male children (11.92 ± 0.63 years; 44.06 ± 13.01 kg; 146.63 ± 7.25 cm; and sexual maturity levels 1 and 2, not trained, performed in different days the following tests: 1 incremental running treadmill test to determine the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak and the lactate threshold (LT; and 2 two transitions from baseline to 75%delta [75%D = LT + 0.75 x (VO2 peak - LT] for six minutes on treadmill. The SC was deter mined by two models: a three-exponential model (Exp3; and b the VO2 difference between the sixth and the third exercise minute (deltaVO2 6-3min. The SC was expressed as the absolute (ml/min and percent contribution

  6. What are suspicious VoIP delays?

    CERN Document Server

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) is unquestionably the most popular real-time service in IP networks today. Recent studies have shown that it is also a suitable carrier for information hiding. Hidden communication may pose security concerns as it can lead to confidential information leakage. In VoIP, RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol) in particular, which provides the means for the successful transport of voice packets through IP networks, is suitable for steganographic purposes. It is characterised by a high packet rate compared to other protocols used in IP telephony, resulting in a potentially high steganographic bandwidth. The modification of an RTP packet stream provides many opportunities for hidden communication as the packets may be delayed, reordered or intentionally lost. In this paper, to enable the detection of steganographic exchanges in VoIP, we examined real RTP traffic traces to answer the questions, what do the "normal" delays in RTP packet streams look like? and, is it possible to detect the use of know...

  7. Avaliação da biomassa de microcrustáceos em ambientes aquáticos continentais / Microcrustacean biomass estimation in continental aquatic environments / Evaluación de la biomasa de microcrustáceos en ambientes acuáticos continentales

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martín C, M. Blettler; Cláudia, Cósta Bonecker.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available As metodologias para a estimativa da biomassa são variadas. Entretanto, o método mais difundido para obter a biomassa de microcrustáceos zooplanctônicos é a partir da obtenção de equações de regressão linear, considerando a relação peso seco-comprimento dos indivíduos. Esta metodologia é de uso gene [...] ralizado, quase o 75% dos trabalhos pesquisados neste estudo. Em relação aos ambientes estudados, 52% correspondem a trabalhos feitos em regiões temperadas. Nessa região também foi elaborada a maioria das regressões disponíveis na literatura para as diferentes espécies. É necessário desenvolver mais estudos e construir equações para as diferentes espécies presentes nas regiões subtropicais e tropicais. A maioria dos autores citados não especificam se usou indivíduos fixados e não fixados. Tampoco especificam o critério adotado na medição nem quantos indivíduos foram utilizados em cada classe de comprimento. Esto acontece para a elaboração das equações e para o uso das equações já elaboradas, sendo muitas veces estos critérios assumidos como arbitrário. As fórmulas de regressão não devem ser aplicadas universalmente sem reservas. As equações feitas para uma mesma espécie podem variar tanto nos valores da intercepção como na inclinação da reta, pois depende do ambiente onde foram realizadas. Embora, os usuários dessas regressões devem atestar para as variações que as mesmas possam sofrer em função de fatores que afetam a relação peso-comprimento. Conclui-se que, para o cálculo da biomassa por equações peso seco-comprimento, é necessário padronizar os critérios de medição do comprimento, técnicas de preservação, número de indivíduos por classe de comprimento, e tempo e temperatura de secagem. Abstract in spanish Las metodologías para estimación de biomasa son variadas. El método más difundido para el cálculo de la biomasa de microcrustáceos zooplanctónicos parte de la obtención de ecuaciones de regresión lineal, considerando la relación peso seco-longitud de los individuos. Esta metodología es de uso genera [...] lizado, siendo usada en casi 75% de las publicaciones analizadas en el presente estudio. En relación a los diferentes ambientes analizados, 52% corresponden a regiones templadas, donde también fueron realizadas la mayoría de las regresiones disponibles para diferentes especies. Es necesario, por ello, desarrollar más estudios y elaborar ecuaciones para las diferentes especies presentes en ambientes tropicales y subtropicales. La mayoría de los autores citados no especifica el uso de individuos fijados o no, ni especifican el criterio para la medición o cuántos individuos fueron utilizados en cada clase de longitud. Esto ocurre para la elaboración de las ecuaciones y para el uso de ecuaciones elaboradas en otros estudios. Estos criterios son asumidos como arbitrarios, dificultando e impidiendo el uso de estas ecuaciones, por lo que las fórmulas no deben ser aplicadas universalmente sin reservas. Las ecuaciones pueden variar, aun para una misma especie, en los valores de intersección y pendiente de la recta, dependiendo del ambiente donde fueron realizadas. Los usuarios de estas regresiones deben considerar las variaciones que las mismas pueden sufrir en función de factores que afectan la relación peso seco-longitud. Se concluye que, para calcular biomasa por ecuaciones peso seco-longitud, es necesario estandarizar los criterios de medición de la longitud de los individuos, técnicas de preservación, número de individuos por clase de longitud, así como tiempo y temperatura de secado. Abstract in english There are several methodologies for biomass estimation. The most common for microcrustacean zooplanktonic biomass determination are based on linear regression equations relating individual dry weight and length. Almost 75% of the papers reviewed in the present stydy have used this methodology, and 5 [...] 2% of them refer to studies carried out in temperate regions, were most of the available regr

  8. Revisión sobre la corrosión de tubos sobrecalentadores en plantas de biomasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlanga-Labari, C.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of new biomass-fired power plants with increased steam temperature raises concerns of high-temperature corrosion. The high potassium and chlorine contents in many biomasses, specially in wheat straw, are potentially harmful elements with regard to corrosion. Chlorine may cause accelerated corrosion resulting in increased oxidation, metal wastage, internal attack, void formations, and loose non-adherent scales. The most severe corrosion problems in biomass-fired systems are expected to occur due to Cl-rich deposits formed on superheater tubes. In the first part of this revision the corrosion mechanism proposed are described in function of the conditions and compounds involved. The second part is focused on the behaviour of the materials tested so far in the boiler and in the laboratory. First the traditional commercial alloys are studied and secondly the new alloys and the coatings

    En el diseño de plantas de biomasa es muy importante tener en cuenta la temperatura del vapor para no tener problemas de corrosión. Esto, es debido al alto contenido de potasio y cloro que tienen la mayoría de los biocombustibles y, en especial, la paja de cereal. El objetivo de esta revisión es condensar el conocimiento actual sobre la corrosión de los sobrecalentadores a altas temperaturas provocada por compuestos clorados en plantas de biomasa. El cloro puede causar corrosión acelerada debido a la pérdida de metal del sobrecalentador, ataque interno y formación de capas de óxidos no adherentes. Los problemas de corrosión más severos en una caldera de biomasa se producen en los depósitos formados sobre los tubos sobrecalentadores. En la primera parte de esta revisión, se describen los mecanismos de corrosión propuestos en función de las condiciones de trabajo predominantes en la caldera. La segunda parte, se centra en revisar los estudios realizados para comprobar el comportamiento de los materiales mediante ensayos realizados en la caldera y en el laboratorio. En primer lugar, se describen las investigaciones realizadas sobre aleaciones convencionales y después las realizadas sobre las aleaciones desarrolladas en los últimos años y recubrimientos.

  9. Estimación de la biomasa aérea de seis leguminosas leñosas del Chaco Árido (Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María del Rosario, Iglesias; Alicia Haydée, Barchuk.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La posibilidad de contar con estimaciones confiables de la biomasa aérea de la vegetación leñosa resulta imprescindible para el manejo productivo, la conservación o la restauración de los ecosistemas de bosque. Sin embargo, no siempre se dispone de técnicas relativamente sencillas y no destructivas. [...] Este trabajo presenta modelos de regresión para estimar la biomasa aérea total de seis especies arbustivas y arbóreas de la familia Fabaceae, nativas del Chaco Árido (Prosopis flexuosa, Geoffroea decorticans, Cercidium praecox, Acacia furcatispina, Mimoziganthus carinatus y Prosopis torquata). Los modelos incluyeron distintas combinaciones del diámetro a la base (DAB) y la altura de los individuos. Todos ellos predijeron aceptablemente la biomasa por especie, si bien el de regresión lineal que utiliza el DAB² como variable independiente presentó el mejor ajuste. Las especies fueron agrupadas según sus rasgos comunes en: monopódicas de madera dura, multitallares de madera extremadamente pesada, monopódica de madera excesivamente pesada y monopódica y multitallar de madera extremadamente pesada y para cada uno de los grupos se generó una ecuación. Abstract in english Reliable estimates of biomass for the vegetation of the Arid Chaco forest is critical for its management, conservation or restoration. However, simple and non destructive techniques are not largely available. This study provides regression models aimed at estimating the aerial biomass of native shru [...] b and tree species from the Arid Chaco, belonging to the Fabaceae family (Prosopis flexuosa, Geoffroea decorticans, Cercidium praecox, Acacia furcatispina, Mimoziganthus carinatus and Prosopis torquata). An additional objective was to explore the feasibility of using a single equation for several species. The wood density differed significantly between species. Linear and nonlinear regression models of aerial biomass were adjusted for species, with different combinations of base diameter (DAB) and height as independent variables. The models properly predicted the biomass by species, the most appropriate being the linear regression model using DAB² as an independent variable. To establish differences in the behavior of species and, more precisely, in the ratio between total dry weight and DAB, the slope homogeneity was analyzed using a regression model with auxiliary variables. Taking into account the results obtained and the basic wood density and morphological growth structure, four groups of species have been postulated, and it was feasible to apply a single equation per group. The proposed groups are: (1) monopodial hardwood (Geoffroea decorticans and Cercidium praecox), (2) multi-stem shrubs of extremely heavy wood (Acacia furcatispina and Mimoziganthus carinatus), (3) monopodial of very heavy wood (Prosopis flexuosa) and (4) monopodial and multi-stem of extremely heavy wood (Prosopis torquata).

  10. RELACIÓN ENTRE LA BIOMASA Y ALGUNAS CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS DE LAS BROMELIAS FITOTELMATAS DE UN BOSQUE ALTO ANDINO COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaza Carolina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron algunas características morfológicas para seis especies de bromelias fitotelmata (Guzmania gloriosa, Racinaea tetrantha, Tillandsia biflora, T. complanata, T. fendleri y T. turneri con el fin de establecer cuales características podrían utilizarse como estimadores indirectos de la biomasa total de la planta. El estudio se realizó en un bosque alto andino de la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia, ubicado a 2900 m de altitud. Para cada especie se recolectaron entre 32 y 64 individuos en diferentes estadios de crecimiento, a cada uno de los cuales se le registró: 1 el número de hojas por roseta; 2 el perímetro de la base de la roseta; 3 la cobertura de la planta; 4 el largo de la lámina foliar; 5 la altura de la roseta; y 6 la biomasa total. Los resultados de la prueba Wilcoxon muestran que la cobertura fue la variable que más se relacionó con la biomasa. Una prueba de ajuste de curva mostró que la línea recta es la que más explica la relación entre la cobertura y la biomasa, permitiendo hacer estimaciones a partir de la ecuación sin ser necesario un muestreo destructivo.

  11. Proceso de gasificación de biomasa: una revisión de estudios teórico- experimentales / Biomass gasification process: theoretical and experimental studies a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Pérez; David, Borge; John, Agudelo.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La situación energética y medioambiental mundial hace que la generación de energía mediante sistemas basados en energías renovables tome cada vez una mayor relevancia. Estos sistemas tienen una doble ventaja ya que posibilitan la diversificación energética y reducen la dependencia del petróleo a la [...] vez que se disminuyen las emisiones globales de CO2. La biomasa es uno de los recursos energéticos con mayor potencial tanto en países desarrollados como emergentes pero sigue sin sufrir el desarrollo esperado. La gasificación de biomasa es uno de los sistemas con gran potencial ya que permite la generación tanto de energía térmica como eléctrica, mediante tecnologías de bajo costo como los gasificadores de lecho fijo (potencias medias- bajas), o reactores de lecho fluidizado con tecnología más exigente y con mayor capacidad de generación. La transformación de la biomasa en un combustible gaseoso, aprovechable en motores de combustión interna alternativos o en turbinas de gas como combustible, exige que la biomasa atraviese varios procesos termoquímicos, compuestos por reacciones endotérmicas (secado, devolatilización y reducción) y exotérmicas (oxidación de volátiles y carbón). La selección de un gasificador requiere conocer las propiedades de la biomasa, mientras que el diseño del mismo exige conocer el fenómeno termoquímico por completo. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión actualizada de los diferentes planteamientos tanto teóricos como experimentales desarrollados para estudiar el proceso de gasificación de biomasa, tanto en lecho fijo como en lecho fluidizado, con miras a diseñar gasificadores de biomasa. Abstract in english Each day the energy systems relying on renewable resources are more relevant in the world energy politics due to the fossil energy and environmental crisis. These systems increase energy resources of countries, reduce the oil dependency, and diminish CO2 global emissions. Biomass is one of the renew [...] able resources with higher potential in developing and developed countries. Biomass gasification has huge possibilities to be developed. Such as fixed bed gasifiers, or fluidized bed reactors with more technology demanding and more power capacity. Biomass transformation in a gaseous fuel to be used in a reciprocating internal combustion engine or gas turbines requires that biomass passes through several thermochemical stages. Endothermic reactions (drying, pyrolysis and reduction) and exothermic process (volatiles and carbon oxidation). To select a specific gasifier it is necessary to know biomass properties (chemical and physical), whereas to design a reactor it is necessary to know and understand the complete phenomena. The aim of this work is to show an actualized review about different theoretical and experimental approaches to study biomass gaification process in fixed and fluidized bed reactors in order to design biomass gasifiers.

  12. Deployment of VoIP Technology: QoS Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzez, Amor; Slimani, Thabet

    2013-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) is an emerging communication service allowing voice transmission over a private or a public IP network. VoIP allows significant benefits for customers and service providers including cost savings, phone and service portability, mobility, and the integration with other applications. Nevertheless, the deployment of the VoIP technology encounters many challenges such as interoperability issues, security issues, and QoS concerns. Among these disadvantages, Q...

  13. Integrating legacy software toolkits into China-VO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qian, Cui, Chen-Zhou, Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2005-12-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is a collection of data-archives and software toolkits. It aims to provide astronomers research resources with uniformed interfaces, using advanced information technologies. In this article, we discuss the necessaries and feasibilities of integrating legacy software toolkits into China-VO system at first; then analyse granularity about integrating. Three general integrating methods are given in detail. At last, we introduce an instance of integrating "Image Magick" - an software for image processing and discuss more about VO integration.

  14. Efeito do tempo de intervalo da amostra ventilatória na variabilidade do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 máx em jogadores de futebol profissional Effect of time intervals of ventilatory sampling in the variability of maximum oxygen uptake in professional soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Santos Silva

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi verificar, em futebolistas profissionais, o impacto de sete intervalos de tempo sobre a variável fisiológica consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 máx. Dezoito jogadores de futebol com média de idade de 24 ± 4 anos (18-31, peso de 72,5 ± 5,9kg (62-83 e estatura de 176,5 ± 7,0cm (164-188 foram submetidos a teste ergométrico máximo em esteira rolante, utilizando-se protocolo escalonado contínuo. A resposta de freqüência cardíaca (FC foi registrada por meio de um eletrocardiógrafo computadorizado de 12 derivações simultâneas. A ventilação pulmonar (V E, o consumo de oxigênio (VO2, a produção de dióxido de carbono (VCO2 e a razão de troca respiratória (RER foram calculadas a partir de valores medidos por um sistema espirométrico computadorizado. Os resultados deste estudo demonstraram que houve variabilidade significante do VO2 máx (p The purpose of this investigation was to verify the impact of seven ventilatory time intervals on the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max in professional soccer players. Eighteen male soccer players aged 24.4 ± 4 (18-31, weight 72.5 ± 5.9 kg (62-83 and height 176.5 ± 7 cm (164-188 were submitted to a maximum exercise test on treadmill, using the continuous protocol. The heart rate response was recorded by means of computerized ECG with 12 leads, simultaneously. The respiratory exchange ratio, carbon dioxide production, oxygen uptake and pulmonary ventilation were calculated by means of the spirometric computerized system. The results of this study demonstrated that there was significant variability (p < 0.05 in VO2 max only when it was compared instantaneously and by breath-by-breath response, in relation to other intervals analyzed (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 seconds, respectively. In conclusion, the authors observed that VO2 max increases were proportional to those found in the ventilatory sample intervals during the progressive intensity exercise. However, the higher time interval underestimated its increase. Thus, the authors suggest that the investigator should utilize mean intervals in a range between 10 and 60 seconds, since no significant statistic difference was verified among these intervals.

  15. MVO3-Mn(VO3)2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Character of phase formation in MVO3-Mn(VO3)2 systems, where M=Li, K, Rb, Cs, Ag, is studied. It is shown that in lithium-containing system the components form eutectic mixture, binary metavanadate of M2Mn(VO3)4 composition is the interaction product in systems with M=K, Rb, Cs. Decomposition of anion group and formation of two vanadates of Ag2V4O11 and Mn2V2O7 composition occur at AgVO3 interaction with Mn(VO3)2

  16. Evaluation of VoIP Security for Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Nakarmi, Prajwol Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Market research reports by In-Stat, Gartner, and the Swedish Post and Telecom Agency (PTS) reveal a growing worldwide demand for Voice over IP (VoIP) and smartphones. This trend is expected to continue over the coming years and there is wide scope for mobile VoIP solutions. Nevertheless, with this growth in VoIP adoption come challenges related with quality of service and security. Most consumer VoIP solution, even in PCs, analog telephony adapters, and home gateways, do not yet support media...

  17. Gallinaza: Un residual avícola como fuente alternativa de nutrientes para producción de biomasa microalgal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosales Loaiza Nestor Luis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available La gallinaza puede ser usada como una fuente alternativa de nutrientes para el cultivo de microalgas, proveyendo de biomasa microalgal utilizable como producto final. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la fracción soluble de gallinaza (FSG a tres diferentes concentraciones (6, 18 y 36% sobre el crecimiento, la producción de pigmentos y proteínas de la microalga marina Chroomonas sp. y de la microalga de agua dulce Chlorella sorokiniana. La FSG no biodegradada mostró un efecto letal sobre el crecimiento de ambas microalgas. La FSG tratada aeróbicamente mejoró el crecimiento de Chroomonas sp. a 18% con 131,37 ±13,66 x106 cel mL-1, y a 36% para C. sorokiniana de 228,64 ±4,90 x106 cel mL-1 (p

  18. ¿Controla la biomasa de pastos marinos la densidad de los peracáridos (Crustacea: Peracarida) en lagunas tropicales?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ignacio, Winfield; Sergio, Cházaro-Olvera; Fernando, Álvarez.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variación en tiempo y espacio de los crustáceos peracáridos que habitan las praderas de Ruppia maritima del sistema lagunar de Alvarado, Veracruz, Golfo de México. El muestreo de esta asociación de crustáceos se realizó de diciembre de 1992 a noviembre de 1994. Los organismos se obtuvi [...] eron de 108 muestras recolectadas en seis sitios con R. maritima. La asociación de crustáceos incluyó 11 especies. Ocho especies en Amphipoda (Hourstonius laguna, Cerapus benthophilus, Apocorophium louisianum, Grandidierella bonnieroides, Leptocheirus rhizophorae, Gammarus mucronatus, Melita longisetosa y Haustorius sp.), una en Isopoda (Cassidinidea ovalis) y dos en Tanaidacea (Discapseudes holthuisi and Leptochelia savignyi). La taxocenosis, la densidad y la biomasa de estos organismos mostraron pulsos estacionales relacionados positivamente con la variación de la biomasa de R. maritima, la salinidad, los afluentes epicontinentales y las bocas de comunicación. Las especies C. ovalis, G. mucronatus, A. louisianum y D. holthuisi fueron componentes dominantes en la asociación de peracáridos. Abstract in english Does sea-grass biomass control the density of peracarids (Crustacea: Peracarida) in tropical lagoons? We analyzed the time-space variation of the peracarid crustaceans that inhabit seagrasses of the Alvarado Lagoon System, Veracruz, Gulf of Mexico. The organisms were collected from 108 samples in si [...] x sites with Ruppia maritima beds (December 1992 to November 1994). The assemblage was composed of 11 species. Eight species of Amphipoda (Hourstonius laguna, Cerapus benthophilus, Apocorophium louisianum, Grandidierella bonnieroides, Leptocheirus rhizophorae, Gammarus mucronatus, Melita longisetosa and Haustorius sp.), one of Isopoda (Cassidinidea ovalis) and two of Tanaidacea (Discapseudes holthuisi and Leptochelia savignyi) were identified. Taxocoenosis, density and biomass of peracarids showed seasonal pulses related to R. maritima biomass, salinity variation, epicontinental affluent and inlets. The species C. ovalis, G. mucronatus, A. louisianum and D. holthuisi were dominant. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1): 43-53. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  19. ¿Controla la biomasa de pastos marinos la densidad de los peracáridos (Crustacea: Peracarida en lagunas tropicales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Winfield

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variación en tiempo y espacio de los crustáceos peracáridos que habitan las praderas de Ruppia maritima del sistema lagunar de Alvarado, Veracruz, Golfo de México. El muestreo de esta asociación de crustáceos se realizó de diciembre de 1992 a noviembre de 1994. Los organismos se obtuvieron de 108 muestras recolectadas en seis sitios con R. maritima. La asociación de crustáceos incluyó 11 especies. Ocho especies en Amphipoda (Hourstonius laguna, Cerapus benthophilus, Apocorophium louisianum, Grandidierella bonnieroides, Leptocheirus rhizophorae, Gammarus mucronatus, Melita longisetosa y Haustorius sp., una en Isopoda (Cassidinidea ovalis y dos en Tanaidacea (Discapseudes holthuisi and Leptochelia savignyi. La taxocenosis, la densidad y la biomasa de estos organismos mostraron pulsos estacionales relacionados positivamente con la variación de la biomasa de R. maritima, la salinidad, los afluentes epicontinentales y las bocas de comunicación. Las especies C. ovalis, G. mucronatus, A. louisianum y D. holthuisi fueron componentes dominantes en la asociación de peracáridos.Does sea-grass biomass control the density of peracarids (Crustacea: Peracarida in tropical lagoons? We analyzed the time-space variation of the peracarid crustaceans that inhabit seagrasses of the Alvarado Lagoon System, Veracruz, Gulf of Mexico. The organisms were collected from 108 samples in six sites with Ruppia maritima beds (December 1992 to November 1994. The assemblage was composed of 11 species. Eight species of Amphipoda (Hourstonius laguna, Cerapus benthophilus, Apocorophium louisianum, Grandidierella bonnieroides, Leptocheirus rhizophorae, Gammarus mucronatus, Melita longisetosa and Haustorius sp., one of Isopoda (Cassidinidea ovalis and two of Tanaidacea (Discapseudes holthuisi and Leptochelia savignyi were identified. Taxocoenosis, density and biomass of peracarids showed seasonal pulses related to R. maritima biomass, salinity variation, epicontinental affluent and inlets. The species C. ovalis, G. mucronatus, A. louisianum and D. holthuisi were dominant. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 43-53. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  20. Productividad y biomasa fitoperifítica en los Lagos Tarapoto y Yahuarcaca, Amazonas, Colombia Productividad y biomasa fitoperifítica en los lagos Yahuarcaca y Tarapoto (Amazonas - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duque Escobar Santiago R.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the littoral zone, near of the matrix the macrophytes, main for Paspalum spp the lake Yahuarcaca and Tarapoto; the floodplain of the Amazon River-Colombia, through were designed system of artificial substratum, using slips and rods we quantify the productivity primary phytoperiphyton for clorophyl a, through method espectrophotometric and the biomass for ash free dry weight; in three periods hidrology low water, filling water and high water; for two, four and eigh day the colonization; four deep levels and radial position the substratum. The factors that has mayor effect over the primary productivity and the biomass phytoperiphytic are the hidrobiology periods, the colonization of the substratum and deep. The productivity and biomass from the lake is reationship with the mineralization of the water, with the tramsportation of nutrients of afluents, macrophytes, the flood forest, decomposition and the recirculation of nutrients in the water column.En la zona litorial, cerca de la matriz de macrófitas conformadas principalmente por Paspalum spp de los lagos Yahuarcaca y Tarapoto, del plano de inundación del Río Amazonas-Colombia, mediante el diseño de un sistema de substratos artificiales, utilizando láminas portaobjetos y tubos de vidrio, se cuantificó la productividad primaria fitoperifítica por clorofila a, mediante el método espectrofotométrico y la biomasa por peso seco libre de cenizas (PSLC, en tres períodos hidrológicos, aguas bajas, ascenso y altas o desborde; a los 2, 4 y 8 días de colonización; cuatro niveles de profundidad (cada 10 cm y diferente ubicación radial de los substratos. Los factores que tienen mayor efecto sobre la productividad y biomasa fitoperifítica son los períodos hidrológicos, los días de colonización de los substratos y la profundidad. La productividad y biomsa fitoperifítica de los lagos está relacionada con la mineralización de las aguas, el transporte de nutrientes de los afluentes, los macrófitos, el bosque inundable, la descomposición de la materia orgánica y la recirculación de nutrientes en la columna de agua.

  1. Efeito do tempo de intervalo da amostra ventilatória na variabilidade do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 máx) em jogadores de futebol profissional / Effect of time intervals of ventilatory sampling in the variability of maximum oxygen uptake in professional soccer players

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Roberto Santos, Silva; Angela, Romano; Ana Maria, Visconti; Alberto Alves de Azevedo, Teixeira; Carla Dal Maso Nunes, Roxo; Gilberto da Silva, Machado; Luciana Collet Winther, Rebello; Jorge Mendes de, Sousa.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi verificar, em futebolistas profissionais, o impacto de sete intervalos de tempo sobre a variável fisiológica consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 máx). Dezoito jogadores de futebol com média de idade de 24 ± 4 anos (18-31), peso de 72,5 ± 5,9kg (62-83) e estatura de 176,5 ± 7 [...] ,0cm (164-188) foram submetidos a teste ergométrico máximo em esteira rolante, utilizando-se protocolo escalonado contínuo. A resposta de freqüência cardíaca (FC) foi registrada por meio de um eletrocardiógrafo computadorizado de 12 derivações simultâneas. A ventilação pulmonar (V E), o consumo de oxigênio (VO2), a produção de dióxido de carbono (VCO2) e a razão de troca respiratória (RER) foram calculadas a partir de valores medidos por um sistema espirométrico computadorizado. Os resultados deste estudo demonstraram que houve variabilidade significante do VO2 máx (p Abstract in english The purpose of this investigation was to verify the impact of seven ventilatory time intervals on the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) in professional soccer players. Eighteen male soccer players aged 24.4 ± 4 (18-31), weight 72.5 ± 5.9 kg (62-83) and height 176.5 ± 7 cm (164-188) were submitted to a [...] maximum exercise test on treadmill, using the continuous protocol. The heart rate response was recorded by means of computerized ECG with 12 leads, simultaneously. The respiratory exchange ratio, carbon dioxide production, oxygen uptake and pulmonary ventilation were calculated by means of the spirometric computerized system. The results of this study demonstrated that there was significant variability (p

  2. Electrochemical activation of graphite felt electrode for VO2+/VO2+ redox couple application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the electrochemical activation of graphite felt electrode for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) was studied. Graphite felt (GF) electrode was oxidized at a range of electrochemical oxidation degrees in H2SO4 solution. The electrochemical performance of the treaded GF was discussed, and the law of the surface properties of GF which changed along with the electrochemical oxidation degree was proposed. The structure, composition, surface tension and electrochemical properties of the oxidized GF (OGF) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurements, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The GF oxidized at 560–840 mAh g?1 exhibited the best activity toward VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction, according with the highest C-OH and COOH content (ca. 34%) on its surface. The mechanisms of VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction on OGF were also discussed. VRB single cell with pristine GF and OGF as the electrode were test at various charge–discharge current densities, respectively. The columbic efficiency (CE), voltage efficiency (VE) and energy efficiency (EE) of the cell using OGF electrode are much higher than the cell using pristine GF, suggested that the electro-oxidation method is a promising technology for the activation of GF electrode

  3. Magnetic order of LaVO{sub 3}/SrVO{sub 3} superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Cosima [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Lueders, Ulrike; Fresard, Raymond [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR CNRS-ENSICAEN(ISMRA) 6508, FR3095 Caen (France); Schwingenschloegl, Udo [KAUST, PCSE Division, P.O. Box 55455, Jeddah 21534 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-01

    While stable ferromagnetic ground states are predicted based on model calculations their experimental realizations are scarce. Experimental data obtained on LaVO{sub 3}[m]/SrVO{sub 3} superlattices show that these systems remain magnetic above room temperature for particular values of m, in contrast to the solid solutions with the same composition. To clarify the magnetic and orbital order in these heterostructures, we perform electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory. First, we discuss the magnetic and orbital order of strained LaVO{sub 3}, for the c/a ratio of the heterostructure, where two types of ordering are nearly degenerate. While both g-type and c-type antiferromagnetic ordering within the LaVO{sub 3} favour a non-magnetic interface in case of odd m and a ferromagnetic interface in case of even m, the orbital ordering perpendicular to the interface is different in both cases. A detailed discussion of the particular combinations of the magnetic and orbital order at the interface is given.

  4. Preparation and crystal structure of a new bismuth vanadate, Bi3.33(VO4)2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of Bi3.33(VO4)2O2. Solid lines indicate the unit cell. Highlights: ? We can prepare a new bismuth vanadate, Bi3.33(VO4)2O2 by hydrothermal reaction using a hydrated sodium bismuthate. ? We clarify that the crystal structure is composed by four bismuth atoms with the coordination number of 6 or 8 and two VO4 tetrahedra. ? This compound exhibited photocatalytic behavior for decomposition of phenol under visible light irradiation. -- Abstract: Single crystals of a new bismuth vanadate, Bi3.33(VO4)2O2 was prepared by hydrothermal reaction using a hydrated sodium bismuthate, NaBiO3.nH2O as one of the starting compounds. The crystal structure was determined by using single crystal X-ray diffraction data. This compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1-bar (no. 2) with a = 7.114(1), b = 7.844(2), c = 9.372(2) A, ? = 106.090(7), ? = 94.468(7) and ? = 112.506(8)o, Z = 2 and the final R factors are R1 = 0.052 and wR2 = 0.14 for 2085 unique reflections. The crystal structure is composed by four bismuth atoms with the coordination number of 6 or 8 and two VO4 tetrahedra, and one of four bismuth atoms is statistically distributed in the splitting sites with the distance of 0.83 A. This compound exhibited photocatalytic behavior for decomposition of phenol under visible light irradiation and its activity was less than that of monoclinic BiVO4.

  5. VO-compliant workflows and science gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, G.; Taffoni, G.; Sciacca, E.; Becciani, U.; Costa, A.; Krokos, M.; Pasian, F.; Vuerli, C.

    2015-06-01

    Workflow and science gateway technologies have been adopted by scientific communities as a valuable tool to carry out complex experiments. They offer the possibility to perform computations for data analysis and simulations, whereas hiding details of the complex infrastructures underneath. There are many workflow management systems covering a large variety of generic services coordinating execution of workflows. In this paper we describe our experiences in creating workflows oriented science gateways based on gUSE/WS-PGRADE technology and in particular we discuss the efforts devoted to develop a VO-compliant web environment.

  6. Evolution of the spectral weight in the Mott-Hubbard series SrVO3-CaVO3-LaVO3-YVO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mott-Hubbard series SrVO3-CaVO3-LaVO3-YVO3 present a distinct metal-insulator transition. The microscopic origin of this transition can be related to the correlation effects in the electronic structure. The valence band photoemission results show very interesting trends across these Mott-Hubbard series. These results suggest that the O 2p states play an important role in the Mott-Hubbard transition. Some of the changes in the spectra are unexpected and cannot be explained by the current Mott-Hubbard theories (author)

  7. INFLUÊNCIA DO GÊNERO NOS TESTES DE VO2MÁX E RAST EM ATLETAS DE ATLETISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nascimento Maciel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A manutenção de níveis ótimos de potência muscular e a recuperação rápida são imprescindíveis para o bomdesempenho no atletismo. O objetivo do estudo foi de comparar entre os gêneros a média dos escores deVO2máx e do RAST e correlacionar os níveis de VO2 máx e o índice de fadiga com os níveis de potênciamáxima e média. A amostra foi constituída de n=24 atletas com 16.3±2.51 anos, sendo n=12 do GêneroMasculino (GM e n=12 do Gênero Feminino (GF. Considerou os níveis significativos p<0,05. Foramobtidos os seguintes resultados no RAST; Potência Máxima (GM e (GF 434.6±122.7 Watts e 293.8±66.2Watts (p=0.03; Potência Média 367±101.9 Watts; 226.6±53.0 Watts (p=0.02 e na Potência Mínima302.5±80.2 Watts e 237.2±206.6 Watts (p=0.00. Nos valores relativos, (GM e (GF a Potência Máxima foide 7.05±1.70 Watts/Kg e 5.49±1.22 Watts/Kg (p=0.02; Potência Média 5.95±1.36 Watts/Kg e 4.22±0.99Watts/Kg (p=0,01; Potência Mínima 4.89±1.07 Watts/Kg e 3.06±1.27 Watts/Kg (p=0,01. No VO2máx o(GM (GF obtiveram 41.1±6.2 ml.(kg.min-¹ e 32.6±6.4 ml.(kg.min-¹ (p=0.00. Encontrou uma correlaçãono VO2máx e Potência Máxima (r= 0.6744 / p= 0.01, VO2máx e a Potência Média (r= 0.8227 / p= 0.00,Potência Máxima e o Índice de Fadiga (r= 0.7326 / p= 0.00. Conclui-se que as diferenças significativasencontradas nos valores de potências máxima, média e mínima (Watts (Watts/Kg, ratificam estudosanteriores. A correlação do VO2máx e a potência média, apontam para uma possível relação direta, fato que,se confirmado, pode ajudar a entender resultados de atletas de vários níveis.

  8. Photoemission study of TiO2/VO2 interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Maekawa, K; Wadati, H; Yoshida, T; Fujimori, A; Kumigashira, H; Oshima, M; Muraoka, Y; Nagao, Y; Hiroi, Z

    2006-01-01

    We have measured photoemission spectra of two kinds of TiO$_2$-capped VO$_2$ thin films, namely, that with rutile-type TiO$_2$ (r-TiO$_2$/VO$_2$) and that with amorphous TiO$_2$ (a-TiO$_2$/VO$_2$) capping layers. Below the Metal-insulator transition temperature of the VO$_2$ thin films, $\\sim 300$ K, metallic states were not observed for the interfaces with TiO$_2$, in contrast with the interfaces between the band insulator SrTiO$_3$ and the Mott insulator LaTiO$_3$ in spite of the fact that both TiO$_2$ and SrTiO$_3$ are band insulators with $d^0$ electronic configurations and both VO$_2$ and LaTiO$_3$ are Mott insulators with $d^1$ electronic configurations. We discuss possible origins of this difference and suggest the importance of the polarity discontinuity of the interfaces. Stronger incoherent part was observed in r-TiO$_2$/VO$_2$ than in a-TiO$_2$/VO$_2$, suggesting Ti-V atomic diffusion due to the higher deposition temperature for r-TiO$_2$/VO$_2$.

  9. Adapting Legacy Phone Systems to VoIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâ??Ingianni, Vincente

    Created and presented by Vincente D'Ingianni, Director of Professional Services at Binary Systems, Inc., this PowerPoint demonstration covers how to adapt a Legacy phone system to Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP). In the demonstration, D'Ingianni covers VoIP gateways, Bandwidth, Softswitches, and carriers.

  10. Reproducibility of maximum aerobic power (VO2max) among soccer players using a modified heck protocol / Reprodutibilidade da potência aeróbia máxima (VO2max) em jogadores de futebol utilizando o protocolo de heck modificado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Roberto, Santos-Silva; Alfredo José, Fonseca; Anita Weigand de, Castro; Júlia Maria D' Andréa, Greve; Arnaldo José, Hernandez.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar o grau de reprodutibilidade do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max) em jogadores de futebol utilizando o protocolo de Heck modificado. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados por duas vezes, com intervalo de 15 dias entre os testes, 11 futebolistas masculinos. Todos eram de alto nível, treinava [...] m em média 10 horas por semana subdivididos em treinamentos físicos, técnicos, táticos e jogos competitivos, totalizando cinco vezes por semana e na fase em que foram avaliados se encontravam em pleno período competitivo realizando um jogo por semana. Os futebolistas foram avaliados em esteira ergométrica (1,2 km.h-1) a cada dois minutos e inclinação fixa durante o teste em 3%. O VO2max foi medido diretamente utilizando analisador metabólico de análise de gases expirados respiração-a-respiração. RESULTADOS: A velocidade máxima de corrida e o VO2max atingido nos dois testes foram respectivamente: (15,6 ± 1,1 vs. 15,7 ± 1,2 km.h-1; [p = 0,78]) e (54,5 ± 3,9 vs. 55,2 ± 4,4 ml.kg-1.min-1; [P = 0,88]). Houve correlação significante e alta do VO2max entre os dois testes após 15 dias de intervalo [r = 0,97; P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of reproducibility of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) among soccer players, using a modified Heck protocol. METHODS: 2 evaluations with an interval of 15 days between them were performed on 11 male soccer players. All the players were at a high performance leve [...] l; they were training for an average of 10 hours per week, totaling 5 times a week. When they were evaluated, they were in the middle of the competitive season, playing 1 match per week. The soccer players were evaluated on an ergometric treadmill with velocity increments of 1.2 km.h-1 every 2 minutes and a fixed inclination of 3% during the test. VO2max was measured directly using a breath-by-breath metabolic gas analyzer. RESULTS: The maximum running speed and VO2max attained in the 2 tests were, respectively: (15.6 ± 1.1 vs. 15.7 ± 1.2 km.h-1; [P = .78]) and (54.5 ± 3.9 vs. 55.2 ± 4.4 ml.kg-1.min-1; [P = .88]). There was high and significant correlation of VO2max between the 2 tests with a 15-day interval between them [r = 0.97; P

  11. Validade preditiva da medida e estimativas do VO2máx no desempenho de Mountain Bikers / Predictive validity of VO2máx measurement and estimates in Mountain Bikers' performance / Validez predictiva de la medida y estimativas del VO2máx en el desempeño de Mountain Bikers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda, Mainardi; Allan, Inoue; Fernando Augusto de Saboia, Pompeu; Tony Meireles, Santos.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: considerando o racional para a utilização das equações preditivas na estimativa do VO2máx em atletas, nenhum estudo estabeleceu sua validade para o desempenho no mountain bike cross-country (XCO). OBJETIVO: comparar diferentes estratégias de determinação do VO2máx, de forma direta ou in [...] direta, para a predição do desempenho em uma prova real e outra simulada. MÉTODOS: 20 atletas de XCO do sexo masculino (31,6 ± 6,8 anos; 68,1 ± 6,5 kg; 175,5 ± 5,7cm; 64,9 ± 4,4 mL. kg-1.min-1), foram submetidos a três sessões experimentais. A primeira visita consistiu na estratificação de risco, avaliação antropométrica e teste progressivo máximo. Na segunda, foi realizada a prova simulada e, na terceira, foi realizada a competição de XCO. RESULTADOS: a correlação entre a prova simulada e as equações preditivas do VO2máx de forma absoluta alcançaram relação quase perfeita (r ? 0,9). As correlações entre a competição real e as estimativas de VO2máx relativizadas à massa corporal alcançaram resultados classificados como muito altos (r = 0,7-0,89). As associações entre a medida direta do VO2máx e a simulação apresentaram uma classificação baixa para valores relativos à massa corporal (r = 0,10, IC95% -0,35 a 0,51). Para o desempenho real, a classificação foi moderada (r = 0,48, IC95% 0,009 a 0,78). CONCLUSÃO: o presente estudo foi o primeiro a demonstrar a validade preditiva das estimativas do VO2máx para o desempenho simulado e real de MTB. Em complemento, confirmou a baixa validade preditiva da medida direta do VO2máx para o mesmo propósito. Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: considerando el racional para el uso de las ecuaciones predictivas en la estimativa del VO2máx en atletas de ciclismo, ningún estudio estableció su validez predictiva para el desempeño en el mountain bike cross-country (XCO). OBJETIVO: comparar diferentes estrategias de determinación [...] del VO2máx, de forma directa o indirecta, para la predicción del desempeño en una prueba real y otra simulada. MÉTODOS: veinte atletas de XCO del sexo masculino (31,6 ± 6,8 años; 68,1 ± 6,5 kg; 175,5 ± 5,7cm; 64,9 ± 4,4 mL. kg-1.min-1), fueron sometidos a tres sesiones experimentales. La primera visita consistió en la estratificación de riesgo, evaluación antropométrica y test progresivo máximo. En la segunda, fue realizada la prueba simulada y en la tercera fue realizada la competición de XCO. RESULTADOS: la correlación entre la prueba simulada y las ecuaciones predictivas del VO2máx de forma absoluta alcanzaron relación casi perfecta (r ? 0,9). Las correlaciones entre la competición real y las estimativas de VO2máx relativizada a la masa corporal alcanzaron resultados clasificados como muy grande (r = 0,7-0,89). Las asociaciones entre la medida directa del VO2máx y la simulación presentaron clasificación pequeña para valores relativos a masa corporal (r = 0,10, IC95% -0,35 a 0,51). Para el desempeño real, la clasificación fue moderada (r = 0,48, IC95% 0,009 a 0,78). CONCLUSIÓN: el presente estudio fue el primero en demostrar la validez predictiva de las estimativas del VO2máx para el desempeño simulado y real de MTB. En complemento, confirmó la baja validez predictiva de la medida directa del VO2máx para el mismo propósito. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: considering the rationale for the use of predictive equations to estimate VO2max in athletes, no study has established its validity for performance in mountain bike cross-country (XCO). OBJECTIVE: the aim was to compare different strategies for determining VO2max, directly or indirect [...] ly, for predicting performance in a simulated and in a real competition. METHODS: 20 XCO male athletes (31.6 ± 6.8 anos; 68.1 ± 6.5 kg; 175.5 ± 5.7cm; VO2max 64.9 ± 4.4 mL. kg-1.min-1), were submitted to three experimental sessions. In the first visit, there were risk stratification, anthropometric evaluation and maximum progressive test. In the second, a simulated race was performed and, in the third s

  12. Producción de biomasa y utilización de Leucaena leucocephala fertilizada y pastoreada por ovinos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Selina, Camacaro; Wilfre, Machado.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento de campo fue realizado en la sección de ovinos de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, ubicado en Maracay, estado Aragua para evaluar el efecto de la fertilización con S, Cu y Zn sobre la producción de biomasa Leucaena leucocephala y su utilización por ovin [...] os a pastoreo. Se utilizó una asociación de la leguminosa sembrada en hileras sencillas de 1 x 4 m, en un potrero de Cynodon plectostachyous. Se usó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones, utilizando ocho tratamientos que incluyeron un testigo negativo (sin fertilización), un testigo positivo (S, Cu y Zn) y los seis restantes con un elemento faltante. Se hicieron cuatro muestreos destructivos y no destructivos; los primeros se realizaron sobre 10 plantas, evaluando altura promedio, número de ramas, longitud de tallos con Ø 6 mm, número de hojas, longitud de hojas, materia seca de hojas (MSH), materia seca de tallos con Ø 6 mm (MST>) para generar ecuaciones de regresión y estimar la producción de biomasa. Para los muestreos no destructivos, se evaluaron las mismas variables mencionadas anteriormente con excepción de las de materia seca. Hubo diferencias (P y la participación de la MST0,05). La utilización de L. leucocephala no fue afectada (P>0,05) por los tratamientos. Los resultados indican que bajo estas condiciones, la aplicación de S de L. leucocephala aumenta la producción de biomasa, pero no afecta su utilización por ovinos a pastoreo. Abstract in english A field experiment was carried out in the Sheep Section of the Faculty of Agronomy of the Central University of Venezuela, located in Maracay, Aragua state to evaluate the effect of the fertilization of Leucaena leucocephala on the biomass production and its utilization for grazing sheep. An associa [...] tion of the legume already sown in single rows of 1x4 m, on a pasture of Cynodon plectostachyous, was used. An aleatory block design was used with three repetitions, including a negative control (without fertilization) and a positive control (S, Cu, and Zn) and the six remaining treatments with a missing element. Four destructive and non destructive samplings were made; the first was made on 10 plants, evaluating height, number of branches, length of branches Ø 6 mm, number of leaves, length of leaves, dry matter of leaves, dry matter of branches Ø 6 mm. For the non destructive samplings, except for dry matter, the same variables were evaluated. There were differences (P and the % of participation of the MST 0.05). The utilization of the L. leucocephala was not affected (P>0.05) by the treatments. The results indicated that under these conditions, the fertilization of L. leucocephala increased the biomass production, but it did not affect its utilization by grazing sheep.

  13. Control de una planta prototipo de gasificación de biomasa mediante redes neuronales

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos A., Forero Núñez; José U., Castellanos Contreras; Fabio E., Sierra Vargas.

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de gasificación de Biomasa son una alternativa para emplear residuos agroindustriales y generar un combustible gaseoso; sin embargo, estos procesos no lineales se ven afectados por las características típicas del material y por la variación en las temperaturas al interior del equipo, po [...] r lo tanto se requieren sistemas de control para alcanzar estados estables en el tiempo. Este trabajo analiza el desempeño de un control mediante redes neuronales aplicado a un gasificador de lecho fijo corriente descendente cuando se emplean cascaras de coco o cuesco de palma. Los resultados indican que el uso del sistema de control en el equipo, alimentado con cascaras de coco, permite aumentar las temperaturas en el reactor de 600°C a 800°C en la zona de inyección, superando así el problema derivado de la baja transferencia de energía por conducción a través del sistema. Cuando se emplea el control en la gasificación de cuesco, la temperatura promedio se mantuvo constante en 790°C, el CO presente en el gas estuvo alrededor de 10% mientras que el CO2 disminuyó a 4%. La aplicación de un sistema de control mediante redes neuronales es una gran alternativa puesto que se puede entrenar para cada tipo de biomasa mejorando la estabilidad del sistema y produciendo un gas de síntesis con menor contenido de CO2. Esto para un país con gran diversidad de recursos agroindustriales abre la posibilidad de usar estos subproductos en la generación de energía a partir de fuentes renovables. Abstract in english The gasification power systems are a remarkable alternative because they can use agro-industrial wastes to produce clean syngas; although, the differences between the biomass properties and the inner temperatures throughout the equipment make compulsory the use of control systems to achieve stable s [...] tates. This work aims to analyze the effect of applying a Neural Network Control System on a Downdraft fixed bed gasifier fed with Coconut shells and Oil Palm shells. Results show that the use of the control system on the equipment fed with coconut shells increased the maximum temperature at the air injection zone from 600°C to 800°C, which overcomes the problems found by the low thermal conductivity of the coconut shells. With the control system and the equipment fed with oil palm shells, the maximum temperature was 790°C; the CO in the syngas was stable at 10%, whereas the CO2 decreased to 4%. The Neural Network control system is useful because this can be trained for each biomass, resulting on stable temperatures and low CO2 syngas. This improves the chances of producing energy from renewable resources in a country with a lot of agro-industrial byproducts like Colombia.

  14. LA SUSTITUCIÓN DE LA SABANA NATIVA POR PLANTACIONES DE PINO Y LA VARIABILIDAD TEMPORAL EN LA BIOMASA MICROBIANA Y LA MINERALIZACIÓN DEL CARBONO Y NITRÓGENO EN EL SUELO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrma G\\u00F3mez

    2010-01-01

    biomasa microbiana presente en la plantación de pino, así como la menor actividad ineralizadora del C y el N en esta plantación, sugieren, que una mayor preservación de estos nutrientes ocurre en pinares; lo cual favorece la calidad del suelo. La dinámica temporal de la biomasa microbiana en la sabana nativa y en la plantación de pino no está acoplada a la variación temporal de la mineralización del C y el N de estos sistemas.

  15. Crecimiento, Abundancia Y Biomasa De Poecilia reticulata En El Lago Urbano Del Parque Tezozomoc De La Ciudad De México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. El\\u00EDas-Fern\\u00E1ndez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los lagos urbanos tienen importancia estética, recreativa, cultural y biológica por albergar organismos generalmente alóctonos, como aves, reptiles, insectos y peces, en particular poecilidos, los cuales son muy tolerantes y se reproducen con facilidad. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo fue: determinar la variación en la abundancia y biomasa de Poecilia reticulata en el lago del parque Tezozomoc, así como obtener la ecuación de crecimiento. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales de julio del año 2000 a junio del 2001. Se establecieron tres estaciones donde se registraron las siguientes variables físicas y químicas; transparencia, alcalinidad, dureza, pH, conductividad, temperatura y turbiedad por métodos convencionales. Los peces se capturaron con una red de cuchara de marco rectangular de 100 x 50 cm (área barrida de 0.5 m2, con luz de malla de 0.5 cm. Los organismos se fijaron con formalina al 10 %. Se registraron las siguientes variables morfométricas de los organismos; peso (gr y longitud patrón (mm. Se calculó la abundancia y biomasa, así como la ecuación de crecimiento de acuerdo al modelo de Von Bertalanffy. Se encontró que el agua del sistema es templada, turbia, alcalina, dura y somera. La mayor abundancia (6,148 organismos y biomasa (677.28 g se presentó en la estación I, caracterizada por la mayor presencia de visitantes al lago que arroja desperdicios alimenticios al sistema. Los meses con mayor abundancia fueron julio (1,483 org y agosto (1,252 org y los de mayor biomasa agosto (145.12 gr y marzo (138.63 gr. La longitud máxima obtenida de 61.55 mm y la tasa de crecimiento de 0.2987 son valores similares a los obtenidos en sistemas naturales.

  16. PRODUCCIÓN DE PROTEÍNA Y BIOMASA PROBIÓTICA DE Lactobacillus casei LIOFILIZADAS A PARTIR DE SUERO DE LECHE DE CABRA

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre-ezkauriatza, E. J.; Edrez-medrano, A. Ram U.; Ez, J. M. Aguilar-y U. E. U. F.; Lvarez, M. M. U. C.

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo se documenta la factibilidad técnica de obtención de dos productos de valor agregado a partir de suero de leche de cabra: (a) proteína liofilizada y (b) biomasa probiótica liofilizada de Lactobacillus casei. Se presentan resultados de experimentos de ultrafiltración de suero de leche de cabra (SLC), del cual se retiene proteína con una alta relación proteína/lactosa. En su forma liofilizada, esta proteína presentó características de solubilidad superiores a producto...

  17. Behind the color switching in gasochromic VO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeng-Lung; Chang, Chun-Chieh; Ho, Ying-Kai; Chen, Chi Liang; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Jang, Wei-Luen; Wei, Da-Hua; Dong, Chung-Li; Pao, Chih-Wen; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Chen, Jin-Ming; Guo, Jinghua; Wu, Maw-Kuen

    2015-02-01

    Gasochromic VO2 thin films were fabricated by the sol-gel spin-coating technique. The results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy reveal that the origin of gasochromic coloration in VO2 is strongly related to the modulation of its structure and the electron-electron correlation. Upon gasochromic coloration, not only does the valence state change with the incorporation of hydrogen, but also the film undergoes the modification of the local atomic structure. The structural distortion varies the strength of hybridization of the O 2p-V 3d states and the bond distance of V-O and V-O varies. In the hydric process, the local atomic structure of VO2 changes from that of an un-symmetric to that of a symmetric V-O framework. The incorporated hydrogen adds electrons into the V 3d t2g orbital, enhancing the electron-electron correlation by reducing the V-V distance. This work presents a new physical insight in which the modulation of the electron-electron correlation is exploited to control the bleached and colored states, giving rise to the gasochromic phenomenon. The strong correlation among atomic spatial rearrangement, electronic structures, and transmittance supports a cooperative mechanism of the VO2 gasochromic transition. These results reveal a clear correlation between the dynamics of the lattice structure and the electronic properties and suggest a possible pathway to gasochromism and elucidation of its mechanism. PMID:25533311

  18. Fabrication of VO2-based multilayer structure with variable emittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Cao, Yunzhen; Zhang, Yuzhi; Yan, Lu; Li, Ying

    2015-07-01

    VO2 film holds promise for smart radiation device (SRD) use because of its infrared reflection change through the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT). In present study, a multilayer structure which consisted of VO2 layer, HfO2 layer and Ag layer was fabricated to achieve variable emittance based on the principle of reflection filter and SMT of VO2. It was found that with optimal 50 nm-thick VO2 layer, emittance of the multilayer structure could reversibly change from 0.13 at 30 °C to 0.68 at 80 °C with emittance variability of 0.55. Emittance hysteresis loop with transition temperature (Tc) of 58 °C and narrow width of 4 °C was obtained. Finally, multilayer structures with W-doped VO2 films were deposited and transition temperature decreased from 58 to 5 °C as W doping concentration increased from 0% to 3%, with Tc decreasing efficiency of -17.2 °C/at%. However, W doping also led to increased low temperature infrared absorption of VO2 film, which resulted in decreased emittance variability for the multilayer structure, from 0.55 to 0.37 as the W doping concentration in VO2 layer increase from 0% to 3%.

  19. Reinvestigation of the synthesis of LiFeVO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We reinvestigated the synthesis of the LiFeVO4 compound. ? We demonstrate that the recently reported LiFeVO4 phase is not a pure phase. ? We proved by Rietveld refinement that LiFeVO4 is a mixture ofLiVO3 and Fe2O3. ? We noticed some attempts to fraud (modification of the powder pattern) . - Abstract: The synthesis of LiFeVO4 composition has been performed in air starting from Li2CO3, Fe2O3, and V2O5 and using the standard solid-state reaction route reported by Refs. . Identical X-ray diffraction pattern has been obtained, however our careful analysis with MDI Jade 5.0 software does not agree with previously reported pure LiFeVO4 samples. The powder pattern has been perfectly indexed using the single crystal data of LiVO3 (C2/c, a = 10.16718 A, b = 8.415725 A, c = 5.884155 A and ? = 110.489o) and ?-Fe2O3 (R-3c, a = 5.035 A, c = 13.75 A).

  20. Velocidad de acumulación de biomasa en la dosificación de la fertirrigación ecológica del tomate en organopónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Duarte D\\u00EDaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En condiciones de organopónico, fueron determinadas las curvas de materia seca sobre biomasa aérea total, por períodos de crecimiento definidos en el cultivo de tomate Vita, tomándose como criterio para determinar la dosis más oportuna de aplicación de Fitomás E. en la fertirrigación. Se utilizaron dos tratamientos del biofertilizante y un tratamiento testigo, los cuales mostraron diferencia significativa desde los primeros períodos de crecimiento. La curva de materia seca, de mejor resultado en la dosis de fertilizante fue comparada con un modelo teórico generado para estimar la acumulación diaria de materia seca, teniendo en cuenta las proporciones referidas al período de crecimiento, además los datos observados y los estimados fueron relacionados mediante una regresión lineal cuya ecuación resultó altamente significativa (R2=0.99, P< 0.01, por lo que puede señalarse que la función logística que simula la acumulación de materia seca es válida. Fueron evaluados además, los rendimientos frescos de los frutos y algunos aspectos de la calidad interna, coincidiendo con igual tendencia a la mantenida en la materia seca foliar.

  1. Estimación de Iluminación en un Fotobiorreactor Productor de Biomasa a Partir de Microalgas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Gonz\\u00E1lez Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realizó el análisis de iluminación artificial para un fotobiorreactor productor de biomasa a partir de microalgas, el cual fue diseñado previamente con fines en aplicación para la producción de biocombustibles. En el análisis, se utilizó como herramienta la técnica de contornos o también conocida como método de superficie de respuesta, para lo cual se establecieron 132 puntos de intensidad luminosa distribuidos de forma simétrica a diferentes alturas del contenedor. Se realizaron dos bioensayos uno con la iluminación en la parte inferior del recipiente usando Diodos Emisores de Luz (LED’s, por sus siglas en inglés y el otro adicionando 3 lámparas fluorescentes más, situadas periféricamente a la mitad de la altura total del fotobiorreactor. Los resultados de las mediciones muestran una mejoría en el sistema de iluminac ión que favorece la reproducción continua de las microalgas, cuando se utilizó la combinación de luz emitida por LED’s y por lámparas fluorescentes. Esta combinación de sistemas de iluminación generó las condiciones para poder realizar las funciones metabólicas de las microalgas, quienes necesitan en promedio 2500 lx de forma homogénea.

  2. Lessons learnt in building VO resources: binding together several VO standards into an operational service

    CERN Document Server

    Chilingarian, Igor; Louys, Mireille; Sidaner, Pierre Le

    2011-01-01

    The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) developed numerous interoperability standards during the last several years. Most of them are quite simple to implement from the technical point of view and even contain "SIMPLE" in the title. Does it mean that it is also simple to build a working VO resource using those standards? Yes and no. "Yes" because the standards are indeed simple, and "no" because usually one needs to implement a lot more than it was thought in the beginning of the project so the time management of the team becomes difficult. In our presentation we will start with a basic case of a simple spectral data collection. Then we will describe several examples of small" technologically advanced VO resources built in CDS and VO-Paris and will show that many standards are hidden from managers' eyes at the initial stage of the project development. The projects will be: (1) the GalMer database providing access to the results of numerical simulations of galaxy interactions; (2) the full spectr...

  3. VO? nanorods for efficient performance in thermal fluids and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Kajal Kumar; Bhatnagar, Divyanshu; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar; Wan, Meher; Singh, Satyendra; Yadav, Raja Ram; Yadav, Bal Chandra; Deepa, Melepurath

    2015-04-14

    VO2 (B) nanorods with average width ranging between 50-100 nm are synthesized via a hydrothermal method and the post hydrothermal treatment drying temperature is found to be influential in their overall phase and growth morphology evolution. The nanorods with unusually high optical bandgap for a VO2 material are effective in enhancing the thermal performance of ethylene glycol nanofluids over a wide temperature range as is indicated by the temperature dependent thermal conductivity measurements. Humidity and LPG sensors fabricated using the VO2 (B) nanorods bear testament to their efficient sensing performance, which can be partially attributed to the mesoporous nature of the nanorods. PMID:25773921

  4. GIPSY 3D: Analysis, Visualization and VO Tools for Datacubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz, J. E.; Santander-Vela, J. D.; Espigares, V.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2009-09-01

    The scientific goals of the AMIGA project are based on the analysis of a significant amount of spectroscopic 3D data. In order to perform this work we present an initiative to develop a new VO compliant package, including present core applications and tasks offered by the Groningen Image Processing System (GIPSY), and new ones based on use cases elaborated in collaboration with advanced users. One of the main goals is to provide local interoperability between GIPSY and other VO software. The connectivity with the Virtual Observatory environment will provide general access to 3D data VO archives and services, maximizing the potential for scientific discovery.

  5. The VO-Neural project:. recent developments and some applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescia, M.; Cavuoti, S.; D'Angelo, G.; D'Abrusco, R.; Deniskina, N.; Garofalo, M.; Laurino, O.; Longo, G.; Nocella, A.; Skordovski, B.

    VO-Neural is the natural evolution of the Astroneural project which was started in 1994 with the aim to implement a suite of neural tools for data mining in astronomical massive data sets. At a difference with its ancestor, which was implemented under Matlab, VO-Neural is written in C++, object oriented, and it is specifically tailored to work in distributed computing architectures. We discuss the current status of implementation of VO-Neural, present an application to the classification of Active Galactic Nuclei, and outline the ongoing work to improve the functionalities of the package.

  6. The VO-Neural project: recent developments and some applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brescia, M; d'Angelo, G; D'Abrusco, R; Deniskina, N; Garofalo, M; Laurino, O; Longo, G; Nocella, A; Skordovski, B

    2008-01-01

    VO-Neural is the natural evolution of the Astroneural project which was started in 1994 with the aim to implement a suite of neural tools for data mining in astronomical massive data sets. At a difference with its ancestor, which was implemented under Matlab, VO-Neural is written in C++, object oriented, and it is specifically tailored to work in distributed computing architectures. We discuss the current status of implementation of VO-Neural, present an application to the classification of Active Galactic Nuclei, and outline the ongoing work to improve the functionalities of the package.

  7. Optical properties for the Mott transition in VO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manil Kang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the first-order metal-insulator transition (MIT and the structural phase transition (SPT in VO2 film is analyzed by dielectric function, optical conductivity, plasma energy, and electrical conductivity. The MIT and SPT temperatures in VO2 films were approximately 68 and 75 °C, respectively, with an intermediate phase existing between 68 and 75 °C. The optical and electrical results indicate that the first-order MIT in VO2 films is not driven by the SPT.

  8. Gipsy 3D: Analysis, Visualization and Vo-Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, J E; Espigares, V; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Van der Hulst, J M

    2009-01-01

    The scientific goals of the AMIGA project are based on the analysis of a significant amount of spectroscopic 3D data. In order to perform this work we present an initiative to develop a new VO compliant package, including present core applications and tasks offered by the Groningen Image Processing System (GIPSY), and new ones based on use cases elaborated in collaboration with ad- vanced users. One of the main goals is to provide local interoperability between GIPSY (visualization and data analysis) and other VO software. The connectivity with the Virtual Observatory environment will provide general access to 3D data VO archives and services, maximizing the potential for scientific discovery.

  9. Audio CAPTCHA for SIP-Based VoIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupionis, Yannis; Tountas, George; Gritzalis, Dimitris

    Voice over IP (VoIP) introduces new ways of communication, while utilizing existing data networks to provide inexpensive voice communications worldwide as a promising alternative to the traditional PSTN telephony. SPam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) is one potential source of future annoyance in VoIP. A common way to launch a SPIT attack is the use of an automated procedure (bot), which generates calls and produces audio advertisements. In this paper, our goal is to design appropriate CAPTCHA to fight such bots. We focus on and develop audio CAPTCHA, as the audio format is more suitable for VoIP environments and we implement it in a SIP-based VoIP environment. Furthermore, we suggest and evaluate the specific attributes that audio CAPTCHA should incorporate in order to be effective, and test it against an open source bot implementation.

  10. Density functional theory study of rutile VO2 surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mellan, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a density functional theory (DFT) investigation of the surfaces of rutile-like vanadium dioxide, VO2(R). We calculate the surface energies of low Miller index planes, and find that the most stable surface orientation is the (110). The equilibrium morphology of a VO2(R) particle has an acicular shape, laterally confined by (110) planes and topped by (011) planes. The redox properties of the (110) surface are investigated by calculating the relative surface free energies of the non-stoichiometric compositions as a function of oxygen chemical potential. It is found that the VO2(110) surface is oxidized with respect to the stoichiometric composition, not only at ambient conditions but also at the more reducing conditions under which bulk VO2 is stable in comparison with bulk V2O5. The adsorbed oxygen forms surface vanadyl species much more favorably than surface peroxo species.

  11. Density functional theory study of rutile VO2 surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellan, Thomas A.; Grau-Crespo, Ricardo

    2012-10-01

    We present the results of a density functional theory investigation of the surfaces of rutile-like vanadium dioxide, VO2(R). We calculate the surface energies of low Miller index planes and find that the most stable surface orientation is the (110). The equilibrium morphology of a VO2(R) particle has an acicular shape, laterally confined by (110) planes and topped by (011) planes. The redox properties of the (110) surface are investigated by calculating the relative surface free energies of the non-stoichiometric compositions as a function of oxygen chemical potential. It is found that the VO2(110) surface is oxidized with respect to the stoichiometric composition, not only at ambient conditions but also at the more reducing conditions under which bulk VO2 is stable in comparison with bulk V2O5. The adsorbed oxygen forms surface vanadyl species much more favorably than surface peroxo species.

  12. Template-Engaged In Situ Synthesis of Carbon-Doped Monoclinic Mesoporous BiVO4: Photocatalytic Treatment of Rhodamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mingming; Gan, Lihua; Liu, Mingxian; Tripathi, Pranav K.; Liu, Yafei; Hu, Zhonghua

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, carbon-doped monoclinic scheelite mesoporous bismuth vanadate was synthesized through template-engaged in situ method. The bismuth nitrate pentahydrate and ammonia metavanadate were used as bismuth and vanadium precursors, respectively, glucose as carbon source, and mesoporous SiO2 aerogel as a hard template. Carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 were obtained by heat treatment of BiVO4/glucose/template to carbonize glucose and form monoclinic crystal, followed by etching with NaOH solution to remove the SiO2 template. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and desorption, UV-visible spectroscopy, Energy dispersive spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the sample with a carbon content of 0.5 wt.% possesses a specific surface area of 10.2 m2/g and has mesoporous structure with the most probable pore size of 13.9 nm. The band gap of carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 was estimated to be 2.33 eV, indicating the superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. The photocatalytic efficiency of carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light (? > 400 nm) in 120 min reaches 98.7%, Besides, the carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 photocatalyst still showed high stability: 85% for Rhodamine B degradation after ten recycles.

  13. Mathematical Representation of VoIP Connection Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Halas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this article is to define mathematical formulation of VoIP connection delay model. It handles about all partial delay components, the mechanism of their generation, facilities and their mathematical formulation. Thereafter based on mathematical formulation of all partial delay components, the final mathematical model of whole VoIP call delay is created. In conclusion of this article the results of the designed mathematical model are compared with the experimentally gained results.

  14. USO DE LA LEVADURA TORULA (TORULOPSIS UTILIS) EN LA OBTENCIÓN DE BIOMASA DE ARTEMIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Tizol Correa.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo estudios para determinar la factibiíidad del uso de la levadura torula (Torulopsis utilis), como fuente de alimento en cultivos intensivos de Artemia. Se alcanzaron rendimientos máximos de biomasa de 5.14 g/l y 8.43 mm de largo medio total en la variante de mejores resultados. Con [...] centraciones de levadura de 1 g/l/día en el período inicial de 6 días pueden considerarse adecuadas para el crecimiento de la Artemia, mientras que concentraciones de 3.5 y 7 g/l/día son excesivas. A partir del séptimo día 3 g/l/día constituye una concentración apropiada de alimento mientras que 1 g/l/día es insuficiente para obtener un crecimiento satisfactorio en esta etapa. Las ecuaciones de crecimiento para este cultivo en las condiciones descritas son las siguientes: variante de 1 g/l/día, L = -0.5214 + 0.4837 T; variante de 3 g/l/día, L = -1.1707 + 0.738 T. Abstract in english Studies were carried out to determine the possibilities of use torula yeast (Torulopsis utilis), as a source of feed in intensive cultured Artemia, Maximum biomass yields of 5.14 g/l and 8.43 mm of average total length were obtained for the treatment with the best results. Yeast concentration of 1 g [...] /l/day in the initial 6 days period, can be considered adequate for Artemia growth while the concentration of 1 g/l/day is insufficient to obtain a satisfactory growth. The growth equations in the described culture conditions were as follow: treatment 1 g/l/day, L= -0.5214 + 0.4837 T; treatment 3 g/l/day, L = -1.1707 + 0.738 T.

  15. Fair Scheduling for Delay-Sensitive VoIP Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shawish; Jiang, Xiaohong; Horiguchi, Susumu

    With the wide expansion of voice services over the IP networks (VoIP), the volume of this delay sensitive traffic is steadily growing. The current packet schedulers for IP networks meet the delay constraint of VoIP traffic by simply assigning its packets the highest priority. This technique is acceptable as long as the amount of VoIP traffic is relatively very small compared to other non-voice traffic. With the notable expansion of VoIP applications, however, the current packet schedulers will significantly sacrifice the fairness deserved by the non-voice traffic. In this paper, we extend the conventional Deficit Round-Robin (DRR) scheduler by including a packet classifier, a Token Bucket and a resource reservation scheme and propose an integrated packet scheduler architecture for the growing VoIP traffic. We demonstrate through both theoretical analysis and extensive simulation that the new architecture makes it possible for us to significantly improve the fairness to non-voice traffic while still meeting the tight delay requirement of VoIP applications.

  16. Audio Codecs in VoIPv6: A Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjur Ahmed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Audio communications in IP based networks have been revolutionized by the introduction of VoIP applications. High cost-efficiency has made VoIP to be the communication means in today’s world; and this trend is anticipated to be continued on an ongoing basis. The performance of VoIP significantly depends on the efficiency of the audio codecs used in any communication scenario which make the study on the performance issues of audio codecs in VoIP applications worth investigating. IPv6 is the new version of IP, which will gradually replace the current IPv4 as the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is already in place. This demands the scrutiny of the audio codecs being used in IPv4 to be tested for their compatibility in IPv6 in terms of desired performance. This paper presents the study on the performance of selected audio codecs that are widely used in VoIPv4. G.711, G.729A and G.723.1 codecs were chosen for the study in VoIPv6 based scenarios presented in this paper. The selected audio codecs were applied in IPv6 based voice communication network scenarios to determine their performance efficiency by observing various QoS parameters. The study was done by means of simulation using OPNET.

  17. Evaluación de dos métodos para la estimación de biomasa arbórea a través de datos Landsat TM en Jusnajab La Laguna, Chiapas, México: estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Escand\\u00F3n Calder\\u00F3n

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron dos métodos para estimar biomasa arbórea con apoyo en sensores remotos (LANDSAT TM. El primer método se realizó con base en una clasificación supervisada multiespectral con seis bandas Se utilizaron tipos de vegetación identificados a partir de la composición de biomasa de ¡os géneros dominantes y de la altura promedio estimada del dosel, habiéndose distinguido ocho clases de vegetación. Se obtuvo una biomasa total de 1 073 x 10 3t (902 x 10 3t a 1 220 x 10 3t En el segundo método se utilizaron índices diferenciados de vegetación (NDVI de las bandas TM4/TM3; TM4/TM5 y TM4/TM7. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión que relaciona la biomasa promedio con los valores digitales (VD de los NDVI. El modelo exponencial fue el de mejor ajuste para los tres NDVl con una p 0.01. Los valores de los NVDl fueron TM4/ TM3. R2=0 611, TM4/TM5. R2=0.671 y TM4/TM7: R2=0.676. La biomasa total estimada con cada NDVI fue de 1 164 x 10 3t (490 x 10 3t a 2 409 x 10 3t para TM4/TM3; de 515x10 3t (331 x 10 3 t a 757 x 1 0 3 t p a r a TM/TM5 y d e 726 x 1 0 3 t ( 3 9 8 x 1 0 3 t a 1 210 x 10 3t para TM4/TM7. El resultado de la biomasa total calculada por el método de clasificación multiespectral, comparado con los valores estimados por el método de ordenamiento exponencial, mostró mayor similitud con el valor máximo del NDVl que relaciona las bandas TM4/TM7 (de mayor ajuste estadístico y con el valor promedio del NDVl TM4/TM3 (de menor ajuste estadístico. Utilizando el NDVl TM4/TM5, todos los valores de biomasa resultaron más bajos. De este estudio se concluye que es posible asociar razonablemente la biomasa de vegetación arbolada de pino-encino y reservorios de carbono con los índices de vegetación. A través del uso de sensores remotos se podrían predecir cambios de biomasa en escalas temporales y espaciales.

  18. Partición de biomasa aérea en procedencias de Pinus greggii plantadas en el sur de México / Aboveground biomass allocation of Pinus greggii provenances planted in southern México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel E., Villegas-Jiménez; Gerardo, Rodríguez-Ortiz; Vicente A., Velasco-Velasco; Judith, Ruiz-Luna; José C., Carrillo-Rodríguez; Susana E., Ramírez-Sánchez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La asignación de biomasa en los órganos del árbol puede ser influenciada por factores climáticos y edafológicos, competencia lumínica, y por diferencias genéticas de los árboles. El objetivo fue estimar los componentes de biomasa aérea en 13 procedencias mexicanas de Pinus greggii Engelm. plantadas [...] en 1997 en el sur de México. Se utilizaron datos de biomasa obtenidos en 2011 de 106 muestras aleatorias de ramas, 60 árboles medidos en pie y datos generales de la plantación establecida bajo un diseño experimental de bloques al azar. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P ? 0.05) entre procedencias en acumulación de biomasa en acículas y madera con corteza. La mayor biomasa foliar fue para las procedencias del centro del país, El Piñón y Molango (5.1 t ha-1), mientras que la procedencia norteña, Los Lirios, acumuló la mayor cantidad de biomasa en madera con corteza (19.4 t ha-1). No hubo diferencias en biomasa de ramas cuyo promedio fue de 9.5 t ha-1, ni en la biomasa aérea total acumulada que fue de 25.6 t ha-1, en árboles de 14 años de edad para todas las procedencias. La biomasa se distribuyó 52.0, 33.6 y 14.4 % para madera con corteza, ramas y follaje, respectivamente. Abstract in english Biomass allocation on the tree may be influenced by climate, soil conditions, light competition and genetic differences among trees. Aboveg-round biomass components were estimated in 13 Mexican provenances of Pinus greggii Engelm. planted in 1997 in Southern México. Biomass data were collected in 20 [...] 11 from 106 random samples of branches and 60 standing trees. Data sampling was distributed under a randomized block design. Significant differences (P ? 0.05) among provenances in biomass accumulation of needles and wood + bark were found. The highest leaf biomass accumulation was for provenances from Central México, El Piñón y Molango (5.1 t ha-1). Among the northern provenances, Los Lirios accumulated the highest biomass in wood + bark (19.4 t ha-1). No differences among provenances were found in branch biomass, with an average of 9.5 t ha-1, and neither in total accumulated biomass which was 25.6 t ha-1, for 14 year-old trees. Total biomass was distributed 52.0, 33.6 and 14.4 % for wood + bark, branches and leaves, respectively.

  19. Biomasa fúngica y bacteriana como indicadoras del secuestro de C en suelos de sabanas sustituidos por pinares en Uverito, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magalis, Zabala; Yrma, Gómez.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cualquier transformación de un ecosistema natural a un sistema agrícola o forestal conduce a una modificación importante no sólo del pool del carbono total, sino también del carbono asociado con la biomasa microbiana. Su cuantificación es importante en la determinación del impacto de las prácticas a [...] grícolas y el cambio de uso de la tierra sobre la calidad del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, a través del método de inhibición selectiva, la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana y la relación (H:B) en suelos de sabana nativa sustituidos por pinares (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis), para establecer si éstos parámetros son indicadores sensibles de cambios en el contenido de carbono en suelos de Uverito, Venezuela. La relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI) y la inhibición total por efecto combinado del inhibidor (ITC) se llevaron a cabo para determinar, si los inhibidores microbianos tuvieron actividad sobre otros organismos para los cuales éstos no estaban destinados. La cuantificación de la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana se llevó a cabo mediante el uso de la cycloheximida como inhibidor fúngico, y la estreptomicina y el cloranfenicol como inhibidores bacterianos. Esta investigación evidencia que este cambio de uso de la tierra ejerció un efecto significativo sobre la biomasa microbiana del suelo, y muestra que en el sistema de pinares existe una dominancia del componente fúngico, en contraste con la sabana nativa, en la cual domina la biomasa bacteriana. La sustitución de la sabana nativa por plantaciones de pino en Uverito, promueve un mayor secuestro del carbono en el suelo. Los valores de la relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI) tanto para la sabana nativa como para el sistema de pinares, resultaron ambos >1.0. La inhibición total combinada (ITC) resultó menor en el sistema de pinares; a partir de lo cual, es posible inferir que una elevada proporción de la biomasa microbiana fue afectada por la combinación de los inhibidores. Abstract in english Fungal and bacterial biomass as indicators of soil C sequestration in savannas soils substituted by pine plantations. A transformation of any natural ecosystem to an agricultural or forest system leads to an important soil modification, not only in the total carbon pool, but also in the carbon assoc [...] iated to the microbial biomass. This way, carbon quantification on soil quality is important for the determination of impacts of agricultural practices and land use changes. The aim of this study was to the determine, through the selective inhibition technique, the fungal and bacterial biomass, and fungal-to-bacterial ratio (F:B) in pine plantations (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis), to establish if these parameters are sensible indicators of changes in the carbon content in Uverito soils (Venezuela). Furthermore, the inhibitor additivity ratio (IAR) and total combined inhibition (TCI) were carried out to determine if the antibiotics caused non-target inhibition. The quantification of fungal and bacterial biomass was carried out by using of cyloheximide as fungal inhibitor, and streptomycin and chloranphenicol as specific bacterial inhibitors. This research evidences that this land use change exerted a significant effect on soil microbial biomass, and shows that in pine plantations there is a dominance of the fungal component, in contrast to the native savanna, in which the bacterial biomass dominates. The substitution of native savanna by pine plantation in Uverito promotes a major soil carbon sequestration. The values of the inhibitor additivity ratio (IAR) as for native savanna as pine system, were both>1.0. The total combined inhibition (TCI) was smaller in the pine systems, from which it is possible to infer that a high proportion of microbial biomass was affected by the combination of the inhibitors. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3): 977-989. Epub 2010 September 01.

  20. Enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica por exposición al humo de biomasa / Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by biomass smoke exposure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matías, Lopez; Nicole, Mongilardi; William, Checkley.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discute la relación existente entre la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) y el humo de biomasa. Más de la mitad de la población utiliza biomasa como combustible principal, sobre todo en áreas rurales y en países en vías de desarrollo donde su uso llega hasta el 80%. L [...] a inhalación del humo de biomasa crea un estado inflamatorio crónico, que se acompaña de una activación de metaloproteinasas y una reducción de la movilidad mucociliar. Esto podría explicar la gran asociación existente entre la exposición a biomasa y EPOC, revelada por estudios observacionales y epidemiológicos provenientes de países en vías de desarrollo y de países desarrollados. En esta revisión exploramos también las diferencias entre la EPOC causada por tabaco y por biomasa, y encontramos que, a pesar de las diferencias fisiopatológicas, la mayoría de las características clínicas, calidad de vida y mortalidad fueron parecidas. En los últimos diez años se han realizado intervenciones para disminuir la exposición a biomasa mediante el uso de cocinas mejoradas y combustibles limpios, sin embargo, estas estrategias todavía no han sido exitosas debido a su incapacidad para reducir los niveles de contaminación a niveles recomendados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y por su falta de uso. Por lo tanto, hay una necesidad urgente de ensayos de campo aleatorios, cuidadosamente realizados, para determinar la verdadera gama de reducciones de contaminación potencialmente alcanzables, la probabilidad de su uso y los beneficios a largo plazo en la reducción de la gran carga mundial de EPOC Abstract in english In this article, the relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and biomass smoke will be discussed. More than half of the world population uses biomass for fuel, especially in rural areas and in developing countries where usage reaches 80%. Biomass smoke inhalation creates an [...] inflammatory chronic state, which is accompanied by metalloproteinases activation and mucociliary mobility reduction. This could explain the existing association between biomass exposure and COPD, revealed by observational and epidemiological studies from developing and developed countries. In this review, the differences between COPD caused by tobacco and biomass were explored. It was found that despite the pathophysiological differences, most of the clinical characteristics, quality of life and mortality were similar. In the last ten years there have been interventions to reduce the biomass smoke exposure by using improved stoves and cleaner fuels. However, these strategies have not yet been successful due to inability to reduce contamination levels to those recommended by the World Health Organization as well as due to the lack of use. Therefore, there is an urgent need for carefully conducted, randomized field trials to determine the actual range of potentially reachable contamination reductions, the probability of use and the long term benefits of reducing the global burden of COPD

  1. Enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica por exposición al humo de biomasa / Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by biomass smoke exposure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matías, Lopez; Nicole, Mongilardi; William, Checkley.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discute la relación existente entre la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) y el humo de biomasa. Más de la mitad de la población utiliza biomasa como combustible principal, sobre todo en áreas rurales y en países en vías de desarrollo donde su uso llega hasta el 80%. L [...] a inhalación del humo de biomasa crea un estado inflamatorio crónico, que se acompaña de una activación de metaloproteinasas y una reducción de la movilidad mucociliar. Esto podría explicar la gran asociación existente entre la exposición a biomasa y EPOC, revelada por estudios observacionales y epidemiológicos provenientes de países en vías de desarrollo y de países desarrollados. En esta revisión exploramos también las diferencias entre la EPOC causada por tabaco y por biomasa, y encontramos que, a pesar de las diferencias fisiopatológicas, la mayoría de las características clínicas, calidad de vida y mortalidad fueron parecidas. En los últimos diez años se han realizado intervenciones para disminuir la exposición a biomasa mediante el uso de cocinas mejoradas y combustibles limpios, sin embargo, estas estrategias todavía no han sido exitosas debido a su incapacidad para reducir los niveles de contaminación a niveles recomendados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y por su falta de uso. Por lo tanto, hay una necesidad urgente de ensayos de campo aleatorios, cuidadosamente realizados, para determinar la verdadera gama de reducciones de contaminación potencialmente alcanzables, la probabilidad de su uso y los beneficios a largo plazo en la reducción de la gran carga mundial de EPOC Abstract in english In this article, the relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and biomass smoke will be discussed. More than half of the world population uses biomass for fuel, especially in rural areas and in developing countries where usage reaches 80%. Biomass smoke inhalation creates an [...] inflammatory chronic state, which is accompanied by metalloproteinases activation and mucociliary mobility reduction. This could explain the existing association between biomass exposure and COPD, revealed by observational and epidemiological studies from developing and developed countries. In this review, the differences between COPD caused by tobacco and biomass were explored. It was found that despite the pathophysiological differences, most of the clinical characteristics, quality of life and mortality were similar. In the last ten years there have been interventions to reduce the biomass smoke exposure by using improved stoves and cleaner fuels. However, these strategies have not yet been successful due to inability to reduce contamination levels to those recommended by the World Health Organization as well as due to the lack of use. Therefore, there is an urgent need for carefully conducted, randomized field trials to determine the actual range of potentially reachable contamination reductions, the probability of use and the long term benefits of reducing the global burden of COPD

  2. Biomasa fúngica y bacteriana como indicadoras del secuestro de C en suelos de sabanas sustituidos por pinares en Uverito, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalis Zabala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cualquier transformación de un ecosistema natural a un sistema agrícola o forestal conduce a una modificación importante no sólo del pool del carbono total, sino también del carbono asociado con la biomasa microbiana. Su cuantificación es importante en la determinación del impacto de las prácticas agrícolas y el cambio de uso de la tierra sobre la calidad del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, a través del método de inhibición selectiva, la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana y la relación (H:B en suelos de sabana nativa sustituidos por pinares (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, para establecer si éstos parámetros son indicadores sensibles de cambios en el contenido de carbono en suelos de Uverito, Venezuela. La relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI y la inhibición total por efecto combinado del inhibidor (ITC se llevaron a cabo para determinar, si los inhibidores microbianos tuvieron actividad sobre otros organismos para los cuales éstos no estaban destinados. La cuantificación de la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana se llevó a cabo mediante el uso de la cycloheximida como inhibidor fúngico, y la estreptomicina y el cloranfenicol como inhibidores bacterianos. Esta investigación evidencia que este cambio de uso de la tierra ejerció un efecto significativo sobre la biomasa microbiana del suelo, y muestra que en el sistema de pinares existe una dominancia del componente fúngico, en contraste con la sabana nativa, en la cual domina la biomasa bacteriana. La sustitución de la sabana nativa por plantaciones de pino en Uverito, promueve un mayor secuestro del carbono en el suelo. Los valores de la relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI tanto para la sabana nativa como para el sistema de pinares, resultaron ambos >1.0. La inhibición total combinada (ITC resultó menor en el sistema de pinares; a partir de lo cual, es posible inferir que una elevada proporción de la biomasa microbiana fue afectada por la combinación de los inhibidores.Fungal and bacterial biomass as indicators of soil C sequestration in savannas soils substituted by pine plantations. A transformation of any natural ecosystem to an agricultural or forest system leads to an important soil modification, not only in the total carbon pool, but also in the carbon associated to the microbial biomass. This way, carbon quantification on soil quality is important for the determination of impacts of agricultural practices and land use changes. The aim of this study was to the determine, through the selective inhibition technique, the fungal and bacterial biomass, and fungal-to-bacterial ratio (F:B in pine plantations (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, to establish if these parameters are sensible indicators of changes in the carbon content in Uverito soils (Venezuela. Furthermore, the inhibitor additivity ratio (IAR and total combined inhibition (TCI were carried out to determine if the antibiotics caused non-target inhibition. The quantification of fungal and bacterial biomass was carried out by using of cyloheximide as fungal inhibitor, and streptomycin and chloranphenicol as specific bacterial inhibitors. This research evidences that this land use change exerted a significant effect on soil microbial biomass, and shows that in pine plantations there is a dominance of the fungal component, in contrast to the native savanna, in which the bacterial biomass dominates. The substitution of native savanna by pine plantation in Uverito promotes a major soil carbon sequestration. The values of the inhibitor additivity ratio (IAR as for native savanna as pine system, were both>1.0. The total combined inhibition (TCI was smaller in the pine systems, from which it is possible to infer that a high proportion of microbial biomass was affected by the combination of the inhibitors. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 977-989. Epub 2010 September 01.

  3. Spectroscopic Analysis in the Virtual Observatory Environment with SPLAT-VO

    CERN Document Server

    Skoda, Petr; Neves, Margarida Castro; Andresic, David; Jenness, Tim

    2014-01-01

    SPLAT-VO is a powerful graphical tool for displaying, comparing, modifying and analyzing astronomical spectra, as well as searching and retrieving spectra from services around the world using Virtual Observatory (VO) protocols and services. The development of SPLAT-VO started in 1999, as part of the Starlink StarJava initiative, sometime before that of the VO, so initial support for the VO was necessarily added once VO standards and services became available. Further developments were supported by the Joint Astronomy Centre, Hawaii until 2009. Since end of 2011 development of SPLAT-VO has been continued by the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory, and the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. From this time several new features have been added, including support for the latest VO protocols, along with new visualization and spectra storing capabilities. This paper presents the history of SPLAT-VO, it's capabilities, recent additions and future plans, as well as a discussi...

  4. Flux-Czochralski growth of Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shijia; Zhang, Lizhen; Huang, Yisheng; Lin, Zhoubin; Wang, Guofu

    2014-04-01

    The mutual solubility of Ca9Y(VO4)7 and Li3VO4 was investigated in detail, Ca9Y(VO4)7 has high solubility in Li3VO4. Based on this, a high-quality Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal was grown successfully by the Flux-Czochralski method from Li3VO4 flux. The thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, optical transmittance and crystal defect of the grown Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal were measured, and compared with those of the Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal grown by the traditional Czochralski method. The results show that the Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal grown by the Flux-Czochralski method has much higher optical quality, and the Flux-Czochralski method is suitable to the growth of vanadate crystals.

  5. EVALUACIÓN DE LA BIOMASA Y MANEJO DE Lemna gibba (LENTEJA DE AGUA EN LA BAHÍA INTERIOR DEL LAGO TITICACA, PUNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    \\u00C1ngel Canales-Guti\\u00E9rrez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los mayores problemas que enfrenta la ciudad de Puno es la presencia de la lenteja de agua (Lemna gibba en la bahía interior del Lago Titicaca, debido al proceso de eutrofización que sufre a causa del mal tratamiento de las aguas residuales de la ciudad de Puno. Muchas de las estrategias planteadas hasta ahora no han dado resultados positivos en la reducción de la biomasa de Lemna gibba, debido a que estos planes están direccionados a la exterminación de este organismo. En lugar de ello se debe pensar en la forma más sostenible de hacer uso de la lenteja. Es por eso que los objetivos fueron: (a estimar la biomasa (kg/m² de lenteja de agua de la bahía interior del lago Titicaca y, (b plantear una estrategia de manejo de la lenteja de agua de la bahía interior del lago Titicaca. El promedio de la biomasa de la lenteja de agua en la bahía interior fue de 6.94 kg/m², mientras que los promedios de pH y temperatura del agua fueron de 6.3 y 13.8°C, respectivamente. Esto prueba la eficacia de este organismo para crecer en condiciones difíciles (además hay altos niveles de N, P y metales pesados, por lo que su manejo puede ser una alternativa para disminuir el proceso de eutrofización del lago. Las estrategias de manejo de lenteja estuvieron enmarcadas dentro de un plano social, económico y ambiental, lo que permite su sostenibilidad en beneficio de la población de Puno y del ecosistema del lago Titicaca.

  6. COMPETENCIA POR SUSTRATO DURANTE EL DESARROLLO DE BIOMASA SULFATORREDUCTORA A PARTIR DE UN LODO METANOGÉNICO EN UN REACTOR UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol GALLEGOS-GARC\\u00CDA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió la competencia entre microorganismos metanogénicos y sulfatorreductores utilizando un reactor anaerobio de lecho de lodo granular con flujo ascendente (UASB a escala laboratorio, el cual fue usado para el enriquecimiento de biomasa sulfatorreductora a partir de un lodo granular de origen metanogénico. El reactor se alimentó con una mezcla de etanol y acetato, la carga orgánica se incrementó de 0.5 a 2 g de demanda química de oxígeno (DQO/L-d a pH de 7.0. El consumo de DQO fue mayor a 90 % y la alcalinidad producida por la oxidación del sustrato incrementó el pH en el efluente hasta 8.0. A partir de los 50 días de operación, el reactor se alimentó con lactato y sulfato para promover la sulfatorreducción. La carga orgánica se aumentó de 1 a 3 g DQO/L-d con una relación DQO/Sulfato de 0.67 a un tiempo de retención hidráulico de un día. A los 194 días de operación del reactor el máximo consumo de DQO y sulfato obtenido fue de 94 y 22 %, respectivamente. La concentración total del sulfuro alcanzada fue de 310 mg S2-/L y la actividad sulfatorreductora de la biomasa fue de 0.29 g DQO-H2S/g SSV-d, lo que mostró el desarrollo de biomasa sulfatorreductora. La actividad metanogénica que se obtuvo fue de 0.35 g DQO-CH4/g SSV-d, estos resultados mostraron que los organismos metanogénicos no fueron desplazados por las bacterias sulfatorreductoras, coexistiendo ambos tipos de microorganismos en el lodo granular anaerobio al final de la operación del reactor.

  7. VoLTE performance in railway scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; SØnderskov, Morten

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice communication is still a crucial service for railways. Regardless of its advantages, LTE can only become a railway communication technology if it provides voice communication fulfilling railway requirements. This paper presents how Voice over LTE (VoLTE) can be used to build railway communication services. Examples of Railway Emergency Call and One-to-One Call are provided. Service performance, in terms of call setup times and voice transmission quality, is analyzed in simulation scenarios modelling two railway scenarios in Denmark.

  8. Utilización del medio de cultivo UIT-A en la obtención de biomasa para la identificación bioquímica micobacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIAN M. MEDEROS CUERVO

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Se compara el medio de cultivo sólido UIT-A con el Lowenstein Jensen, para la obtención de biomasa en el montaje del test bioquímico de identificación de micobacterias "no tuberculosas" (MNT, con el objetivo de valorar la posibilidad de utilización como medio de cultivo para el montaje y análisis de dichas pruebas bioquímicas. Los resultados obtenidos en los 2 medios de cultivo utilizados fueron iguales, por lo que se recomienda el uso del medio de cultivo UIT-A fundamentalmente para aquellas cepas con crecimiento pobre o escaso.

  9. GASIFICACIÓN DE BIOMASA PARA PRODUCCIÓN DE COMBUSTIBLES DE BAJO PODER CALORÍFICO Y SU UTILIZACIÓN EN GENERACIÓN DE POTENCIA Y CALOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS AUGUSTO ESTRADA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gases combustibles con bajo poder calorífico (LCV generados durante la gasificación de biomasa se prevén como combustibles alternativos para diferentes aplicaciones como son calderas, motores de combustión interna, quemadores y turbinas de gas [1]. Esta fuente alternativa de energía presenta varias dificultades en su utilización; entre otras, la necesidad de la adecuación de un sistema eficiente de filtrado y la adaptación de los sistemas de combustión para recibir un flujo de combustible más elevado con propósito de generar el mismo calor[7].

  10. Neutron diffraction study of YVO3, NdVO3, and TbVO3

    CERN Document Server

    Reehuis, M; Pattison, P; Ouladdiaf, B; Rheinstädter, M C; Ohl, M; Regnault, L P; Miyasaka, M; Tokura, Y; Keimer, B

    2006-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of YVO3, NdVO3 and TbVO3 were investigated by single-crystal and powder neutron diffraction. YVO3 shows a structural phase transition at 200 K from an orthorhombic structure with the space group Pbnm to a monoclinic one with the space group P21/b. But supplementary high-resolution synchrotron diffraction experiments showed that the monoclinic distortion is extremely small. A group theoretical analysis shows that this magnetic state in the monoclinic phase is incompatible with the lattice structure, unless terms of higher than bilinear order in the spin operators are incorporated in the spin Hamiltonian. This observation is discussed in the light of recent theories invoking unusual many-body correlations between the vanadium t2g orbitals. A structural phase transition back to the orthorhombic space group Pbnm is observed upon cooling below 77 K. This transition is accompanied by a rearrangement of the magnetic structure into a mode compatible with the lattice structure. T...

  11. Correlação entre as medidas direta e indireta do VO2max em atletas de futsal / Correlation between direct and indirect VO2max measurements in indoor soccer players / Correlación entre las medidas directa e indirecta del VO2max en atletas de futsal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna Myrna Jaguaribe de, Lima; Daniele Vanusca Gomes, Silva; Alexandre Oscar Soares de, Souza.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A importância das qualidades morfofuncionais na melhora do rendimento nos esportes aumentou o interesse no aprimoramento dos níveis de aptidão física dos atletas. No entanto, há poucos estudos sobre as variáveis fisiológicas do futsal disponíveis na literatura científica mundial. Dessa forma, o obje [...] tivo deste estudo foi verificar a existência de correlação entre os testes de medida direta e indireta do VO2max, em jogadores de futsal. Foram analisados 13 jogadores de futsal, com idade de 18,6 ± 1,9 anos, altura igual a 177,1 ± 3,5cm, peso de 68,5 ± 9,5kg, índice de massa corporal (IMC) de 21,7 ± 2,3kg/m². Para medida direta do VO2max foi utilizado o sistema ergoespirométrico computadorizado (VO-2000, Aerosport, Medgraphics, St. Paul, Minnesota) e para mensuração indireta do VO2max foi realizado o teste de campo de 3.200m. A análise estatística foi elaborada através do teste t de Student para amostras pareadas e pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. Os valores de VO2max obtidos no teste de medida direta não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação à medida indireta (62,8 ± 10,1 vs. 58,5 ± 8,5ml/kg/min, respectivamente). Quando correlacionados os valores de VO2max obtidos em ambos os testes, observou-se forte correlação (r = 0,72). Em conclusão, os testes de medida indireta apresentam boa aceitação para os atletas de futsal, tendo em vista a alta correlação com os testes de medida direta, o baixo custo de sua aplicação e o fornecimento de informações importantes que podem auxiliar na prescrição e no acompanhamento do treinamento. Abstract in spanish La importância de las cualidades morfo-funcionales en la mejora del rendimiento en los deportes aumentó el interes en el acondicionamiento de los niveles de aptitud física de los atletas. En tanto, hay pocos estudios sobre las variables fisiológicas del futsal disponibles en la literatura mundial. D [...] e esta forma, el objetivo del estudio fué verificar la existencia de la correlación entre los tests de medida directa e indirecta del VO2max, en jugadores de futsal. Fueron analizados 13 jugadores de futsal, con edades de entre 18,6 ± 1,9 años, altura igual a 177,1 ± 3,5 cm, peso de 68,5 ± 9,5 kg, índice de masa corporal (IMC) de 21,7 ± 2,3 kg/m². Para la medida directa del VO2max fué utilizado el sistema ergoespirométrico computadorizado (VO-2000, Aerosport, Medgraphics, St. Paul, Minnesota) para mensura indirecta del VO2max fué realizado el test de campo de 3200m. El análisis estatístico fué elaborado a través del test t-Student para las muestras pareadas y por el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Los valores de VO2max obtenidos en el test de medida directa no presentaron diferencias significativas en relación a la medida indirecta (62,8 ± 10,1 vs. 58,5 ± 8,5 ml/kg/min, respectivamente). Cuando correlacionamos los valores de VO2max obtenidos en ambos tests, observamos una fuerte correlación (r = 0,72). En conclusión, los tests de medida indirecta presentaron buena aceptación para los atletas de futsal, teniendo en vista la alta correlación con los tests de medida directa, el bajo costo de su aplicación y el apercibimiento de las informaciones importantes que puedem auxiliar la prescrición de el no acompañamiento del entrenamiento. Abstract in english The importance of the morphofunctional qualities to greater efficiency in sports has increased the interest on the improvement on the physical fitness levels of athletes. However, not many studies on the physiological variables of indoor soccer are available in the world scientific literature. Thus, [...] the objective of this work was to verify the existence of correlation between the direct and indirect VO2max measurement tests in indoor soccer players. Thirteen indoor soccer players with age of 18.6 ± 1.9 years, height of 177.1 ± 3.5 cm, weight of 68.5 ± 9.5 kg and body mass index (BMI) of 21.7 ± 2.3 kg/m² were analyzed. For the direct VO2max measurement, the computerized ergospirometric system was us

  12. Cambios en el porcentaje de sodio intercambiable (PSI y la relación de absorción de sodio (RAS de un suelo y su influencia en la actividad y biomasa microbiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrente Trujillo Armando

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el objetivo de evaluar los cambios en el PSI, la RAS y su influencia en la actividad y  biomasa  microbiana  del suelo,  se aplicaron  diversas  concentraciones  de vinaza  como enmienda procedente de la industria de alcohol carburante, sobre un suelo afectado por sodicidad con severas limitaciones en las condiciones físicas, químicas y biológicas. Se aplicó un diseño en bloques completos al azar que incluye cuatro tratamientos y tres repeticiones, y muestreos de suelo al inicio y final del proceso a tres profundidades (0-20, 20-40 y 40-60 cm, cuyas variables de respuesta a medir fueron  la respiración, C- biomasa microbiana, MO%, pH, CIC, CE, RAS y PSI. La actividad biológica (CO2 y el C-biomasa microbiana mostraron

    incrementos significativos en el rango ideal para el establecimento del cultivo de caña.

  13. Determinación de las reservas de carbono de la biomasa aérea, en diferentes sistemas de uso de la tierra en San Martín, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lapeyre

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la biomasa aérea en diferentes sistemas de uso de la tierra en la región de San Martín-Perú, con la finalidad de conocer el potencial de captura de carbono. Los sistemas de uso de la tierra evaluados fueron: Bosque primario, Bosque secundario de diferentes edades, sistemas agrícolas locales maíz (Zea maiz, arroz (Oriza Sativa, pastos (Brachiaria y sistemas agroforestales con café (Coffea arabica bajo sombra y cacao (Cacao sp.. También se comparó este potencial con otros sistemas de uso de la tierra de otras regiones del Perú y se monitoreó la pérdida de reservas de carbono después del corte de la foresta y su reemplazo por cultivos. En cada uno de éstos sistemas se establecieron al azar cinco transectos donde se evaluó la biomasa arbórea. Dentro de éstos transectos se establecieron cuadrados también al azar para cuantificar la biomasa herbácea y la biomasa de hojarasca. El carbono total en el bosque primario fue de 485 tm C ha-1, superando ampliamente las reservas del bosque secundario de 50 años y de bosque descremado de 20 años. Con relación al bosque primario se observa una reducción de reservas en más de 50% del bosque secundario de 50 años (234 tm C ha-1. El bosque descremado de 20 años perdió más del 80% de reservas (62 tm C ha-1. El nivel de reservas de carbono en la biomasa de hojarasca de los sistemas boscosos, no es significativo al compararlo con el total de las reservas de carbono de la biomasa aérea; sin embargo si es significativo para sistemas agroforestales. Los sistemas agroforestales secuestraron entre 19 a 47 tm C ha-1, dependiendo de la cantidad de especies forestales, tipo de cultivo, edad y tipo de suelo y recuperan el potencial de captura en forma productiva. Los sistemas agrícolas capturaron poco C (5 tm C ha-1, además generan fugas de gases efecto invernadero (GEI cuando se usan agroquímicos y quema de rastrojos, entre otros.

  14. Controlled synthesis of VO2(R), VO2(B), and V2O3 vanadium-oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanadium-oxide nanowires (NWs) V2O5, VO2(R), VO2(B), and V2O3 are deposited on a substrate to study their field-emission properties. V2O5 NWs are prepared by thermal evaporation via vapor transport of a vanadium-oxide complex under mild conditions. Films of VO2 and V2O3 wires are subsequently prepared by reducing V2O5 one-dimensional nanocrystals at 450 °C with hydrogen gas. The composition of the flowing H2/Ar mixture and the duration of reduction are utilized to control the formation of VO2(R) or VO2(B) NWs. The crystallinity and morphology of products as prepared are characterized using several techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction, a scanning electron microscope, and a transmission electron microscope. The field-emission properties of the vanadium-oxide NWs as prepared exhibit a turn-on field of 4.56–7.65 V/?m and an emission current density up to 3.68–8.36 mA/cm2. These features indicate that vanadium-oxide NWs have potential FE emitter applications.Graphical AbstractV2O5, VO2(R), VO2(B), and V2O3 NWs were synthesized via thermal evaporation and controlled reduction process. Field-emission properties of these NWs exhibited turn-on fields of 4–8 V/?m, an emission current density up to 3.5 mA/cm

  15. NVO LITE - Harnessing the VO for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, K.; Weeks, E.; Carr, P.

    2004-12-01

    Spectroscopy is probably the most important tool used by astronomers to disentangle the nature of the universe. However, it is one of the most challenging subjects for undergraduates to understand. Students often seem baffled by the connection between a spectrum seen visually as a color band and the same spectrum plotted graphically as intensity versus wavelength or frequency. Because of this, we are currently developing a suite of spectroscopic tools for astronomy education as part of Project LITE (Light Inquiry Through Experiments). We are also assessing the effectiveness of these tools in improving conceptual understanding of spectral phenomena by undergraduates taking introductory astronomy courses. Project LITE includes take-home laboratory materials and experiments that are integrated with web-based software. A core software application - the Spectrum Explorer (SPEX) - makes possible the creation and analysis of spectra using drawing, blackbody, power law and other tools. The first release of SPEX runs as a Java applet. It is being extended to act as a client of the Spectrum Services of the Virtual Observatory and run as an application under Java Web Start. This development will help enable students to work with the VO catalogues that include the full range of spectra of essentially all known types of astronomical objects. Students will then be able to perform undergraduate astronomy exercises (such as the Hubble law and spectral classification) using real data. They will also be put in a position to be able to carry out original research of their own. SPEX (along with many other applets about both the physical and perceptual nature of light) can be found at the LITE web site http://lite.bu.edu. Project LITE is supported by NSF Grant #DUE-0125992. E. W. is supported by a NASA Graduate Student Research Fellowship, NASA Grant number NGT5-60482.

  16. Direct synthesis of thermochromic VO{sub 2} through hydrothermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alie, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO (United States); University of Denver, 2199 South High Street, Denver, CO (United States); Gedvilas, Lynn [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Zhiwei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO (United States); The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Tenent, Robert; Engtrakul, Chaiwat [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO (United States); Yan, Yanfa [The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Shaheen, Sean E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO (United States); University of Denver, 2199 South High Street, Denver, CO (United States); Dillon, Anne C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO (United States); Ban, Chunmei, E-mail: chunmei.ban@nrel.gov [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Thermochromic VO{sub 2} was directly synthesized using hydrothermal techniques. The effects of formation conditions on the structure and morphology of the final product were studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Unique hollow sphere morphology was observed for the synthesized VO{sub 2} powders. Ex-situ XRD studies after heat treatment confirmed the thermal stability of the VO{sub 2} structure. Thermochromic properties, as a consequence of the reversible structural transformation between monoclinic VO{sub 2} and tetragonal phases, were observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). - Graphical abstract: Thermochromic VO{sub 2} crystals with hollow spherical and asterisk shape were directly synthesized using hydrothermal techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies confirmed the thermal stability and the reversible thermochromic properties of the VO{sub 2} structure. - Highlights: • One-step synthesis of thermochromic VO{sub 2} monoclinic phase, and VO{sub 2} (A and B phases) using hydrothermal technique. VO{sub 2} (A), VO{sub 2} (B). • Identification of the relationship between synthesis conditions and the morphology/structure of the final products. • Formation of VO{sub 2} monoclinic phase with an interesting hollow sphere shape. • Demonstration of superior thermal stability of the VO{sub 2} monoclinic phase. • Characterizing the thermochromic properties of VO{sub 2} monoclinic phase.

  17. Structural characterization of PrVO3 epitaxial thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Copie, O; Boullay, P; Morales, M; Pautrat, A; David, A; Mercey, B; Pravarthana, D; Infante, I C; Janolin, P -E; Prellier, W

    2014-01-01

    Rare earth perovskite oxides constitute a wide family of materials presenting functional proper- ties strongly coupled to their crystalline structure. Here, we report on the experimental results on epitaxial PrVO3 deposited on SrTiO3 single crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition. By com- bining advanced structural characterization tools, we have observed that the PVO unrelaxed film structure grown on STO, is characterized by two kinds of oriented domains whose epitaxial relations are: (i) PrVO3[110]o//SrTiO3[001]c and PrVO3[001]o//SrTiO3[100]c, (ii) PrVO3[110]o//SrTiO3[001]c and PrVO3[001]o//SrTiO3[010]c. We have also measured reciprocal space maps. From these results, we have determined that the PVO film epitaxy on STO imposes a lowering of the PVO structure symmetry from orthorhombic (Pbnm) to monoclinic (P21/m). We show, the nominal strain induced by the substrate being constant, that the obtained film structure depends on both growth oxygen and temperature. Thus, by finely controlling the depositio...

  18. Electrical switching and Mott transition in VO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovich, G.; Pergament, A.; Stefanovich, D. [Petrozavodsk State University, Petrozavodsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-10-16

    In this paper the problem of the Mott metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide driven by an external electric field is considered. Delay time (t{sub d}) measurements have shown that the experimental value of t{sub d} is almost three orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical value, calculated in a simple electrothermal model. This suggests that under non-equilibrium conditions (in high electric fields) electron correlation effects contribute to the development of the insulator to metal transition. The extra-carrier injection from Si into VO{sub 2} was carried out in the structures Si-SiO{sub 2}-VO{sub 2} on p-type silicon with {rho} = 0.1 {omega} cm and a SiO{sub 2} thickness 70 nm. It has been shown that the metal-insulator transition in VO{sub 2} can be initiated by injection, i.e. by the increase of the electron density. The value of the critical density was found to be of the order of the electron density in VO{sub 2} in the semiconducting phase, approximately 10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. This confirms that the metal-insulator transition in VO{sub 2} is the purely electronic Mott-Hubbard transition. (author)

  19. Efecto de la depuración en la biomasa del caracol Pomacea patula [Baker, 1922] usando el índice de condición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garc\\u00EDa-Ulloa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La depuración de organismos acuáticos en cultivo es una práctica común. El tiempo de exposición de los animales al agua tratada es uno de los factores más importantes para su eficiencia, pudiendo afectar su biomasa. Se evaluó el efecto de la depuración en adultos de Pomacea patula mediante la aplicación del índice de condición (IC, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Caracoles adultos obtenidos en cultivo se mantuvieron en peceras (Grupo 1 expuestos a un flujo de agua constante, tratada con radiación ultravioleta y limpieza diaria y en condiciones normales de mantenimiento (Grupo 2, con 5 réplicas por grupo. Se obtuvo el peso húmedo y longitud total individualmente, al inicio y después de una depuración de 10 días. El valor promedio del coeficiente de correlación (animales iniciales y de los Grupos 1 y 2 fue mayor a 0.90. El IC entre el valor inicial (771.81 ± 40.41 y los Grupos 1 y 2 (763.527 ± 25.24 y 765.465 ± 38.59, respectivamente, no mostró diferencias significativas (P > 0.05 al final del experimento. Los resultados sugieren que el proceso de depuración usado no afectó la biomasa de adultos de P. patula. El IC se mostró como una herramienta práctica de evaluación sin considerar la diferencia inicial de tallas de caracoles adultos

  20. A VO-driven Astronomical Data Grid in China

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Chenzhou; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Yongheng

    2010-01-01

    With the implementation of many ambitious observation projects, including LAMOST, FAST, and Antarctic observatory at Doom A, observational astronomy in China is stepping into a brand new era with emerging data avalanche. In the era of e-Science, both these ambitious projects and traditional astronomy research need much powerful data management, sharing and interoperability. Based on data-grid concept, taking advantages of IVOA interoperability technologies, China-VO is developing a VO-driven astronomical data grid environment to enable multi-wavelength science and large database science. In the paper, latest progress and data flow of the LAMOST, architecture of the data grid, and its supports to the VO are discussed.

  1. A VO-Driven Astronomical Data Grid in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, C.; He, B.; Yang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2010-12-01

    With the implementation of many ambitious observation projects, including LAMOST, FAST, and Antarctic observatory at Doom A, observational astronomy in China is stepping into a brand new era with emerging data avalanche. In the era of e-Science, both these cutting-edge projects and traditional astronomy research need much more powerful data management, sharing and interoperability. Based on data-grid concept, taking advantages of the IVOA interoperability technologies, China-VO is developing a VO-driven astronomical data grid environment to enable multi-wavelength science and large database science. In the paper, latest progress and data flow of the LAMOST, architecture of the data grid, and its supports to the VO are discussed.

  2. Componente lento da cinética do VO2: determinantes fisiológicos e implicações para o desempenho em exercícios aeróbios / Slow component of VO2 kinetics: physiological determinants and implications for performance in aerobic exercises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Aparecido Correa, Carita; Dalton Muller, Pessoa Filho; Luis Fabiano, Barbosa; Camila Coelho, Greco.

    Full Text Available A cinética do consumo de oxigênio (VO2) e a resposta do lactato sanguíneo durante o exercício de carga constante em diferentes intensidades permitem caracterizar os domínios moderado, pesado e severo do exercício. Em exercício de intensidade constante, o perfil da resposta do VO2, analisada por ajus [...] tes exponenciais, apresenta as fases cardiodinâmica, fundamental e lenta. A ocorrência do componente lento (CL) tem sido associada a fatores como recrutamento de fibras do tipo II e acúmulo de metabólitos, como lactato, íons H+, fosfato inorgânico e ADP. O CL expressa uma redução da eficiência muscular e tem sido associado à menor tolerância de exercícios aeróbios de intensidade alta. O presente estudo teve por objetivo detalhar a fundamentação teórica sobre sua ocorrência, a influência na tolerância ao exercício, bem como prover os diferentes procedimentos adotados em sua quantificação. Abstract in english Oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics and blood lactate response during constant workload exercise at different intensities allow characterizing the moderate, heavy and severe exercise domains. In constant-intensity exercise, the VO2 response profile, analyzed by exponential fits, shows the cardiodynamic, fu [...] ndamental and slow phases. The occurrence of the slow component (SC) has been associated with factors such as the recruitment of type II fibers and the accumulation of metabolites such as lactate, ions H+, inorganic phosphate and adenosine diphosphate. The SC expresses a reduction of muscular efficiency and has been associated with lower tolerance to high-intensity aerobic exercise. The present study aimed to detail the theoretical framework of its occurrence and its influence on exercise tolerance, as well as providing the different procedures used in its quantification.

  3. Metodología de diseño e implementación de soluciones voIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson A. Bulla B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento ilustra metodológicamente el diseño y la implementación de una solución VoIP, la cual integra la planta análoga (PBX con el modulo de PBX del Elastix (IP-PBX, por medio de un Gateway de VoIP. Con el producto de esta investigación, desarrollada por el grupo INTEGRA, se permite el uso de nuevos servicios enfocados en el óptimo uso de las redes (telefonía y datos usando servicios adicionales, como son: servidor de fax, servidor de mensajería instantánea, control y reporte detallado de llamadas, grabaciones y servicios adicionales como la recepción de fax y buzón de mensajes al correo electrónico como archivos adjuntos.

  4. Lattice effects in HoVo3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the study of lattice effects in the Mott insulator HoVO3 performed by means of linear thermal expansion on a single crystal in the temperature range 10-290 K. The holmium orthovanadate HoVO3 reveals gradual orbital ordering (OO) below T OO=200 K and orders antiferromagnetically at T N=113 K. A first-order structural phase transition takes place at T S?38 K, which is probably accompanied by change of the OO type and hence the type of antiferromagnetic spin ordering

  5. Lattice effects in HoVo{sub 3} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Solid State Physics Department, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Marquina, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain)]. E-mail: clara@unizar.es; Ibarra, M.R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Nugroho, A.A. [Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Materials Science Center, University of Groningen, Nijenborg 4 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Palstra, T.T.M. [Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Materials Science Center, University of Groningen, Nijenborg 4 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    We report the study of lattice effects in the Mott insulator HoVO{sub 3} performed by means of linear thermal expansion on a single crystal in the temperature range 10-290 K. The holmium orthovanadate HoVO{sub 3} reveals gradual orbital ordering (OO) below T {sub OO}=200 K and orders antiferromagnetically at T {sub N}=113 K. A first-order structural phase transition takes place at T {sub S}{approx}38 K, which is probably accompanied by change of the OO type and hence the type of antiferromagnetic spin ordering.

  6. Caracterización del bagazo de caña como biomasa vegetal / Characterization of the cane bagasse like vegetable biomass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enma M., Manals-Cutiño; Margarita, Penedo-Medina; Dolores, Salas-Tort.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como finalidad evaluar propiedades físicas y químicas de diferentes clases de tamaño de muestras de bagazo de caña, como parte del estudio de descomposición térmica de las mismas. Para la realización del análisis granulométrico del bagazo de caña se estudiaron dos muestras; obteni [...] éndose una distribución muy variada, desde un fino polvo hasta partículas irregulares de gran tamaño, las mayores acumulaciones fueron obtenidas para partículas menores de 0,5 mm y hasta 1mm de diámetro. En este estudio se desarrollaron dos métodos: el Método Diferencial y el Método Acumulativo, obteniéndose diámetros promedio de las muestras aproximadamente iguales por ambos métodos, de manera que el diámetro promedio del bagazo de caña en general es de 0,453 mm. Aplicando la metodología experimental y en las instalaciones adecuadas se evaluaron las propiedades químicas de la biomasa estudiada: carbono fijo, volátiles, cenizas, humedad. Luego se determinó la influencia del tamaño de las partículas en las propiedades del bagazo de caña obteniéndose que para la humedad y el carbono fijo no existe una tendencia definida en estos parámetros. En el caso del contenido de volátiles existe una tendencia al aumento de este contenido con el aumento del diámetro de las partículas, ocurriendo lo contrario para el contenido de cenizas. Se obtuvo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre la media de cada uno de estos parámetros entre un nivel de Dpi y otro, excepto para el caso del carbono fijo. Abstract in english In this work were evaluated physical and chemical properties of different classes of size of samples of bagasse cane, like part of the study of thermal decomposition of the same ones. Two samples were studied; being obtained a very varied distribution, from a fine powder until irregular particles of [...] great size, the biggest accumulations were obtained for particles smaller than 0,5mm and up to 1mm of diameter. In this study two methods were developed: the Differential Method and the Accumulative Method, being obtained diameters average of the approximately same samples by both methods, so that the diameter average of the bagasse cane in general is of 0,453mm. Applying the experimental methodology and in the appropriate facilities the chemical properties of the studied biomass were evaluated: fixed, volatile, ashy carbon, humidity. Then the influence of the size of the particles was determined in the properties of the cane trash being obtained that for the humidity and the fixed carbon doesn't exist a tendency defined in these parameters. In the case of the content of volatile a tendency exists to the increase of this content with the increase of the diameter of the particles, happening the opposite for the content of ashy. A difference was obtained statistically significant among the stocking of each one of these parameters among a level of Dpi and other, except for the case of the fixed carbon.

  7. Comparison of VO2 Peak and Achievement of VO2 Peak Criteria in Three Modes of Exercise in Female Triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoza, Colleen; Berg, Kris E; Slivka, Dustin

    2014-09-25

    The purpose of this study was to compare peak aerobic capacity in female triathletes in three modes of exercise: treadmill, cycle and arm ergometer. A second purpose was to determine the extent that physiologic criteria for achieving VO2 peak were reached in each mode of exercise. Six criteria were examined: VO2 plateau, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLC), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), oxygen saturation, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Twelve recreational level female triathletes completed maximal tests on the treadmill, stationary bike, and arm ergometer. Results indicated VO2 peak (ml·kg·min) is highest on a treadmill (46.8±2.1), intermediate in cycling (40.7±5.0), and lowest in arm ergometry (28.2±3.3) with mean differences being significant (P best achieved using BLC and RPE. PMID:25259471

  8. Structural aspects of calcium ion transport in Ca3(VO4)2 and Ca3-xNd2x/3(VO4)2 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data on electric conductivity dependence on temperature in the range of 750-1400 K for Ca3(VO4)2, Ca9Nd(VO4)7 and solid solutions Ca3-xNd2x/3(VO4)2 (0?x?3/7) are presented. It is ascertained that conductivity value in the solid solutions decreases essentially with increase in neodymium concentration. In Ca3(VO4)2 and Ca9Nd(VO4)7 phase transitions at 1383 and 1198 K have been detected. On the basis of the experimental data on conductivity and analysis of polyhedrons of whitlockite-like structure of Ca3(VO4)2 possible ways of calcium cations movement in the structure are discussed and substantiated

  9. ¿Afectan los aclareos la acumulación de biomasa aérea en una plantación de Pinus patula? / Does thinning affect aboveground biomass acummulation in a Pinus patula plantation?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerardo, Rodríguez-Ortíz; Arnulfo, Aldrete; Víctor A., González-Hernández; Héctor M., De Los Santos-Posadas; Armando, Gómez-Guerrero; Aurelio M., Fierros-González.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El aclareo puede modificar la distribución y cantidad de biomasa aérea en función del tiempo de respuesta y de las condiciones de crecimiento. En este estudio se analizó el efecto de aclareos en la distribución y contenido de biomasa aérea acumulada de Pinus patula mediante muestreos destructivos de [...] 30 árboles en 2009, después de estar sometidos a diferentes intensidades de aclareo desde el 2004, más un testigo intacto. La eliminación entre 40 y 69 % de la densidad inicial de plantación afectó significativamente (p ? 0.05) la cantidad y distribución de biomasa foliar y la cantidad de madera con corteza en el fuste a nivel de árbol individual (pero no por ha) en algunos componentes del árbol. Las intensidades altas de aclareo (65.3 y 68.7 %>) y las respectivas densidades residuales bajas generaron la mayor acumulación de biomasa foliar (5.4 kg árbol-1 y 8.0 t ha-1), que superaron (p?0.05) al testigo sin aclareo (1.5 kg árbol-1). En la biomasa de madera con corteza del fuste los árboles con aclareo también superaron (p?0.05) al testigo (98 fs. 35.3 kg árbol-1). Sin embargo, la acumulación de biomasa por unidad de superficie fue similar entre ambas condiciones, debido a la excesiva densidad residual del testigo; lo mismo ocurrió en la biomasa total de ramas y en la distribución en el fuste. Abstract in english Thinning may modify distribution and amount of aboveground biomass according to time of response and growth conditions. In this study, the effect of thinning on distribution and accumulated aboveground biomass content of Pinus patula was analyzed in 2009 through destructive samplings of 30 trees, af [...] ter having been subjected to different thinning intensities since 2004, plus an intact control. Elimination between 40 and 69 % of initial plantation density significantly affected (p?0.05) quantity and distribution of leaf biomass and the amount of timber with bark on the stem at individual tree level in some tree components (but not by ha). The high thinning intensity (65.3 and 68.7 %) and respective low residual density generated the largest accumulation of foliar biomass (5.4 kg tree-1 and 8.0 t ha-1), surpassing (p?0.05) the control without thinning (1.5 kg tree-1). In timber biomass with stem bark, trees with thinning also surpassed (p?0.05) the control (98 fs. 35.3 kg tree-1). However, biomass accumulation per unit was similar between both conditions, due to excessive residual density of the control; the same occurred in total branch biomass and in distribution on the stem.

  10. TRENDS IN THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF SLOVAK STUDENTS IN PHYSICS IN THE TIMSS STUDY / Trendy vo vzdelávacích výsledkoch žiakov Slovenskej republiky z fyziky vo výskume TIMSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuraj Jozef

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Physics is one of the Science topics, which is included to research area in the TIMSS study. The educational achievement in Physics is measured in international comparison. We present the Physics characteristics as the research area based on the content and cognitive dimension. We analyzed the trends in educational achievement between 1995 - 1999 - 2003. The article brings the findings about the overall results, the differences between boys and girls. We publish the comparison on the international level - comparison the Slovak results and ten other countries in the Europe, which had been participating in all cycles of the TIMSS study. We analyzed the student aspiration to education level as one of the factor, what has the influence on educational achievement.Fyzika patrí medzi prírodovedné predmety, ktoré tvoria výskumnú doménu medzinárodnej štúdie TIMSS. V medzinárodnom kontexte sa meria úrove? vzdelávacích výsledkov žiakov z fyziky. V ?lánku uvádzame charakteristiku fyziky ako výskumnej oblasti z poh?adu požiadaviek na hodnotenie vedomostí a zru?ností žiakov pod?a obsahovej a kognitívnej dimenzie. Prezentujeme výsledky analýzy trendov vo vzdelávacích výsledkoch žiakov z fyziky medzi rokmi 1995 – 1999 – 2003 pod?a vybraných aspektov. Uvádzame zistenia o celkových vzdelávacích výsledkoch žiakov z fyziky, o rozdieloch medzi výkonmi chlapcov a diev?at. Prezentujeme komparáciu výsledkov na medzinárodnej úrovni – porovnanie výsledkov žiakov z fyziky na Slovensku s výsledkami žiakov v desiatich vybraných európskych krajinách, ktoré sa opakovane zú?astnili výskumu TIMSS. Z faktorov pôsobiacich na vzdelávacie výsledky sme analyzovali vplyv ašpirácie žiakov k vzdelaniu, typu školy a najvyššie dosiahnutého vzdelania rodi?ov.

  11. Upcoming Features of SPLAT-VO in Astroinformatics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šaloun, P.; Andreši?, D.; Škoda, Petr; Zelinka, I.

    Vol. 210. Cham : Springer, 2013, s. 475-486 ISBN 978-3-319-00541-6. ISSN 2194-5357. [Nostradamus 2013. Ostrava (CZ), 03.06.2013-05.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA13-08195S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : SPLAT-VO * spectrum analysis * SAMP Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  12. "Kogda emotsii vo mne bezuderzhno põlajut..." : [luuletused] / Jevgenia Brodneva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brodneva, Jevgenia

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: "Kogda emotsii vo mne bezuderzhno põlajut..." ; "Võ menja nikogda ne vstretite..." ; "Kogda nastupit vremja rasstavanja..." ; "Prosti za lozh i za obidu..." ; "Ja v plenu svoihh sobstvennõhh tshuvstv..." ; "Ot nego nelzja otkazatsja..." ; "Mne b rukoi do tebja dotjanutsja..." ; "Ja potshti, ja potshti v tebja vljublena..." ; "Ja po tebe skutshaju..."

  13. Structure and magnetism of epitaxial PrVO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interplay between charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in transition metal oxides has motivated extensive research aiming to understand the coupling phenomena in these multifunctional materials. Among them, rare earth vanadates are Mott insulators characterized by spin and orbital orderings strongly influenced by lattice distortions. Using epitaxial strain as a means to tailor the unit cell deformation, we report here on the first thin films of PrVO3 grown on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition. An extensive structural characterization of the PrVO3 films, combining x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies, reveals the presence of oriented domains and a unit cell deformation tailored by the growth conditions. We have also investigated the physical properties of the PrVO3 films. We show that, while PrVO3 exhibits an insulating character, magnetic measurements indicate low-temperature hard-ferromagnetic behavior below 80 K. We discuss these properties in view of the thin-film structure. (fast track communication)

  14. Collective orbital excitations in GdVO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the vanadates (RVO3) orbital interactions are expected to be especially strong. In the compounds YVO3 and HoVO3 these interactions lead to two different phases of orbital ordering (OO), one in an intermediate temperature range with G-type OO and one low-temperature phase with C-type OO. In these orbitally ordered states, one expects novel collective excitations, so called orbitons, which are analogous to spin waves in a magnetically ordered state. Previous optical measurements of YVO3 and HoVO3 have shown a striking feature at 0.4 eV with polarization E parallel c in the intermediate phase which is interpreted as bi-orbiton excitation. Furthermore a second interesting feature at 0.55 eV with polarization E parallel a is observed. The interpretation of this feature is still a puzzle. We show the optical conductivity ?(?) of GdVO3 single crystals for the mid-infrared range and temperatures from 10 K to 300 K. In GdVO3, G-type OO (the intermediate phase of YVO3) extends down to the lowest temperatures, offering additional information on the excitations discussed above.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of FeVO4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Simple co-precipitation method were employed for the synthesis of FeVO4. ? The calcination temperature and the reaction time were optimized. ? The effect of surfactants on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties was studied. ? The shape of the particles changes due to the effect of surfactant. ? Enhancement of magnetic orderings on the addition of surfactant. -- Abstract: Iron vanadate (FeVO4) nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method using various surfactants such as ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 200 and polyethylene glycol 400 as the structure directing agents. Systematic investigations on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of the materials have been studied. The lattice constants of the triclinic structure of FeVO4 were calculated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The average grain size was estimated to be around 35 nm, which increased with increasing the calcination temperature. The stretching and bending vibrations of Fe-O were evaluated from the FT-IR spectra. Using VSM magnetometer, magnetic property was investigated through magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements. FeVO4 exhibits two magnetic ordering temperatures at T ? 20 K and 14 K, which is due to two different chemical environments of Fe ligands such as octahedral FeO6 and trigonal bipyramidal FeO5 in a six-column doubly bent chain, respectively.

  16. VoIP Security Syllabus and Course Outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA) provides this zip file containing a syllabus and course outline for a VoIP security course. The syllabus document describes course objectives, structure and the intended student audience. The course outline provides information on several learning modules that would be suitable for such a course.

  17. Visible light driven photocatalysis and antibacterial activity of AgVO{sub 3} and Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anamika [Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400 098 (India); Dutta, Dimple P., E-mail: dimpled@barc.gov.in [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ballal, A. [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Fulekar, M.H. [School of Environment and Sustainable Development, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 382 030, Gujarat (India)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/AgVO{sub 3} and pure AgVO{sub 3} nanowires synthesized by sonochemical process. • Characterization done using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and BET analysis. • Visible light degradation of RhB by Ag/AgVO{sub 3} within 45 min. • Antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} demonstrated. - Abstract: Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires and AgVO{sub 3} nanorods were synthesized in aqueous media via a facile sonochemical route. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy together with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results revealed that inert atmosphere promotes the formation of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires exhibited complete photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B within 45 min under visible light irradiation. The antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires was tested against Escherechia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum growth inhibitory concentration value was found to be 50 and 10 folds lower than for the antibiotic ciprofloxacin for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. The antibacterial properties of the ?-AgVO{sub 3} nanorods prove that in case of the Ag dispersed Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires, the enhanced antibacterial action is also due to contribution from the AgVO{sub 3} support.

  18. Efeito de diferentes misturas de substratos orgânicos na biomassa e no óleo essencial de Thymus zygis Effect of different mixtures of organic substrates on the biomass and essential oil of Thymus zygis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Lourenço

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes misturas de substrato comercial e vermicomposto na produção de biomassa, composição química e rendimento dos óleos essenciais de Thymus zygis. Utilizaram-se 5 substratos resultantes da mistura de um vermicomposto (V com um substrato orgânico comercial (O, em cinco proporções diferentes (v/v: V100 (100%V; VO75-25 (75%V+25%O; VO50 -50 (50%V+50%O; VO 25-75 (25%V + 75%O e O100 (100%O. A inclusão do vermicomposto no substrato não melhorou a produção de biomassa. Na modalidade O100 produziu-se mais biomassa, tendo sido na modalidade VO25-75 onde se obteve o valor mais baixo. Na modalidade V100 todas as plantas secaram tendo-se ainda apresentado nesta modalidade o valor mais elevado de pH e de densidade real e inversamente o menor valor de espaço poroso total. Os monoterpenos oxigenados predominaram nos óleos extraídos das plantas nas modalidades O100 e VO25-75, contrariamente ao que se verificou para os monoterpenos não oxigenados tendo estes predominado nas modalidades VO75-25 e VO50-50. A concentração de timol foi elevada nas misturas testadas, em particular na modalidade VO25-75.In this trial we evaluated the effect of different mixtures of organic growing media substratum and vermicompost and their physical properties on biomass, chemical composition and yield of essential oils of Thymus zygis. Five treatments were established based on two types of organic materials (O, commercial growing media, and V, vermicompost. The following proportions were studied (v/v: V100 (100%V; VO75-25 (75%V+25%O; VO50-50 (50%V+50%O; VO 25-75 (25%V+75%O and O100 (100%O. The inclusion of vermicompost did not improve biomass production. The treatment O100 produced more biomass and the lowest was obtained in VO25-75. On V100 treatment all plants were dead and also have showed the highest pH and particle density and conversely presented the lowest value of total pore space. Oxygenated monoterpenes predominated in the oils extracted from plants in O100 and VO25-75, contrary to what was found for non-oxygenated monoterpenes having these prevailed in VO75-25 and VO50-50. The concentration of thymol was high in the mixtures tested, particularly in VO25-75.

  19. Efeito de diferentes misturas de substratos orgânicos na biomassa e no óleo essencial de Thymus zygis / Effect of different mixtures of organic substrates on the biomass and essential oil of Thymus zygis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nelson, Lourenço; Susana A., Dandlen; Maria G., Miguel; Ana, Figueiredo; José, Barroso; Luis, Pedro; Luísa, Coelho; Mário, Reis; Pedro J., Correia.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes misturas de substrato comercial e vermicomposto na produção de biomassa, composição química e rendimento dos óleos essenciais de Thymus zygis. Utilizaram-se 5 substratos resultantes da mistura de um vermicomposto (V) com um substrato orgânico comercial [...] (O), em cinco proporções diferentes (v/v): V100 (100%V); VO75-25 (75%V+25%O); VO50 -50 (50%V+50%O); VO 25-75 (25%V + 75%O) e O100 (100%O). A inclusão do vermicomposto no substrato não melhorou a produção de biomassa. Na modalidade O100 produziu-se mais biomassa, tendo sido na modalidade VO25-75 onde se obteve o valor mais baixo. Na modalidade V100 todas as plantas secaram tendo-se ainda apresentado nesta modalidade o valor mais elevado de pH e de densidade real e inversamente o menor valor de espaço poroso total. Os monoterpenos oxigenados predominaram nos óleos extraídos das plantas nas modalidades O100 e VO25-75, contrariamente ao que se verificou para os monoterpenos não oxigenados tendo estes predominado nas modalidades VO75-25 e VO50-50. A concentração de timol foi elevada nas misturas testadas, em particular na modalidade VO25-75. Abstract in english In this trial we evaluated the effect of different mixtures of organic growing media substratum and vermicompost and their physical properties on biomass, chemical composition and yield of essential oils of Thymus zygis. Five treatments were established based on two types of organic materials (O, co [...] mmercial growing media, and V, vermicompost). The following proportions were studied (v/v): V100 (100%V); VO75-25 (75%V+25%O); VO50-50 (50%V+50%O); VO 25-75 (25%V+75%O) and O100 (100%O). The inclusion of vermicompost did not improve biomass production. The treatment O100 produced more biomass and the lowest was obtained in VO25-75. On V100 treatment all plants were dead and also have showed the highest pH and particle density and conversely presented the lowest value of total pore space. Oxygenated monoterpenes predominated in the oils extracted from plants in O100 and VO25-75, contrary to what was found for non-oxygenated monoterpenes having these prevailed in VO75-25 and VO50-50. The concentration of thymol was high in the mixtures tested, particularly in VO25-75.

  20. Determinación de las reservas de carbono en la biomasa aérea de sistemas agroforestales de theobroma cacao l. en el departamento de San Martìn, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Y. Concha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó la biomasa aérea en seis diferentes sistemas agroforestales de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. asociado con especies forestales maderables y frutales; con el propósito de conocer el potencial de captura de carbono por cada sistema. El estudio se realizó en dos diferentes sitios ubicados en la región San Martín (provincias de San Martín y Mariscal Cáceres. Los sistemas agroforestales estimados presentaron edades de 5, 12 y 20 años. En cada sistema se establecieron aleatoriamente cinco cuadrantes de 100 m2 cada uno, evaluándose la biomasa vegetal total existente. Para evaluar la ecuación alométrica del cacao se muestrearon 7 plantas cuyas edades variaron de 01 hasta 22 años. Loas resultados en captura de carbono en cada sistema agroforestal varían desde 26.2 t C ha-1para el sistema de Pachiza de 5 años hasta 45.07 t C ha-1del sistema agroforestal de Pachiza de 12 años; Así mismo, la captura de carbono en biomasa arbórea de los árboles vivos, osciló desde 12.09 t ha-1 hasta 35.5 t ha-1, seguido por la biomasa de hojarasca que presentaron valores desde 4 t ha-1 hasta 9.97 t ha-1; mientras la biomasa de árboles muertos en pie y caídos muertos presentaron valores muy variables y bajos. Los sistemas agroforestales de 12 y 20 años representan el 66.7% de los sistemas que presentan reservas de carbono por encima de los 40 t C ha-1; mientras que los sistemas de 5 años se encuentran con reservas de carbono por debajo de los 30 t C ha-1. Los sistemas agroforestales de 5 años ubicados en Juanjui y Pachiza presentaron el mayor flujo de carbono anual, generando el mayor beneficio económico con créditos por CO2 equivalente

  1. Validade de equações de predição em estimar o VO2max de brasileiros jovens a partir do desempenho em corrida de 1.600m / Predictive equations validity in estimating the VO2max of young Brazilians from performance in a 1600 m run

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeeser Alves de, Almeida; Carmen S. G., Campbell; Emerson, Pardono; Rafael da Costa, Sotero; Guilherme, Magalhães; Herbert Gustavo, Simões.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a validade da equação proposta por Cureton et al. (1995) "VO2peak = -8.41 (MRW) + 0.34 (MRW)2 + 0.21 (Age x Gender) -0.84 (BMI) + 108.94" em estimar o VO2max de brasileiros jovens a partir de um teste de 1.600 metros, e sugerir uma equação de predição que seja es [...] pecífica para essa população. Participaram do estudo 30 homens fisicamente ativos (23 ± 3,1anos; 74,8 ± 5,8kg; 1,78 ± 0,05m; 49,8 ± 6,5mL.kg-¹.min-1) que foram submetidos a um teste incremental máximo (TI) em esteira e um teste de desempenho em corrida de 1.600 metros. Os indivíduos foram divididos em dois grupos: G1 - para gerar uma equação de predição específica para VO2max de brasileiros jovens e G2 - para aplicar ambas as equações a fim de analisar suas validades. Diferenças estatisticamente significativas foram observadas entre o VO2max determinado diretamente no TI (50,1 ± 7,1mL.kg-¹.min-¹) e os valores de VO2max obtidos pela equação proposta por Cureton et al. (44,2 ± 6,5mL.kg-¹.min-¹) com baixa correlação entre elas (r = 0,21). A relação entre VO2max e velocidade em corrida de 1.600m obtidos no G1 resultou na seguinte equação de predição: (VO2max = 0,177 * 1.600Vm(m.min-1) + 8,101). Quando essa nova equação foi aplicada nos participantes do G2, o VO2max predito (50,1 ± 7,2mL.kg-¹.min-¹) não diferiu do VO2max determinado diretamente (50,1 ± 7,1mL.kg-¹.min-¹) com alta correlação entre eles (r = 0,81). Assim, concluímos que a equação de Cureton et al. (1995), elaborada a partir de resultados de amostra norte-americana, subestimou o VO2max de brasileiros jovens e fisicamente ativos. Por outro lado, a equação proposta no presente estudo se mostrou válida para estimar o VO2max através do teste de desempenho de 1.600 metros para a população estudada. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to analyze the validity of predictive equation proposed by Cureton et al. (1995) for VO2peak = -8.41 (MRW) + 0.34 (MRW) 2 + 0.21 (Age x Gender) -0.84 (BMI) + 108.94" on estimating the VO2max of young Brazilians from a 1600-m running performance, and to suggest a pred [...] ictive equation specific for this population. 30 physically active young men (23±3.1age; 74.8±5.8kg; 1.78±0.05m; 49.8±6.5mL.kg-¹.min-1) who were submitted to an incremental exercise test (IT) on treadmill until exhaustion with gas analysis participated in this study. Subjects also performed a 1600-m running track test as fast as possible. The volunteers were randomly sorted in two groups: G1 - to generate a specific predictive equation for VO2max, and G2 - to apply both predictive equations (actual and from Cureton et al.) to evaluate their validity on estimating VO2max in a Brazilian population sample. Significant differences were observed between VO2max directly identified on IT through gas analysis (50.1±7.1 mL.kg-¹.min-¹) in relation to the results obtained by the predictive equation proposed by Cureton et al. (1995) (44.2±6.5mL.kg-¹.min-¹) with a weak relationship between them (r = 0.21). The relationship between the VO2max on IT and the running velocity on 1600-m as obtained for G1 resulted in the following predictive equation: (VO2max = 0.177*1600Vm(m.min-1) + 8,101). When this new equation was applied on the participants of G2, the predicted VO2max (50.1±7.2mL.kg-¹.min-¹) did not differ from VO2max determined directly on IT (50.1±7.1mL.kg-¹.min-¹) with a high correlation between them (r = 0.81). Thus, it was concluded that the Cureton et al. predictive equation developed with a North Americanpopulation sample as grounding, underestimated the VO2max of physically active young Brazilians. On the other hand, the predictive equation proposed on the present study was considered valid for this purpose through the 1600-m running performance for our participants.

  2. Efecto del gatuño sobre la fertilidad del suelo y la biomasa herbácea en pastizales del centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Flores

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó durante los años 2002 y 2003, en los estados de Aguascalientes y Jalisco, con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del gatuño (Mimosa monancistra en el grado de asociación de algunas variables edáficas, como pH, materia orgánica (MO, fósforo, calcio y magnesio, así como la cantidad de biomasa herbácea en tres sitios con diferente grado de disturbio (Sitio I = excelente, Sitio II = intermedio y Sitio III = degradado, y dos áreas de influencia (dentro y fuera del dosel de gatuño. Los resultados del análisis de componentes principales mostraron una alta asociación (53% de las variables pH y MO en el componente principal (CP1 (dentro del dosel de gatuño, mientras que Ca, P y Mg resultaron ser las más importantes en el componente principal 2 (CP2 (fuera del dosel de gatuño, con 21%. Ambos componentes explicaron 74% de la variación total acumulada. La producción de biomasa herbácea resultó afectada por la interacción sitio x área de influencia (P £ 0.01, y se obtuvo una mayor cantidad de ella fuera del dosel de gatuño que dentro de él, en el Sitio I, con un total de 264.7 y 186.5 g m-2, respectivamente, aunque ésta no fue diferente de la obtenida en los Sitios II y III, cuyas cantidades fueron de 139.3 y 109.5 g m-2 fuera, y 45.2 y 5.3 g m-2 dentro del dosel del gatuño, en las áreas de influencia.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activities of rare earth-loaded BiVO4 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BiVO4-based photocatalysts loaded with rare earth (RE=Ho, Sm, Yb, Eu, Gd, Nd, Ce and La) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), nitrogen adsorption for the BET specific surface area and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by decolorization of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results of XRD, SEM and XPS analysis deduced that the rare earth ions were present as RE2O3 in the samples. The DRS analysis showed the shift in the absorbption edge from the UV to the visible range: Ho3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 3+-BiVO4 4. Gd3+-BiVO4 had the highest photocatalytic activity among all the RE3+-BiVO4 catalysts. The optimal Gd content was 8 at% under visible light irradiation. This beneficial effect was attributed to the specific electron structure characteristics of gadolinium and the increasing in the separation efficiency of the electron-hole pairs. On the contrast, the other rare earth ions had the detrimental effect on the photocatalytic decolorization of MB. decolorization of MB.

  4. Identifying the active site in nitrogen-doped graphene for the VO2+/VO2(+) redox reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jutao; Fu, Xiaogang; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Yanru; Wei, Zhiyang; Niu, Kexing; Zhang, Junyan

    2013-06-25

    Nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (NGS), synthesized by annealing graphite oxide (GO) with urea at 700-1050 °C, were studied as positive electrodes in a vanadium redox flow battery. The NGS, in particular annealed at 900 °C, exhibited excellent catalytic performance in terms of electron transfer (ET) resistance (4.74 ± 0.51 and 7.27 ± 0.42 ? for the anodic process and cathodic process, respectively) and reversibility (?E = 100 mV, Ipa/Ipc = 1.38 at a scan rate of 50 mV s(-1)). Detailed research confirms that not the nitrogen doping level but the nitrogen type in the graphene sheets determines the catalytic activity. Among four types of nitrogen species doped into the graphene lattice including pyridinic-N, pyrrolic-N, quaternary nitrogen, and oxidic-N, quaternary nitrogen is verified as a catalytic active center for the [VO](2+)/[VO2](+) couple reaction. A mechanism is proposed to explain the electrocatalytic performance of NGS for the [VO](2+)/[VO2](+) couple reaction. The possible formation of a N-V transitional bonding state, which facilitates the ET between the outer electrode and reactant ions, is a key step for its high catalytic activity. PMID:23647240

  5. Aqueous citrato-oxovanadate(IV) precursor solutions for VO2: synthesis, spectroscopic investigation and thermal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peys, Nick; Adriaensens, Peter; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Gielis, Sven; Peeters, Ellen; De Dobbelaere, Christopher; De Gendt, Stefan; Hardy, An; Van Bael, Marlies K

    2014-09-01

    An aqueous precursor solution, containing citrato-VO(2+) complexes, is synthesized for the formation of monoclinic VO2. With regard to the decomposition of the VO(2+) complexes towards vanadium oxide formation, it is important to gain insights into the chemical structure and transformations of the precursor during synthesis and thermal treatment. Hence, the conversion of the cyclic [V4O12](4-) ion to the VO(2+) ion in aqueous solution, using oxalic acid as an acidifier and a reducing agent, is studied by (51)Vanadium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The citrate complexation of this VO(2+) ion and the differentiation between a solution containing citrato-oxalato-VO(2+) and citrato-VO(2+) complexes are studied by electron paramagnetic resonance and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. In both solutions, the VO(2+) containing complex is mononuclear and has a distorted octahedral geometry with a fourfold R-CO2(-) ligation at the equatorial positions and likely a fifth R-CO2(-) ligation at the axial position. Small differences in the thermal decomposition pathway between the gel containing citrato-oxalato-VO(2+) complexes and the oxalate-free gel containing citrato-VO(2+) complexes are observed between 150 and 200 °C in air and are assigned to the presence of (NH4)2C2O4 in the citrato-oxalato-VO(2+) solution. Both precursor solutions are successfully used for the formation of crystalline vanadium oxide nanostructures on SiO2, after thermal annealing at 500 °C in a 0.1% O2 atmosphere. However, the citrato-oxalato-VO(2+) and the oxalate-free citrato-VO(2+) solution result in the formation of monoclinic V6O13 and monoclinic VO2, respectively. PMID:25005054

  6. Relação entre a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca e VO 2pico em mulheres ativas / Relationship between heart rate variability and VO 2peak in active women / Relación entre la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca y VO 2pico en mujeres activas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nayara Yamada, Tamburús; Ana Cristina Silva, Rebelo; Marcelo de Castro, César; Aparecida Maria, Catai; Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros, Takahashi; Carolina Pieroni, Andrade; Alberto, Porta; Ester da, Silva.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Ava+liar a associação entre os índices da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC) e a aptidão cardiorrespiratória. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e duas mulheres (idade 22,1 ± 3,3 anos) foram divididas em quatro grupos: treinamento aeróbio (AER, n = 15), treinamento de força (FOR, n = 13), tre [...] inamento combinado (aeróbio e força) (AER+FOR, n = 15) e controle (C, n = 19). O teste cardiopulmonar foi realizado para avaliar a aptidão cardiorrespiratória a partir do consumo de oxigênio pico (VO2pico). A FC foi coletada em repouso na postura supina. A VFC foi analisada a partir de métodos lineares e não lineares. RESULTADOS: Os grupos AER e AER+FOR apresentaram maiores índices da VFC (lineares e não lineares) indicadores da modulação vagal e menores índices da VFC indicadores da modulação simpática, em relação ao grupo C. Os grupos AER e AER+FOR apresentaram maior complexidade e menor regularidade dos intervalos RR e maior VO2pico em relação aos grupos FOR e C. O VO2pico apresentou correlação com os índices da VFC. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostrou que o treinamento físico aeróbio e combinado contribuíram significativamente para maior modulação autônoma da FC e aptidão cardiorrespiratória. A modulação autônoma da FC, avaliada a partir de métodos lineares e não lineares, está associada ao maior consumo de oxigênio. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre los índices de variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca (VFC) y la aptitud cardiorrespiratoria. MÉTODOS: Sesenta y dos mujeres (edad 22,1 ± 3,3 años) fueron divididas en cuatro grupos: entrenamiento aeróbico (AER, n = 15), entrenamiento de fuerza (FOR, n = 1 [...] 3), entrenamiento combinado (aeróbico y fuerza) (AER+FOR, n = 15) y control (C, n = 19). El test cardiopulmonar fue realizado para evaluar la aptitud cardiorrespiratoria a partir del consumo de oxígeno pico (VO2pico). La FC fue colectada en reposo en la postura supina. La VFC fue analizada a partir de métodos lineales y no lineales. RESULTADOS: Los grupos AER y AER+FOR presentaron mayores índices de VFC (lineales y no lineales) indicadores de la modulación vagal y menores índices de VFC indicadores de la modulación simpática, en relación al grupo C. Los grupos AER y AER+FOR presentaron mayor complejidad y menor regularidad de los intervalos RR y mayor VO2pico en relación a los grupos FOR y C. O VO2pico presentó correlación con los índices de VFC. CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio mostró que el entrenamiento físico aeróbico y combinado contribuyeron significativamente para mayor modulación autónoma de FC y aptitud cardiorrespiratoria. La modulación autónoma de FC, evaluada a partir de métodos lineales y no lineales, está asociada al mayor consumo de oxígeno. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between heart rate variability (HRV) with cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: Sixty-two women (aged 22.1 ± 3.3) were divided into four groups: aerobic training (AER, n = 15), strength training (STR, n = 13), combined aerobic and strength training (AER+ST [...] R, n = 15) and controls (C, n = 19). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed to measure cardiorespiratory fitness by assessing peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). The HR was recorded at rest in the supine position. The HRV was analyzed by linear and nonlinear methods. RESULTS: The AER and AER+STR groups had higher vagal HRV (linear and nonlinear) indicators of vagal modulation and lower indices of HRV indicators of sympathetic modulation, compared to group C. The AER and AER+STR groups showed greater complexity and lower regularity of R-R intervals and higher peak compared to STR and C groups. The VO2peak was correlated with HRV indices. CONCLUSION: This study showed that aerobic and combined exercise significantly contributed to greater autonomic modulation of HR and cardiorespiratory fitness. The autonomic HR modulation, assessed by linear and nonlinear methods, was associated with a greater oxygen consumption.

  7. Biomasa de Eucalyptus nitens de 4-7 años de edad en un rodal de la X Región, Chile Biomass of 4-7 year-old Eucalyptus nitens in a stand in the X Region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Geldres; Víctor Gerding; Schlatter, Juan E.

    2006-01-01

    Se estimó la biomasa total de una plantación de Eucalyptus nitens en una secuencia de edad de 4 a 7 años, con fertilización (X Región, 41º01’S-73º27’O), en un suelo rojo arcilloso de la serie Crucero. La biomasa del bosque en las edades de 4, 5 y 7 años fue estimada a partir del respectivo árbol de diámetro medio cuadrático; a los 6 años fue interpolada. Se obtuvieron componentes de la copa, tronco y raíces; además se midió mantillo y hojarasca. La biomasa total del rodal a...

  8. Ecuaciones de biomasa aérea para Quercus laurina y Q. crassifolia en Oaxaca / Aerial biomass equations for Quercus laurina and Q. crassifolia in Oaxaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Faustino, Ruiz-Aquino; Juan Ignacio, Valdez-Hernández; Filemón, Manzano-Méndez; Gerardo, Rodríguez-Ortiz; Angélica, Romero-Manzanares; Martha Elena, Fuentes-López.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La estimación de la biomasa arbórea es un medio para determinar los montos existentes de carbono orgánico en cada uno de los componentes del árbol. Los estudios sobre biomasa aérea para especies del género Quercus son escasos en México, aun cuando el país es considerado un centro de distribución. El [...] objetivo del presente trabajo fue generar ecuaciones alométricas para estimar la biomasa aérea de árboles de Quercus laurina Humb. & Bonpl. y Q. crassifolia Humb. & Bonpl., en un bosque de la comunidad de Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca, México. Se muestrearon 16 árboles por cada especie, distribuidos en seis categorías diamétricas y se determinó la biomasa en fuste con corteza, ramas y follaje. Se evaluaron diferentes modelos de regresión con base en la bondad de ajuste y validez de sus indicadores estadísticos. Se eligió la ecuación exponencial de la forma Biomasa = e[-?o+?1 ln(DN2xAT)], para calcular la biomasa (kg) en función al diámetro normal (DN, cm) y altura total (AT, m) de los árboles. La biomasa aérea total se estimó en 100,15 Mg ha-1 para Q. laurina y 129,97 Mg ha-1 para Q. crassifolia. La distribución proporcional de biomasa por compartimento de Q. laurina fue 82,9%; 14,9% y 2,2% para fustes, ramas y follaje, respectivamente, mientras que para Q. crassifolia la distribución fue 82,3%; 16,0% y 1,7%; en el mismo orden. Abstract in english Estimating tree biomass is a means to determine the existing amounts of organic carbon in each of the tree components. Studies of biomass for Quercus species are scarce in Mexico, even though the country is considered a distribution center. The aim of this study was to generate allometric equations [...] for estimating aboveground biomass of trees Quercus laurina Humb. & Bonpl. and Q crassifolia Humb. & Bonpl., in a forest community of Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca, México. Sixteen trees were sampled per species, distributed in six diameter categories and biomass was determined in stem bark, branches and foliage. Different regression models were evaluated based on fitness and validity of their statistical indicators. An exponential equation was chosen in the form of Biomasa = e[-?o+?1 ln(DN2xAT)], to calculate the biomass (kg) within a normal diameter (DN, cm) and total height (AT, m) of the trees. The total aboveground biomass was estimated at 100,15 Mg ha-1 for Q. laurina and 129,97 Mg ha-1 for Q. crassifolia. The proportional distribution of biomass per component of Q. laurina was 82,9%; 14,9% and 2,2% for stems, branches and foliage, respectively, while for Q. crassifolia the distribution was 82,3%; 16,0% and 1,7% in the same order.

  9. VO2max and body composition during puberty: comparison between children participating in systematic soccer training and children not training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Quenni Araujo de Vasconcelos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the VO2max and body composition during puberty. The sample consisted of 102 male children (aged 8 to 17 years old participating in systematic soccer training and 87 children not involved in any type of systematic sports training (control group. Subjects were classifi ed by the fi ve sexual maturity stages (Tanner, 1962. The percentage of body fat was estimated using Slaughter’s (1988 equation. The shuttle run test was used to determine VO2max (Léger, 1988. Two-way ANOVA and the Tukey post-hoc test were applied to the results of the dependent measures (p RESUMO O propósito deste estudo foi comparar os valores de VO2máx e composição corporal durante a puberdade, em indivíduos do sexo masculino, praticantes e não praticantes de futebol. A amostra compreendeu 102 adolescentes praticantes de futebol sistematizado e 87 não praticantes, na faixa etária de 8 a 17 anos, separados conforme os cinco estágios de maturação sexual proposto por Tanner (1962. O percentual de gordura corporal foi estimado pela equação de Slaughter (1988. O VO2máx foi determinado a partir do teste de Léger (1988. Para tratamento estatístico utilizaram-se ANOVA´S (two-way seguida pelo post-hoc de Tukey, com p<0,05. Para o percentual de gordura, observaram-se diferenças entre praticantes e não praticantes de futebol no estágio 1 (14,23±5,60 / 11,25±3,27 e 5 (12,52±4,20 / 15,57±3,56. O VO2máx (ml·kg-1·min-1 dos praticantes foram signifi cativamente superiores aos não praticantes em todos os estágios (Estágio 1: 52,75±3,93 / 49,55±2,58 ; Estágio 2: 53,00±4,49 / 47,95±2,38 ; Estágio 3: 54,32±3,29 / 48,36±2,30; Estágio 4: 54,35±4,3 / 44,06±2,53; Estágio 5: 53,24±3,78 / 39,69±4,84. Os praticantes de treinamento de futebol apresentaram melhores níveis de aptidão cardiorrespiratória, comparados aos seus pares não praticantes.

  10. E-LEARNING SOLUTIONS IN EDUCATION OF PEDAGOGIC EMPLOYEES / E-learningové riešenia vo vzdelávaní pedagogických zamestnancov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubeková Miroslava

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the requirements on qualitative forms and methods of education, Methodical-pedagogical centre, has prepared a project supporting teaching with use of modern educaton methods with sponzorship from ESF For providing such an extensive project the Methodical-pedagogical centre used e-learning environment. The first part of article emphasizes the importance of teachers education in the new socio-economical conditions. It defines the needs of teachers in the field of using ICT during the education process. It describes forms and methods suitable for gaining new competencies. The second part of the article gives us the information abouth e-learning portal of the project „Functional literacy of teachers in information technologies - use of ICT in subjects". The modules are using the different possibilities of MOODLE interface. Author evaluates the interest of teachers for e-learning and the feedback from lectu-trers. The third part of the article presents first experience of using videoconference in the field of education of teachers, on example of a conference aimed to use of ICT in the work of elementary and high school teachers (in the preparation for teaching and also in the teaching process itself.Na základe potreby zvyšovania k?ú?ových kompetencií pedagogických zamestnancov bol s finan?nou podporou ESF pripravený projekt na podporu vyu?ovania s využitím moderných vyu?ovacích metód. Na zabezpe?enie rozsiahleho projektu v oblasti využívania informa?ných technológií a na zvýšenie efektívnosti vzdelávania pedagogických zamestnancov využilo Metodicko-pedagogické centrum v Tren?íne e-learningové prostredie. Príspevok v prvej ?asti poukazuje na význam vzdelávania u?ite?ov v nových spolo?ensko-eko-nomických podmienkach. Definuje potreby u?ite?ov v oblasti využívania IKT na vyu?ovaní a predstavuje formy a metódy vhodné na získanie nových kompetencií. V druhej ?asti príspevku je predstavený e-learningový portál projektu Funk?ná gramotnos? u?ite?ov v informa?ných technológiách - využitie IKT vo vyu?ovacích predmetoch. Jednotlivé vzdelávacie moduly rozli?nou mierou využívajú možnosti prostredia MOODLE. Autor vyhodnocuje záujem pedagógov o e-learningové vzdelávanie a skúsenosti lektorov zo vzdelávania. V tretej ?asti príspevku sú predstavené prvé skúsenosti využitia videokonferencie v oblasti vzdelávania pedagógov na príklade konferencie zameranej na využívanie informa?ných technológií v práci pedagógov základných a stredných škôl - v príprave na vyu?ovanie i vo vlastnom vyu?ovacom procese.

  11. Efecto de nutrientes sobre la producción de biomasa del hongo medicinal Ganoderma lucidum / Effect of nutrients in the biomass production of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana María, Torres López; Juan Carlos, Quintero Díaz; Lucía, Atehortua Garcés.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El hongo Ganoderma lucidum, en los constituyentes de su biomasa, tiene compuestos con propiedades benéficas para la salud; es por esto que el conocimiento de las condiciones nutricionales adecuadas para su crecimiento permitirá su producción industrial y a bajo costo. En este trabajo se evaluó a niv [...] el de matraz el efecto de la relación C/N, y la presencia de diferentes fuentes de carbono, nitrógeno y micronutrientes sobre la producción de biomasa. Empleando glucosa y peptona como fuentes de carbono y nitrógeno, respectivamente, se encontró una relación C/N óptima de 16,7:1 para la cual la máxima producción de biomasa fue de 25 g/L. Manteniendo esta relación C/N, y sustituyendo la glucosa por lactosa o harina de cebada y la peptona por extracto de levadura, la producción de biomasa se incrementó a 35 g/L. En presencia de harina de cebada la adición al medio de cultivo de sales de Mg y K, y de tiamina, no generó un mayor incremento en la producción de biomasa. La producción de biomasa de G. lucidum se ve favorecida por la presencia en el medio de cultivo de relaciones C/N cercanas a las reportadas conforme a la composición típica de los hongos, así como por la presencia de sustratos complejos como la harina de cebada que le aportan además de la fuente de carbono micronutrientes necesarios para su desarrollo. Abstract in english Ganoderma lucidum fungus has some biomass components with beneficial health properties. The knowledge about its nutritionals requirements for growing will favor its industrial production at lower cost. In this work, the effect of C/N ratio, the presence of different carbon, nitrogen and micronutrien [...] ts sources, on fungal biomass production, were evaluated. Using glucose and peptone as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, an optimal C/N ratio of 16,7:1 was found, for which the maximal biomass production was 25 g/L. Replacing glucose by lactose or barley flour and peptone by yeast extract at the same C/N ratio, the biomass production was enhanced to 35 g/L. With barley flour in the culture medium, the presence of Mg and K salts and thiamine did not turn out into a major increase of biomass. The G. lucidum biomass production is promoted by C/N ratios in the culture medium nearly equivalent to that found in the fungus, as well as the presence of complex substrates as barley flour which, additionally, contributes with important micronutrients along with the carbon source.

  12. La biomasa de los cultivos en el oecosistema. Sus beneficios agroecológicos / The biomass of the cultivations in the agroecosistema. Its benefits agroecological

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anirebis, Martínez Romero; Angel, Leyva Galán.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La biomasa es el resultado de la transformación de la energía solar en energía química. El hombre a través de la historia la ha utilizado no solo para su alimentación sino también para la alimentación de sus animales. Los avances de la ciencia promovieron el desarrollo agrario basado en la revolució [...] n verde, la cual solo promueve la producción de alimentos ya sea de uso humano o animal, marginando la importancia de la biomasa como enriquecedor del recurso suelo al disponerse de los insumos necesarios para sustituir su fertilidad natural. En la actualidad la producción y conservación de la biomasa de cualquier cultivo cobra una importancia trascendente; por que ello contribuye, además, a la protección medioambiental a través de la captura de carbono. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo demostrar la importancia que proporciona la biomasa generalmente no alimenticia para los humanos, a fin de emplearla no solo como alimento animal, sino también como enriquecedora del recurso natural suelo. Las investigaciones realizadas en Cuba sobre el tema es pobre, aun cuando en la actualidad resulta de gran importancia encontrar variantes que permitan profundizar en la producción de biomasa en su relación con el medio ambiente. Finalmente se exponen los resultados preliminares sobre producción de biomasa a partir de la agrobiodiversidad presente en los escenarios productivos, a la vez que se reflexiona sobre la importancia del tema para futuras investigaciones. Abstract in english Biomass is the result of the transformation of solar energy into chemical energy. The man throughout history has used not only for food but also for feeding their animals. The progress of science promoted agricultural development based on the green revolution, which only promotes the production of e [...] ither food or feed, marginalizing the importance of biomass as enriching the soil resources available inputs needed to replace their fertility natural. At present the production and preservation of any crop biomass becomes transcendent importance, because it also contributes to environmental protection through carbon sequestration. This study aimed to show the importance of providing non-food biomass generally for humans to use it not only as animal feed but also as a natural resource rich soil. Research in Cuba on the subject is poor, even though today is very important to find alternatives to deepen in the production of biomass in relation to the environment. Finally, we present preliminary results on the production of biomass from agricultural biodiversity present in production scenarios, while reflecting on the important question for future research.

  13. In situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of the structural stability in NdVO4 and LaVO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • NdVO4 and LaVO4 were studied under high pressure using synchrotron powder XRD. • Both compounds exhibit first-order phase transitions. • In NdVO4 the transition involves a symmetry breaking and in LaVO4 is isomorphic. • The crystal structures of the high-pressure phases are assigned. • Axial and bulk compressibilities are determined. - Abstract: Room-temperature angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements on zircon-type NdVO4 and monazite-type LaVO4 were performed in a diamond-anvil cell up to 12 GPa. In NdVO4, we found evidence for a non-reversible pressure-induced structural phase transition from zircon to a monazite-type structure at 6.5 GPa. Monazite-type LaVO4 also exhibits a phase transition but at 8.6 GPa. In this case the transition is reversible and isomorphic. In both compounds the pressure induced transitions involve a large volume collapse. Finally, the equations of state and axial compressibilities for the low-pressure phases are also determined

  14. Topotactic insertion of lithium in the layered structure Li4VO(PO4)2: The tunnel structure Li5VO(PO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new V(III) lithium phosphate Li5VO(PO4)2 has been synthesized by electrochemical insertion of lithium into Li4VO(PO4)2. This phase, which crystallizes in the space group I4/mcm, exhibits a tunnel structure closely related to the layered structure of Li4VO(PO4)2 and to the tunnel structure of VO(H2PO4)2. The topotactic reactions that take place during lithium exchange and intercalation, starting from VO(H2PO4)2 and going to the final phase Li5VO(PO4)2 are explained on the basis of the flexible coordinations of V4+ and V3+ species. The electrochemical and magnetic properties of this new phase are also presented and explained on the basis of the structure dimensionality. - Graphical abstract: Electrochemical synthesis of a new 3D V(III) lithium phosphate, Li5VO(PO4)2. Starting from the 2D Li4VO(PO4)2, the topotactic reaction that take place during lithium intercalation is explained on the basis of the flexible coordinations of V4+ and V3+ species

  15. Pulmonary and leg VO2 during submaximal exercise: implications for muscular efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, D. C.; Gaesser, G. A.; Hogan, M. C.; Knight, D. R.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    Insights into muscle energetics during exercise (e.g., muscular efficiency) are often inferred from measurements of pulmonary gas exchange. This procedure presupposes that changes of pulmonary O2 (VO2) associated with increases of external work reflect accurately the increased muscle VO2. The present investigation addressed this issue directly by making simultaneous determinations of pulmonary and leg VO2 over a range of work rates calculated to elicit 20-90% of maximum VO2 on the basis of prior incremental (25 or 30 W/min) cycle ergometry. VO2 for both legs was calculated as the product of twice one-leg blood flow (constant-infusion thermodilution) and arteriovenous O2 content difference across the leg. Measurements were made 3-5 min after each work rate imposition to avoid incorporation of the VO2 slow component above the lactate threshold. For all 17 subjects, the slope of pulmonary VO2 (9.9 +/- 0.2 ml O2.W-1.min-1) was not different (P greater than 0.05) from that for leg VO2 (9.2 +/- 0.6 ml O2.W-1.min-1). Estimation of "delta" efficiency (i.e., delta work accomplished divided by delta energy expended, calculated from slope of VO2 vs. work rate and a caloric equivalent for O2 of 4.985 cal/ml) using pulmonary VO2 measurements (29.1 +/- 0.6%) was likewise not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from that made using leg VO2 measurements (33.7 +/- 2.4%). These data suggest that the net VO2 cost of metabolic "support" processes outside the exercising legs changes little over a relatively broad range of exercise intensities. Thus, under the conditions of this investigation, changes of VO2 measured from expired gas reflected closely those occurring within the exercising legs.

  16. Determinants of time limit at velocity corresponding to VO2max in physically active individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson da Silva Novaes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between time limit (Tlim at VO2Máx velocity (VVO2Máx and the variables VO2Máx, VVO2Máx, running economy (RE, ventilatory threshold (VT, strength test (9-10 maximum repetitions, velocity at maximal anaerobic running test (VMART, vertical jump test and body fat percentage. The sample was composed of 18 male volunteers, aged between 18 and 45 years old, non-athletes, but physically active. The study was carried out during fi ve visits, on non-consecutive days and at approximately the same time each day: visit 1 - signature of informed consent form, medical history, anthropometric assessment, aerobic power test and familiarization with Tlim test; visit 2 - RE test and Tlim test; visit 3 - familiarization with VMART test; visit 4 - familiarization with vertical jump and 9-10 maximum repetition tests and VMART test; visit 5 - vertical jump and 9-10 maximum repetition tests. Low (r = 0.220 to – 0.359 and non-significant correlations (p = 0.281 to 0.935 were observed between Tlim and the selected variables, characterizing the low predictive value of Tlim for the sample studied. Thus, and because of the considerable inter-individual variability in Tlim, no variable was identified that was capable of satisfactorily predicting Tlim. Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a relação do tempo limite (Tlim na velocidade do VO2Máx (VVO2Máx com as variáveis VO2Máx, VVO2Máx, economia de corrida (EC, limiar ventilatório (LV, força isotônica (determinada pelo teste de 9-10 RM, velocidade no teste máximo de corrida anaeróbica (VMART, impulsão vertical e percentual de gordura (%G . A amostra foi composta por 18 voluntários do sexo masculino, com idade entre 18 e 45 anos, não atletas, regularmente ativos. O estudo foi realizado em cinco visitas, em dias não consecutivos e aproximadamente no mesmo horário, compostas de: visita 1 - assinatura do termo de consentimento, anamnese, avaliação antropométrica, teste de potência aeróbia e familiarização ao teste de Tlim; visita 2 - teste de EC e teste de Tlim; visita 3 - familiarização ao teste de VMART; visita 4 - familiarização aos testes de impulsão vertical e 9-10 RM e teste de VMART; visita 5 - testes de impulsão vertical e 9-10 RM. Foram observadas correlações baixas (r = 0,220 a - 0,359 e não significativas (p = 0,281 a 0,935 entre Tlim e as diversas variáveis selecionadas, o que caracteriza uma baixa qualidade preditiva para o TLim na amostra estudada. Neste sentido e tendo em vista a considerável variabilidade inter-indivíduos do TLim, não foi encontrada uma variável que pudesse predizê-lo satisfatoriamente.

  17. Biosorción de iones cobre con biomasa de algas y orujos deshidratados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero, L.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available They were carried out experiments of biosorption batch and in continuous to remove copper from aqueous solutions using as adsorbent green algae and olive residues under virgins conditions and chemically activated. The results of batch biosorption indicate that the algae present mayor elimination capacities than the waste of olives, with uptakes of copper of the order of 96 % using activated algae with dissolution of Na2SO4 under the optimum conditions. The results of the columns tests show that the virgin algae permits the removal of more copper ions than the activate algae, with removal efficiency of 98 % during the firth 20 min, a breakthrough time of 240 min and a saturation at time of 600 min. In the second cycle the regenerated biomass showed a best performance indicating that they can be used for another biosorption cycle.

    Se realizaron experimentos de biosorción batch y en continuo para remover cobre desde soluciones acuosas usando como adsorbentes algas verdes y residuos de aceituna en condiciones vírgenes y activadas químicamente. Los resultados de la biosorción a escala batch indican que las algas presentan mayor capacidad de eliminación que los orujos, alcanzándose captaciones de cobre del orden de 96 % con algas activadas con disoluciones de Na2SO4 bajo condiciones óptimas de las variables estudiadas. Los resultados de los ensayos en columna muestran que las algas vírgenes captan más iones cobre que las activadas con Na2SO4, con eficacias de eliminación del 98 % durante los primeros 20 min, con un tiempo de ruptura de 240 min y una saturación a los 600 min. Al ser sometidas a un segundo ciclo de biosorción, las algas regeneradas muestran un mejor rendimiento lo que indica que pueden ser usadas en otro ciclo de eliminación.

  18. Epitaxial growth of VO{sub 2} by periodic annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashman, J. W.; Paik, H.; Merz, T. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1501 (United States); Lee, J. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1501 (United States); Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Moyer, J. A.; Schiffer, P. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Misra, R. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Mundy, J. A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Spila, T. [Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Schubert, J. [Peter Grünberg Institute, PGI 9-IT, JARA-FIT, Research Centre Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Muller, D. A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Schlom, D. G., E-mail: schlom@cornell.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1501 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We report the growth of ultrathin VO{sub 2} films on rutile TiO{sub 2} (001) substrates via reactive molecular-beam epitaxy. The films were formed by the cyclical deposition of amorphous vanadium and its subsequent oxidation and transformation to VO{sub 2} via solid-phase epitaxy. Significant metal-insulator transitions were observed in films as thin as 2.3?nm, where a resistance change ?R/R of 25 was measured. Low angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy to study the film/substrate interface and revealed the vanadium to be tetravalent and the titanium interdiffusion to be limited to 1.6?nm.

  19. Gate-tunable gigantic lattice deformation in VO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the impact of electric field on crystal lattice of vanadium dioxide (VO2) in a field-effect transistor geometry by in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. Whereas the c-axis lattice parameter of VO2 decreases through the thermally induced insulator-to-metal phase transition, the gate-induced metallization was found to result in a significant increase of the c-axis length by almost 1% from that of the thermally stabilized insulating state. We also found that this gate-induced gigantic lattice deformation occurs even at the thermally stabilized metallic state, enabling dynamic control of c-axis lattice parameter by more than 1% at room temperature

  20. Vanadium oxide bronzes in Na2O - CaO - MO - V2O5 (M = Mg, Ni) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium phase diagrams (pO2 = 21 kPa, subsolidus temperatures) of the Na2O - CaO - MgO - V2O5 and Na2O - CaO - NiO - V2O5 four-component systems were constructed in the fields of NaVO3 - Ca(VO3)2 - Mg2V2O7 - V2O5 and NaVO3 - Ca(VO3)2 - Ni3(VO4)2 - V2O5 accordingly. It was shown that formed oxide vanadium bronzes were present in the equilibrium with all (meta-, pyro-, and ortho-) nickel vanadates, with magnesium meta- and pyrovanadates and calcium metavanadate and they were free of Ca2V2O7 and Ca3(VO4)2. Constructed phase diagrams indicating the reactivity of complex oxide systems including oxide V2O5 may be physicochemical reason of some optimum technological parameters used in the vanadium separation from multicomponent raw material

  1. Producción de biomasa de Saccharomyces cerevisiae y Candida utilis usando residuos de pulpa de Coffea arabica L

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María J, Gualtieri A; Carolina, Villalta R; Lorena E, Díaz T; Gerardo, Medina; Elisa, Lapenna; María E, Rondón.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los avances en biotecnología industrial ofrecen oportunidades potenciales para la utilización económica de residuos agro-industriales tales como la pulpa de café, material mucilaginoso, fibroso (producto secundario) obtenido durante el proceso húmedo o seco del beneficio de las cerezas de café. El p [...] ropósito de este trabajo fue utilizar los residuos de la pulpa de café, rico en materia orgánica, como sustrato para la producción de biomasa de levaduras por procesos de fermentación aeróbica. Los residuos de café se sometieron a hidrólisis con una solución de ácido sulfúrico al 2%, en una relación 10:1 (líquido:sólido), con un tamaño de partícula ? 2 mm., operando a presión atmosférica, ebullición a reflujo, durante 4 horas. El extracto ácido se filtró y se ajustó a pH 4,5 y luego se esterilizó a 120 ºC por 15 minutos. La fermentación se realizó con Saccharomyces cerevisiae y Candida utilis, medio de producción extracto de café enriquecido con sales nutritivas. Se formularon diferentes medios de producción (1,2,3 y 4), siendo el N°3, enriquecido con extracto de café hidrolizado, 1L; urea, 3g/L; fosfato ácido de potasio, 2g/L; extracto de malta, 1,3g/L y melaza, 30g/L, el cual aportó los mejores resultados. El tiempo total de fermentación fue de 8 horas. Se obtuvo 10g/L de biomasa con un incremento proteico de 7,39 a 42,5%. Se puede concluir que la pulpa de café constituye un sustrato adecuado para obtener biomasa o proteína unicelular, que podría ser destinada como suplemento en formulaciones para alimentación animal Abstract in english The advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for the economic use of agro-industrial remainders such as the coffee pulp, mucilagenous, fibrous material (secondary product) obtained during the humid or dry process of the benefit of the coffee cherries. The intention of this [...] work was to use the remainders of the pulp of coffee, rich in organic matter, like substrate for the production of biomass of leavenings by processes of aerobic fermentation. The coffee remainders were put under hydrolysis with a sulfuric acid solution to 2%, in a 10:1 relation (liquid: solid), with a size of particle ? 2 mm, operating to atmospheric pressure, boiling to ebb tide, during 4 hours. The acid extract filtered and it adjusted to pH 4,5 and then it sterilize to 120 ºC by 15 minutes. The fermentation was made with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis, the production means: extract of coffee enriched with nutritious salts. Different means from production were formulated (1,2,3 and 4), being the N°3, enriched with extract of hydrolyzed coffee, 1L; urea, 3g/L; acid potassium phosphate, 2g/L; extract of Malta, 1,3g/L and molasses, 30g/L, which contributed the best results. The total time of fermentation was of 8 hours. 10g/L of biomass with a protein increase from 7.39 to 42.5% was obtained. It is possible to be concluded that the coffee pulp constitutes an suitable substrate to obtain biomass or unicellular protein, that could be destined like supplement in formulations for feeding animal

  2. Producción de biomasa de Saccharomyces cerevisiae y Candida utilis usando residuos de pulpa de Coffea arabica L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Gualtieri A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los avances en biotecnología industrial ofrecen oportunidades potenciales para la utilización económica de residuos agro-industriales tales como la pulpa de café, material mucilaginoso, fibroso (producto secundario obtenido durante el proceso húmedo o seco del beneficio de las cerezas de café. El propósito de este trabajo fue utilizar los residuos de la pulpa de café, rico en materia orgánica, como sustrato para la producción de biomasa de levaduras por procesos de fermentación aeróbica. Los residuos de café se sometieron a hidrólisis con una solución de ácido sulfúrico al 2%, en una relación 10:1 (líquido:sólido, con un tamaño de partícula ? 2 mm., operando a presión atmosférica, ebullición a reflujo, durante 4 horas. El extracto ácido se filtró y se ajustó a pH 4,5 y luego se esterilizó a 120 ºC por 15 minutos. La fermentación se realizó con Saccharomyces cerevisiae y Candida utilis, medio de producción extracto de café enriquecido con sales nutritivas. Se formularon diferentes medios de producción (1,2,3 y 4, siendo el N°3, enriquecido con extracto de café hidrolizado, 1L; urea, 3g/L; fosfato ácido de potasio, 2g/L; extracto de malta, 1,3g/L y melaza, 30g/L, el cual aportó los mejores resultados. El tiempo total de fermentación fue de 8 horas. Se obtuvo 10g/L de biomasa con un incremento proteico de 7,39 a 42,5%. Se puede concluir que la pulpa de café constituye un sustrato adecuado para obtener biomasa o proteína unicelular, que podría ser destinada como suplemento en formulaciones para alimentación animalThe advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for the economic use of agro-industrial remainders such as the coffee pulp, mucilagenous, fibrous material (secondary product obtained during the humid or dry process of the benefit of the coffee cherries. The intention of this work was to use the remainders of the pulp of coffee, rich in organic matter, like substrate for the production of biomass of leavenings by processes of aerobic fermentation. The coffee remainders were put under hydrolysis with a sulfuric acid solution to 2%, in a 10:1 relation (liquid: solid, with a size of particle ? 2 mm, operating to atmospheric pressure, boiling to ebb tide, during 4 hours. The acid extract filtered and it adjusted to pH 4,5 and then it sterilize to 120 ºC by 15 minutes. The fermentation was made with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis, the production means: extract of coffee enriched with nutritious salts. Different means from production were formulated (1,2,3 and 4, being the N°3, enriched with extract of hydrolyzed coffee, 1L; urea, 3g/L; acid potassium phosphate, 2g/L; extract of Malta, 1,3g/L and molasses, 30g/L, which contributed the best results. The total time of fermentation was of 8 hours. 10g/L of biomass with a protein increase from 7.39 to 42.5% was obtained. It is possible to be concluded that the coffee pulp constitutes an suitable substrate to obtain biomass or unicellular protein, that could be destined like supplement in formulations for feeding animal

  3. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiadong Zhou; Yanfeng Gao; Zongtao Zhang; Hongjie Luo; Chuanxiang Cao; Zhang Chen; Lei Dai; Xinling Liu

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first...

  4. Metallic properties of perovskite oxide SrVO 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Masashige; Ohta, Hiroshi; Nagasawa, Hiroshi

    1991-07-01

    Physical properties of the MVO 3 ( M= Sr and Ca) perovskite system and the related compound Sr 8V 8O 25 have been studied by the electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and NMR measurements. It has been pointed out that the magnetic properties of SrVO 3 are almost explained with a free electron model, where the electron-electron correlation seems to be small, and the electron transport is possibly due to the orbital mixing between the d? and oxygen p?.

  5. Implementation of Cloud Computing into VoIP

    OpenAIRE

    Gerea, Floriana

    2012-01-01

    This article defines Cloud Computing and highlights key concepts, the benefits of using virtualization, its weaknesses and ways of combining it with classical VoIP technologies applied to large scale businesses. The analysis takes into consideration management strategies and resources for better customer orientation and risk management all for sustaining the Service Level Agreement (SLA). An important issue in cloud computing can be security and for this reason there are several security solu...

  6. Implementation of Cloud Computing into VoIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana GEREA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article defines Cloud Computing and highlights key concepts, the benefits of using virtualization, its weaknesses and ways of combining it with classical VoIP technologies applied to large scale businesses. The analysis takes into consideration management strategies and resources for better customer orientation and risk management all for sustaining the Service Level Agreement (SLA. An important issue in cloud computing can be security and for this reason there are several security solution presented.

  7. Performability Aspects of the Atlas Vo; Using Lmbench Suite

    OpenAIRE

    Georgatos, Fotis; Kouvakis, John; Kouretis, John

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Virtual Organization is grid's largest Virtual Organization which is currently in full production stage. Hereby a case is being made that a user working within that VO is going to face a wide spectrum of different systems, whose heterogeneity is enough to count as "orders of magnitude" according to a number of metrics; including integer/float operations, memory throughput (STREAM) and communication latencies. Furthermore, the spread of performance does not appear t...

  8. Charging of SAML-based federated VoIP services

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, D. J.; Lamp, D.; Mandic, P.; Hecht, F.; Stiller, B.

    2010-01-01

    Whilst SAML-based federations are most often used by academic and semi-commercial institutions that focus only on attribute-based authentication, we foresee a growing interest for service providers providing charged services. Since more and more academic and semi-commercial federation participants offer Voice-over-IP (VoIP) services, this type of service provides an entry point into identity federation based payment. Therefore, this paper describes an approach on how to h...

  9. Accuracy of peak VO2 assessments in career firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong OiSaeng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of on-duty death in United States firefighters. Accurately assessing cardiopulmonary capacity is critical to preventing, or reducing, cardiovascular events in this population. Methods A total of 83 male firefighters performed Wellness-Fitness Initiative (WFI maximal exercise treadmill tests and direct peak VO2 assessments to volitional fatigue. Of the 83, 63 completed WFI sub-maximal exercise treadmill tests for comparison to directly measured peak VO2 and historical estimations. Results Maximal heart rates were overestimated by the traditional 220-age equation by about 5 beats per minute (p 2 was overestimated by the WFI maximal exercise treadmill and the historical WFI sub-maximal estimation by ~ 1MET and ~ 2 METs, respectively (p 2 when compared to directly measured peak VO2. Conclusion Accurate assessment of cardiopulmonary capacity is critical in determining appropriate duty assignments, and identification of potential cardiovascular problems, for firefighters. Estimation of cardiopulmonary fitness improves using the revised 2008 WFI sub-maximal equation.

  10. Facile synthesis, phase transition, optical switching and oxidation resistance properties of belt-like VO2(A) and VO2(M) with a rectangular cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Belt-like VO2(A) with a rectangular cross section was synthesized. ? The formation mechanism of belt-like VO2(A) was proposed. ? Belt-like VO2(M) was prepared by the irreversible transformation of VO2(A). ? VO2(A) and VO2(M) can be used as the optical switching materials. ? VO2(A) and VO2(M) have good oxidation resistance below 400 °C in air. -- Abstract: Belt-like VO2(A) with a rectangular cross section (VA-RCS) was successfully synthesized using V2O5, H2C2O4·2H2O and H2O as the starting materials by a facile hydrothermal approach. Some synthetic parameters, such as, the reaction time, reaction temperature and concentration of H2C2O4·2H2O, were systematically investigated to control the fabrication of belt-like VA-RCS. The formation mechanism of belt-like VA-RCS was proposed. Subsequently, belt-like VO2(M) with a rectangular cross section (VM-RCS) was prepared by the irreversible transformation of VA-RCS at 700 °C for 2 h under the inert atmosphere. The phase transition temperature (Tc) of VA-RCS and VM-RCS was evaluated by DSC test. The optical switching properties of VA-RCS and VM-RCS were studied by the variable-temperature infrared spectra, and it was found that the as-obtained VA-RCS and VM-RCS could be used as the optical switching materials. Furthermore, the oxidation resistance properties of VA-RCS and VM-RCS were investigated by TGA, indicating that they have good thermal stability and oxidation resistance below 400 °C in air.

  11. Efecto de fertilización nitrogenada en la producción de biomasa y calidad de aceite esencial en Lippia alba (Miller, Pronto alivio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez O. M.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available En el Campo Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (CEUNP se realizó un ensayo para evaluar el efecto de la fertilización nitrogenada, aplicando dos fuentes (gallinaza y urea en dos niveles (50 y 100 kg/ha de nitrógeno y dos frecuencias de corte (dos y cuatro meses. En el lote experimental se situaron 15 parcelas, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con cinco tratamientos y tres repeticiones. Para el análisis de la información se utilizó el programa estadístico SAS. El máximo rendimiento de biomasa y aceites esenciales se obtuvo con la aplicación de 100 kg/ha de nitrógeno en forma de urea y la frecuencia de corte cada dos meses. Los niveles de extracción de Lippia alba en nitrógeno variaron entre 79.7 y 128.5; fósforo entre 24.5 y 30.5; potasio entre 114.6 y 138.8 y calcio entre 100 y 150 kg/ha. El aceite esencial estuvo compuesto mayoritariamente por carvona y limoneno. Palabras claves: Fertilización nitrogenada, Lippia alba, Rendimientos biomasa, aceites esenciales, pronto alivio. ABSTRACT Nitrogenous fertilization effects in the Lippia alba production and quality. In the Experimental Center of the National University of Colombia-Palmira (CEUNP a experiment was realized to evaluate the effect of the nitrogenous fertilization, using two sources (gallinaza and urea at two levels (50 and 100 kg/ha of nitrogen and two cutting frequencies (each two and four months. In the experimental area 15 plots were planted, in a randomized Complete Blocks design random (RCBD with five treatments and three repetitions to measure the following variables: production of fresh matter, content of dry matter, nutrients extraction and content of essential oils. The analysis of variance used the statistical program SAS. The maximum yield of biomass and essential was obtained oils combining the fertilization with 100 kg/ha of nitrogen as urea and the cutting frequency every of two months. The levels of nutrients extraction of Lippia alba varied between 79.7 and 128.5 kg/ha of nitrogen, 24.5 and 30.5 kg/ha of phosphorus, 114.6 and 138.8 Kg/ha of potassium and between 100 y 150 kg/ha of Calcium. The phytochemical analyses showed that the essential oil was mainly composed by carvona and limoneno. Key words: Nitrogenous Fertilization, Lippia alba, yields, biomass, essential oils.

  12. Variaciones de abundancia y biomasa del zooplancton en un embalse tropical oligo-mesotrófico del norte de Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Merayo; Ernesto J, González.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La abundancia del zooplancton en los embalses está determinada principalmente por la velocidad y el contenido del agua, pero se sabe relativamente poco sobre los embalses tropicales. Se estudió la distribución temporal y espacial de la abundancia y la biomasa del zooplancton en el eje longitudinal d [...] el embalse de Clavellinos, en el norte de Venezuela, entre octubre 2006 y septiembre 2007. El zooplancton fue recolectado en el estrato oxigenado con una red de plancton. Un total de 16 taxones fueron identificados: Copepoda, Cladocera, Rotifera, Ostracoda y Diptera. Thermocyclops decipiens (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) dominó la comunidad, mientras que los rotíferos fueron los más diversos, con 10 especies. La abundancia del zooplancton varió de 31 a 101ind/l en E1, 36 a 84ind/l en E2, y, de 30 a 250ind/L en el E3. La biomasa varió de 97,4 a 1406.3?g/l en E1, 108,5 a 397.2?g/l en E2, y de 25,9 a 763.9?g/l en el E3. Esta comunidad de zooplancton pareci? responder a las variaciones ambientales en el embalse, m?s que a las variaciones en la disponibilidad de recursos. Abstract in english Variations of zooplankton abundance and biomass in a tropical oligo-mesotrophic reservoir in Northern Venezuela. Zooplankton abundance in reservoirs is mainly determined by the speed and content of the water, but relatively little is known regarding tropical reservoirs. We studied the seasonal and s [...] patial distribution of zooplankton abundance and biomass along the longitudinal axis of Clavellinos reservoir, northern Venezuela, from October 2006 to September 2007. Zooplankton was collected from the oxygenated layer using a plankton net. A total of 16 taxa were identified: Copepoda, Cladocera, Rotifera, Ostracoda and Diptera. Thermocyclops decipiens (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) dominated the community, while rotifers were the most diverse, with 10 species. Zooplankton abundance varied from 31 to 101ind/L in E1, 36 to 84ind/L in E2, and, from 30 to 250ind/L in E3. Biomass varied from 97.4 to 1406.3?g/l in E1, 108.5 to 397.2?g/l in E2, and from 25.9 to 763.9?g/l in E3. This zooplankton community seems to respond to environmental variations in the reservoir, rather than to variations in resource availability. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2): 603-619. Epub 2010 June 02.

  13. Variaciones de abundancia y biomasa del zooplancton en un embalse tropical oligo-mesotrófico del norte de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Merayo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La abundancia del zooplancton en los embalses está determinada principalmente por la velocidad y el contenido del agua, pero se sabe relativamente poco sobre los embalses tropicales. Se estudió la distribución temporal y espacial de la abundancia y la biomasa del zooplancton en el eje longitudinal del embalse de Clavellinos, en el norte de Venezuela, entre octubre 2006 y septiembre 2007. El zooplancton fue recolectado en el estrato oxigenado con una red de plancton. Un total de 16 taxones fueron identificados: Copepoda, Cladocera, Rotifera, Ostracoda y Diptera. Thermocyclops decipiens (Copepoda, Cyclopoida dominó la comunidad, mientras que los rotíferos fueron los más diversos, con 10 especies. La abundancia del zooplancton varió de 31 a 101ind/l en E1, 36 a 84ind/l en E2, y, de 30 a 250ind/L en el E3. La biomasa varió de 97,4 a 1406.3?g/l en E1, 108,5 a 397.2?g/l en E2, y de 25,9 a 763.9?g/l en el E3. Esta comunidad de zooplancton pareci? responder a las variaciones ambientales en el embalse, m?s que a las variaciones en la disponibilidad de recursos.Variations of zooplankton abundance and biomass in a tropical oligo-mesotrophic reservoir in Northern Venezuela. Zooplankton abundance in reservoirs is mainly determined by the speed and content of the water, but relatively little is known regarding tropical reservoirs. We studied the seasonal and spatial distribution of zooplankton abundance and biomass along the longitudinal axis of Clavellinos reservoir, northern Venezuela, from October 2006 to September 2007. Zooplankton was collected from the oxygenated layer using a plankton net. A total of 16 taxa were identified: Copepoda, Cladocera, Rotifera, Ostracoda and Diptera. Thermocyclops decipiens (Copepoda, Cyclopoida dominated the community, while rotifers were the most diverse, with 10 species. Zooplankton abundance varied from 31 to 101ind/L in E1, 36 to 84ind/L in E2, and, from 30 to 250ind/L in E3. Biomass varied from 97.4 to 1406.3?g/l in E1, 108.5 to 397.2?g/l in E2, and from 25.9 to 763.9?g/l in E3. This zooplankton community seems to respond to environmental variations in the reservoir, rather than to variations in resource availability. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2: 603-619. Epub 2010 June 02.

  14. REDUCCIÓN DE LA BIOMASA DEL PINO CARRASCO (PINUS HALEPENSIS EN UN ÁREA DEL SURESTE SEMIÁRIDO PENINSULAR COMO ESTRATEGIA PARA EVITAR EL ESTRÉS HÍDRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Belmonte Serrato

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En las épocas de fuertes sequías, la vegetación mediterránea sufre un estado de estrés hídrico prolongado que le obliga a adoptar diversas estrategias de supervivencia, entre las que fi guran, como último recurso, y antes de llegar a superar su capacidad de resilencia, la reducción de la biomasa de hojas. En este trabajo se pone de manifi esto como algunos ejemplares de Pinus halepensis existentes en el área de estudio (el campo experimental de El Ardal, Murcia, redujeron apreciablemente su biomasa aérea en respuesta a la sequía, que se manifestó en un importante aumento de la producción de hojarasca. La producción de hojarasca se relaciona además de con la precipitación registrada en el periodo de estudio, con la humedad del suelo, parámetro clave en la supervivencia de la vegetación en ambientes secos.

  15. Building a VO-compliant Radio Astronomical DAta Model for Single-dish radio telescopes (RADAMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Santander-Vela, J D; Leon, S; Espigares, V; Ruiz, J E; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Solano, E

    2012-01-01

    The Virtual Observatory (VO) is becoming the de-facto standard for astronomical data publication. However, the number of radio astronomical archives is still low in general, and even lower is the number of radio astronomical data available through the VO. In order to facilitate the building of new radio astronomical archives, easing at the same time their interoperability with VO framework, we have developed a VO-compliant data model which provides interoperable data semantics for radio data. That model, which we call the Radio Astronomical DAta Model for Single-dish (RADAMS) has been built using standards of (and recommendations from) the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). This article describes the RADAMS and its components, including archived entities and their relationships to VO metadata. We show that by using IVOA principles and concepts, the effort needed for both the development of the archives and their VO compatibility has been lowered, and the joint development of two radio astronom...

  16. Producción de biomasa y costos de producción de pastos estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis, kikuyo (Kikuyuocloa clandestina y ryegrass perenne (Lolium perenne en lecherías de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Villalobos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de biomasa, los costos de producción y el costo del kilogramo de materia seca en los pastos kikuyo (Kikuyuocloa clandestina, ryegrass perenne (Lolium perenne y estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis, a lo largo de un año, en 8 fincas comerciales ubicadas en las provincias de Cartago (2, San José (2 y Alajuela (4. La producción de biomasa promedio por ciclo para los 3 pastos fue de 3395 kg.ha-1 MS; la producción anual se ve influenciada por los días de recuperación de cada especie, mostrando valores de 40 170, 38 731 y 28 995 kg.ha-1 de MS para los pastos estrella africana, kikuyo y ryegrass perenne, respectivamente. La producción de biomasa varía durante el año y en las épocas de mayor producción de esa biomasa, los animales tienen un menor aprovechamiento de la pastura en términos porcentuales, debido a que la carga animal, los períodos de permanencia y las áreas de pastoreo no se ajustan a la disponibilidad de forraje. Los costos anuales de mano de obra, insumos y tierra promedio fueron de 72.433, 505.515 y 18.760 colones.ha-1, respectiva- mente; siendo los insumos el rubro con un peso relativo mayor en la estructura de costos de las fincas en pastoreo. Los costos del kg de MS producido y consumido, para los 3 pastos evaluados, fueron de 16,6 y 44,4 colones respectivamente, siendo el aprovechamiento que los animales hacen de las pasturas el determinante del costo del material consumido. Las fincas con mayor inversión anual en pasturas, mostraron un mayor retorno en kg.ha-1 leche.

  17. A importância do limiar anaeróbio e do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 máx.) em jogadores de futebol / The importance of the anaerobic threshold and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 PEAK) for soccer players

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Roberto Santos, Silva; Angela, Romano; Alberto Azevedo Alves, Teixeira; Ana Maria, Visconti; Carla Dal Maso Nunes, Roxo; Gilberto Silva, Machado; José Roberto Rivelino, Vidal; Luís Antonio, Inarra.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi fazer uma abordagem sobre a importância do limiar anaeróbio (LA) e o consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2máx.) em jogadores de futebol e comparar os resultados encontrados em nossos futebolistas com os da literatura especializada. Foram avaliados 18 jogadores de futebol profis [...] sional, com média de idade de 24 ± 4 anos, peso de 72,5 ± 5,9kg; estatura de 176,5 ± 7,0cm e superfície corpórea de 1,91 ± 0,15m². Todos os atletas foram avaliados após um período de dois meses de treinamentos. Os futebolistas foram submetidos a teste máximo em esteira ergométrica, utilizando-se protocolo escalonado e contínuo. A resposta de freqüência cardíaca (FC) foi registrada por meio de um eletrocardiógrafo (HeartWare) de 12 derivações simultâneas e, a pressão arterial (PA), por meio de método auscultatório. A ventilação pulmonar (V E), o consumo de oxigênio (VO2), a produção de dióxido de carbono (VCO2) e a razão de troca respiratória (RER) foram avaliados por método espirométrico computadorizado respiração-a-respiração (MedGraphics Corporation [MGC]). Os seguintes resultados foram verificados: no (LA): [FC = 173,6 ± 8,6bpm; VO2 = 55,78 ± 5,93ml.kg.-1.min-1; velocidade = 14,6 ± 1,0km.h-1]; no exercício máximo [FC = 189,5 ± 11,4bpm; V E = 134,1 ± 15,9L.min-1; VO2máx. = 63,75 ± 4,93ml.kg.-1.min-1; velocidade = 17,8 ± 1,0km.h-1; Borg = 18,3 ± 1,3 pontos]. Concluindo: Os resultados, comparados com os da literatura especializada na modalidade futebol, demonstraram que os índices de LA e VO2máx. foram semelhantes e, até mesmo, superiores a vários de estudos publicados sobre essas duas variáveis em jogadores de futebol profissional. Entretanto, considerando as posições dos jogadores, não há um consenso definido sobre os índices mais adequados de LA e VO2máx. em futebolistas, mas, sim, sugestões. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to make an approach on the importance of the anaerobic threshold (AT) and the peak oxygen uptake in soccer players, and compare the results found in players to those existing in the specialized literature. An evaluation was made in 18 professional soccer players aged 24 ± 4 [...] ; weight 72.5 ± 5.9 kg; height 176.5 ± 7.0 cm, and body surface 1.91 ± 0.15 m². Every athlete was evaluated after a 2 month training period. The soccer players were submitted to a maximum exercise test on treadmill, using incremental continuous protocol. The heart rate (HR) was recorded by means of an electrocardiograph (HeartWare) with 12 simultaneous leads and the arterial blood pressure (BP) by auscultation method. The pulmonary ventilation (V E), the oxygen uptake (VO2), the carbon dioxide production (VCO2) and the respiratory exchange rate (RER) were evaluated by means of the breath-by-breath spirometric computerized method (MedGraphics Corporation-MGC). The following results were verified in the AT: HR = 173.6 ± 8.6 bpm; VO2 = 55.78 ± 5.93 mlO2.kg-1.min-1; running velocity = 14.6 ± 1.0 km.h-1; maximum exercise: HR = 189.5 ± 11.4 bpm; V E = 134.1 ± 15.9 L.min-1; VO2 peak = 63.75 ± 4.93 mlO2.kg-1.min-1; maximum velocity = 17.8 ± 1.0 km.h-1; Borg scale = 18.3 ± 1.3 points. In conclusion, the results, when compared to those of specialized literature, proved the rate of AT and VO2 peak to be similar and even superior to several results published about such two variables in professional soccer players. Considering, however, the players' position, there is no definite consensus on the most adequate AT rates and VO2 peak in soccer players, but only suggestions.

  18. VoIP Technology: Investigation of QoS and Security Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Amor Lazzez

    2014-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) is the technology allowing voice traffic transmission as data packets over a private or a public IP network. VoIP allows significant benefits for customers and communication services providers. The main are cost savings, rich media service, phone and service portability and mobility, and the integration with other applications. Nevertheless, the deployment of the VoIP technology encounters many challenges such as architecture complexity, interoperability problems, QoS co...

  19. Peer-to-Peer VoIP Communications Using Anonymisation Overlay Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ge; Fischer-hu?bner, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) which enables voice conversation remotely over packet switched networks gains much attentions for its low costs and flexible services. However, VoIP calling anonymity, particularly to withhold "who called whom", is difficult to achieve since VoIP infrastructures are usually deployed in an open networking environment (e.g., the Internet). Our work studies an anonymisation overlay network (AON) based solution to prevent surveillance from external at...

  20. Impact of VoIP and QoS on Open and Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P. C.; Jasola, Sanjay; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    2006-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is becoming a reality in many organizations. The potential for mobility in voice over wi-fi networks will derive demand for the technology. Wireless VoIP is poised to rival VoIP as an alternative telephony tool. Internet has been used to transport data in the form of packet. In the past, Internet did not support…

  1. Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tunability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qi-Ye; Zhang, Huai-Wu; Yang, Qing-Hui; Xie, Yun-Song; Chen, Kang; Liu, Ying-Li

    2010-07-01

    An active terahertz (THz) metamaterial with vanadium dioxide (VO2) cut-wire resonators fabricated on glass substrate was proposed, and THz time-domain spectroscopy was used to probe the temperature-tuned electromagnetic properties. By thermal-triggering the insulator-metal phase transition of VO2, THz transmission signals through the metamaterial exhibit a significant decline with amplitude over 65%. Numerical simulations confirm the observations are due to the metallization of the VO2 film with increasing temperature.

  2. A study of mobile VoIP performance in wireless broadband networks

    OpenAIRE

    Arjona, Andres

    2009-01-01

    Voice service is to date still the killer mobile service and the main source for operator revenue for years to come. Additionally, voice service will evolve from circuit switched technologies towards packet based Voice over IP (VoIP). However, using VoIP over wireless networks different from 3GPP cellular technologies makes it also a disruptive technology in the traditional telecommunication sector. The focus of this dissertation is on determining mobile VoIP performance in different wir...

  3. Effects of aluminum substitution on photocatalytic property of BiVO4 under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Visible-light-driven Al/BiVO4 photocatalyst was prepared by a hydrothermal process. After introducing Al, the BiVO4 particles retain monoclinic scheelite structures and the ability of visible light absorption is enhanced. XPS and FTIR results reveal that the Al ions influence the local structure of the BiVO4. The photocatalytic experiments demonstrate that the Al species incorporation can effectively enhance the photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 due to the existence of distorted VO43? tetrahedron and the stronger optical absorption intensity. Highlights: ? The visible-light-driven Al/BiVO4 photocatalysts are first prepared in our study. ? It is found that Al is introduced into the BiVO4 lattice successfully. ? The Al-doped BiVO4 shows a far higher photocatalytic activity than undoped BiVO4. ? One of the reason for the higher activity is the distorted VO43? tetrahedron. ? Another reason for the higher activity is the strong optical absorption intensity. -- Abstract: Novel visible-light-driven Al/BiVO4 photocatalysts were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method for the first time. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2-sorption, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the decomposition of methylene blue under visible light irradiation (400 nm 4. The results revealed that the introduction of Al can improve photocatalytic performance greatly and different concentration of Al resulted in different photocatalytic activity. The highest activity is obtained by the sample with a doping concentration of 12 at%. The reason for the enhanced photocatalytic activities of Al/BiVO4 samples was also discussed in this paper.

  4. Active Timing Based Approach for Tracking Anonymous Peer-to-peer Network in VoIP

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan.C; Karthikeyan V; Jerin Sajeev.C.R,; Merlin Moses.M,

    2013-01-01

    Peer-to-peer VoIP calls are popular due to theirlow cost and convenience. When these calls are encrypted andanonymized the network becomes a secured one. Tracing of theanonymous VoIP call users are important and the tracedinformation about them should be sent to the server to knowhow long the users are in communication.The key challenge in tracking encrypted VoIP calls acrossanonymous communication system is to identify the correlationbetween the VoIP flows of the caller and the callee. Since...

  5. Active Timing Based Approach for Tracking Anonymous Peer-to-peer Network in VoIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan.C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer VoIP calls are popular due to theirlow cost and convenience. When these calls are encrypted andanonymized the network becomes a secured one. Tracing of theanonymous VoIP call users are important and the tracedinformation about them should be sent to the server to knowhow long the users are in communication.The key challenge in tracking encrypted VoIP calls acrossanonymous communication system is to identify the correlationbetween the VoIP flows of the caller and the callee. Since all thetraffic of the peer-to-peer VoIP calls are encrypted, the best wayto track anonymous VoIP calls across the internet is using theActive timing based correlation. It is done by embedding aunique watermark into the inter-packet timing domain. Theanalysis shows that it only takes several milliseconds timeadjustment to make normal VoIP flows highly unique and theembedded delay value could be preserved across the low latencyanonymizing network. In this proposal, tracking of anonymousVoIP calls across internet was successfully achieved by usingactive time based correlation method and the resultsdemonstrate that tracing of anonymous peer-to-peer VoIP callson the internet is feasible and low latency anonymizing networksare susceptible to timing attacks.

  6. Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of VO2 thin films across metal–insulator transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizuka, Hinako; Yagi, Takashi; Jia, Junjun; Yamashita, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Shinichi; Taketoshi, Naoyuki; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2015-05-01

    Thermal conductivity of a 300-nm-thick VO2 thin film and its temperature dependence across the metal–insulator phase transition (TMIT) were studied using a pulsed light heating thermoreflectance technique. The VO2 and Mo/VO2/Mo films with a VO2 thickness of 300 nm were prepared on quartz glass substrates: the former was used for the characterization of electrical properties, and the latter was used for the thermal conductivity measurement. The VO2 films were deposited by reactive rf magnetron sputtering using a V2O3 target and an Ar–O2 mixture gas at 645 K. The VO2 films consisted of single phase VO2 as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and electron beam diffraction. With increased temperature, the electrical resistivity of the VO2 film decreased abruptly from 6.3 × 10?1 to 5.3 × 10?4 ? cm across the TMIT of around 325–340 K. The thermal conductivity of the VO2 film increased from 3.6 to 5.4 W m?1 K?1 across the TMIT. This discontinuity and temperature dependence of thermal conductivity can be explained by the phonon heat conduction and the Wiedemann–Franz law.

  7. Temperature-agile and structure-tunable optical properties of VO2/Ag thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By integrating together VO2's unique near-room-temperature (RT) semiconductor-metal (S-M) phase transition with a thin silver (Ag) layer's plasmonic properties, VO2/Ag multilayers could present a much enhanced optical transmission change when increasing the temperature from RT to over VO2's S-M phase-transition temperature. Changing VO2 and Ag layer thicknesses can also significantly tune their transmission and absorption properties, which could lead to a few useful designs in optoelectronic and energy-saving industries. (orig.)

  8. Efficient removal rhodamine B over hydrothermally synthesized fishbone like BiVO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fishbone like BiVO4 product was synthesized through hydrothermal method. • BiVO4 sample was characterized by various characterization technologies. • Fishbone like BiVO4 presented outstanding photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: Fishbone like BiVO4 product has been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method without using any surfactant or template. The pH value was found to play an important role in the formation of this morphology. The band gap of the as-prepared fishbone like BiVO4 sample was estimated to be about 2.36 eV from the onset of UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV–vis DRS) of the photocatalyst. The as-prepared fishbone like BiVO4 sample exhibited excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Over this catalyst, the 100% degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) (0.005 mmol L?1) was obtained after visible light irradiation (? > 420 nm) for 180 min. This is much higher than that of bulk BiVO4 sample prepared by solid-state reaction. The reason for the differences in the photocatalytic activities of fishbone like BiVO4 sample and bulk BiVO4 sample was further investigated

  9. Infrared characteristics of VO2 thin films for smart window and laser protection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) films with a low semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature of 45 °C were fabricated through direct current magnetron sputtering followed by a post-annealing. Atomic force microscopy measurements show that the VO2 grain size is about one hundred of nanometers. Infrared (IR) characteristic is well investigated by applying a He-Ne laser power intensity measurement, and the result reveals that the VO2 film exhibits excellent IR switching property. Furthermore, solar smart window and laser protection experiments demonstrate that the obtained VO2 thin film is a promising material for the application in related fields.

  10. Insights into Stabilization of the 99TcVO Core for Synthesis of 99TcVO Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Donna; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Howell, Robertha C.; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of technetium-99 (99Tc; t1/2: 2.1 105 years, max: 253 keV) materials is of importance in studies of the nuclear fuel cycle where Tc is a major fission product (6percent thermal yield from 235U and 239Pu), in understanding radioactive tank waste composition, and in identifying 99mTc compounds for nuclear medicine imaging. One of the most useful synthetic starting materials, (NBu4)TcOCl4, is susceptible to disproportionation in water to form TcO4 and TcIV species, especially TcO2 2H2O. This unwanted reaction is especially problematic when working with ligands bearing hard donor atoms, such as oxygen, where the stability with the soft TcV=O3+ core may be low. Polyoxometalates (POMs) are such ligands. They possess defect sites with four hard oxygen atoms and show low (ca. 108) stability constants with transition metals. Tc complexes of POMs are molecular-level models for Tc metal oxide solid-state materials and can provide information on coordination and redox environments of metal oxides that stabilize low-valent Tc. In order to synthesize pure Tc POM complexes [TcVO(1-P2W17O61)]7 (TcVO-1) and [TcVO(2-P2W17O61)]7 (TcVO-2) from (NBu4)TcOCl4, we have identified strategies that minimize formation of TcIV species and optimize the formation of pure TcV species. The parameters that we consider are the amount of ethylene glycol, which is employed as a transfer ligand to prevent hydrolysis of (NBu4)TcOCl4, and the precipitating agent. The TcIV species that contaminates the non-optimized syntheses is likely a TcIV -oxido-bridged dimer [TcIV-(-O)2-TcIV]. We also employ a novel procedure where the 2 ligand is photoactivated and reduced (in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor) to subsequently reduce TcVIIO4 to an isolatable TcVO-2 product that is remarkably free of TcIV.

  11. Biosorption of Pb (II) by Agave tequilana Weber (agave azul) biomass / Biosorpción de Pb (II) por biomasa de Agave tequilana Weber (agave azul)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Romero-González; F, Parra-Vargas; I, Cano-Rodríguez; E, Rodríguez; J, Ríos-Arana; R, Fuentes-Hernández; J, Ramírez-Flores.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio, la biomasa producida de los residuos industriales y el desecho agrícola del Agave tequilana Weber (Agave azul) generados en la producción de tequila, demostró un alto potencial para la remoción de Pb (II) de soluciones acuosas. La capacidad de biosorción de la biomasa de las hojas d [...] e Agave azul fue evaluada en experimentos en lote. Estos experimentos incluyeron perfil de pH, dependencia del tiempo y la determinación de la capacidad de adsorción. Los experimentos de dependencia del tiempo indicaron que la adsorción de los iones de Pb(II) por la biomasa de Agave azul fue dependiente del tiempo. Las isotermas de Freundlich y Langmuir fueron usadas para describir la biosorción del Pb (II) sobre la biomasa de las hojas del Agave azul a 298 K y un pH de 5.0. El coeficiente de correlación para la isoterma de Freundlich fue más alto que el respectivo coeficiente para la isoterma de Langmuir, indicando que solo el modelo de Freundlich describe los datos obtenidos. La máxima capacidad (K F) fue 105.52 10-2 moles/g para Pb (II). La capacidad de adsorción mostrada por la biomasa del Agave azul fue más alta que el valor promedio de los valores reportados en la literatura. Abstract in english In this study, the biomass produced from the industrial residues and agricultural waste of Agave tequilana Weber (Agave azul) generated in the production of tequila, demonstrated a high potential for Pb (II) removal from aqueous solution. The biosorption capacity of Agave azul leaves biomass was eva [...] luated in batch experiments. These experiments included pH profile, time dependence, and the determination of adsorption capacity. Time profile experiments indicated that the adsorption of Pb ions by Agave azul biomass was time-dependent. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to describe the biosorption of Pb (II) onto the Agave azul leaves biomass at 298 K and pH 5.0. The correlation coefficient for the Freundlich isotherm was much higher than the coefficient for the Langmuir isotherm, indicating that only the Freundlich models fits the data. The maximum capacity (K F) was 105.52 10-2 mole/g for Pb (II). The adsorption capacity showed by Agave azul biomass was higher than the average values reported in the literature.

  12. Conversión hidrotérmica subcrítica de residuos orgánicos y biomasa: Mecanismos de reacción / Subcritical hydrothermal conversion of organic wastes and biomass: Reaction pathways

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro Amadeus, Castro Vega; Luis Ignacio, Rodríguez Varela; José de Jesús, Díaz Velásquez.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La conversión hidrotérmica es un procedimiento que emula el proceso natural de conversión de la materia orgánica en un biocrudo con propiedades físico-químicas similares a las del petróleo. La transformación artificial de biomasa requiere conocer previamente las rutas de reacción y productos prevale [...] ntes. En la conversión de celulosa, el principal componente de la biomasa, se presenta despolimerización por hidrólisis y se obtienen oligosacáridos, los cuales presentan deshidratación y condensación retro-aldol, para transformarse en furfurales y ácidos carboxílicos. Otros componentes de la biomasa como lignina, proteínas y ésteres grasos, presentan rutas de reacción en las que coexisten la hidrólisis y la pirólisis. Dada la presencia de carbohidratos en la biomasa, los principales productos de su conversión hidrotérmica subcrítica y de sus residuos serán análogos a los que presenta la celulosa. Dichas sustancias tienen un valor agregado que supera considerablemente los costos de adquisición de la materia prima. Al representar en un gráfico las relaciones molares O/C, H/C de los principales productos de conversión hidrotérmica de biomasa reportados en la literatura, se evidencia que la trayectoria de evolución para los productos de conversión hacia biocrudos se traslapa con la evolución geológica de los combustibles fósiles. Abstract in english Hydrothermal conversion is a procedure which emulates organic matter’s natural conversion into bio-crude having physical and chemical properties analogous to petroleum. The artificial transformation of biomass requires previous knowledge of the main reaction routes and product availability. The main [...] component of biomass (depolymerisation by hydrolysis) is presented in hydrothermal cellulose conversion, producing oligosaccharides which exhibit dehydration and retro-aldol condensation reactions for transforming into furfurals and carboxylic acids. Other biomass components (such as lignin, proteins, and fat esters) present both hydrolysis and pyrolysis reaction routes. As long as biomass mainly contains carbohydrates, subcritical hydrothermal conversion products and their wastes will be fundamentally analogous to those displaying cellulose. These substances have added-value by far surpassing raw material’s acquisition cost. When the main hydrothermal conversion products’ O/C, H/C molar ratios as reported in literature are plotted, an evolutionary trajectory for conversion products appears to be closely or even overlapped with fossil fuels’ geological evolution.

  13. Forest biomass variation in Southernmost Brazil: the impact of Araucaria trees / Variación de la biomasa forestal en el sur de Brasil: impacto de los árboles de Araucaria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milena Fermina, Rosenfield; Alexandre F., Souza.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Una variedad de factores ambientales y bióticos determinan el crecimiento de la vegetación y afectan la acumulación de biomasa vegetal. Desde la temperatura hasta la composición de especies, en los ecosistemas forestales el almacenamiento de la biomasa aérea se ve influenciada por una serie de varia [...] bles, razón por la cual generalmente presenta una alta variabilidad espacial. De acuerdo a esto, el objetivo del estudio es analizar las variables que afectan la biomasa área (en Inglés, aboveground forest biomass - AGB) en los bosques húmedos subtropicales del sur de Brasil y analizar su distribución espacial. Para el estudio se utilizaron los datos de un inventario forestal realizado en el estado de Rio Grande del Sur, sur de Brasil. Se evaluaron bosques de hoja ancha (Broadleaf forests) y bosques mixtos de hoja ancha y coníferas (Mixed Coniferous-Broadleaf forests). Además, se tomaron muestras de 38 parcelas de 1 ha y para la estimación de la biomasa se incluyeron todos los árboles con DAP ?9.5cm. Los valores para la biomasa aérea se obtuvieron con ecuaciones alométricas publicadas. Las variables ambientales y bióticas (altitud, precipitación, temperatura, suelo, densidad de los troncos y diversidad de especies) se obtuvieron de la literatura o se han calculado a partir del conjunto de datos. Para el conjunto de datos, el AGB medio fue 195.2Mg/ha. Las estimaciones difieren entre los bosques de hoja ancha y los bosques mixtos de hoja ancha y coníferas: el AGB promedio fue menor en los bosques de hoja ancha (AGB BF=118.9Mg/ha) en comparación con los bosques mixtos (AGB MF=250.3Mg/ha). Hubo una alta variabilidad espacial y local en la base de datos, incluso dentro de los tipos de bosques. Esta condición es normal en los bosques tropicales y por lo general se atribuye a la presencia de grandes árboles. La regresión múltiple fue influenciada principalmente por la altitud y explicó 50.7% de la variación en AGB. La densidad, diversidad y materia orgánica también influyeron en la variación de biomasa. Los resultados mostraron una relación positiva entre la biomasa sobre el suelo y la altitud. Por lo tanto, los valores más altos de AGB se encuentran en altitudes mayores y se someten a temperaturas más bajas y un clima más húmedo. Parece que hay una importante contribución de las coníferas Araucaria angustifolia en las parcelas de bosques mixto, ya que tienen una biomasa significativamente mayor que las especies de angiospermas. En Brasil, esta especie en peligro de extinción es parte de un bosque de gran diversidad (Bosque de Araucaria) y tiene el potencial de almacenamiento de la biomasa. Los resultados del presente estudio muestran la variabilidad espacial y local de la biomasa aérea en los bosques subtropicales, destacan la importancia de estos ecosistemas en el almacenamiento global del carbono, y estimulan la mejora de futuras estimaciones de biomasa. Abstract in english A variety of environmental and biotic factors determine vegetation growth and affect plant biomass accumulation. From temperature to species composition, aboveground biomass storage in forest ecosystems is influenced by a number of variables and usually presents a high spatial variability. With this [...] focus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the variables affecting live aboveground forest biomass (AGB) in Subtropical Moist Forests of Southern Brazil, and to analyze the spatial distribution of biomass estimates. Data from a forest inventory performed in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, was used in the present study. Thirty-eight 1-ha plots were sampled and all trees with DBH ?9.5cm were included for biomass estimation. Values for aboveground biomass were obtained using published allometric equations. Environmental and biotic variables (elevation, rainfall, temperature, soils, stem density and species diversity) were obtained from the literature or calculated from the dataset. For the total dataset, mean AGB was 195.2Mg/ha. Estimates differed between Broadleaf and Mixed Co

  14. Equation for estimating tree biomass in tropical forests of Costa Rica Ecuación para estimar la biomasa arbórea en los bosques tropicales de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Wei-Chou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most relevant measures for climate change mitigation is the conservation and regeneration of forests in our countries. The amount of stored carbon in the forest biomass becomes a relevant variable for public policy. The present article analyses the association of some dasometric variables, easily obtained, with tree biomass with the purpose of indirectly estimating it, given that direct measurement of tree biomass is a complex and very expensive task. The general objective of this study was to analyze the pattern shown by dasometric variables, easily obtained, with tree biomass to estimate it by using data from two tropical forests in Costa Rica, with the purpose of analyzing its potential general application in tropical forests in the entire country. The bibliographic review helped to identify four possible models which estimate biomass in tropical forests. 907 trees were used with diameter at breast height (dbh greater than 10 cm in two tropical forests in Costa Rica (Corcovado National Park at the SW of the country, and Fila Carbón at the SE part, Caribbean slope, generating a biomass estimate as precise as possible. Dasometric variables (wood density, total height and dbh were used to analyze their relationship with biomass with the objective of finding a model that could predict it. The final model uses, as independent variables, dbh and density. Dbh has a high correlation with tree total height, which is very difficult to obtain in the field, therefore it was not used. The variable density is very important as it varies between trees having the same structure but of different species. To estimate the model, a segmented regression technique was used as well as weighted mean squares to solve for heteroscedasticity. The final model met all statistical assumptions for a linear model according to the residual and parametric analysis. The determination coefficient resulted in 0,992. As a conclusion, the study proposes a methodological approach to estimate forest biomass, which is very useful to support decision-making on carbon storage in tropical forests. Biomass determination in the field in future plots is going to help the calibration of this approach to estimate biomass stored in tropical forests.Una de las medidas más relevantes para la mitigación del cambio climático es la conservación y regeneración del bosque en nuestros países.  La cantidad de carbono que se almacena en la biomasa arbórea pasa a ser una medida relevante para la política pública. El presente trabajo analiza la asociación que tienen algunas variables dasométricas, fácilmente medibles, asociadas a la biomasa, con el propósito de estimarla indirectamente, dado que la medición directa de la biomasa arbórea es un trabajo complejo y tiene un costo muy elevado.  El objetivo general del estudio fue hacer un análisis del comportamiento de las variables dasométricas fácilmente medibles para predecir biomasa arbórea con datos de dos bosques tropicales de Costa Rica, con el propósito de analizar su posible aplicación generalizada en los bosques tropicales de todo el país. Mediante una revisión bibliográfica, se determinaron cuatro posibles modelos que estiman biomasa en bosques tropicales. Se evaluaron 907 árboles con diámetro a la altura de pecho (dap mayor a 10 cm en dos bosques tropicales de Costa Rica (Parque Nacional Corcovado en el suroeste y Fila Carbón en el sureste, vertiente del Caribe, generando una estimación de biomasa lo más precisa posible. Se realizó un análisis de las variables de los árboles (densidad específica de la madera, altura total y dap y su biomasa, con el fin de desarrollar el modelo que facilitara la predicción de esta. El modelo final utiliza como variables independientes el dap y la densidad.  Con el dap se da el hecho de que existe una alta correlación con la altura total, la cual es muy difícil de obtener en el campo, de modo que se decidió no utilizarla. La variable densidad es importante, ya que dos árboles con la misma estructura pero distinta densid

  15. VoIP Technology: Investigation of QoS and Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amor Lazzez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP is the technology allowing voice traffic transmission as data packets over a private or a public IP network. VoIP allows significant benefits for customers and communication services providers. The main are cost savings, rich media service, phone and service portability and mobility, and the integration with other applications. Nevertheless, the deployment of the VoIP technology encounters many challenges such as architecture complexity, interoperability problems, QoS concerns, and security issues. Due to the inability of the IP networking technology to support the stringent QoS constraints of voice traffic, and the incapability of traditional security mechanisms to adequately protect VoIP systems from recent intelligent attacks, QoS and security issues are considered as the most serious challenges for successful deployment of the VoIP technology. The aim of this paper is to carry out a deep analysis of the security issues and QoS concerns of the VoIP technology. Firstly, we present a brief overview about the VoIP technology. Then, we discuss the QoS problems encountering the deployment of the VoIP technology. The presented discussion mainly address the QoS issues related to the use of the IP networking technology, the QoS concerns related to voice clarity, and the QoS mechanisms proposed to support voice traffic QoS constraints. After that, we investigate the security issues of the VoIP technology. The presented investigation mainly address the vulnerabilities and security attacks of VoIP systems, as well as the countermeasures that should be considered to help the deployment of secured VoIP systems.

  16. Extraction Of Electronic Evidence From VoIP: Identification & Analysis Of Digital Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Irwin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP is increasing in popularity as a cost effective and efficient means of making telephone calls via the Internet. However, VoIP may also be an attractive method of communication to criminals as their true identity may be hidden and voice and video communications are encrypted as they are deployed across the Internet. This produces in a new set of challenges for forensic analysts compared with traditional wire-tapping of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN infrastructure, which is not applicable to VoIP. Therefore, other methods of recovering electronic evidence from VoIP are required.  This research investigates the analysis and recovery of digitised human, which persists in computer memory after a VoIP call.This paper proposes a proof of concept how remnants of digitised human speech from a VoIP call may be identified within a forensic memory capture based on how the human voice is detected via a microphone and encoded to a digital format using the sound card of your personal computer. This digital format is unencrypted whist processed in Random Access Memory (RAM before it is passed to the VoIP application for encryption and  transmission over the Internet. Similarly, an incoming encrypted VoIP call is decrypted by the VoIP application and passes through RAM unencrypted in order to be played via the speaker output.A series of controlled tests were undertaken whereby RAM captures were analysed for remnants of digital speech after a VoIP audio call with known conversation. The identification and analysis of digital speech from RAM attempts to construct an automatic process for the identification and subsequent reconstruction of the audio content of a VoIP call.

  17. Synthesis of Nanostructured Inverse Spinel LiCuVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Liqiang; Chen, Wen; Xu, Qing; Zhu, Quanyao; Peng, Junfeng

    2003-03-01

    Li-ion batteries have recently received considerable interests as rechargeable power sources for room temperature consumer applications since the commercialization of Sony¡¯s lithium-ion cell in 1990[1-3]. In our work, a new method by using citrate acid as complex reagent was introduced for preparing inverse spinel LiCuVO4 as novel high-voltage cathode material for Li-ion batteries. Investigations were conducted by XRD, DSC and TG, SEM and EDAX, TEM, etc. The results of XRD and thermal analysis show the high crystalline LiCuVO4 with high phase purity are formed at low temperature. The results of the IR and Raman investigations show that the band located at about 819 cm-1 corresponding to the stretching vibration mode with the A1 symmetry, whereas the band situated at 332 cm-1 corresponds to the bending mode of the VO4 tetrahedron with E symmetry. The SEM and EDAX results show that the average diameter of the original particles is 100 nm and the distributions of particle diameter and elements are even. References [1] Mai L.Q., Zou Z.G., Chen H.Y.: Mater. Rev., Vol. 14((2000), p.32. [2] Chen W., Xu Q., Hu Y.S., Mai L.Q., Zhu Q. Y.: J. Mater. Chem. Vol. 12(2002), p.1926. [3] Zou Z.G., Mai L.Q., Chen H.Y.: J. Wuhan Univ. Tech. Mater. Sci., Vol. 16(2001), p6. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.59802009, 50172036), the Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of Hubei Province and the Teaching and Research Award Program for Outstanding Young Professors in Higher Education Institute, MOE, P. R. China.

  18. Lessons from Korea Telecom's VoIP testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Jong; Yang, Junhwan; Kim, Dongkweon

    2001-07-01

    This paper describers the results and lessons from the voice over IP trial service on the Korea Telecom's VoIP Testbed. The testbed was made up of four different vendors' systems and solutions constituted four separate zones. Even though the backbone network of the testbed was not commercial IP network, we could comprehend some engineering parameters essential to packetized voice QoS. And we got some know-how. These kinds of results will be much help to traditional telco confronted with many difficult issues especially on packet voice network.

  19. Zircon to monazite phase transition in CeVO4

    OpenAIRE

    Panchal, V.; Lopez-Moreno, S.; Santamaria-Perez, D.; Errandonea, D.; Manjon, F. J.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, P.; Munoz, A.; Achary, S.N.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and Raman-scattering measurements on cerium vanadate have been performed up to 12 and 16 GPa, respectively. Experiments reveal that at 5.3 GPa the onset of a pressure-induced irreversible phase transition from the zircon to the monazite structure. Beyond this pressure, diffraction peaks and Raman-active modes of the monazite phase are measured. The zircon to monazite transition in CeVO4 is distinctive among the other rare-earth orthovanadates. We also obser...

  20. Large scale VoIP deployment over heterogeneous environments

    OpenAIRE

    Trad, Abdelbasset

    2006-01-01

    Dans cette thèse, nous nous intéressons au déploiement à grande échelle de la Voix sur IP (VoIP) dans des environnements Internet hétérogènes. Après une description des mécanismes de codage et de transmission de la voix sur l'Internet, nous étudions dans une première partie de la thèse, les limites de performance dans le cas d'une transmission d'un grand nombre de flux de voix sur IP entre deux passerelles téléphoniques. Nous discutons le besoin d'utilisation de mécanismes de ...

  1. Comprehensive picture of VO2 from band theory

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2012-08-28

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic features of the metal-insulator transition from the tetragonal rutile (R) to the monoclinic (M1) phase of VO2 are well reproduced by band theory using the modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential. Based on this description, we identify a tendency for monoclinic charge ordering in the R phase due to electronic correlations as the origin of the phase transition. Whereas, the structural changes are crucial for the gap opening in the M1 phase, spin degeneracy in both phases is stabilized by correlation-induced delocalization of the V3d electrons.

  2. Analysis of VoIP Traffic with Multiple Packet Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Chand, Vishal Srivastava

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP is a form of voice communication. Today Wireless LANs are providing a cost effective alternative for the voice communication. Initially the wireless access protocols are not suitable for the voice communication. Subsequently, new techniques are developed for the real time voice communication. In voice communication the delay is an important factor. In this paper a new technique is proposed for the voice over IEEE 802.11 WLANs. The proposed technique is compared with Modified ICF

  3. Dievo kaip t?vo ?vaizdis Kumrano raštuose

    OpenAIRE

    Kasc?iukaitis, Arvydas

    2010-01-01

    Dievo kaip T?vo ?vaizdis teologin?je literat?roje dažniausiai yra aptariamas pasiremiant Šventuoju Raštu. Kadangi Kumrano raštuose šia tema n?ra randama daug tiesiogini? teigini? ar aliuzij?, jie dažniausiai lieka šeš?lyje, kaip neteikiantys svarbios informacijos. Šis straipsnis kaip tik ir yra skirtas pristatyti ir aptarti visus iki šiol atrast? Kumrano rašt? tekstus, kuriuose tiesiogiai ar netiesiogiai kalbama apie Dievo t?vyst?. Visi tekstai suskirstyti ? tris grup...

  4. VoIP Steganography and Its Detection - A Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Steganography is an ancient art that encompasses various techniques of information hiding, the aim of which is to secret information into a carrier message. Steganographic methods are usually aimed at hiding the very existence of the communication. Due to the rise in popularity of IP telephony, together with the large volume of data and variety of protocols involved, it is currently attracting the attention of the research community as a perfect carrier for steganographic purposes. This paper is a survey of the existing VoIP steganography (steganophony) methods and their countermeasures.

  5. IP Telephony Deploying VoIP Protocols and IMS Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Hersent, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    All you need to know about deploying VoIP protocols in one comprehensive and highly practical reference - Now updated with coverage on SIP and the IMS infrastructure. This book provides a comprehensive and practical overview of the technology behind Internet Telephony (IP), providing essential information to Network Engineers, Designers, and Managers who need to understand the protocols. Furthermore, the author explores the issues involved in the migration of existing telephony infrastructure to an IP - based real time communication service. Assuming a working knowledge of IP and networking, i

  6. Trapped-hole centers in irradiated Li3VO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Takuya; Miki, Toshikatsu

    1993-02-01

    Defects in lithium vanadate (Li3VO4) exposed to x rays were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR). 77 K irradiation produces two types of trapped-hole centers. One is supposed to be carbonate radical CO3-, which is thermally stable even at room temperature. Another, having a hyperfine interaction with a vanadium nucleus (I=7/2, 99.76% natural abundant) is attributable to an intrinsic O- type center with one neighboring vanadium ion. The center is thermally unstable and anneals out around 200 K. In spite of the prominent detection of trapped-hole centers, ESR signals due to trapped-electron centers have not been clearly observed.

  7. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of VO2+ doped single crystal of ferroelectric guanidinium uranyl sulphate trihydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Umar, Mohammad Imtiazul Haque And Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    We report result obtained from an EPR study of vanadyl ion (VO2+) in a single crystal of ferroelectric guanidinium uranyl sulphate trihydrate. The Spin-Hamiltonian parameters were also determined via EPR data. VO2+ enters the lattice interstitially at two distinguishable sites and resulting vanadyl complexes have nearly axial symmetry.

  8. Localization of 3d electrons in VO2+Ar solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroconductivity ?, transmission spectra t, light reflection R and optical conductivity ?sub(opt) in the temperature range T from 77.8 to 400 K for VO2 samples and VO2+Ar solid solutions on their base are measured. Preparation of the latter has been realized by the ion implantation method in the implantation dose range from 0 to 6.1016 cm-2. At implantation doses higher than 1016 cm-2 the transition into isolator state at high T, has been found, the transformation of R and ?sub(opt) spectra in the process of this transition is analogous to their variation at ''temperature'' phase transition metal-isolator in VO2 crystals. The found effect is related to increase of average distances between lattice atoms of VO2 in the VO2+Ar system leading to 3d-electron localization or Mott transition into isolator state. Discussion of 3d-electron properties in VO2 is presented and considerations on the character of conformity of isolator state in the VO2+Ar system to isolator state in low-temperature monoclinic VO2 crystal phase are set forth

  9. Indirect estimation of VO2max in athletes by ACSM’s equation: valid or not?

    OpenAIRE

    Koutlianos, N; Dimitros, E; Metaxas, T; Cansiz, M; Deligiannis, AS; Kouidi, E

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the indirect calculation of VO2max using ACSM’s equation for Bruce protocol in athletes of different sports and to compare with the directly measured; secondly to develop regression models predicting VO2 max in athletes.

  10. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF BIOMASS POTENTIALLY USEFUL FOR PRODUCING BIODIESEL / ANALISIS PRELIMINAR DE BIOMASA POTENCIALMENTE ÚTIL PARA PRODUCIR BIODIESEL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GERARDO, CABRERA CIFUENTES; JUAN CARLOS, BURBANO JARAMILLO; JOSÉ ISIDRO, GARCIA MELO.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que el biodiesel se está convirtiendo en una solución viable para algunos problemas energéticos y medioambientales, la investigación de materias primas para su producción es un tema de creciente interés. Este estudio presenta los resultados de una investigación dedicada al análisis prel [...] iminar de varias especies vegetales (biomasa), potencialmente útiles para producir biodiesel. La zona de bioprospección es una región de la costa pacifica colombiana. Las especies promisorias recolectadas fueron sometidas a diferentes pruebas normalizadas ASTM para definir propiedades que faciliten su evaluación. Algunas de las especies fueron sometidas a un proceso de transesterificación. Adicionalmente, se realiza una comparación entre las propiedades termo-físicas de los biodiesel y las propiedades del diesel comercial. Las pruebas de rendimiento de estos biocombustibles en los motores de encendido por compresión, particularmente la eficiencia, el consumo y la potencia a diferentes RPM del motor, se presentan en este trabajo. Abstract in english Given that biodiesel is emerging as a viable solution for some energy and environmental problems, research on raw materials appropriate for its production is a matter of growing interest. In this study we present the results of research devoted to preliminary analysis on several vegetable (biomass) [...] species potentially useful for producing biodiesel. The bioprospection zone is a region on the Colombian Pacific coast. The candidate species collected underwent different standardized ASTM tests in order for us to define properties that facilitate their evaluation. Some of the species underwent a transesterification process. Comparisons between the thermo-physical properties of the biofuels obtained and the properties of commercial diesel were carried out. Also, performance tests for these biofuels were conducted in compression ignition engines, particularly evaluating efficiency, fuel consumption, and potency at different RPMs.

  11. MODELOS DE REGRESIÓN PARA ESTIMAR ÁREA DE LA HOJA Y BIOMASA DE ÓRGANOS EN ÁRBOLES JÓVENES DE MANZANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Curiel-Rodr\\u00EDguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se generaron modelos matemáticos empíricos de aplicación general con técnicas de regresión lineal múltiple, para estimar el área de la hoja y la biomasa aérea en manzano "Agua Nueva II" / M-7, útiles en estudios de crecimiento, relaciones fuente-demanda y productividad. Los modelos obtenidos tienen alta precisión, (R2 > 0.969. El área (AFE, el peso seco de la lámina de la hoja (PSL y el peso seco de pecíolo (PSP pueden ser estimados con los modelos: AFE= -3.24140(AL + 0.67616(AL2 + 1.63287(AL (LL/AL; PSL= 0.02699(AFE + 0.00021917(AFE2; y PSP= 0.00384(AFE - 0.04432 (LL/AL + 0.02291(LL/AL, respectivamente, donde AL y LL son ancho máximo y largo de la lámina de la hoja, respectivamente. Se mide la longitud, el diámetro proximal o basal y el diámetro distal o apical de cada rama, tallo y tronco. Estas medidas se utilizan para calcular el volumen en fresco (V de cada uno de esos órganos como un cono truncado. El volumen se utilizó para los modelos: PST= 0.6688(V, PSTP= 0.55902(V, lnPSRG= 0.77462[ln(V], PSRM= 0.49349(V y PSRP= 0.57297(V; éstos estiman los pesos secos del tronco (PST, del tallo principal (PSTP, de ramas grandes (PSRG, medianas (PSRM y pequeñas o dardos (PSRP de cada planta. EL modelo del peso seco para el sistema radical (PSRZ está en función de la longitud (LPT y diámetro distal del tronco: PSRZ= 10.80747(LPT(DDT + (-01.37171 (DDT2. Las longitudes y los diámetros se expresan en centímetros, el área en centímetros cuadrados, el volumen en centímetros cúbicos y los pesos en gramos.

  12. Biomasa, rendimiento, eficiencia en el uso del agua y de la radiación solar del agrosistema girasol-frijol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar J. Morales-Rosales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó durante el verano de 2002 Los tratamientos consistieron en la siembra en unicultivo y combinación de frijol Canario 107, Bayomex (hábito de crecimiento determinado, Michoacán (hábito de crecimiento indeterminado y girasol cv. Victoria. La siembra se realizó el 25 de mayo de 2002 a la densidad de población de 4.2 y 8.3 plantas m-2 de girasol y frijol, respectivamente, en un suelo de textura arcillosa, con un pH de 7.8 y se fertilizó con 100-100-00 de NPK. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. El sistema de siembra no afectó la fenología, el requerimiento térmico y la evapotranspiración de ambos cultivos. Las unidades calor (UC y la evapotranspiración (ETc de los cultivos de la siembra a la madurez fisiológica fueron 1521 UC y 279.6 mm para el cv. Victoria, 658 UC y 201.3 mm para Canario 107, 811 UC y 213.7 mm para Bayomex y 1041 UC y 241.7 mm para Michoacán. El agrosistema combinado de girasol y frijol fue más eficiente en el uso de los insumos para la producción agrícola. La combinación de girasol Victoria y frijol Michoacán mostró la eficiencia en el uso del agua (EUA y eficiencia en el uso de la radiación (EUR más alta y, en consecuencia, una mayor producción de biomasa y rendimiento. El uso equivalente de la tierra (UET para el rendimiento de semilla obtenido con la combinación de Victoria más Canario 107, Victoria más Michoacán y Victoria más Bayomex fue de 1.6, 1.9 y 3.0, respectivamente, y muestra una ventaja en el rendimiento de los cultivos combinados sobre los unicultivos de 60, 90 y 200%, respectivamente.

  13. Caracterización de aerosoles por quema de biomasa en el sureste de México / Characterization of biomass burning aerosols over southeast Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Virginia Edith, Cortés-Hernández; Javier, Aparicio.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de los aerosoles atmosféricos es de gran importancia en los procesos de transferencia radiativa en la atmósfera y el balance de radiación del sistema climático. En este trabajo se presentan algunas propiedades físicas que forman parte de la caracterización óptica y radiativa de lo [...] s aerosoles atmosféricos registrados en dos sitios de monitoreo pertenecientes a la red AERONET, ubicados al sureste de México, durante el periodo 2005-2007. La ubicación de los dos sitios de monitoreo correspondió a la región de mayor quema de biomasa por incendios forestales durante el año 2005. La caracterización de los aerosoles atmosféricos consideró cuatro casos de estudio: 1) 23 de abril de 2005, en Tenosique, Tabasco; 2) 27 de abril de 2005; 3) 8 de mayo de 2006, y 4) 24 de mayo de 2007, en Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas. Los resultados muestran altos valores del espesor óptico del aerosol (? > 1.4), altos valores del coeficiente de Ångström (? > 0.8), modos finos de acumulación del aerosol (r Abstract in english Characterization of aerosols is important for the atmospheric radiative process and the radiation budget of the climate system. This study presents some physical properties forming part of the optical and radiative characterization of atmospheric aerosols measured in two monitoring sites from the AE [...] RONET network located in Southeastern Mexico during 2005-2007. The location of both sites corresponded to the region of high biomass burning activity during 2005. Characterization of aerosols considered four study cases: 1) April 23, 2005 in Tenosique, Tabasco, 2) April 27, 2005, 3) May 8, 2006 and 4) May 24, 2007 in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. Results show values of high atmospheric optical depth (? > 1.4), fine accumulation mode particles (r

  14. Equações para a previsão da potência aeróbia (VO2) de jovens adultos brasileiros Equations for predicting aerobic power (VO2) of young Brazilian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Magrani; Fernando Augusto Monteiro Saboia Pompeu

    2010-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: O VO2 pode ser previsto, com base em parâmetros antropométricos e fisiológicos, para determinadas populações. OBJETIVO: Propor modelos preditivos do VO2 submáximo e máximo para jovens adultos brasileiros. MÉTODOS: Os 137 voluntários (92 homens) foram submetidos ao teste progressivo de esforço máximo (GXT) no ciclo ergômetro (Monark®, Br). Medidas de trocas gasosas e ventilatórias foram realizadas em circuito aberto (Aerosport® TEEM 100, EUA). Em outro grupo, 13 volu...

  15. Voltage switching of a VO2 memory metasurface using ionic gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldflam, M. D.; Liu, M. K.; Chapler, B. C.; Stinson, H. T.; Sternbach, A. J.; McLeod, A. S.; Zhang, J. D.; Geng, K.; Royal, M.; Kim, Bong-Jun; Averitt, R. D.; Jokerst, N. M.; Smith, D. R.; Kim, Hyun-Tak; Basov, D. N.

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated large area, low voltage, non-volatile tuning of an electrolyte-based vanadium dioxide (VO2) THz memory metasurface. Using ionic gel gating, voltage is applied to drive the insulator-to-metal transition in an underlying VO2 layer. Through application of positive and negative voltages, the metasurface resonance can be switched into the ``off'' or ``on'' state by driving VO2 into a more conductive or insulating regime, respectively. As compared to our graphene-based control devices, the longer saturation time of resonance modification in VO2-based devices suggests that this voltage-induced switching originates primarily from electrochemical effects resulting from oxygen migration across the electrolyte-VO2 interface.

  16. Voltage switching of a VO{sub 2} memory metasurface using ionic gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldflam, M. D.; Liu, M. K.; Chapler, B. C.; Stinson, H. T.; Sternbach, A. J.; McLeod, A. S.; Basov, D. N., E-mail: dbasov@physics.ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, The University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Zhang, J. D.; Geng, K. [Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Royal, M.; Jokerst, N. M.; Smith, D. R. [Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Kim, Bong-Jun [Metal-Insulator Transition Creative Research Center, ETRI, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Averitt, R. D. [Department of Physics, The University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Kim, H-T. [Metal-Insulator Transition Creative Research Center, ETRI, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); School of Advanced Device Technology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate an electrolyte-based voltage tunable vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) memory metasurface. Large spatial scale, low voltage, non-volatile switching of terahertz (THz) metasurface resonances is achieved through voltage application using an ionic gel to drive the insulator-to-metal transition in an underlying VO{sub 2} layer. Positive and negative voltage application can selectively tune the metasurface resonance into the “off” or “on” state by pushing the VO{sub 2} into a more conductive or insulating regime respectively. Compared to graphene based control devices, the relatively long saturation time of resonance modification in VO{sub 2} based devices suggests that this voltage-induced switching originates primarily from electrochemical effects related to oxygen migration across the electrolyte–VO{sub 2} interface.

  17. Selective growth of single phase VO2(A, B, and M) polymorph thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amar; Rotella, Helene; Saha, Surajit; Pal, Banabir; Kalon, Gopinadhan; Mathew, Sinu; Motapothula, Mallikarjuna; Dykas, Michal; Yang, Ping; Okunishi, Eiji; Sarma, D. D.; Venkatesan, T.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate the growth of high quality single phase films of VO2(A, B, and M) on SrTiO3 substrate by controlling the vanadium arrival rate (laser frequency) and oxidation of the V atoms. A phase diagram has been developed (oxygen pressure versus laser frequency) for various phases of VO2 and their electronic properties are investigated. VO2(A) phase is insulating VO2(B) phase is semi-metallic, and VO2(M) phase exhibits a metal-insulator transition, corroborated by photo-electron spectroscopic studies. The ability to control the growth of various polymorphs opens up the possibility for novel (hetero)structures promising new device functionalities.

  18. Voltage switching of a VO2 memory metasurface using ionic gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate an electrolyte-based voltage tunable vanadium dioxide (VO2) memory metasurface. Large spatial scale, low voltage, non-volatile switching of terahertz (THz) metasurface resonances is achieved through voltage application using an ionic gel to drive the insulator-to-metal transition in an underlying VO2 layer. Positive and negative voltage application can selectively tune the metasurface resonance into the “off” or “on” state by pushing the VO2 into a more conductive or insulating regime respectively. Compared to graphene based control devices, the relatively long saturation time of resonance modification in VO2 based devices suggests that this voltage-induced switching originates primarily from electrochemical effects related to oxygen migration across the electrolyte–VO2 interface.

  19. Selective growth of single phase VO2(A, B, and M polymorph thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Srivastava

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the growth of high quality single phase films of VO2(A, B, and M on SrTiO3 substrate by controlling the vanadium arrival rate (laser frequency and oxidation of the V atoms. A phase diagram has been developed (oxygen pressure versus laser frequency for various phases of VO2 and their electronic properties are investigated. VO2(A phase is insulating VO2(B phase is semi-metallic, and VO2(M phase exhibits a metal-insulator transition, corroborated by photo-electron spectroscopic studies. The ability to control the growth of various polymorphs opens up the possibility for novel (heterostructures promising new device functionalities.

  20. Wavelength-Tunable Infrared Metamaterial by Tailoring Magnetic Resonance Condition with VO2 Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the design of a wavelength-tunable infrared metamaterial by exciting magnetic resonance with phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2). Numerical simulation shows a broad absorption peak at the wavelength of 10.9 um when VO2 is a metal, but it shifts to 15.1 um when VO2 changes to dielectric phase below its phase transition temperature of 68degC. The large tunability of 38.5% in the resonance wavelength stems from the different excitation conditions of magnetic resonance assisted by plasmon in metallic VO2 but optical phonons in dielectric VO2. The physical mechanism is elucidated with the aid of electromagnetic field distribution at the resonance wavelengths. A hybrid magnetic resonance mode due to plasmon-phonon coupling is also discussed. The results here would be beneficial for active control in novel electronic, optical and thermal devices.

  1. Structural analysis of strained LaVO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, H.; Copie, O.; Steciuk, G.; Ouerdane, H.; Boullay, P.; Roussel, P.; Morales, M.; David, A.; Pautrat, A.; Mercey, B.; Lutterotti, L.; Chateigner, D.; Prellier, W.

    2015-05-01

    While structure refinement is routinely achieved for simple bulk materials, the accurate structural determination still poses challenges for thin films due on the one hand to the small amount of material deposited on the thicker substrate and, on the other hand, to the intricate epitaxial relationships that substantially complicate standard x-ray diffraction analysis. Using both electron and x-ray diffraction, we analyze the crystal structure of epitaxial LaVO3 thin films grown on (1?0?0)-oriented SrTiO3. Transmission electron microscopy study reveals that the thin films are epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 and points to the presence of 90° oriented domains. The mapping of the reciprocal space obtained by high resolution x-ray diffraction permits refinement of the lattice parameters. We finally deduce that strain accommodation imposes a monoclinic structure onto the LaVO3 film. The reciprocal space maps are numerically processed and the extracted data computed to refine the atomic positions, which are compared to those obtained using precession electron diffraction tomography.

  2. AstroStat - A VO Tool for Statistical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kembhavi, Ajit K; Kale, Tejas; Jagade, Santosh; Vibhute, Ajay; Garg, Prerak; Vaghmare, Kaustubh; Navelkar, Sharmad; Agrawal, Tushar; Nandrekar, Deoyani; Shaikh, Mohasin

    2015-01-01

    AstroStat is an easy-to-use tool for performing statistical analysis on data. It has been designed to be compatible with Virtual Observatory (VO) standards thus enabling it to become an integral part of the currently available collection of VO tools. A user can load data in a variety of formats into AstroStat and perform various statistical tests using a menu driven interface. Behind the scenes, all analysis is done using the public domain statistical software - R and the output returned is presented in a neatly formatted form to the user. The analyses performable include exploratory tests, visualizations, distribution fitting, correlation & causation, hypothesis testing, multivariate analysis and clustering. The tool is available in two versions with identical interface and features - as a web service that can be run using any standard browser and as an offline application. AstroStat will provide an easy-to-use interface which can allow for both fetching data and performing power statistical analysis on ...

  3. AstroStat-A VO tool for statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembhavi, A. K.; Mahabal, A. A.; Kale, T.; Jagade, S.; Vibhute, A.; Garg, P.; Vaghmare, K.; Navelkar, S.; Agrawal, T.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Nandrekar, D.; Shaikh, M.

    2015-06-01

    AstroStat is an easy-to-use tool for performing statistical analysis on data. It has been designed to be compatible with Virtual Observatory (VO) standards thus enabling it to become an integral part of the currently available collection of VO tools. A user can load data in a variety of formats into AstroStat and perform various statistical tests using a menu driven interface. Behind the scenes, all analyses are done using the public domain statistical software-R and the output returned is presented in a neatly formatted form to the user. The analyses performable include exploratory tests, visualizations, distribution fitting, correlation & causation, hypothesis testing, multivariate analysis and clustering. The tool is available in two versions with identical interface and features-as a web service that can be run using any standard browser and as an offline application. AstroStat will provide an easy-to-use interface which can allow for both fetching data and performing power statistical analysis on them.

  4. Synthesis and visible-light photocatalytic activity of NdVO4 nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: NdVO4 nanowires are synthesized by a simple composite molten salt method. The effective light absorption and photodegradation are found. Highlights: ? We report the fabrication, characterization and photocatalytic activity of NdVO4 nanowires synthesized by the composite molten salt method. ? The NdVO4 nanowires show effective light absorption and high catalytic degradation activity to Rhodamine B. ? The electron density states of the NdVO4 were calculated with the Vienna ab initio simulation package, which explains the light absorption and photodegradation properties. - Abstract: NdVO4 nanowires are synthesized by a simple composite molten salt method. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrum, energy dispersive spectrometry and UV-vis spectrum are used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the sample. The results show that the product is of tetragonal phase NdVO4 nanowires which are connected together in bases, rooted in one center, with typical diameters of 100 nm and lengths up to 3 ?m. The UV-vis spectrum shows that NdVO4 nanowires have four strong absorption peaks from the UV to near infrared region. The photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange under visible light irradiation using the NdVO4 nanowires are also investigated. Excellent catalytic degradationed. Excellent catalytic degradation activity of RhB observed suggests possible applications for organic pollutant treatment under visible light irradiation. The electron density states of the NdVO4 were calculated with the Vienna ab initio simulation package. The results of these simulations were used to form a description of the observed light absorption and photodegradation properties of NdVO4 nanowires.

  5. Biomasa de rotíferos de dos embalses con diferentes estados tróficos (Antioquia, Colombia) y su relación con algunas variables limnológicas / Rotifer biomass of two reservoirs with different trophic states (Antioquia, Colombia) and its relationship with some limnological variables

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia L, Villabona-González; Robinson F, Buitrago-Amariles; John J, Ramírez-Restrepo; Jaime A, Palacio-Baena.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la variación de la biomasa de rotíferos en los ejes longitudinal y vertical de la zona fótica de los embalses La Fe y Riogrande II (Antioquia), Colombia, con diferentes estados tróficos, durante los periodos de alta y baja precipitación. Además, se analizó su relación con las variables tem [...] peratura, oxígeno disuelto, pH, transparencia, nutrientes y con la biomasa fitoplanctónica. La biomasa de rotíferos fue dominada por Asplanchna girodi De Geurne 1888, en los dos embalses y fue significativamente mayor en el embalse de menor trofía. Aunque la biomasa de rotíferos no mostró un gradiente longitudinal significativo, sí presentó zonación vertical dentro de la zona fótica, con mayor biomasa en el 10 y 1% de incidencia lumínica. Los patrones de variación de la biomasa total de rotíferos y de las especies dominantes estuvieron determinados principalmente por el ingreso de sólidos suspendidos en el embalse de mayor trofía y por la biomasa y la densidad del fitoplancton en el embalse con menos nutrientes. A diferencia de lo esperado, la biomasa de los rotíferos no fue favorecida por condiciones de mayor estado trófico, ya que el factor preponderante sobre la expresión de biomasa fue la calidad de los recursos alimenticios en cada embalse. Abstract in english Rotifers biomass was evaluated across longitudinal and vertical axes of the photic zone in the La Fe y Riogrande II reservoirs (Antioquia), Colombia, with different trophic states during periods of high and low precipitation. IN addition, its relationship with temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, tran [...] sparency, nutrient availability, and phytoplankton biomass was analyzed. In both reservoirs, rotifer biomass was dominated by Asplanchna girodi De Geurne, 1888, and it was significantly higher in the reservoir with a lower trophic state. Even though rotifers biomass did not exhibit a longitudinal gradient, a vertical zonation in the photic zone was documented, with the greatest biomass at 10% and 1% of light intensity. Patterns of variation in total rotifer biomass and in dominant species biomass appear to be determined primarily by the entry of suspended solids into the reservoir with the higher trophic state, and by phytoplankton biomass and density in the reservoir with lower nutrient levels. Contrary to expectations, rotifer biomass was not favored by increasing trophic state. The most important factor determining rotifer biomass was the quality of food resources in each reservoir.

  6. Modelos de biomasa aérea y foliar en una plantación de pino de rápido crecimiento en Oaxaca / Above-ground and needle biomass models on a fast-growing pine plantation in Oaxaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerardo, Rodríguez-Ortiz; Héctor M., De Los Santos-Posadas; Víctor A., González-Hernández; Arnulfo, Aldrete; Armando, Gómez-Guerrero; Aurelio M., Fierros-González.

    Full Text Available El vigor de un árbol se puede evaluar a partir del follaje, que si bien representa de 4% a 6% de la biomasa total del árbol, es el componente principal para los procesos fisiológicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la biomasa de acículas en ramas individuales y árbol completo, y ajustar mod [...] elos de partición de biomasa aérea en árboles plantados de Pinus patula Schl. et Cham. La biomasa de acículas por rama se estimó con un modelo lineal, que empleó área basal de rama viva, altura de rama y el seccionamiento de copa como variables independientes. La biomasa de los componentes aéreos se estimó con coeficientes de determinación de 0,86; 0,92 y 0,88; para madera con corteza, ramas y acículas, respectivamente. Para madera con corteza se utilizó el diámetro normal (DN) y altura de árbol (AT) en un modelo lineal; la biomasa de ramas y follaje con ecuaciones no lineales que se basaron en el diámetro de copa viva (DCV) y área de copa para ramas; y DCV y AT para la biomasa de follaje. La biomasa total aérea por árbol se estimó con un R² = 0,87; utilizando DN y AT. La biomasa a una edad de 14 años se distribuyó en 92,9%; 4,7% y 2,4% para madera, ramas y follaje, respectivamente. Abstract in english A forest tree health can be accurately assessed by evaluating foliage biomass; even when it represents only 4% to 6% of the total tree biomass, it is the main driver of every major physiological processes. This research was mainly focused on estimating accurately needle biomass at branch and tree le [...] vel on fast growing trees of Pinus patula Schl. et Cham. Needle biomass per branch was estimated with a linear model, which used live branch basal area, live branch height, and crown section like independent variables. Above ground components were estimated with determination coefficients of 0,86, 0,92 and 0,88 for wood with bark, branches and needles. For the wood with bark model, diameter at breast height (DBH) and total tree height (HT) were used in a linear structure; total branch biomass was fitted with a non-linear model, using live crown diameter (LCD) and crown area (CA) while total needle biomass used LCD and HT on a non-linear model. The aboveground total biomass per tree was estimated with R² = 0.87, using DBH and HT. At 14 years old, biomass partition was estimated to be 92,9%, 4,7% and 2,4% for wood with bark, branches and needles, respectively.

  7. Evaluation of the American College of Sports Medicine submaximal treadmill running test for predicting VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Clare E

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM's) submaximal treadmill running test in predicting VO2max. Twenty-one moderately well-trained men aged 18-34 years performed 1 maximal treadmill test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (M VO2max) and 2 submaximal treadmill tests using 4 stages of continuous submaximal exercise. Estimated VO2max was predicted by extrapolation to age-predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) and calculated in 2 ways: using data from all submaximal stages between 110 b·min(-1) and 85% HRmax (P VO2max-All), and using data from the last 2 stages only (P VO2max-2). The measured VO2max was overestimated by 3% on average for the group but was not significantly different to predicted VO2max (1-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.695; M VO2max = 53.01 ± 5.38; P VO2max-All = 54.27 ± 7.16; P VO2max-2 = 54.99 ± 7.69 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), although M VO2max was not overestimated in all the participants--it was underestimated in 30% of observations. Pearson's correlation, standard error of estimate (SEE), and total error (E) between measured and predicted VO2max were r = 0.646, 4.35, 4.08 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (P VO2max-All) and r = 0.642, 4.21, 3.98 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (P VO2max-2) indicating that the accuracy in prediction (error) was very similar whether using P VO2max-All or P VO2max-2, with up to 70% of the participants predicted scores within 1 SEE (?4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) of M VO2max. In conclusion, the ACSM equation provides a reasonably good estimation of VO2max with no difference in predictive accuracy between P VO2max-2 and P VO2max-All, and hence, either approach may be equally useful in tracking an individual's aerobic fitness over time. However, if a precise knowledge of VO2max is required, then it is recommended that this be measured directly. PMID:22262016

  8. Individual plant and population biomass of dominant shrubs in Patagonian grazed fields / Biomasa individual y poblacional de arbustos dominantes en estepas patagónicas pastoreadas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gastón R, Oñatibia; Martín R, Aguiar; Pablo A, Cipriotti; Fernando, Troiano.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La estimación de la biomasa aérea de la vegetación es clave para llevar a cabo estudios de Ecología de Poblaciones, de Comunidades y de Ecosistemas. En sistemas dominados o codominados por leñosas, esta estimación es dificultosa, y es importante contar con métodos rápidos y no destructivos. En este [...] estudio describimos cómo se distribuye la biomasa aérea en distintos componentes (i.e., leño, hojas) y cómo cambia con el tamaño de arbusto para las tres especies dominantes de arbustos del Distrito Occidental de la estepa Patagónica. Además, describimos la estructura poblacional de tamaños de las tres especies en campos pastoreados y estimamos su contribución a la abundancia y la biomasa total a través de un método no destructivo. Desarrollamos ecuaciones alométricas para estimar la biomasa de los componentes aéreos de los individuos de arbustos a partir de descriptores estructurales (i.e., diámetros y altura de la copa). La variable que mejor predijo la biomasa aérea en las tres especies de arbustos fue la suma de la altura y el diámetro promedio (entre el diámetro mayor y el perpendicular) de la copa. Los modelos alométricos explicaron para cada especie más de 83% de la variabilidad de la biomasa aérea individual. En el nivel de individuo, las especies tuvieron distinta proporción de leño, hojas y distinto peso específico del leño. El aumento del tamaño individual de los arbustos fue acompañado por cambios en las proporciones de hojas/leño y en algunos casos por el porcentaje de copa muerta. En el nivel de población, las tres especies difirieron en la distribución de tamaños en pastizales pastoreados. La perspectiva poblacional utilizada para el desarrollo de los modelos alométricos es clave para estudiar los procesos demográficos que explican las respuestas de las comunidades y los ecosistemas áridos a los principales cambios ambientales y de uso. Abstract in english Estimating aboveground biomass of vegetation is essential for population, community and ecosystem studies. In systems dominated or co-dominated by woody species, biomass estimation is difficult, and rapid and non-destructive methods are needed. In this study, we describe biomass distribution in diff [...] erent components (i.e., wood, leaves) and how this changes with shrub size for the three dominant species of shrubs in the Occidental District of the Patagonian steppe. We also describe the population size structure of the three species in grazed fields and estimate their contribution to total abundance and biomass through a non-destructive method. We developed allometric equations to estimate aboveground biomass components of individual shrubs from structural descriptors (i.e., diameter and height of the crown), sampling individual plants of different sizes. The variable that best predicted biomass of the three species was the sum of the height and the average diameter of the crown (calculated with the largest diameter and its perpendicular). Allometric models for each species explained more than 83% of the variability of individual aboveground biomass. At the individual level, species had different proportions of wood, leaves and specific wood weight. Increasing shrub size was accompanied by changes in the proportion of leaves to wood, and in some cases, the percentage of dead crown. At the population level, the three species differed in size distribution in moderately grazed fields. Development of allometric models from a population perspective is important to study demographic processes that drive community and ecosystem responses to environmental and land-use changes.

  9. Estimación de biomasa y carbono en dos especies de bosque mesófilo de montaña Biomass and carbon assessment in two tree species in a cloudy forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Acosta Mireles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La generación de ecuaciones alométricas es importante para determinar la biomasa y el carbono en las especies arbóreas. Esta información es útil en los estudios de cambio climático. En el presente estudio se generaron ecuaciones alométricas para dos especies de importancia ecológica en el bosque mesófilo de montaña: Clethra mexicana DC y Alnus arguta (Schltdl Spach. Las ecuaciones que se determinaron son de la forma Y= bXk; donde: Y= contenido de biomasa o de carbono (kg; y X= diámetro normal (DN en centímetros. Para estimar los valores b y k del modelo para cada especie, se realizó un muestreo de quince árboles de Clethra mexicana y 22 de Alnus arguta. En Clethra mexicana el mayor porcentaje de biomasa 45.2 % se encontró en el fuste incluido el tocón, mientras que en las ramas y el follaje estaba 36.3% y 18.6%, respectivamente. Con la biomasa y el DN de los árboles se determinaron los parámetros b y k del modelo propuesto (B= 0.4632 DN1.8168, R²= 0.946. Para Alnus arguta el mayor porcentaje de biomasa (60.6%, se encontró en el fuste incluido el tocón, mientras que en las ramas y el follaje presentó 27.4 y 12%, respectivamente. Al igual que el caso anterior con la biomasa y el DN, se obtuvieron los parámetros b y k del modelo propuesto (B= 0.1649 DN2.2755, R²= 0.968. Después de analizar el contenido de carbono en las muestra de cada especie, se ajustaron las ecuaciones para Clethra mexicana C= 22.49DN1.8168, con R²= 0.946, mientras que para Alnus arguta C= 0.0809DN2.2782 con R²= 0.968.The generation of allometric equations is important to determine biomass and carbon in tree species. This information is useful in climate change studies. In this paper, allometric equations were generated for two species of ecological importance in the cloud forest: Clethra mexicana DC and Alnus arguta (Schltdl Spach. Equations determined are of the form Y= bXk; where: Y= biomass or carbon content (kg; and X= normal diameter (ND in centimeters. To estimate model values of b and k for each species, a sampling was performed in fifteen Clethra mexicana and 22 of Alnus arguta trees. In Clethra mexicana the highest percentage of biomass 45.2% was found in the trunk including the stump, while branches and foliage had 36.3% and 18.6% respectively. With the biomass and ND of the tress, b and k parameters were determined from the proposed model (B= 0.4632 DN1.8168, R²= 0.946. For Alnus arguta the highest percentage of biomass (60.6% was found in the trunk including the stump, while branches and foliage had 27.4 and 12% respectively. Like the previous case with biomass and ND, b and k parameters were obtained from the proposed model (B= 0.1649 DN2.2755, R²= 0.968. After analyzing carbon content in each species samples, equations were adjusted for Clethra mexicana C= 22.49DN1.8168, with R²= 0.946, whereas for Alnus arguta C= 0.0809DN2.2782 with R² = 0.968.

  10. Estimación de biomasa y carbono en dos especies arboreas en La Sierra Nevada, México / Estimation of biomass and carbon in two arboreal species in the Sierra Nevada, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Carrillo Anzúres; Miguel, Acosta Mireles; Eulogio, Flores Ayala; Juana Eliud, Juárez Bravo; Eunice, Bonilla Padilla.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se generaron dos ecuaciones para determinar biomasa y carbono en Pinus montezumae y Alnus jorullensis H. B. K. ssp. jorullensis especies de importancia ecológica de los bosques de la Sierra Nevada en el Estado de México. Las ecuaciones que se determinaron son de la forma Y= bXk, donde Y es el conten [...] ido de biomasa o de carbono (kg) y X el diámetro normal (DN) en cm. Para estimar los valores b y k del modelo para cada especie, se utilizaron 15 árboles de Pinus montezumae y 16 de Alnus jorullensis ssp. jorullensis. En Pinus montezumae el mayor porcentaje de biomasa 77.07 % se estimó en el fuste incluido el tocón, mientras que en las ramas y el follaje presentó 8.45 y 9.01%, respectivamente, con la biomasa y el DN de los árboles se obtuvo el ajuste de los parámetros b y k del modelo propuesto (B= 0.013 DN3.0462) con una R²= 0.9909. Para el caso de Alnus jorullensis ssp. jorullensis de la misma forma el mayor porcentaje de biomasa 63.77% se estimó en el fuste incluido el tocón, mientras que en las ramas y el follaje presentó 20.99 y 11.46%, respectivamente; con la biomasa y el DN de los árboles se obtuvo el ajuste de los parámetros b y k del modelo propuesto (B= 0.0195 DN2.7519) con una R²= 0.9311. Después de analizar el contenido de carbono en las muestra de cada especie, se ajustaron las ecuaciones para Pinus montezumae C= 0.0065DN3.0484, con una R²= 0.9914, mientras que para Alnus jorullensis ssp. jorullensis C= 0.009DN2.7522con una R²= 0.9313. Abstract in english Two equations were generated for determining the biomass and carbon in Pinus montezumae and Alnus jorullensis HBK ssp. jorullensis of ecological important species of the forests of the Sierra Nevada in the State of Mexico. The equations were determined are of the form Y= bXk, where Y is the biomass [...] content or carbon (kg) and X normal diameter (DN) in cm. For estimating the model and k values for each species, Pinus montezumae 15 trees and 16 Alnus jorullensis ssp. jorullensis were used. In Pinus montezumae the highest percentage of biomass was estimated at 77.07% including the stem stump, while the branches and foliage showed 8.45 and 9.01%, respectively, biomass and DN trees the adjustment is obtained by k parameters of the proposed model (B= 0.013 DN3.0462) with R²= 0.9909. For the case of Alnus jorullensis ssp. jorullensis the same as the highest percentage of biomass was estimated at 63.77% including the stem stump, while the branches and foliage showed 20.99 and 11.46%, respectively; with biomass and tree DN setting the parameters of the proposed model by k (B= 0.0195 DN2.7519) with R²= 0.9311 was obtained. After analyzing the carbon content in the sample of each species, the equations for Pinus montezumae C= 0.0065DN3.0484, with R²= 0.9914, while for Alnus jorullensis ssp jorullensis was adjusted. C= 0.009DN2.7522 con an R²= 0.9313.

  11. Estimación de biomasa aérea en plantaciones de Cedrela odorata L. y Swietenia macrophylla King / Aerial biomass estimation in Cedrela odorata L. and Swietenia macrophylla King plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agustín, Rueda Sánchez; Agustín, Gallegos Rodríguez; Diego, González Eguiarte; J. Ariel, Ruiz Corral; Juan de Dios, Benavides Solorio; Eduardo, López Alcocer; Miguel, Acosta Mireles.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las capacidades de producción de biomasa y de captura de carbono en plantaciones de Cedrela odorata y Swietenia macrophylla con 12 años en el estado de Jalisco. En campo fueron seleccionados y derribados 15 árboles de cada especie para determinar la biomasa y el carbono en el estrato aé [...] reo; se tomaron muestras del fuste, de las ramas (brazuelo y leña) y del follaje de cada individuo para conocer su peso fresco; en el laboratorio se secaron para obtener el peso seco y con estos datos se calculó la biomasa total de cada ejemplar a partir de la relación peso seco: peso fresco. Para realizar las estimaciones se ajustaron ecuaciones de regresión tipo polinomial y potencial, el diámetro normal y la altura fueron las variables independientes. Al peso seco de cada componente del árbol se le aplicó un índice de captura de carbono de 0.4269 y con ello se obtuvo el potencial de captura de carbono atmosférico. Para C. odorata el total de biomasa promedio por espécimen fue de 34 kg, en la que se distribuye 75 % de la biomasa en el fuste, 11 % en el brazuelo, 9 % en ramas (leña) y 5 % en el follaje. Para S. macrophylla el total de biomasa promedio por espécimen fue de 26 kg, del cual 47 % se distribuye en el fuste, 19 % en el brazuelo, 23 % en ramas y 10 % en el follaje. Abstract in english This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the ability of biomass production and carbon sequestration by plantations of Cedrela odorata and Swietenia macrophylla in a plantation established 12 years ago in the state of Jalisco, Mexico. At Costa de Jalisco Experimental Site of the Instituto N [...] acional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP) and 15 trees of each species were selected and felled and the biomass and carbon in the aerial stratum were determined. Samples were taken from the stem, branches (twigs and firewood) and foliage of each of the selected trees and fresh weight was determined in the field from both species; the samples were dried in a laboratory to obtain the dry weight and estimate the total biomass of each tree using the ratio dry weight: fresh weight of samples. To estimate the biomass and carbon and polynomial regression equations were fit; the independent variables were normal diameter and tree height. To the dry weight of each tree component was applied a carbon sequestration index of 0.4269, thereby determining the potential for atmospheric carbon sequestration. For C. odorata, the total average biomass per tree was 34 kg, 75 % of which belongs to the biomass in the stem, 11 % in the trunk, 9 % in branches (wood) and 5 % in foliage. For S. macrophylla, the total average biomass per tree was 26 kg, which are distributed as 47 % in the stem, 19 % in the trunk, 23 % in branches and 10 % in the foliage.

  12. Producción de biomasa de Artemia franciscana Kellogg 1906 utilizando diferentes dietas / Biomass production of Artemia franciscana Kellogg 1906 using different diets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosario, Cisneros; Enrique, Vinatea.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el cultivo semiintensivo de Artemia franciscana, cepa Perú, utilizando diferentes dietas en base a microalgas e insumos alimenticios que forman parte de algunos ingredientes que se utilizan para preparar alimento formulado de peces y crustáceos, con el fin de determinar la factibilidad de [...] l uso de estos para la obtención de biomasa de adultos. El estudio se ejecutó en base a un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio con 7 tratamientos y 3 réplicas cada uno, aplicándose a los datos obtenidos un Análisis de Varianza de una vía (ANOVA) y la prueba de Tukey para establecer diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos. Los resultados del análisis próximal de las dietas, mostraron que la harina de soya presentó la cantidad de proteínas requerida por A. franciscana durante su crecimiento (34.33 %), igualmente con esta dieta se obtuvo la mejor tasa de crecimiento (0.19), biomasa más alta (113.33 g) y el mejor Factor de Conversión Alimenticia (1.4). Así mismo la biomasa de A. franciscana producida con harina de soya, presentó un nivel de proteínas adecuado para la maduración de reproductores de crustáceos (53.38 %). Abstract in english Artemia franciscana, Peru strain, was cultured under different diets-based in microalgae and nutritious inputs with the aim to determine the feasibility to produce adult Artemia biomass. A completely randomized design experiment was carried out, with seven treatments and three replications each one. [...] One way variance analysis (ANOVA) and the Turkey test were used to analyze the data to establish significant differences among treatments. The results of biochemical analysis showed that soya bean diet fulfilled the protein content needed for a proper growth of A. fransiscana. This diet also showed the best growth rate (0.19), highest biomass production (113.13 g), best food conversion ratio (1.4) and a protein content suited for crustacean broodstock maturation (53.38%).

  13. Evaluación de dos métodos para la estimación de biomasa arbórea a través de datos LANDSAT TM en Jusnajab La Laguna, Chiapas, México: estudio de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Escandón Calderón; Ben H. J. de, Jong; Susana, Ochoa Gaona; Ignacio, March Mifsut; Miguel Angel, Castillo.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron dos métodos para estimar biomasa arbórea con apoyo en sensores remotos (LANDSATTM). El primer método se realizó con base en una clasificación supervisada multiespectral con seis bandas Se utilizaron tipos de vegetación identificados a partir de la composición de biomasa de los géneros d [...] ominantes y de la altura promedio estimada del dosel habiéndose distinguido ocho clases de vegetación. Se obtuvo una biomasa total de 1 073 x 10³t (902 x 10³t a 1220 x 10³t). En el segundo método se utilizaron índices diferenciados de vegetación (NDVI) de las bandas TM4/TM3; TM4/TM5 y TM4/TM7. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión que relaciona la biomasa promedio con los valores digitales (VD) de los NDVI. El modelo exponencial fue el de mejor ajuste para los tres NDVI con una p ? 0.01 Los valores de los NVDI fueron TM4/TM3: R²=0.611; TM4/TM5: R²=0.671 y TM4/TM7: R²=0.676. La biomasa total estimada con cada NDVI fue de 1 164 x 10³t (490 x 10³t a 2 409 x 10³) para TM4/TM3; de 515 x 10³1 (331 x 10³t a 757 x 10³t) para TM4/TM5 y de 726 x 10ª t (398 x 10³1 a 1 210 x 10³1) para TM4/TM7. El resultado de la biomasa total calculada por el método de clasificación multiespectral, comparado con los valores estimados por el método de ordenamiento exponencial, mostró mayor similitud con el valor máximo del NDVI que relaciona las bandas TM4/TM7 (de mayor ajuste estadístico) y con el valor promedio del NDVI TM4/TM3 (de menor ajuste estadístico). Utilizando el NDVI TM4/TM5, todos los valores de biomasa resultaron más bajos. De este estudio se concluye que es posible asociar razonablemente la biomasa de vegetación arbolada de pino-encino y reservorios de carbono con los índices de vegetación A través del uso de sensores remotos se podrían predecir cambios de biomasa en escalas temporales y espaciales. Abstract in english Two approaches to estimate arboreal biomass with remote sensing (LANDSAT TM) are evaluated In the first approach a multi-spectral supervised classification with six bands was applied The classification of the vegetation types is based on biomass composition of the dominant tree species and canopy he [...] ight. Eight vegetation types could be distinguished. According to this approach the total tree biomass amounted to 1 073 x 10³ t (902 to 1 220 x 10³t). In the second approach a Normal Differentiated Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the band combinations TM4/TM3, TM4/TM5 and TM4/TM7 was used, A regression equation was developed to relate arboreal biomass with NDVI. Using these equations, the total biomass was estimated at 1 164 x 10³ T (490 to 2 409 x 10³T) for TM4/TM3; at 515 x 10³t (331 to 757 x 10³t) for TM4/TM5 and 726 x 10³t (398 to 1 210 x 10³t) for TM4/TM7. The average biomass estimation of the NDVI using TM4rTM3 is similar to the estimation using the classification approach, but the 95% confidence Interval is wider. Meanwhile, the biomass estimation of the NDVI using TM4/TMI5 and TM4/TM7 was lower than the biomass estimation from the classification approach, but both showed a narrow 95% confidence interval. The results of this study Indicate that it is possible to estimate within a reasonable confidence interval the tree biomass of pine-oak forest using an ordination approach with NDVI As such, remote sensing could be used to estimate temporal and spatial changes in aboveground biomass.

  14. Producción de biomasa de la microalga Scenedesmus sp. utilizando aguas residuales de pescadería / Biomass production of microalga Scenedesmus sp. with wastewater from fishery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Charity E, Andrade R; Alexandra L, Vera B; Carmen H, Cárdenas L; Ever D, Morales A.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Las microalgas representan una alternativa para el tratamiento de aguas residuales por su capacidad de remoción de nutrientes y alto valor comercial de la biomasa producida. Se evaluó el crecimiento, remoción de nutrientes y materia orgánica de la microalga Scenedesmus sp. en aguas residuales deriva [...] das de restos de pescadería. Se utilizaron cultivos discontinuos en tanques a cielo abierto con 150L, aireación constante y en condiciones no controladas de fotoperiodo y temperatura. Se evaluó el crecimiento de la microalga mediante recuento celular, peso seco y contenido de pigmentos, realizando la recolección de la misma en fase estacionaria mediante sedimentación natural, y efectuando análisis fisicoquímicos a la biomasa secada al sol. La microalga creció en agua residual a cielo abierto, reportando eficiencias de remoción de 94,44% (23,80mg/L) para nitrógeno amoniacal, de 77,54% (7,04mg/L) para fosfatos y de 35,59% (26,09mg/L) para materia orgánica. La biomasa seca resultó ser un componente de alto contenido proteico (24,41%), fibroso (10,04%), con niveles de grasa (2,47%) y minerales (23,52%) adecuados para complementar la nutrición animal. Estos resultados demostraron que Scenedesmus puede ser utilizada para el tratamiento de aguas residuales con la producción de una biomasa de valor agregado. Abstract in english The microalgae represent an alternative for the treatment of wastewater for his capacity of removal of nutrients and high commercial value of produced biomass. There was evaluated the growth, removal of nutrients and organic matter of Microalgae Scenedesmus sp. in wastewater derived from remains of [...] fish. Discontinuous cultures were in use in tanks to sky opened with 150L, constant aeration and in conditions no controlled of photoperiod and temperature. The growth of microalgae we evaluated by means of cell counting, dry weight and content of pigments, realizing the compilation of the same one in stationary phase by means of natural sedimentation, and effecting physicochemical analyses to the biomass dried to the sun. The microalgae grew in wastewater to opened sky, reporting efficiencies of removal of 94.44% (23.80 mg/L) for ammonia nitrogen, 77.54% (7.04 mg/L) for phosphates and 35.59 % (26.09 mg/L) for organic matter. The dry biomass recollected was a component of high contained protein (24,41%), fibrous (10,04%), with levels of fats (2,47%) and mineral (23,52%) adapted to complement the animal nutrition. These results showed that Scenedesmus can be used for the treatment of wastewater by production of a biomass of added value.

  15. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Brackebuschite-Type Transition Metal Vanadates: Ba2M(VO4)2(OH), M = V(3+), Mn(3+), and Fe(3+), with Interesting Jahn-Teller and Spin-Liquid Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D; McGuire, Michael A; Garlea, Vasile O; Hu, Longyu; Chumanov, George; McMillen, Colin D; Kolis, Joseph W

    2015-07-20

    A new series of transition metal vanadates, namely, Ba2M(VO4)2(OH) (M = V(3+), Mn(3+), and Fe(3+)), was synthesized as large single crystals hydrothermally in 5 M NaOH solution at 580 °C and 1 kbar. This new series of compounds is structurally reminiscent of the brackebuschite mineral type. The structure of Ba2V(VO4)2(OH) is monoclinic in space group P21/m, a = 7.8783(2) Å, b = 6.1369(1) Å, c = 9.1836(2) Å, ? = 113.07(3)°, V = 408.51(2) Å(3). The other structures are similar and consist of one-dimensional trans edge-shared distorted octahedral chains running along the b-axis. The vanadate groups bridge across edges of their tetrahedra. Structural analysis of the Ba2Mn(VO4)2(OH) analogue yielded a new understanding of the Jahn-Teller effect in this structure type. Raman and infrared spectra were investigated to observe the fundamental vanadate and hydroxide vibrational modes. Single-crystal temperature-dependent magnetic studies on Ba2V(VO4)2(OH) reveal a broad feature over a wide temperature range with maximum at ?100 K indicating that an energy gap could exist between the antiferromagnetic singlet ground state and excited triplet states, making it potentially of interest for quantum magnetism studies. PMID:26154989

  16. Variação diurna e resposta da cinética do VO2 de ciclistas durante exercício muito intenso / Diurnal variation and Vo2 kinetic response of cyclists during heavy exercis e

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos G., Santana; Sergio, Tufik; Giselle S., Passos; Donald M., Santee; Benedito S., Denadai; Marco T., Mello.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência da hora do dia nos parâmetros da cinética do consumo de oxigênio de ciclistas durante exercício muito intenso. Nove voluntários do sexo masculino realizaram exercícios de carga constante às 08:00, 13:00 e 18:00 h, em dias diferentes. Estes exerc [...] ícios foram realizados duas vezes em cada visita, com um intervalo de 1 h entre eles. A intensidade usada foi de 75%? (75% da diferença entre o VO2 no limiar de lactato e o VO2max. A amplitude do componente primário do VO2 (2597 ± 273 ml.min-1, 2513 ± 268 ml.min-1 e 2609 ± 370 ml.min-1), a constante de tempo do componente primário do VO2 (19.3 ± 2.5 s, 18.4 ± 3.0 s e 19.7 ± 3.9 s), o componente lento do VO2 (735 ± 81 ml.min-1, 764 ± 99 ml.min-1 e 680 ± 121 ml.min-1) e o tempo de resposta média (51.8 ± 4.2 s, 51.2 ± 4.2 s e 51.4 ± 3.4 s) não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os diferentes horários do dia (08:00, 13:00 e 18:00 h), assim como os demais parâmetros da cinética do VO2. Estes resultados sugerem que a resposta da cinética do VO2 de ciclistas durante exercício muito intenso (75%?) não é influenciada pela hora do dia. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the time of day on the parameters of oxygen uptake kinetics of trained cyclists during high intensity exercise. Nine male volunteers repeated bouts at constant loads at 08:00, 13:00 and 18:00 h on different days. These exercise bout [...] s were performed twice on each occasion, with an interval of 1 h between them. The load intensity used was 75%? (75% of the difference between the VO2 at the lactate threshold and the VO2max). The primary VO2 amplitude (2597 ± 273 ml.min-1, 2513 ± 268 ml.min-1 and 2609 ± 370 ml.min-1), the primary VO2 time constant (19.3 ± 2.5 s, 18.4 ± 3.0 s and 19.7 ± 3.9 s), the VO2 slow component (735 ± 81 ml.min-1, 764 ± 99 ml.min-1 and 680 ± 121 ml.min-1) and the mean response time (51.8 ± 4.2 s, 51.2 ± 4.2 s and 51.4 ± 3.4 s) did not present significant differences at the different times (08:00, 13:00 and 18:00 h), neither did the other parameters of the VO2 kinetics. These results suggest that the response of the VO2 kinetics of cyclists exercising at high intensity (75%?) is not influenced by the time of day.

  17. Handover Management for VoWLAN Based on Estimation of AP Queue Length and Frame Retries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niswar, Muhammad; Kashihara, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Kadobayashi, Youki; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    Switching a communication path from one Access Point (AP) to another in inter-domain WLANs is a critical challenge for delay-sensitive applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP) because communication quality during handover (HO) is more likely to be deteriorated. To maintain VoIP quality during HO, we need to solve many problems. In particular, in bi-directional communication such as VoIP, an AP becomes a bottleneck with the increase of VoIP calls. As a result, packets queued in the AP buffer may experience a large queuing delay or packet losses due to increase in queue length or buffer overflow, thereby causing the degradation of VoIP quality for the Mobile Nodes (MNs) side. To avoid this degradation, MNs need to appropriately and autonomously execute HO in response to the change in wireless network condition, i.e., the deterioration of wireless link quality and the congestion state at the AP. In this paper, we propose an HO decision strategy considering frame retries, AP queue length, and transmission rate at an MN for maintaining VoIP quality during HO. Through simulation experiments, we then show that our proposed method can maintain VoIP quality during HO by properly detecting the wireless network condition.

  18. Structural, photophysical and photocatalytic properties of novel Bi2AlVO7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi2AlVO7 was prepared by solid-state reaction technique for the first time and the structural and photocatalytic properties of Bi2AlVO7 and Bi2InTaO7 were investigated. The results showed that Bi2AlVO7 crystallized in the tetragonal crystal system with space group I4/mmm. In addition, the band gaps of Bi2AlVO7 and Bi2InTaO7 were estimated to be about 2.06 and 2.81 eV. The photocatalytic degradation of aqueous methylene blue (MB) dye with Bi2AlVO7 or Bi2InTaO7 as catalyst was investigated under visible light irradiation. Bi2AlVO7 showed higher photocatalytic activity compared with Bi2InTaO7 for photocatalytic degradation of MB under visible light irradiation. Complete removal of aqueous MB dye was realized after visible light irradiation for 160 min with Bi2AlVO7 as the photocatalyst. The reduction of the total organic carbon (TOC) and the formation of inorganic products, SO42- and NO3- revealed the continuous mineralization of aqueous MB dye during the photocatalytic process. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of aqueous MB dye was revealed under visible light irradiation.

  19. Preparation and characterization of fly ash cenospheres supported CuO–BiVO4 heterojunction composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel CuO–BiVO4/FACs heterojunction composites have been synthesized. • CuO–BiVO4 are loaded on the surface of lightweight hollow microspheres. • The CuO–BiVO4/FACs exhibit enhanced absorption in the visible light region. • The CuO–BiVO4/FACs show efficient photocatalytic activities. • The composites are floatable and can be recovered easily. - Abstract: Novel fly ash cenospheres supported CuO–BiVO4 heterojunction composites (CuO–BiVO4/FACs) were prepared by modified metalorganic decomposition and impregnation methods. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), and UV–vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques. The XPS and SEM analyses indicated that Cu was present as CuO dispersed on the surface of BiVO4. The DRS spectra revealed that the composites had improved optical adsorption in the visible light region, and the composites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that the 5 wt% CuO-loaded composite showed the highest photocatalytic activity for MB dye wastewater treatment. FACs, a by-product generated in coal-firing power plants, were used as a low cost support which favored phase separation after the reaction owing to their low density

  20. The VO-Dance web application at the IA2 data center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Marco; Knapic, Cristina; Smareglia, Riccardo

    2012-09-01

    Italian center for Astronomical Archives (IA2, http://ia2.oats.inaf.it) is a national infrastructure project of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (Istituto Nazionale di AstroFisica, INAF) that provides services for the astronomical community. Besides data hosting for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Corporation, the Galileo National Telescope (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, TNG) Consortium and other telescopes and instruments, IA2 offers proprietary and public data access through user portals (both developed and mirrored) and deploys resources complying the Virtual Observatory (VO) standards. Archiving systems and web interfaces are developed to be extremely flexible about adding new instruments from other telescopes. VO resources publishing, along with data access portals, implements the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) protocols providing astronomers with new ways of analyzing data. Given the large variety of data flavours and IVOA standards, the need for tools to easily accomplish data ingestion and data publishing arises. This paper describes the VO-Dance tool, that IA2 started developing to address VO resources publishing in a dynamical way from already existent database tables or views. The tool consists in a Java web application, potentially DBMS and platform independent, that stores internally the services' metadata and information, exposes restful endpoints to accept VO queries for these services and dynamically translates calls to these endpoints to SQL queries coherent with the published table or view. In response to the call VO-Dance translates back the database answer in a VO compliant way.

  1. AgCuVO4: A quasi one-dimensional S=1/2 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, we have been able to synthesize the new copper-orthovanadate AgCuVO4. The crystal structure was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction. AgCuVO4 comprises Cu2+ ions coordinated by oxygen in a square-planar fashion, similar to LiCuVO4, which has been identified as a multiferroic material recently. Whereas in LiCuVO4 the square-planar [CuO4] units are connected via edges to form chains along the crystallographic b axis, the [CuO4] units in AgCuVO4 are connected via corners resulting in Cu-O-Cu chains along the b-axis. The static magnetic susceptibility of AgCuVO4 can be described quite well within a Bonner-Fisher spin-chain scenario. In order to gain microscopic insight into the the electronic structure and the magnetic exchange interactions of AgCuVO4, we performed LDA band structure calculations. To take the strong Coulomb repulsion at the Cu site into account, we mapped the LDA results onto a tight binding model and subsequently onto a Heisenberg model. In agreement with the experimental data, we find pronounced one-dimensional magnetic exchange along the b axis with small inter-chain couplings.

  2. AgCuVO{sub 4}: A quasi one-dimensional S=1/2 compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Angela; Taetz, Timo [Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany). Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie; Schmitt, Miriam; Rosner, Helge [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Recently, we have been able to synthesize the new copper-orthovanadate AgCuVO{sub 4}. The crystal structure was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction. AgCuVO{sub 4} comprises Cu{sup 2+} ions coordinated by oxygen in a square-planar fashion, similar to LiCuVO{sub 4}, which has been identified as a multiferroic material recently. Whereas in LiCuVO{sub 4} the square-planar [CuO{sub 4}] units are connected via edges to form chains along the crystallographic b axis, the [CuO{sub 4}] units in AgCuVO{sub 4} are connected via corners resulting in Cu-O-Cu chains along the b-axis. The static magnetic susceptibility of AgCuVO{sub 4} can be described quite well within a Bonner-Fisher spin-chain scenario. In order to gain microscopic insight into the the electronic structure and the magnetic exchange interactions of AgCuVO{sub 4}, we performed LDA band structure calculations. To take the strong Coulomb repulsion at the Cu site into account, we mapped the LDA results onto a tight binding model and subsequently onto a Heisenberg model. In agreement with the experimental data, we find pronounced one-dimensional magnetic exchange along the b axis with small inter-chain couplings.

  3. Microstructure of epitaxial VO2 thin films deposited on (11 bar 20) sapphire by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epitaxial VO2 thin films grown on (11 bar 20) sapphire (?--Al2O3) substrates by MOCVD at 600 degree C have been characterized by conventional electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). Three different epitaxial relationships between the monoclinic VO2 films and sapphire substrates have been found at the room temperature: (I) (200)[010] monoclinic VO2//(11 bar 20)[0001] sapphire; (II) (002)[010] monoclinic VO2//(11 bar 20)[0001] sapphire; and (III) (020)[102] monoclinic VO2//(11 bar 20)[0001] sapphire. Epitaxial relationships II and III are equivalent to each other when the film possesses tetragonal structure at the deposition temperature: i.e., they can be described as (010)[100] tetragonal VO2//(11 bar 20)[0001] sapphire and (100)[010] tetragonal VO2//(11 bar 20)[0001] sapphire. HREM image shows that the initial nucleation of the film was dominated by the first orientation relationship, but the film then grew into the grains of the second and the third (equivalent to each other at the deposition temperature) epitaxial relationships. Successive 90 degree transformation rotational twins around the a-axis are commonly observed in the monoclinic films

  4. Morphology-dependent photocatalytic removal of NO by hierarchical BiVO4 microboats and microspheres under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, hierarchical monoclinic BiVO4 three-dimensional (3D) superstructures with two kinds of morphologies, namely BiVO4 microboats and BiVO4 microspheres, have been controllably synthesized by adjusting reaction time in the template-free hydrothermal process using ethylene glycol as solvent. The nucleation, growth, and self-assembly of the BiVO4 superstructures could be readily controlled with reaction time, which brought different morphologies to the final product. The as-prepared BiVO4 superstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption experimentation, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS). The monoclinic 3D BiVO4 catalysts are composed of two-dimensional (2D) nanoplates which intercross with each other. Nanoplates were firstly formed by aggregation of primary nanocrystallites and then self-assembly converted to microboats and microspheres via the oriented attachment mechanism. The prepared BiVO4 3D catalysts can respond to visible light and their optical and photocatalytic properties are relevant to their morphologies. The BiVO4 microspheres showed superior photocatalytic activity on removal of gaseous NO compared to the BiVO4 microboats. The morphology-dependent photocatalytic property of the BiVO4 superstructures is discussed. This work suggests that the synthesized BiVO4 micropheres are promising photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  5. Synthesis and photocatalytic performances of BiVO4 by ammonia co-precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the preparation and photocatalytic performance of Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) by a facile and inexpensive approach. An amorphous BiVO4 was first prepared by a co-precipitation process from aqueous solutions of Bi(NO3)3 and NH4VO3 using ammonia. Followed by heating treatment at various temperatures, the amorphous phase converted to crystalline BiVO4 with a structure between monoclinic and tetragonal scheelite. The crystallization of BiVO4 occurred at about 523 K, while the nanocrystalline BiVO4 were formed with a heat-treatment of lower than 673 K. However, when the heat-treatment was carried out at 773 K, the accumulation of nanocrystals to bulk particles was observed. The photocatalytic performances of the materials were investigated by O2 evolution under visible-light, and MB decomposition under solar simulator. The results demonstrated that the crystalline structure is still the vital factor for the activities of both reactions. However, the crystallinity of BiVO4 gives a major influence on the activity of O2 evolution, whereas the surface area, plays an important role for photocatalytic MB decomposition. - Abstract: BiVO4 was prepared by a co-precipitation process using aqueous ammonia solution, followed by heating treatment at various temperatures. The crystalline structure and crystallization process, and tructure and crystallization process, and their influences on photocatalytic O2 evolution and organic pollutants degradation were investigated. It demonstrated that the crystalline structure is still the vital factor for the activities of both reactions. However, the crystallinity of BiVO4 gives a major influence on the activity of O2 evolution, whereas the surface area, plays an important role for photocatalytic MB decomposition. Display Omitted

  6. Spin polarized HSE hybrid functional calculations of VO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the rutile (R) and monoclinic (M1) phases of the prototypical compound VO2 by first principles calculations based on density functional theory, employing the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) screened hybrid functional. Our results show that the HSE lowest-energy solutions for both the low-temperature M1 phase and the high-temperature R phase, which are obtained upon inclusion of spin polarization, are at odds with experimental observations. For the M1 phase the groundstate is (but should not be) magnetic, while the groundstate of the R phase, which is also spin-polarized, is not (but should be) metallic. The energy difference between the low-temperature and high-temperature phases is also in strong discrepancy with the experimental latent heat.

  7. Moessbauer and susceptibility studies of FeMoVO7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidic phase FeMoVO7 of the Fe2O3-V2O5-MoO3 system has been synthesized. Susceptibility measurements from 4.2 K to room temperature display an antiferromagnetic behaviour with an effective magnetic moment of 5.80 ?B. This value, and the measured Moessbauer isomer shift of 0.40 ± 0.02 mm/s, are characteristic of high-spin Fe(III). The low TN value of 15 K suggests a weak interaction among the Fe-O polyhedra. The relative small QS 0.28 ± 0.02 mm/s found in this compound shows that the Fe-O polyhedra symmetry is close to octahedral and almost undistorted. (orig.)

  8. Zircon to monazite phase transition in CeVO4

    CERN Document Server

    Panchal, V; Santamaria-Perez, D; Errandonea, D; Manjon, F J; Rodriguez-Hernandez, P; Munoz, A; Achary, S N; Tyagi, A K

    2011-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and Raman-scattering measurements on cerium vanadate have been performed up to 12 and 16 GPa, respectively. Experiments reveal that at 5.3 GPa the onset of a pressure-induced irreversible phase transition from the zircon to the monazite structure. Beyond this pressure, diffraction peaks and Raman-active modes of the monazite phase are measured. The zircon to monazite transition in CeVO4 is distinctive among the other rare-earth orthovanadates. We also observed softening of external translational Eg and internal B2g bending modes. We attributed it to mechanical instabilities of zircon phase against the pressure-induced distortion. We additionally report lattice-dynamical and total-energy calculations which are in agreement with the experimental results. Finally, the effect of non-hydrostatic stresses on the structural sequence is studied and the equations of state of different phases are reported.

  9. Performability Aspects of the Atlas Vo; Using Lmbench Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Georgatos, Fotis; Kouretis, John

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Virtual Organization is grid's largest Virtual Organization which is currently in full production stage. Hereby a case is being made that a user working within that VO is going to face a wide spectrum of different systems, whose heterogeneity is enough to count as "orders of magnitude" according to a number of metrics; including integer/float operations, memory throughput (STREAM) and communication latencies. Furthermore, the spread of performance does not appear to follow any known distribution pattern, which is demonstrated in graphs produced during May 2007 measurements. It is implied that the current practice where either "all-WNs-are-equal" or, the alternative of SPEC-based rating used by LCG/EGEE is an oversimplification which is inappropriate and expensive from an operational point of view, therefore new techniques are needed for optimal grid resources allocation.

  10. The first 'lithovanadate': K2[LiVO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By heating of well ground mixtures of the binary oxides [K2O, Li2O, V2O5, K:Li:V = 2.2:1.1:1.0; Ni-tube, 900 0C, 46 d] colourless monoclinic single crystals of K2[LiVO4] have been prepared for the first time: space group C2/m; a = 835.7(1) pm, b = 774.5(1) pm, c = 753.3(1) pm, ? = 90.23(1)0. The structure was determined by four-circle diffractometer data [MoK?, 1018 from 1262 I0(hkl), R = 8.65%, Rw = 5.67%]. The Madelung Part of Lattice Energy, MAPLE, and Effective Coordination Numbers, ECoN, these via Mean Fictive Ionic Radii, MEFIR, have been calculated. (author)

  11. A structured approach to VO reconfigurations through Policies

    CERN Document Server

    Reiff-Marganiec, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    One of the strength of Virtual Organisations is their ability to dynamically and rapidly adapt in response to changing environmental conditions. Dynamic adaptability has been studied in other system areas as well and system management through policies has crystallized itself as a very prominent solution in system and network administration. However, these areas are often concerned with very low-level technical aspects. Previous work on the APPEL policy language has been aimed at dynamically adapting system behaviour to satisfy end-user demands and - as part of STPOWLA - APPEL was used to adapt workflow instances at runtime. In this paper we explore how the ideas of APPEL and STPOWLA can be extended from workflows to the wider scope of Virtual Organisations. We will use a Travel Booking VO as example.

  12. Un modelo simple para describir la dinámica de la biomasa del camarón nailon Heterocarpus reedi en Coquimbo, Chile / A simple model for describing the biomass dynamics of the nylon shrimp Heterocarpus reedi at Coquimbo, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo P., Pérez.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Entre septiembre de 1997 y agosto de 2000 se realizó un seguimiento diario de la dinámica espacial y temporal de la CPUE (ton·lance-1) de camarón nailon por parte de la flota arrastrera con puerto base en Coquimbo. Se construyó un modelo de remoción de biomasa modificado para explicar las v [...] ariaciones temporales de la CPUE basado en los conceptos de abundancia (biomasa total poblacional) y disponibilidad (biomasa que puede ser potencialmente capturada). Ambas cantidades fueron calculadas por ecuaciones, cuyas diferencias (positivas o negativas) indicaron los cambios en la disponibilidad de la biomasa a través del tiempo y el reclutamiento (magnitud y temporalidad). El modelo modificado indicó dos períodos anuales de distinta longitud en la disponibilidad de biomasa al arte de pesca. También indicó una tasa de reducción más acelerada para la biomasa que para la CPUE. Los resultados pueden influir en la determinación de la época óptima para la realización de las evaluaciones directas del recurso con fines de determinar cuotas de captura Abstract in english A daily record of space/time dynamics was carried out on CPUE (ton·trawl-1) for the nylon shrimp trawl fishery based at Coquimbo, Chile, between September 1997 and August 2000. A modified biomass depletion model was constructed to analyze the temporal variations in CPUE based on the concepts of abun [...] dance (total population biomass) and availability (potential biomass capture). Both quantities were calculated by equations whose differences (positive and negative) indicated the changes in availability of biomass over time, as well as recruitmernt (magnitude and seasonality). The modified model suggested there were two periods annually, of different lengths, and different biomasses available with the fishing gear. The model also indicated a more rapid rate of reduction in biomass than did the CPUE. The results could influence the determination of the best season for carrying out direct resource evaluations aimed at determining catch quotas

  13. Impact of VoIP and QoS on Open and Distance Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jasola, Sanjay; Saxena, P. C.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    2006-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is becoming a reality in many organizations. The potential for mobility in voice over wi-fi networks will derive demand for the technology. Wireless VoIP is poised to rival VoIP as an alternative telephony tool. Internet has been used to transport data in the form of packet. In the past, Internet did not support any kind of sophisticated quality of service (QoS) mechanism. Although the type of service (TOS) field in the Internet protocol (IP) header has be...

  14. A Voice Priority Queue (VPQ) Fair Scheduler for the VoIP over WLANs

    OpenAIRE

    Kashif Nisar; Abas Md Said; Halabi Hasbullah

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of VoIP over packet switching networks is one of the rapidly emerging real-time Internet Protocol. The real-time application of the Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is growing rapidly for it is more flexible than the traditional Public Switched Telephone Networks systems (PSTN). Meanwhile, the VoIP deployment on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), which is based on IEEE 802.11 standards, is increasing. Currently, many schedulers have been introduced such as Weighted Fair Que...

  15. Study on the QoE for VoIP Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Weiwei Zhang; Yongyu Chang; Yitong Liu; Atif Hameed; Yuan Tian

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, people are recognizing that the quality in VoIP application should be evaluated according to the QoE (Quality of Experience). The main goal of this paper is to analyze the different factors on the impact of voice quality for VoIP networks. Our contributions are thus threefold: First, we establish a new VoIP simulation platform. The network simulation software is WANem, the voice communication protocol is implemented by Open Phone. This simulation system is more ‘real&rs...

  16. Research on diffusion-bonding composite YVO4/Nd:GdVO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 879 nm diode-laser end-pumped diffusion-bonding composite YVO4/Nd:GdVO4 crystal was firstly demonstrated at the emission of 1063 nm. Simulation results showed the temperature and stress intensity were lower in YVO4/Nd:GdVO4 crystal. A maximum continuous wave (CW) output power of 14.8 W was obtained, corresponding to the slope efficiency of 54.4% and optical-optical efficiency of 48.1%. Better laser performances are expected with the improvement of YVO4/Nd:GdVO4 crystal quality

  17. Fermi Surface of 3d^1 Perovskite CaVO3 Near the Mott Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, I H; Hase, I; Julian, S R

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed de Haas van Alphen effect study of the perovskite CaVO3, offering an unprecedented test of electronic structure calculations in a 3d transition metal oxide. Our experimental and calculated Fermi surfaces are in good agreement -- but only if we ignore large orthorhombic distortions of the cubic perovskite structure. Subtle discrepancies may shed light on an apparent conflict between the low energy properties of CaVO3, which are those of a simple metal, and high energy probes which reveal strong correlations that place CaVO3 on the verge of a metal-insulator transition.

  18. Prior Knowledge of Trial Number Influences the Incidence of Plateau at VO2max

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dan; Caddy, Oliver; Merzbach, Viviane; Gernigon, Marie; Baker, James; Scruton, Adrian; Keiller, Don; Barnes, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the VO2max plateau response at VO2max during a series of pre-determined trials. METHODS: Ten male well-trained athletes (age, 23.0 ± 3.2; height, 183.3 ± 5.5 cm; mass 77.5 ± 11.1 Kg; VO2max 66.5 ± 5.0 ml.kg-1,min-1), but who were VO2max testing naïve and with prior-knowledge of trial number completed four incremental tests to volitional exhaustion, separated by ~72-h for the determination of VO2max and gas exchange threshold. Throughout all trials VO2max was recorded on a breath-by-breath basis using a pre-calibrated metabolic cart, using a plateau criterion of ? VO2 ?1.5 ml.kg-1.min-1 over the final 2 consecutive 30 s sampling periods. A significant difference was observed between trial-1 and trial-4 for plateau incidence (p = 0.0285) rising from 20% in trial-1 to a 70% response rate in trial-4. Furthermore a significant difference was observed for VO2dif (difference between criterion value and ? VO2) in trial-1, 1.02 ± 1.69 ml.kg-1.min-1 (p = 0.038), with non-significant differences observed for all other trials, despite a non-significant difference for VO2max across all trials (p > 0.05). Finally, a significant difference was observed for effort perception (RPE) at volitional exhaustion between trial-1 (17.7 ± 1.3) and trial-4 (19.0 ± 1.4) (p = 0.0052). These data indicate that prior-knowledge of trial number can influence the manifestation of the VO2 plateau in a group of well-trained male athletes, thereby suggesting that a form of effort control is established in order to preserve the finite anaerobic capacity. Key points In well-trained athletes the incidence of plateau at VO2max increases in conjunction with an increase in trial number and the associated sensations of pain and fatigue. By informing the participant of the number of trials to be completed a closed-loop condition is developed whereby effort in all trials is compared to a perceptually developed template. Closed-loop condition leads to a sparing of the finite anaerobic capacity during incremental tests when the number of trials to be completed is known. PMID:25729289

  19. Fermi Surface of 3d1 Perovskite CaVO3 near the Mott Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, I. H.; Bergemann, C.; Hase, I.; Julian, S. R.

    2002-06-01

    We present a detailed de Haas-van Alphen effect study of the perovskite CaVO3, offering an unprecedented test of electronic structure calculations in a 3d transition metal oxide. Our experimental and calculated Fermi surfaces are in good agreement, but only if we ignore large orthorhombic distortions of the cubic perovskite structure. Subtle discrepancies may shed light on an apparent conflict between the low energy properties of CaVO3, which are those of a simple metal, and high energy probes which reveal strong correlations that place CaVO3 on the verge of a metal-insulator transition.

  20. Performance Analysis of Statistical Distributions for VoIP over WiMAX Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gysberth Maurits Wattimena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Statistical distributions are used to represent behavior of real VoIP traffic. This paper investigates the performance of VoIP traffic over WiMAX networks by examining statistical comparison of interarrival time distribution. The parameters are used to analyze the Quality of Service (QoS, like delay, jitter, throughput with respect to Voice Activity Detection (VAD or Silence Detection (SD in voice codec G.729. The simulation result indicates that the pareto distribution in interarrival time has a significant impact on the performance of VoIP in WiMAX network.

  1. Fermi surface of 3d1 perovskite CaVO3 near the Mott transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, I H; Bergemann, C; Hase, I; Julian, S R

    2002-06-10

    We present a detailed de Haas-van Alphen effect study of the perovskite CaVO3, offering an unprecedented test of electronic structure calculations in a 3d transition metal oxide. Our experimental and calculated Fermi surfaces are in good agreement, but only if we ignore large orthorhombic distortions of the cubic perovskite structure. Subtle discrepancies may shed light on an apparent conflict between the low energy properties of CaVO3, which are those of a simple metal, and high energy probes which reveal strong correlations that place CaVO3 on the verge of a metal-insulator transition. PMID:12059384

  2. Wavelength-Tunable Infrared Metamaterial by Tailoring Magnetic Resonance Condition with VO2 Phase Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the design of a wavelength-tunable infrared metamaterial by exciting magnetic resonance with phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2). Numerical simulation shows a broad absorption peak at the wavelength of 10.9 um when VO2 is a metal, but it shifts to 15.1 um when VO2 changes to dielectric phase below its phase transition temperature of 68degC. The large tunability of 38.5% in the resonance wavelength stems from the different excitation conditions ...

  3. Evaluación agronómica y nutricional del pasto EStrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis en la zona de monteverde, puntarenas, Costa Rica. I. DISPONIBILIDAD DE BIOMASA Y FENOLOGÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Villalobos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la disponibilidad de biomasa y la fenología del pasto estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis a lo largo de 2 años en muestreos bimensuales, en 4 fincas comerciales de ganado lechero ubicadas en los cantones de Tilarán y Central (latitud 10°20’ N, longitud 84°50’ O,altitud 800 a 1200 msnm de las provincias de Guanacaste y Puntarenas, respectivamente. La disponibilidad de materia seca pre-pastoreo y laedad fenológica promedio fueron 4484 kg.ha-1. corte-1 y 7,36 hojas verdes por rebrote, respec- tivamente. La composición botánica promediode las pasturas fue 86,81% estrella, 2,52% otrasgramíneas, 1,39% leguminosas, 1,53% malezas y 7,75% material senescente. La disponibilidad de biomasa fue mayor en las fincas con influencia climática del Oceano Pacífico y su producción disminuyó en los meses de mayor precipitación. La edad fenológica del pasto estrella africana se ubica entre 6 y 8 hojas verdes por rebrote, lo cual permite una adecuada recuperación del pasto, y disminuyó en los meses con excesos deprecipitación.

  4. Efecto del estrés hídrico simulado y la inoculación con esporas de Glomus mosseae sobre el crecimiento y la partición de biomasa en avena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ruscitti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El estrés hídrico limita el rendimiento de las plantas. La micorriza favorece el crecimiento y confiere resistencia a la sequía. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto del estrés hídrico moderado sobre la micorrización, el crecimiento y la partición de biomasa en plantas de avena (Avena sativa L. inoculadas con esporas de Glomus mosseae, a diferentes profundidades. Se sembró avena en sustrato estéril sin esporas y con 100 esporas a 4, 8 ó 12 cm de profundidad. La mitad de las plantas se sometieron a estrés moderado. Se determinó: área foliar, peso seco de parte aérea y raíz, porcentaje de colonización y dependencia micorrícica. Después de 60 días de la siembra, el porcentaje de colonización en las plantas regadas e inoculadas a 4 y 8 cm de profundidad y en las estresadas, a 4 cm de profundidad, fue de 25%, mientras que en el resto de los tratamientos fue significativamente menor. La biomasa seca aérea y de raíz fue significativamente mayor en las plantas estresadas inoculadas, a 8 y a 12 cm de profundidad, comparadas con las del tratamiento testigo. La arquitectura de las raíces estresadas se modificó con la inoculación: mostraron una menor longitud y un aumento significativo de las raíces laterales. Las plantas estresadas presentaron mayor dependencia micorrícica, comparadas con las no estresadas. Según estos resultados, la inoculación con esporas de G. mosseae fue una estrategia favorable para soportar situaciones de estrés hídrico y la ubicación del inóculo fue un factor determinante en la respuesta de la planta.

  5. Método basado en teledetección para estimar la emisión de gases efecto invernadero por quema de biomasa / A remote sensing method to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús Adolfo, Anaya Acevedo; Emilio, Chuvieco Salinero; Alicia, Palacios-Orueta.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La quema de biomasa es una fuente importante de gases efecto invernadero en países en vías de desarrollo. En Colombia, el cambio de uso del suelo, la silvicultura y el sector agropecuario superan el 50% de las emisiones totales de efecto invernadero. El fuego se utiliza con frecuencia como un mecani [...] smo para cambiar el uso del suelo. Los Llanos orientales y la Amazonía colombiana están sometidos todos los años a la quema de biomasa, especialmente entre enero y marzo. Los estudios en la distribución espacial y temporal de las emisiones son importantes de cara a los informes en el ámbito nacional. Este artículo de revisión describe el método para hacer estas estimaciones utilizando teledetección y algunos de los resultados disponibles para Colombia. Abstract in english Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. In Colombia, land use change, forestry and agriculture are responsible for more than 50% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Fire is commonly used as a mechanism for land use change. In Colombia the Llanos Orie [...] ntales and the Amazonia are subject to biomass burning every year during the dry season, especially from January to March. Studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions are required for emissions report at a national level. The goal of this state of the art article is to describe a method to estimate emissions with a remote sensing approach and to present some of the variables already measured in Colombia.

  6. Método basado en teledetección para estimar la emisión de gases efecto invernadero por quema de biomasa A remote sensing method to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Adolfo Anaya Acevedo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La quema de biomasa es una fuente importante de gases efecto invernadero en países en vías de desarrollo. En Colombia, el cambio de uso del suelo, la silvicultura y el sector agropecuario superan el 50% de las emisiones totales de efecto invernadero. El fuego se utiliza con frecuencia como un mecanismo para cambiar el uso del suelo. Los Llanos orientales y la Amazonía colombiana están sometidos todos los años a la quema de biomasa, especialmente entre enero y marzo. Los estudios en la distribución espacial y temporal de las emisiones son importantes de cara a los informes en el ámbito nacional. Este artículo de revisión describe el método para hacer estas estimaciones utilizando teledetección y algunos de los resultados disponibles para Colombia.Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. In Colombia, land use change, forestry and agriculture are responsible for more than 50% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Fire is commonly used as a mechanism for land use change. In Colombia the Llanos Orientales and the Amazonia are subject to biomass burning every year during the dry season, especially from January to March. Studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions are required for emissions report at a national level. The goal of this state of the art article is to describe a method to estimate emissions with a remote sensing approach and to present some of the variables already measured in Colombia.

  7. Evaluación agronómica y nutricional del pasto Ryegrass perenne tetraploide (Lolium perenne producido en lecherías de las zonas altas de Costa Rica. I. Producción de biomasa y fenología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Villalobos

    2010-01-01

    3090 msnm, provincia de Cartago. La disponibilidad de materia seca pre y pos-pastoreo, el aprovechamiento por hectárea y su porcentaje de utilización promedio para todas las fincas fueron 4110, 2276 y 1833 kg.ha-1 por corte y 44,82%, respectivamente. La edad fenológica y la relación hoja: tallo promedio de las pasturas de ryegrass perenne fueron 2,84 hojas verdes por rebrote, 56:44. Asimismo, la composición promedio de la pradera fue 76,09% ryegrass, 13,76% otras gramíneas (principalmente pasto kikuyo, 6,02% trébol, 1,25% malezas y 2,88% material senescente, respectivamente. La mayor producción de biomasa durante marzo y abril puede conservarse para utilizarse durante las épocas críticas de disponibilidad de forraje o cuando por razones climatológicas se reduce el número de horas efectivas de pastoreo. La evaluación de la edad fenológica en que se pastorea el pasto ryegrass perenne, indica que las fincas en la zona de estudio utilizan esta gramínea en un estado en el que sus reservas de carbohidratos se han recuperado, lo que permite obtener una producción de biomasa y valor nutricional adecuados para satisfacer las necesidades del ganado lechero de la zona.

  8. Influence of inoculum on growth and retention of the biomass in anaerobic filters / Influencia del inoculo sobre el crecimiento y la retención de biomasa en filtros anaerobios

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia, Torres-Lozada; Andrea, Pérez-Vidal.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluaron dos filtros anaerobios de igual configuración en escala de laboratorio y usando cáscara de coco como material de soporte, para el tratamiento de las aguas residuales del proceso de extracción de almidón de yuca. Considerando que en el área de estudio el inóculo disponibl [...] e en cantidad suficiente es el estiércol de vaca, se usó este inóculo solo (Reactor R1) y combinado con lodo granular en una proporción 1:1 (Reactor R2). Se evaluó la influencia del inóculo sobre el desempeño de los filtros anaerobios, sobre la adaptación de la biomasa al sustrato y sobre el crecimiento prevalente en el material de soporte. Ambos reactores mostraron potencial para el tratamiento de estas aguas residuales, con un Tiempo de Retención Hidráulico (TRH) de aproximadamente 12 horas, Carga Orgánica Volumétrica (COV) de 7.0 kg DQO/m3*d y un Índice Buffer (IB) entre 0.20 y 0.35. El incremento hasta de 50% en la Actividad Metanogénica Específica (AME) al final del arranque en ambos reactores, confirmó la adecuada adaptación de la biomasa al sustrato como resultado del control de la capacidad buffer; adicionalmente, los mayores valores de AME en el R2 mostraron que la mezcla de estiércol de vaca con lodo granular mejoró la producción de metano y la eficiencia del proceso. Se encontró que la biomasa ocluida tuvo mayor actividad que la biomasa adherida, indicando que el medio de soporte favoreció el desarrollo de una mayor proporción de biomasa activa en los intersticios del material de soporte. Abstract in english In this study we evaluated, on bench scale, two anaerobic filters of equal configuration and using coconut shell as support material, for the treatment of the wastewater generated in cassava's starch extraction process. Considering that in the study area the inoculum available in enough quantity is [...] cow manure, this inoculum was used alone (Reactor 1) and mixed with granular sludge in a ratio of 1:1 (Reactor 2). The influence of inoculum was evaluated in the performance of the anaerobic filters as well as in the biomass adaptation to the substrate and the prevalent growth on support material. Both reactors showed potential for the treatment of this type of wastewater, with a Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of 12 hours, an average Organic Loading Rate (OLR) of 7.0 kg COD/m3*d and a Buffer Index (BI) that varied from 0.20 to 0.35. The increase up to 50% in the Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) at the end of the start-up in both reactors, confirmed the adequate biomass adaptation to the substrate as a result of the control of buffer capacity, and the higher values in the R2, showed that cow manure mixed with granular sludge improved methane production and process efficiency. It was found that the occluded biomass had greater activity than the attached one; this showed that the support material allowed the development of a greater proportion of active biomass within the interstices.

  9. Efecto del potencial osmótico y contenido de Ca en el medio de cultivo sobre la distribución de Ca2+ Y K+, producción de biomasa y necrosis apical de VID "R110"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christiane, Molinos da Silva; Ángel, Villegas Monter; Prometeo, Sánchez García; Gabriel, Alcántar González; Ma. Nieves, Rodríguez Mendoza; Lucero del Mar, Ruiz Posadas.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available O potencial osmótico, o balanço iônico e as relações nutrimentais dos meios de cultura são determinantes para o crescimento e distribuição dos nutrientes das plantas cultivadas in vitro, entretanto, na maioria dos casos os primeiros não são considerados. Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito de diferent [...] es potenciais osmóticos dos sais minerais do meio de cultura (-0,106; -0,113, -0,120; -0,128; -0,143 e -0,157MPa) e concentração de Ca2+ sobre a distribuição de Ca2+, K+ e peso de biomassa seca dos explantes de videira. A concentração iônica foi quantificada com um microscópio eletrônico de barrido de baixo vazio (MEB-LV). O maior potencial osmótico do meio de cultura (-0,106MPa) favoreceu a translocação de Ca2+ e K+ dos talos para as folhas, enquanto o potencial mais negativo (-0,157MPa) permitiu os maiores niveles nos talos. O maior peso de biomassa seca (57mg) e os menores porcentuais de explantes com os sintomas de deficiência de Ca2+ (20%) se obtiveram com o potencial osmótico de -0,106MPa e com a concentração de 1,5mM de Ca2+ no meio de cultura. Abstract in spanish El potencial osmótico, el balance iónico y las relaciones nutricionales del medio de cultivo son determinantes en el crecimiento y distribución de nutrientes de las plantas cultivadas in vitro; sin embargo, en la mayoría de las investigaciones los primeros no se consideran. Se evaluó el efecto de di [...] ferentes potenciales osmóticos de las sales (-0,106; -0,113; -0,120; -0,128; -0,143 y -0,157MPa) y del contenido de Ca2+ en el medio de cultivo sobre la distribución de Ca2+ y K+, y el peso de biomasa seca de explantes de vid. La concentración iónica de los explantes se midió con un microscopio electrónico de barrido de bajo vacío (MEB-LV). El mayor potencial osmótico del medio de cultivo (-0,106MPa) favoreció la translocación de Ca2+ y K+ de los tallos hacia las hojas, mientras que, el potencial más negativo (-0,157MPa) permitió que los mayores contenidos se acumularan en los tallos. El mayor peso de biomasa seca (57mg) y los menores porcentajes de explantes con síntomas de deficiencia de Ca2+ (20%) se obtuvieron con el potencial osmótico de -0,106MPa y con concentración de Ca2+ en el medio de cultivo de 1,5mM. Abstract in english The osmotic potential, ionic balance and the nutrient ratios of culture medium are determinant for in vitro propagated plants growth; however, in most investigations, these factors are not considered. The effect of different osmotic potentials (-0.106, -0.113, -0.120, -0.128, -0.143 and -0.157MPa) a [...] nd Ca2+ contents of culture medium salts on the distribution of Ca2+ and K+, and on dry biomass of explants of grapevine were evaluated. The Ca2+ and K+ concentrations were measured with a low vacuum scanning electron microscope (MEB-LV). Ca2+ and K+ translocation from stems to leaves was favored by the higher osmotic potential of culture medium (-0.106MPa), whereas the larger contents of these elements at the base of the stems were found at the most negative osmotic potential (-0.157MPa). The greater dry biomass weight (57mg) and the smaller percentage of explants with Ca2+ deficiency symptoms (20%) were obtained at -0.106MPa, the lower osmotic potential, and 1.5mM Ca2+ in the culture medium.

  10. Podnikový dizajn vo verejnej správe na príklade švaj?iarskeho kantónu Luzern

    OpenAIRE

    Misun, Juraj; Hudakova, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Design is the most visible Instrument of the Corporate Identity. Besides it Corporate Identity affects the Corporate Image also with the Corporate Communication and with the Corporate Behavior. Despite of its Name, delimit it to Usage in the Commerce Sphere, the Corporate Design is used in advanced Countries also by the Government Institutions, and also by the third Sector. A good Example is the Swiss Canton Lucerne.

  11. Vplyv herbicídu Gesagard a fungicídu Fundazol na spolo?enstvo streptomycét vo vysokohorskej pôde.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Selešiová, Z.; Javoreková, S.; Krišt?fek, Václav; Chro?áková, Alica

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 1 (2010), s. 13-19. ISSN 1336-1120 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Grant ostatní: SAV(SK) VEGA 1/0404/09; SAV(SK) KEGA 3/6228/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : pesticides * streptomycetes * grassland Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Determinants of peak VO2 in heart transplant recipients / Determinantes do pico de VO2 em transplantados cardíacos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vitor Oliveira, Carvalho; Guilherme Veiga, Guimarães; Marcelo Luiz, Campos-Vieira; Aparecida Maria, Catai; Vagner, Oliveira-Carvalho; Silvia Moreira, Ayub-Ferreira; Edimar Alcides, Bocchi.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estabelecer os determinantes do VO2 pico em transplantados de coração. Métodos: Avaliação do paciente foi realizada em dois dias consecutivos. No primeiro dia, os pacientes realizaram a avaliação da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca seguida de um teste de esforço cardiopulmonar. No seg [...] undo dia, os pacientes realizaram ecocardiografia de repouso. Os transplantados foram elegíveis se estivessem em uma condição estável e sem qualquer evidência de rejeição diagnosticada por biópsia endomiocárdica. Pacientes com marca-passo, limitações funcionais não cardiovasculares, tais como osteoartrite e doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica foram excluídos deste estudo. Resultados: Sessenta pacientes (68% do sexo masculino, 48 anos e 64 meses após o transplante cardíaco) foram avaliados. A análise multivariada selecionou as seguintes variáveis: sexo (P=0,001), idade (P=0,049), Índice de Massa Corporal (P=0,005), frequência cardíaca de reserva (P Abstract in english Objective: To establish the determinants of the peak VO2 in heart transplant recipients. Methods: Patient's assessment was performed in two consecutive days. In the first day, patients performed the heart rate variability assessment followed by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. In the second day, pa [...] tients performed a resting echocardiography. Heart transplant recipients were eligible if they were in a stable condition and without any evidence of tissue rejection diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy. Patients with pacemaker, noncardiovascular functional limitations such as osteoarthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were excluded from this study. Results: Sixty patients (68% male, 48 years and 64 months following heart transplantation) were assessed. Multivariate analysis selected the following variables: receptor's gender (P=0.001), receptor age (P=0.049), receptor Body Mass Index (P=0.005), heart rate reserve (P

  13. Electrochemical behavior of [(Mn(Bpy))(VO3)2]?(H2O)1.24 and [(Mn(Bpy)0.5)(VO3)2]?(H2O)0.62 inorganic–organic Brannerites in lithium and sodium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of MnV2O6 (MnV) and its [(Mn(Bpy))(VO3)2]?(H2O)1.16 (MnBpy) and [(Mn(Bpy)0.5)(VO3)2]?(H2O)0.62(MnBpy0.5) hybrid derivative compounds was investigated against sodium and lithium counter electrodes. For MnV2O6 stable capacities of 850 mAh/g were achieved in lithium cells, the best value reported so far. The whole capacity is ascribed to a conversion reaction in which the amorphization of the compounds takes place. No significant differences in the capacities for the inorganic compound and the hybrid ones were observed. Interestingly, the potential hysteresis decreases in the hybrid compounds. The difference between Li and Na cell capacity most probably comes from the difference of standard potential of the two redox couples Li+/Li and Na+/Na of about ca. 0.3 V leading to an incomplete conversion reaction and thus lowers capacity in the case of Na cells. The Raman and IR ex-situ experiments after cycling indicate that the bipyridine organic ligands are completely decomposed during the electrochemical testing. The IR studies in MnV inorganic and MnBpy and MnBpy0.5 hybrid electrodes after the electrochemical cycling, suggest that the SEI formation and bipyridine degradation give rise to different aliphatic compounds. - Graphical abstract: The electrochemical performance of [(Mn(Bpy))(VO3)2]?(H2O)1.16 and [(Mn(Bpy)0.5)(VO3)2]?(H2O)0.62 against sodium and lithium counter electrodes give rise to the structural collapse of the initial compounds. The IR and Raman studies show that the Bpy organic ligand is completely decomposed during the during the electrochemical testing. However, after the amorphization stable capacities as high as 850 mAh/g for lithium cells were achieved. - Highlights: • We test the lithium and sodium insertion in hybrid brannerites. • Capacities as large as 850 mAh/g were obtained for the Li cells. • The capacity and good cycling is ascribed to a conversion reaction of the electrodes. • The Bpy molecule of the hybrid compounds is degraded during the first reduction. • The decomposition products of the Bpy ligand reduce the potential hysteresis

  14. VoIP for Telerehabilitation: A Pilot Usability Study for HIPAA Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzlaf, Valerie R.; Ondich, Briana

    2012-01-01

    Consumer-based, free Voice and video over the Internet Protocol (VoIP) software systems such as Skype and others are used by health care providers to deliver telerehabilitation and other health-related services to clients. Privacy and security applications as well as HIPAA compliance within these protocols have been questioned by practitioners, health information managers, and other healthcare entities. This pilot usability study examined whether four respondents who used the top three, free consumer-based, VoIP software systems perceived these VoIP technologies to be private, secure, and HIPAA compliant; most did not. While the pilot study limitations include the number of respondents and systems assessed, the protocol can be applied to future research and replicated for instructional purposes. Recommendations are provided for VoIP companies, providers, and clients/consumers.

  15. Diode-pumped efficient Yb:YGdVO4 thin-disk laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report for the first time a continuous wave Yb0.06:Y0.32Gd0.62VO4 (Yb:YGdVO4) laser, based on the 2F5/2 – 2F7/2 transition. The free running Yb:YGdVO4 thin-disk laser oscillation takes place at many different wavelengths, covering a wide range of 1037.0 – 1042.2, 1028.4 – 1040.2, and 1021.9 – 1031.2 nm, for transmissions 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%, respectively. As in the case of the 0.2 mm thick a-cut Yb:YGdVO4 the most efficient laser operation was achieved employing the coupler of 0.5%, producing a maximum output power of 2.25 W which gives an optical-to-optical efficiency of 21.2%, the slope efficiency being 37.3%

  16. Synthesis and characterization of VO2+ doped ZnO-CdS composite nanopowder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala Rao, G.; Babu, B.; Joyce Stella, R.; Pushpa Manjari, V.; Venkata Reddy, Ch.; Shim, Jaesool; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.

    2015-02-01

    VO2+ doped ZnO-CdS composite nanopowder has been synthesized by chemical precipitation method. The prepared sample has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, photoluminescence (PL), optical absorption and EPR spectroscopy. From XRD pattern, average crystallite size is about 18 nm. SEM and TEM images showed sphere like structures. FT-IR spectrum indicates the presence of fundamental modes of ZnO, CdS and other functional groups. The PL spectrum of VO2+ doped ZnO-CdS composite nanopowder exhibits UV, blue and green emissions. Optical and EPR studies revealed the tetragonal compressed octahedral site symmetry for VO2+ ions. The bonding between VO2+ and its ligands is ionic.

  17. VoIP for Telerehabilitation: A Pilot Usability Study for HIPAA Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie R. Watzlaf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumer-based, free Voice and video over the Internet Protocol (VoIP software systems such as Skype and others are used by health care providers to deliver telerehabilitation and other health-related services to clients. Privacy and security applications as well as HIPAA compliance within these protocols have been questioned by practitioners, health information managers, and other healthcare entities. This pilot usability study examined whether four respondents who used the top three, free consumer-based, VoIP software systems perceived these VoIP technologies to be private, secure, and HIPAA compliant;  most did not.  While the pilot study limitations include the number of respondents and systems assessed, the protocol can be applied to future research and replicated for instructional purposes.  Recommendations are provided for VoIP companies, providers, and users. 

  18. A new three-dimensional vanadium selenite, (VO)(2)(SeO3)(3), with isolated and edge-shared VO6 octahedra

    OpenAIRE

    Halasyamani, Ps; O Hare, D.

    1997-01-01

    Single crystals of (VO)2(SeO3)3 have been prepared from SeO2 and V2O5. The crystal structure has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystal data: (VO)2(SeO3)3, Mr = 514.75; monoclinic, space group P21a (No. 14); cell parameters a = 9.151(1) Å, b = 6.353(1) Å, c = 14.992(1)Å, ? = 93.538(5)°, and Z = 4. The structure consists of VO6 octahedra and SeO3 groups. The vanadium octahedra either are edge-sharing and form [V2O6.66]3.33- groups or are corner-linked through an [SeO...

  19. The slope of the VO2 slow component is associated with exercise intolerance during severe-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, L F; Greco, C C; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the slope of the VO2 slow component (VO2sc) and exercise tolerance (tlim) during constant-work-rate (CWR) exercise performed within the severe intensity domain. Fifteen active subjects (VO2max = 41.2 ± 5.1 ml.kg-1.min-1) performed the following tests: 1) an incremental test to determine the VO2max and the work rate associated with the VO2max (IVO2max) and; 2) two CWR transitions at 95% of the IVO2max to determine the slope of the VO2 slow component and the tlim. Three tlims were obtained: tlim1 = CWR1; tlim2 = CWR2; and tlim1+2 = (CWR1 + CWR2) / 2. There was no significant difference between the VO2max (3271.7 ± 410.7 mL·min-1) and VO2peak obtained during the CWR tests (CWR1 = 3356.3 ± 448.8 mL·min-1, CWR2 = 3362.2 ± 393.4 mL·min-1, p > 0.05). Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found among the VO2sc kinetics and tlim1 (r = -0.53), tlim2 (r = -0.49) and tlim1+2 (r = -0.55). Thus, exercise tolerance during CWR performed within the severe intensity domain is partially explained by the slope of the VO2 slow component. PMID:25532959

  20. Mobile telephones: a comparison of radiated power between 3G VoIP calls and 3G VoCS calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Dragan; Bragard, Guillaume; Picard, Dominique; Chauvin, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the mean RF power radiated by mobile telephones during voice calls in 3G VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) using an application well known to mobile Internet users, and to compare it with the mean power radiated during voice calls in 3G VoCS (Voice over Circuit Switch) on a traditional network. Knowing that the specific absorption rate (SAR) is proportional to the mean radiated power, the user's exposure could be clearly identified at the same time. Three 3G (High Speed Packet Access) smartphones from three different manufacturers, all dual-band for GSM (900?MHz, 1800?MHz) and dual-band for UMTS (900?MHz, 1950?MHz), were used between 28 July and 04 August 2011 in Paris (France) to make 220 two-minute calls on a mobile telephone network with national coverage. The places where the calls were made were selected in such a way as to describe the whole range of usage situations of the mobile telephone. The measuring equipment, called "SYRPOM", recorded the radiation power levels and the frequency bands used during the calls with a sampling rate of 20,000 per second. In the framework of this study, the mean normalised power radiated by a telephone in 3G VoIP calls was evaluated at 0.75% maximum power of the smartphone, compared with 0.22% in 3G VoCS calls. The very low average power levels associated with use of 3G devices with VoIP or VoCS support the view that RF exposure resulting from their use is far from exceeding the basic restrictions of current exposure limits in terms of SAR. PMID:25352159

  1. Unwanted Traffic and Information Disclosure in VoIP Networks : Threats and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ge

    2012-01-01

    The success of the Internet has brought significant changes to the telecommunication industry. One of the remarkable outcomes of this evolution is Voice over IP (VoIP), which enables realtime voice communications over packet switched networks for a lower cost than traditional public switched telephone networks (PSTN). Nevertheless, security and privacy vulnerabilities pose a significant challenge to hindering VoIP from being widely deployed. The main object of this thesis is to define and ela...

  2. A Fuzzy Logic Classification of Incoming Packet for VoIP

    OpenAIRE

    Suardinata; Kamalrulnizam Bin Abu Bakar

    2010-01-01

    The Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology is cheaper and does not need new infrastructure because it has available in the global computer (IP) network. Unfortunately, transition from PSTN to VoIP networks have emerged new problems in voice quality. Furthermore, the transmission of voice over IP networks can generate network congestion due to weak supervision of the traffic incoming packet, queuing and scheduling. This congestion affects the Quality of Service (QoS) such as delay, pac...

  3. Performance Analysis of Statistical Distributions for VoIP over WiMAX Access Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gysberth Maurits Wattimena

    2013-01-01

    Statistical distributions are used to represent behavior of real VoIP traffic. This paper investigates the performance of VoIP traffic over WiMAX networks by examining statistical comparison of interarrival time distribution. The parameters are used to analyze the Quality of Service (QoS), like delay, jitter, throughput with respect to Voice Activity Detection (VAD) or Silence Detection (SD) in voice codec G.729. The simulation result indicates that the pareto distribution in interarrival tim...

  4. Prepaid and Postpaid VoIP Service Enhancements and Hybrid Network Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Nazri Ismail; Asaad Abusin

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on prepaid and postpaid VoIP technology service enhancement. The aims are to i) merge wireless technology in rural areas with wired technologies and services in urban areas. It intends to investigate the minimum requirement needs by wireless and wired technology in using of telco connectivity. It is also to define which technology will achieve a low operating cost and good performance. In addition, the most apparent benefit of implementing prepaid/postpaid VoIP network in r...

  5. Slow component of VO2 kinetics: Mechanistic bases and practical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Andrew M; Grassi, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The V¿O2 slow component, a slowly-developing increase in V¿O2 during constant-work-rate (CWR) exercise performed above the lactate threshold, represents a progressive loss of skeletal muscle contractile efficiency and is associated with the fatigue process. This brief review outlines the current state of knowledge concerning the mechanistic bases of the V¿O2 slow component and describes practical interventions which can attenuate the slow componentand thus enhance exercise tolerance. There is strong evidence that, during CWR exercise, the development of the V¿O2 slow component is associated with the progressive recruitment of additional (type II) muscle fibers that are presumed to have lower efficiency. Recent studies, however, indicate that muscle efficiency is also lowered (resulting in a 'mirror-image'V¿O2 slow component) during fatiguing, high-intensity exercise in which additional fiber recruitment is unlikely or impossible. Therefore, it appears that muscle fatigue underpins the V¿O2 slow component, although the greater fatigue-sensitivity of recruited type II fibers might still play a crucial role in the loss of muscle efficiency in both situations.Several interventions can reduce the magnitude of the V¿O2slow component and these are typically associated with an enhanced exercise tolerance. These include endurance training, inspiratory muscle training, priming exercise, dietary nitrate supplementation, and the inspiration of hyperoxic gas. All of these interventions reduce muscle fatigue development either by improving muscle oxidative capacity and thus metabolic stability and/or by enhancing bulk muscle O2 delivery or local QO2-to- V¿O2 matching. Future honing of these interventions to maximize their impact on the V¿O2slow component might improve sports performance in athletes and exercise tolerance in the elderly or in patient populations.

  6. Performance Study of Objective Speech Quality Measurement for Modern Wireless-VoIP Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Tiago H.; Wai-Yip Chan

    2009-01-01

    Wireless-VoIP communications introduce perceptual degradations that are not present with traditional VoIP communications. This paper investigates the effects of such degradations on the performance of three state-of-the-art standard objective quality measurement algorithms—PESQ, P.563, and an “extended” E-model. The comparative study suggests that measurement performance is significantly affected by acoustic background noise type and level as well as speech codec and packet ...

  7. Voltage-controlled switching and thermal effects in VO2 nano-gap junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltage-controlled switching in lateral VO2 nano-gap junctions with different gap lengths and thermal properties was investigated. The effect of Joule heating on the phase transition was found to be strongly influenced by the device geometry, the contact material, and the current. Our results indicate that the VO2 phase transition was likely initiated electronically, which was sometimes followed by a secondary thermally induced transition.

  8. VoIP: A Corporate Governance Approach to Avoid the Risk of Civil Liability

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Gerber; Kerry-Lynn Thomson; Tian Gerber

    2013-01-01

    Since the deregulation of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) in 2005, many South African organizations are now attempting to leverage its cost saving and competitive values. However it has been recently cited that VoIP is one of the greatest new risks to business. This risk is cited to increase Information Security insurance premiums in the near future. Due to the dynamic nature of the technology, regulatory and legislative concerns such as lawful interception of communications and privacy m...

  9. Cardiac output distribution in miniature swine during locomotory exercise to VO/sub 3max/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of cardiac output (CO) was studied in miniature swine (22 +/- 1 kg) during level treadmill exercise up to the speed (17.7 km/hr) that elicited maximal oxygen consumption (VO/sub 2max/) (60 +/- 4 m1/min/kg). COs and tissue blood flows (BFs) were measured with the radiolabelled microsphere technique. CO increased from a preexercise value of 2.1 +/- 0.5 1/min up to 9.9 +/- 0.5 1/min at VO/sub 2max/. In preexercise standing 43% of CO went to skeletal muscle, which comprised 36 +/- 1% of body mass, 42% to viscera (12 +/- 1% mass), 5% to brain, heart, and lungs (2% +/- 0.1% mass), and 10% to skin and skeleton (35 +/- 2% mass). Preexercise could not be considered resting because of the animals' excitability. Skeletal muscle BF increased progressively with speed up to VO/sub 2max/, both in absolute terms and in percent CO. At VO/sub 2max/, 88% of CO went to muscle, 3% to viscera, 8% to brain, heart and lungs, and 1% to skin and skeleton. Thus, at VO/sub 2max/ only 4% of CO went to the inactive tissues, which constituted 47% of body mass. In 2 pigs that ran at speeds above 17 km/hr, total muscle BF leveled off at VO/sub 2max/. These findings demonstrate that muscle BF progressively increases up to VO/sub 2max/, and that VO2 levels off at the same intensity as muscle flow

  10. Synthesis and photoluminescence of Pb5(VO4)3OH nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pb5(VO4)3OH nanocrystals with different morphologies and sizes were prepared through chemical precipitation processes in the presence of different surfactants-dodecyl dimethylbenzylammonium bromide (DDBAB) or sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), respectively. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The role of surfactants in the synthesis process had been tentatively proposed. Luminescence of the Pb5(VO4)3OH nanocrystals were also investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy

  11. Evaluation and Investigation of the Delay in VoIP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Janata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused mainly on the delay problems, which considerably influence the final quality of connections in VoIP (Voice over IP networks. The paper provides a detailed exploration of the nature and mechanisms of the delay. The main purpose of the investigation was an attempt to formulate a mathematical model of delay in the VoIP network and its subsequent analysis by laboratory data.

  12. Ab initio study of metal-insulator transition in VO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huihuo; Wagner, Lucas K.

    2013-03-01

    The structure distortion accompanied metal-insulator transition (MIT) of vanadium dioxide (VO2) at 340K has been a matter of ongoing controversy for near four decades. It is still unclear whether the nature of this transition is due to a Peierls instability, a Mott-Hubbard transition, or other physics. Most density functional theory based methods fail to describe the nature of the electronic state in this system, further complicating theoretical description of VO2. We will report on progress in applying the first principles diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method to the electronic structure of VO2 in the metallic and insulator phases. By examining the energetic properties, one particle reduced density matrix, as well as other static correlations in the two phases of the system, we will comment on which of the two common descriptions is a closer representation of the physical reality of VO2. The structure distortion accompanied metal-insulator transition (MIT) of vanadium dioxide (VO2) at 340K has been a matter of ongoing controversy for near four decades. It is still unclear whether the nature of this transition is due to a Peierls instability, a Mott-Hubbard transition, or other physics. Most density functional theory based methods fail to describe the nature of the electronic state in this system, further complicating theoretical description of VO2. We will report on progress in applying the first principles diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method to the electronic structure of VO2 in the metallic and insulator phases. By examining the energetic properties, one particle reduced density matrix, as well as other static correlations in the two phases of the system, we will comment on which of the two common descriptions is a closer representation of the physical reality of VO2. This work was supported by the Strategic Research Initiatives project at Illinois(HZ) and NSF DMR 12-06242 (LKW).

  13. Reconfigurable anisotropy and functional transformations with VO$_{2}$-based metamaterial electric circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Savo, Salvatore; Zhou, You; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Moccia, Massimo; Galdi, Vincenzo; Ramanathan, Shriram; Sato, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate an innovative multifunctional artificial material that combines exotic metamaterial properties and the environmentally responsive nature of phase change media. The tunable metamaterial is designed with the aid of two interwoven coordinate-transformation equations and implemented with a network of thin film resistors and vanadium dioxide ($VO_{2}$). The strong temperature dependence of $VO_{2}$ electrical conductivity results in a relevant modification of the r...

  14. A novel approach for security issues in VoIP networks in Virtualization with IVR

    OpenAIRE

    Kinjal Shah; Satya Prakash Ghrera; Alok Thaker

    2012-01-01

    VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is a growing technology during last decade. It provides the audio, video streaming facility on successful implementation in the network. However, it provides the text transport facility over the network. Due to implementation of it the cost effective solution, it can be developed for the intercommunication among the employees of a prestigious organization. The proposed idea has been implemented on the audio streaming area of the VoIP technology. In the ...

  15. Size and composition-controlled fabrication of VO2 nanocrystals by terminated cluster growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre; Slack, Jonathan

    2013-05-14

    A physical vapor deposition-based route for the fabrication of VO2 nanoparticles is demonstrated, consisting of reactive sputtering and vapor condensation at elevated pressures. The oxidation of vanadium atoms is an efficient heterogeneous nucleation method, leading to high nanoparticle throughtput. Fine control of the nanoparticle size and composition is obtained. Post growth annealing leads to crystalline VO2 nanoparticles with optimum thermocromic and plasmonic properties.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Ag/BiVO4 composite photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ag/BiVO4 composite photocatalysts were hydrothermal synthesized and characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and DRS techniques. Their photocatalytic activities were determined by oxidative decomposition of methyl orange in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. It revealed that the doped Ag species greatly improved the visible light absorption abilities and morphologies of the composites, and thus lead to enhanced photocatalytic activities compared with that of the pure BiVO4.

  17. EPR and UV/VIS spectroscopic investigations of VO2+ complexes and compounds formed in alkali pyrosulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, SØren Birk; Eriksen, Kim Michael

    2002-01-01

    The catalytically important molten salt-gas system M2S2O7-M2SO4-V2O5/SO2(g) (M = Na. K, Rb, Cs) has been investigated by X- and Q-band EPR spectroscopy. In order to obtain information about the V(IV) complex formation in the melts, samples rather dilute in V2O5 were quenched from the molten state at 450-460degreesC to 0degreesC. EPR spectra of the quenched samples were recorded on samples with alkali to vanadium (M/V) ratios 40, 80 and 160. The spectra show that two V(IV) complexes dominate in the melt regardless of the type of alkali metal ion. In systems with low activity of sulfate a paramagnetic V(IV) complex with g(parallel to) = 1.915, g(perpendicular to) = 1,978 and line widths 5-15 Gauss is observed. In systems saturated with M2SO4 the obtained EPR spectra show a paramagnetic complex with the g-tensors g(parallel to) = 1.930, g(perpendicular to) = 1.980 and line widths 20-60 Gauss. These results fit very well with the assumption that the species VO(SO4)(2)(2-) and SO42- are in equilibrium with VO(SO4)(3)(4-). It has also been shown for the system M2S2O7-M2SO4(sat)-V2O5/SO42-(g) that the line widths in the system increase with higher cation radius, and depend linearly on the volume fraction of the sample occupied by the cation. This indicates that spin-spin relaxation effects are the major contribution to line broadening. Combining information from UV/VIS and EPR spectra shows that the VO2+ unit in the molten salt solvent exhibits electronic properties close to aqueous solutions of V(IV).

  18. Equações para a previsão da potência aeróbia (VO2 de jovens adultos brasileiros Equations for predicting aerobic power (VO2 of young Brazilian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Magrani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O VO2 pode ser previsto, com base em parâmetros antropométricos e fisiológicos, para determinadas populações. OBJETIVO: Propor modelos preditivos do VO2 submáximo e máximo para jovens adultos brasileiros. MÉTODOS: Os 137 voluntários (92 homens foram submetidos ao teste progressivo de esforço máximo (GXT no ciclo ergômetro (Monark®, Br. Medidas de trocas gasosas e ventilatórias foram realizadas em circuito aberto (Aerosport® TEEM 100, EUA. Em outro grupo, 13 voluntários foram submetidos ao GXT e a um teste de onda quadrada (SWT, para avaliar a validade externa das fórmulas do ACSM, de Neder et al e do nomograma de Åstrand-Ryhming. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de validação cruzada e o nível de significância de p BACKGROUND: VO2 may be predicted with base on anthropometric and physiological parameters for determined populations. OBJECTIVE: To propose models for submaximal and maximal VO2 prediction in young Brazilian adults. METHODS: A total of 137 volunteers (92 men underwent graded maximal exercise test (GXT in a cycle ergometer (MonarkTM, Br. Gas exchange and respiratory measurements were performed in an open circuit (AerosportTM TEEM 100, USA. In another group, 13 volunteers underwent GXT and a square wave test (SWT in order to evaluate the external validity of Neder et al's formula, ACSM's formula, and of Åstrand-Ryhming nomogram. The study design chosen was a cross-validation and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: For men during submaximal exercises, a mathematical model was deduced with base on workload, body mass, and age, which explained 89% of the VO2 variation, with SEE (standard error of the estimate = 0.33 l.min-1. For the maximum load in the male group, another model with the same variables explained 71% of VO2 variation, with SEE = 0.40 l.min-1. For women, 93% of VO2 variation could be explained, with SEE = 0.17 l.min-1, both in submaximal and maximal exercise, with only one equation by use e of the same independent variables. CONCLUSION: The models derived in the present study proved to be accurate to predict submaximal and maximal VO2 in young Brazilian adults. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010; [online]. ahead print, PP.0-0

  19. Multiferroicity and spiral magnetism in FeVO4 with quenched Fe orbital moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud-Aladine, A.; Kundys, B.; Martin, C.; Radaelli, P. G.; Brown, P. J.; Simon, C.; Chapon, L. C.

    2009-12-01

    FeVO4 has been studied by heat capacity, magnetic susceptibility, electric polarization and single-crystal neutron-diffraction experiments. The triclinic crystal structure is made of S -shaped clusters of six Fe3+ ions, linked by VO43- groups. Two long-range magnetic ordering transitions occur at TN1=22K and TN2=15K . Both magnetic structures are incommensurate and below TN2 , FeVO4 becomes weakly ferroelectric coincidentally with the loss of the collinearity of the magnetic structure in a very similar fashion than in the classical TbMnO3 multiferroic material. However we argue that the symmetry considerations and the mechanisms invoked to explain these properties in TbMnO3 do not straightforwardly apply to FeVO4 . First, the magnetic structures, even the collinear structure, are all acentric so that ferroelectricity in FeVO4 is not correlated with the fact magnetic ordering is breaking inversion symmetry. Regarding the mechanism, FeVO4 has quenched orbital moments that questions the exact role of the spin-orbit interactions.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of VO2-based thermochromic thin films for energy-efficient windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thermochromic VO2 thin films have successfully been grown on SiO2-coated float glass by reactive DC and pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering. The influence of substitutional doping of V by higher valence cations, such as W, Mo, and Nb, and respective contents on the crystal structure of VO2 is evaluated. Moreover, the effectiveness of each dopant element on the reduction of the intrinsic transition temperature and infrared modulation efficiency of VO2 is discussed. In summary, all the dopant elements--regardless of the concentration, within the studied range-- formed a solid solution with VO2, which was the only compound observed by X-ray diffractometry. Nb showed a clear detrimental effect on the crystal structure of VO2. The undoped films presented a marked thermochromic behavior, specially the one prepared by pulsed-DC sputtering. The dopants effectively decreased the transition of VO2 to the proximity of room temperature. However, the IR modulation efficiency is markedly affected as a consequence of the increased metallic character of the semiconducting phase. Tungsten proved to be the most effective element on the reduction of the semiconducting-metal transition temperature, while Mo and Nb showed similar results with the latter being detrimental to the thermochromism.

  1. The performance model of dynamic virtual organization (VO) formations within grid computing context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grid computing aims to enable 'resource sharing and coordinated problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations (VOs)'. Within the grid computing context, successful dynamic VO formations mean a number of individuals and institutions associated with certain resources join together and form new VOs in order to effectively execute tasks within given time steps. To date, while the concept of VOs has been accepted, few research has been done on the impact of effective dynamic virtual organization formations. In this paper, we develop a performance model of dynamic VOs formation and analyze the effect of different complex organizational structures and their various statistic parameter properties on dynamic VO formations from three aspects: (1) the probability of a successful VO formation under different organizational structures and statistic parameters change, e.g. average degree; (2) the effect of task complexity on dynamic VO formations; (3) the impact of network scales on dynamic VO formations. The experimental results show that the proposed model can be used to understand the dynamic VO formation performance of the simulated organizations. The work provides a good path to understand how to effectively schedule and utilize resources based on the complex grid network and therefore improve the overall performance within grid environment.

  2. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population-based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute values of VO(2PEAK) (0.22-0.36, P<0.05), and for VO(2PEAK) scaled by body mass (-0.38 - -0.70, P

  3. On-line Monitoring of VoIP Quality Using IPFIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Matousek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of VoIP services is to provide a reliable and high-quality voice transmission over packet networks. In order to prove the quality of VoIP transmission, several approaches were designed. In our approach, we are concerned about on-line monitoring of RTP and RTCP traffic. Based on these data, we are able to compute main VoIP quality metrics including jitter, delay, packet loss, and finally R-factor and MOS values. This technique of VoIP quality measuring can be directly incorporated into IPFIX monitoring framework where an IPFIX probe analyses RTP/RTCP packets, computes VoIP quality metrics, and adds these metrics into extended IPFIX flow records. Then, these extended data are stored in a central IPFIX monitoring system called collector where can be used for monitoring purposes. This paper presents a functional implementation of IPFIX plugin for VoIP quality measurement and compares the results with results obtained by other tools.

  4. Secure Communication and VoIP Threats in Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossein Ahmadzadegan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available VoIP services are among key issues in the Next Generation Network (NGN for the telecommunication domain. This technology is comprised of positive and negative aspects like similar emerging technologies. Nowadays, telecom operators provide call waiting, conference calling, call transfer, caller ID and other VoIP services based on NGN and all IP solution. Thus, VoIP security is now one of the issues over which many debates take place. In this paper we have decided to concentrate on vulnerability categories for VoIP services in NGN. We try to present the common security threats and vulnerabilities of VoIP services. Determining the vulnerabilities and their classification, together with the risks that this system is threatened by clarifies the ways to penetrate this system and enables administrators to solve the problems. The debate on this matter would be misleading without having full recognition of various specifications. In addition, to make the importance of identifying these types of vulnerabilities clear, we will classify the probability threats for VoIP.

  5. V?O2max and Microgravity Exposure: Convective versus Diffusive O2 Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Carl J; Broxterman, Ryan M; Barstow, Thomas J

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to a microgravity environment decreases the maximal rate of O2 uptake (V?O2max) in healthy individuals returning to a gravitational environment. The magnitude of this decrease in V?O2max is, in part, dependent on the duration of microgravity exposure, such that long exposure may result in up to a 38% decrease in V?O2max. This review identifies the components within the O2 transport pathway that determine the decrease in postmicrogravity V?O2max and highlights the potential contributing physiological mechanisms. A retrospective analysis revealed that the decline in V?O2max is initially mediated by a decrease in convective and diffusive O2 transport that occurs as the duration of microgravity exposure is extended. Mechanistically, the attenuation of O2 transport is the combined result of a deconditioning across multiple organ systems including decreases in total blood volume, red blood cell mass, cardiac function and mass, vascular function, skeletal muscle mass, and, potentially, capillary hemodynamics, which become evident during exercise upon re-exposure to the head-to-foot gravitational forces of upright posture on Earth. In summary, V?O2max is determined by the integration of central and peripheral O2 transport mechanisms, which, if not maintained during microgravity, will have a substantial long-term detrimental impact on space mission performance and astronaut health. PMID:25380479

  6. Research on Channel-Multiplexed Home Intercom System Based on VoIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuixiu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an intelligent channel-multiplexed home intercom system based on Voice over IP (VoIP, which is different from traditional home intercom system. The transmissions of audio and video signal are both supported in the system. According to different functions, the system is mainly divided into two modules: VoIP module and master control module. VoIP module consists of driver, OS Kernel and application layer, which can guarantee multiple tasks to be processed at the same time and ensure the real-time response of system. To save channel resource, Micro Control Unit (MCU is used to realize the  channel-multiplexed function via the communication with VoIP processor. Therefore, to ensure the normal communication between VoIP module and master control module, we define communication command words based on RS232 protocol.The test and application results indicate that our system achieves the goal of channel-multiplexed audio and video transmission based on VoIP, and has high expansibility.

  7. Mechanochemical synthesis of nanostructured BiVO4 and investigations of related features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly crystalline monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) nanopowders with crystallite sizes less than 50 nm were obtained by mechanical milling of a stoichiometric mixture of bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). Different synthesized batches were obtained by varying the preparation times and the number of the tungsten carbide balls (BPR) while keeping constant the jar rotation speed. Annealing treatments were performed on the obtained nanopowders in order to improve the crystalline order and the BiVO4 nanoparticles surface states. Characterizations methods, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) equipped with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Raman spectrometry, FTIR and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance techniques were used to shed light on the structure, morphologies and composition of the obtained nanopowders. Even if monoclinic BiVO4 crystalline structure was stabilized in samples after appropriate annealing, shifts of Raman peak positions after such treatments revealed the occurrence of symmetry distortions in the local structure of the monoclinic phase. -- Graphical abstract: Art Work – BiVO4 Synthesis and Structures. Highlights: ? Synthesis by ball-milling of original nanostructures of BiVO4. ? Stabilizing a monoclinic BiVO4 polytype with nanoparticle sizes about 20 nm. ? Investigations of annealing effects on structures, vibration and optical features.

  8. Influência do estado nutricional e do VO2max nos níveis de adiponectina em homens acima de 35 anos / Influence of nutritional status and VO2max on adiponectin levels in men older than 35 years / Influencia del Estado Nutricional y del VO2max en los Niveles de Adiponectina en Hombres que superan los 35 Años

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Camillo, Martinez; Macos de Sá Rego, Fortes; Luiz Antônio dos, Anjos.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A adiponectina é considerada importante fator na patogênese das doenças cardiovasculares e metabólicas, por suas propriedades antiaterogênicas e antiinflamatórias. Poucos estudos, entretanto, sugerem a existência de relação direta entre os níveis de adiponectina e os níveis de condiciona [...] mento cardiorrespiratório e atividade física. OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência do estado nutricional e do condicionamento cardiorrespiratório nos níveis plasmáticos de adiponectina em homens adultos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 250 sujeitos, homens, todos militares da ativa do Exército Brasileiro (42,6 ± 4,8 anos). Foram mensurados os níveis plasmáticos de adiponectina, massa corporal, estatura, circunferência da cintura (CC), percentual de gordura por pesagem hidrostática e VO2max por ergoespirometria. Um questionário foi utilizado para obter as características do treinamento físico realizado pelos sujeitos. RESULTADOS: Na amostra, 121 (48%) sujeitos apresentaram sobrepeso e 36 (14%) eram obesos. Ainda, 66 sujeitos (27%) apresentaram percentual de gordura maior que 25% e 26.7% apresentaram CC > 94 cm. Sujeitos com sobrepeso e obesidade apresentaram valores significativamente menores de adiponectina em relação aqueles com estado nutricional normal. Sujeitos no mais alto tercil de VO2max apresentaram níveis de adiponectina mais altos que os demais. Os níveis de adiponectina estiveram positivamente correlacionados com o tempo total de treinamento físico semanal e com o VO2max e inversamente correlacionados com os valores de massa corporal, IMC e CC. A correlação dos níveis de adiponectina e do VO2max não permaneceu significante após controlada pelo IMC e CC. CONCLUSÃO: Sujeitos com melhor condicionamento cardiorrespiratório e com estado nutricional normal parecem apresentar níveis mais saudáveis de adiponectina. Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: La adiponectina es considerada un importante factor en la patogénesis de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y metabólicas, por sus propiedades antiaterogénicas y antiinflamatorias. Sin embargo, hay pocos estudios que sugieran la existencia de una relación directa entre los niveles de adip [...] onectina y los niveles de condicionamiento cardiorrespiratorio y la actividad física. OBJETIVO: Verificar la influencia del estado nutricional y del condicionamiento cardiorrespiratorio en los niveles plasmáticos de adiponectina en hombres adultos. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron 250 individuos hombres, todos militares en activo del Ejército Brasileño (42.6 ± 4.8 años). Se midieron los niveles plasmáticos de adiponectina, masa corporal, altura, circunferencia de la cintura (CC), porcentaje de grasa corporal por peso hidrostático y condicionamiento cardiorespiratorio por ergoespirometria. Un cuestionario se usó para obtener las características del entrenamiento físico realizado por los individuos. RESULTADOS: En la muestra, 121 (48%), de los individuos presentaron sobrepeso y 36 (14%) eran obesos. Además, 66 individuos (27%), presentaron un porcentaje de grasa corporal mayor que el 25%, y el 26,7% presentaron CC > 94 cm. Los individuos con sobrepeso y obesidad presentaron valores significativamente menores de adiponectina con relación a los que tenían un estado nutricional normal. Los individuos con el más elevado tercil de condicionamiento cardiorespiratorio, presentaron niveles de adiponectina más altos que los demás. Los niveles de adiponectina quedaron positivamente correlacionados con el tiempo total de entrenamiento físico semanal y con el condicionamiento cardiorespiratorio, e inversamente correlacionados con los valores de masa corporal, IMC y CC. La correlación de los niveles de adiponectina y del condicionamiento cardiorespiratorio no permanecieron significativos después del control del IMC y CC. CONCLUSIÓN: Los individuos con un mejor condicionamiento cardiorrespiratorio y con un estado nutricional normal parecen presentar niveles más sanos de adiponectina. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is consid

  9. Factores de expansión de biomasa en comunidades forestales templadas del norte de Durango, México / Biomass expansion factors in temperate forest communities of north Durango

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flor María, Silva-Arredondo; José de Jesús, Návar-Cháidez.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La biomasa forestal, por lo general, es cuantificada en kilogramos por árbol o en toneladas por hectárea de peso verde o de peso seco. En un bosque es un elemento ambiental clave para calcular los montos de carbono que puedan liberarse a la atmósfera o bien fijarse, cuando estos ecosistemas son mane [...] jados para mitigar los gases de efecto invernadero. El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo en el norte del estado de Durango, México, con el objetivo de estimar la biomasa arbórea aérea (M) y los factores de expansión de biomasa (FEB) mediante ecuaciones alométricas para los diferentes componentes que provienen de inventarios forestales. Los datos de campo y de laboratorio que se registraron fueron peso verde y peso seco de las ramas y del fuste. La estimación de M se realizó mediante dos procedimientos: 1) con ecuaciones alométricas utilizando el diámetro normal como variable independiente y 2) con la ecuación clásica de física que considera el volumen y la densidad básica de la madera. Habiendo calculado M y los volúmenes por hectárea (ERH) de los inventarios forestales convencionales, se obtuvieron los valores de FEB. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en los métodos para conocer M y, por consiguiente los FEB; el primero parece más sensible y ofrece una mejor representación del fenómeno que el segundo. Los FEB son dependientes de la altura promedio del rodal y de la densidad de la madera; los derivados de los datos de inventario, se distribuyen de forma normal. Abstract in english Forest biomass is generally quantified in kilograms of green or dry weight per tree or in tons per area. It is an environmental key element to assess the carbon amounts that can go to the atmosphere or be fixed when these ecosystems are managed to mitigate the greenhouse-effect gases. This research [...] was conducted in northern Mexico in order to assess the biomass components and biomass expansion factors, with the use of alometric component equations and the classical physics equation that uses wood specific gravity applied to forest inventory data. Field and laboratory recorded data consisted on fresh and oven dried weight of stem and branch components. Biomass estimations were conducted following two procedures: 1) using an alometric equation that feeds with normal diameter and 2) employing the wood specific gravity times volume. Once biomass was estimated at the stand level it was divided by stand volume derived from inventory data to calculate the biomass expansion factors. The results showed differences in methods of estimating biomass and therefore in expansion factors as well. Biomass expansion factors are dependent on the mean top height of trees and wood specific gravity. These parameters are normally distributed for the inventory data utilized.

  10. Estimación de la biomasa foliar de Prosopis flexuosa mediante relaciones alométricas / Estimation of leaf biomass in Prosopis flexuosa by means of allometric relationships

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Ledesma; C.A., Carranza; M., Balzarini.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La estimación alométrica de la biomasa foliar arbórea es necesaria para determinar la producción primaria y para analizar algunas de las interacciones ecológicas entre los árboles y los demás componentes de la vegetación. El objetivo del trabajo fue ajustar y seleccionar modelos para estimar la biom [...] asa foliar de Prosopis flexuosa a partir de variables dendrométricas. Se apearon seis árboles, se midió su diámetro y se calculó el área de albura de muestras transversales de leño, en cuatro niveles: en los órdenes de ramificación dentro de la copa viva (ramas secundarias, terciarias y cuaternarias agrupadas), en el extremo distal de las ramas primarias y en los extremos distal y basal del fuste. Se recolectaron las hojas correspondientes a cada nivel y se obtuvo el peso seco. El área de albura fue la mejor variable predictora de biomasa foliar, aunque el diámetro tuvo buen ajuste en ramas dentro de la copa viva y en ramas primarias. Los modelos calculados con variables de fuste tuvieron menor ajuste. Se concluye que para la estimación no destructiva de la biomasa foliar de plantas adultas de Prosopis flexuosa es recomendable utilizar el modelo basado en el diámetro distal de las ramas primarias. Abstract in english The estimation of leaf biomass, usually performed by alometric relations, is important for the interpretation of primary production and for the assessment of ecological interactions between trees and the rest of the components in a wood vegetation. The goal for the present work was to adjust and to [...] select allometric models for the estimation of leaf biomass Prosopis flexuosa based on dendrometric variables. Six trees were surveyed. The diameter and sapwood area of transversal samples of wood were determined at four different levels: in the orders of ramification within living crown (secondary, tertiary and quaternary grouped branches), at the distal portions of primary branches and in the apical and basal portions of bole. The leaves were collected according to each level and dry mass was obtained. The sapwood area was the best predictor of leaf biomass, although diameter provided accurate estimations within crown and at the distal portions of primary branches. The models based on trunk dimensions were less precise. It is concluded that the obtained regression model based on the diameter of the distal portions of primary branches can be applied for the non-destructive estimation of leaf biomass in Prosopis flexuosa adult trees.

  11. Biomasa acústica y distribución del jurel Trachurus murphyi en el Perú / Acoustic biomass and distribution of Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi in Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marceliano, Segura; Aníbal, Aliaga.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los resultados de las evaluaciones hidroacústicas del recurso jurel Trachurus murphyi Nichols 1920 realizadas en aguas peruanas entre 1983 - 2012. Desde 1983 se incluyó al T. murphyi como especie de estudio durante los cruceros de evaluación de recursos pelágicos ejecutados por el Instit [...] uto del Mar del Perú. Debido al énfasis en la estimación de biomasa de la anchoveta Engraulis ringens y de la sardina Sardinops sagax cuando esta última es más abundante, los cruceros se llevan a cabo durante el verano austral y las áreas de evaluación están circunscritas a las zonas más costeras hasta 100 mn, con sólo algunas exploraciones en otras estaciones y hasta 200 millas. El máximo valor de biomasa de 8.51 millones de toneladas de T. murphyi en aguas peruanas estimado con las evaluaciones hidroacústicas fue encontrado durante el crucero realizado en otoño (marzo-mayo) de 1983. En los años siguientes los estimados de biomasa acústica fluctuaron entre 180 mil toneladas en 1985 y otro máximo de 8.47 millones de toneladas en 1993, para luego disminuir gradualmente hasta un mínimo de 1239 t en 2010, con una ligera recuperación en los años 2011 y 2012. El área de distribución de T. murphyi fue muy fluctuante en todo el periodo observado. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the results of acoustic stock assessment surveys for Jack mackerel Trachurus murphy Nichols 1920 conducted in Peruvian waters between 1983 and 2012. Since 1983 Jack mackerel T. murphyi was included as a target species to be assessed during the pelagic stock assessment surveys exe [...] cuted by the Peruvian Institute of Marine Research. Due to the emphasis on the assessment of anchovy Engraulis ringens and sardine Sardinops sagax when this species was abundant, these surveys usually took place during the austral summer and only covered the first 100 nautical miles from the coast, and only occasional surveys were conducted in other seasons or surveyed as far as 200 nm offshore. A maximum biomass of 8.51 million t of T. murphyi in Peruvian waters estimated through acoustics during a survey carried out in autumn (March-May) 1983. In the following years acoustic biomass estimates ranged between 180 thousand t in 1985 and another maximum of 8.47 million t in 1993, to then decreased gradually to a minimum of 1239 t in 2010, with a slight recovery in 2011 and 2012. The areas of ??distribution of T. murphyi have been fluctuating markedly throughout the observed period.

  12. Aprovechamiento de Biomasa Peletizada en el Sector Ladrillero en Bogotá-Colombia: Análisis Energético y Ambiental / Use of Pelleted Biomass in the Brick Industry in Bogota-Colombia: Energy and Environmental Analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César A, García-Ubaque; Martha L, Vaca-Bohórquez; Gabriel F, Talero.

    Full Text Available En este estudio se compara el desempeño energético y ambiental del uso de combustibles a partir de dos tipos de biomasas peletizadas: residuos de madera, provenientes de podas y residuos de la producción de muebles, principalmente aserrín. La biomasa proveniente de residuos de madera es uno de los m [...] ateriales más adecuados para utilizar como combustible alternativo. El sector ladrillero tiene una gran demanda energética para sus procesos de secado y cocción y el uso de combustibles alternativos a partir de biomasa permite obtener reducciones importantes en emisiones atmosféricas y no afecta las condiciones técnicas del proceso de producción de ladrillos. La biomasa con mejor desempeño, tanto en las variables energéticas como ambientales evaluadas, fue el aserrín. Abstract in english This study compared the energy and environmental performance of fuels from two types of pelleted biomass: wood waste from pruning and waste from furniture production, mainly sawdust. Wood residues biomass is one of the most suitable materials for using as an alternative fuel. The brick manufacture s [...] ector has a high energy demand for its drying and firing processes and the use of alternative fuels from biomass allows significant reductions in emissions and does not affect the technical conditions of the process of brick production. The biomass with better performance was sawdust, which presented the optimum energy and environmental variables.

  13. Aprovechamiento de Biomasa Peletizada en el Sector Ladrillero en Bogotá-Colombia: Análisis Energético y Ambiental Use of Pelleted Biomass in the Brick Industry in Bogota-Colombia: Energy and Environmental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A García-Ubaque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se compara el desempeño energético y ambiental del uso de combustibles a partir de dos tipos de biomasas peletizadas: residuos de madera, provenientes de podas y residuos de la producción de muebles, principalmente aserrín. La biomasa proveniente de residuos de madera es uno de los materiales más adecuados para utilizar como combustible alternativo. El sector ladrillero tiene una gran demanda energética para sus procesos de secado y cocción y el uso de combustibles alternativos a partir de biomasa permite obtener reducciones importantes en emisiones atmosféricas y no afecta las condiciones técnicas del proceso de producción de ladrillos. La biomasa con mejor desempeño, tanto en las variables energéticas como ambientales evaluadas, fue el aserrín.This study compared the energy and environmental performance of fuels from two types of pelleted biomass: wood waste from pruning and waste from furniture production, mainly sawdust. Wood residues biomass is one of the most suitable materials for using as an alternative fuel. The brick manufacture sector has a high energy demand for its drying and firing processes and the use of alternative fuels from biomass allows significant reductions in emissions and does not affect the technical conditions of the process of brick production. The biomass with better performance was sawdust, which presented the optimum energy and environmental variables.

  14. Influencia de la variabilidad edafica en la producción de biomasa del cultivo de la uña de gato uncaria tomentosa (willd d.c. en la cuenca del río aguaytia, region Ucayali -Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa E. Mech\\u00E1n

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En Mayo 2003 se instalaron cuatro plantaciones de uña de gato Uncaria tomentosa (Willd D.C a lo largo de la Cuenca del Río Aguaytia en Ucayali Perú. Las plantas correspondieron al clon 11, propagadas in vitro, y procedentes del Instituto de Biotecnología (IBT de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM. El estudio se basó en la determinación de la influencia edáfica en la producción de biomasa de esta especie como cultivo. Las áreas experimentales se encuentran a diferentes niveles altitudinales desde los 136 hasta los 884 msnm. En Junio 2005 se realizó la primera poda y el muestreo de suelos a dos profundidades, de 0 a 15 y de 15 a 30 cm del suelo.La textura arcillosa en los suelos fueron las que correlacionaron mejor con la producción de la biomasa del clon; siendo las ecuaciones más representativas: a Biomasa = 27.329(% Arena - 51.875 y b Biomasa = -32.247(arcilla ? 2169.8. Los indicadores mas significativos de la fertilidad del suelo en el proceso de adaptación de esta especie como cultivo fueron: los contenidos de fósforo (P, materia orgánica (M.O., nitrógeno (N total, saturación de aluminio (% Al, potasio (K, magnesio (Mg y el pH

  15. Conversion efficiency of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted in biomass in stands of black wattle in Brazil / Eficiencia de conversión de la radiación fotosintéticamente activa interceptada en biomasa en rodales de acacia negra en Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre, Behling; Carlos Roberto, Sanquetta; Ana Paula, Dalla Corte; Braulio, Caron; Augusto Arlindo, Simon; Marcos, Behling; Denise, Schmidt.

    Full Text Available El rendimiento en biomasa es una función de la eficiencia de conversión de radiación fotosintéticamente activa interceptada en fotoasimilados y varía, dependiendo de las condiciones en que se cultiva una planta. Este estudio cuantificó la eficiencia de conversión de la radiación solar interceptada p [...] or la biomasa fotosintéticamente activa (?b) en rodales acacia negra (Acacia mearnsii). Se realizó un estudio en rodales de 1-7 años de edad en dos sitios (para abarcar el ciclo completo de cultivo de la especie), en que se determinaron la radiación fotosintéticamente activa interceptada (PARI), el índice de área foliar, el coeficiente de extinción de la luz y el rendimiento de biomasa. Se propuso un sistema de ecuaciones que expresó como la radiación fotosintética es interceptada y los asimilados se convierten. El sistema de ecuaciones estima el rendimiento de biomasa y al mismo tiempo predice la partición de la biomasa dentro del árbol. El rendimiento en biomasa de acacia negra se relacionó linealmente con RFAi y la ?b de la biomasa total de acacia negra fue 0,0021 kg MJ"¹. Abstract in english Biomass yield is a function of the conversion efficiency of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted in photoassimilates and varies depending on the conditions in which a plant is grown. Thus, this study sought to quantify the conversion efficiency of solar radiation intercepted by photosynth [...] etically active biomass (?b) in black wattle stands (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). A study was therefore conducted in 1-7 year-old stands of the species in two sites (to span one plantation cycle), in which intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PARi), leaf area index, light extinction coefficient and biomass yield were determined. A system of equations is proposed, therefore, as photosynthetic radiation is intercepted and assimilates are converted, the system of equations estimates biomass yield, and at the same time predicts the biomass partition within the tree. The biomass yield of black wattle was linearly related to PARi and the ?b of the total biomass of black wattle is 0.0021 kg MJ-1.

  16. Effect of inhomogeneties and substrate on the dynamics of the metal-insulator transition in VO$_2$ thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Vega, M; Radue, E; Kittiwatanakul, S; Lu, J; Wolf, S A; Lukaszew, R A; Novikova, I; Rossi, E

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermal relaxation dynamics of VO$_2$ films after the ultrafast photo-induced metal-insulator transition for two VO$_2$ film samples grown on Al$_2$O$_3$ and TiO$_2$ substrates. We find two orders of magnitude difference in the recovery time (a few ns for the VO$_2$/Al$_2$O$_3$ sample vs. hundreds of ns for the VO$_2$/TiO$_2$ sample). We present a theoretical model that accurately describes the MIT thermal properties and interpret the experimental measurements. We obtain quantitative results that show how the microstructure of the VO$_2$ film and the thermal conductivity of the interface between the VO$_2$ film and the substrate affect long time-scale recovery dynamics. We also obtain a simple analytic relationship between the recovery time-scale and some of the film parameters.

  17. High quality, hybrid-MBE growth of SrVO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Jarrett; Eaton, Craig; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2013-03-01

    Vanadium-based transition metal oxides are an intriguing class of materials to study due to the metal-to-insulator (MIT) transitions that arise in many of the binary oxides (i.e. VO2, V2O3, V2O5) . The perovskite SrVO3 is metallic in bulk; however, it is possible to induce an MIT by modulating the bandwidth through strain or dimensional confinement. A mandatory requirement for controlling the electronic phase transition properties in material systems with strong correlation is the growth of high quality, stoichiometric thin films. This is demonstrated here with the growth of SrVO3 on LSAT (001) substrates using a hybrid-MBE technique, where the Sr is evaporated from an effusion cell and the V is provided through the metal-organic precursor vanadium oxo-tri-isopropoxide (VTIP). The structural properties of films with varying VTIP:Sr ratios are characterized by RHEED, XRD, AFM and TEM. These measurements demonstrate that SrVO3 can be grown with excellent structural quality, atomically flat surfaces and rocking curves of the same width as the substrate, accomplishing a necessary first step in controlling the MIT in SrVO3. Vanadium-based transition metal oxides are an intriguing class of materials to study due to the metal-to-insulator (MIT) transitions that arise in many of the binary oxides (i.e. VO2, V2O3, V2O5) . The perovskite SrVO3 is metallic in bulk; however, it is possible to induce an MIT by modulating the bandwidth through strain or dimensional confinement. A mandatory requirement for controlling the electronic phase transition properties in material systems with strong correlation is the growth of high quality, stoichiometric thin films. This is demonstrated here with the growth of SrVO3 on LSAT (001) substrates using a hybrid-MBE technique, where the Sr is evaporated from an effusion cell and the V is provided through the metal-organic precursor vanadium oxo-tri-isopropoxide (VTIP). The structural properties of films with varying VTIP:Sr ratios are characterized by RHEED, XRD, AFM and TEM. These measurements demonstrate that SrVO3 can be grown with excellent structural quality, atomically flat surfaces and rocking curves of the same width as the substrate, accomplishing a necessary first step in controlling the MIT in SrVO3. This research is primarily supported by ONR Grant N00014-11-1-0665

  18. Metal-insulator phase boundary in VO2 nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zenghui; Cobden, David

    2008-05-01

    Vanadium dioxide nanobeams show the same dramatic metal-insulator transition as does bulk VO2, occuring at about 67 degrees C under ambient conditions. The transition is first-order, accompanied by an abrupt and rapid changes in the electronic and optical properties, a latent heat, and a lattice distortion. In the bulk the transition is frustrated, leading to sample degradation, but in nanobeams this is not the case. As a result, in end-clamped nanobeams under tension we are able to investigate a regime of coexistence of the metallic and insulating phases. We find that the resistivity of the insulating phase along the phase boundary is independent of temperature. Furthermore the MIT occurs from the intermediate M2 insulating phase, which we detect near the transition by its higher resistivity, but not directly from the low-temperature M1 phase. These results imply that the MIT is triggered by carrier density and therefore involves electron correlations, and suggest that it takes place in the undimerized vanadium chains present in M2 but not in M1. More generally, these studies illustrate the scientific and technological potential of strongly correlated materials in nanoscale form.

  19. Transport phenomena in SrVO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Man; Wolf, Stuart; Lu, Jiwei; University of Virginia Team

    2013-03-01

    Bulk SrVO3 (SVO) with a 3d1 electronic configuration has been found to exhibit metallic and Pauli paramagnetic behavior. We have obtained epitaxial SVO films grown on various substrates (STO, SLAO, LSAT and LAO) using a pulsed electron-beam deposition (PED) technique. The film transport properties were found to be strongly dependent on the substrate. A 40 nm SVO film deposited on an STO substrate exhibited metallic behavior with the electrical resistivity following a T2 law that corresponds to a Fermi liquid system, the resistance ratio R(300K)/R(2K) was ~ 1.66. Hall measurements showed that the mobility increased slightly as the temperature was decreased. A small positive out-of-plane magnetoresistance was observed, it was only 0.045% at 5 K and 7 Tesla. SVO films with the same thickness grown on SLAO, LSAT and LAO showed semiconducting behavior, the different transport properties in the SVO films could be attributed to the compressive film strain or the different film-substrate interfaces.

  20. Producción de biomasa y costos de producción de pastos Estrella Africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis), kikuyo (Kikuyuocloa clandestina) y Ryegrass Perenne (Lolium perenne) en lecherías de Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Villalobos; Jose, Arce; Rodolfo, WingChing.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de biomasa, los costos de producción y el costo del kilogramo de materia seca en los pastos kikuyo (Kikuyuocloa clandestina), ryegrass perenne (Lolium perenne) y estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis), a lo largo de un año, en 8 fincas comerciales ubicadas en las provincias [...] de Cartago (2), San José (2) y Alajuela (4). La producción de biomasa promedio por ciclo para los 3 pastos fue de 3395 kg.ha-1 MS; la producción anual se ve influenciada por los días de recuperación de cada especie, mostrando valores de 40 170, 38 731 y 28 995 kg.ha-1 de MS para los pastos estrella africana, kikuyo y ryegrass perenne, espectivamente. La producción de biomasa varía durante el año y en las épocas de mayor producción de esa biomasa, los animales tienen un menor aprovechamiento de la pastura en términos porcentuales, debido a que la carga animal, los períodos de permanencia y las áreas de pastoreo no se ajustan a la disponibilidad de forraje. Los costos anuales de mano de obra, insumos y tierra promedio fueron de 72.433, 505.515 y 18.760 colones.ha-1, respectivamente; siendo los insumos el rubro con un peso relativo mayor en la estructura de costos de las fincas en pastoreo. Los costos del kg de MS producido y consumido, para los 3 pastos evaluados, fueron de 16,6 y 44,4 colones respectivamente, siendo el aprovechamiento que los animales hacen de las pasturas el determinante del costo del material consumido. Las fincas con mayor inversión anual en pasturas, mostraron un mayor retorno en kg.ha-1 leche. Abstract in english Dry matter yield and production costs in grazing systems on dairy farms of Costa Rica. Biomass production costs and dry matterkilogram cost were evaluated in kikuyu grass (Kikuyuocloa clandestina), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and African stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis), along one year, in 8 [...] dairy farms located in Cartago (2), San José (2) and Alajuela (4) provinces. Average dry matter yield per cycle was 3395 kg.ha-1 DM for the three grasses. Annual yield is influenced by the regrowth period of each species, with values of 40 170, 38 731 and 28 995 kg.ha-1 DM for African stargrass, kikuyu grass and perennial ryegrass, respectively. Biomass production varies during the year, and the utilization by cattle has a less utilization of these fields during the months of highest yield. Since the stocking rate, the occupational period and the grazing area are not adjusted an the basis of dry matter availability, dairy cattle has a lower utilization rate in the paddocks. Average costs for labor, agricultural inputs and land were (in Costa Rican currency) 72.433, 505.515 and 18.760 colones.ha-1, respectively. Inputs had the highest impact in the costs structure in grazing dairy farms. Costs for dry matter kilogram produced and consumed were 16.6 and 44.4 colones, respectively, for all 3 pastures; the cost of dry matter-kilogram consumed was affected by the rate of utilization in the grazing paddocks. Dairy farms with higher investment in pastures had a higher return in kg.ha-1 milk as well.

  1. Modelo dinámico de crecimiento de la biomasa para Mytilus chilensis en sistemas de cultivo en líneas / Dynamic biomass growth model for Mytilus chilensis in longline culture systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Marambio; Sergio, Maturana; Bernardita, Campos.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio propone un modelo de crecimiento dinámico de la biomasa para el bivalvo Mytilus chilensis, en sistemas de cultivos en línea. El modelo propuesto determina la biomasa a través del peso medio total y el número de choritos por metro lineal en la cuerda de engorda, calibrado usando datos re [...] ales. El peso medio se determina a través del modelo de von Bertalanffy modificado que incorpora la disponibilidad de alimento del ambiente y el ciclo reproductivo a través del Índice de Rendimiento Productivo, el que corresponde al cociente entre el peso en carne y el peso total. Por lo anterior, el peso medio está determinado por la disponibilidad de alimento y el crecimiento biológico de la especie. El modelo supone que el número de individuos de choritos por metro en la cuerda es el resultado tanto de la competencia intraespecífica entre individuos de M. chilensis como de la interespecífica con individuos del mitílido Aulacomya atra por el espacio disponible en la misma cuerda. Para modelar la competencia por el espacio disponible se utilizó la tasa de crecimiento, la superficie ocupada por los individuos y el porcentaje de presencia de M. chilensis y de A. atra. El estudio se realizó en la cuenca de Rilán, isla de Chiloé, sur de Chile, por un periodo de 18 meses. Se obtuvo un R² ajustado = 0,98, 0,93, y 0,94 para la variación del tamaño, de la densidad lineal y la biomasa, respectivamente, lo que indica que el modelo propuesto puede ser utilizado para predecir la biomasa en el tiempo. Abstract in english A dynamic biomass growth model for the mussel Mytilus chilensis in longline culture systems in proposed. This model determines the biomass by estimating the average weight and the number of mussels per meter of seeded rope, using real data. The average weight is estimated using the von Bertalanffy m [...] odel modified to incorporate the availability of food in the environment and the reproductive cycle given by the Meat Yield Index, which is the quotient between the meat weight and the total weight. Therefore, the average weight is determined by the availability of food and the biological growth of the species. The model assumes that the number of mussel individuals per meter in the rope is the result of both the species intraspecific competition among M. chilensis individuals and the interspecific competition with individuals of the mytilid Aulacomya atra for the available space in the same seeded rope. The growth rate, the occupied surface and the presence percentage of M. chilensis and A. atra were used to model the competition for the available space. The study was performed at the Rilán basin in the Chiloé Island, southern Chile, during an 18-month period. The results obtained were an R² adjusted = 0.98, 0.93, and 0.94 for the variation in size, lineal density and biomass, respectively, which indicate that the proposed dynamic model can be used to predict the biomass over time.

  2. Proactive QoS Enhancement Technique for Efficient VoIP Performance over Wireless LAN and Cognitive Radio Network

    OpenAIRE

    Tamal Chakraborty; Iti Saha Misra; Salil Kumar Sanyal

    2012-01-01

    VoIP over Wireless LANs is greatly affected bypath-loss, RF interference and other sources of signalattenuation in addition to network congestion. The primaryfactors involved in effective real-time communication,namely delay and loss, must be within certain controlledlimits in such a scenario. Wireless LAN Access Points must,therefore, act in tune with the codecs to ensure high qualityof the ongoing VoIP sessions. Further deployment of VoIPin opportunistic communication medium like cognitiver...

  3. SIP Signalling and QoS for VoIP over IPv6 DVB-RCS Satellite Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, M.; Liang, L.; Sun, Z.; Cruickshank, Hs

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, new technologies and applications are emerging. One of the important applications is voice over IP. Satellites are playing an important role to provide VoIP services with their global coverage and onboard processing ability over IP networks. Satellite network environment, generally characterized by large delay and erroneous link, is considered to be unfriendly to VoIP. The performance of VoIP is adversely influenced by these demerits. The performanc...

  4. Facile synthesis and photocatalytic activity of monoclinic BiVO4 micro/nanostructures with controllable morphologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? BiVO4 micro/nanostructures have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. ? The shapes of BiVO4 micro/nanostructures can be controlled by tuning the synthetic parameters. ? BiVO4 nanorods with rectangular cross sections exhibit improved photocatalytic activities. -- Abstract: Monoclinic BiVO4 (m-BiVO4) micro/nanostructures, such as nanorods, nanofibers, bundle-like nanostructures, and porous submicrometer-sized rods, have been successfully synthesized by a facile solvothermal method in an ethylene glycol–water–sodium oleate system. The morphologies and sizes of m-BiVO4 micro/nanostructures can be controlled by adjusting the synthetic parameters, such as the concentrations of sodium oleate and reaction time. Among them, the synthesized m-BiVO4 nanorods have rectangular cross sections, and can grow along the [0 0 1] direction, and are enclosed by well-defined facets, such as (0 0 2), (2 4 0), and (2¯10), which are distinct from that with circular cross sections. A crystallization-cleavage-disassembly process has been proposed for the formation of m-BiVO4 nanorods with rectangular cross sections. The photocatalytic activity of m-BiVO4 nanostructures is affected greatly by the sizes and shapes of m-BiVO4 nanostructures. Photocatalytic measurements show that the m-BiVO4 nanorods with rectangular cross sections exhibit higher photocatalytic activities of Rhodamine B in comparison with m-BiVO4 nanofibers with circular cross-sections and porous submicrometer-sized rods.

  5. Predicción del contenido intracelular de trehalosa en el proceso de producción de biomasa de Saccharomyces cerevisiae / Predicting trehalose cytoplasmic content during a Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass production process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. S., Aranda; A. I., Cabrera; J. I., Chairez.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La trehalosa es un carbohidrato dimérico componente de la levadura de panificación Saccharomyces cerevisiae, y es considerado como indicador de la capacidad fermentativa y de la viabilidad de las células. En procesos de producción de levadura, se busca inducir una acumulación intracelular de trehalo [...] sa. Por ser un compuesto citoplásmico, la cuantificación de la trehalosa requiere de tomas de muestra y de métodos analíticos posteriores. Así, el conocimiento del contenido citoplásmico de trehalosa es siempre ulterior al desarrollo del proceso de producción de biomasa, y esto dificulta el ajuste en tiempo real de parámetros de operación para incrementar la cantidad de trehalosa en la biomasa. Por tanto, se requiere de alguna alternativa para estimación de la trehalosa intracelular en tiempo real. Este trabajo presenta una opción de predicción basada tanto en el metabolismo celular implicado durante la biosíntesis de trehalosa, como en un algoritmo de redes neuronales dinámicas para la estimación de la concentración intracelular del carbohidrato. Abstract in english Trehalose is a dimeric carbohydrate and yeast biomass component generally used as an indicator of good viability and fermentation capacity. Yeast biomass production processes aim at inducing an intracellular accumulation of trehalose. However, during a production process, the trehalose must be quant [...] ified by off-line analytical methods after sample taking because it is a cytoplasmic compound. Thus, knowing experimental measurements of yeast trehalose content is always delayed. As a result, not oportune actions can be implemented in order to lead the production process toward a high intracellular trehalose accumulation in the produced biomass. Therefore, an online estimation method to forecast real-time intracellular trehalose content in yeast is developed. It is based on the main metabolic events involved in trehalose biosynthesis, as well as on a differential neural network algorithm to estimate trehalose concentration in the cytoplasm.

  6. Gasificación de biomasa residual en el sector floricultor, caso: Oriente Antioqueño / Gasification of waste biomass in the flower industry, case: Eastern Antioquia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego Mauricio, Yepes Maya; Farid, Chejne Janna.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de gasificación de una mezcla de 1/3 de cada especie de biomasa residual del cultivo de pompón, áster y hortensia con vapor de agua como agente gasificante, en un reactor a escala de laboratorio. La biomasa, como materia prima recibió un secado solar antes de in [...] iciar el proceso de gasificación, se realizó también un procedimiento de reducción de tamaño de partícula a fin de obtener geometrías acordes al proceso de gasificación, se caracterizó mediante el análisis próximo y último y se estableció como temperatura de operación del reactor un rango de 700 a 750°C. Como resultado, la composición del gas de síntesis producido fue analizada por cromatografía gaseosa y para el promedio de producción se obtienen: CH4 2,8 - 5%v, CO 9,3 - 22,2%v, H2 30,3 - 46,6%v. Abstract in english This paper presents the results of gasification of a mixture of 1/3 of each kind of residual biomass cultivation pompon, hydrangea and aster with steam as a gasifying agent in a laboratory scale reactor. The biomass feedstock received a solar drying before starting the gasification process, there wa [...] s also a method for particle size reduction to obtain consistent geometries with gasification process, was characterized by proximate and ultimate analysis and established as reactor operating temperature range of 700 to 750°C. As a result, the composition of the produced synthesis gas was analyzed by gas chromatography and the average yield obtained: CH4 2.8 to 5%v, CO 9.3 to 22.2%v, H2 30.3 to 46.6%v.

  7. PERSPECTIVAS DE OBTENCIÓN DE ENERGÍA RENOVABLE DE LA BIOMASA DEL ESTIÉRCOL DEL GANADO LECHERO EN LA REGIÓN CENTRO-SUR DE CHIHUAHUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Alicia Rivas Lucero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente casi la totalidad de la energía es proporcionada por fuentes fósiles que incrementan las emisiones de gases invernadero contribuyendo al calentamiento global. Estas emisiones se pueden reducir con el uso de energía renovable producida a través de la biomasa como el estiércol del ganado. El estiércol es materia prima para la producción de electricidad y energía térmica. La digestión anaeróbica de los desechos puede reducir las emisiones por la captura de metano, un gas invernadero producido por los desechos en instalaciones a pequeña y gran escala. La región Centro-Sur del estado de Chihuahua tiene potencial para la producción de energía renovable a partir de la biomasa como son los desechos de aproximadamente 58,000 cabezas de ganado, valorándose una producción diaria de 2,900 m3 de excretas y 10,000 m3 de aguas residuales que pueden ocasionar problemas ambientales. La producción de biogás calculada fue de 1.73 m3 de biogás/vaca/día, estimándose una producción total de biogás en la región de 25,717,352 m3/año y 50,722,754 kw-h/año ahorrándose hasta $45,143 millones de pesos en energía eléctrica. Se estiman reducciones de hasta 361,843 Ton-Eq de CO2. Se proponen tecnologías a pequeña y gran escala. El desarrollo de tecnologías de energía renovable abre la oportunidad para que los desechos generen ingresos adicionales por la producción de energía eléctrica o energía térmica, reduciendo problemas ambientales pudiendo hacer factible la adopción tecnológica a pequeña y gran escala por los productores.

  8. Aspectos fisiológicos de estevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni en el Caribe colombiano: I. Efecto de la radiación incidente sobre el área foliar y la distribución de biomasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarma Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni es uno de los 154 miembros del genero Stevia. El componente edulcorante de sus hojas se debe a glucosidos de diterpeno. Los principales glucosidos de esteviol son: esteviosido, rebaudiosido A, rebaudiosido C y dulcosido A. Este trabajo se realizo en Monteria (Colombia, con el proposito de evaluar el efecto de cuatro niveles de radiacion incidente sobre el comportamiento fisiologico de S. rebaudiana, bajo las condiciones ambientales delvalle del Sinu, en el Caribe colombiano. Se planteo un diseno completo al azar con arreglo factorial, en el que los factores fueron los porcentajes de la radiacion incidente en la region (19%, 24%, 56% y 100% y los genotipos de estevia ‘Morita 1’ y ‘Morita 2’. Los resultados indicaron que el area foliar de ‘Morita 2’ es superior a ‘Morita 1’, independientemente de la radiacion. Los altos niveles de radiacion incidente (100% y 56% registraron la mayor acumulacion de biomasa de las hojas, siendo superior en ‘Morita 2’. La mayor proporcion de la biomasa de las hojas, con respecto a la del tallo, en los primeros 60 d indica que la planta se dedico a fortalecer su aparato fotosintetico; luego, la migracion de fotoasimilados se hizo en mayor proporcion hacia los tallos, terminando con una tendencia estable hacia ambas demandas.

  9. Ecuaciones alométricas para estimar biomasa y carbono en Quercus magnoliaefolia / Allometric equations for estimating the above-ground biomass and carbon in Quercus magnoliaefolia Née

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús D., Gómez-Díaz; Jorge D., Etchevers-Barra; Alejandro I., Monterrosos-Rivas; Julio, Campo-Alvez; Juan A., Tinoco-Rueda.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En el ejido El Zapote de la Reserva de la Biosfera "Sierra de Huautla", estado de Morelos, México, se seleccionaron doce árboles de Quercus magnoliaefolia Née y se determinó su biomasa en la parte aérea. El modelo alométrico quedó expresado como: B = 0.0345 * DAP29334 en donde B es la biomasa (kg) y [...] DAP es el diámetro a la altura del pecho (cm), con un coeficiente de determinación (R²= 0.98; P Abstract in english At the El Zapote ejido in the "Sierra de Huautla" Biosphere Reserve in the state of Morelos, Mexico, twelve Quercus magnoliaefolia Née trees were selected and their above-ground biomass determined. The proposed allometric model was expressed as: B = 0.0345 * DBH2.9334, where B is biomass (kg) and DB [...] H is diameter at breast height (cm), with a coefficient of determination (R²= 0.98; PO.001). In addition, above-ground biomass was estimated by a multiple linear regression based on basal area (BA), specific gravity of wood (SGW) and tree height (H). A high proportion of the biomass variation was explained by basal area alone. SGW and H did not significantly increase the accuracy of the models. The average percentage of carbon in Q. magnoliaefolia trees was 47.14 with values of 46.29 % for the bole, 46.83 % for branches and 48.31 % for foliage. The average proportion of the components of the species studied was 62.5 % for the bole, 27.8 % for branches and 9.6 % for foliage.

  10. Li(+) intercalation in isostructural Li2VO3 and Li2VO2F with O(2-) and mixed O(2-)/F(-) anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruiyong; Ren, Shuhua; Yavuz, Murat; Guda, Alexander A; Shapovalov, Viktor; Witter, Raiker; Fichtner, Maximilian; Hahn, Horst

    2015-06-24

    Mixed-anion materials for Li-ion batteries have been attracting attention in view of their tunable electrochemical properties. Herein, we compare two isostructural (Fm3[combining macron]m) model intercalation materials Li2VO3 and Li2VO2F with O(2-) and mixed O(2-)/F(-) anions, respectively. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function data confirm large structural similarity over long-range and at the atomic scale for these materials. However, they show distinct electrochemical properties and kinetic behaviour arising from the different anion environments and the consequent difference in cationic electrostatic repulsion. In comparison with Li2VO3 with an active V(4+/5+) redox reaction, the material Li2VO2F with oxofluoro anions and the partial activity of V(3+/5+) redox reaction favor higher theoretical capacity (460 mA h g(-1)vs. 230 mA h g(-1)), higher voltage (2.5 V vs. 2.2 V), lower polarization (0.1 V vs. 0.3 V) and faster Li(+) chemical diffusion (?10(-9) cm(2) s(-1)vs. ?10(-11) cm(2) s(-1)). This work not only provides insights into the understanding of anion chemistry, but also suggests the rational design of new mixed-anion battery materials. PMID:26073634

  11. In situ high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of CeVO4 and TbVO4 up to 50 GPa

    CERN Document Server

    Errandonea, D; Achary, S N; Tyagi, A K; 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.024111

    2012-01-01

    Room temperature angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements on zircon-type TbVO4 and CeVO4 were performed in a diamond-anvil cell up to 50 GPa using neon as pressure-transmitting medium. In TbVO4 we found at 6.4 GPa evidence of a non-reversible pressure-induced structural phase transition from zircon to a scheelite-type structure. A second transition to an M-fergusonite-type structure was found at 33.9 GPa, which is reversible. Zircon-type CeVO4 exhibits two pressure-induced transitions. First an irreversible transition to a monazite-type structure at 5.6 GPa and second at 14.7 GPa a reversible transition to an orthorhombic structure. No additional phase transitions or evidences of chemical decomposition are found in the experiments. The equations of state and axial compressibility for the different phases are also determined. Finally, the sequence of structural transitions and the compressibilities are discussed in comparison with other orhtovanadates and the influence of non-hydrostaticity commented.

  12. Fine hierarchy of the V-O bonds by advanced solid state NMR: novel Pb4(VO2)(PO4)3 structure as a textbook case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricot, Grégory; Mentré, Olivier; Cristol, Sylvain; Delevoye, Laurent

    2012-12-17

    We report here a complete structural characterization of a new lead Pb(4)(VO(2))(PO(4))(3) vanadophosphate compound by single crystal X-ray diffraction and (51)V and (31)P solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Although structural data are commonly used for the estimation of bond lengths and further delimitation of the true coordination number (e.g., octahedral: 6 versus 5 + 1 versus 4 + 2), we show here for the first time by solid-state NMR a more accurate appreciation of the V-O bonding scheme in this complex oxide which appears well adapted to the full series of vanado-phosphate materials. The direct characterization of V-O-P bridges through the J-mediated correlation (51)V{(31)P} heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (J-HMQC) technique allows a contrasted hierarchy of the V-O electronic delocalization and indirectly supports the presence or not of the V-O bond. In the reported lead vanado-phosphate structure, the two vanadium polyhedra that have been assigned to octahedra from a bond length point of view have been finally reclassified as tetra- and penta-coordinated units on the basis of the solid-state NMR results. More generally, we believe that the improved characterization of interatomic bonds in various vanado-phosphate structures by solid-state NMR will contribute to a better understanding of the structure/property relationships in this important class of materials. PMID:23190003

  13. Equações para a previsão da potência aeróbia (VO2) de jovens adultos brasileiros / Equations for predicting aerobic power (VO2) of young Brazilian adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula, Magrani; Fernando Augusto Monteiro Saboia, Pompeu.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O VO2 pode ser previsto, com base em parâmetros antropométricos e fisiológicos, para determinadas populações. OBJETIVO: Propor modelos preditivos do VO2 submáximo e máximo para jovens adultos brasileiros. MÉTODOS: Os 137 voluntários (92 homens) foram submetidos ao teste progressivo de es [...] forço máximo (GXT) no ciclo ergômetro (Monark®, Br). Medidas de trocas gasosas e ventilatórias foram realizadas em circuito aberto (Aerosport® TEEM 100, EUA). Em outro grupo, 13 voluntários foram submetidos ao GXT e a um teste de onda quadrada (SWT), para avaliar a validade externa das fórmulas do ACSM, de Neder et al e do nomograma de Åstrand-Ryhming. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de validação cruzada e o nível de significância de p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: VO2 may be predicted with base on anthropometric and physiological parameters for determined populations. OBJECTIVE: To propose models for submaximal and maximal VO2 prediction in young Brazilian adults. METHODS: A total of 137 volunteers (92 men) underwent graded maximal exercise test ( [...] GXT) in a cycle ergometer (MonarkTM, Br). Gas exchange and respiratory measurements were performed in an open circuit (AerosportTM TEEM 100, USA). In another group, 13 volunteers underwent GXT and a square wave test (SWT) in order to evaluate the external validity of Neder et al's formula, ACSM's formula, and of Åstrand-Ryhming nomogram. The study design chosen was a cross-validation and the significance level was set at p

  14. Enhanced visible-light-response photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chala, Sinaporn [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wetchakun, Khatcharin [Program of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University, Ubon Ratchathani 34000 (Thailand); Phanichphant, Sukon [Materials Science Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Inceesungvorn, Burapat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wetchakun, Natda, E-mail: natda_we@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} particles were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Physicochemical properties played a significant role in photocatalytic process. • All Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} samples showed higher photocatalytic activity than pure BiVO{sub 4}. • The Fe{sup 3+} ions may improve the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. - Abstract: Pure BiVO{sub 4} and nominal 0.5–5.0 mol% Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} samples were synthesized by hydrothermal method. All samples were characterized in order to obtain the correlation between structure and photocatalytic properties by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The structure of all samples was single-phase monoclinic scheelite. The absorption spectrum of 5.0 mol% Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} shifted to the visible region, suggesting the potential application of this material as a superior visible-light driven photocatalyst in comparison with pure BiVO{sub 4}. Photocatalytic activities of all photocatalyst samples were examined by studying the degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The results clearly showed that Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} sample exhibited remarkably higher activity than pure BiVO{sub 4}.

  15. Preparation and characterizations of BiVO?/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with higher visible light reduction activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aolan; Shen, Song; Zhao, Yibo; Wu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Bismuth vanadate/reduced graphene oxide (BiVO4/RGO) composites were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method with graphite oxide, Bi(NO3)3 and NH4VO3 as precursors. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV), fluorescence spectroscopy (FL) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The reduced graphene oxide sheets were decorated by butterfly-like BiVO4 lamellas. Such combination not only alleviated the agglomeration of BiVO4 particles but also restrained the restacking of reduced graphene oxide. A preliminary study on the photo-reductions of Cr (VI) and CO2 under the illumination of simulated sunlight with as-synthesized BiVO4/RGO nanocomposites as catalyst was carried out. The nanocomposites showed better photo-catalytic activity than the conventional BiVO4 particles. The photo-reduction efficiency of BiVO4/RGO nanocomposites increased about 50.1% and the ethanol yield improved about 15.4 ?mol/g-cat comparing with pure BiVO4. The enhancements of the photo-catalytic activities were attributed to the effective charge transfer of photo-generated electron from BiVO4 to RGO and improved absorption performance. PMID:25643960

  16. Enhanced visible-light-response photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on Fe-loaded BiVO4 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fe-loaded BiVO4 particles were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Physicochemical properties played a significant role in photocatalytic process. • All Fe-loaded BiVO4 samples showed higher photocatalytic activity than pure BiVO4. • The Fe3+ ions may improve the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. - Abstract: Pure BiVO4 and nominal 0.5–5.0 mol% Fe-loaded BiVO4 samples were synthesized by hydrothermal method. All samples were characterized in order to obtain the correlation between structure and photocatalytic properties by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The structure of all samples was single-phase monoclinic scheelite. The absorption spectrum of 5.0 mol% Fe-loaded BiVO4 shifted to the visible region, suggesting the potential application of this material as a superior visible-light driven photocatalyst in comparison with pure BiVO4. Photocatalytic activities of all photocatalyst samples were examined by studying the degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The results clearly showed that Fe-loaded BiVO4 sample exhibited remarkably higher activity than pure BiVO4

  17. Spectroscopic analysis of phase constitution of high quality VO2 thin film prepared by facile sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Wu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available VO2 thin films with large-area were prepared on Al2O3 substrates by a simple sol-gel method. After an annealing treatment under low vacuum condition, all the VO2 films showed a preferred growth direction and exhibited excellent semiconductor-metal transition (SMT characteristics. The structure and electrical properties of the obtained VO2 films were investigated systematically. Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectra measurements pointed out that the VO2 film on A l2 O3 ( 10 1¯ 0 substrate showed a M1 phase instead of M2 phase as reported in previous studies. Based on the experiment results, it was suggested that the strained structure of oriented VO2 films could be a mechanism for the formation of the intermediate M2 phase, whereas it is difficult to access the pure M2 phase of undoped VO2 films. VO2 film on A l2 O3 10 1¯ 0 substrate showed a lower SMT temperature compared to VO2 film on Al2O3 (0001, which can be mostly attributed to the differences of both lattice mismatch and thermal stress. The present results confirm and make clear the relevance of the substrate orientation in the growth of VO2 film and their different contributions to the SMT characteristics in vanadate systems.

  18. VO2 nanorods for efficient performance in thermal fluids and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Kajal Kumar; Bhatnagar, Divyanshu; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar; Wan, Meher; Singh, Satyendra; Yadav, Raja Ram; Yadav, Bal Chandra; Deepa, Melepurath

    2015-03-01

    VO2 (B) nanorods with average width ranging between 50-100 nm are synthesized via a hydrothermal method and the post hydrothermal treatment drying temperature is found to be influential in their overall phase and growth morphology evolution. The nanorods with unusually high optical bandgap for a VO2 material are effective in enhancing the thermal performance of ethylene glycol nanofluids over a wide temperature range as is indicated by the temperature dependent thermal conductivity measurements. Humidity and LPG sensors fabricated using the VO2 (B) nanorods bear testament to their efficient sensing performance, which can be partially attributed to the mesoporous nature of the nanorods.VO2 (B) nanorods with average width ranging between 50-100 nm are synthesized via a hydrothermal method and the post hydrothermal treatment drying temperature is found to be influential in their overall phase and growth morphology evolution. The nanorods with unusually high optical bandgap for a VO2 material are effective in enhancing the thermal performance of ethylene glycol nanofluids over a wide temperature range as is indicated by the temperature dependent thermal conductivity measurements. Humidity and LPG sensors fabricated using the VO2 (B) nanorods bear testament to their efficient sensing performance, which can be partially attributed to the mesoporous nature of the nanorods. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Plots representing the actual ratio Knf/KEG (Knf is the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid and KEG being thermal conductivity of the base fluid) across the entire experimental temperature range of 20 to 80 °C, table representing a comparison of performance of the VO2 sensor towards different gases. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06032f

  19. Heteroepitaxial VO2 thin films on GaN: Structure and metal-insulator transition characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2012-10-01

    Monolithic integration of correlated oxide and nitride semiconductors may open up new opportunities in solid-state electronics and opto-electronics that combine desirable functional properties of both classes of materials. Here, we report on epitaxial growth and phase transition-related electrical properties of vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films on GaN epitaxial layers on c-sapphire. The epitaxial relation is determined to be (010)vo2?(0001)GaN?(0001)A12O3 and [100]vo2?[1¯21¯0]A12O3 from x-ray diffraction. VO2 heteroepitaxial growth and lattice mismatch are analyzed by comparing the GaN basal plane (0001) with the almost close packed corrugated oxygen plane in vanadium dioxide and an experimental stereographic projection describing the orientation relationship is established. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests a slightly oxygen rich composition at the surface, while Raman scattering measurements suggests that the quality of GaN layer is not significantly degraded by the high-temperature deposition of VO2. Electrical characterization of VO2 films on GaN indicates that the resistance changes by about four orders of magnitude upon heating, similar to epitaxial VO2 films grown directly on c-sapphire. It is shown that the metal-insulator transition could also be voltage-triggered at room temperature and the transition threshold voltage scaling variation with temperature is analyzed in the framework of a current-driven Joule heating model. The ability to synthesize high quality correlated oxide films on GaN with sharp phase transition could enable new directions in semiconductor-photonic integrated devices.

  20. Consumo Máximo de Oxígeno (Vo2max) para predecir riesgos Postoperatorios en Cirugía Abdominal Electiva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GA, Cabezas; LM, Meleán; HE, Torrealba.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Cuando el consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2max), se encuentra por debajo de cierto valor umbral (1 l/min o menos) los riesgos de complicaciones posoperatorias aumentan en pacientes sometidos a cirugía torácica. Esta relación no ha sido bien documentada en pacientes sometidos a cirugía abdominal. Realiz [...] amos un estudio prospectivo de tipo descriptivo sobre la capacidad que tiene el VO2max para predecir complicaciones posoperatorias, en 37 pacientes con cirugía abdominal electiva en el Hospital Vargas, Caracas y lo comparamos con la escala de medición de riesgo general, ASA y el Indice multifactorial de Goldman III. A todos los pacientes se les practicó evaluación clínica pre y posoperatoria y los exámenes paraclínicos requeridos. Las complicaciones fueron definidas previamente y los datos obtenidos, de exámenes clínicos diarios y de las historias: quirúrgicas, de anestesiología y del servicio. El VO2max fue obtenido con el método indirecto escalonado de Maneroet al validado en una población latinoamericana mediante mediciones directas de VO2max y es sencillo y de bajo costo. Asigna tres cargas sucesivas de trabajo sub máximo ( Abstract in english It has been shown a relationship between maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and the rise of postoperative complications in thoracic surgery but that relationship has not been well studied in abdominal surgery. We undertaken a prospective, descriptive study to define the VO2max capacity to predict post [...] surgical complications in 37 patients who underwent elective abdominal surgery at the Vargas, Hospital of Caracas and we compared with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score and with Multifactorial Goldman score. VO2max was calculated by using Manero et al. indirect method obtained from a Latinoamerican population. It is an easy and inexpensive method that requires to perform three progressive sub maximal work loads (

  1. Ruminal degradation of aerial biomass and seeds of wild species of Lupinus / Degradación ruminal de semillas y biomasa aérea de especies silvestres de Lupinus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maricela, Pablo-Pérez; Luz del C, Lagunes-Espinoza; Jesús, Ramos-Juárez; Javier, López-Upton; Emilio M, Aranda-Ibáñez; Luis, Vargas-Villamil.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La degradación ruminal de la materia seca (DMS) y de la proteína cruda (DPC) en biomasa aérea durante la etapa de floración, y en las semillas de L. campestris, L. exaltatus, L. hintonii y L. montanus fue determinada mediante la técnica de la bolsa de nylon, con dos bovinos machos fistulados, en cin [...] co tiempos de incubación (3, 9, 12, 24 y 48 h), incluyendo una muestra de pasta de soya (PS). Los datos obtenidos se analizaron usando PROC MIXED de SAS para medidas repetidas. Los resultados mostraron interacción entre especie y tiempo de incubación para DMS y DPC de la biomasa aérea y semillas. Entre especies de lupino, alta DMS y DPC de las semillas se observó desde las 3 h de incubación. A las 48 h la DMS y DPC no mostró variación significativa entre especies. DMS fluctuó de 94,3 a 96,7% y la DPC de 98,9 a 99,2%. La tasa de degradación de la fracción insoluble de la MS (kd) en semillas de lupino varió de 6,3 a 8,1% h-1; y la fracción soluble (FS) de 42,3 a 57,3%; valor inferior al de PS. La DMS y DPC de la biomasa aérea mostró diferencias estadísticas significativas entre especies a las 48 h de incubación. L. hintonii con la menor DMS (69,6%) y DPC (88,9%). Para la DPC, L. campestris y L. montanus mostraron las menores kd y FS en biomasa aérea (kd de 5,4% h-1 en ambas y 35,4 y 37,2 para FS, respectivamente) y una alta DPC. Se concluye que las semillas y la biomasa aérea de las especies silvestres de lupino presentan alta degradabilidad de la MS y PC desde las 3 h de incubación, mostrando solo diferencias estadísticas significativas entre ellas a las 48 h para la DMS y DPC de la biomasa aérea (BA). L. campestris y L. exaltatus fueron las especies que mostraron la más alta DMS y DPC de la BA y la más baja de las semillas. Abstract in english Ruminal degradation of dry matter (DMD) and crude protein (CPD) for aerial biomass at the flowering stage and for the seeds of L. campestris, L. exaltatus, L. hintonii and L. montanus was determined using the nylon bag technique with two fistulated steers in five incubation times (3, 9, 12, 24 and 4 [...] 8 h), including a sample of soybean paste (SP). The data obtained were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS for repeated measures. The results showed interactions between species and incubation time for DMD and CPD. Among species of lupine, a high DMD and CPD of seeds were observed after three hours of incubation. At 48 h, DMD and CPD did not show significant variation between species: DMD ranged from 94.3% to 96.7% and CPD from 98.9 to 99.2%. The degradation rate of the insoluble fraction of the DM (kd) in lupine seeds ranged from 6.3 to 8.1% h-1, while that of the soluble fraction (SF) ranged from 42.3 to 57.3%, lower value that observed in SP. The DMD and CPD of aerial biomass showed statistically significant differences between species at 48 h of incubation. L. hintonii showed the lowest DMD (69.6%) and CPD (88.9%). L. montanus and L. campestris showed a lower SF and kd (kd of 5.4% h-1 in both, and 35.4 and 37.2 for SF, respectively) and high CPD of aerial biomass. It is concluded that the DM and CP of seeds and biomass of wild lupine were highly degradable as of 3 h of incubation. At 48 h, there were statistically significant differences between DMD and CPD of aboveground biomass (AGB). L. campestris and L. exaltatus showed the highest DMD and CPD of AGB and similar DMD and CPD of seeds.

  2. Thermochromic undoped and Mg-doped VO2 thin films and nanoparticles: Optical properties and performance limits for energy efficient windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undoped and Mg-doped thermochromic VO2 films with atom ratios z???Mg/(Mg?+?V) of 0???z?lum and solar transmittance modulation ?Tsol compared to undoped VO2 films, and both of these parameters could be further enhanced by anti-reflection. VO2-containing nanocomposites had much larger values of Tlum and ?Tsol than VO2-based films. Mg-doping was found to erode the properties of the nanocomposites. Approximate performance limits are given on Tlum and ?Tsol for thermochromic VO2 films, with and without Mg doping and antireflection coating, and also for VO2-containing dilute nanocomposites

  3. Efeito da intensidade do exercício de corrida intermitente 30s:15s no tempo de manutenção no ou próximo do VO2max Effect of intensity of intermittent running exercise 30s:15s at the time maintenance at or near VO2max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves de Aguiar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo comparou o tempo mantido acima de 90% (t90VO2max e de 95% VO2max (t95VO2max em três diferentes intensidades de exercício. Após a realização de um teste incremental para determinar o VO2max, oito estudantes de educação física ativos (23 ± 3 anos executaram três sessões de exercícios intermitentes (100, 110 e 120% da velocidade do VO2max (vVO2max com razão esforço:recuperação de 30s:15s. O t95VO2max foi significantemente maior em 110%vVO2max (EI110% (218,1 ± 81,6 s quando comparado a 100%vVO2max (EI100% (91,9 ± 75,2s e a 120%vVO2max (EI120% (126,3 ± 29,4 s, porém sem diferença entre EI100% e EI120%. O t90VO2max somente apresentou diferença significante entre EI110% e EI120%. Portanto, conclui-se que durante exercício intermitente com razão 30s:15s, a intensidade de 110%vVO2max apresenta-se mais adequada para manter o VO2 próximo ou no VO2max por um tempo maior.The present study compared the time maintained above 90% (t90VO2max or 95% VO2max (t95VO2max in three different exercise intensities. After performing an incremental test to determine VO2max, eight physical education active students (23 ± 3 years performed three intermittent exercise sessions (100, 110 e 120% velocity of VO2max (vVO2max with ratio effort:recovery of 30s:15s. The t95%VO2max was significantly higher at 110%vVO2max (EI110% (218.1 ± 81.6s compared to 100% vVO2max (EI100% (91.9 ± 75.2s and 120%vVO2max (EI120% (126.3 ± 29.4s, but without differences between EI100% and EI120%. The t90%vVO2max was significantly different only between EI110% and 120%. Therefore, we conclude that during intermittent exercise with ratio 30s:15s, the intensity of 110%vVO2max appears more appropriate to maintain VO2max for a longer time.

  4. Template-free synthesis of BiVO4 nanostructures: II. Relationship between various microstructures for monoclinic BiVO4 and their photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape-controlled synthesis of nanostructured materials has opened up new possibilities to improve their physical and chemical properties. In this work, new types of monoclinic structured BiVO4 with complex morphologies, namely flowerlike, disclike, tubelike and platelike shapes, have been synthesized in a binary green solvent (water and ethanol) through controlling reaction conditions such as solvent, pH value, concentration of precursors and reaction temperature. The morphology of BiVO4 can transform from three-dimensional (3D) flowerlike superstructures and hexagonal-prismatic nanotubes to two-dimensional (2D) platelike and disclike structures. UV-vis absorption spectra show that all of the prepared nano- and microstructures can respond to visible light and the optical properties of BiVO4 samples are relevant to their structures. More importantly, the photocatalytic activities of various BiVO4 samples are strongly dependent on their morphology for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. The 2D (disclike and platelike) BiVO4 demonstrates better photocatalytic activity than 3D and bulk BiVO4. Among the nano- and microstructures, the nanoplate BiVO4 exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity for degradation of organic pollutants. Additionally, it is found that the different microstructure of BiVO4 leads to the different degradation route for organithe different degradation route for organic compounds of RhB. The reasons for the differences in the photocatalytic behavior for these BiVO4 nanostructures are further discussed. The relationship between the microstructure and the photocatalytic activity for BiVO4 may give clues for the preparation of photocatalysts with high activity based on material morphology design. Moreover, the prepared 2D BiVO4 can be a good photocatalyst used in environmental pollution control.

  5. VoIP: A Corporate Governance Approach to Avoid the Risk of Civil Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gerber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the deregulation of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP in 2005, many South African organizations are now attempting to leverage its cost saving and competitive values. However it has been recently cited that VoIP is one of the greatest new risks to business. This risk is cited to increase Information Security insurance premiums in the near future. Due to the dynamic nature of the technology, regulatory and legislative concerns such as lawful interception of communications and privacy may also contribute to business risk. VoIP consists of both direct communications (voice conversation and indirect communications (voice mails, emails and instant messaging. Due to this dual nature, complying with regulations such as the Regulation of Interception of Communications and Provision of Communication-Related Information Act (RICA should be considered. In order to leverage value from the VoIP implementation, an executive or SME owner should look to implement the technology with knowledge of the potential risk of civil liability. This is further highlighted by the King III Report which makes the Directors and CEO of an organisation ultimately responsible for IT Governance and Information Security Governance. The report goes further to say, any new technology, such as VoIP, should comply with all South African legislation and regulations. This responsibility encourages the practice of both due care and due diligence. However, recent trends exercised by Information Security professionals, responsible for drafting Information Security policies, often neglect the regulatory requirements and choose to only implement international best practices with no considerations to the risk of civil liability. Although these best practice frameworks may inadvertently comply with existing local legislation, a chance of an oversight is a possibility. Oversights may not only result in criminal sanctions but also civil action due to losses or damages suffered by a third party. Using both the identified regulations and relevant international best practices one may attempt to ensure good Governance with regards to VoIP’s dual nature. The aim is to aid executives and SME owners in mitigating the risk of civil liability to better leverage VoIP’s value by utilizing the proposed VoIP: Civil Liability Risk Table. This should aid in the exercise of due care and due diligence when implementing VoIP as a means of conducting business communication.

  6. VoIP: A Corporate Governance Approach to Avoid the Risk of Civil Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gerber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the deregulation of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP in 2005, many South African organizations are now attempting to leverage its cost saving and competitive values. However it has been recently cited that VoIP is one of the greatest new risks to business. This risk is cited to increase Information Security insurance premiums in the near future. Due to the dynamic nature of the technology, regulatory and legislative concerns such as lawful interception of communications and privacy may also contribute to business risk. VoIP consists of both direct communications (voice conversation and indirect communications (voice mails, emails and instant messaging. Due to this dual nature, complying with regulations such as the Regulation of Interception of Communications and Provision of Communication-Related Information Act (RICA should be considered. In order to leverage value from the VoIP implementation, an executive or SME owner should look to implement the technology with knowledge of the potential risk of civil liability. This is further highlighted by the King III Report which makes the Directors and CEO of an organisation ultimately responsible for IT Governance and Information Security Governance.  The report goes further to say, any new technology, such as VoIP, should comply with all South African legislation and regulations. This responsibility encourages the practice of both due care and due diligence. However, recent trends exercised by Information Security professionals, responsible for drafting Information Security policies, often neglect the regulatory requirements and choose to only implement international best practices with no considerations to the risk of civil liability. Although these best practice frameworks may inadvertently comply with existing local legislation, a chance of an oversight is a possibility. Oversights may not only result in criminal sanctions but also civil action due to losses or damages suffered by a third party. Using both the identified regulations and relevant international best practices one may attempt to ensure good Governance with regards to VoIP’s dual nature. The aim is to aid executives and SME owners in mitigating the risk of civil liability to better leverage VoIP’s value by utilizing the proposed VoIP: Civil Liability Risk Table. This should aid in the exercise of due care and due diligence when implementing VoIP as a means of conducting business communication.

  7. Influência do índice de massa corpórea, porcentagem de gordura corporal e idade da menarca sobre a capacidade aeróbia (VO2 máx) de alunas do ensino fundamental / Influence of body mass index, body fat percentage and age at menarche on aerobic capacity (VO2 max) of elementary school female students

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tiago Leoni, Capel; Mauro, Vaisberg; Maita Poli de, Araujo; Roberta Foster Leonidas de, Paiva; Juliana de Melo Batista dos, Santos; Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin de Jarmy-Di, Bella.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e relacionar a composição corporal, baseada na porcentagem de gordura corporal e o índice de massa corpórea (IMC), e a idade da menarca, com a capacidade aeróbia, utilizando-se os valores de VO2 máximo indireto, de estudantes do segundo ciclo do ensino fundamental. MÉTODOS [...] : Foram avaliadas 197 meninas com média de idade de 13,0±1,2 anos, estudantes de duas escolas estaduais de Atibaia-SP. Para estimar a porcentagem de gordura corporal, foi realizada uma avaliação de dobras cutâneas utilizando-se o protocolo de Slaughter para meninas adolescentes. Já o índice de massa corpórea (IMC), medido em quilogramas por metro quadrado (kg/m2), seguiu as recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Para a avaliação aeróbia, foi utilizado o teste de corrida proposto por Léger, determinando o volume de oxigênio máximo de forma indireta (VO2 máx). Para a análise estatística, foi utilizada a regressão linear de Pearson, o teste t de Student e a análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: 22,3% das meninas apresentaram sobrepeso e 3,5% obesidade, de acordo com o IMC. Na amostra estudada, 140 (71,1%) adolescentes relataram a ocorrência de menarca. A média de idade da menarca foi de 12,0±1,0 anos. A média de idade de menarca para o grupo com IMC normal foi significativamente maior (12,2±0,9 anos) do que nas estudantes com sobrepeso ou obesidade (11,6±1,0 anos). A média do VO2 máx indireto foi de 39,6±3,7 mL/kg/min, variando de 30,3 a 50,5 mL/kg/min. O avanço da idade cronológica e a precocidade da menarca correlacionaram-se positivamente com os menores valores de VO2 máx. CONCLUSÕES: Meninas com maiores valores de IMC e percentual de gordura corporal apresentaram menores valores de VO2 máx. A precocidade da menarca e o avanço da idade cronológica foram os fatores mais importantes para a redução da capacidade aeróbia. A idade da menarca foi mais elevada em meninas com IMC adequado quando comparadas com as meninas com sobrepeso ou obesidade. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To identify and relate body fat percentage (skin fold measures), body mass index (BMI) and age at menarcheto aerobic capacity using the indirect VO2 maximum value (VO2 max) of girls in the second cycle of primary school. METHODS: A total of 197 girls aged 13.0±1.2 years on average, st [...] udents from two public schools in the city of Atibaia in São Paulo, were evaluated. Anthropometric evaluation of skin folds was performed using the Slaughter protocol for teenage girls, and BMI (kg/m2) was based on "Z score" (graphic of percentile) according to WHO recommendations. The Léger protocol was used to determine VO2 max. Pearson linear regression and the Student t-test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: 22.3% of the girls were overweight and 3.5% were obese according to the classification proposed by the WHO; 140 (71.1%) girls reported menarche. The average age at menarche was 12.0±1.0 years and was significantly higher in the group with normal BMI (12.2±0.9 years) than in the overweight or obese groups (11.6±1.0 years). The average indirect VO2 max value was 39.6±3.7 mL/kg/min, ranging from 30.3 to 50.5 mL/kg/min. The advance of chronological age and early age at menarche were positively correlated with lower VO2 max values. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that 25.8% of the girls had aBMI value above WHO recommendations. Girls with higher BMI and higher body fat percentage had lower VO2 max. The earlier age at menarche and the advance of chronological age were the most important factors for the reduction of aerobic capacity. The ageat menarche was higher in girls with adequate BMI compared tooverweight or obese girls.

  8. Comparación de un reactor de biomasa suspendida y un reactor de biomasa adherida para la biodegradación de compuestos tóxicos presentes en aguas residuales de refinerías de petróleo / Biodegradation of toxic compounds from oil refinery wastewater: comparison of two batch reactors with suspended and attached biomass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lizet Marina, NAVA URREGO; Raquel, GASPERÍN SANCHÉZ; Alfonso, DURÁN MORENO.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación comprende un estudio de tratamiento de aguas residuales de una refinería utilizando dos rectores biológicos discontinuos secuenciales (SBR, por sus siglas en inglés Sequencing Batch Reactor). El primero de ellos es un reactor de biomasa suspendida y el segundo es un reactor de bio [...] masa adherida, en el cual se utilizaron soportes plásticos tipo Kaldnes K1. Debido a la diversidad y complejidad de las aguas residuales de refinerías, fue necesario aclimatar los microorganismos utilizando la estrategia de eficiencias fijas para garantizar una buena degradación de los compuestos difícilmente biodegradables o recalcitrantes. Los reactores operaron durante 45 días empleando ciclos de 24 h (llenado, tiempo de reacción, sedimentación, vaciado y tiempo muerto). La carga orgánica volumétrica aplicada a los reactores varió entre 0.44 - 0.54 kg DQO/m³ d; las cargas orgánicas superficiales oscilaron entre 1.56 - 1.80 g DQO/m² d para el reactor de biomasa adherida. El desempeño de los reactores discontinuos secuenciales se evaluó mediante las eficiencias de remoción de DQO, COD y fenoles, obteniendo porcentajes de remoción de 75, 73 y 99 % en el reactor de biomasa suspendida, mientras que en el reactor de biomasa adherida se alcanzaron porcentajes de remoción de 77, 81 y 99 %, respectivamente. La concentración de sólidos suspendidos totales en el reactor de biomasa suspendida fue de aproximadamente 2200 mg SST/L mientras que en el reactor de biomasa adherida se registró entre 450 y 560 mg SST/L. La relación SSV/SST se mantuvo entre 0.8 y 1 en ambos reactores. La concentración de biomasa adherida a los soportes osciló entre 3.98 gST/m² y 5.45 gST/m². En cada reactor se realizaron cuatro perfiles para evaluar la capacidad de los microorganismos para degradar el tipo sustrato al que fueron expuestos en un tiempo determinado. En ambos reactores, los perfiles de degradación 1 y 2 mostraron que la máxima remoción de DQO se presentó durante la primera hora de reacción, mientras que para los perfiles 3 y 4 la máxima remoción se alcanzó después de la segunda hora. En el caso de los fenoles, en todos los perfiles se obtuvo una remoción de más del 98 % durante la primera hora de reacción, indicando que en ambos reactores la biomasa fue capaz de degradar los compuestos tóxicos presentes en las aguas desflemadas sin importar el tipo de aglomeración microbiana utilizada. Abstract in english This study deals with the treatment of an oil refinery's wastewater using two sequencing batch reactors. The first one was a suspended biomass reactor and the second was an attached biomass reactor with Kaldnes K1 carriers. Due to the diversity and complexity of the refinery wastewater, it was neces [...] sary to acclimate the microorganisms using fixed efficiency strategy to ensure a good degradation of the poorly biodegradable or recalcitrant compounds. The reactor operated for 45 days using 24 h cycles (filling, reaction time, settle, draw and idle). The volumetric organic loading applied to both reactors ranged between 0.44 and 0.54 kg COD/m³d; the surface loads ranged between 1.56 - 1.80 g COD/m² d for the attached biomass reactor. The performance of the sequencing batch reactors was assessed by the efficiency of COD removal, DOC and phenols content, obtaining final removal percentages of75, 73 and 99 % in the suspended biomass reactor, while the attached biomass reactor reached removal percentages of 77, 81 and 99 %, respectively. The total suspended solids concentration in the reactor suspended biomass was approximately 2200 mg TSS/L while in the attached biomass reactor was between 450 and SST 560 mg/L. The VSS/TSS ratio was 0.8 and 1 for both reactors. The concentrations of biomass attached ranging from 3.98 g/m² to 5.45 g/m². In each reactor were made four profiles for assessing the ability of microorganisms to degrade type substrate to which they were exposed in a given time. In both reactors, degradation profiles 1 and 2 showed that a high COD removal occurred

  9. Concentration Dependence of VO2+ Crossover of Nafion for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Jamie [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Jones, Amanda [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zawodzinski, Thomas A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The VO2+ crossover, or permeability, through Nafion in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) was monitored as a function of sulfuric acid concentration and VO2+ concentration. A vanadium rich solution was flowed on one side of the membrane through a flow field while symmetrically on the other side a blank or vanadium deficit solution was flowed. The blank solution was flowed through an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) cavity and the VO2+ concentration was determined from the intensity of the EPR signal. Concentration values were fit using a solution of Fick s law that allows for the effect of concentration change on the vanadium rich side. The fits resulted in permeability values of VO2+ ions across the membrane. Viscosity measurements of many VO2+ and H2SO4 solutions were made at 30 60 C. These viscosity values were then used to determine the effect of the viscosity of the flowing solution on the permeability of the ion. 2013 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.004306jes] All rights reserved.

  10. FTIR study on VO2 defect in fast neutron irradiated czochralski silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vacancy-dioxygen complex (VO2) is one of the main defects formed in fast neutron irradiated CZ-Si during annealing in the temperature range 400-500 degree C. In this defect, two oxygen atoms share a vacancy, each of which is bonded to two silicon neighbors. With the increase of the 889 cm-1 (VO2), two infrared absorption bands at 919.6 and 1006 cm-1 will arise in neutron irradiated CZ-Si after annealed in the temperature range 300-500 degree C. IR vibrational bands at 919.6 and 1006 cm-1 can be assigned to the metastable defect (O-V-O) that is composed of a VO (A center) and a neighboring interstitial oxygen (Oi) atom. By prolonging the annealing time from 2h up to 10 h or increasing the annealing temperature, the metastable defect (O-V-O) will be converted into VO2. During annealing in the temperature range 400-500 degree C, the main defects formed in the high dose (1019) neutron irradiated CZ-Si is the multi-vacancy type of defects and the formation of the VO2 will be depressed. (authors)

  11. Effect of high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular function, VO2max, and muscular force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Allen, Ryan P; Roberson, Daniel W; Jurancich, Matt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiovascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular force. Active, young (age and body fat = 25.3 ± 4.5 years and 14.3 ± 6.4%) men and women (N = 20) of a similar age, physical activity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) completed 6 sessions of HIIT consisting of repeated Wingate tests over a 2- to 3-week period. Subjects completed 4 Wingate tests on days 1 and 2, 5 on days 3 and 4, and 6 on days 5 and 6. A control group of 9 men and women (age and body fat = 22.8 ± 2.8 years and 15.2 ± 6.9%) completed all testing but did not perform HIIT. Changes in resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), VO2max, body composition, oxygen (O2) pulse, peak, mean, and minimum power output, fatigue index, and voluntary force production of the knee flexors and extensors were examined pretraining and posttraining. Results showed significant (p HIIT. The magnitude of improvement in VO2max was related to baseline VO2max (r = -0.44, p = 0.05) and fatigue index (r = 0.50, p 0.05) in resting BP, HR, or force production was revealed. Data show that HIIT significantly enhanced VO2max and O2 pulse and power output in active men and women. PMID:22201691

  12. Application Oriented Flow Routing Algorithm for VoIP Overlay Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipusitwarakun, Komwut; Chimmanee, Sanon

    Overlay networks which are dynamically created over underlying IP networks are becoming widely used for delivering multimedia contents since they can provide several additional user-definable services. Multiple overlay paths between a source-destination overlay node pair are designed to improve service robustness against failures and bandwidth fluctuation of the underlying networks. Multimedia traffic can be distributed over those multiple paths in order to maximize paths' utilization and to increase application throughputs. Most of flow-based routing algorithms consider only common metrics such as paths' bandwidth or delay, which may be effective for data applications but not for real-time applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP), in which different levels of such performance metrics may give the same level of the performance experienced by end users. This paper focuses on such VoIP overlay networks and proposes a novel alternative path based flow routing algorithm using an application-specific traffic metric, i.e. “VoIP Path Capacity (VPCap), ” to calculate the maximum number of QoS satisfied VoIP flows which may be distributed over each available overlay path at a moment. The simulation results proved that more QoS-satisfied VoIP sessions can be established over the same multiple overlay paths, comparing to traditional approaches.

  13. Optical switching properties of VO2 films driven by using WDM-aligned lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) film had been demonstrated a high speed IR shutter driven by total optical modulation. However, it usually required a higher power heating laser of high power and precise optical systems to cover the probe beam on the sample with a heating beam of larger area. A new optical system, simply composed of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), fiber lens or convex lens system, and a glass sheet with VO2 thin film on it, was easily assembled to utilize VO2 film as an IR shutter, implying the possibility to highly miniaturize the VO2-based optical shutter. A permanent low-transmittance (PLT) region forms on the film within the probe beam, resulting in a decrease in average power of the probe beam. Another ring-type switching area (switching ring) forms around the PLT region, resulting in the transmittance switching of the probe beam synchronously with the heating signal. VO2 films can be switched with the highest rate of a continuous square heating signal of 3 mW at 120 kHz. A heating pulse of 0.7 ns and 13 mW can be used to stimulate an IR pulse with fiber lens

  14. Photocatalytic Property of Eu/BiVO4 Photocatalyst by Citric Acid Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Min, LIU Qiong, SUN Ya-Jie, CHE Yin-Sheng, JIANG Chen-Zhi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Eu3+-doped BiVO4 photocatalyst was synthesized by complexing Sol-Gel method using citric acid as chelate, and characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscope(XPS, X-ray diffraction(XRD, scanning electron microscope(SEM, specific surface area (BET and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscope(DRS. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO solution under visible light. It revealed that pure BiVO4 and all the Eu3+ doped samples were monoclinic phase and no peaks of any other phases or impurities were detected. It was also found that doping Eu3+ increased the amount of V4+ and oxygen vacancies. In addition, the light absorption edges of Eu3+ doped BiVO4 had extended a red shift compared with that of pure BiVO4. However, Eu3+ doping had little influence on morphology and specific surface area. The appropriate amount of Eu3+ doping could signifcantly increase the photocatalytic activity and the highest photocatalytic degradation rate was about 95% when the Eu3+ doping amount was 0.2%, which was more 62% than that of pure BiVO4 under 50 min visible light irridation.

  15. Echinacea purpurea supplementation does not enhance VO2max in distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W; Bond, Kelsey L; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Doyle, J Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Oral supplementation of Echinacea purpurea (ECH) has been reported to increase levels of serum erythropoietin and as a result improve endurance performance in untrained subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if ECH supplementation alters maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in trained endurance runners. Using a double-blind design, 16 trained endurance runners (9 ECH and 7 placebo [PLA]) supplemented with either 8,000 mg·d(-1) of ECH or wheat flour (PLA) for 6 weeks. Maximal aerobic treadmill tests and blood samples were measured before and after supplementation to determine VO2max, hematocrit (Hct), and hemoglobin (Hb). VO2max, Hct, and Hb did not differ between the ECH and PLA groups before or after supplementation. Furthermore, supplementation of ECH failed to improve VO2max (67.37 ± 4.62 vs. 67.23 ± 5.82 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), Hct (43.57 ± 2.38 vs. 42.85 ± 1.46%), or Hb (14.93 ± 1.27 vs. 15.55 ± 0.80 g·dL(-1)) from baseline measurements. Echinacea purpurea supplementation of 8,000 mg·d(-1) for 6 weeks failed to increase VO2max, Hct, or Hb in trained endurance runners and thus does not seem to influence physiological variables that affect distance running performance. PMID:24045635

  16. Comparison of VO2max in obese and non-obese young Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Kshitija Umesh; Joshi, Anjali S

    2011-01-01

    Incidence of obesity in early life is increasing nowadays because of faulty food habits and lack of exercise. This study was aimed to find out whether obesity affects cardiorespiratory efficiency of young adults. As VO2max is the most accepted indicator of cardiorespiratory efficiency it was compared in 30 obese and 30 non-obese subjects aged around 18-20 years. VO2mx was estimated by Queen's college step test. Various other parameters measured and calculated are weight, height, BMI, skin fold thickness, percentage body fat, lean body mass, fat mass. The results showed that cardiorespiratory efficiency (absolute VO2max & VO2max/kg lean body mass) was not affected (P > 0.05) in obese group in both sexes. Ability to do exhausting work (VO2max/kg body weight) was less in obese group (P = 0.001) compared to non-obese group & in obese males (P exercise programs can be best designed to increase caloric expenditure and thus to decrease body fat rather than to improve aerobic fitness. PMID:22319902

  17. Wavelength-tunable infrared metamaterial by tailoring magnetic resonance condition with VO2 phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we report the design of a wavelength-tunable infrared metamaterial by tailoring magnetic resonance condition with the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2). Numerical simulation based on the finite-difference time-domain method shows a broad absorption peak at the wavelength of 10.9 ?m when VO2 is a metal, but it shifts to 15.1 ?m when VO2 changes to dielectric phase below its phase transition temperature of 68 °C. The large tunability of 38.5% in the resonance wavelength stems from the different excitation conditions of magnetic resonance mediated by plasmon in metallic VO2 but optical phonons in dielectric VO2. The physical mechanism is elucidated with the aid of electromagnetic field distribution at the resonance wavelengths. A hybrid magnetic resonance mode due to the plasmon-phonon coupling is also discussed. The results here would be beneficial for active control of thermal radiation in novel electronic, optical, and thermal devices.

  18. A Novel Protocol Design and Collaborative Forensics Mechanism for VoIP Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Ming Hsu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The simplicity and low cost of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP services has made these services increasingly popular as the Internet has grown. Unfortunately, these advantages of VoIP are attractive to both legitimate and nefarious users, and VoIP is often used by criminals to communicate and conduct illegal activities (such as fraud or blackmail without being intercepted by Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs. However, VoIP can also increase the efficiency of law enforcement and forensic collaboration. Currently, VoIP researchers have only proposed a framework for this type of partnership, and have yet to provide a common protocol for forensic Internet collaboration. As a result, Internet-based collaboration between agencies is not widespread.

    Building from the Collaborative Forensics Mechanism (CFM and the procedures of collaborative forensics work, this paper designs a novel application-layer Collaborative Forensics Protocol (CFP to overcome the current framework-protocol gap. Here, CFP can exchange collaborative request and response messages between collaborative forensics region centers (CFRCs to acquire collaborative forensics information. We present a procedure for collaborative forensics and discuss the details of protocol design.  In addition, we discuss the defense of PKI working with CFM against various types of attacks and analyze the features of CFP. 

  19. Evidence for a magnetic metallic R phase in Vanadium dioxide VO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hui; Taheri, Payam; Zhang, Peihong; Zeng, Hao

    2015-03-01

    Vanadium dioxide VO2 has garnered extensive research interests for over decades due to its metal-insulator transition (MIT) around 340 K (Ref. 1). Much is known for the physics behind the MIT (including a correlated structural transition and the involvement of several intermediate states). On the other hand, the magnetic property across the MIT is much less known. Although there are no fundamental arguments against the possibility of forming local magnetic moments in VO2. So far, only the M2 phase has been confirmed to possess local magnetic moments. However, our temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements of VO2 show a sudden jump at the MIT that cannot be attributed to a simple Pauli susceptibility from conducting electrons. In a recent paper2, we pointed out local magnetic moments may form in the metallic R phase. The formation of local moment would naturally explain the extremely high magnetic susceptibility of VO2 above the phase transition temperature. We further discuss the magnetoresistance (MR) measured across the MIT, which shows different magnitude and field dependence in M1 and R phase, including the MR in the metallic phase suppressed to lower temperature in a VO2 electric double layer transistor device using ionic liquid as gate dielectrics. 1. F. J. Morin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 34 (1959). 2. Xun Yuan et al., Phys. Rev. B 86, 235103 (2012).

  20. Controlled synthesis of T-shaped BiVO4 and enhanced visible light responsive photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel T-shaped BiVO4 microcrystal photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method with the aid of a structure-directing surfactant SDBS in the present study. Having received well characterization with the aid of various techniques and the results showed that the SDBS greatly changed the microstructure of BiVO4, which had a unique T shape and belonged to the monoclinic family. The fast exchange dynamics between the surfactants bound to the Bi3+ seed surface and the free VO3? in the solution significantly increase the rate of heterogeneous nucleation. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared T-shaped BiVO4 was evaluated by the degradation of Methylene Blue solution under visible light irradiation, 17% and 47% higher decolorization rates than the commercial P25 and BiVO4 synthesized without SDBS, respectively. Meanwhile, it has been found that the degradation kinetics of MB fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetics and the T-shaped BiVO4 also displayed high photocatalytic performance for metronidazole degradation. -- Graphical abstract: H2O2 molecules function as electron trapping reagent to react with e? to enhance the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of MB in the BiVO4/H2O2 system under visible light irradiation. Highlights: • T-shaped BiVO4 was synthesized using SDBS as a structure-directing surfactant. • SDBS greatly changed the microstructure of BiVO4. • The T-shaped BiVO4 had a better visible-light photocatalytic activity. • Degradation kinetics of MB by BiVO4 fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetics

  1. Preparation, characterization and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities of BiPO4/BiVO4 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • BiPO4/BiVO4 composites were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method. • BiPO4/BiVO4 composites exhibited broad absorption in the visible region. • Visible-light photocatalytic activities of BiPO4/BiVO4 composites were enhanced. • P/V molar ratio and pH value of the reaction affect photocatalytic activity. • The mechanism of enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities was discussed. - Abstract: BiPO4/BiVO4 composites with different P/V molar ratios were prepared by the hydrothermal method and the effect of pH values of hydrothermal reaction on photocatalytic activity of BiPO4/BiVO4 composite was investigated. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic property of BiPO4/BiVO4 was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of the composites was much higher than that of pure BiPO4 and BiVO4. The rate constant of Methylene blue degradation over BiPO4/BiVO4 (P/V molar ratio of 5:1 and hydrothermal reaction pH value of 1.5) is 1.7 tThe photocatalytic activity enhancement of BiPO4/BiVO4 composite is closely related to the BiVO4 functioning as a sensitizer to adsorb visible light and the heterojunction of BiPO4/BiVO4 acting as an active center for hindering the rapid recombination of electron–hole pairs during the photocatalytic reaction

  2. Proactive QoS Enhancement Technique for Efficient VoIP Performance over Wireless LAN and Cognitive Radio Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamal Chakraborty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available VoIP over Wireless LANs is greatly affected bypath-loss, RF interference and other sources of signalattenuation in addition to network congestion. The primaryfactors involved in effective real-time communication,namely delay and loss, must be within certain controlledlimits in such a scenario. Wireless LAN Access Points must,therefore, act in tune with the codecs to ensure high qualityof the ongoing VoIP sessions. Further deployment of VoIPin opportunistic communication medium like cognitiveradio network requires thorough analysis of the factorsinvolved in design and implementation of such networksalong with modifications in VoIP parameters. In this paper,the various codec parameters are analyzed with respect towireless LAN access points. Thereafter, an optimizationalgorithm is developed based on proactive strategy to keeploss and latency within tolerable limits. The proposedalgorithm is hence implemented in the SIP enabled test-bedto provide optimum Voice over IP (VoIP performance. Theproactive strategy is further applied to study VoIPperformance over cognitive radio networks. A simulationmodel is developed for VoIP transmission in cognitive radionetworks with two scenarios where the primary and thesecondary user involve in VoIP transmission respectively.For each scenario, extensive analysis of both VoIP and CRNparameters is performed and an algorithm is proposedbased on codecs and active queues to ensure highthroughput of VoIP traffic with enhanced QoS. Resultsverify significant performance improvement in VoIP callquality under both wireless LAN and cognitive radionetwork environment. Simulation and measured resultshave also been included.

  3. Morphology-dependent photocatalytic removal of NO by hierarchical BiVO{sub 4} microboats and microspheres under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Zhihui, E-mail: jennifer.ai@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Lee, Shuncheng [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Research Center for Environmental Technology and Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-09-01

    In this study, hierarchical monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} three-dimensional (3D) superstructures with two kinds of morphologies, namely BiVO{sub 4} microboats and BiVO{sub 4} microspheres, have been controllably synthesized by adjusting reaction time in the template-free hydrothermal process using ethylene glycol as solvent. The nucleation, growth, and self-assembly of the BiVO{sub 4} superstructures could be readily controlled with reaction time, which brought different morphologies to the final product. The as-prepared BiVO{sub 4} superstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption experimentation, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS). The monoclinic 3D BiVO{sub 4} catalysts are composed of two-dimensional (2D) nanoplates which intercross with each other. Nanoplates were firstly formed by aggregation of primary nanocrystallites and then self-assembly converted to microboats and microspheres via the oriented attachment mechanism. The prepared BiVO{sub 4} 3D catalysts can respond to visible light and their optical and photocatalytic properties are relevant to their morphologies. The BiVO{sub 4} microspheres showed superior photocatalytic activity on removal of gaseous NO compared to the BiVO{sub 4} microboats. The morphology-dependent photocatalytic property of the BiVO{sub 4} superstructures is discussed. This work suggests that the synthesized BiVO{sub 4} micropheres are promising photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  4. Biomasa de raíces en un bosque templado con y sin manejo forestal en Hidalgo, México / Root biomass in a temperate forest with and without forest management in Hidalgo, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Numa P., Pavón; Claudia E., Moreno; Aurelio, Ramírez-Bautista.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las raíces son buenos indicadores funcionales del ecosistema ya que constituyen gran parte de la biomasa viva del suelo y ejercen un control sobre los procesos de pedogénesis, la producción de materia orgánica y la dinámica de los nutrientes. En este trabajo se comparó la biomasa de raíces gruesas y [...] finas entre un bosque conservado y un bosque con manejo forestal de corte selectivo. La biomasa promedio de raíces no difirió significativamente entre sitios (P = 0.185). La biomasa en el bosque con manejo forestal fue de 3.05 Mg·ha-1 (E. E. = 0.25) y de 3.39 Mg·ha-1 (E. E. = 0.24) en el bosque conservado. Las raíces finas ocuparon el mayor porcentaje de la biomasa en ambos tipos de bosque, aunque sus valores no difirieron significativamente entre sitios (P = 0.095). De acuerdo con los resultados, al parecer, el manejo forestal de tipo de corte selectivo mantiene las condiciones ambientales y en particular del suelo, lo que permite contener una biomasa similar a la de un bosque conservado bajo condiciones naturales. Abstract in english The effect of forest management on biodiversity and ecosystem processes has been little studied in Mexican temperate forests. In this way, roots are good functional indicators of an ecosystem because they constitute much of the living ground biomass and exert control over soil formation processes, o [...] rganic matter production and nutrient dynamics. This study compares coarse and fine root biomass from a protected forest and a managed area where there was selective logging during 2003 and 2004, resulting in the removal of 10 % of the trees. The average root biomass did not differ significantly between sites (P = 0.185). Root biomass in the managed forest was 3.05 Mg·ha¹ (S.E. = 0.25) and 3.39 Mg·ha-1 (S.E. = 0.24) in the preserved forest. Fine roots occupied the highest percentage of the biomass in both forest types, although their values did not differ significantly between sites (P = 0.095). As the results suggest, selective logging maintains environmental conditions, particularly those of the soil, which allows having similar biomass to that in the forest preserved under natural conditions.

  5. Biomasa de Ulva spp. (Chlorophyta) en tres localidades del malecón de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México / Biomass of Ulva spp. (Chlorophyta) in three locations along the bayfront of La Paz, Baja California Sur, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ruth N, Aguila-Ramírez; Margarita, Casas-Valdez; Claudia J, Hernández-Guerrero; Alejandro, Marín-Álvarez.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la distribución, biomasa y potencial cosechable de Ulva spp. en tres localidades del malecón de La Paz, Baja California Sur, durante 2001 y 2002. Algunas especies de este género, antes en el género Enteromorpha, tienen una buena demanda en otros países para consumo humano. Se realizó un [...] muestreo sistemático utilizando como unidad de muestreo cuadros de 25 x 25 cm colocados cada 10 m a lo largo de transectos perpendiculares a la línea de costa trazados cada 40 m. En ambos años la mayor biomasa promedio se encontró en El Palmar. La mayor biomasa de Ulva spp. se registró durante mayo de 2001 y en febrero de 2002. La biomasa promedio fue de 351 g m-2 en 2001, mientras que en 2002 fue de 537 g m-2. Los máximos valores de biomasa cosechable se encontraron en El Kiwi en ambos años. El gran incremento en substrato que se presentó en 2002 podría explicar los altos volúmenes de cosecha estimados de 115 t húmedas. Recomendamos investigar si hay mercado para esta biomasa que permita su explotación sostenida Abstract in english Distribution and standing crop of Ulva spp. were measured in three localities along the bayfront of La Paz, Baja California Sur, during 2001 and 2002. Some species of Ulva, formerly in the genus Enteromorpha, are utilized in some countries for human consumption. We utilized a systematic sampling met [...] hod, using as sampling unit a 25 x 25 cm square placed every 10 m throughout transects perpendicular to the coastline which were drawn every 40 m. In both years the greatest average biomass was found at El Palmar. The largest biomass of Ulva spp. was recorded during May 2001 and February 2002. The average biomass was 351 g m-2 in 2001 and 537 g m-2 in 2002. The maximum values of the standing crop were found at El Kiwi in both years. The great increase in substratum in 2002 may explain the large volumes of the standing crop, estimated as 115 t wet. We recommend investigation to see if there is a market for this biomass leading to its sustainable exploitation

  6. Influence of Security Mechanisms on the Quality of Service of VoIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backs, Peter; Pohlmann, Norbert

    While Voice over IP (VoIP) is advancing rapidly in the telecommunications market, the interest to protect the data transmitted by this new service is also rising. However, in contrast to other internet services such as email or HTTP, VoIP is real-time media, and therefore must meet a special requirement referred to as Quality-of-Service to provide a comfortable flow of speech. Speech quality is worsened when transmitted over the network due to delays in transmission or loss of packets. Often, voice quality is at a level that even prevents comprehensive dialog. Therefore, an administrator who is to setup a VoIP infrastructure might consider avoiding additional decreases in voice quality resulting from security mechanisms, and might leave internet telephony unprotected as a result. The inspiration for this paper is to illustrate that security mechanisms have negligible impact on speech quality and should in fact be encouraged.

  7. 3.3 ns Nd:LuVO4 micro-type laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a compact resonator, continuous-wave (cw) and Q-switched laser performances of Nd:LuVO4 crystal was investigated. The maximum cw output power was 5.19 W. The shortest pulse width, largest pulse repetition rate, and largest pulse energy were measured to be 3.3 ns, 24.8 kHz, and 92.8 ?J, respectively, by using Cr4+:YAG crystals as the saturable absorbers. To our knowledge, this is the shortest passively Q-switched pulse width with Nd:LuVO4 as the laser crystal. From the satellite pulse, the lifetime of the lower laser energy level of Nd:LuVO4 was determined to be about 20 ns

  8. The oxygen deficiency effect of VO2 thin films prepared by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanadium dioxide thin films (VO2) have been deposited by laser ablation. The temperature dependence of resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) for each deposition condition were investigated. It was clarified that the TCR at room temperature (RT) can be optimized by controlling the oxygen pressure introduced during deposition as the deposition parameter. In the result, larger TCR close-quote s at RT were observed for the oxygen deficient condition of VO2 than for oxygen-richer samples. Obtained TCR values were 0.072/K and 0.045/K at 25 degree C for VO2 thin films deposited onto R-cut sapphire and SiO2/Si, respectively. copyright 1997 Materials Research Society

  9. Negative capacitance switching via VO2 band gap engineering driven by electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinfeng; Xu, Jing; Xu, Xiaofeng; Gu, Congcong; Chen, Fei; Wu, Binhe; Wang, Chunrui; Xing, Huaizhong; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chu, Junhao

    2015-03-01

    We report the negative capacitance behavior of an energy band gap modulation quantum well with a sandwich VO2 layer structure. The phase transition is probed by measuring its capacitance. With the help of theoretical calculations, it shows that the negative capacitance changes of the quantum well device come from VO2 band gap by continuously tuning the temperature or voltage. Experiments reveal that as the current remains small enough, joule heating can be ignored, and the insulator-metal transition of VO2 can be induced by the electric field. Our results open up possibilities for functional devices with phase transitions induced by external electric fields other than the heating or electricity-heat transition.

  10. AgVO3 nanorods: Synthesis, characterization and visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, V.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Narayanan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Large scale and high purity silver vanadate (AgVO3) nanorods were synthesized by thermal decomposition method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible (DRS-UV-Visible) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the structure, light absorption capacity and morphology of the as-synthesized sample. The photocatalytic activity of AgVO3 nanorods was examined by degradation of methylene blue (MB) as a model organic pollutant. The degradation efficiency is 85.02% in the 120 min visible light illumination. Further, the AgVO3 nanorods were used as a photocatalyst for industrial effluent. 95.4% degradation efficiency was obtained within the visible light irradiation of 120 min. The possible photocatalytic mechanism has also been proposed.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ASSESSMENT OF VO2MAX BY ERGOSPIROMETRIE OR FIELD TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trofin Petrut Florin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max can be considered an important indicator of cardio-respiratory aptitude in endurance effort, being used both in predicting performance in sports and in personal training plans. The research paper carries out a study aimed at evaluating VO2max by ergospirometry compared to its assessment by using a field test. This study used for ergospirometry Cosmed FittMate Pro equipment with direct gas exchange analyzer during a progressive effort protocol on cycle ergometer while the field test used the VAMEVAL testing. New female subjects, aged between 20 and 25 years have conducted both tests at an interval of 72 hours. The recorded outcomes do not indicate statistically significant differences, which proves the validity of the VO2max testing, both in the field testing and ergospirometry.

  12. Raman characteristics of Nd:LuxY1?xVO4 series crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient self-stimulated Raman laser of Nd:LuxY1?xVO4 (x = 0.1, 0.26, 0.41, 0.61, 0.67 and 0.8) series crystals was demonstrated for the first time. Compared to YVO4, the relative Raman gain coefficients were determined by studying their spontaneous Raman scattering spectra. With the largest thermal conductivity, excellent energy storage capability and moderate Raman gain coefficient, the Nd:Lu0.26Y0.74VO4 crystal presented the best Raman laser performance: 2.3 W average output power, 71 ?J single pulse energy and 26.3 kW peak power. The results indicated that the Nd:Lu0.26Y0.64VO4 crystal should be an excellent self-Raman laser material. (paper)

  13. Security Analysis System to Detect Threats on a SIP VoIP Infrasctructure Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vychodil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SIP PBX is definitely the alpha and omega of any IP telephony infrastructure and frequently also provides other services than those related to VoIP traffic. These exchanges are, however, very often the target of attacks by external actors. The article describes a system that was developed on VSB-TU Ostrava as a testing tool to verify if the target VoIP PBX is adequately secured and protected against any real threats. The system tests the SIP element for several usually occurring attacks and it compiles evaluation of its overall security on the basis of successfully or unsuccessfully penetrations. The article describes the applications and algorithms that are used by system and the conclusion consists recommendations and guidelines to ensure effective protection against VoIP PBX threats. The system is designed as an open-source web application, thus allowing independent access and is fully extensible to other test modules.

  14. Observation of insulating-insulating monoclinic structural transition in macro-sized VO2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VO2 single crystals with unprecedented quality, exhibiting a first-order metal-insulator transition (MIT) at 67.8 C and an insulator -insulator transition (IIT) at ?49 C, are grown using a self-flux evaporation method. Using synchrotron-based X-ray microdiffraction analysis, it is shown that the IIT is related to a structural phase transition (SPT) from the monoclinic M2 phase to the M1 phase upon heating while the MIT occurs together with a SPT of M1 to the rutile R phase. All previous reports have shown that VO2 exists in the M1 phase at room temperature in contrast to the M2 phase observed in this work. We suggest that internal strain inside single crystal VO2 may generate the previously unobserved IIT and the unusual room temperature structure. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Teste de esforço cardioplumonar na avaliação de doenças musculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA HELGA C. ALMEIDA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o teste de esforço cardiopulmonar (TECP no diagnóstico de miopatias. MÉTODOS: 27 pacientes com miopatia realizaram TECP (protocolo de bicicleta em rampa, máximo, interrompido por sintoma. RESULTADOS: Pacientes distróficos e pacientes com mitocondriopatias mostraram diferenças significativas em relação aos controles para as variáveis potência do trabalho desenvolvido (watt e pico do consumo de oxigênio (VO2 máx. Pacientes com mitocondriopatias mostraram diminuição significativa do limiar anaeróbio em relação aos controles, além de elevação dos valores do quociente respiratório (QR do pico do exercício em relação aos demais grupos. CONCLUSÕES: TECP pode ser útil na avaliação evolutiva do grau de limitação física dos pacientes com miopatia. As variáveis potência do trabalho desenvolvido, VO2 máx, limiar anaeróbio e QR do pico do exercício podem sugerir o diagnóstico de miopatia e seus subtipos, excluindo quadros psicológicos.

  16. Solid solutions in the Ca9Bi(VO4)7-Sr9Bi(VO4)7 system: the structure, ferroelectric properties, and nonlinear optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relying on data of X-ray diffraction studies, two fields of substitutional solid solutions Ca9-xSrxBi(VO4)7 built on the basis of whitlockite Ca9Bi(VO4)7 (0?x?5.25) and palmierite Sr9Bi(VO4)7 (7.59Bi(VO4)7 - Sr9Bi(VO4)7 system. A high-temperature second-order ferroelectric phase transition has been observed in the whitlockite solid solutions. The phase-transition point, the second optical harmonic generation (SHG) signal (T=300 K) and conductivity decrease as the strontium concentration increases; The phase-transition window increases. The symmetry changes during the phase transition from noncentrosymmetric to centrosymmetric. The structures of the x=3 and 5 phases have been determined using Rietveld analysis. The SHG signal value correlates with the site M3 occupancy factor for bismuth cations

  17. p-n junction CuO/BiVO? heterogeneous nanostructures: synthesis and highly efficient visible-light photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzhong; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zhizhen; Wei, Xuanzhen; Liu, Li; Ren, Qingshan; Gao, Wenliang; Liang, Yujie; Shi, Honglong

    2014-05-14

    A new strategy via coupling a polyol route with an oxidation process has been developed to successfully synthesize p-n junction CuO/BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures. The experimental results reveal that the as-prepared p-n junction CuO/BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures exhibit much higher visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of model dye rhodamine B (RhB) than the pure BiVO4 nanocrystals. The photocatalytic degradation rate (C/C0) of the RhB for p-n junction CuO/BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures is about two times higher than that of pure BiVO4 nanocrystals. The enhanced photocatalytic efficiency is attributed to a large number of p-n junctions in CuO/BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures, which effectively reduces the recombination of electrons and holes by charge transfer from n-type BiVO4 to the attached p-type CuO nanoparticles. This work not only provides an efficient route to enhance the visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of BiVO4, but also offers a new strategy for fabricating p-n junction heterogeneous nanostructure photocatalysts, which are expected to show considerable potential application in solar-driven wastewater treatment and water splitting. PMID:24643776

  18. Extraction of Electronic Evidence from VoIP: Forensic Analysis of A Virtual Hard Disk Vs RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    david irwin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP is increasing as the cost savings and ease of use is realised by a wide range of home and corporate users. However, the technology is also attractive to criminals. This is because VoIP is a global telephony service, in which it is difficult to verify the user’s identification. The security of placing such calls may also be appealing to criminals, as many implementations use strong encryption to secure both the voice payload as well as to control messages making monitoring such VoIP calls difficult since conventional methods such as wire-tapping is not applicable to VoIP calls. Therefore, other methods of recovering electronic evidence and information from VoIP are required.  This research looks at what protocol evidence remains after a VoIP call has taken place examining both a virtual hard disk and the Random Access Memory (RAM. This paper proposes a set of identifiable credentials based on packet header information contained within the VoIP protocol stack. A series of controlled tests were undertaken whereby these credentials were forensically searched for on a virtual machine which was used to make the VoIP call. This experiment was then repeated by a search for the same protocol credentials within the RAM.

  19. Porous FeVO4 nanorods: synthesis, characterization, and gas-sensing properties toward volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports a facile hydrothermal approach for the synthesis of shape-controlled FeVO4·1.1H2O nanorods and the subsequent conversion into FeVO4 nanorods upon calcination at 500 °C for 2 h. The lengths of the synthesized FeVO4 nanorods vary from 0.7–3.5 ?m, with the widths ranging from 70–270 nm. The proposed synthesis strategy does not involve the use of surfactants and requires only a very short reaction time, which is highly beneficial for the scale-up preparation. The anions of the Fe precursor are found to directly influence the shape and composition of the resultant hydrated FeVO4 products, due to the differences in their ionic strength and their abilities to intercalate into the layered structure of FeVO4·1.1H2O. The Cl? ions are particularly useful in limiting the growth of the nanorods in the lateral direction without being strongly intercalated into the layered structure. The porous FeVO4 nanorods exhibit higher selectivity and sensitivity toward n-butanol compared to FeVO4 nanoparticles, due to the high surface area and porosity. The findings demonstrate for the first time the potential of nanosized FeVO4 as a sensor material for the detection of volatile gases

  20. Vertical Handover Management for VoIP Session over Brodband Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kashihara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, wireless LAN (IEEE802.11g/n has been the dominant wireless network that can provide high data rates in a limited coverage area. While emerging mobile WiMAX (IEEE802.16e can provide a wireless broadband access to mobile users in a wide coverage area. These two different technolgies will co-exist while complementing each other in some regions, hence, a mobile node (MN with dual interfaces traverses and executes many handovers (HOs between 802.11g and 802.16e. Meanwhile, there is a huge demand for Voice over IP (VoIP service over wireless networks. However, VoIP is a delay and loss sensitive application, hence, VoIP session is more likely to be deteriorated during HO between 802.11g and 802.16e. In order to maintain quality of VoIP session during HO, we proposed Vertical Handover Management (VHM for VoIP session that focuses on HO initiation and decision strategy according to the wireless link condition and congestion state of wireless networks. The VHM exploits request to send (RTS retries and round trip time (RTT between an MN and an access point in an 802.11g interface as well as a carrier to interference noise ration (CINR level and MN’s queue length of an 802.16e interface as HO triggers. We then conducted simulation experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed VHM using QualNet 4.5. Our simulation results show that our proposed VHM can preserve the quality of VoIP session during such HOs.

  1. Crystal Structure and Spectroscopic Properties of CsVO2SO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, SØren Birk; Boghosian, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dark crystals of the V(V) compound CSVO2SO4, Suitable for X-ray investigations have been obtained from the catalytically important Cs2S2O7-V2O5 system. By cooling of the mixture with the composition X-V2O5 = 0.5, some crystals were obtained in the otherwise glassy sample, The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 6.6688(13) Angstrom, b = 10.048(2) Angstrom, and c = 17.680(4) Angstrom at 20 degreesC and Z = 8. It contains a coordination sphere with a short V-O bond of 1.595(2) Angstrom and trans to this the closest VO distance at 3.4 Angstrom and four equatorial V-O bonds in the range 1.725(1)-1.984(2) Angstrom. The deformation of the VO6 octahedron is thus much more pronounced compared to other known oxo sulfato V(V) compounds, and the coordination polyhedron of V(V) should be regarded as a tetragonal pyramid with the vanadium atom in the center. Each VO2+ group is coordinated to the neighboring groups by oxygen and sulfate double bridges in a zigzag structure where two sulfate oxygens virtually remain uncoordinated-one is found at the very long nonbonding V-O distance from the neighboring chain. This is the first time that we find pentacoordination of vanadium in the 12 different V(III), V(IV), and V(V) compounds examined so far. The FTIR and Raman spectra of the compound are in agreement with the simple formula unit of the investigated compound.

  2. Induction of cyto-protective autophagy by paramontroseite VO2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Miao, Yanyan; Zhang, Yunjiao; Liu, Liang; Lin, Jun; Yang, James Y.; Xie, Yi; Wen, Longping

    2013-04-01

    A variety of inorganic nanomaterials have been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular degradation process critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. The overwhelming majority of autophagic responses elicited by nanomaterials were detrimental to cell fate and contributed to increased cell death. A widely held view is that the inorganic nanoparticles, when encapsulated and trapped by autophagosomes, may compromise the normal autophagic process due to the inability of the cells to degrade these materials and thus they manifest a detrimental effect on the well-being of a cell. Here we show that, contrary to this notion, nano-sized paramontroseite VO2 nanocrystals (P-VO2) induced cyto-protective, rather than death-promoting, autophagy in cultured HeLa cells. P-VO2 also caused up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cellular protein with a demonstrated role in protecting cells against death under stress situations. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine significantly inhibited HO-1 up-regulation and increased the rate of cell death in cells treated with P-VO2, while the HO-1 inhibitor protoporphyrin IX zinc (II) (ZnPP) enhanced the occurrence of cell death in the P-VO2-treated cells while having no effect on the autophagic response induced by P-VO2. On the other hand, Y2O3 nanocrystals, a control nanomaterial, induced death-promoting autophagy without affecting the level of expression of HO-1, and the pro-death effect of the autophagy induced by Y2O3. Our results represent the first report on a novel nanomaterial-induced cyto-protective autophagy, probably through up-regulation of HO-1, and may point to new possibilities for exploiting nanomaterial-induced autophagy for therapeutic applications.

  3. Synthesis of water-soluble luminescent LaVO4:Ln3+ porous nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-soluble luminescent Eu3+ and Tb3+-doped LaVO4 porous nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission-transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV/Vis absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopic techniques were employed to characterize the structure and morphology of as-prepared products. The results of the XRD confirm the formation of well-crystallized LaVO4 phase with a tetragonal zircon structure. The TEM images illustrate that the as-formed Eu3+ and Tb3+-doped LaVO4 nanoparticles have irregular spherical shape, hairy nanoporous structures with an average particle size 50–130 nm. These nanoparticles were well-dispersed in polar and non-polar organic solvents to form clear colloidal solutions. The colloidal solutions of Eu3+ and Tb3+-doped zircon-type LaVO4 nanoparticles show the most dominant characteristic emissions (hypersensitive transitions) of Eu3+ at 615 nm (5D0 ? 7F2) and Tb3+ at 543 nm (5D4 ? 7F5), respectively, as the result of an energy transfer from the VO43? to luminescent metal ions activators. Compared with other-shape nanocrystals, the luminescence intensity of the irreguminescence intensity of the irregular hairy spherical porous-like nanoparticles are obviously enhanced. It therefore, suggests that we could obtain function-improved materials by tailoring the size and shape of the LaVO4:Ln3+ nanostructures that are very suitable for use in biological applications, such as protein-labeling, drug delivery, and fluorescent bioprobes.

  4. Electronic structure of second harmonic generation crystal Li3VO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, S.; Nagoshi, Y.; Nii, H.; Ueda, N.; Kawazoe, H.

    1996-10-01

    The origin of second harmonic generation (SHG) of Li3VO4 was investigated from the viewpoint of the band structure by using the tight-binding method. The tight-binding parameters were optimized to reproduce the density of states (DOS) obtained from x ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the optical band gap. Altho