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Sample records for n-heterocyclic carbene ligands

  1. Synthesis and biological assays on cancer cells of dinuclear gold complexes with novel functionalised di(N-heterocyclic carbene) ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Marco; Bellemin-Laponnaz, Stéphane; Tubaro, Cristina; Basato, Marino; Bogialli, Sara; Dolmella, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    New dinuclear di(N-heterocyclic carbene) silver(I), gold(I) and gold(III) complexes have been synthesised and their antiproliferative effects towards various cancer cell lines have been screened. The di(N-heterocyclic carbene) ligands have a propylene linker between the carbene moieties and the imidazole backbone has been functionalised with a 1-benzyl- or 1-PEG-1,2,3-triazole ring (PEG=poly(ethylene glycol)) via a CuAAC (copper azido alkyne cycloaddition) reaction. The resulting gold(I) and gold(III) complexes display an antiproliferative activity superior to that of the unfunctionalised pristine complexes together with a higher selectivity towards cancerous cells with respect to healthy cells. PMID:25226437

  2. Luminescent ruthenium(II) complex bearing bipyridine and N-heterocyclic carbene-based C?N?C pincer ligand for live-cell imaging of endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Wai-Kuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Tsang, Wai-Him; Lo, Hoi-Shing; Liu, Yaxiang; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Wong, Chun-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent ruthenium(II)-cyanide complex with N-heterocyclic carbene pincer ligand C(?)N(?)C = 2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) shows minimal cytotoxicity to both human breast carcinoma cell (MCF-7) and human retinal pigmented epithelium cell (RPE) in a wide range of concentration (0.1-500??M), and can be used for the luminescent imaging of endocytosis of the complex in these cells. PMID:25765974

  3. Luminescent Ruthenium(II) Complex Bearing Bipyridine and N-Heterocyclic Carbene-based C?N?C Pincer Ligand for Live-Cell Imaging of Endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Wai-Kuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Tsang, Wai-Him; Lo, Hoi-Shing; Liu, Yaxiang; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Wong, Chun-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent ruthenium(II)-cyanide complex with N-heterocyclic carbene pincer ligand C?N?C = 2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine and 2,2?-bipyridine (bpy) shows minimal cytotoxicity to both human breast carcinoma cell (MCF-7) and human retinal pigmented epithelium cell (RPE) in a wide range of concentration (0.1–500??M), and can be used for the luminescent imaging of endocytosis of the complex in these cells. PMID:25765974

  4. Magnesium and zinc complexes of functionalised, saturated N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: carbene lability and functionalisation, and lactide polymerisation catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Polly L; Casely, Ian J; Turner, Zoë R; Bellabarba, Ronan; Tooze, Robert B

    2009-09-21

    The synthesis of magnesium and zinc complexes of bidentate anionic alkoxide ligands with saturated-backbone carbene groups is reported. Mono(ligand) and bis(ligand) complexes [M(L(R))N''](2) and [M(L(R))(2)] (M = Mg, Zn, N'' = N(SiMe(3))(2), L(R) = [OCMe(2)CH(2){CNCH(2)CH(2)NR}] R = (i)Pr, Mes, Dipp) have been isolated, and some structurally characterised and compared with the new unsaturated carbene complex [Mg(L)(2)]. Reactions with silyl halides show either addition across the metal carbene bond, or across the metal alkoxide bond, in accordance with the metals' electronegativity difference: the metal alkoxide bonds are stronger for Mg(II) complexes, for which the carbene is silylated to form zwitterionic [MgI(Me(3)SiL(R))N''] (Me(3)SiL(R) = OCMe(2)CH(2){Me(3)SiCNCH(2)CH(2)NR}) while the metal-bound alkoxide group is silylated in the Zn(II) complexes forming [ZnI(Me(3)SiOL(R))N''] (Me(3)SiOL(R) = Me(3)SiOCMe(2)CH(2){CNCH(2)CH(2)NR}). The proligand [HL(R)] is silylated at the alcohol group, forming the iodide salt [Me(3)SiOCMe(2)CH(2){HCNCH(2)CH(2)NR}]I.Preliminary results on the use of these complexes as initiators for the polymerisation of rac-lactide are reported, and suggest different initiation mechanisms are occurring for the two metals, in agreement with the different silylation reactivity observed. The polymerisation reactions are facile at room temperature even without an initiator, and yield polymers of reasonable molecular weight and heterotacticity and with good PDI. These are the first magnesium NHC complexes demonstrated to effect lactide polymerisation.Also, an adduct instead of the anticipated potassium alkoxycarbene is generated from the reaction of the proligand [HL(R)] with potassium amide KN''; this has been structurally characterised. PMID:20449168

  5. Blue phosphorescent N-heterocyclic carbene chelated Pt(ii) complexes with an ?-duryl-?-diketonato ancillary ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Soo-Byung; Park, Hee-Jun; Gong, Shaolong; Wang, Xiang; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Wang, Suning

    2015-04-29

    C^C* chelated Pt(ii) compounds that contain an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donor have recently attracted great interest as blue or white phosphorescent emitters for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). To overcome the tendency for excimer formation in Pt(ii) compounds, an ?-duryl-?-diketonato ligand was selected as the ancillary ligand for blue phosphorescent C^C* chelated Pt(ii) compounds. Using this approach, a series of NHC-based C^C* chelated Pt(ii) compounds has been designed and synthesized. The chelate ligands used in the new C^C* chelated Pt(ii) compounds include 1-phenylimidazol-2-ylidene in , 1-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene in , p-TMS-1-phenylimidazol-2-ylidene in , and p-TMS-1-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene in . A single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the presence of the ?-duryl-?-diketonato ligand in the Pt(ii) compounds effectively suppresses the dimer formation in the crystal lattice. , , , and display blue phosphorescence at room temperature. The p-TMS substituted complex was found to display the most efficient blue phosphorescence at ?em = 468 nm with a ?PL of 0.68. Spectroscopic and computational studies established that the blue phosphorescence in the phenyl-imidazolylidene chelated complexes originates mainly from a (3)MLCT state while that in the phenyl-triazolylidene chelated compounds arises from a (3)ILCT state. Electroluminescent devices using and as the dopant were fabricated which display both monomer and exciplex emission, leading to pure white light electroluminescence with CIE coordinates of (0.32, 0.31). PMID:25501853

  6. Alkyne hydroarylation with Au N-heterocyclic carbene catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Tubaro; Marco Baron; Andrea Biffis; Marino Basato

    2013-01-01

    Mono- and dinuclear gold complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have been employed as catalysts in the intermolecular hydroarylation of alkynes with simple unfunctionalised arenes. Both mono- and dinuclear gold(III) complexes were able to catalyze the reaction; however, the best results were obtained with the mononuclear gold(I) complex IPrAuCl. This complex, activated with one equivalent of silver tetrafluoroborate, exhibited under acidic conditions at room temperature much high...

  7. C^C* cyclometalated platinum(II) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with a sterically demanding ?-diketonato ligand – synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, M; Metz, S; Wagenblast, G; Münster, Ingo; Strassner, T

    2015-05-14

    Neutral cyclometalated platinum(ii) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes [Pt(C^C*)(O^O)] with C^C* ligands based on 1-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene, as well as acetylacetonato (O^O = acac) and 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)propan-1,3-dionato (O^O = mesacac) ancillary ligands were synthesized and characterized. All complexes are emissive at room temperature in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix with emission maxima in the blue region of the spectrum. High quantum efficiencies and short decay times were observed for all complexes with mesacac ancillary ligands. The sterically demanding mesityl groups of the mesacac ligand effectively prevent molecular stacking. The emission behavior of these emitters is in general independent of the position of the nitrogen in the backbone of the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) unit and a variety of substituents in 4-position of the phenyl unit, meta to the cyclometalating bond. PMID:25884050

  8. Organometallic rhenium(iii) chalcogenide clusters: coordination of N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jessica L; Wilson, Wade B; Huh, Daniel N; McDonald, Robert; Szczepura, Lisa F

    2015-06-16

    The preparation of rhenium based octahedral clusters containing N-heterocyclic carbenes is described. These represent the first examples of [M6(?3-Q)8](n+) or [M6(?3-X)8](n+) clusters to contain a carbene ligand of any type (NHC, Fischer or Schrock). Surprisingly, the NHC ligands attenuate their luminescent properties. PMID:26041404

  9. Methanol dehydrogenation by iridium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jesús; Sharninghausen, Liam S; Manas, Michael G; Crabtree, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    A series of homogeneous iridium bis(N-heterocyclic carbene) catalysts are active for three transformations involving dehydrogenative methanol activation: acceptorless dehydrogenation, transfer hydrogenation, and amine monoalkylation. The acceptorless dehydrogenation reaction requires base, yielding formate and carbonate, as well as 2-3 equivalents of H2. Of the few homogeneous systems known for this reaction, our catalysts tolerate air and employ simple ligands. Transfer hydrogenation of ketones and imines from methanol is also possible. Finally, N-monomethylation of anilines occurs through a "borrowing hydrogen" reaction. Notably, this reaction is highly selective for the monomethylated product. PMID:25615426

  10. Palladium-catalyzed direct C2-arylation of an N-heterocyclic carbene: an atom-economic route to mesoionic carbene ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadwal, Rajendra S; Reichmann, Sven O; Herbst-Irmer, Regine

    2015-03-01

    Blocking the C2 position of an imidazole-derived classical N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) with an aryl group is an essential strategy to establish a route to mesoionic carbenes (MICs), which coordinate to the metal via the C4 (or C5) carbon atom. An efficient catalytic route to MIC precursors by direct arylation of an NHC is reported. Treatment of 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IPr) with an aryl iodide (RC6H4I) in the presence of 0.5?mol?% of [Pd2(dba)3] (dba = dibenzylideneacetone) precatalyst affords the C2-arylated imidazolium salts {IPr(C6H4R)}I (R = H, 4-Me, 2-Me, 4-OMe, 4-COOMe) in excellent (up to 92%) yields. Treatment of {IPr(C6H5)}I with CuI and KN(SiMe3)2 exclusively affords the MIC-copper complex [(IPrPh)CuI]. PMID:25639790

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Divalent Manganese, Iron, and Cobalt Complexes in Tripodal Phenolate/N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligand Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ka?ß, Martina; Hohenberger, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Two novel tripodal ligands, (BIMPNMes,Ad,Me)? and (MIMPNMes,Ad,Me)2–, combining two types of donor atoms, namely, NHC and phenolate donors, were synthesized to complete the series of N-anchored ligands, ranging from chelating species with tris(carbene) to tris(phenolate) chelating arms. The complete ligand series offers a convenient way of tuning the electronic and steric environment around the metal center, thus, allowing for control of the complex’s reactivity. This series of divalent complexes of Mn, Fe, and Co was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, IR, and UV/vis spectroscopy as well as by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Variable-temperature SQUID magnetization measurements in the range from 2 to 300 K confirmed high-spin ground states for all divalent complexes and revealed a trend of increasing zero-field splitting |D| from Mn(II), to Fe(II), to Co(II) complexes. Zero-field 57Fe Mo?ssbauer spectroscopy of the Fe(II) complexes 3, 4, 8, and 11 shows isomer shifts ? that increase gradually as carbenes are substituted for phenolates in the series of ligands. From the single-crystal structure determinations of the complexes, the different steric demand of the ligands is evident. Particularly, the molecular structure of 1?in which a pyridine molecule is situated next to the Mn–Cl bond?and those of azide complexes 2, 4, and 6 demonstrate the flexibility of these mixed-ligand derivatives, which, in contrast to the corresponding symmetrical TIMENR ligands, allow for side access of, e.g., organic substrates, to the reactive metal center.

  12. Stepwise strategy to cyclometallated Pt(II) complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: a luminescence study on new ?-diketonate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Sara; García, Hector; Perálvarez, Mariano; Hertog, Wim; Carreras, Josep; Sicilia, Violeta

    2015-01-19

    The imidazolium salt 3-methyl-1-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1H-imidazolium iodide (2) has been treated with silver(I) oxide and [{Pt(?-Cl)(?(3)-2-Me-C3H4)}2] (?(3)-2-Me-C3H4 = ?(3)-2-methylallyl) to give the intermediate N-heterocyclic carbene complex [PtCl(?(3)-2-Me-C3H4)(HCC*-?C*)] (3) (HCC*-?C* = 3-methyl-1-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene). Compound 3 undergoes regiospecific cyclometallation at the naphthyl ring of the NHC ligand to give the five-membered platinacycle compound [{Pt(?-Cl)(CC*)}2] (4). Chlorine abstraction from 4 with ?-diketonate Tl derivatives rendered the corresponding neutral compounds [Pt(CC*)(L-O,O')] {L = acac (HL = acetylacetone) 5, phacac (HL = 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propanedione) 6, hfacac (HL = hexafluoroacetylacetone) 7}. All of the compounds (3-7) were fully characterized by standard spectroscopic and analytical methods. X-ray diffraction studies were performed on 5-7, revealing short Pt-Pt and ?-? interactions in the solid-state structure. The influence of the R-substituents of the ?-diketonate ligand on the photophysical properties and the use of the most efficient emitter, 5, as phosphor converter has also been studied. PMID:25412763

  13. Alkyne hydroarylation with Au N-heterocyclic carbene catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaro, Cristina; Baron, Marco; Basato, Marino

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mono- and dinuclear gold complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have been employed as catalysts in the intermolecular hydroarylation of alkynes with simple unfunctionalised arenes. Both mono- and dinuclear gold(III) complexes were able to catalyze the reaction; however, the best results were obtained with the mononuclear gold(I) complex IPrAuCl. This complex, activated with one equivalent of silver tetrafluoroborate, exhibited under acidic conditions at room temperature much higher catalytic activity and selectivity compared to more commonly employed palladium(II) catalysts. Moreover, the complex was active, albeit to a minor extent, even under neutral conditions, and exhibited lower activity but higher selectivity compared to the previously published complex AuCl(PPh3). Preliminary results on intramolecular hydroarylations using this catalytic system indicate, however, that alkyne hydration by traces of water may become a serious competing reaction. PMID:23400639

  14. Alkyne hydroarylation with Au N-heterocyclic carbene catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tubaro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mono- and dinuclear gold complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligands have been employed as catalysts in the intermolecular hydroarylation of alkynes with simple unfunctionalised arenes. Both mono- and dinuclear gold(III complexes were able to catalyze the reaction; however, the best results were obtained with the mononuclear gold(I complex IPrAuCl. This complex, activated with one equivalent of silver tetrafluoroborate, exhibited under acidic conditions at room temperature much higher catalytic activity and selectivity compared to more commonly employed palladium(II catalysts. Moreover, the complex was active, albeit to a minor extent, even under neutral conditions, and exhibited lower activity but higher selectivity compared to the previously published complex AuCl(PPh3. Preliminary results on intramolecular hydroarylations using this catalytic system indicate, however, that alkyne hydration by traces of water may become a serious competing reaction.

  15. Control of emission colour with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands in phosphorescent three-coordinate Cu(I) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, Valentina A; Djurovich, Peter I; Conley, Brian L; Haiges, Ralf; Whited, Matthew T; Williams, Travis J; Thompson, Mark E

    2014-07-11

    A series of three phosphorescent mononuclear (NHC)-Cu(I) complexes were prepared and characterized. Photophysical properties were found to be largely controlled by the NHC ligand chromophore. Variation of the NHC ligand leads to emission colour tuning over 200 nm range from blue to red, and emission efficiencies of 0.16-0.80 in the solid state. PMID:24853355

  16. The Depolymerization of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) Using N-Heterocyclic Carbenes from Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamber, Nahrain E.; Tsujii, Yasuhito; Keets, Kate; Waymouth, Robert M.; Pratt, Russell C.; Nyce, Gregory W.; Hedrick, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The depolymerization of the plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) is described in this laboratory procedure. The transesterification reaction used to depolymerize PET employs a highly efficient N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst derived from a commercially available imidazolium ionic liquid. N-heterocyclic carbenes are potent nucleophilic…

  17. Copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide with CO2 catalyzed by tridentate N-heterocyclic carbene titanium(IV) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Coralie C; Le Roux, Erwan

    2014-03-21

    A new class of complexes based on titanium(IV) bearing a bisanionic mer-tridentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligand were investigated for the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide with CO2. Upon addition of [PPN]X' salts, all complexes were found to be active and highly selective toward the formation of poly(cyclohexene oxide-alt-carbon dioxide). PMID:24292280

  18. Luminescence Studies of the Intracellular Distribution of a Dinuclear Gold(I) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, Peter J.; Wedlock, Louise E.; Baker, Murray V.; Berners-Price, Susan J.; Joyce, David A.; Skelton, Brian W.; Steer, James H. (UWA)

    2008-10-03

    A bidentate cyclophane N-heterocyclic carbene ligand has been used to synthesize a new dinuclear Au{sup I} complex of the formula [Au{sub 2}L{sub 2}]{sup 2+}. The short Au {hor_ellipsis} Au distance imposed by the rigid cyclophane ligand leads to a red-shifted luminescence profile that enables the complex to be used as a luminescent probe for distribution studies in single living cancer cells.

  19. Evaluation of an olefin metathesis pre-catalyst with a bulky and electron-rich N-heterocyclic carbene

    KAUST Repository

    Manzini, Simone

    2015-03-01

    The commercially-available metathesis pre-catalyst M23 has been evaluated alongside new complex [RuCl2((3-phenyl)indenylidene)(PPh3)(SIPrOMe)] (1), which bears a para-methoxy-substituted N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. Several model metathesis reactions could be conducted using only parts-per-million levels of ruthenium catalyst. The effects of the different NHC ligands on reactivity have been explored.

  20. Pyridine versus acetonitrile coordination in rhodium-N-heterocyclic carbene square-planar complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Laura; Di Giuseppe, Andrea; Castarlenas, Ricardo; Lahoz, Fernando J; Pérez-Torrente, Jesús J; Oro, Luis A

    2015-03-10

    Experimental and theoretical studies on the factors that control the coordination chemistry of N-donor ligands in square-planar complexes of the type RhCl(NHC)L(1)L(2) (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) are presented. The dinuclear complexes [Rh(?-Cl)(IPr)(?(2)-olefin)]2 {IPr = 1,3-bis-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-carbene} have been reacted with different combinations of ligands including pyridine, acetonitrile, 2-pyridylacetonitrile, triphenylphosphine, tricyclohexylphosphine, carbon monoxide or molecular oxygen. In addition, the reactivity of RhCl(IPr)(PPh3)2 has also been studied. Pyridine preferentially coordinates trans to the carbene ligand whereas ?-acceptor ligands (olefin, CO or PPh3) are prone to bind cis to IPr and trans to chlorido, unless steric bulk hinders the coordination of the ligand (PCy3). In contrast, acetonitrile is more labile than pyridine but is able to form complexes coordinated cis-to-IPr. Molecular dioxygen also displaces the labile cyclooctene ligand in RhCl(IPr)(?(2)-coe)(py) to give a square-planar dioxygen adduct which can be transformed into a peroxo derivative by additional coordination of pyridine. Charge decomposition analysis (CDA) shows that ?-donation values are similar for coordination at cis- or trans-IPr positions, whereas efficient ?-backbonding is significantly observed at cis position being the favoured coordination site for ?-acceptor ligands. The Rh-IPr rotational barrier in a series of square-planar complexes has been analysed. It has been found that the main contribution is the steric hindrance of the ancillary ligand. The presence of a ?-donor ligand such as chlorido slows down the dynamic process. PMID:25714797

  1. The Potential of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes as Components for Electronically Active Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Oliver; Mercs, Laszlo; Albrecht, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The application of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes as active sites in materials other than catalysis has been remarkably scarce. Inspired by the — often misleading — ‘carbene’ label, which implies a substantial degree of M=C ? bonding, we have been interested in evaluating the potential of N-heterocylclic carbene complexes as building blocks for constructing electronically active materials. Electron mobility via the metal-carbon bond has been investigated in monometallic imidazol-2-...

  2. N-Heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a powerful tool in organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob De Vreese

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between metals and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs has provided a window of opportunities for the development of novel catalytic strategies within the past few years. The recent successful combination of Brønsted acids with NHCs has added a new dimension to the field of cooperative catalysis, enabling the stereoselective synthesis of functionalized pyrrolidin-2-ones as valuable scaffolds in heterocyclic chemistry. This Commentary will briefly highlight the concept of N-heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a new and powerful methodology in organic chemistry.

  3. Enantioselective all-carbon (4+2) annulation by N-heterocyclic carbene catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candish, Lisa; Levens, Alison; Lupton, David W

    2014-10-15

    The enantioselective vinylogous Michael/aldol cascade is an underdeveloped approach to cyclohexenes. Herein we describe a highly enantioselective (most ? 98:2 er) and diastereoselective (all ? 15:1 dr) N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed cycloisomerization of acyclic dienyl esters to cyclohexyl ?-lactones. Derivatizations avail cyclohexenes bearing four contiguous stereogenic centers, while mechanistic studies support olefin isomerization prior to cyclization. PMID:25252043

  4. Synthesis of ruthenium complexes having one or more N-heterocyclic carbene ligands supported on hybrid mesostructured silicas and their use in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Baffert, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this PhD was to elaborate supported Ru-NHC catalytic materials based on hybrid organic-inorganic materials having imidazolium units perfectly distributed within a silica matrix. Passivation of these imidazolium materials followed by formation of NHC-carbene and reaction with [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 provided these well-defined surface sites of general structures RuCl2(NHC)(L), where L was para-cymene (p-cymene) or THF depending on the reaction conditions, which could be further replaced...

  5. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Imines from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A new method for the direct synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described where hydrogen gas is liberated. The reaction is catalyzed by the ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] in the presence of the ligand DABCO and molecular sieves. The imination can be applied to a variety of primary alcohols and amines and can be combined with a subsequent addition reaction. A deuterium labeling experiment indicates that the catalytically active species is a rutheni...

  6. Cationic tungsten-oxo-alkylidene-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes: highly active olefin metathesis catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowner, Roman; Frey, Wolfgang; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2015-05-20

    The synthesis, structure, and olefin metathesis activity of the first neutral and cationic W-oxo-alkylidene-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalysts are reported. Neutral W-oxo-alkylidene-NHC catalysts can be prepared in up to 90% isolated yield. Depending on the ligands used, they possess either an octahedral (Oh) or trigonal bipyramidal ligand sphere. They can be activated with excess AlCl3 to form cationic olefin metathesis-active W-complexes; however, these readily convert into neutral chloro-complexes. Well-defined, stable cationic species can be prepared by stoichiometric substitution of one chloro ligand in the parent, neutral W-oxo-alkylidene-NHC complexes with Ag(MeCN)2B(Ar(F))4 or NaB(Ar(F))4; B(Ar(F))4 = B(3,5-(CF3)2-C6H3)4. They are highly active olefin metathesis catalysts, allowing for turnover numbers up to 10,000 in various olefin metathesis reactions including alkenes bearing nitrile, sec-amine, and thioether groups. PMID:25938340

  7. N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes of group 4 transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dao; Zi, Guofu

    2015-04-01

    Since the discovery of a stable N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC), the use of NHCs in chemistry has developed rapidly over the past two decades. These interesting compounds are predominantly employed in organometallic chemistry as ligands for various metal centers, and as organocatalysts for a variety of transformations. In particular, the NHC transition metal complexes have received widespread attention, and significant progress has been made in the development of group 4 NHC-complexes in the last few years. These group 4 NHC-complexes are of interest because of their unique structural properties, and their potential application in organic transformations and catalysis. This review covers the superior design strategies for NHC ligands to stabilize early transition metals and well-defined group 4 metal complexes with mono- and multi-dentate NHC ligands. In this context, four types of NHC-complexes, i.e., carbon-functionalized NHCs, nitrogen-functionalized NHCs, oxygen-functionalized NHCs and nitrogen/oxygen-functionalized unsymmetric NHCs, are described. In addition, the use of group 4 NHC-complexes as catalysts in olefin (co)polymerization, ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide, copolymerization of epoxides and CO2, as well as hydroamination/cyclization of aminoalkenes, is presented. Furthermore, limitations and challenges are discussed. PMID:25608933

  8. Accesses to electronic structures and the excited states of blue luminescent copper(I) complexes containing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: a DFT/TDDFT exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhao, Feng; Xu, Shengxian; Xia, Hongying; Wang, Jinglan; Wang, Yibo

    2014-09-01

    The ground electronic states and photophysical properties of three designed Cu(I) complexes [Cu(ImNHC)(POP)](+) (1), [Cu(methyl-ImNHC)(POP)](+) (2), and [Cu(BenzImNHC)(POP)](+) (3); where [ImNHC?=?3-methyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene; methyl-ImNHC?=?3-methyl-1-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene; BenzImNHC?=?3-methyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylidene], have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The results reveal that the presence of the methylene spacer in the NHC ligands has a more direct effect on the distribution of frontier molecular orbitals while the elongation of ? conjugation provided by the fused imidazole in the NHC ligands has a negligible effect. The UV-vis absorption spectra of all the complexes are well produced by TD-DFT calculations based on the charge transfer amount calculations and the corresponding band assignments are discussed. Importantly, the triplet energy calculations demonstrated that complex 2 would be a highly efficient blue emitter with the deep-blue of 440 nm. PMID:25123713

  9. Alkyne-Azide Cycloaddition Catalyzed by Silver Chloride and “Abnormal” Silver N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo I. Ortega-Arizmendi; Eugenia Aldeco-Pérez; Erick Cuevas-Yañez

    2013-01-01

    A library of 1,2,3-triazoles was synthesized from diverse alkynes and azides using catalytic amounts of silver chloride instead of copper compounds. In addition, a novel “abnormal” silver N-heterocyclic carbene complex was tested as catalyst in this process. The results suggest that the reaction requires only 0.5% of silver complex, affording 1,2,3-triazoles in good yields.

  10. Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Johan Hygum; Osztrovszky, Gyorgyi

    2010-01-01

    The direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines is described with the simultaneous liberation of dihydrogen. The reaction does not require any stoichiometric additives or hydrogen acceptors and is catalyzed by ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. Three different catalyst systems are presented that all employ 1,3-diisopropylimidazol-2-ylidene (IiPr) as the carbene ligand. In addition, potassium tert-butoxide and a tricycloalkylphosphine are required for the amidation to proceed. In the first system, the active catalyst is generated in situ from [RuCl2(cod)] (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene), 1,3-diisopropylimidazolium chloride, tricyclopentylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate, and base. The second system uses the complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] together with tricyclohexylphosphine and base, whereas the third system employs the Hoveyda-Grubbs 1st-generation metathesis catalyst together with 1,3-diisopropylimidazolium chloride and base. A range of different primary alcohols and amines have been coupled in thepresence of the three catalyst systems to afford the corresponding amides in moderate to excellent yields. The best results are obtained with sterically unhindered alcohols and amines. The three catalyst systems do not show any significant differences in reactivity, which indicates that the same catalytically active species is operating. The reaction is believed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the primary alcohol to the aldehyde that stays coordinated to ruthenium and is not released into the reaction mixture. Addition of the amine forms the hemiaminal that undergoes dehydrogenation to the amide. A catalytic cycle is proposed with the {(IiPr)Ru-II} species as the catalytically active components.

  11. Synthesis of New Chiral N-Heterocyclic Carbenes and Abnormal Carbenes

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Jean-Noel

    2011-01-01

    Chapter 1 Carbenes have fascinated organic chemists ever since the first evidence of their existence. The isolation and first crystallographic analysis of a stable NHC by Arduengo, in 1991, has had a major impact on the application of NHCs in chemistry. NHCs are widely used as ligands for transition metals, but also as catalysts in their own right. The aim of this project is to synthesise novel monodentate chiral NHCs 1 in order to induce a high level of stereocontrol in a s...

  12. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Imines from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A new method for the direct synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described where hydrogen gas is liberated. The reaction is catalyzed by the ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] in the presence of the ligand DABCO and molecular sieves. The imination can be applied to a variety of primary alcohols and amines and can be combined with a subsequent addition reaction. A deuterium labeling experiment indicates that the catalytically active species is a ruthenium dihydride. The reaction is believed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the alcohol to the aldehyde, which stays coordinated to ruthenium. Nucleophilic attack of the amine affords the hemiaminal, which is released from ruthenium and converted into the imine.

  13. Sulfur-Functionalized N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Pd(II: Syntheses, Structures and Catalytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yuan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs can be easily modified by introducing functional groups at the nitrogen atoms, which leads to versatile coordination chemistry as well as diverse catalytic applications of the resulting complexes. This article summarizes our contributions to the field of NHCs bearing different types of sulfur functions, i.e., thioether, sulfoxide, thiophene, and thiolato. The experimental evidence for the truly hemilabile coordination behavior of a Pd(II thioether-NHC complex has been reported as well. In addition, complexes bearing rigid CSC-pincer ligands have been synthesized and the reasons for pincer versus pseudo-pincer formation investigated. Incorporation of the electron-rich thiolato function resulted in the isolation of structurally diverse complexes. The catalytic activities of selected complexes have been tested in Suzuki-Miyaura, Mizoroki-Heck and hydroamination reactions.

  14. Synthesis of Well-Defined Copper "N"-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes and Their Use as Catalysts for a "Click Reaction": A Multistep Experiment that Emphasizes the Role of Catalysis in Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Elon A.; Ison, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A multistep experiment for an advanced synthesis lab course that incorporates topics in organic-inorganic synthesis and catalysis and highlights green chemistry principles was developed. Students synthesized two "N"-heterocyclic carbene ligands, used them to prepare two well-defined copper(I) complexes and subsequently utilized the complexes as…

  15. Efficient electronic communication of two ruthenium centers through a rigid ditopic N-heterocyclic carbene linker

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Nussbaum; Oliver Schuster; Martin Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    A ditopic benzobis(carbene) ligand precursor was prepared that contained a chelating pyridyl moiety to ensure co-planarity of the carbene ligand and the coordination plane of a bound octahedral metal center. Bimetallic ruthenium complexes comprising this ditopic ligand [L?Ru-C,N-bbi-C,N-RuL?] were obtained by a transmetalation methodology (C,N-bbi-C,N=benzobis(N-pyridyl-N?-methyl-imidazolylidene). The two metal centers are electronically decoupled when the ruthenium is in a pseudotetrah...

  16. Non-covalent interactions in coinage metal complexes of 1,2,4-triazole-based N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Jan; Panov, Illia; Švec, Petr; R?ži?ková, Zde?ka; R?ži?ka, Aleš

    2014-11-01

    Seven coinage metal(I) complexes bearing two different triazole-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands, [1-tert-butyl-4-{2-[(N,N-dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl}-3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium-5-ide and 1-tert-butyl-4-(4-methylphenyl)-3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium-5-ide], were synthesized and fully characterized in solution by NMR spectroscopy as well as in the solid state by X-ray diffraction techniques. Furthermore, the XRD analysis showed that the bidentate coordination of the amino group substituted NHC ligand, previously observed for rhodium and palladium complexes, does not take place in the solid state structure of Au(I) complexes with various halide ligands. Nevertheless, the formation of sets of two head-to-tail oriented monomers aggregated via a weak metallophilic contact was revealed for both NHC ligands as well as for all three coinage metals with different halides. These experimental data correlate quite well with the previously published theoretical study on related complexes. PMID:25189129

  17. N-alkyl functionalised expanded ring N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of rhodium(I) and iridium(I): structural investigations and preliminary catalytic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunsford, J. J.; Tromp, D. S.; Cavell, K. J.; Elsevier, C. J.; Kariuki, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    A series of new N-alkyl functionalised 6- and 7-membered expanded ring N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) pro-ligands 3-6 and their corresponding complexes of rhodium(I) and iridium(I), [M(NHC)(COD)Cl] 7-14 and [M(NHC)(CO)(2)Cl] 15-22 are described. The complexes have been characterised by H-1 and C-13{H-1} NMR, mass spectrometry, IR and X-ray diffraction. It is noted from X-ray diffraction studies that the N-alkyl substituents are found to orientate themselves away from the metal centre due to unf...

  18. Expedient syntheses of the N-heterocyclic carbene precursor imidazolium salts IPr·HCl, IMes·HCl and IXy·HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hintermann Lukas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 1,3-diaryl-imidazolium chlorides IPr·HCl (aryl = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl, IMes·HCl (aryl = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl and IXy·HCl (aryl = 2,6-dimethylphenyl, precursors to widely used N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligands and catalysts, were prepared in high yields (81%, 69% and 89%, respectively by the reaction of 1,4-diaryl-1, 4-diazabutadienes, paraformaldehyde and chlorotrimethylsilane in dilute ethyl acetate solution. A reaction mechanism involving a 1,5-dipolar electrocyclization is proposed.

  19. Photoswitchable organocatalysis: using light to modulate the catalytic activities of N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Bethany M; Bielawski, Christopher W

    2012-08-01

    A 4,5-dithienylimidazolium salt was found to undergo electrocyclic isomerization upon exposure to UV radiation (?(irr) = 313 nm) under neutral and basic conditions; subsequent exposure to visible light reversed the reaction. Under ambient light and in the presence of base, the imidazolium species catalyzed transesterifications as well as amidations in a manner similar to those of previously reported N-heterocyclic carbene precatalysts. However, upon UV irradiation to effect the aforementioned photocyclization, the rate of the transesterification reaction between vinyl acetate and allyl alcohol was significantly attenuated (k(vis/UV) = 12.5), as was the rate of the condensation of ethyl acetate with aminoethanol (k(vis/UV) = 100). The rates of these reactions were successfully toggled between fast and slow states by alternating exposure to visible and UV light, respectively, thus demonstrating a rare example of a photoswitchable catalyst that operates via photomodulation of its electronic structure. PMID:22809240

  20. Nanofiber composites containing N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzatahry AA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed A Elzatahry1,4, Abdullah M Al-Enizi1, Elsayed Ahmed Elsayed2,5, Rachel R Butorac3, Salem S Al-Deyab1, Mohammad AM Wadaan2, Alan H Cowley31Petrochemical Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, 2Chair of Advanced Proteomics & Cytomics Research, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 4Institute of Advanced Technology and New Materials, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg Alrab, Alexandria, Egypt; 5Natural & Microbial Products Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: This report concerns nanofiber composites that incorporate N-heterocyclic carbenes and the use of such composites for testing antimicrobial and antifungal activities. The nanofiber composites were produced by electrospinning mixtures of the gold chloride or gold acetate complexes of a bis(iminoacenaphthene (BIAN-supported NHC with aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. The products were characterized by scanning-electron microscopy, which revealed that nanofibers in the range of 250–300 nm had been produced. The biological activities of the nanofiber composites were tested against two Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and two fungal strains. No activity was evident against the fungal strains. However, the gold chloride complex was found to be active against all the Gram-positive pathogens and one of the Gram-negative pathogens. It was also found that the activity of the produced nanofibers was localized and that no release of the bioactive compound from the nanofibers was evident. The demonstrated antimicrobial activities of these novel nanofiber composites render them potentially useful as wound dressings.Keywords: nanofiber, electrospinning, N-Heterocyclic carbene, biopolymer, antimicrobial

  1. Efficient electronic communication of two ruthenium centers through a rigid ditopic N-heterocyclic carbene linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Michael; Schuster, Oliver; Albrecht, Martin

    2013-12-16

    A ditopic benzobis(carbene) ligand precursor was prepared that contained a chelating pyridyl moiety to ensure co-planarity of the carbene ligand and the coordination plane of a bound octahedral metal center. Bimetallic ruthenium complexes comprising this ditopic ligand [L4Ru-C,N-bbi-C,N-RuL4] were obtained by a transmetalation methodology (C,N-bbi-C,N=benzobis(N-pyridyl-N'-methyl-imidazolylidene). The two metal centers are electronically decoupled when the ruthenium is in a pseudotetrahedral geometry imparted by a cymene spectator ligand (L4=[(cym)Cl]). Ligand exchange of the Cl(-)/cymene ligands for two bipyridine or four MeCN ligands induced a change of the coordination geometry to octahedral. As a consequence, the ruthenium centers, separated through space by more than 10 Å, become electronically coupled, which is evidenced by two distinctly different metal-centered oxidation processes that are separated by 134 mV (L4=[(bpy)2]; bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) and 244 mV (L4=[(MeCN)4]), respectively. Hush analysis of the intervalence charge-transfer bands in the mixed-valent species indicates substantial valence delocalization in both complexes (delocalization parameter ?=0.41 and 0.37 in the bpy and MeCN complexes, respectively). Spectroelectrochemical measurements further indicated that the mixed-valent Ru(II)/Ru(III) species and the fully oxidized Ru(III)/Ru(III) complexes gradually decompose when bound to MeCN ligands, whereas the bpy spectators significantly enhance the stability. These results demonstrate the efficiency of carbenes and, in particular, of the bbi ligand scaffold for mediating electron transfer and for the fabrication of molecular redox switches. Moreover, the relevance of spectator ligands is emphasized for tailoring the degree of electronic communication through the benzobis(carbene) linker. PMID:24218243

  2. A theobromine derived silver N-heterocyclic carbene: synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial efficacy studies on cystic fibrosis relevant pathogens†

    OpenAIRE

    Panzner, Matthew J.; Hindi, Khadijah M.; Wright, Brian D.; Taylor, Jane B.; Han, Daniel S.; Youngs, Wiley J.; Cannon, Carolyn L.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pulmonary infections in the cystic fibrosis (CF) population has prompted the investigation of innovative silver based therapeutics. The functionalization of the naturally occurring xanthine theobromine at the N1 nitrogen atom with an ethanol substituent followed by the methylation of the N9 nitrogen atom gives the N-heterocyclic carbene precursor 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,7,9-trimethylxanthinium iodide. The reaction of this xanthinium salt with...

  3. N-Heterocyclic carbene–palladium(II-1-methylimidazole complex catalyzed Mizoroki–Heck reaction of aryl chlorides with styrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Gao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene–palladium(II-1-methylimidazole [NHC-Pd(II-Im] complex 1 was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki–Heck reaction of a variety of aryl chlorides with styrenes. Both activated and deactivated aryl chlorides work well to give the corresponding coupling products in good to excellent yields by using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB as the ionic liquid.

  4. Spherical core-shell magnetic particles constructed by main-chain palladium N-heterocyclic carbenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huaixia; Li, Liuyi; Wang, Jinyun; Wang, Ruihu

    2015-02-01

    The encapsulation of the functional species on magnetic core is a facile approach for the synthesis of core-shell magnetic materials, and surface encapsulating matrices play crucial roles in regulating their properties and applications. In this study, two core-shell palladium N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) particles (Fe3O4@PNP1 and Fe3O4@PNP2) were prepared by a one-pot reaction of semi-rigid tripodal imidazolium salts and palladium acetate in the presence of magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite nanoparticles are encapsulated inside the main-chain palladium, which act as cores. The conjugated effects of triphenyltriazine and triphenylbenzene in the imidazolium salts have important influence on their physical properties and catalytic performances. Fe3O4@PNP2 shows better recyclability than Fe3O4@PNP1. Unexpectedly, Pd(ii) is well maintained after six consecutive catalytic runs in Fe3O4@PNP2, and Pd(0) and Pd(ii) coexist in Fe3O4@PNP1 under the same conditions; moreover, the morphologies of these spherical core-shell particles show no significant variation after six consecutive catalytic runs.The encapsulation of the functional species on magnetic core is a facile approach for the synthesis of core-shell magnetic materials, and surface encapsulating matrices play crucial roles in regulating their properties and applications. In this study, two core-shell palladium N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) particles (Fe3O4@PNP1 and Fe3O4@PNP2) were prepared by a one-pot reaction of semi-rigid tripodal imidazolium salts and palladium acetate in the presence of magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite nanoparticles are encapsulated inside the main-chain palladium, which act as cores. The conjugated effects of triphenyltriazine and triphenylbenzene in the imidazolium salts have important influence on their physical properties and catalytic performances. Fe3O4@PNP2 shows better recyclability than Fe3O4@PNP1. Unexpectedly, Pd(ii) is well maintained after six consecutive catalytic runs in Fe3O4@PNP2, and Pd(0) and Pd(ii) coexist in Fe3O4@PNP1 under the same conditions; moreover, the morphologies of these spherical core-shell particles show no significant variation after six consecutive catalytic runs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The additional SEM images, IR spectra, TG-MS curves, Solid state 13C NMR spectra, XPS spectra and XRD spectra of palladium NHC particles. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07330d

  5. Planar N-heterocyclic carbene diarylborenium ions: synthesis by cationic borylation and reactivity with Lewis bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Jeffrey M; Stephan, Douglas W

    2015-04-20

    The NHC-borane adduct (IBn)BH3 (1) (NHC= N-heterocyclic carbene; IBn=1,3-dibenzylimidazol-2ylidene) reacts with [Ph3 C][B(C6 F5 )4 ] through sequential hydride abstraction and dehydrogenative cationic borylation(s) to give singly or doubly ring closed NHC-borenium salts 2 and 3. The planar doubly ring closed product [C3 H2 (NCH2 C6 H4 )2 B][B(C6 F5 )4 ] is resistant to quaternization at boron by Et2 O coordination, but forms classical Lewis acid-base adducts with the stronger donors Ph3 P, Et3 PO, or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO). Treatment of 3 with tBu3 P selectively yields the unusual oligomeric borenium salt trans-[(C3 H2 (NCH2 C6 H4 )2 B)2 (C3 H2 (NCHC6 H4 )2 B)][B(C6 F5 )4 ] (7). PMID:25756464

  6. Mechanistic Investigation of the Ruthenium–N-Heterocyclic-Carbene-Catalyzed Amidation of Alcohols and Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Ilya; Fristrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of the ruthenium–N-heterocyclic-carbene-catalyzed formation of amides from alcohols and amines was investigated by experimental techniques (Hammett studies, kinetic isotope effects) and by a computational study by using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT/ M06). The Hammett study indicated that a small positive charge builds-up at the benzylic position in the transition state of the turnover-limiting step. The kinetic isotope effect was determined to be 2.29ACHTUNGTRENUNG(!0.15), which suggests that the breakage of the C"H bond is not the rate-limiting step, but that it is one of several slow steps in the catalytic cycle. Rapid scrambling of hydrogen and deuterium at the a position of the alcohol was observed with deuterium-labeled substrates, which implies that the catalytically active species is a ruthenium dihydride. The experimental results were supported by the characterization of a plausible catalytic cycle by using DFT/M06. Both cisdihydride and trans-dihydride intermediates were considered, but when the theoretical turnover frequencies (TOFs) were derived directly from the calculated DFT/M06 energies, we found that only the trans-dihydride pathway was in agreement with the experimentally determined TOFs.

  7. Lipophilicity-dependent ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Gaochao; Guo, Liubin; Qiu, Ling; Yang, Hui; Wang, Tengfei; Liu, Hong; Lin, Jianguo

    2015-04-28

    Five Ru(II)-N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) (1-5) were synthesized by reacting the appropriately substituted imidazolium chlorides with Ag2O, forming the NHC-silver chloride in situ followed by transmetalation with dimeric p-cymene ruthenium(II) dichloride. All the complexes were characterized by NMR and ESI-MS, and complex 1 was also characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The IC50 values of these five complexes were determined by the MTT-based assay on four human cancer cell lines, SKOV-3 (ovarian), PC-3 (prostate), MDA-MB-231 (breast) and EC109 (esophagus). The cytotoxicities of these complexes changed from a moderate effect to a fine one, corresponding to the increasing lipophilicity order of the complex of 2 Complex 5 showed the most cytotoxicity with the IC50 values 10.3 ± 0.3 ?M for SKOV-3, 2.9 ± 0.1 ?M for PC-3, 8.2 ± 0.6 ?M for MDA-MB-231, 6.4 ± 0.2 ?M for EC109 cell lines. Due to the superior cytotoxicity of complex 5 against the PC-3 cell lines, further biological evaluations were carried out to elucidate its action mechanism. The morphologic changes and cell cycle analysis showed that complex 5 can inhibit PC-3 cell lines by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. The DNA binding experiments further demonstrate that complex 5 has a better binding ability for DNA (Kb = 2.2 × 10(6) M(-1)) than complexes 1-4 (3.8 × 10(5), 7.0 × 10(5), 5.7 × 10(5), and 1.9 × 10(5) respectively). PMID:25797411

  8. Iridium(III) Hydrido N-Heterocyclic Carbene–Phosphine Complexes as Catalysts in Magnetization Transfer Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The hyperpolarization (HP) method signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) uses para-hydrogen to sensitize substrate detection by NMR. The catalyst systems [Ir(H)2(IMes)(MeCN)2(R)]BF4 and [Ir(H)2(IMes)(py)2(R)]BF4 [py = pyridine; R = PCy3 or PPh3; IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene], which contain both an electron-donating N-heterocyclic carbene and a phosphine, are used here to catalyze SABRE. They react with acetonitrile and pyridine to produce [Ir(H)2(NCMe)(py)(IMes)(PPh3)]BF4 and [Ir(H)2(NCMe)(py)(IMes)(PCy3)]BF4, complexes that undergo ligand exchange on a time scale commensurate with observation of the SABRE effect, which is illustrated here by the observation of both pyridine and acetonitrile HP. In this study, the required symmetry breaking that underpins SABRE is provided for by the use of chemical inequivalence rather than the previously reported magnetic inequivalence. As a consequence, we show that the ligand sphere of the polarization transfer catalyst itself becomes hyperpolarized and hence that the high-sensitivity detection of a number of reaction intermediates is possible. These species include [Ir(H)2(NCMe)(py)(IMes)(PPh3)]BF4, [Ir(H)2(MeOH)(py)(IMes)(PPh3)]BF4, and [Ir(H)2(NCMe)(py)2(PPh3)]BF4. Studies are also described that employ the deuterium-labeled substrates CD3CN and C5D5N, and the labeled ligands P(C6D5)3 and IMes-d22, to demonstrate that dramatically improved levels of HP can be achieved as a consequence of reducing proton dilution and hence polarization wastage. By a combination of these studies with experiments in which the magnetic field experienced by the sample at the point of polarization transfer is varied, confirmation of the resonance assignments is achieved. Furthermore, when [Ir(H)2(pyridine-h5)(pyridine-d5)(IMes)(PPh3)]BF4 is examined, its hydride ligand signals are shown to become visible through para-hydrogen-induced polarization rather than SABRE. PMID:24215616

  9. A cationic rhodium(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complex isolated as an aqua adduct

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley L. Huttenstine; Edward Rajaseelan; Oliver, Allen G; Rood, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    The title complex, aqua­[1,3-bis­(2,6-diiso­propyl­phen­yl)imid­az­ol-2-yl­idene](?4-cyclo­octa-1,5-diene)rhodium(I) tetra­fluor­ido­borate, [Rh(C8H12)(C27H36N2)(H2O)]BF4, exihibits a square-planar geometry around the Rh(I) atom, formed by a bidentate cyclo­octa-1,5-diene (cod) ligand, an N-heterocylcic carbene and an aqua ligand. The complex is cationic and a BF4 ? anion balances the charge. The structure exists as a hydrogen-bonded dimer in the solid state, formed via inte...

  10. A theobromine derived silver N-heterocyclic carbene: synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial efficacy studies on cystic fibrosis relevant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzner, Matthew J; Hindi, Khadijah M; Wright, Brian D; Taylor, Jane B; Han, Daniel S; Youngs, Wiley J; Cannon, Carolyn L

    2009-09-21

    The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pulmonary infections in the cystic fibrosis (CF) population has prompted the investigation of innovative silver based therapeutics. The functionalization of the naturally occurring xanthine theobromine at the N(1) nitrogen atom with an ethanol substituent followed by the methylation of the N(9) nitrogen atom gives the N-heterocyclic carbene precursor 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,7,9-trimethylxanthinium iodide. The reaction of this xanthinium salt with silver acetate produces the highly hydrophilic silver carbene complex SCC8. The in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of this newly synthesized complex was evaluated with excellent results on a variety of virulent and MDR pathogens isolated from CF patients. A comparative in vivo study between the known caffeine derived silver carbene SCC1 and SCC8 demonstrated the ability of both complexes to improve the survival rates of mice in a pneumonia model utilizing the clinically isolated infectious strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA M57-15. PMID:20449175

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Di- and Tetracarbene Iron(II) Complexes with Chelating N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands and Their Application in Aryl Grignard–Alkyl Halide Cross-Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Steffen; Orben, Claudia Manuela; Demeshko, Serhiy; Dechert, Sebastian; Meyer, Franc

    2011-01-01

    A series of new and known bis(imidazolium) chloride and bromide salts bridged by either a methylene group (1?8, 10a,b) or an ethylene group (9a,b) and bearing different N substituents (Me, Et, Bn, tBu, Mes) have been reacted with [Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2]2 to yield the four-coordinate iron(II) complexes [LFeX2] (11?20; X = Cl, Br; L = chelating bis(imidazolylidene) ligand). Molecular structures of six of these complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, and ...

  12. Synthesis from caffeine of a mixed N-heterocyclic carbene-silver acetate complex active against resistant respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascatan-Nebioglu, Aysegul; Melaiye, Abdulkareem; Hindi, Khadijah; Durmus, Semih; Panzner, Matthew J; Hogue, Lisa A; Mallett, Rebekah J; Hovis, Christine E; Coughenour, Marvin; Crosby, Seth D; Milsted, Amy; Ely, Daniel L; Tessier, Claire A; Cannon, Carolyn L; Youngs, Wiley J

    2006-11-16

    The bis(N-heterocyclic carbene) (NHC) silver complex, 3, with a methyl carbonate anion was formed from the reaction of the iodide salt of methylated caffeine, 1, with silver (I) oxide in methanol. Attempts to crystallize this complex from a mixture of common alcohols and ethyl acetate led to the formation of an NHC-silver acetate complex, 4. The more direct synthesis of 4 was accomplished by the in-situ deprotonation of 1 by silver acetate in methanol. Complex 4 demonstrated antimicrobial activity against numerous resistant respiratory pathogens from the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients including members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex that cause a high rate of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Application of this NHC silver complex to primary cultures of murine respiratory epithelial cells followed by microarray analysis showed minimal gene expression changes at the concentrations effective against respiratory pathogens. Furthermore, methylated caffeine without silver showed some antibacterial and antifungal activity. PMID:17154511

  13. An efficient N-heterocyclic carbene-ruthenium complex: application towards the synthesis of polyesters and polyamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malineni, Jagadeesh; Keul, Helmut; Möller, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The ruthenium benzimidazolylidene-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex 4 catalyzes the direct dehydrogenative condensation of primary alcohols into esters and primary alcohols in the presence of amines to the corresponding amides in high yields. This efficient new catalytic system shows a high selectivity towards the conversion of diols to polyesters and of a mixture of diols and diamines to polyamides. The only side product formed in this reaction is molecular hydrogen. Remarkable is the conversion of hydroxytelechelic polytetrahydrofuran (M¯n = 1000 g mol(-1) )-a polydispers starting material-into a hydrolytically degradable polyether with ester linkages (M¯n = 32 600 g mol(-1) ) and, in the presence of aliphatic diamines, into a polyether with amide linkages in the back bone (M¯n = 16 000 g mol(-1) ). PMID:25653190

  14. Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Selective Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by a Nickel N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Isoquinoline Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoi, VanSara; Kornienko, Nick; Margarit, C; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Christopher

    2013-06-07

    The solar-driven reduction of carbon dioxide to value-added chemical fuels is a longstanding challenge in the fields of catalysis, energy science, and green chemistry. In order to develop effective CO2 fixation, several key considerations must be balanced, including (1) catalyst selectivity for promoting CO2 reduction over competing hydrogen generation from proton reduction, (2) visible-light harvesting that matches the solar spectrum, and (3) the use of cheap and earth-abundant catalytic components. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new family of earth-abundant nickel complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene amine ligands that exhibit high selectivity and activity for the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CO. Systematic changes in the carbene and amine donors of the ligand have been surveyed, and [Ni(Prbimiq1)]2+ (1c, where Prbimiq1 = bis(3-(imidazolyl)isoquinolinyl)propane) emerges as a catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 with the lowest cathodic onset potential (Ecat = 1.2 V vs SCE). Using this earth-abundant catalyst with Ir(ppy)3 (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and an electron donor, we have developed a visible-light photoredox system for the catalytic conversion of CO2 to CO that proceeds with high selectivity and activity and achieves turnover numbers and turnover frequencies reaching 98,000 and 3.9 s1, respectively. Further studies reveal that the overall efficiency of this solar-to-fuel cycle may be limited by the formation of the active Ni catalyst and/or the chemical reduction of CO2 to CO at the reduced nickel center and provide a starting point for improved photoredox systems for sustainable carbon-neutral energy conversion.

  15. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Oxidative Annulations of ?,?-Unsaturated Aldehydes with Hydrazones: Selective Synthesis of Optically Active 4,5-Dihydropyridazin-3-ones and Pyridazin-3-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian-Hui; Wang, Zi-Tian; Wang, Zhan-Yong; Cheng, Ying

    2015-06-19

    A novel and efficient method for the highly enantioselective synthesis of chiral 4,5-dihydropyridazin-3-one derivatives has been developed based on the chiral N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed oxidative annulation between ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes and hydrazones. Meanwhile, the selective synthesis of either 4,5-dihydropyridazin-3-ones or pyridazin-3-one derivatives from the same reactants has been achieved by simply varying catalytic and reaction conditions. PMID:26019007

  16. Macrophage and colon tumor cells as targets for a binuclear silver(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complex, an anti-inflammatory and apoptosis mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Adnan; Umar, Muhammad Ihtisham; Haque, Rosenani A; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini Bin; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Chronic inflammation intensifies the risk for malignant neoplasm, indicating that curbing inflammation could be a valid strategy to prevent or cure cancer. Cancer and inflammation are inter-related diseases and many anti-inflammatory agents are also used in chemotherapy. Earlier, we have reported a series of novel ligands and respective binuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) with potential anticancer activity. In the present study, a newly synthesized salt (II) and respective Ag(I)-NHC complex (III) of comparable molecular framework were prepared for a further detailed study. Preliminarily, II and III were screened against HCT-116 and PC-3 cells, wherein III showed better results than II. Both the compounds showed negligible toxicity against normal CCD-18Co cells. In FAM-FLICA caspase assay, III remarkably induced caspase-3/7 in HCT-116 cells most probably by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) independent intrinsic pathway and significantly inhibited in vitro synthesis of cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and TNF-? in human macrophages (U937 cells). In a cell-free system, both the compounds inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, with III being more selective towards COX-2. The results revealed that III has strong antiproliferative property selectively against colorectal tumor cells which could be attributed to its pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory abilities. PMID:25699476

  17. Reactivity of coordinatively unsaturated bis(N-heterocyclic carbene) Pt(II) complexes toward H(2). Crystal structure of a 14-electron Pt(II) hydride complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivada-Wheelaghan, Orestes; Roselló-Merino, Marta; Ortuño, Manuel A; Vidossich, Pietro; Gutiérrez-Puebla, Enrique; Lledós, Agustí; Conejero, Salvador

    2014-04-21

    The reactivity toward H2 of coordinatively unsaturated Pt(II) complexes, stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands, is herein analyzed. The cationic platinum complexes [Pt(NHC')(NHC)](+) (where NHC' stands for a cyclometalated NHC ligand) react very fast with H2 at room temperature, leading to hydrogenolysis of the Pt-CH2 bond and concomitant formation of hydride derivatives [PtH(NHC)2](+) or hydrido-dihydrogen complexes [PtH(H2)(NHC)2](+). The latter species release H2 when these compounds are subjected to vacuum. The X-ray structure of complex [PtH(IPr)2][SbF6] revealed its unsaturated nature, exhibiting a true T-shaped structure without stabilization by agostic interactions. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the binding and reaction of H2 in complexes [PtH(H2)(NHC)2](+) is more favored for derivatives bearing aryl-substituted NHCs (IPr, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene and IMes = 1,3-dimesityl-1,3-dihydro-2H-imidazol-2-ylidene) than for those containing tert-butyl groups (I(t)Bu). This outcome is related to the higher close-range steric effects of the I(t)Bu ligands. Accordingly, H/D exchange reactions between hydrides [PtH(NHC)2](+) and D2 take place considerably faster for IPr and IMes* derivatives than for I(t)Bu ones. The reaction mechanisms for both H2 addition and H/D exchange processes depend on the nature of the NHC ligand, operating through oxidative addition transition states in the case of IPr and IMes* or by a ?-complex assisted-metathesis mechanism in the case of I(t)Bu. PMID:24716606

  18. From the N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Alcohols to the Controlled Polymerization of (Meth)acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottou, Winnie Nzahou; Bourichon, Damien; Vignolle, Joan; Wirotius, Anne-Laure; Robert, Fredéric; Landais, Yannick; Sotiropoulos, Jean-Marc; Miqueu, Karinne; Taton, Daniel

    2015-06-22

    Among various N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) tested, only 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (NHC(tBu) ) proved to selectively promote the catalytic conjugate addition of alcohols onto (meth)acrylate substrates. This rather rare example of NHC-catalyzed 1,4-addition of alcohols was investigated as a simple means to trigger the polymerization of both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate (MMA and MA, respectively). Well-defined ?-alkoxy poly(methyl (meth)acrylate) (PM(M)A) chains, the molar masses of which could be controlled by the initial [(meth)acrylate]0 /[ROH]0 molar ratio, were ultimately obtained in N,N-dimethylformamide at 25?°C. A hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-OH) macro-initiator was also employed to directly access PEO-b-PMMA amphiphilic block copolymers. Investigations into the reaction mechanism by DFT calculations revealed the occurrence of two competitive concerted pathways, involving either the activation of the alcohol or that of the monomer by NHC(tBu) . PMID:26013759

  19. Spectroscopic and electrochemical correlations in triangular ruthenium clusters containing N-heterocyclic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of clusters of general formula [Ru sub(3) O (OOCCH sub(3)) sub(6) L sub(3)] sup(+), where L = N-heterocyclic ligands, were synthesized and characterized based on elemental analysis. UV-VIS and IR spectra. Voltametric studies revealed the existence of up to six acessible oxidation states, with a high degree of electronic delocalization. The Ru sub(3) O trigonal center possesses many delocalized electrons and can be visualized as a source of electrons. The ligands coordinated to the clusters tune their redox potentials, determine the differences in their electronic spectra, and are responsible for the special conditions required for their synthesis. (author)

  20. Calix[4]arenes with one and two N-linked imidazolium units as precursors of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. Coordination chemistry and use in Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Eric; Matt, Dominique; Henrion, Mickaël; Teci, Matthieu; Toupet, Loïc

    2011-10-14

    The calix[4]arene-imidazolium salts 5-(3-butyl-1-imidazolylium)-25,26,27,28-tetrabenzyloxy-calix[4]arene bromide (cone) (2), and 5,11-bis(3-alkyl-1-imidazolylium)-25,26,27,28-tetrabenzyloxycalix[4]arene diiodide (cone) (R = methyl, 3a; R = n-butyl, 3b) have been synthesised. Reaction of 2 in dioxane with PdCl(2) in the presence of CsCO(3) and KBr (80 °C, 24 h) gives the carbene complex trans-[PdBr(2)(calix-monocarbene)(2)] (14), containing two N-heterocyclic carbene ligands derived from 2 (yield: 63%). Repeating the reaction in pyridine instead of dioxane gives the mixed pyridine-carbene complex trans-[PdBr(2)(calix-carbene)(pyridine)] (15) in 75% yield. Treatment of the bis-imidazolium salt 3a with [Pd(OAc)(2)] affords a chelate complex, trans-[PdI(2){calix-bis(carbene)}] (16), in which a metallo-(bis-carbene) fragment caps the upper rim of the calixarene basket. Complex 16, as well as its analogue 17, obtained from 3b, display apparent C(s)-symmetry in solution. This is not the case in the solid state, a single X-ray diffraction study carried out for 16 revealing a pinced cone structure for the calixarene skeleton, which reduces the symmetry to C(1). The chelate complex 17 shows poor activity in Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of phenyl boronic acid and p-tolyl halides, an observation that suggests the presence of a strained metallocyclic unit preventing easy stereochemical rearrangement to an active species. Unlike 17, complexes 14 and 15 show good activities in cross-coupling. A comparative study using the carbene precursor 1-butyl-3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolium bromide (18), which is devoid of the receptor fragment, strongly suggests that the carbene ligands of 14 and 15 operate typically as bulky NHC-ligands. PMID:21879086

  1. Water-soluble IrIII N-heterocyclic carbene based catalysts for the reduction of CO2 to formate by transfer hydrogenation and the deuteration of aryl amines in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azua, Arturo; Sanz, Sergio; Peris, Eduardo

    2011-03-28

    Two new water-soluble [IrI(2)(AcO)(bis-NHC)] complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) incorporating a sulfonate functionality have been synthesized. The two complexes have been tested in the reduction of CO(2) with H(2) and iPrOH, and their activity has been compared with similar species without the sulfonate moiety. In both reactions, the complex with the two abnormally bound NHCs shows the best catalytic efficiencies, due to the higher ?-electron-donor character of the ligand. Remarkably, the activities obtained for the reduction of CO(2) under the transfer hydrogenation conditions are the best reported to date in terms of TON value (max. TON=2700). The two new complexes have also shown very good activity in the selective deuteration of arylamines, a process that is known to proceed through a chelate assisted N-directed process. PMID:21365699

  2. Highly efficient deep-blue emitters based on cis and trans N-heterocyclic carbene Pt(II) acetylide complexes: synthesis, photophysical properties, and mechanistic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhen; Blacque, Olivier; Venkatesan, Koushik

    2013-11-11

    We have synthesized cis and trans N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) platinum(II) complexes bearing ?-alkynyl ancillary ligands, namely [Pt(dbim)2 (C?CR)2 ] [DBIM=N,N'-didodecylbenzimidazoline-2-ylidene; R=C6 H4 F (4), C6 H5 (5), C6 H2 (OMe)3 (6), C4 H3 S (7), and C6 H4 C?CC6 H5 (8)] and [Pt(ibim)2 (C?CC6 H5 )2 ] (9) (ibim=N,N'-diisopropylbenzimidazoline-2-ylidene), starting from [Pt(cod)(C?CR)2 ] (COD=cyclooctadiene) and 2?equivalents of [dbimH]Br ([ibimH]Br for complexes 9) in the presence of tBuOK and THF. Mechanistic investigations aimed at uncovering the cis to trans isomerization reaction have been performed on the representative cis complex 5?a [Pt(dbim)2 (C?CC6 H5 )2 ] and revealed the isomerization to progress smoothly in good yield when 5?a was treated with catalytic amounts of [Pt(cod)(C?CR)2 ] at 75?°C in THF or when 5?a was heated at 200?°C in the solid state under an inert atmosphere. Detailed examination of the reactions points to the possible involvement, in a catalytic fashion, of a solvent-stabilized Pt(II) dialkyne complex in the former case and a Pt(0) NHC complex in the latter case, for the transformation of the cis isomer to the corresponding trans complex. Thermal stability and the isomerization process in the solid state have been further investigated on the basis of TGA and DSC measurements. X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out to confirm the solid-state structures of 4?b, 5?a, 5?b, and 9?b. All of the synthesized dialkyne complexes 4-9 exhibit phosphorescence in solution, in the solid state at room temperature (RT), and also in frozen solvent glasses at 77?K. The emission wavelengths and quantum yields have been found to be highly tunable as a function of the alkynyl ligand. In particular, the trans isomer of complex 9 in a spin-coated film (10?wt?% in poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA) exhibits a high phosphorescence quantum yield of 80?%, which is the highest reported for Pt(II) -based deep-blue emitters. Experimental observations and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations are strongly indicative of the emission being mainly governed by metal-perturbed interligand ((3) IL) charge transfer. PMID:24108420

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic studies and reactivity of triphenylphosphine ruthenium (II) complexes with N-heterocyclic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reported is the chemistry of triphenylphosphine ruthenium (II) complexes of general formula RuCl2(PPh3)2L2 and RuCl2(PPh3)2A, obtained from the reaction of RuCl2(PPh3)3 with N-heterocyclic ligands L, or A (of ambidentate nature). The electronic spectra exhibit two strong metal-to-ligand charge-transfer bands, ascribed to the b1(dxz)->b1(pi) and a2(dxy)->a2(pi) transitions, and a third, weak band ascribed to the b2(dyz)->a2(pi) transition. The electronic states and the vibrational modes of the complexes were characterized by means of their resonance Raman and infrared absorption spectra. Thermogravimetric and thermodifferential analysis indicated that the melting process is succeeded by an exothermic reaction, and that the weigh loss starts to occur only after this step. The complexes dissociated in CHCl3 solution, showing preferential labilization of the phosphine ligands, as in the case of the hydrogenation catalyst Ru(PPh3)3Cl2. In the presence of CO, RuCl2(CO)2L2 complexes were gennerated. Several derivatives were isolated and characterized. (author)

  4. Synthesis of the first radiolabeled 188Re N-heterocyclic carbene complex and initial studies on its potential use in radiopharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Thomas; Zeglis, Brian M; Groveman, Sam; Hille, Claudia; Pöthig, Alexander; Francesconi, Lynn C; Herrmann, Wolfgang A; Kühn, Fritz E; Reiner, Thomas

    2014-06-15

    A novel approach towards the synthesis of radiolabeled organometallic rhenium complexes is presented. We successfully synthesized and analyzed the first (188)Re-labeled N-heterocyclic biscarbene complex, trans-dioxobis(1,1'-methylene-bis(3,3'-diisopropylimidazolium-2-ylidene))(188)rhenium(V) hexafluorophosphate ((188)Re-4) via transmetalation using an air-stable and moisture-stable silver(I) biscarbene complex. In order to assess the viability of this complex as a potential lead structure for in vivo applications, the stability of the (188)Re-NHC complex was tested in physiologically relevant media. Ultimately, our studies illustrate that the complex we synthesized dissociates rapidly and is therefore unsuitable for use in radiopharmaceuticals. However, it is clear that the transmetalation approach we have developed is a rapid, robust, and mild method for the synthesis of new (188)Re-labeled carbene complexes. PMID:24889257

  5. Redox noninnocence of carbene ligands: carbene radicals in (catalytic) C-C bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, Wojciech I; Zhang, X Peter; de Bruin, Bas

    2011-10-17

    In this Forum contribution, we highlight the radical-type reactivities of one-electron-reduced Fischer-type carbenes. Carbene complexes of group 6 transition metals (Cr, Mo, and W) can be relatively easily reduced by an external reducing agent, leading to one-electron reduction of the carbene ligand moiety. This leads to the formation of "carbene-radical" ligands, showing typical radical-type reactivities. Fischer-type carbene ligands are thus clearly redox-active and can behave as so-called "redox noninnocent ligands". The "redox noninnocence" of Fischer-type carbene ligands is most clearly illustrated at group 9 transition metals in the oxidation state II+ (Co(II), Rh(II), and Ir(II)). In such carbene complexes, the metal effectively reduces the carbene ligand by one electron in an intramolecular redox process. As a result, the thus formed "carbene radicals" undergo a variety of radical-type C-C and C-H bond formations. The redox noninnocence of Fischer-type carbene ligands is not just a chemical curiosity but, in fact, plays an essential role in catalytic cyclopropanation reactions by cobalt(II) porphyrins. This has led to the successful development of new chiral cobalt(II) porphyrins as highly effective catalysts for asymmetric cyclopropanation with unprecedented reactivity and stereocontrol. The redox noninnocence of the carbene intermediates results in the formation of carbene-radical ligands with nucleophilic character, which explains their effectiveness in the cyclopropanation of electron-deficient olefins and their reduced tendency to mediate carbene dimerization. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first example in which the redox noninnocence of a reacting ligand plays a key role in a catalytic organometallic reaction. This Forum contribution ends with an outlook on further potential applications of one-electron-activated Fischer-type carbenes in new catalytic reactions. PMID:21520926

  6. Mixed N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Bis(oxazolinyl)borato Rhodium and Iridium Complexes in Photochemical and Thermal Oxidative Addition Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songchen [Ames Laboratory; Manna, Kuntal [Ames Laboratory; Ellern, Arkady [Ames Laboratory; Sadow, Aaron D [Ames Laboratory

    2014-12-08

    In order to facilitate oxidative addition chemistry of fac-coordinated rhodium(I) and iridium(I) compounds, carbene–bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborate proligands have been synthesized and reacted with organometallic precursors. Two proligands, PhB(OxMe2)2(ImtBuH) (H[1]; OxMe2 = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline; ImtBuH = 1-tert-butylimidazole) and PhB(OxMe2)2(ImMesH) (H[2]; ImMesH = 1-mesitylimidazole), are deprotonated with potassium benzyl to generate K[1] and K[2], and these potassium compounds serve as reagents for the synthesis of a series of rhodium and iridium complexes. Cyclooctadiene and dicarbonyl compounds {PhB(OxMe2)2ImtBu}Rh(?4-C8H12) (3), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(?4-C8H12) (4), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(CO)2 (5), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(?4-C8H12) (6), and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(CO)2 (7) are synthesized along with ToMM(?4-C8H12) (M = Rh (8); M = Ir (9); ToM = tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate). The spectroscopic and structural properties and reactivity of this series of compounds show electronic and steric effects of substituents on the imidazole (tert-butyl vs mesityl), effects of replacing an oxazoline in ToM with a carbene donor, and the influence of the donor ligand (CO vs C8H12). The reactions of K[2] and [M(?-Cl)(?2-C8H14)2]2 (M = Rh, Ir) provide {?4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes?CH2}Rh(?-H)(?-Cl)Rh(?2-C8H14)2 (10) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(?3-C8H13) (11). In the former compound, a spontaneous oxidative addition of a mesityl ortho-methyl to give a mixed-valent dirhodium species is observed, while the iridium compound forms a monometallic allyl hydride. Photochemical reactions of dicarbonyl compounds 5 and 7 result in C–H bond oxidative addition providing the compounds {?4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes?CH2}RhH(CO) (12) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(Ph)CO (13). In 12, oxidative addition results in cyclometalation of the mesityl ortho-methyl similar to 10, whereas the iridium compound reacts with the benzene solvent to give a rare crystallographically characterized cis-[Ir](H)(Ph) complex. Alternatively, the rhodium carbonyl 5 or iridium isocyanide {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(CO)CNtBu (15) reacts with PhSiH3 in the dark to form the silyl compound {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}RhH(SiH2Ph)CO (14) or {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(SiH2Ph)CNtBu (17). These examples demonstrate the enhanced thermal reactivity of {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}-supported iridium and rhodium carbonyl compounds in comparison to tris(oxazolinyl)borate, tris(pyrazolyl)borate, and cyclopentadienyl-supported compounds.

  7. Stabilities of Immonium Ions Derived from N-Heterocyclic Carbenes Probed by Collision-Induced Dissociation Mass Spectrometry.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polyakova, Svetlana; Kunetskiy, Roman Alexejevi?; Schröder, Detlef

    -, ?. 20 (2012), s. 3852-3862. ISSN 1434-193X Grant ostatní: European Research Council(XE) AdG HORIZOMS Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : carbenes * cations * collision-induced dissociation * density functional calculations * electrospray ionization * lipophilic cations * mass spectrometry * phase-transfer catalysis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.344, year: 2012

  8. Removing the sting from the tail: reversible protonation of scorpionate ligands in cobalt(II) tris(carbene)borate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Ryan E; Bontchev, Ranko P; Duesler, Eileen N; Smith, Jeremy M

    2006-11-27

    Low-temperature deprotonation of the phenylborane dications, PhB(RIm)3OTf2 (R = tBu, Mes), followed by in situ reaction with CoCl2(thf)1.5, results in the formation of the four-coordinate complexes, kappa3-PhB(RIm)3CoCl, in which the metal is supported by tripodal N-heterocyclic carbene-based ligands. The chloride complexes are exceptionally sensitive to acid and can be reversibly protonated to form the zwitterions kappa2-{PhB(RIm)2(RIm.H)}CoCl2. This unexpected reactivity is attributed to the highly basic nature of the tris(carbene)borate ligands. Reaction of the chloride complexes with methylating reagents results in products that depend on the N-heterocyclic carbene substituent. For R = tBu, the four-coordinate high-spin complex, kappa3-PhB(tBuIm)3CoMe, is formed, while for R = Mes, reduction to a multitude of complexes occurs. PMID:17112274

  9. Injection, transport, absorption and phosphorescence properties of a series of platinum (II) complexes with N-heterocyclic carbenes: a DFT and time-dependent DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leijiao; Liu, Xiaojuan; Feng, Jing; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2014-10-01

    The ground and excited states, charge injection/transport, and phosphorescence properties of five N?heterocyclic carbine-functionalized Pt(II) complexes were investigated by using the DFT method. By analyzing the nonradiative (k nr) rate constant and energies at [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] states, it is possible to forecast that BC5 with the pyrrole ligand has a higher phosphorescence quantum yield than any of the other four complexes. Thus, we consider that BC5 will be an efficient phosphorescent material that has balanced electron/hole-transport performance as well as high phosphorescence quantum yield. The calculated results indicate that, for the studied complexes, the nature of the ligand strongly affected the energy of the emissive state and was able to tune the emission color. We hope that our study will aid better understanding of the structure-property relationship of phosphorescent Pt (II) complexes and provide constructive information for designing novel and highly efficient OLED materials in the future. PMID:25227448

  10. Organocatalytic conjugate-addition polymerization of linear and cyclic acrylic monomers by N-heterocyclic carbenes: mechanisms of chain initiation, propagation, and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuetao; Schmitt, Meghan; Falivene, Laura; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2013-11-27

    This contribution presents a full account of experimental and theoretical/computational investigations into the mechanisms of chain initiation, propagation, and termination of the recently discovered N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-mediated organocatalytic conjugate-addition polymerization of acrylic monomers. The current study specifically focuses on three commonly used NHCs of vastly different nucleophilicity, 1,3-di-tert-butylimidazolin-2-ylidene (I(t)Bu), 1,3-dimesitylimidazolin-2-ylidene (IMes), and 1,3,4-triphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene (TPT), and two representative acrylic monomers, the linear methyl methacrylate (MMA) and its cyclic analog, biomass-derived renewable ?-methyl-?-methylene-?-butyrolactone (MMBL). For MMA, there exhibits an exquisite selectivity of the NHC structure for the three types of reactions it promotes: enamine formation (single-monomer addition) by IMes, dimerization (tail-to-tail) by TPT, and polymerization by I(t)Bu. For MMBL, all three NHCs promote no dimerization but polymerization, with the polymerization activity being highly sensitive to the NHC structure and the solvent polarity. Thus, I(t)Bu is the most active catalyst of the series and converts quantitatively 1000-3000 equiv of MMBL in 1 min or 10,000 equiv in 5 min at room temperature to MMBL-based bioplastics with a narrow range of molecular weights of M(n) = 70-85 kg/mol, regardless of the [MMBL]/[I(t)Bu] ratio employed. The I(t)Bu-catalyzed MMBL polymerization reaches an exceptionally high turnover frequency up to 122 s(-1) and a high initiator efficiency value up to 1600%. Unique chain-termination mechanisms have been revealed, accounting for the production of relative high-molecular-weight linear polymers and the catalytic nature of this NHC-mediated conjugate-addition polymerization. Computational studies have provided mechanistic insights into reactivity and selectivity between two competing pathways for each NHC-monomer zwitterionic adduct, namely enamine formation/dimerization through proton transfer vs polymerization through conjugate addition, and mapped out extensive energy profiles for chain initiation, propagation, and termination steps, thereby satisfactorily explaining the experimental observations. PMID:24245532

  11. What can NMR spectroscopy of selenoureas and phosphinidenes teach us about the ?-accepting abilities of N-heterocyclic carbenes?

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.

    2015-01-02

    The electronic nature of the interaction of NHCs with metal centres is of interest when exploring their properties, how these properties influence those of metal complexes, and how these properties might depend on ligand structure. Selenourea and phosphinidene complexes have been proposed to allow the measurement of the ?-accepting ability of NHCs, independent of their ?-donating ability, via the collection of 77Se or 31P NMR spectra, respectively. Herein, the synthesis and characterisation of selenoureas derived from a range of imidazol-2-ylidenes, 4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidenes and triazol-2-ylidenes are documented. Computational studies are used to explore the link between the shielding of the selenium centre and the electronic properties of the NHCs. Results show that ?Se is correlated to the energy gap between a filled lone pair orbital on Se and the empty ?* orbital corresponding to the Se–NHC bond. Bond energy decomposition analysis indicated no correlation between the orbital ?-contribution to bonding and the chemical shielding, while a good correlation was found between the ?-contribution to bonding and the chemical shielding, confirming that this technique is indeed able to quantify the ability of NHCs to accept ?-electron density. Calculations conducted on phosphinidene adducts yielded similar results. With the link between ?Se and ?P and ?-back bonding ability clearly established, these compounds represent useful ways in which to fully understand and quantify this aspect of the electronic properties of NHCs.

  12. Axial ligand exchange of N-heterocyclic cobalt(III) Schiff base complexes: molecular structure and NMR solution dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manus, Lisa M; Holbrook, Robert J; Atesin, Tulay A; Heffern, Marie C; Harney, Allison S; Eckermann, Amanda L; Meade, Thomas J

    2013-01-18

    The kinetic and thermodynamic ligand exchange dynamics are important considerations in the rational design of metal-based therapeutics and therefore, require detailed investigation. Co(III) Schiff base complex derivatives of bis(acetylacetone)ethylenediimine [acacen] have been found to be potent enzyme and transcription factor inhibitors. These complexes undergo solution exchange of labile axial ligands. Upon dissociation, Co(III) irreversibly interacts with specific histidine residues of a protein, and consequently alters structure and causes inhibition. To guide the rational design of next generation agents, understanding the mechanism and dynamics of the ligand exchange process is essential. To investigate the lability, pH stability, and axial ligand exchange of these complexes in the absence of proteins, the pD- and temperature-dependent axial ligand substitution dynamics of a series of N-heterocyclic [Co(acacen)(X)(2)](+) complexes [where X = 2-methylimidazole (2MeIm), 4-methylimidazole (4MeIm), ammine (NH(3)), N-methylimidazole (NMeIm), and pyridine (Py)] were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The pD stability was shown to be closely related to the nature of the axial ligand with the following trend toward aquation: 2MeIm > NH(3) ? 4MeIm > Py > Im > NMeIm. Reaction of each [Co(III)(acacen)(X)(2)](+) derivative with 4MeIm showed formation of a mixed ligand Co(III) intermediate via a dissociative ligand exchange mechanism. The stability of the mixed ligand adduct was directly correlated to the pD-dependent stability of the starting Co(III) Schiff base with respect to [Co(acacen)(4MeIm)(2)](+). Crystal structure analysis of the [Co(acacen)(X)(2)](+) derivatives confirmed the trends in stability observed by NMR spectroscopy. Bond distances between the Co(III) and the axial nitrogen atoms were longest in the 2MeIm derivative as a result of distortion in the planar tetradentate ligand, and this was directly correlated to axial ligand lability and propensity toward exchange. PMID:23282130

  13. Two 2D metal-organic frameworks based on N-heterocyclic and polycarboxylates ligands: Syntheses, structures, and photoluminescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Li, Chuanbi; Zhu, Dongsheng

    2013-02-01

    Two novel complexes constructed from aromatic acid and N-heterocyclic ligands have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction: {[Mn(dipt)(BDC)3?H2O]n (1) [dipt = 2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, BDC = terephthalic acid] and [Pb(dnpt)(BDC)2]n (2) [dnpt = 2-(4-nitrophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline]. Complexes 1 and 2 were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, single crystal X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results suggest that complexes 1-2 exhibit 1D chain structure. The intermolecular C-H⋯O and N-H⋯O interactions extend the complexes into 2D networks, and the existing H-bonds further stabilized the title complexes, which can be proved by TGA experiment. Furthermore, the solid-state fluorescence spectrum of complexes 1 and 2 were also investigated, as well as the ligands dipt and dnpt.

  14. Dinuclear gold(I) complexes with propylene bridged N-heterocyclic dicarbene ligands: synthesis, structures, and trends in reactivities and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaro, Cristina; Baron, Marco; Costante, Michele; Basato, Marino; Biffis, Andrea; Gennaro, Armando; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Graiff, Claudia; Accorsi, Gianluca

    2013-08-14

    Four novel dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complexes with a propylene linker between the carbene moieties have been synthesized and their luminescence and electrochemical properties, together with their reactivity towards bromine oxidative addition, have been screened. All the complexes emit in the solid state in the blue-green spectral range (400-500 nm) with appreciable intensities (?(em) up to ?10%). In cyclic voltammetry, the Au(I)/Au(0) peak splits at low temperature into two separate peaks relative to the couples Au(I)-Au(I)/Au(I)-Au(0) and Au(I)-Au(0)/Au(0)-Au(0), thus indicating the presence of an Au···Au interaction in the dinuclear complex. Oxidative addition of bromine affords as a major or unique product Au(II)-Au(II) complexes most likely as a consequence of the interaction between the two gold centres favoured by the propylene linker. PMID:23788178

  15. Thiophene decorated with Fischer carbene ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Jaarsveld, Nina A.; Liles, David C.; Lotz, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The activation of a section, or of all the carbons of thiophene by bromine in lithium–halogen exchange reactions, was implemented in a step-wise manner to facilitate the preparation of novel multiple Fischer carbene-bearing thiophene compounds.

  16. Axial Ligand Exchange of N-heterocyclic Cobalt(III) Schiff Base Complexes: Molecular Structure and NMR Solution Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Manus, Lisa M.; Holbrook, Robert J.; Atesin, Tulay A.; Heffern, Marie C.; Harney, Allison S.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic and thermodynamic ligand exchange dynamics are important considerations in the rational design of metal-based therapeutics and therefore, require detailed investigation. Co(III) Schiff base complex derivatives of bis(acetylacetone) ethylenediimine [acacen] have been found to be potent enzyme and transcription factor inhibitors. These complexes undergo solution exchange of labile axial ligands. Upon dissociation, Co(III) irreversibly interacts with specific histidine residues of a ...

  17. ?-Hydroxy coordination of mononuclear vanadyl citrate, malate and S-citramalate with N-heterocycle ligand, implying a new protonation pathway of iron-vanadium cofactor in nitrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Can-Yu; Chen, Mao-Long; Chen, Hong-Bin; Wang, Hongxin; Cramer, Stephen P; Zhou, Zhao-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Unlike the most of ?-alkoxy coordination in ?-hydroxycarboxylates to vanadium, novel ?-hydroxy coordination to vanadium(IV) has been observed for a series of chiral and achiral monomeric ?-hydroxycarboxylato vanadyl complexes [VO(H2cit)(bpy)]·2H2O (1), [VO(Hmal)(bpy)]·H2O (2), [VO(H2cit)(phen)]·1.5H2O (3), [VO(Hmal)(phen)]·H2O (4), and [(?)VO(S-Hcitmal)(bpy)]·2H2O (5), [VO(H2cit)(phen)]2·6.5H2O (6), which were isolated from the reactions of vanadyl sulfate with ?-hydroxycarboxylates and N-heterocycle ligands in acidic solution. The complexes feature a tridentate citrate, malate or citramalate that chelates to vanadium atom through their ?-hydroxy, ?-carboxy and ?-carboxy groups; while the other ?-carboxylic acidic group of citrate is free to participate strong hydrogen bonds with lattice water molecule. The neutral ?-hydroxy group also forms strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds with water molecule and the negatively-charged ?-carboxy group in the environment. The inclusion of a hydrogen ion in ?-alkoxy group results in the formation of a series of neutral complexes with one less positive charge. There are two different configurations of citrate with respect to the trans-position of axial oxo group, where the complex with trans-hydroxy configuration seems more stable with less hindrance. The average bond distances of V-Ohydroxy and V-O?-carboxy are 2.196 and 2.003Å respectively, which are comparable to the VO distance (2.15Å) of homocitrate in FeV-cofactor of V-nitrogenase. A new structural model is suggested for R-homocitrato iron vanadium cofactor as VFe7S9C(R-Hhomocit) (H4homocit=homocitric acid) with one more proton in homocitrate ligand. PMID:25240212

  18. Directional properties of fluorenylidene moieties in unsymmetrically substituted N-heterocyclic carbenes. Unexpected CH activation of a methylfluorenyl group with palladium. Use in palladium catalysed Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling of aryl chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teci, Matthieu; Brenner, Eric; Matt, Dominique; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Toupet, Loïc

    2014-08-28

    Benzimidazolium salts having their two nitrogen atoms substituted by different 9-alkylfluorenyl groups ( and , alkyl(1)/alkyl(2) = Me/Et, Me/Pr, Me/n-Bu, Me/i-Pr, Me/Bn, Me/CH2SMe have been synthesised in high yields in two or three steps from N,N'-bis(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)benzene-1,2-diamine (). The imidazolium salts were converted readily into the corresponding PEPPSI-type palladium complexes (PEPPSI = pyridine-enhanced precatalyst preparation stabilisation and initiation), while reaction of the methylthioether-substituted salt with PdCl2/K2CO3/pyridine afforded the palladacycle resulting from metallation of the methyl group attached to the fluorenylidene moiety. NMR and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the carbene ligands in behave as clamp-like ligands, the resulting metal confinement arising from a combination of the orientational properties of the fluorenylidene moieties that push the alkyl groups towards the metal centre and attractive anagostic interactions involving CH2(fluorenyl) groups. Complexes were assessed in Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions. Like their symmetrical analogues they displayed high activity in the coupling of phenyl boronic acid with p-tolylchloride but their performance remained slightly inferior to that of the related, symmetrical Et/Et complex . PMID:24927082

  19. Carbene-metal hydrides can be much less acidic than phosphine-metal hydrides: significance in hydrogenations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ye; Fan, Yubo; Burgess, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Acidities of iridium hydride intermediates were shown to be critical in some transformations mediated by the chiral analogues of Crabtree's catalyst, 1-3. To do this, several experiments were undertaken to investigate the acidities of hydrogenation mixtures formed using these iridium-oxazoline complexes. DFT calculations indicated that the acidity difference for Ir-H intermediates in these hydrogenations were astounding; iridium hydride from the N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst 1 was calculated to be around seven pK(a) units less acidic than those from the P-based complexes 2 and 3. Consistent with this, the carbene complex 1 was shown to be more effective for hydrogenations of acid-sensitive substrates. In deuteration experiments, less "abnormal" deuteration was observed, corresponding to fewer complications from acid-mediated alkene isomerization preceding the D(2)-addition step. Finally, simple tests with pH indicators provided visual evidence that phosphine-based catalyst precursors give significantly more acidic reaction mixtures than the corresponding N-heterocyclic carbene ones. These observations indicate carbene-for-phosphine (and similar) ligand substitutions may impact the outcome of catalytic reactions by modifying the acidities of the metal hydrides formed. PMID:20377250

  20. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Ag-N-Hetero-cyclic Carbene Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?lknur Özdemir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of imidazolidinium ligand precursors are metallated with Ag2O to give silver(I N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. All compounds were fully characterized by elemental analyses, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and IR spectroscopy techniques. All compounds studied in this work were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against the standard strains: Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 and the fungi Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The new imidazolidin-2-ylidene silver complexes have been found to display effective antimicrobial activity against a series of bacteria and fungi.

  1. Cationic iridium(III) complexes with two carbene-based cyclometalating ligands: cis versus trans isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Filippo; La Placa, Maria Grazia I; Armaroli, Nicola; Scopelliti, Rosario; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Kessler, Florian

    2015-03-16

    A series of cationic iridium(III) complexes with two carbene-based cyclometalating ligands and five different N^N bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline ancillary ligands is presented. For the first time--in the frame of a rarely studied class of bis(heteroleptic) iridium complexes with two carbene-based cyclometalating ligands--a pair of cis and trans isomers has been isolated. All complexes (trans-1-5 and cis-3) were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (31)P NMR, and HRMS (ESI-TOF); in addition, crystal structures of cis-3 and trans-4 are reported and discussed. Cyclic voltammetric studies show that the whole series exhibits highly reversible oxidation and reduction processes, suggesting promising potential for optoelectronic applications. Ground-state DFT and TD-DFT calculations nicely predict the blue shift experimentally observed in the room-temperature absorption and emission spectra of cis-3, compared to the trans complexes. In CH3CN, cis-3 displays a 4-fold increase in photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) with respect to trans-3, as a consequence of drastically slower nonradiative rate constant. By contrast, at 77 K, the emission properties of all the compounds, including the cis isomer, are much more similar, with a pronounced hypsochromic shift for the trans complexes. A similar behavior is found in solid state (1% w/w poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix), with all complexes displaying PLQY of ?70-80%, comparable emission lifetimes (? ? 1.3 ?s), and a remarkable rigidochromic shift. To rationalize the more pronounced nonradiative deactivation (and smaller PLQY) observed for photoexcited trans complexes, comparative temperature-dependent emission studies in the range of 77-450 K for cis-3 and trans-3 were made in propylene glycol, showing that solvation effects are primarily responsible for the observed behavior. PMID:25741900

  2. Dearomatization Reactions of N-Heterocycles Mediated by Group 3 Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Kevin L; Williams, Bryan N; Benitez, Diego; Carver, Colin T; Ogilby, Kevin R; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Goddard, William A; Diaconescu, Paula L

    2010-01-01

    Group 3 (Sc, Y, Lu, La) benzyl complexes supported by a ferrocene diamide ligand are reactive toward aromatic N-heterocycles by mediating their coupling and, in a few cases, the cleavage of their C?N bonds. When these complexes reacted with 2,2?-bipyridine or isoquinoline, they facilitated the alkyl migration of the benzyl ligand onto the pyridine ring, a process accompanied by the dearomatization of the N-heterocycle. The products of the alkyl-transfer reactions act as hydrogen donors in the presence of aromatic N-heterocycles, ketones, and azobenzene. Experimental and computational studies suggest that the hydrogen transfer takes place through a concerted mechanism. An interesting disproportionation reaction of the dearomatized, alkyl-substituted isoquinoline complexes is also reported.

  3. Stereoselectively fluorinated N-heterocycles: a brief survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Guo Hu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The stereoselective incorporation of fluorine atoms into N-heterocycles can lead to dramatic changes in the molecules’ physical and chemical properties. These changes can be rationally exploited for the benefit of diverse fields such as medicinal chemistry and organocatalysis. This brief review will examine some of the effects that fluorine substitution can have in N-heterocycles, including changes to the molecules’ stability, their conformational behaviour, their hydrogen bonding ability, and their basicity. Finally, some methods for the synthesis of stereoselectively fluorinated N-heterocycles will also be reviewed.

  4. Palladium(ii) complexes with electron-poor, 4,5-disubstituted diimidazol-2-ylidene ligands: synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Piermaria; Biffis, Andrea; Tubaro, Cristina; Tenne, Mario; Kaliner, Maria; Strassner, Thomas

    2015-05-28

    Diimidazolium salts featuring different bridges between the imidazolium groups, as well as electron-withdrawing groups (chloride, cyanide) at the 4- and 5-position of the heterocyclic rings, have been successfully prepared. The diimidazolium salts serve as convenient precursors of di(N-heterocyclic carbene) ligands, which coordinate in a chelating fashion to palladium(ii) centres. The effect of the newly introduced electron-withdrawing groups on the spectroscopic and structural characteristics of the resulting complexes as well as on their reactivity as catalysts in a model alkyne hydroarylation reaction has been investigated and is discussed herein. PMID:25911982

  5. Ru(II) , Os(II) , and Ir(III) Complexes with Chelating Pyridyl-Mesoionic Carbene Ligands: Structural Characterization and Applications in Transfer Hydrogenation Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolje, Aljoša; Hohloch, Stephan; van der Meer, Margarethe; Košmrlj, Janez; Sarkar, Biprajit

    2015-04-27

    Chelating ligands with one pyridine donor and one mesoionic carbene donor are fast establishing themselves as privileged ligands in homogeneous catalysis. The synthesis of several new Ir(III) -Cp*- and Os(II) -Cym complexes (Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, Cym=p-cymene=4-isopropyl-toluene) derived from chelating pyridyltriazolylidenes where the additional pyridine donor was incorporated via the azide part of the triazole is presented. Furthermore, different 4-substituted phenylacetylene building blocks have been used to introduce electronic fine-tuning in the ligands. The ligands thus can be generally described as 4-(4-R-phenyl)-3-methyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (with R being H (L(1) ), Me (L(2) ), OMe (L(3) ), CN (L(4) ), CF3 (L(5) ), Br (L(6) ) or NO2 (L(7) )). The corresponding complexes (Ir-1 to Ir-7 and Os-1 to Os-7) were characterized by standard spectroscopic methods, and the expected three-legged, piano-stool type coordination was unambiguously confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis of selected compounds. Together with Ru(II) analogues previously reported by us, a total of 21 complexes were tested as (pre)catalysts for the transfer hydrogenation of carbonyl groups, showing a remarkable reactivity even at very low catalyst loadings. The electronic effects of the ligands as well as different substrates were investigated. Some mechanistic elucidations are also presented. PMID:25752929

  6. The ketimide ligand is not just an inert spectator: heteroallene insertion reactivity of an actinide-ketimide linkage in a thorium carbene amide ketimide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Erli; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Liddle, Stephen T

    2014-08-25

    The ketimide anion R2C=N(-) is an important class of chemically robust ligand that binds strongly to metal ions and is considered ideal for supporting reactive metal fragments due to its inert spectator nature; this contrasts with R2N(-) amides that exhibit a wide range of reactivities. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a rare example of an actinide ketimide complex [Th(BIPM(TMS)){N(SiMe3)2}(N=CPh2)] [2, BIPM(TMS)=C(PPh2NSiMe3)2]. Complex 2 contains Th=C(carbene), Th-N(amide) and Th-N(ketimide) linkages, thereby presenting the opportunity to probe the preferential reactivity of these linkages. Importantly, reactivity studies of 2 with unsaturated substrates shows that insertion reactions occur preferentially at the Th-N(ketimide) bond rather than at the Th=C(carbene) or Th-N(amide) bonds. This overturns the established view that metal-ketimide linkages are purely inert spectators. PMID:25044515

  7. Ruthenium Nitrosyl Complexes with N-Heterocyclic Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Simone da S. S.; Davanzo, Celso U.; Castellano, Eduardo E.; Z-Schpector, Julio; Silva, Sebastião C.; Franco, Douglas W.

    1998-06-01

    A new route was developed for preparing a series of trans nitrosyl complexes of general formula trans-[Ru(NH(3))(4)L(NO)](BF(4))(3), where L = imidazole, L-histidine, pyridine, or nicotinamide. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance measurements, UV-visible, infrared, proton nuclear magnetic, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies, and electrochemical techniques. The compounds possess relatively high nu(NO) stretching frequencies indicating that a high degree of positive charge resides on the coordinated nitrosyl group. The nitrosyl complexes react with OH(-) according to the equation trans-[Ru(NH(3))(4)L(NO)](3+) + 2OH(-) right arrow over left arrow trans-[Ru(NH(3))(4)L(NO(2))](+) + H(2)O, with a K(eq) (at 25.0 degrees C in 1.0 mol/L NaCl) of 2.2 x 10(5), 5.9 x 10(7), 9.7 x 10(10), and 4.6 x 10(13) L(2) mol(-)(2) for the py, nic, imN, and L-hist complexes, respectively. Only one redox process attributed to the reaction [Ru(II)(NH(3))(4)L(NO(+))](3+) + e(-) right arrow over left arrow trans-[Ru(II)(NH(3))(4)L(NO(0))](2+) was observed in the range -0.45 to 1.20 V for all the nitrosyl complexes. Linear correlations are observed in plots of nu(NO) versus E(1/2) and of E(1/2) versus summation operatorE(L) showing that the oxidizing strength of the coordinated NO increases with increase in L pi-acidity. The crystal structure analysis of trans-[Ru(NH(3))(4)nicNO](2)(SiF(6))(3) shows that the mean Ru-N-O angle is very close to 180 degrees (177 +/- 1 degrees ) and the mean N-O distance is 1.17 +/- 0.02 Å, thus confirming the presence of the Ru(II)-NO(+) moiety in the nitrosyl complexes studied. PMID:11670402

  8. [Au(dien)(N-heterocycle)](3+): reactivity with biomolecules and zinc finger peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spell, Sarah R; Farrell, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of [Au(dien)(N-heterocycle)](3+) (AuN4) coordination compounds with simple amino acids and zinc finger proteins is reported. Compared to [AuCl(dien)](2+), NMR studies show that the presence of a more substitution-inert N-donor as the putative leaving group slows the reaction with the sulfur-containing amino acids N-acetylmethionine (NAcMet) and N-acetylcysteine (NAcCys). Lack of ligand dissociation upon reaction with NAcCys indicates, to our knowledge, the first long-lived N-heterocycle-Au-S species in solution. Reactions with zinc finger proteins show a higher reactivity with the Cys3His zinc finger than with Cys2His2, likely due to the presence of fewer aurophilic cysteines in the latter. Of the Au(III) compounds studied, [Au(dien)(DMAP)](3+) (DMAP = 4-dimethylaminopyridine) appears to be the least reactive, with ESI-MS studies showing the presence of intact zinc fingers at initial reaction times. These results, in combination with previously reported characterization and pH dependency studies, will further aid in optimizing the structure of these AuN4 species to obtain a substitution-reactive yet selective compound for targeting zinc finger proteins. PMID:25531886

  9. A large perturbation on electronic and photophysical properties of Ir(III) carbene complexes caused by the variation of N-substitution in N,N?-heteroaromatic ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqi; Si, Yanling; Wang, Ying; Wu, Zhijian

    2014-08-01

    DFT/TDDFT investigation was performed on the electronic and photophysical properties of blue-emitting Ir(III) carbene complexes (fpmi)3-xIr(N^N?)x (x = 1, 2) [fpmi = 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methylimidazolin-2-ylidene-C,C2?, N^N? = 2-(1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridinato (1a(x = 1)/1a?(x = 2)); 2-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)pyridinato (1b/1b?); 2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyridinato (1c/1c?); 2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)pyridinato (2a/2a?); 2-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)pyridinato (2b/2b?); 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridinato (2c/2c?)]. The absorption intensities and band positions are obviously affected by the variation of N substitution in N^N? ligand. The emission properties show an apparent dependence on the solvent effects, and the N^N? ligand plays an important role in governing the emissive state. The pyrazolyl-pyridyl-based N^N? ligand is considered to be more beneficial for blue OLEDs emitters.

  10. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of benzyl chloride promoted by Rh-N-heterocyclic carbene catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Guillermo; Polo, Víctor; Fernández-Alvarez, Francisco J; García-Orduña, Pilar; Lahoz, Fernando J; Iglesias, Manuel; Pérez-Torrente, Jesús J; Oro, Luis A

    2015-02-01

    The rhodium(I) complexes [Rh(Cl)(COD)(R-NHC-(CH2 )3 Si(OiPr)3 )] [COD=cyclooctadiene; R=2,6-diisopropylphenyl (1?a); n-butyl (1?b)] are effective catalyst precursors for the homogeneous hydrodechlorination of benzyl chloride using HSiEt3 as hydrogen source. This reaction is selective to the formation of toluene. However, in presence of a stoichiometric amount of potassium tert-butoxide (KtBuO) the formation of mixtures containing toluene together with 17-19?mol?% of the C--C homocoupling product, namely PhCH2 CH2 Ph, is observed. A mechanism proposal based on experimental insights and theoretical calculations at the DFT level that allows explanation of the experimental findings is included. Moreover, the heterogeneous catalytic system based on catalyst 1?a supported on MCM-41 has been demonstrated to be effective for the solvent-free hydrodechlorination of benzyl chloride using HSiEt3 and HSiMe(OSiMe3 )2 . PMID:25504980

  11. Oxidative N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed stereoselective annulation of simple aldehydes and 5-alkenyl thiazolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Yang, Yuhong; Wang, Mei; Lai, Luhao; Guo, Yarong; Wang, Rui

    2015-05-11

    A highly diastereoselective annulation of simple aldehydes and 5-alkenyl thiazolones, via oxidative NHC catalysis has been developed. This strategy provides facile access to a diverse library of functionalized chiral thiazolo pyrones. Aerobic oxygen can also be applied as a secondary oxidant to avoid the use of stoichiometric organic or inorganic oxidants. PMID:25872611

  12. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes in other Transition Metal Mediated Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Tracy D.; Williams, Jonathan M. J.

    This chapter describes reactions involving NHC-transition metal complexes that have not been considered in previous chapters. The reactions are treated in six sections, presenting borrowing hydrogen reactions where C-C and C-N bonds are formed from alcohols in the first section. Then dehydration reactions either with or without coupling are discussed. The dynamic kinetic resolution of alcohols using a combination of NHC-TM catalysed racemisation coupled with enzyme-catalysed resolution is described. The next section considers the emerging area of dehydrogenation reactions, followed by a section discussing the isomerisation of alkene-containing substrates. The final section details hydrogen/deuterium exchange reactions within aryl and alkyl substrates.

  13. Ruthenium(II) Complexes Containing Lutidine-Derived Pincer CNC Ligands: Synthesis, Structure, and Catalytic Hydrogenation of C?N bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Juárez, Martín; López-Serrano, Joaquín; Lara, Patricia; Morales-Cerón, Judith P; Vaquero, Mónica; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Salazar, Verónica; Suárez, Andrés

    2015-05-11

    A series of Ru complexes containing lutidine-derived pincer CNC ligands have been prepared by transmetalation with the corresponding silver-carbene derivatives. Characterization of these derivatives shows both mer and fac coordination of the CNC ligands depending on the wingtips of the N-heterocyclic carbene fragments. In the presence of tBuOK, the Ru-CNC complexes are active in the hydrogenation of a series of imines. In addition, these complexes catalyze the reversible hydrogenation of phenantridine. Detailed NMR spectroscopic studies have shown the capability of the CNC ligand to be deprotonated and get involved in ligand-assisted activation of dihydrogen. More interestingly, upon deprotonation, the Ru-CNC complex 5?e(BF4 ) is able to add aldimines to the metal-ligand framework to yield an amido complex. Finally, investigation of the mechanism of the hydrogenation of imines has been carried out by means of DFT calculations. The calculated mechanism involves outer-sphere stepwise hydrogen transfer to the C?N bond assisted either by the pincer ligand or a second coordinated H2 molecule. PMID:25820229

  14. A Brief Survey of our Contribution to Stable Carbene Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, David; Melaimi, Mohand; Soleilhavoup, Michele; Bertrand, Guy

    2011-01-01

    This personal account summarizes our work, beginning with the discovery of the first stable carbene in 1988 up until the recent isolation of mesoionic carbenes. It explains why we have moved our focus from acyclic to cyclic carbenes, and shows that these stable species are not limited to the role of ligand for transition metals, but that they are also powerful agents for the activation of small molecules, and for the stabilization of highly reactive diamagnetic and paramagnetic species.

  15. Dihydrogen activation by frustrated carbene-borane Lewis pairs: an experimental and theoretical study of carbene variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronig, Sabrina; Theuergarten, Eileen; Holschumacher, Dirk; Bannenberg, Thomas; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    A variety of Lewis acid-base pairs consisting of tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, B(C(6)F(5))(3), in combination with sterically demanding five- and six-membered N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) of the imidazolin-2-ylidene, imidazolidin-2-ylidene, and tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene types were investigated with respect to their potential to act as frustrated Lewis pairs (FLP) by reaction with dihydrogen (H(2)) and tetrahydrofuran (THF). A sufficient degree of "frustration" was usually established by introduction of a 1,3-di-tert-butyl or 1,3-diadamantyl carbene substitution pattern, which allows an unquenched acid-base reactivity and thus leads to heterolytic dihydrogen activation and ring-opening of THF. In contrast, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-substituted carbenes showed ambiguous behavior, and the corresponding five-membered imidazolin-2-ylidene formed a stable carbene-B(C(6)F(5))(3) adduct, whereas fast C-F activation and formation of a zwitterionic pyrimidinium-fluoroborate was observed for the six-membered tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene. A stable adduct was also isolated for the combination of the acyclic carbene bis(diisopropylamino)methylene with B(C(6)F(5))(3), and consequently no reactivity toward H(2) and THF was observed. To rationalize the reactivity of the carbene-borane Lewis pairs, the thermodynamics of adduct formation with B(C(6)F(5))(3) were calculated for 10 different carbenes; the stability (or instability) of these adducts can be used as a good measure of the degree of "frustration". PMID:21718018

  16. A diruthenium ?-carbido complex that shows singlet-carbene-like reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Shin; Ohata, Jun; Umetani, Kento; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Matsuzaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-12

    Low-temperature deprotonation of the cationic ?-methylidyne complex [(Cp*Ru)2(?-NPh)(?-CH)][BF4] (Cp* = ?(5)-C5Me5) with KN(SiMe3)2 affords a thermally unstable ?-carbido complex [(Cp*Ru)2(?-NPh)(?-C)] (2), as evidenced by trapping experiments with elemental S or Se and (13)C NMR spectroscopic observation. The reactivity of 2 toward CO2, Ph2S(+)CH2(-), EtOH, and an intramolecular C-H bond indicates that the ?-carbido carbon in 2 has an ambiphilic (nucleophilic and electrophilic) nature consistent with the formulation of 2 as the first example of a transition-metal-substituted singlet carbene. DFT study suggests that the Ru substituents in 2 are stronger ?-donor and weaker ?-donor to the carbene center than amino substituents in N-heterocyclic carbenes. PMID:25365114

  17. (C^C*) Cyclometalated binuclear N-heterocyclic biscarbene platinum(II) complexes--highly emissive phosphorescent emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronnier, Alexander; Strassner, Thomas

    2013-07-21

    A series of bimetallic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) platinum(II) complexes with the general formula [Pt(NHC)(L)]2Ph were synthesized, which are composed of two [Pt(NHC)(L)] (L = acetylacetone, dipivaloylmethane or dimesitoylmethane; NHC = 3-methylimidazole or 3-benzylimidazole) fragments. Both fragments are cyclometalated to the same central phenyl ring in the para- or meta-position. All complexes have been fully characterized by standard techniques, two of them additionally by solid-state structures. Photoluminescence properties were investigated and very high quantum yields of 76-93% at room temperature have been observed. For a single-matrix device with an emitter concentration of 30%, a current efficiency of 25 cd A(-1), an external quantum efficiency of 8.5%, and a luminance efficiency of 10 lm W(-1) were achieved at 300 cd m(-2). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to support experimental data and gain further insight into the photoluminescence behaviour. PMID:23689316

  18. Enthalpies of ligand substitution for [Mo(?5C5H5)(CO)2(NO)] – The role of ?-bonding effects in metal–ligand bond strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Enthalpies of ligand substitution are measured for Mo(C5H5)(CO)2(NO). • Phosphines and N-heterocyclic carbenes are stronger ligands and displace CO. • Backbonding to ?? orbitals is an important part of complex stability. • FTIR studies show shifts to lower wavenumbers of ?-CO and ?-NO. • Structural studies show lengthening of the C-O and N-O bonds. - Abstract: Enthalpies of ligand substitution for [Mo(?5-C5H5)(CO)2(NO)] producing [Mo(?5-C5H5)Mo(CO)(L)(NO)] have been measured by solution calorimetry at 30 °C in THF for L = P(OMe)3 2 2Ph 3 (SIPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-bis(diisopropylphenyl)imidazolinylidene; IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-bis(diisopropylphenyl)-imidazol-2-ylidene)). The accepting metal fragment [Mo(?5-C5H5)(CO)(NO)] has a vacant site containing strongly ?-accepting carbonyl and nitrosyl ligands and this is shown to influence the stability of the product complex. Infrared studies of both ?CO and ?NO show that metal-to-ligand backbonding increases in the order P(OMe)3 3 5-C5H5)(CO)(IPr)(NO)] and [Mo(?5-C5H5)(CO)(SIPr)(NO)] are reported

  19. 'Carbene radicals' in Co(II)(por)-catalyzed olefin cyclopropanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, Wojciech I; Xu, Xue; Zhang, X Peter; Reek, Joost N H; de Bruin, Bas

    2010-08-11

    The mechanism of cobalt(II)-porphyrin-mediated cyclopropanation of olefins with diazoesters was studied. The first step--reaction of cobalt(II)-porphyrin with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA)--was examined using EPR and ESI-MS techniques. EDA reacts with cobalt(II)-porphyrin to form a 1:1 Co(por)(CHCOOEt) adduct that exists as two isomers: the 'bridging carbene' C' in which the 'carbene' is bound to the metal and the pyrrolic nitrogen of the porphyrin that has a d(7) configuration on the metal, and the 'terminal carbene' C in which the 'carbene' behaves as a redox noninnocent ligand having a d(6) cobalt center and the unpaired electron residing on the 'carbene' carbon atom. The subsequent reactivities of the thus formed 'cobalt carbene radical' with propene, styrene, and methyl acrylate were studied using DFT calculations. The calculations suggest that the formation of the carbene is the rate-limiting step for the unfunctionalized Co(II)(por) and that the cyclopropane ring formation proceeds via a stepwise radical process: Radical addition of the 'carbene radical' C to the C=C double bonds of the olefins results in formation of the gamma-alkyl radical intermediates D. Species D then easily collapse in almost barrierless ring-closure reactions (TS3) to form the cyclopropanes. This radical mechanism readily explains the high activity of Co(II)(por) species in the cyclopropanation of electron-deficient olefins such as methyl acrylate. PMID:20681723

  20. Steric Maps to Evaluate the Role of Steric Hindrance on the IPr NHC Ligand

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2013-06-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to predict and rationalize the effect of the modification of the structure of the prototype 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) (IPr) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand. The modification consists in the substitution of the methyl groups of ortho isopropyl substituent with phenyl groups, and here we plan to describe how such significant changes effect the metal environment and therefore the related catalytic behaviour by simple steric maps. Bearing in mind that there is a significant structural difference between IPr and IPr* ligands, that translated in different reactivity for several olefin metathesis reactions, here by means of DFT we characterize where the NHC ligand plays a more active role and where it is a simple spectator, or at least its modification does not significantly change its catalytic role/performance. Furthermore, this communication endeavours to modify further the skeleton of the IPr NHC ligand. The optimization of these bulky new systems go to the limits of the DFT computational method.

  1. N-Heterocyclic carbene–palladium catalysts for the direct arylation of pyrrole derivatives with aryl chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Özdemir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available New Pd–NHC complexes have been synthesized and employed for palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of pyrrole derivatives by using electron-deficient aryl chlorides as coupling partners. The desired coupling products were obtained in moderate to good yields by using 1 mol % of these air-stable palladium complexes. This is an advantage compared to the procedures employing air-sensitive phosphines, which have been previously shown to promote the coupling of aryl chlorides with heteroarenes.

  2. Dehydrogenative Coupling of Primary Alcohols To Form Esters Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØlvhØj, Amanda Birgitte; Madsen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] catalyzes the direct condensation of primary alcohols into esters and lactones with the release of hydrogen gas. The reaction is most effective with linear aliphatic alcohols and 1,4-diols and is believed to proceed with a ruthenium dihydride as the catalytically active species.

  3. A cationic zinc hydride cluster stabilized by an N-heterocyclic carbene: synthesis, reactivity, and hydrosilylation catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rit, Arnab; Zanardi, Alessandro; Spaniol, Thomas P; Maron, Laurent; Okuda, Jun

    2014-11-24

    The trinuclear cationic zinc hydride cluster [(IMes)3Zn3H4(THF)](BPh4)2 (1) was obtained either by protonation of the neutral zinc dihydride [(IMes)ZnH2]2 with a Brønsted acid or by addition of the putative zinc dication [(IMes)Zn(THF)](2+). A triply bridged thiophenolato complex 2 was formed upon oxidation of 1 with PhS-SPh. Protonolysis of 1 by methanol or water gave the corresponding trinuclear dicationic derivatives. At ambient temperature, 1 catalyzed the hydrosilylation of aldehydes, ketones, and nitriles. Carbon dioxide was also hydrosilylated under forcing conditions when using (EtO)3SiH, giving silylformate as the main product. PMID:25257989

  4. Pyrene-based bisazolium salts: from luminescence properties to janus-type bis-N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonell, Sergio; Poyatos, Macarena; Peris, Eduardo

    2014-07-28

    A series of pyrene-based bisazolium salts have been obtained starting from 4,5,9,10-tetrabromo-2,7-di-tert-butylpyrene. The synthetic procedure to the pyrene-bisazoliums (PBIs) reveals an unexpected behavior, as a consequence of the presence of the alkyl groups (alkyl=Me, Et, n-Pr, and n-Bu) coming from the trisalkoxyformate in the final products, instead of the expected tBu of tAmyl groups from the starting tetra-aminated pyrenes. All bisazoliums show fluorescence properties, with emissions in the range of 370-420?nm, and quantum yields ranging from 0.29 to 0.41. The PBIs were used as bis-NHC precursors in the preparation of a series of dirhodium and diiridium complexes, which have been fully characterized. The electrochemical studies on selected dimetallic complexes reveal that the electronic communication between the metals through the polyaromatic linker is negligible. PMID:24753109

  5. Cyclometallated platinum(II) complexes containing NHC ligands: synthesis, characterization, photophysics and their application as emitters in OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomatina, A I; Krupenya, D V; Gurzhiy, V V; Zlatkin, I; Pushkarev, A P; Bochkarev, M N; Besley, N A; Bichoutskaia, E; Tunik, S P

    2015-04-28

    A series of square planar [Pt(N^C)(NHC)L] complexes containing cyclometallated N^C ligands (phenylpyridine and benzoquinoline) and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)--N^C = 2-phenylpyridine, 7,8-benzoquinoline; NHC = 1,3-dibenzylbenzimidazolium, 1,3-diethylbenzimidazolium, 1,3-dibenzylimidazolium; L = Cl, Br, -C2Ph--have been synthesized in moderate to good yields. The complexes obtained were characterized using chemical analysis, MS-ESI spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The complexes display moderate to strong phosphorescence in solution (Q.Y. 0.3-7.9%) and in the solid state (Q.Y. 2.7-16.0%), which is related to metal modulated intraligand ?-?* transitions located at the aromatic system of cyclometallated ligands with some contribution of the MLCT excited state. Emission lifetimes fall in the range of 0.2-1.5 ?s in solution and amount up to 13 ?s in the solid state. Analysis of the spectroscopic data together with the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations clearly support this assignment and show negligible contribution of the auxiliary ligands to the emissive excited states. The compounds obtained were also used to prepare organic light emitting diode (OLED) devices, which display good luminance efficiency emitting in the green area of the visible spectrum. PMID:25482398

  6. The development of nitro-Mannich/hydroamination cascades for the synthesis of substituted N-heterocycles

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, David M.; Dixon, Darren J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of nitro-Mannich/hydroamination cascade reactions for the synthesis of N-heterocycles, which are important motifs found in a variety of biologically active natural products and pharmaceuticals, such as atorvastatin (Lipitor®). Chapter 2 outlines the development of an efficient synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted pyrroles using a nitro-Mannich/hydroamination cascade. Starting from easily prepared N-protected imines and nitroalkyne substrates, a compatible ...

  7. A heteroleptic ferrous complex with mesoionic bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene) ligands: taming the MLCT excited state of iron(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yizhu; Kjaer, Kasper S; Fredin, Lisa A; Chábera, Pavel; Harlang, Tobias; Canton, Sophie E; Lidin, Sven; Zhang, Jianxin; Lomoth, Reiner; Bergquist, Karl-Erik; Persson, Petter; Wärnmark, Kenneth; Sundström, Villy

    2015-02-23

    Strongly ?-donating N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have revived research interest in the catalytic chemistry of iron, and are now also starting to bring the photochemistry and photophysics of this abundant element into a new era. In this work, a heteroleptic Fe(II) complex (1) was synthesized based on sequentially furnishing the Fe(II) center with the benchmark 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) ligand and the more strongly ?-donating mesoionic ligand, 4,4'-bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene) (btz). Complex?1 was comprehensively characterized by electrochemistry, static and ultrafast spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations and compared to [Fe(bpy)3](PF6)2 and (TBA)2[Fe(bpy)(CN)4]. Heteroleptic complex?1 extends the absorption spectrum towards longer wavelengths compared to a previously synthesized homoleptic Fe(II) NHC complex. The combination of the mesoionic nature of btz and the heteroleptic structure effectively destabilizes the metal-centered (MC) states relative to the triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) state in 1, rendering it a lifetime of 13?ps, the longest to date of a photochemically stable Fe(II) complex. Deactivation of the (3)MLCT state is proposed to proceed via the (3)MC state that strongly couples with the singlet ground state. PMID:25504660

  8. A Heteroleptic Ferrous Complex with Mesoionic Bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene) Ligands: Taming the MLCT Excited State of Iron(II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yizhu; Kjær, Kasper Skov

    2015-01-01

    Strongly sigma-donating N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have revived research interest in the catalytic chemistry of iron, and are now also starting to bring the photochemistry and photophysics of this abundant element into a new era. In this work, a heteroleptic Fe-II complex (1) was synthesized based on sequentially furnishing the Fe-II center with the benchmark 2,2-bipyridine (bpy) ligand and the more strongly sigma-donating mesoionic ligand, 4,4-bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene) (btz). Complex1 was comprehensively characterized by electrochemistry, static and ultrafast spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations and compared to [Fe(bpy)(3)](PF6)(2) and (TBA)(2)[Fe(bpy)(CN)(4)]. Heteroleptic complex1 extends the absorption spectrum towards longer wavelengths compared to a previously synthesized homoleptic Fe-II NHC complex. The combination of the mesoionic nature of btz and the heteroleptic structure effectively destabilizes the metal-centered (MC) states relative to the triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((MLCT)-M-3) state in 1, rendering it a lifetime of 13ps, the longest to date of a photochemically stable Fe-II complex. Deactivation of the (MLCT)-M-3 state is proposed to proceed via the (MC)-M-3 state that strongly couples with the singlet ground state.

  9. Formation of quinones, indanones and furans by the reaction of molybdenum carbene complexes with alkynes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Alkoxy)carbene complexes of molybdenum react with terminal alkynes to give carbene annulation of cycloaddition products, the skeleton of which depends on the carbene substitution pattern and the alkyne used. (CO)5Mo=C(OMe)-p-tol undergoes carbene annulation upon reaction with trimethylsilylacetylene leading to naphthoquinone after oxidative work-up. Similar products are obtained from (CO)5Mo=C(OMe)2-furyl and hex-1-yne or oct-1-yne. The reaction of these alkynes results in the formation of indanones as five-membered annulation products. In the presence of 3.3-dimethylbut-1-yne the (phenyl) carbene ligands act as a C1-synthon, which is incorporated into the furan cycloaddition products

  10. Stabilization of Fully Reduced Iron–Sulfur Clusters by Carbene Ligation: The [FenSn]0 Oxidation Levels (n = 4, 8)

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Liang; Holm, R. H.

    2008-01-01

    The all-ferrous [Fe4S4]0 state has been demonstrated in the fully reduced Fe protein of the Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase complex. We seek synthetic analogues of this state more tractable than the recently prepared but highly unstable cluster [Fe4S4(CN)4]4? (Scott, Berlinguette, Holm, and Zhou, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2005, 102, 9741). The N-heterocyclic carbene 1,3-diisopropyl-4,5-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene (Pri2NHCMe2) has been found to stabilize the fully reduced clusters [Fe8...

  11. One-step synthesis of saturated spirocyclic N-heterocycles with stannyl amine protocol (SnAP) reagents and ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siau, Woon-Yew; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2014-12-24

    The combination of cyclic ketones and stannyl amine protocol (SnAP) reagents affords saturated, spirocyclic N-heterocycles under operationally simple reaction conditions. The resulting, N-unprotected spirocyclic amines are in great demand as scaffolds for drug discovery and development. The union of SnAP reagents and acyclic trifluoromethylketones yields ?-CF3 morpholines and piperazines. PMID:25482378

  12. Magnetic properties of 1:2 mixed cobalt(II) salicylaldehyde Schiff-base complexes with pyridine ligands carrying high-spin carbenes (Scar = 2/2, 4/2, 6/2, and 8/2) in dilute frozen solutions: role of organic spin in heterospin single-molecule magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Satoru; Nakano, Kimihiro; Yoshihara, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Noriko; Tanokashira, Jun-ichi; Yoshizaki, Takahito; Inagaki, Yuji; Koga, Noboru

    2014-06-01

    The 1:2 mixtures of Co(p-tolsal)2, p-tolsal = N-p-tolylsalicylideniminato, and diazo-pyridine ligands, DXpy; X = 1, 2, 3l, 3b, and 4, in MTHF solutions were irradiated at cryogenic temperature to form the corresponding 1:2 cobalt-carbene complexes Co(p-tolsal)2(CXpy)2, with Stotal = 5/2, 9/2, 13/2, 13/2, and 17/2, respectively. The resulting Co(p-tolsal)2(CXpy)2, X = 1, 2, 3l, 3b, and 4, showed magnetic behaviors characteristic of heterospin single-molecule magnets with effective activation barriers, Ueff/kB, of 40, 65, 73, 72, and 74 K, for reorientation of the magnetic moment and temperature-dependent hysteresis loops with a coercive force, Hc, of ?0, 6.2, 10, 6.5, and 9.0 kOe at 1.9 K, respectively. The relaxation times, ?Q, due to a quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) were estimated to be 1.6 s for Co(p-tolsal)2(C1py)2, ?2.0 × 10(3) s for Co(p-tolsal)2(C2py)2, and >10(5) s for Co(p-tolsal)2(CXpy)2; X = 3b, 3l, and 4. In heterospin complexes, organic spins, carbenes interacted with the cobalt ion to suppress the QTM pathway, and the ?Q value increased with increasing the Stotal values. PMID:24816331

  13. Rhodium-mediated stereoselective polymerization of "carbenes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetterscheid, Dennis G H; Hendriksen, Coen; Dzik, Wojciech I; Smits, Jan M M; van Eck, Ernst R H; Rowan, Alan E; Busico, Vincenzo; Vacatello, Michele; Van Axel Castelli, Valeria; Segre, Annalaura; Jellema, Erica; Bloemberg, Tom G; de Bruin, Bas

    2006-08-01

    Unprecedented rhodium-catalyzed stereoselective polymerization of "carbenes" from ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) to give high molecular mass poly(ethyl 2-ylidene-acetate) is described. The mononuclear, neutral [(N,O-ligand)M(I)(cod)] (M = Rh, Ir) catalytic precursors for this reaction are characterized by (among others) single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These species mediate formation of a new type of polymers from EDA: carbon-chain polymers functionalized with a polar substituent at each carbon of the polymer backbone. The polymers are obtained as white powders with surprisingly sharp NMR resonances. Solution and solid state NMR data for these new polymers reveal a highly stereoregular polymer, with a high degree of crystallinity. The polymer is likely syndiotactic. Material properties are very different from those of atactic poly(diethyl fumarate) polymer obtained by radical polymerization of diethyl fumarate. Other diazoacetates are also polymerized. Further studies are underway to reveal possible applications of these new materials. PMID:16866530

  14. Bespoke SnAP Reagents for the Synthesis of C-Substituted Spirocyclic and Bicyclic Saturated N-Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Kimberly; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2015-04-17

    The precise placement of C-substituents on bicyclic and spirocyclic N-heterocycles is readily achieved by the combination of aldehydes and new SnAP reagents. The substituted SnAP reagents are readily prepared from simple starting materials and couple with a variety of aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes at room temperature under operationally simple conditions to deliver substituted morpholine and piperazine products. PMID:25822736

  15. Metal-ligand cooperation on a diruthenium platform: selective imine formation through acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols with amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Biswajit; Rahaman, S M Wahidur; Daw, Prosenjit; Sengupta, Gargi; Bera, Jitendra K

    2014-05-19

    Metal-metal singly-bonded diruthenium complexes, bridged by naphthyridine-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands featuring a hydroxy appendage on the naphthyridine unit, are obtained in a single-pot reaction of [Ru2(CH3COO)2(CO)4] with 1-benzyl-3-(5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyrid-2-yl)imidazolium bromide (BIN?HBr) or 1-isopropyl-3-(5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyrid-2-yl)imidazolium bromide (PIN?HBr), TlBF4, and substituted benzaldehyde containing an electron-withdrawing group. The modified NHC-naphthyridine-hydroxy ligand spans the diruthenium unit in which the NHC carbon and hydroxy oxygen occupy the axial sites. All the synthesized compounds catalyze acceptorless dehydrogenation of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes in the presence of a catalytic amount of weak base 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO). Further, acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling (ADHC) of the alcohol with amines affords the corresponding imine as the sole product. The substrate scope is examined with 1 (BIN, p-nitrobenzaldehyde). A similar complex [Ru2(CO)4(CH3COO)(3-PhBIN)][Br], that is devoid of a hydroxy arm, is significantly less effective for the same reaction. Neutral complex 1?a, obtained by deprotonation of the hydroxy arm in 1, is found to be active for the ADHC of alcohols and amines under base-free conditions. A combination of control experiments, deuterium labeling, kinetic Hammett studies, and DFT calculations support metal-hydroxyl/hydroxide and metal-metal cooperation for alcohol activation and dehydrogenation. The bridging acetate plays a crucial role in allowing ?-hydride elimination to occur. The ligand architecture on the diruthenium core causes rapid aldehyde extrusion from the metal coordination sphere, which is responsible for exclusive imine formation. PMID:24715433

  16. Mineralization of polycyclic and n-heterocyclic aromatic compounds in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative mineralization of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds in five soils collected from an abandoned coal tar refinery in eastern Ohio was determined. The soils showed differences only in total extractable hydrocarbon content of the soil chemical characteristics measured. The compounds studied included five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, and carcinogenic benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene) and three N-heterocyclic aromatics (9H-carbazole, and carcinogenic 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and dibenz[a,j]acridine). Mineralization was measured by serum bottle radiorespirometry. Only phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and carbazole were mineralized in the soils after 64 d. Two of the soils with eight to 15 times the hexane -extractable hydrocarbon content consistently showed more rapid initial rates and higher overall extents of mineralization compared to the other three soils. Overall extents of mineralization ranged from 38 to 55% for phenanthrene, 10 to 60% for anthracene, 25 to 70% for pyrene, background to 40% for benz[a]anthracene, and 25 to 50% for carbazole after 64 d. Extents of mineralization by indigenous soil microbiota appear to be more dependent on the chemical characteristics of the soil and not soil total biomass and activity. Cultures capable of degrading phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene were obtained following enrichment techniques. A Mycobacterium sp. capable of degrading these three compoup. capable of degrading these three compounds was isolated and reintroduced into two of the soils, resulting in mineralization enhanced above that of the indigenous soil microbial population. These data indicate that the future success of bioremediation methods relies on the characterization of environmental parameters affecting microbial degradation as well as the isolation of microbial populations that can reduce toxicity in the environment

  17. Amino Group Functionalized N-Heterocyclic 1,2,4-Triazole-Derived Carbenes: Structural Diversity of Rhodium(I) Complexes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, J.; Panov, I.; Horá?ek, Michal; ?ernošek, Z.; Pad?lková, Z.; R?ži?ka, A.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 32, ?. 23 (2013), s. 7234-7240. ISSN 0276-7333 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : TRANSITION-METAL COMPLEXES * BIFUNCTIONAL MECHANISM * TRANSFER HYDROGENATION Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2013

  18. Novel Synthesis of 3-Phenyl-chromen-4-ones Using N-Heterocyclic Carbene as Organocatalyst: An Efficient Domino Catalysis Type Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein is reported a simple and efficient synthesis of isoflavones starting from various substituted phenacyl bromides and salicylaldehydes in presence of NHC. The mechanism involved domino catalysis type approach with consumption and regeneration of catalyst in two catalytic cycles. This method proved to be very lucrative and gives very good yield. The method described here represents an environmentally benign alternative to classical approach

  19. New aqua N-heterocyclic carbene Ru(II) complexes with two-electron process as selective epoxidation catalysts: an evaluation of geometrical and electronic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakkach, Mohamed; Atlamsani, Ahmed; Parella, Teodor; Fontrodona, Xavier; Romero, Isabel; Rodríguez, Montserrat

    2013-05-01

    New ruthenium complexes with general formula [Ru(II)(T)(CN-Me)X](n+) (X = Cl(-) or H2O; T = 2,2':6',2?-terpyridine, trpy, or N,N-bis(2-pyridyl)ethylamine, bpea; CN-Me = N-methyl-N'-2-pyridylimidazolium) have been prepared. The complexes obtained have been characterized in solution by spectroscopic (1D- and 2D-NMR and UV-vis) techniques, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. The chloro complexes have also been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. The redox properties of all the compounds were studied by CV revealing, for the reported Ru-OH2 complexes, bielectronic Ru(IV/II) redox processes throughout a wide pH range. The catalytic activity of aquo complexes was evaluated in the epoxidation of olefins using PhIO as oxidant, displaying in general good yields and high selectivities for the epoxide product. The influence of electronic and geometrical factors on the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties as well as on the catalytic activity is discussed. PMID:23642180

  20. Rh-Catalyzed rearrangement of vinylcyclopropane to 1,3-diene units attached to N-heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Brandi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dienes embedded in quinolizidine and indolizidine structures can be prepared in four steps from cyclic nitrones and bicyclopropylidene. The key intermediates ?-spirocyclopropanated N-heterocyclic ketones, generated via a domino 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition/thermal rearrangement sequence, were converted by Wittig methylenation to the corresponding vinylcyclopropanes (VCPs, which underwent rearrangement to 1,3-dienes in the presence of the Wilkinson Rh(I complex under microwave heating. The previously unexplored Rh(I-catalyzed opening of the VCP moiety embedded in an azapolycyclic system occurs at high temperature (110–130 °C to afford the corresponding 1,3-dienes in moderate yield (34–53%.

  1. NaSH in the construction of thiophene ring fused with N-heterocycles: a rapid and inexpensive synthesis of novel small molecules as potential inducers of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Sunder Kumar; Nakhi, Ali; Medishetti, Raghavender; Yellanki, Swapna; Kulkarni, Pushkar; Ramesh Raju, R; Pal, Manojit

    2014-09-15

    A facile construction of a thiophene ring fused with N-heterocycles has been achieved via the reaction of NaSH with 2-chloro-3-alkynyl quinoxalines/pyrazines leading to novel 2-substituted thieno[2,3-b]pyrazine/quinoxaline derivatives as potential inducers of apoptosis. Some of them showed encouraging pharmacological properties when tested in zebrafish. PMID:25168747

  2. Syntheses, structural, computational, and thermal analysis of acid-base complexes of picric acid with N-heterocyclic bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Nidhi; Singh, Udai P

    2013-10-10

    Four new acid-base complexes using picric acid [(OH)(NO2)3C6H2] (PA) and N-heterocyclic bases (1,10-phenanthroline (phen)/2,2';6',2"-terpyridine (terpy)/hexamethylenetetramine (hmta)/2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (tptz)) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR and X-ray crystallography. Crystal structures provide detailed information of the noncovalent interactions present in different complexes. The optimized structures of the complexes were calculated in terms of the density functional theory. The thermolysis of these complexes was investigated by TG-DSC and ignition delay measurements. The model-free isoconversional and model-fitting kinetic approaches have been applied to isothermal TG data for kinetics investigation of thermal decomposition of these complexes. PMID:24011225

  3. The inhibition of mild steel corrosion in phosphoric acid solutions by some N-heterocyclic compounds in the salt form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of some quaternary N-heterocyclic compounds on the corrosion of mild steel in solutions of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) has been investigated in relation to the concentration of the inhibitor and acid as well as temperature by various monitoring corrosion techniques. Surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results obtained revealed that these compounds are good mixed-type inhibitors without changing the mechanism of the corrosion process. In general, at constant acid concentration, inhibitor efficiency increased with concentration of the inhibitor. On the other hand, at constant inhibitor concentration, inhibitor efficiency decreased with concentration of the acid up to a critical concentration above which it started to increase. The studied compounds appeared to function through general adsorption following the thermodynamic-kinetic adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters were determined and discussed. A quantitative correlation between inhibitor structure and inhibition efficiency was discussed

  4. Synthesis of new diphosphine ligands and their application in Pd-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pews-Davtyan, Anahit; Fang, Xianjie; Jackstell, Ralf; Spannenberg, Anke; Baumann, Wolfgang; Franke, Robert; Beller, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Carbocyclic and N-heterocyclic analogues of the industrially applied ligand bis(di-tert-butylphosphinomethyl)benzene (1) have been synthesized in moderate to very good yields. The new ligands are based on benzene, tetralin, lutidine, pyrazine, quinoxaline, and maleimide backbones. Electronic and steric variations of the phosphorous donor sites were performed. As a benchmark reaction, the palladium-catalyzed methoxycarbonylation of 1-octene has been tested. Ester yields up to 64% and high linear selectivities up to 92% were achieved. PMID:24488946

  5. Coal-Tar-Sealcoated Parking Lots: "Hot spots" of PAHs and N-heterocycles to Urban Streams and Lakes Result in "Hot Moments" of Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Ingersoll, C.; Kunz, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Coal-tar (CT) sealcoat, a potent source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and N-heterocycles, is applied to asphalt pavement of parking lots and driveways in many parts of the U.S. and Canada every 1 to 5 years. We measured the chemistry and toxicity of unfiltered runoff resulting from rain events simulated from 5 hours to 111 days after application of CT or asphalt (AS) sealcoat. PAHs and N-heterocycles were measured by GC/EIMS. Toxicity tests were done with Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas exposed 48 hours to undiluted and diluted (1 part runoff 9 parts control water) runoff under ambient lighting. Organisms were then transferred to fresh control water and subjected to a 4-hour pulse of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Concentrations of 2- and 3-ringed PAHs and N-heterocycles in CT runoff, initially high (sum of 6 PAHs, 220 ?g/L; sum of 7 N-heterocycles, 904 ?g/L), decreased rapidly, whereas concentrations of 4-, 5- and 6-ringed PAHs more than doubled by 7 days after application (sum of 9 PAHs, 378 ?g/L) and remained elevated 111 days after application (sum of 9 PAHs, 283 ?g/L). Concentrations of PAHs and N-heterocycles in AS sealcoated runoff followed a similar pattern, but were ~10 times lower than those in CT runoff; concentrations in a sample of runoff from unsealed asphalt pavement were near or less than the detection limit. Organisms exposed to samples of undiluted CT-runoff collected during the 36 days following CT sealcoat application (no UVR exposure) experienced 100% mortality. Mortality (as much as 100%) of organisms exposed to the 10% dilution of CT runoff or to undiluted AS runoff occurred only with UVR; mortality of organisms exposed to the 10% solution of AS runoff and UVR was minimal. Results demonstrate that freshly CT-sealed parking lots and driveways are "hot spots" of PAH and N-heterocycle contamination and that prolonged "hot moments" of toxicity follow CT sealcoat application.

  6. Synthesis of a Simplified Version of Stable Bulky and Rigid Cyclic (Alkyl)(Amino)Carbenes (CAACs), and Catalytic Activity of the Ensuing Gold(I) Complex in the Three-Component Preparation of 1,2-Dihydroquinoline Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Xiaoming; Frey, Guido D.; Kinjo, Rei; Donnadieu, Bruno; Bertrand, Guy

    2009-01-01

    A 95/5 mixture of cis and trans 2,4-dimethyl-3-cyclohexenecarboxaldehyde (trivertal), a common fragrance and flavor material produced in bulk quantities, serves as the precursor for the synthesis of a stable spirocyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene, in which the 2-methyl-substituted cyclohexenyl group provides steric protection to an ensuing metal. The efficiency of this carbene as ligand for transition metal based catalysts is first illustrated by the gold(I) catalyzed hydroamination of internal al...

  7. Biological variation in sensitivity to N-heterocyclic PAHs; effects of acridine on seven species of micro-algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, N A; Van Vlaardingen, P L; Admiraal, W A

    1997-01-01

    The toxicity of the nitrogen (N) heterocyclic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) acridine was tested for seven species of microalgae: Scenedesmus acuminatus, Selenastrum capricornutum, Chlamydomonas eugametos, Staurastrum chaetoceras, Staurastrum manfeldtii, Navicula salinarum and Nitzschia sigma. The effect of acridine on the algae was studied in a 96-h growth test, in which growth rates were determined using cell numbers and biovolume. The obtained EC50 values (for growth rates based on cell numbers) ranged from 0.08 mg litre(-1) for N. sigma to 0.78 mg litre(-1) for C. eugametos and N. salinarum. Effect concentrations based on biovolume were slightly higher for most species. Metabolism of acridine was observed for one species (S. capricornutum), but this capacity did not result in a very different tolerance. Acridine toxicity was neither related to taxonomical background (green algae versus diatoms) nor to original habitat of the species (planktonic or benthic, eutrophic or oligo-mesotrophic). The presence of near-UV radiation during the incubation might explain the higher toxicity of acridine than is expected on basis of QSAR derived narcotic toxicity. PMID:15093480

  8. Microwave-assisted synthesis of N-heterocycles and their evaluation using an acetylcholinesterase immobilized capillary reactor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego P., Sangi; Julia L., Monteiro; Kenia L., Vanzolini; Quezia B., Cass; Marcio W., Paixão; Arlene G., Corrêa.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Os etenoditioacetais polarizados são conhecidos como importantes intermediários em muitos processos de síntese. Neste trabalho, reporta-se a anelação livre de metal de transição de 1,1-bis(tiometil)-2-nitroetileno com hidroxilalquilaminas e alquildiaminas. Esta metodologia permite a síntese direta d [...] e N-heterociclos tais como imidazolidinas, oxazolidinas e benzoxazóis sob irradiação de micro-ondas. Estes compostos foram avaliados como inibidores da acetilcolinesterase usando um reator capilar contendo a enzima imobilizada acoplado a um espectrômetro de massas. Abstract in english Polarized ketene dithioketals have been recognized as useful building blocks in many synthetic operations. In this work, a transition-metal-free annulations of 1,1-bis(thiomethyl)-2-nitroethylene with hydroxylalkylamines or alkyldiamines have been reported. This methodology provides a directed appro [...] ach to N-heterocycles, e.g., imidazolidines, oxazolidines and benzoxazoles under microwave conditions. These compounds were evaluated as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors by using an enzyme immobilized capillary reactor-tandem mass spectrometry.

  9. Mousy off-flavor of wine: precursors and biosynthesis of the causative N-heterocycles 2-ethyltetrahydropyridine, 2-acetyltetrahydropyridine, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline by Lactobacillus hilgardii DSM 20176.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Peter J; Henschke, Paul A

    2002-11-20

    The N-heterocyclic bases, 2-ethyltetrahydropyridine (1), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2), and 2-acetyltetrahydropyridine (3) are associated with the occurrence of mousy off-flavor in wine. The biosynthesis of these N-heterocycles by the wine lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus hilgardii DSM 20176, was studied by high-cell-density incubation in combination with a minimal chemically defined N-heterocycle assay medium. The key components of the defined N-heterocycle assay medium included D-fructose, ethanol, L-lysine, L-ornithine, and mineral salts. N-heterocycle formation was quantitatively determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The formation of 2 and 3 required the concomitant availability of a fermentable carbohydrate (D-fructose), ethanol, and iron (Fe(2+)). In addition, L-ornithine stimulated the formation of 2 and repressed 3 formation, whereas L-lysine stimulated the formation of 3 and repressed 2 formation. Incorporation of d(6)-ethanol into the acetyl side chain of 2 and 3, and of d(4)-acetaldehyde into the acetyl side chain of 3, confirmed that ethanol and acetaldehyde could serve as major side chain precursors. A pathway for the formation of 2 and 3 by heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria is proposed involving the interaction of accumulated C-2 intermediates from the heterolactic pathway and N-heterocyclic intermediates derived from the metabolism of L-ornithine and L-lysine. PMID:12428963

  10. Iron- and Cobalt-Catalyzed Alkene Hydrogenation: Catalysis with Both Redox-Active and Strong Field Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirik, Paul J

    2015-06-16

    The hydrogenation of alkenes is one of the most impactful reactions catalyzed by homogeneous transition metal complexes finding application in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and commodity chemical industries. For decades, catalyst technology has relied on precious metal catalysts supported by strong field ligands to enable highly predictable two-electron redox chemistry that constitutes key bond breaking and forming steps during turnover. Alternative catalysts based on earth abundant transition metals such as iron and cobalt not only offer potential environmental and economic advantages but also provide an opportunity to explore catalysis in a new chemical space. The kinetically and thermodynamically accessible oxidation and spin states may enable new mechanistic pathways, unique substrate scope, or altogether new reactivity. This Account describes my group's efforts over the past decade to develop iron and cobalt catalysts for alkene hydrogenation. Particular emphasis is devoted to the interplay of the electronic structure of the base metal compounds and their catalytic performance. First generation, aryl-substituted pyridine(diimine) iron dinitrogen catalysts exhibited high turnover frequencies at low catalyst loadings and hydrogen pressures for the hydrogenation of unactivated terminal and disubstituted alkenes. Exploration of structure-reactivity relationships established smaller aryl substituents and more electron donating ligands resulted in improved performance. Second generation iron and cobalt catalysts where the imine donors were replaced by N-heterocyclic carbenes resulted in dramatically improved activity and enabled hydrogenation of more challenging unactivated, tri- and tetrasubstituted alkenes. Optimized cobalt catalysts have been discovered that are among the most active homogeneous hydrogenation catalysts known. Synthesis of enantiopure, C1 symmetric pyridine(diimine) cobalt complexes have enabled rare examples of highly enantioselective hydrogenation of a family of substituted styrene derivatives. Because improved hydrogenation performance was observed with more electron rich supporting ligands, phosphine cobalt(II) dialkyl complexes were synthesized and found to be active for the diastereoselective hydrogenation of various substituted alkenes. Notably, this class of catalysts was activated by hydroxyl functionality, representing a significant advance in the functional group tolerance of base metal hydrogenation catalysts. Through collaboration with Merck, enantioselective variants of these catalysts were discovered by high throughput experimentation. Catalysts for the hydrogenation of functionalized and essentially unfunctionalized alkenes have been discovered using this approach. Development of reliable, readily accessible cobalt precursors facilitated catalyst discovery and may, along with lessons learned from electronic structure studies, provide fundamental design principles for catalysis with earth abundant transition metals beyond alkene hydrogenation. PMID:26042837

  11. Enyne Metathesis Catalyzed by Ruthenium Carbene Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carina Storm; Madsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Enyne metathesis combines an alkene and an alkyne into a 1,3-diene. The first enyne metathesis reaction catalyzed by a ruthenium carbene complex was reported in 1994. This review covers the advances in this transformation during the last eight years with particular emphasis on methodology development and synthetic applications.

  12. Catalyst-controlled reverse selectivity in C-C bond formation: NHC-Cu-catalyzed ?-selective allylic alkylation with organolithium reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolato, Stefano F; Giannerini, Massimo; Bos, Pieter H; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-05-11

    An efficient and highly ?-selective copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation of allylic halides with organolithium reagents is presented. The use of N-heterocyclic carbenes as ligands is key to reverse the common ?-selectivity of this transformation and gives rise to the corresponding linear products with high levels of regioselectivity. PMID:25872468

  13. C?H alkenylations with alkenyl acetates, phosphates, carbonates, and carbamates by cobalt catalysis at 23?°c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moselage, Marc; Sauermann, Nicolas; Richter, Sven C; Ackermann, Lutz

    2015-05-18

    Inexpensive cobalt catalysts with N-heterocyclic carbene ligands enable direct arene alkenylations with easily accessible alkenyl acetates through regioselective C?H/C?O functionalizations in a stereoconvergent fashion. The versatile cobalt catalyst was broadly applicable and thus also allowed for the efficient conversion of alkenyl phosphates, carbonates, and carbamates at ambient temperature. PMID:25864965

  14. Bonding and reactivity of a ?-hydrido dicopper cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Chelsea M; Tate, Brandon K; Bacsa, John; Gray, Thomas G; Sadighi, Joseph P

    2013-12-01

    A bent dicopper-hydride cation that has an N-heterocyclic carbene supporting ligand has a Cu-H-Cu angle of 122° in the solid state. Density functional theory suggests an open three-centered metal-hydrogen interaction. The hydride reacts readily with methanol and with carbon dioxide; insertion of phenylacetylene affords a gem-dicopper vinyl complex. PMID:24132865

  15. TOF-SIMS analysis of N-heterocyclic compounds-implications for the Rosetta/COSIMA Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Léna; Briois, Christelle; Thirkell, Laurent; Cottin, Hervé; Fray, Nicolas; Poulet, Gilles; Hilchenbach, Martin

    The European Rosetta spacecraft launched on March 2004 will reach the comet 67/P-Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014 to perform the most exhaustive study ever achieved on comets (Glassmeier et al. 2007). The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser (COSIMA) carried on board will focus on chemical analysis of cometary dust grains collected in situ on a variety of metallic targets. COSIMA's goals are the in-situ characterisation of the atomic, molecular and isotopic composition of cometary dust grains. These analyses will provide inorganic and organic data about pristine solar system material (Kissel et al. 2007). COSIMA is a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (TOF-SIMS) using an indium liquid metal ion source. Spectra inter-pretation of complex unknown samples with COSIMA instrument will be difficult due to the limited mass resolution (M/M of 2000 at m=100 amu) which excludes unambiguous compounds identification and requires preliminary work with reference samples. To help the interpretation of COSIMA spectra calibration laboratory work is in progress using the twin of the COSIMA flight instrument located at Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany) and the prototype of COSIMA in Orléans (France). Here we report the analysis of 100-400m deposits of organics performed with the COSIMA prototype based in Orléans. The organics are expected to be minor peaks, making their identification not simple. Nucleobase molecules, especially the purine bases, are among the building of the replicating molecules of life (DNA and RNA). Scour the universe in an attempt to find such a natural source of nucleobases is of fundamental significance in considerations of the origin of life (Lazcano Miller 1996) Therefore we focused our work on N-heterocyclic compounds which are believed to be present in comets or which belong to the chemical family of such molecules (Krueger Kissel 2006). Experiments have been performed on nine compounds: adenine, guanine, imidazole, 2-aminopyrimidine, cytosine, isocytosine, thymine, 4-aminopyrimidine and uracil. The first step was to characterize all these pure ni-trogenous organic molecules by their high statistics of positive and negative spectra. Deep examination has then been performed to look for peculiarity: we tried to differentiate i) the fragmentation peaks of a complex molecule from the quasi-molecular peak of pure compounds at the same mass and ii) characteristic features between isomers. For almost all compounds, highly intensive parent-like secondary ions of the general composition [M+H]+ or [M-H]-and characteristically large fragment ions correlated with functional groups were emitted. None possible ambiguities were revealed between the peaks from the actual molecule and the same one in a substructure form: they have two different spectral features. The two molecules were even distinguishable in binary mixture experiments. References: Glassmeier KH et al. (2007) Space Sci. Rev. 128, 1-21. Kissel J et al. (2007) Space Sci. Rev. 128, 823-867 Lazcano A Miller S.L. (1996) Cell 85, 793-798 Krueger F.R. Kissel J. (2006) Eds Springer, p 325-339

  16. Uranium(IV) nucleophilic carbene complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mono-, bis-, and tris-carbene uranium complexes [Li(THF)2U(SCS)Cl3(THF)] (2a), [U(SCS)2(THF)2] (3a), and [{Li(OEt2)}2U(SCS)3] (1) were synthesized in good yields by reactions of UCl4 and the stoichiometric amount of Li2(SCS) [(SCS)2 = [Ph2P(dS)]2C2]. Complex 3a was also obtained by comproportionation reaction of 1 and 0.5 molar equiv of UCl4 and further reacted with 1 molar equiv of UCl4 to give the neutral mono-carbene [U(SCS)Cl2(THF)2] (5a). Treatment of U(NEt2)4 with H2C(Ph2PS)2 in THF led to a mixture of 3a and [U(SCS)(NEt2)2] (6), while the same reaction in Et2O gave the mixed alkyl-carbene compound [U(SCS)(SCHS)(NEt2)] (7) in 85% yield. The cationic uranium carbene complex [U(SCS)(NEt2)(THF)3][BPh4] (9) was isolated in almost quantitative yield from reaction of [U(NEt2)3][BPh4] and H2C(Ph2PS)2. Mono-carbenes 2a, 5a, and 9 were used as precursors for the synthesis of Cp and COT derivatives (Cp = C5H5, COT=C8H8). Treatment of 2a with 1 or 2 molar equiv of TlCp gave [Tl{U(Cp)(SCS)}2(?-Cl)3] (10) and [U(Cp)2(SCS)] (11) in 90% and 79% yield, respectively, whereas [U(Cp*)2(SCS)] (12) (Cp* = C5Me5) was obtained only by reaction of [U(Cp*)2Cl2] and Li2(SCS). Reactions of 5a or 9 with K2COT gave [U(COT)(SCS)(THF)] (13) in 78% and 99% yield, respectively. 2a, [Li(THF)(Et2O)U(SCS)(?-Cl)3]2 (2b), [U(SCS)2(py)2] 3 1.5py 3 0.5THF (3b 3 1.5py 3 0.5THF), [U(SCS){CS(Ph2PS)2}(py)] (4), 7.toluene, [Li(THF)2U(SCS)(NEt2)(?-O)]2 (8), 10.2 toluene, 11, 12, and 13.0.5 pentane were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The crystal data revealed that, in contrast to transition metal complexes, changes in the coordination sphere of the U(IV) center have little influence on the U(double bond)C bond. This feature was explained by DFT analysis of analogous U(IV) and Zr(IV) compounds [M(SCS1)Cl2(py)2] and [M(SCS1)(Cp)2] [M = U, Zr; SCS1 = C(H2PS)2]. Although the 5f orbitals are more radially contracted than the 6d atomic orbitals, the 5f AOs are lower in energy in uranium and can lead to greater angular overlaps in symmetry-constrained systems. As a result, the seven 5f orbitals play a 'buffer' role by engaging in covalent interactions with the carbon center to stabilize the nucleophilic carbene lone pairs. (authors)

  17. Heterogeneous catalysts for carbene insertion reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Fraile, Jose? M.; Mayoral, Jose? A.; Rolda?n, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Copper catalysts supported on silica or silica-alumina are used to promote the insertion of carbenes, coming from methyl phenyldiazoacetate and ethyl diazoacetate, into one C-H bond of THF, constituting the first example of this reaction promoted by a purely inorganic catalyst. Cu/SiO2-Al 2O3 leads to better results, regarding yield and catalyst recovery, than with Cu/SiO2. With the former, yields are similar or even slightly better than those reached in solution using Cu (OTf)2 as the cataly...

  18. Asymmetric Pd-NHC*-catalyzed coupling reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kundig, Ernst Peter; Jia, Yixia; Katayev, Dmitry; Nakanishi, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    Very high asymmetric inductions result in the Pd-catalyzed intramolecular arylation of amides to give 3,3-disubstituted oxindoles when new in situ-generated chiral N?heterocyclic carbene (NHC*) ligands are employed. Structural studies show that conformational locking to minimize allylic strain is the key to understanding the function of these ligands. New applications of these ligands in the frontier area of asymmetric coupling reactions involving C(sp3)–H bonds are detailed. Highly enant...

  19. Mutagenic activity of some platinum and ruthenium complexes with N-heterocyclic ligands in salmonella typhimurium Ta 1530 and Ta 98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutagenic activity of some platinum and ruthenium complexes with 2,2'-biquinoline (b iq) and 2-(2' -pyridyl) quinoline (p q) was examined in strains of salmonella typhimurium Ta 1530 and Ta 98. The complexes cis-[Pt(Nn)X2)] (Nn=b iq, X=CI; Nn=p q, X=CI, Br), Pt3(b iq)2I6 and me r-[Ru(b iq)2CI3].2H2O exhibit significant mutagenic activity while me r-[Ru(p q)CI3(C2H5OH)], [Ru(p q)CI4]. 3a-2a and [Ru(p q) (DMSO)2CI2].0.5H2O show much weaker mutagenic activity. the platinum complexes appear to be more active via induction of frameshift than base substitution mutation while me r-[Ru(b iq)2CI3].2H2O is highly mutagenic via base substitution. (authors). 16 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Synthesis of Endohedral Metallofullerene Glycoconjugates by Carbene Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Akasaka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Endohedral metallofullerene glycoconjugates were synthesized under mild conditions by carbene addition using appropriate glycosylidene-derived diazirine with La2@Ih-C80. NMR spectroscopic studies revealed that the glycoconjugate consists of two diastereomers of [6,6]-open mono-adducts. The electronic properties were characterized using Vis/NIR absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. This study demonstrates that glycosylidene carbene is useful to incorporate carbohydrate moieties onto endohedral metallofullerene surfaces.

  1. Synthesis of Endohedral Metallofullerene Glycoconjugates by Carbene Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshi Akasaka; Yutaka Maeda; Chika I. Someya; Takahiro Tsuchiya; Tsukasa Nakahodo; Michio Yamada

    2011-01-01

    Endohedral metallofullerene glycoconjugates were synthesized under mild conditions by carbene addition using appropriate glycosylidene-derived diazirine with La2@Ih-C80. NMR spectroscopic studies revealed that the glycoconjugate consists of two diastereomers of [6,6]-open mono-adducts. The electronic properties were characterized using Vis/NIR absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. This study demonstrates that glycosylidene carbene is useful to incorporate carbohydrate moie...

  2. Intramolecular cyclopropanation reactions of chromium (alkenyloxy)carbene complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, B.C.; Hegedus, L.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Chromium (aryl)(alkenyloxy)carbene complexes underwent intramolecualr cyclopropanation reactions under mild conditions. Evidence for the intervention of metathesis/readdition and for twist' addition followed by {beta}-hydride elimiantion/reductive elimination was obtained. Carbenes of this class, sufficiently stable to isolate, underwent facile photochemical intramolecualr cyclobutanone formation. Molecular structures were determined by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy.

  3. The fluxional amine gold(iii) complex as an excellent catalyst and precursor of biologically active acyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanel-Pérez, Sara; Herrera, Raquel P; Laguna, Antonio; Villacampa, M Dolores; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2015-05-01

    A new amine gold(iii) complex [Au(C6F5)2(DPA)]ClO4 with the di-(2-picolyl)amine (DPA) ligand has been synthesised. In the solid state the complex has a chiral amine nitrogen because the ligand coordinates to the gold centre through one nitrogen atom from a pyridine and through the NH moiety, whereas in solution it shows a fluxional behaviour with a rapid exchange between the pyridine sites. This complex can be used as an excellent synton to prepare new gold(iii) carbene complexes by the reaction with isocyanide CNR. The resulting gold(iii) derivatives have unprecedented bidentate C^N acyclic carbene ligands. All the complexes have been spectroscopically and structurally characterized. Taking advantage of the fluxional behaviour of the amine complex, its catalytic properties have been tested in several reactions with the formation of C-C and C-N bonds. The complex showed excellent activity with total conversion, without the presence of a co-catalyst, and with a catalyst loading as low as 0.1%. These complexes also present biological properties, and cytotoxicity studies have been performed in vitro against three tumour human cell lines, Jurkat (T-cell leukaemia), MiaPaca2 (pancreatic carcinoma) and A549 (lung carcinoma). Some of them showed excellent cytotoxic activity compared with the reference cisplatin. PMID:25893402

  4. Cyclic alkyl amino carbene (CAAC) ruthenium complexes as remarkably active catalysts for ethenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Vanessa M; Sullivan, Alexandra H; Melaimi, Mohand; Virgil, Scott C; Keitz, Benjamin K; Weinberger, David S; Bertrand, Guy; Grubbs, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    An expanded family of ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts bearing cyclic alkyl amino carbene (CAAC) ligands was prepared. These catalysts exhibited exceptional activity in the ethenolysis of the seed-oil derivative methyl oleate. In many cases, catalyst turnover numbers (TONs) of more than 100,000 were achieved, at a catalyst loading of only 3?ppm. Remarkably, the most active catalyst system was able to achieve a TON of 340,000, at a catalyst loading of only 1?ppm. This is the first time a series of metathesis catalysts has exhibited such high performance in cross-metathesis reactions employing ethylene gas, with activities sufficient to render ethenolysis applicable to the industrial-scale production of linear ?-olefins (LAOs) and other terminal-olefin products. PMID:25522160

  5. Exploring the effect of axial ligand substitution (X = Br, NCS, CN) on the photodecomposition and electrochemical activity of [MnX(N-C)(CO)3] complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Jay; Stanton Iii, Charles J; Shaw, Travis W; Vandezande, Jonathon E; Majetich, George F; Bocarsly, Andrew B; Schaefer Iii, Henry F

    2015-02-01

    The synthesis, electrochemical activity, and relative photodecomposition rate is reported for four new Mn(i) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes: [MnX(N-ethyl-N'-2-pyridylimidazol-2-ylidine)(CO)3] (X = Br, NCS, CN) and [MnCN(N-ethyl-N'-2-pyridylbenzimidazol-2-ylidine)(CO)3]. All compounds display an electrocatalytic current enhancement under CO2 at the potential of the first reduction, which ranges from -1.53 V to -1.96 V versus the saturated calomel electrode. Catalytic CO production is observed for all species during four-hour preparative-scale electrolysis, but substantial H2 is detected in compounds where X is not Br. All species eventually decompose under both 350 nm and 420 nm light, but cyanide substituted complexes (X = CN) last significantly longer (up to 5×) under 420 nm light as a result of a blue-shifted MLCT band. PMID:25501649

  6. Exploring new generations of ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts: the reactivity of a bis-ylidene ruthenium complex by DFT

    OpenAIRE

    Poater Teixidor, Albert; Credendino, Raffaele; Slugovc, Christian; Cavallo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations were used to predict the behaviour of a potential novel architecture of olefin metathesis catalysts, in which one of the neutral ligands of classical Ru-based catalysts, e. g. a phosphine or an N-heterocyclic carbene, is replaced by an alkylidene group. Introduction of a second alkylidene ligand favors dissociation of the remaining phosphine and the overall energy profile for the metathesis using ethylene as the probe substrate reveals that the proposed ...

  7. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  8. Transfer Hydrogenation of Ketones and Activated Olefins Using Chelating NHC Ruthenium Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Sabine; Gandolfi, Claudio; Albrecht, Martin; Horn; Sabine; Gandolfi; Claudio; Albrecht; Martin

    2011-01-01

    N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium complexes consisting of different donor substituents attached to the NHC ligand efficiently catalyse the transfer hydrogenation of ketones and of activated olefins in ?,?-unsaturated ketones to give saturated alcohols. The most active catalyst precursor contains a tethered olefin as a hemilabile donor site. This complex also converts nitriles and, depending on the reaction conditions, either benzylamines are produced by means of transfer hydrogenation,...

  9. Fire and ice: a gold(III) monohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2012-12-21

    Good as gold: gold hydrides were long considered unstable. In the past few years reports have appeared on not only the stable NHC gold(I) monohydride complex 1 (see structure; NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) but also a dinuclear gold(I) hydride and most recently the gold(III) monohydride complex 2 with a C-N-C pincer ligand. One can expect new and important impulses for inorganic and organometallic chemistry and homogeneous gold catalysis. PMID:23184856

  10. Deprotonation of a Borohydride: Synthesis of a Carbene-Stabilized Boryl Anion**

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, David A.; Ung, Gaël; Melaimi, Mohand; Bertrand, Guy

    2013-01-01

    An acidic hydride! Thanks to the presence of a ?-acceptor cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene (CAAC) and of two electron-withdrawing nitrile groups, a borohydride reacts with a base to give a carbene-stabilized boryl anion, which reacts with carbon and metal electrophiles at the boron center.

  11. Assembly and tunable luminescence of lanthanide-organic frameworks constructed from 4-(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A new N-heterocycle muticarboxylate ligand 4-(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (H4dpda) was developed. ? Several lanthanide metal–organic frameworks (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy) and Eu/Tb mixed MOFs were synthesized. ? The ligand H4dpda can provide efficient sensitization for the lanthanide ion Tb(III) and Eu(III). ? Luminescence color of the mixed MOFs can be easily tuned by varying the molar ratios of Eu(III)/Tb(III). - Abstract: A novel N-heterocycle multicarboxylate ligand 4-(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (H4dpda) was synthesized, and then reacted with lanthanide salts to yield a series of lanthanide metal–organic frameworks, [Ln(Hdpda)(H2O)4]·0.5(H2O) (Ln = Eu(1), Gd(2), Tb(3), Dy(4)) and [Tb1?xEux(Hdpda)(H2O)4]·0.5(H2O) (x = 0.1–10 mol%). Single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder XRD patterns confirm these MOFs are isostructural. Luminescent measurements suggest that the ligand can provide efficient sensitization for the lanthanide ion Tb(III) and Eu(III) in the mixed lanthanide MOFs. Additionally, the luminescence color of the mixed MOFs can be easily tuned from green to green–yellow, yellow, orange, red–orange and red by varying the molar ratio of Eu(III)/Tb(III).

  12. Synthesis of a simplified version of stable bulky and rigid cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes, and catalytic activity of the ensuing gold(I) complex in the three-component preparation of 1,2-dihydroquinoline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoming; Frey, Guido D; Kinjo, Rei; Donnadieu, Bruno; Bertrand, Guy

    2009-06-24

    A 95/5 mixture of cis and trans 2,4-dimethyl-3-cyclohexenecarboxaldehyde (trivertal), a common fragrance and flavor material produced in bulk quantities, serves as the precursor for the synthesis of a stable spirocyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene, in which the 2-methyl-substituted cyclohexenyl group provides steric protection to an ensuing metal. The efficiency of this carbene as ligand for transition metal based catalysts is first illustrated by the gold(I) catalyzed hydroamination of internal alkynes with secondary dialkyl amines, a process with little precedent. The feasibility of this reaction allows for significantly enlarging the scope of the one-pot three-component synthesis of 1,2-dihydroquinoline derivatives, and related nitrogen-containing heterocycles. Indeed, two different alkynes were used, which include an internal alkyne for the first step. PMID:19456108

  13. Nitrene-carbene-carbene rearrangement. Photolysis and thermolysis of tetrazolo[5,1- a ]phthalazine with formation of 1-phthalazinylnitrene, o-cyanophenylcarbene, and phenylcyanocarbene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØj, Martin; Kvaskoff, David

    2014-01-01

    1-Azidophthalazine 9A is generated in trace amount by mild FVT of tetrazolo[5,1-a]phthalazine 9T and is observable by its absorption at 2121 cm-1 in the Ar matrix IR spectrum. Ar matrix photolysis of 9T/9A at 254 nm causes ring opening to generate two conformers of (o-cyanophenyl) diazomethane 11 (2079 and 2075 cm-1), followed by (o-cyanophenyl)carbene 312, cyanocycloheptatetraene 13, and finally cyano(phenyl)carbene 314 as evaluated by IR spectroscopy. The two carbenes 312 and 314 were observed by ESR spectroscopy (D|hc = 0.5078, E|hc = 0.0236 and D|hc = 0.6488, E|hc = 0.0195 cm-1, respectively). The rearrangement of 12 â., 13 â., 14 constitutes a carbene-carbene rearrangement. 1-Phthalazinylnitrene 310 is observed by means of its UV-vis spectrum in Ar matrix following FVT of 9 above 550 C. Rearrangement to cyanophenylcarbenes also takes place on FVT of 9 as evidenced by observation of the products of ring contraction, viz., fulvenallenes and ethynylcyclopentadienes 16-18. Thus the overall rearrangement 10 ?11 ? 12 â., 13 â., 14 can be formulated. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Carbon-Atom Extrusion from Halobenzenes and Its Coupling with a Methylene Ligand to Form Acetylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaodong; Schlangen, Maria; Li, Jilai; Wu, Xiao-Nan; Schwarz, Helmut

    2015-06-26

    Mechanistic aspects of an unusual gas-phase reaction of [LaCH2 ](+) with halobenzenes have been investigated using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In this thermal process a carbon-atom from the benzene ring, most likely the ipso-position, and the carbene ligand are coupled to form C2 H2 . PMID:26037894

  15. (Aminocarbene)(divinyltetramethyldisiloxane)iron(0) compounds: a class of low-coordinate iron(0) reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hezhong; Ouyang, Zhenwu; Liu, Yuesheng; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Lei; Deng, Liang

    2014-08-01

    The combined use of aminocarbene and divinyltetramethyldisiloxane (dvtms) as supporting ligands enables the access of unprecedented low-coordinate iron(0) alkene compounds [L(n)Fe(?(2):?(2)-dvtms)] (L=N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) or cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene (CAAC), n=1 or 2) from the reactions of FeCl2 with alkali-metal reducing agents, free aminocarbene ligands, and dvtms. The iron(0) species deliver their {L(n)Fe(0)} fragments to perform redox reactions with Ph2SiH2, S8, Se, and DippN3, furnishing novel aminocarbene-supported iron(IV) silylene, all-ferrous iron-sulfur/selenium cubanes, and bis(imido)iron(IV) compounds. These conversions demonstrate the potential synthetic utility of the carbene-supported iron(0) complexes as a valuable class of low-coordinate iron(0) reagents. PMID:24961207

  16. Fischer carbene complexes with two chromium centers as potential molecular wires.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Metelková, R.; Tobrman, T.; Hoskovcová, I.; Ludvík, Ji?í

    Lausanne : International Society of Electrochemistry, 2014. ise142050. [Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry /65./. 31.08.2014-05.09.2014, Lausanne] Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Fiescher carbene complexes * electron transfer * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  17. Carbene complexes with two chromium central atoms: relationship between structure and redox properties.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Metelková, R.; Tobrman, T.; Ludvík, Ji?í; Hoskovcová, I.

    Prague : International Society of Electrochemistry, 2012. [Annual ISE Meeting /63./. 19.08.2012-24.08.2012, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : carbene complexes * redox properties * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  18. Activation of molecular hydrogen by a singlet carbene through quantum mechanical tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Stefan; Sander, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    Carbenes are among the few metal-free molecules that are able to activate molecular hydrogen. Whereas triplet carbenes have been shown to insert into H2 through a two-step mechanism that at low temperature is assisted by quantum mechanical tunneling (QMT), singlet carbenes insert in concerted reactions with considerable activation barriers, and are thus unreactive towards H2 at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that 1-azulenylcarbene with a singlet ground state readily inserts into H2 , and that QMT governs the insertion into both H2 and D2 . This is the first example that shows that QMT can also be important for singlet carbenes inserting into dihydrogen. PMID:25690272

  19. C-H bond functionalization based on metal carbene migratory insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangdong; Xia, Ying; Ma, Chen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-05-11

    Cross-coupling reactions involving metal carbene migratory insertion have been established as a new type of coupling reaction with diazo compounds as the reaction partners. Since 2011, an interesting development has been made in which the carbene migratory insertion process is successfully merged into C-H bond activations. Along this line, a series of investigations have been documented in the past few years. This feature article summarizes the developments in this area. PMID:25739369

  20. Protonolysis of a Ruthenium-Carbene Bond and Applications in Olefin Metathesis

    OpenAIRE

    Keitz, Benjamin K.; Bouffard, Jean; Bertrand, Guy; Grubbs, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of a ruthenium complex containing an N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and a mesoionic carbene (MIC) is described wherein addition of a Brønsted acid results in protonolysis of the Ru-MIC bond to generate an extremely active metathesis catalyst. Mechanistic studies implicate a rate-determining protonation step to generate the metathesis active species. The NHC/MIC catalyst was found to have activity exceeding current commercial ruthenium catalysts.

  1. Reactivity of Cationic Agostic and Carbene Structures Derived from Platinum(II) Metallacycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jesús; Ortega-Moreno, Laura; Conejero, Salvador; Peloso, Riccardo; López-Serrano, Joaquín; Maya, Celia; Carmona, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the formation of new platinacyclic complexes derived from the phosphine ligands PiPr2 Xyl, PMeXyl2 , and PMe2 Ar?Xyl?2 (Xyl=2,6-Me2 C6 H3 and Ar?Xyl?2=2,6-(2,6-Me2 C6 H3 )2 -C6 H3 ) as well as reactivity studies of the trans-[Pt(C^P)2 ] bis-metallacyclic complex 1?a derived from PiPr2 Xyl. Protonation of compound 1?a with [H(OEt2 )2 ][BArF ] (BArF =B[3,5-(CF3 )2 C6 H3 ]4 ) forms a cationic ?-agostic structure 4?a, whereas ?-hydride abstraction employing [Ph3 C][PF6 ] produces a cationic platinum carbene trans-[Pt{PiPr2 (2,6-CH(Me)C6 H3 }{PiPr2 (2,6-CH2 (Me)C6 H3 }][PF6 ] (8). Compounds 4?a and 8 react with H2 to yield the same 1:3 equilibrium mixture of 4?a and trans-[PtH(PiPr2 Xyl)2 ][BArF ] (6), in which one of the phosphine ligands participates in a ?-agostic interaction. DFT calculations reveal that H2 activation by 8 occurs at the highly electrophilic alkylidene terminus with no participation of the metal. The two compounds 4?a and 8 experience C-C coupling reactions of a different nature. Thus, 4?a gives rise to complex trans-[PtH{(E)-1,2-bis(2-(PiPr2 )-3-MeC6 H3 )CH?CH}] (7) that contains a tridentate diphosphine-alkene ligand, through agostic C?H oxidative cleavage and C-C reductive coupling steps, whereas the C-C coupling reaction in 8 involves classical migratory insertion of its [Pt?CH] and [Pt?CH2 ] bonds promoted by platinum coordination of CO or CNXyl. The mechanisms of the C?C bond-forming reactions have also been investigated by computational methods. PMID:25959723

  2. Copper(I) complexes of mesoionic carbene: structural characterization and catalytic hydrosilylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohloch, Stephan; Duecker, Fenja Leena; van der Meer, Margarethe; Sarkar, Biprajit

    2015-01-01

    Two series of different Cu(I)-complexes of "click" derived mesoionic carbenes are reported. Halide complexes of the type (MIC)CuI (with MIC = 1,4-(2,6-diisopropyl)-phenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (for 1b), 1-benzyl-3-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (for 1c)) and cationic complexes of the general formula [Cu(MIC)2]X (with MIC =1,4-dimesityl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = CuI2- (for 2á), 1,4-dimesityl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = BF4- (for 2a), 1,4-(2,6-diisopropyl)phenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = BF4- (for 2b), 1-benzyl-3-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = BF4- (for 2c)) have been prepared from CuI or [Cu(CH3CN)4](BF4) and the corresponding ligands, respectively. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and standard spectroscopic methods. Complexes 2á and 1b were studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Structural analysis revealed 2á to adopt a cationic form as [Cu(MIC)2](CuI2) and comparison of the NMR spectra of 2á and 2a confirmed this conformation in solution. In contrast, after crystallization complex 1b was found to adopt the desired neutral form. All complexes were tested for the reduction of cyclohexanone under hydrosilylation condition at elevated temperatures. These complexes were found to be efficient catalysts for this reaction. 2c was also found to catalyze this reaction at room temperature. Mechanistic studies have been carried out as well. PMID:25911966

  3. Copper(I Complexes of Mesoionic Carbene: Structural Characterization and Catalytic Hydrosilylation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hohloch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two series of different Cu(I-complexes of “click” derived mesoionic carbenes are reported. Halide complexes of the type (MICCuI (with MIC = 1,4-(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (for 1b, 1-benzyl-3-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (for 1c and cationic complexes of the general formula [Cu(MIC2]X (with MIC =1,4-dimesityl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = CuI2? (for 2á, 1,4-dimesityl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = BF4? (for 2a, 1,4-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = BF4? (for 2b, 1-benzyl-3-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = BF4? (for 2c have been prepared from CuI or [Cu(CH3CN4](BF4 and the corresponding ligands, respectively. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and standard spectroscopic methods. Complexes 2á and 1b were studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Structural analysis revealed 2á to adopt a cationic form as [Cu(MIC2](CuI2 and comparison of the NMR spectra of 2á and 2a confirmed this conformation in solution. In contrast, after crystallization complex 1b was found to adopt the desired neutral form. All complexes were tested for the reduction of cyclohexanone under hydrosilylation condition at elevated temperatures. These complexes were found to be efficient catalysts for this reaction. 2c was also found to catalyze this reaction at room temperature. Mechanistic studies have been carried out as well.

  4. rac-cis-Dicarbonyl­chlorido{1-[2-(diphenyl­phosphanyl-?P)benz­yl]-3-(phenyl-?C 1)imidazol-2-yl­idene-?C 2}ruthenium(II) dichloro­methane monosolvate

    OpenAIRE

    Domski, Gregory J.; Pecak, Wiktoria H.; Swenson, Dale C.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ru(C28H22N2P)Cl(CO)2]·CH2Cl2, the RuII atom exhibits a distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry. The N-phenyl group of the ligand has undergone orthometalation; as a result, the tridentate phosphane-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligand is coordinating in a meridional fashion. This complex is of inter­est with respect to transfer hydrogenation catalysis and also provides an example of C—H activation behavior in late transition metal complexes. The dichlo...

  5. rac-cis-Dicarbonylchlorido{1-[2-(diphenylphosphanyl-κP)benzyl]-3-(phenyl-κC1)imidazol-2-ylidene-κC2}ruthenium(II) dichloromethane monosolvate

    OpenAIRE

    Domski, Gregory J.; Pecak, Wiktoria H.; Swenson, Dale C.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ru(C28H22N2P)Cl(CO)2]·CH2Cl2, the RuII atom exhibits a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The N-phenyl group of the ligand has undergone orthometalation; as a result, the tridentate phosphane-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligand is coordinating in a meridional fashion. This complex is of interest with respect to transfer hydrogenation catalysis and also provides an example of C—H activation behavior in late transition metal complexes...

  6. Synthesis, structural characterization and thermal properties of copper and silver silyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgro, Michael J; Piers, Warren E; Romero, Patricio E

    2015-02-28

    The synthesis of copper and silver silyl complexes containing either N-heterocyclic carbenes or nitrogen donors is described. Alterations made to both the neutral donor ligands as well as the silyl group provided access to a number of different compounds. Many of the complexes synthesized were studied in the solid state and the effect of the donor ligand on the final structure of the complexes was examined. The thermal properties of the complexes were explored using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and sublimations. Some of the complexes synthesized were demonstrated to be promising volatile metal precursors. PMID:25608661

  7. Crystal structure of {3-[3,5-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl-1,2-phenylene]-1-(2,6,2??,6??-tetramethyl-1,1?:3?,1??-terphenyl-5?-ylimidazol-2-ylidene}chlorido(?6-p-cymeneruthenium(II benzene disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Sase

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ru(C47H43N2Cl(C10H14]·2C6H6, crystallized with two independent molecules of benzene. One of the N-aryl moieties of the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligand underwent cyclometallation to form a five-membered ruthenacycle. The complex has a three-legged piano-stool structure with two C atoms incorporated in the five-membered ruthenacycle and a Cl atom as legs. The ruthenacycle is essentially coplanar with the imidazole ring of the NHC ligand, making a dihedral angle of 0.85?(8°.

  8. Substitution effects on the formation of T-shaped palladium carbene and thioketone complexes from Li/Cl carbenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Sebastian; Feichtner, Kai-Stephan; Kupper, Claudia; Gessner, Viktoria H

    2014-08-18

    The preparation of palladium thioketone and T-shaped carbene complexes by treatment of thiophosphoryl substituted Li/Cl carbenoids with a Pd(0) precursor is reported. Depending on the steric demand, the anion-stabilizing ability of the silyl moiety (by negative hyperconjugation effects) and the remaining negative charge at the carbenic carbon atom, isolation of a three-coordinate, T-shaped palladium carbene complex is possible. In contrast, insufficient charge stabilization results in the transfer of the sulfur of the thiophosphoryl moiety and thus in the formation of a thioketone complex. While the thioketones are stable compounds the carbene complexes are revealed to be highly reactive and decompose under elimination of Pd metal. Computational studies revealed that both complexes are formed by a substitution mechanism. While the ketone turned out to be the thermodynamically favored product, the carbene is kinetically favored and thus preferentially formed at low reaction temperatures. PMID:24664573

  9. Cobalt azide complexes with a tris(carbene)borate ligand scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scepaniak, Jeremiah J; Margarit, Charles G; Bontchev, Ranko P; Smith, Jeremy M

    2013-09-01

    The four-coordinate Co(II) complex, (azido-?N)[1,1,',1''-(phenylboranetriyl)tris(3-tert-butyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene)]cobalt(II), [Co(C27H38BN6)(N3)], (1), denoted PhB(t-BuIm)3CoN3, was prepared by the reaction of the corresponding chloride complex with NaN3. One-electron oxidation results in the isolation of the five-coordinate Co(III) complex, bis(azido-?N)[1,1,',1''-(phenylboranetriyl)tris(3-tert-butyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene)]cobalt(III), [Co(C27H38BN6)(N3)2], (2), denoted PhB(t-BuIm)3Co(N3)2. Attempts to prepare cobalt nitrides by thermolysis or photolysis of these complexes were unsuccessful. PMID:24005501

  10. Complexation of trivalent cationic lanthanides by N.O donor ligands: physico-chemical studies of the association and selectivity in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to study the complexation of f-elements in solution by ligands incorporating N-heterocyclic donors. These ligands display interesting properties for the selective separation of An(III)/Ln(III) have been studied to obtain a better understanding of the coordination properties with f-elements and to develop more selective extractants. The hepta-dentate ligand tpaam shows an affinity for Ln(III) similar to the tetradentate ligand tpa in water even when the three additional amide groups are bonded to the metal. Even though the complexation with tpa is exothermic, that with tpaam is endothermic with a more positive entropy. The dehydration of the cation disfavours the formation of Ln(III) complexes with ligands containing weak donors. The analysis of the solution paramagnetic relaxation times of the tpaam complexes is in agreement with data in the solid-state. There is little difference between the formation constants of the Ln3+ complexes with different ligands (tpaam, tpzen, tpa and tpza) as determined by UV-vis spectrophotometry in anhydrous acetonitrile. The limitations encountered during this study are intrinsic to the ligands studied. The preliminary study of two tetrapodal ligands containing acid and pyridine groups (Lpy)or pyrazine (Lpz) show the formation of 1:1 complexes in water. Analysis of the formation constants of the corresponding Gd(III) complexes shows that replacement of a pyridine group by pyrazine result in a loss of stability of 1.6 logarithmic units. (author)

  11. Rotational spectrum and theoretical structure of the carbene HC4N

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Apponi, A. J.; Gordon, V. D.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Thaddeus, P.; Daniel Crawford, T.; Stanton, John F.

    1999-10-01

    Following a high-level coupled cluster calculation, the rotational spectrum of the bent HC4N singlet carbene was detected in a supersonic molecular beam by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The three rotational constants, the leading centrifugal distortion constants, and two nitrogen hyperfine coupling constants were determined to high accuracy. The rotational constants agree with those calculated ab initio to better than 0.5%. Like the isoelectronic C5H2 carbene of similar structure, HC4N was found to have fairly large centrifugal distortion and a large inertial defect. The calculated dipole moment of HC4N is 2.95 D.

  12. Rhodium (II) carbene C-H insertion in water and catalyst reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five-session laboratory experiment is described for the synthesis of a beta-lactam via Rh(II) catalysed intramolecular C-H insertion of a alpha-diazo-alpha-ethoxycarbonyl acetamide. The metallo-carbene, responsible for the C-H bond activation, was generated from the diazo substrate and the catalyst Rh2(OAc)4. The high stability and solubility of the catalyst and the exclusive C-H insertion of the Rh-carbene allows the synthesis of this important heterocycle in water and the catalyst reutilization. (author)

  13. Carbene complexes with two chromium central atoms: relationship between structure and redox properties.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Metelková, R.; Tobrman, T.; Ludvík, Ji?í; Hoskovcová, I.

    Lisbon : Technical University of Lisbon, 2012. [International Conference on Organometallic Chemistry /25./. 02.09.2012-07.09.2012, Lisbon] Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 21/2012 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : carbene complexes * redox properties * chromium central atoms Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  14. Highvalent and organometallic technetium and rhenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic methods in nuclear medicine allow a detailed description of morphological organ structures and their function. The beta emitting isotope Tc-99 has optimal physical properties (140 keV gamma rays, half-life 6 h) and is therefore used for radiopharmaceuticals. The thesis is concerned with the search for new technetium complexes and their reproducible production. The (TcO3) core is of main interest. The second part of the thesis deals with organometallic technetium and rhenium complexes with carbonyl ligands and N-heterocyclic carbenes that show stability in aerobic aqueous solutions.

  15. Explicit role of dynamical and nondynamical electron correlation on singlet-triplet splitting in carbenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seal, Prasenjit [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Ray Road, Kolkata - 700 009 (India); Chakrabarti, Swapan [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Ray Road, Kolkata - 700 009 (India)], E-mail: swapanchem@yahoo.co.in

    2007-02-14

    Density functional theoretical studies have been performed on carbene systems to determine the singlet-triplet splitting and also to explore the role of electron correlation. Using an approximate method of separation of dynamical and nondynamical correlation, it is found that dynamical and nondynamical electron correlation stabilizes the singlet state relative to the triplet for halo carbenes in both BLYP and B3LYP methods. Calculations performed on higher homologues of methylene suggest that beyond CH(CH{sub 3}), both the electron correlations have leveling effect in stabilizing the singlet state relative to the triplet. It has also been observed while dynamical electron correlation fails to provide any substantial degree of stabilization to the singlet states of higher homologues of methylene in B3LYP method, an opposite trend is observed for nondynamical counterpart. Among the larger systems studied (9-triptycyl)({alpha}-naphthyl)-carbene has the highest stability of the triplet state whereas bis-imidazol-2-ylidenes has the most stable singlet state. Interestingly, the values of the dynamical electron correlation for each state of each system studied are different for the two methods used. The reason behind this apparent discrepancy lies in the fact that the coefficients of the LYP part in B3LYP and BLYP functionals are different.

  16. Explicit role of dynamical and nondynamical electron correlation on singlet-triplet splitting in carbenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Density functional theoretical studies have been performed on carbene systems to determine the singlet-triplet splitting and also to explore the role of electron correlation. Using an approximate method of separation of dynamical and nondynamical correlation, it is found that dynamical and nondynamical electron correlation stabilizes the singlet state relative to the triplet for halo carbenes in both BLYP and B3LYP methods. Calculations performed on higher homologues of methylene suggest that beyond CH(CH3), both the electron correlations have leveling effect in stabilizing the singlet state relative to the triplet. It has also been observed while dynamical electron correlation fails to provide any substantial degree of stabilization to the singlet states of higher homologues of methylene in B3LYP method, an opposite trend is observed for nondynamical counterpart. Among the larger systems studied (9-triptycyl)(?-naphthyl)-carbene has the highest stability of the triplet state whereas bis-imidazol-2-ylidenes has the most stable singlet state. Interestingly, the values of the dynamical electron correlation for each state of each system studied are different for the two methods used. The reason behind this apparent discrepancy lies in the fact that the coefficients of the LYP part in B3LYP and BLYP functionals are different

  17. A theoretical study of the mechanism of the addition reaction between carbene and azacyclopropane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIAOJUN TAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the addition reaction between carbene and azacyclopropane was investigated using the second-order Moller–Plesset perturbation theory (MP2. By using the 6-311+G* basis set, geometry optimization, vibrational analysis and the energy properties of the involved stationary points on the potential energy surface were calculated. From the surface energy profile, it can be predicted that there are two reaction mechanisms. The first one (1 is carbene attack at the N atom of azacyclopropane to form an intermediate, 1a (IM1a, which is a barrier-free exothermic reaction. Then, IM1a can isomerize to IM1b via a transition state 1a (TS1a, in which the potential barrier is 30.0 kJ/mol. Subsequently, IM1b isomerizes to a product (Pro1 via TS1b with a potential barrier of 39.3 kJ/mol. The other one (2 is carbene attack at the C atom of azacyclopropane, firstly to form IM2 via TS2a, the potential barrier is 35.4 kJ/mol. Then IM2 isomerizes to a product (Pro2 via TS2b with a potential barrier of 35.1 kJ/mol. Correspondingly, the reaction energy for the reactions (1 and (2 is –478.3 and –509.9 kJ/mol, respectively. Additionally, the orbital interactions are also discussed for the leading intermediate.

  18. DFT STUDY ON THE MECHANISM OF THE ADDITION REACTION BETWEEN CARBENE AND GLYCINE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    XIAOJUN, TAN; WEIHUA, WANG; PING, LI; JINSONG, GU; GUORONG, WANG; DANGSHENG, WANG; TAO, LI.

    Full Text Available The mechanism of addition reaction between the singlet carbene and glycine has been investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G* level of theory, including geometry optimization and vibrational analysis for the involved stationary points on the potential energy surface. Computational results suggest that ther [...] e are two reaction pathways (1) and (2) during the addition process. In the pathway (1), carbene attacks the C=O bond from the H¹C¹C² side of glycine to form an intermediate (IM1), which is a barrier-free exothermic reaction. Then, IM1 isomerizes to a product (Pro1) via a transition state (TS1) with a potential barrier of 25.7 kJ/mol. Similarly, in the pathway (2), carbene attacks the C=O bond from the H²C¹C² side of glycine to form an intermediate IM2. Subsequently, IM2 isomerizes to Pro2 via TS2, where the Pro2 and Pro1 are enantiomers actually. The calculated potential barrier of 51.3 kJ/mol is higher than that of the pathway (1). Correspondingly, the reaction energy for the both pathways is -258.5 kJ/mol. Additionally, the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory has also been performed to characterize the bonding interaction and structural features for the addition reaction.

  19. Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of terminal alkynes with ene-yne-ketones: access to conjugated enynes via metal carbene migratory insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ying; Liu, Zhen; Ge, Rui; Xiao, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-06-30

    A novel strategy for alkyne-alkyne cross-coupling has been developed under the palladium catalysis. In this reaction, ene-yne-ketones are employed as carbene precursors, which couple with terminal alkynes through the metal carbene migratory insertion process. Furan-substituted enynes are obtained in good yields and in a stereoselective manner. PMID:26077197

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and structural studies of multimetallic ferrocenyl carbene complexes of group VII transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, Daniela I; Lotz, Simon; Landman, Marilé; Liles, David C

    2011-02-21

    Fischer carbene complexes of the group VII transition metals (Mn and Re) containing at least two or three different transition metal substituents, all in electronic contact with the carbene carbon atom, were synthesized. The structural features and their relevance to bonding in the carbene multimetal compounds were investigated, as they represent indicators of possible reactivity sites in polymetallic carbene assemblies. For complexes of the type [ML(x){C(OR)R'}] (ML(x) = MnCp(CO)(2) or Re(2)(CO)(9)), ferrocenyl (Fc) was chosen as the R' substituent, while the OR substituent was systematically varied between an ethoxy or a titanoxy group, to yield the complexes 1a (ML(x) = MnCp(CO)(2), R = Et, R' = Fc), 2a (ML(x) = MnCp(CO)(2), R = TiCp(2)Cl, R' = Fc), 3a (ML(x) = Re(2)(CO)(9), R = Et, R' = Fc), and 4a (ML(x) = Re(2)(CO)(9), R = TiCp(2)Cl, R' = Fc). Direct lithiation of the ferrocene with n-BuLi/TMEDA at elevated temperatures, followed by the Fischer method of carbene preparation, resulted in formation of the novel biscarbene complexes with bridging ferrocen-1,1'-diyl (Fc') substituents [{?-Fe(C(5)H(4))(2)-C,C'}{C(OEt)ML(x)}(2)] (1b, ML(x) = MnCp(CO)(2); 3b, ML(x) = Re(2)(CO)(9)) or the unusual bimetallacyclic bridged biscarbene complexes [{?-TiCp(2)O(2)-O,O'}{?-Fe(C(5)H(4))(2)-C,C'}{CML(x)}(2)] (2b, ML(x) = MnCp(CO)(2); 4b, ML(x) = Re(2)(CO)(9)). The target compounds that were isolated displayed a variety of different geometric isomers and conformations. The greater reactivity of the binary dirhenium acylates in solution, compared to that of the cyclopentadienyl manganese acylate, resulted in a complex reaction mixture. Although the stabilization of hydroxycarbene or hydrido-acyl intermediates of dirhenium carbonyls could not be achieved, their existence in solution was confirmed by the isolation of [(?-H)(2)-(Re(CO)(4){C(O)Fc})(2)] (8), the unique dichloro-bridged biscarbene complex fac-[(?-Cl)(2)-(Re(CO)(3){C(OEt)Fc})(2)] (6), the known hydrido complex [Re(3)(CO)(14)H] (5), the acyl complex [Re(CO)(5){C(O)Fc}] (7), and the aldehyde-functionalized eq-[Re(2)(CO)(9){C(OTiCp(2)Cl)(Fc'CHO)}] (9). PMID:21250683

  1. Chemistry of diruthenium and dirhodium analogues of pentaborane(9): synthesis and characterization of metal n,s-heterocyclic carbene and B-agostic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dipak Kumar; Mondal, Bijan; Anju, R S; Ghosh, Sundargopal

    2015-02-23

    Building upon our earlier results on the synthesis of electron-precise transition-metal-boron complexes, we continue to investigate the reactivity of pentaborane(9) and tetraborane(10) analogues of ruthenium and rhodium towards thiazolyl and oxazolyl ligands. Thus, mild thermolysis of nido-[(Cp*RuH)2B3H7] (1) with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2-mbtz) and 2-mercaptobenzoxazole (2-mboz) led to the isolation of Cp*-based (Cp* = ?(5)-C5Me5) borate complexes 5?a,b [Cp*RuBH3L] (5?a: L = C7H4NS2; 5?b: L = C7H4NOS)) and agostic complexes 7?a,b [Cp*RuBH2(L)2], (7?a: L = C7H4NS2; 7?b: L = C7H4NOS). In a similar fashion, a rhodium analogue of pentaborane(9), nido-[(Cp*Rh)2B3H7] (2) yielded rhodaboratrane [Cp*RhBH(L)2], 10 (L = C7H4NS2). Interestingly, when the reaction was performed with an excess of 2-mbtz, it led to the formation of the first structurally characterized N,S-heterocyclic rhodium-carbene complex [(Cp*Rh)(L2)(1-benzothiazol-2-ylidene)] (11) (L = C7H4NS2). Furthermore, to evaluate the scope of this new route, we extended this chemistry towards the diruthenium analogue of tetraborane(10), arachno-[(Cp*RuCO)2B2H6] (3), in which the metal center possesses different ancillary ligands. PMID:25537367

  2. Electronic spectra of linear HC$_5$H and cumulene carbene H$_2$C$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Steglich, M; Maity, S; Nagy, A; Maier, J P

    2015-01-01

    The $1 ^3\\Sigma_u^- \\leftarrow X^3\\Sigma_g^-$ transition of linear HC$_5$H (A) has been observed in a neon matrix and gas phase. The assignment is based on mass-selective experiments, extrapolation of previous results of the longer HC$_{2n+1}$H homologues, and density functional and multi-state CASPT2 theoretical methods. Another band system starting at 303 nm in neon is assigned as the $1 ^1 A_1 \\leftarrow X ^1 A_1$ transition of the cumulene carbene pentatetraenylidene H$_2$C$_5$ (B).

  3. Synthesis and reactivity of metal carbene complexes with heterobiaryl spacer substituents

    OpenAIRE

    Lotz, Simon; Crause, Chantelle; Olivier, Andrew John; Liles, David C.; Go?rls, Helmar; Landman, Marile; Bezuidenhout, Daniela Ina

    2008-01-01

    Mono- and binuclear Fischer carbene complexes, [M(CO)5{C(OR)Ar-ArX}], X = H, {C(OR)M(CO)5}; M, M = W or Cr; R = Me, Et or (CH2)4OMe; Ar = thiophene, N-methylpyrrole or furan units 1–20, were synthesized. For this purpose, mono-, bi- or stepwise lithiated bithiophene, N,N-dimethylbipyrrole, thienylfuran and N-methyl(thienyl)pyrrole were reacted with chromium and tungsten hexacarbonyl precursors. Dilithiation in the 2- and 9-positions of N-methyl(thienyl)pyrrole could not be achieved. Alkylat...

  4. Bis-mixed-carbene ruthenium-thiolate-alkylidene complexes: synthesis and olefin metathesis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahcheh, Fatme; Stephan, Douglas W

    2015-01-28

    A series of bis-carbene Ru-hydride species, including (IMes)(Im(OMe)2)(PPh3)RuHCl (1) and (SIMes)(Me2Im(OMe)2)(PPh3)RuHCl (2) were prepared and subsequently shown to react with aryl-vinyl-sulfides to give the bis-carbene-alkylidene complexes: Im(OMe)2(SIMes)RuCl(SR)(=CHCH3) (R = p-FC6H4 (3), p-(NO2)C6H4 (4)), Im(OMe)2(IMes)RuCl(=CHCH3)(SPh) (5), Me2Im(OMe)2(SIMes)RuCl(=CHCH3)(SPh) (6), Im(OMe)2(SIMes)(F5C6S)RuCl(=CHR) (R = C4H9 (9), C5H11 (10)). The activity of these species in the standard Grubbs' tests for ring-opening metathesis polymerization, ring-closing and cross-metathesis are reported. Although these thiolate derivatives are shown to exhibit modest metathesis activities, the reactivity is enhanced in the presence of BCl3. PMID:25462569

  5. Carbene Spin Multiplicity in Solution Probed Using Time-Resolved EPR Spectroscopy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jin, Wang; Natalia V., Lebedeva; Matthew S., Platz; Malcolm D. E., Forbes.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Espectroscopia de resonancia paramagnética electrónica (EPR por las siglas en inglés) fue utilizada para detectar los radicales libres formados mediante reacciones de abstracción de átomos de hidrógeno de diversos carbenos generados fotoquímicamente en soluciones de n-hexano y a temperatura ambiente [...] . En particular, se describe el análisis de tres carbenos que fueron generados por fotoexcitación de un bifenilo con dos grupos diazo. Se identificaron señales EPR de dos radicales alquilo y uno bencílico. La estructura de dichos radicales se confirmó mediante un proceso de simulación computacional utilizando parámetros espectroscópicos (factores-g, constantes de acoplamiento hiperfino) reportados en la literatura. Experimentos previos de absorción óptica han llevado a la conclusión de que los carbenos estudiados presentan un estado basal de tipo triplete, lo que se confirma al observar las señales EPR de emisión a campo bajo pero de absorción a campo alto. Además, se encontró que los espectros presentan un espín fuertemente polarizado como consecuencia de un mecanismo CIDEP, y que la intensidad de las señales está relacionada con los rendimientos cuánticos asociados a la producción de los carbenos iniciales. Como era de esperarse, un tercer sustrato, que reacciona vía una reacción concertada de tipo Wolff a través de un reordenamiento del intermediario singulete producido en el estado excitado, no dio lugar a ninguna señal EPR. Así mismo, cuando las reacciones de los tres carbenos se llevan a cabo en acetonitrilo, la multiplicidad del espín se invierte de modo que se genera un estado basal.singulete, por lo que no se observan señales EPR. Los resultados descritos en este trabajo son consistentes con aquellos obtenidos mediante fotólisis láser. Abstract in english Time-resolved (CW) EPR spectroscopy at X-band has been used to detect free radicals created by H-atom abstraction reactions of photochemically generated carbenes in n-hexadecane solutions at room temperature. Three different carbenes were studied, formed via loss of nitrogen after photo-excitation o [...] f a substituted biphenyl diazo precursor. The TREPR signals from two different alkyl radicals and the benzylic-type radical from the carbene are detected for two of the three diazo substrates. The radicals were unambiguously identified by spectral simulation using literature parameters (g-factors and hyper-fine coupling constants). Previous transient optical absorption spectroscopy experiments have concluded that these two carbenes have triplet ground states, which is confirmed by the low field emissive, high field absorptive phase of the TREPR signals reported here. The spectra are strongly spin polarized by the Radical Pair Mechanism of CIDEP, and their overall intensities track with the measured quantum yields for carbene production. A third substrate, known to react via a concerted Wolff reaction or excited state rearrangement via a singlet state, showed no TREPR signal, as expected. Reactions run in acetonitrile, where the spin multiplicity is reversed to give a singlet ground state, did not lead to detectable TREPR signals for all three substrates. The observations are consistent with previously published laser flash photolysis results.

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Coupling Reaction of Aryl Bromides in Aqueous Media Using Tetrahydropyrimidinium Salts as Carbene Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?smail Özdemir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and stereoselective catalytic system for the Heck cross coupling reaction using novel 1,3-dialkyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts (1, LHX and Pd(OAc2 loading has been reported. The palladium complexes derived from the salts 1a-f prepared in situ exhibit good catalytic activity in the Heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides under mild conditions.

  7. Gas-phase synthesis of charged copper and silver Fischer carbenes from diazomalonates: mechanistic and conformational considerations in metal-mediated wolff rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Ryan R; May, Jeremy A; Stoltz, Brian M; Beauchamp, J L

    2003-04-16

    Copper(I) and silver(I) Fischer carbenes are synthesized in the gas phase. Various diazomalonate-based compounds with an attached metal ion are introduced into the gas phase by electrospray ionization and subjected to collisional activation. Loss of N(2) generates a metastable Fischer carbene, which subsequently undergoes Wolff rearrangement and loss of CO. Further excitation leads to the loss of another CO molecule and the generation of a stable Fischer carbene. Isotopically labeled compounds are utilized to confirm the assignment of the products resulting from this process. DFT calculations are used to evaluate various mechanistic possibilities and to quantitatively assess the energetics of reactants and products. Silver(I) is shown to be more effective in facilitating Wolff rearrangement than copper(I), although both are more effective when compared to spectator charges such as sodium or a fixed quaternary nitrogen. Carbenes are not produced when copper(II), nickel(II), or a proton is used to form a quasi-molecular ion from the diazomalonate carbene precursor. Finally, trapping of the Fischer carbene by various functional groups attached through the open coordination site of the metal is investigated. PMID:12683818

  8. Low-spin hexacoordinate Mn(III): synthesis and spectroscopic investigation of homoleptic tris(pyrazolyl)borate and tris(carbene)borate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Adam P; Smith, Jeremy M; Ozarowski, Andrew; Krzystek, J; Smirnov, Dmitry; Zvyagin, S A; Harris, T David; Karunadasa, Hemamala I; Zadrozny, Joseph M; Schnegg, Alexander; Holldack, Karsten; Jackson, Timothy A; Alamiri, Ahmad; Barnes, Diane M; Telser, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Three complexes of Mn(III) with "scorpionate" type ligands have been investigated by a variety of physical techniques. The complexes are [Tp(2)Mn]SbF(6) (1), [Tp(2)*Mn]SbF(6) (2), and [{PhB(MeIm)(3)}(2)Mn](CF(3)SO(3)) (3a), where Tp(-) = hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate anion, Tp*(-) = hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate anion, and PhB(MeIm)(3)(-) = phenyltris(3-methylimidazol-2-yl)borate anion. The crystal structure of 3a is reported; the structures of 1 and 2 have been previously reported, but were reconfirmed in this work. The synthesis and characterization of [{PhB(MeIm)(3)}(2)Mn]Cl (3b) are also described. These complexes are of interest in that, in contrast to many hexacoordinate (pseudo-octahedral) complexes of Mn(III), they exhibit a low-spin (triplet) ground state, rather than the high-spin (quintet) ground state. Solid-state electronic absorption spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and high-frequency and -field electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) spectroscopy were applied. HFEPR, in particular, was useful in characterizing the S = 1 spin Hamiltonian parameters for complex 1, D = +19.97(1), E = 0.42(2) cm(-1), and for 2, D = +15.89(2), E = 0.04(1) cm(-1). In addition, frequency domain Fourier-transform THz-EPR spectroscopy, using coherent synchrotron radiation, was applied to 1 only and gave results in good agreement with HFEPR. Variable-temperature dc magnetic susceptibility measurements of 1 and 2 were also in good agreement with the HFEPR results. This magnitude of zero-field splitting (zfs) is over 4 times larger than that in comparable hexacoordinate Mn(III) systems with S = 2 ground states. Complexes 3a and 3b (i.e., regardless of counteranion) have a yet much larger magnitude zfs, which may be the result of unquenched orbital angular momentum so that the spin Hamiltonian model is not appropriate. The triplet ground state is rationalized in each complex by ligand-field theory (LFT) and by quantum chemistry theory, both density functional theory and unrestricted Hartree-Fock methods. This analysis also shows that spin-crossover behavior is not thermally accessible for these complexes as solids. The donor properties of the three different scorpionate ligands were further characterized using the LFT model that suggests that the tris(carbene)borate is a strong ?-donor with little or no ?-bonding. PMID:23259486

  9. Ligand cooperation in the formal hydrogenation of N2O using a PC(sp2)P iridium pincer complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Lauren E; Piers, Warren E; Borau-Garcia, Javier

    2015-02-18

    A new PC(carbene)P pincer ligand with 2,3-benzo[b]thiophene linkers connecting the flanking dialkyl phosphine donors to the central carbene can be attached to Ir(I). The chloro derivative reacts with N2O with loss of N2 to form an iridaepoxide species by addition of an oxygen atom to the Ir?C linkage. This compound reacts with H2 to afford the oxidative addition product, in which the hydride ligands are trans to the Ir-O bond. Heating this dihydride results in slow release of H2O; kinetic and spectroscopic studies show that conversion of the dihydride to its isomer, in which the hydrides are cis to the Ir-O bond, is required for H2O elimination to take place. Together, these reactions constitute the stoichiometric conversion of N2O and H2 to N2 and H2O; further mechanistic studies suggest ways to make the system catalytic. PMID:25642725

  10. A search for thermal isomerization of olefins to carbenes: Thermal generations of the silicon-nitrogen double bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xianping.

    1990-09-21

    The first part of this thesis will search for the thermal isomerization of olefins to carbenes which is predicted to be a high energy process by calculations and has only been observed in a few strained olefins. The possibility of thermal isomerization of simple olefins to carbenes will be explored. Substitution of a silyl group on the double bond of an olefin allows a potential intermediate which has a {beta}-radical to the silyl group during the cis-trans isomerization. The effects of a trimethylsilyl group on this isomerization are the subject of this study. The second part of this thesis will include the generation and chemistry of intermediates containing a silicon-nitrogen double bond. The isomerization of parent silanimine to the aminosilylene was calculated to be a high energy process. New approaches to the silicon-nitrogen double bond will also be presented. 92 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Energy Transfer in a Hybrid Ir(III) Carbene-Pt(II) Acetylide Assembly for Efficient Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen-Tao; Yuan, Yong-Jun; Chen, Xin; Cai, Jian-Guang; Zou, Zhi-Gang

    2015-07-01

    A new heterometallic supramolecular complex, consisting of an iridium carbene-based unit appended to a platinum terpyridine acetylide unit, representing a new Ir(III) -Pt(II) structural motif, was designed and developed to act as an active species for photocatalytic hydrogen production. The results also suggested that a light-harvesting process is essential to realize the solar-to-fuel conversion in an artificial system as illustrated in the natural photosynthetic system. PMID:26096270

  12. Palladium-Catalyzed Tandem Carbene Migratory Insertion and Intramolecular Cyclization: Synthesis of Chromeno[4,3-b]chromene Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xue Song; Li, Nian Tai; Siyang, Hai Xiao; Liu, Pei Nian

    2015-05-01

    Chromeno[4,3-b]chromene is a ubiquitous structural motif found in various pharmaceuticals and biologically active compounds. A concise palladium-catalyzed reaction of vinyl iodides and salicyl N-tosylhydrazones has been achieved to afford a series of compounds containing the chromeno[4,3-b]chromene scaffold in moderate to high yield. This tandem reaction involves palladium(II) carbene migratory insertion and intramolecular cyclization assisted by an O nucleophile and tolerates various functional groups. PMID:25880468

  13. rac-cis-Dicarbonylchlorido{1-[2-(diphenylphosphanyl-?Pbenzyl]-3-(phenyl-?C1imidazol-2-ylidene-?C2}ruthenium(II dichloromethane monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Domski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ru(C28H22N2PCl(CO2]·CH2Cl2, the RuII atom exhibits a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The N-phenyl group of the ligand has undergone orthometalation; as a result, the tridentate phosphane-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligand is coordinating in a meridional fashion. This complex is of interest with respect to transfer hydrogenation catalysis and also provides an example of C—H activation behavior in late transition metal complexes. The dichloromethane solvent molecule is disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.873?(14:0.127?(14.

  14. Synthesis and reactions of cyclovalence isomers of azo-keto-carbenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel types of cycloaddition products with an azomethine imine functionality have been prepared from ?-azo-?'-diazo ketones with a carbon chain of variable length between the azo- and the keto-group; the reaction is induced by catalytical amounts of rhodium(II) acetate and occurs with the concomitant extrusion of dinitrogen. The synthesis of these cyclic azomethine imines succeeded in the course of the intramolecular reaction of the azo nitrogen atoms with a carbene/carbenoid carbon atom, in situ generated from the ?-diazoketone functionality; this is a novel cyclization reaction. Some of the resulting cyclization products are stable and have been isolated, others could only be trapped with dipolarophiles as [3+2] cycloadducts. The ring-size of the heterocyclic products depends on the one hand on the length of the carbon-chain (for n = 0, 1, 2) between the carbonyl carbon atom and the quaternary aliphatic or aromatic carbon atom that blocks the tautomerization of the azo-group in the starting material. On the other hand, the ring size depends on which of the two nitrogen atoms of the azo-group undergoes the ring closure with the carbene/carbenoid carbon atom generated from the ?-diazoketon functionality in the course of the reaction. By far the most serious problem in the preparation of the cyclic azomethine imines is the synthesis of the required ?-azo-?'-diazo ketones. A so far unknown property of the azo-group is its intramolecularly directed nucleophilicity olecularly directed nucleophilicity toward ketenes, which emerge from acid chlorides and anhydrides, or from ?-diazo ketones in the course of the Wolff rearrangement. This complicated the approach to the required ?-azo-?'-diazo ketones via these functionalities as precursors and with the desired chain length between the azo- and diazo-keto-groups. Nevertheless, these problems could be overcome by using alternative strategies. Utilizing ?-azo-?'-diazo ketones a largely commonly applicable approach to endocyclic and N-exocyclic azomethine imines was worked out, which results from the so far unknown intramolecular reaction of azo-nitrogen atoms on carbenoids (rhodium-stabilized carbenes). Work up and isolation of the different reaction products turned out not to be without difficulty. Most of the novel and in solution partly unstable compounds that were characterized in this thesis would not have been isolable in the conventional manner (chemical separation processes, column chromatography). However, this has been managed by employing the radial chromatography upon optimizing some parameters; apparently, this is a not widely known chromatographic separation method that enables fast separations with high efficiency. To clarify the question, why only certain azomethine imines react with special dipolarophiles, quantum-mechanical calculations of the reactants' frontier orbitals have been carried out; this resulted in a satisfactory concordance with the FMO theory by Fukui. Likewise, molecular calculations rationalize the observed stereo- and regioselectivity as well as the kinetic and thermodynamic reaction control in the course of cycloaddition reactions of azomethine imines. (author)

  15. Inserção C-H de carbenóides de ródio em água e reutilização do catalisador Rhodium (II carbene C-H insertion in water and catalyst reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno R. Candeias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A five-session laboratory experiment is described for the synthesis of a beta-lactam via Rh(II catalysed intramolecular C-H insertion of a alpha-diazo-alpha-ethoxycarbonylacetamide. The metallo-carbene, responsible for the C-H bond activation, was generated from the diazo substrate and the catalyst Rh2(OAc4. The high stability and solubility of the catalyst and the exclusive C-H insertion of the Rh-carbene allows the synthesis of this important heterocycle in water and the catalyst reutilization.

  16. Carbene supported dimer of heavier ketenimine analogue with p and si atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudipta; Dittrich, Birger; Mondal, Totan; Koley, Debasis; Stückl, A Claudia; Schwederski, Brigitte; Kaim, Wolfgang; John, Michael; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Linser, Rasmus; Roesky, Herbert W

    2015-05-20

    A cyclic alkyl(amino) carbene (cAAC) stabilized dimer [(cAAC)Si(P-Tip)]2 (2) (Tip = 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl) is reported. 2 can be considered as a dimer of the heavier ketenimine (R2C?C?N-R) analogue. The dark-red rod-shaped crystals of 2 were synthesized by reduction of the precursor, cAAC-dichlorosilylene-stabilized phosphinidene (cAAC)SiCl2?P-Tip with sodium napthalenide. The crystals of 2 are storable at room temperature for several months and stable up to 215 °C under an inert atmosphere. X-ray single-crystal diffraction revealed that 2 contains a cyclic nonplanar four-membered SiPSiP ring. Magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the singlet spin ground state of 2. Cyclic voltammetry of 2 showed a quasi-reversible one-electron reduction indicating the formation of the corresponding radical anion 2(•-), which was further characterized by EPR measurements in solution. The electronic structure and bonding of 2 and 2(•-) were studied by theoretical calculations. The experimentally obtained data are in good agreement with the calculated values. PMID:25919008

  17. Novel 7-phenylsulfanyl-1,2,3,4,10,10a-hexahydro-pyrazino[1,2-a]indoles as dual serotonin 5-HT2C and 5-HT6 receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels; Jensen, Anders A.

    2010-01-01

    Novel 7-phenylsulfanyl-1,2,3,4,10,10a-hexahydro-pyrazino[1,2-a]indoles are synthesized using a six-step protocol. Notably, the synthesis route make use of a new and improved ring-closing methodology for the assembly of the hexahydro-pyrazino[1,2-a]indole scaffold, which is based on intramolecular C-H insertion of a carbene. The compounds act as dual serotonin 5-HT2C- and 5-HT6-ligands.

  18. Rapid Generation and Safe Use of Carbenes Enabled by a Novel Flow Protocol with In-line IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Simon T R; Murat, Aurélien; Maillos, Delphine; Lesimple, Patrick; Hellier, Paul; Wirth, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    A powerful new continuous process for the formation and use of donor/acceptor-substituted carbenes is described. The safety profile of diazo group transfer on methyl phenylacetate was determined including kinetic studies in batch and in flow using in-line IR analysis. Batch work-up and liquid chromatography were circumvented by developing an optimized liquid/liquid flow separation method providing aryl diazoacetates in high purity. Fast screening of reaction conditions in flow with in-line IR analysis allowed rapid reaction optimization. Finally, a multistep process of diazo group transfer, extraction, separation and subsequent diazo decomposition combined with multiple X?H insertion reactions was established. PMID:25808068

  19. Ligand modeling and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, B.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used in the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. Organic ligands with metal ion specificity are critical components in the development of solvent extraction and ion exchange processes that are highly selective for targeted radionuclides. The traditional approach to the development of such ligands involves lengthy programs of organic synthesis and testing, which in the absence of reliable methods for screening compounds before synthesis, results in wasted research effort. The author`s approach breaks down and simplifies this costly process with the aid of computer-based molecular modeling techniques. Commercial software for organic molecular modeling is being configured to examine the interactions between organic ligands and metal ions, yielding an inexpensive, commercially or readily available computational tool that can be used to predict the structures and energies of ligand-metal complexes. Users will be able to correlate the large body of existing experimental data on structure, solution binding affinity, and metal ion selectivity to develop structural design criteria. These criteria will provide a basis for selecting ligands that can be implemented in separations technologies through collaboration with other DOE national laboratories and private industry. The initial focus will be to select ether-based ligands that can be applied to the recovery and concentration of the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions including cesium, strontium, and radium.

  20. Ligand modeling and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used tin applications for the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams.

  1. Transition metal-induced activation of alkynes leading to metal carbene species: synthetic application to new ?-conjugated molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in situ generation of furylcarbene complexes by means of transition metals was applied to catalytic carbene reactions, such as Wittig-type olefination and cycloisomerization reactions. In the presence of [Rh(OAc)2]2 as a catalyst and triphenylphosphine as a carbene accepter, carbonyl-ene-ynes 1a reacted with benzaldehyde to give a 2-styrylfuran derivative 3a. The reaction involving phosphine-ylide formation followed by Wittig-type olefination with aldehydes was applied to synthesis of furfurylidene-containing p-extended conjugated molecules. A Ruthenium catalyst underwent cycloisomerization of 1,2-bis(carbonylenyl)acetylene 10a,b to afford 2,2'-bifuran structures. The crystal structure of 5,5'-diphenyl-2,2'-bifuran 11b was determined by X-ray crystallography. The ORTEP drawings of 11b exhibited transoid and highly planar structure. The emission bands of the bisfuran 11b were observed at 414 and 440 nm, its quantum yield (84%) was higher than that of a similar 5,5'-diphenyl-2,2'-bithiophene

  2. Experimental evidence for cobalt(III)-carbene radicals: key intermediates in cobalt(II)-based metalloradical cyclopropanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongjian; Dzik, Wojciech I; Xu, Xue; Wojtas, Lukasz; de Bruin, Bas; Zhang, X Peter

    2011-06-01

    New and conclusive evidence has been obtained for the existence of cobalt(III)-carbene radicals that have been previously proposed as the key intermediates in the underlying mechanism of metalloradical cyclopropanation by cobalt(II) complexes of porphyrins. In the absence of olefin substrates, reaction of [Co(TPP)] with ethyl styryldiazoacetate was found to generate the corresponding cobalt(III)-vinylcarbene radical that subsequently dimerizes via its ?-radical allylic resonance form to afford a dinuclear cobalt(III) porphyrin complex. X-ray structural analysis reveals a highly compact dimeric structure wherein the two metalloporphyrin units are arranged in a face-to-face fashion through a tetrasubstituted 1,5-hexadiene C(6)-bridge between the two Co(III) centers. The ?-radical allylic resonance form of the cobalt(III)-vinylcarbene radical intermediate could be effectively trapped by TEMPO via C-O bond formation to give a mononuclear cobalt(III) complex instead of the dimeric product. The allylic radical nature and related reactivity profile of the cobalt(III)-carbene radical, including its inability to abstract hydrogen atoms from toluene solvent, were established by DFT calculations. PMID:21563829

  3. Unexpected drastic decrease in the excited-state electronic communication between porphyrin chromophores covalently linked by a palladium(II) bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Mohammed; Karsenti, Paul-Ludovic; Langlois, Adam; Lefebvre, Jean-François; Richeter, Sébastien; Ruppert, Romain; Harvey, Pierre D

    2014-09-26

    A dyad built up of a zinc(II) porphyrin and the corresponding free base, [Zn-Fb], fused to N-heterocyclic carbene (NHCs) ligands, respectively acting as singlet energy donor and acceptor, and a bridging trans-PdI2 unit, along with the corresponding [Zn-Zn] and [Fb-Fb] dimers were prepared and investigated by absorption and emission spectroscopy and density functional computations. Despite favorable structural and spectroscopic parameters, unexpectedly slow singlet energy transfer rates are measured in comparison with the predicted values by the Förster theory and those observed for other structurally related dyads. This observation is rationalized by the lack of large molecular orbital (MO) overlaps between the frontier MOs of the donor and acceptor, thus preventing a double electron exchange through the trans-PdI2 bridge, and by an electronic shielding induced by the presence of this same linker preventing the two chromophores to fully interact via their transition dipoles. PMID:25123591

  4. Group 6 heteroatom- and non-heteroatom-stabilized carbene complexes. beta,beta'- and alpha,beta,beta'-annulation reactions of cyclic enamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barluenga, José; Ballesteros, Alfredo; Bernardo De La Rúa, Ramón; Santamaría, Javier; Rubio, Eduardo; Tomás, Miguel

    2003-02-19

    Cyclization reactions of group 6 Fischer carbene complexes with cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone enamines are described. Enamine 3a undergoes thermal alpha,beta,beta'-annulation with alkenylcarbene complexes 1 and 2 (THF, 60 degrees C), affording semibullvalenes 5. The metalate intermediates 6, resulting from beta,beta'-annulation of the enamines 3a and 4a, were quantitatively formed by running the reaction in hexane at room temperature. Acid-promoted demetalation of 6 afforded endo-2-bicyclo[3.2.1]octen-8-ones 7 and endo/exo-2-bicyclo[3.3.1]nonen-9-ones 8 (endo/exo = 5:1). Using (S)-methoxymethylpyrrolidine-derived enamines 3b and 4b,c allowed highly enantioenriched cycloadducts endo-(+)-7 as well as endo-(-)-8 and exo-(-)-8 to be accessed. The non-heteroatom-stabilized carbene complex 10 was formed from complex 6 by Me(3)SiOTf-promoted elimination of the methoxy group, characterized by (13)C NMR, and transformed into the organic compounds 7, 7-d, and 11 as well as into bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-2,8-diones 14 and cycloheptanones 15. On the basis of this sequence, enantioenriched cycloheptanones (+)-15 were efficiently prepared in one pot from carbene complexes 2 and enamine 3b (51-55% yield, 91-96% ee). Extension of this work to simple Fischer carbene complexes 16 allowed an appropriate way to generate the nonstabilized pentacarbonyl[(phenyl(alkyl)carbene]tungsten complex 17 to be designed, for which the thermal and chemical behavior leading to compounds 18-21 is described. PMID:12580610

  5. Theoretical studies of the insertion of carbenes in the zeolite framework: modification of the acidity and creation of chiral sites

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Beatriz S., Mota; Nilton, Rosenbach Jr.; Claudio J. A., Mota.

    1021-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo teórico da inserção de carbenos (CH2 e CHCHO) na estrutura cristalina da zeólita Y. O método our own n-layered integrated molecular orbital and molecular mechanics (ONIOM) M062x/6-31G(d,p):PM6 foi utilizado para descrever a inserção do metileno (CH2) nas ligações T-O (T = Si [...] ou Al) da rede resultando em quatro estruturas isômeras. Em todos os casos os cálculos indicaram uma alta exotermicidade para a inserção do metileno na rede cristalina, independentemente da multiplicidade do carbeno (singlete ou triplete). A inserção na ligação O-H ácida para formar um grupo metóxi adsorvido foi o processo mais favorável, mas este caminho não ocorre se a inserção é feita na zeólita desprotonada. A inserção do formil-carbeno (CHCHO) cria centros quirais na estrutura cristalina. A acidez da zeólita após a inserção dos carbenos foi calculada usando a energia de desprotonação. Os cálculos predizem a possibilidade de desenvolver zeólitas ácidas com centros quirais, que poderiam imitar enzimas, especialmente para uso em processos de química fina e transformação de biomassa. Abstract in english A theoretical study of the insertion of carbenes (CH2, CHCHO) in the framework structure of zeolite Y was carried out. The "our own n-layered integrated molecular orbital and molecular mechanics" (ONIOM) scheme M062x/6-31G(d,p):PM6 was used to describe the insertion of methylene (CH2) in the T-O bon [...] ds (T = Si, Al) of the framework yielding four isomeric structures. In all cases, calculations indicated a high exothermic process for the insertion of methylene in the framework, regardless of the spin multiplicity of the carbene (singlet or triplet). Insertion into the acidic O-H bond to afford an adsorbed methoxy group was the most favourable process, but this pathway does not occur if insertion is carried out on the deprotonated zeolite. Insertion of formylcarbene (CHCHO) creates chiral sites in the framework. The acidity of the zeolite structures after carbene insertion was calculated by means of the deprotonation energy. The calculations predicted the possibility of designing acidic zeolites with chiral sites that could mimic enzymes, especially for uses in fine chemical processes and biomass transformations.

  6. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo characterization of rhenium tricarbonyl complexes with different bifunctional tridentate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discovery of new chelating ligands that bind technetium/rhenium strongly is a priority in the quest toward the design and development of site specific radiopharmaceuticals. The current study on the application of Tc/Re carbonyls in radiopharmaceuticals has been focused on the utility of specific tridentate ligand systems for achieving kinetic inertness and in vivo stability. In this paper, (Bis (2-pyridylmethyl)-amino)-ethylamine(1) (Fig. 1), (Bis (2-pyridylmethyl)-amino)-acetic acid (2) (Fig. 1), L(6-amino-hexyl)-pyridyl-2-methyl- amino-acetic acid (3) (Fig. 2), and picolylamine diacetic acid (4) (Fig. 3) that possessed an NNN, NNO and NOO donor atom sets were synthesized, which can be a good selection for these requirements. The Re(I)-complexes of above four ligands were prepared in good yield with [NEt4]2[ReBr3(CO)3] in water at 75 degree C for 3 h. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. The 188Re(I)-complexes of Four ligands were carried out by incubating the fac- [188Re(CO)3(H2O)3]+ fragment for 60 min at 75 degree C in PBS buffer (0.1 M NaCl/0.05 M sodium phosphate buffered, pH 7.4) under nitrogen. After cooling in ice bath, complexes formations were monitored by HPLC. The HPLC analysis demonstrated that the reaction produces in the complex 1 with yield greater than 95% and its retention times was 7.5 min, whichand its retention times was 7.5 min, which is stable for more than 12 h in human serum, and the complex 2 with yield 93% is stable for more than 8 h in human serum, its retention times was 15.5 min, and the complex 3 with yield 90% is stable for more than 10 h in human serum, its retention times was 15.4 min, while the complex 4 with yields more than 92% can be stable 10 h in human serum and its retention time was 15.6 min respectively. The identity of the 188Re-complexes were proved by comparative HPLC studies using samples of the well characterized thenium(I) complexes as reference. In vivo biodistribution studies at 24 hour post-injection were carried out in normal, white mice. The biodistribution data are shown in table 1. The data show: the major part of the complexes cleared efficiently from the blood pool (0.09-0.67%); No organs (apart from liver and kidneys) or tissue was specifically targeted; Low activity (0.25-0.93%) found in the stomach indicated the good in vivo stability of the complexes. In conclusion, four ligands react with fac- [M(CO)3(H2O)3]+ (M=188Re, Re) fragment resulting in four single stable complexes, M(CO)3(1), M(CO)3(2), M(CO)3(3) and M(CO)3(4), containing aromatic N-heterocycles. These ligand systems are attractive for functionalization purposes of biological vectors since they are easy to synthesize. The corresponding complexes with fac-[M(CO)3(H2O)3]+ are in vivo and vitro stable. Thus the proposed strategy of attaching M(CO)3(1), M(CO)3(2), M(CO)3(3) and M(CO)3(4) complexes is promising for labeling of biomolecules. The approach is worthy of further investigation.

  7. Metal-metal interaction in Fischer carbene complexes: a study of ferrocenyl and biferrocenyl tungsten alkylidene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Belinda; Speck, J Matthäus; Korb, Marcus; Friedrich, Joachim; Bezuidenhout, Daniela I; Lang, Heinrich

    2013-12-16

    A series of ferrocenyl (Fc = ferrocenyl; fc = ferrocen-1,1'-diyl) and biferrocenyl (Bfc = 1',1?-biferrocenyl; bfc = 1',1?-biferrocen-1,1?-diyl) mono- and biscarbene tungsten(0) complexes of the type [(CO)5W?C(OMe)R] (1, R = Fc; 3, R = Bfc) and [(CO)5W?C(OMe)-R'-(OMe)C?W(CO)5] (2, R' = fc; 4, R' = bfc) were synthesized according to the classical synthetic methodology by reacting W(CO)6 with LiR (R = Fc, fc, bfc), followed by a subsequent alkylation using methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate. Electrochemical investigations were carried out on these complexes to get a closer insight into the electronic properties of 1-4. The ferrocenyl and biferrocenyl moieties in 1-4 show reversible one-electron redox events. It was further found that the Fischer carbene unit is reducible in an electrochemical one-electron transfer process. For the tungsten carbonyl moieties, irreversible oxidation processes were found. In addition, charge transfer studies were performed on 1-4 using in situ UV-vis-NIR and infrared spectroelectrochemical techniques. During the UV-vis-NIR investigations, typical low energy transitions for the mixed-valent biferrocenyl unit were found. A further observed high energy NIR absorption is attributed to a metal-metal charge transfer transition between the tungsten carbonyl fragment and the ferrocenyl/biferrocenyl group in the corresponding oxidized states, which can be described as class II systems according to Robin and Day. This assignment was verified by infrared spectroelectrochemical studies. The electrochemical investigations are supported by density functional theory calculations. The structural properties of 1-4 in the solid state were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies showing no substituent effects on bond lengths and angles. The biferrocenyl derivatives exhibit syn-conformation of the ferrocenyl and carbene building blocks. PMID:24299202

  8. Ligand-Receptor Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bongrand, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The formation and dissociation of specific noncovalent interactions between a variety of macromolecules play a crucial role in the function of biological systems. During the last few years, three main lines of research led to a dramatic improvement of our understanding of these important phenomena. First, combination of genetic engineering and X ray cristallography made available a simultaneous knowledg of the precise structure and affinity of series or related ligand-receptor systems differing by a few well-defined atoms. Second, improvement of computer power and simulation techniques allowed extended exploration of the interaction of realistic macromolecules. Third, simultaneous development of a variety of techniques based on atomic force microscopy, hydrodynamic flow, biomembrane probes, optical tweezers, magnetic fields or flexible transducers yielded direct experimental information of the behavior of single ligand receptor bonds. At the same time, investigation of well defined cellular models raised the ...

  9. Radiobiology with DNA ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the following topics: labelling of DNA ligands and other tumour-affinic compounds with 4.15-d 124I, radiotoxicity of Hoechst 33258 and 33342 and of iodinated Hoechst 33258 in cell cultures, preparation of 76Br-, 123I-, and 221At-labelled 5-halo-2'-deoxyuridine, chemical syntheses of boron derivatives of Hoechst 33258.III., Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

  10. 1. Medicinal chemistry of a small molecule drug lead: Tamoxilog 2. Electronic communication through ruthenium nanoparticles: Synthesis of custom ligands and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Nathaniel Benjamin

    1. Compound NSC-670224, previously shown to be toxic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae at low micromolar concentrations, potentially acts via a mechanism of action related to that of tamoxifen (NSC 180973), a widely utilized breast cancer drug. The structure of NSC-670224, previously thought to be a 2,4-dichloro arene, was established as the 3,4-dichloro arene, and a focused library of analogues were synthesized and biologically evaluated in conjunction with the UCSC Chemical Screening Center. The synthesis of a biotinylated affinity probe was also completed in order to extract the protein target(s) of NSC-670224 from yeast and human cell lines in collaboration with the Hartzog lab (UCSC MCD Biology) 2. Stabilization of ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) through carbene bound ligands has led to a simple and effective means to generate new materials with unique optoelectronic properties. The affinity of freshly prepared Ru NPs to diazo compounds, specifically octyl diazoacetate (ODA), provides a robust nanostructure that can be further functionalized via metathesis of terminal olefins to generate these unique materials. Carbene-stabilized Ru NPs have provided insights into the nature of extended conjugation and intraparticle charge delocalization through covalently bound probes (e.g., ferrocene and pyrene). The growing interest to study electronic communication through Ru NPs has lead to collaborative, multidisciplinary efforts between analytical (Shaowei Chen lab, UCSC), theoretical (Haobin Wang Lab, NMSU), and synthetic organic chemists (Konopelski Lab, UCSC). With this powerful collaboration, new methods to generate stabilized Ru NPs, testing theory with experiment, and efficient means to functionalize NPs have been investigated. The syntheses of custom ligands and their applications to nanoparticle-mediated electronic communication are reported.

  11. Gold(I)-Catalyzed Hydroarylation of Allenes with Indoles

    OpenAIRE

    Toups, Kristina L.; Liu, Gordon T.; Widenhoefer, Ross A.

    2007-01-01

    Reaction of a monosubstituted, 1,3-disubstituted, or tetrasubstituted allene with various indoles catalyzed by a 1:1 mixture of a gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complex and AgOTf at room temperature leads to hydroarylation with formation of 3-allyl-indoles in modest to good yield.

  12. Traditional and ion-pair halogen-bonded complexes between chlorine and bromine derivatives and a nitrogen-heterocyclic carbene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso-Tauda, Oscar; Jaque, Pablo; Elguero, José; Alkorta, Ibon

    2014-10-01

    A theoretical study of the halogen-bonded complexes (A-X···C) formed between halogenated derivatives (A-X; A = F, Cl, Br, CN, CCH, CF3, CH3, H; and X = Cl, Br) and a nitrogen heterocyclic carbene, 1,3-dimethylimidazole-2-ylidene (MeIC) has been performed using MP2/aug'-cc-pVDZ level of theory. Two types of A-X:MeIC complexes, called here type-I and -II, were found and characterized. The first group is described by long C-X distances and small binding energies (8-54 kJ·mol(-1)). In general, these complexes show the traditional behavior of systems containing halogen-bonding interactions. The second type is characterized by short C-X distances and large binding energies (148-200 kJ·mol(-1)), and on the basis of the topological analysis of the electron density, they correspond to ion-pair halogen-bonded complexes. These complexes can be seen as the interaction between two charged fragments: A(-) and (+)[X-CIMe] with a high electrostatic contribution in the binding energy. The charge transfer between lone pair A(LP) to the ?* orbital of C-X bond is also identified as a significant stabilizing interaction in type-II complexes. PMID:25188812

  13. Thin films of molecular materials synthesized from fisher's carbene ferrocenyl: Film formation and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Vergara, M.E. [Coordinacion de Ingenieria Mecatronica. Escuela de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac del Norte. Avenida Lomas de la Anahuac s/n, Col. Lomas Anahuac, 52786, Huixquilucan (Mexico)], E-mail: elena.sanchez@anahuac.mx; Ortiz, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. A. P. 70-360, 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Alvarez-Toledano, C.; Moreno, A. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Alvarez, J.R. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad de Mexico. Calle del Puente 222, Col. Ejidos de Huipulco, 14380, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2008-07-31

    The synthesis of materials from Fisher's carbene ferrocenyl of the elements chromium, molybdenum and tungsten was carried out. The Fisher's compounds that were synthesized included the following combinations of two different metallic atoms: iron with chromium, iron with molybdenum and iron with tungsten. The molecular solids' preparation was done in electro-synthesis cells with platinum electrodes. Thin films were prepared by vacuum thermal evaporation on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers. Pellets and thin films from these compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. The powder and thin films synthesized from these materials show the same intra-molecular bonds shown by infrared spectroscopy results, suggesting that thermal evaporation does not alter these bonds in spite of the thin films being amorphous, in contrast with other bimetallic complexes where material decomposition occurs. The differences in the conductivity values of the prepared films are very small, so they may be attributed to the different metallic ions employed in each case. The tungsten complex exhibits a higher conductivity than the molybdenum and chromium complexes at room temperature. Electrical conductivity values found for thin films are higher than for pellets made of the same molecular materials.

  14. CB2 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J W

    2005-07-01

    The CB(1) receptor is found principally in the central nervous system and is responsible for the overt physiological effects of cannabinoids. In contrast, the CB(2) receptor is expressed primarily in the immune system and is responsible for few, if any, obvious behavioral effects. Although many cannabinoid receptor ligands show little, or at best modest, selectivity for either receptor, a number of synthetic compounds are known which have significant selectivity for the CB(2) receptor. These include cannabimimetic indoles, such as 1-propyl-2-methyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-015) and 1-(2,3-dichlorobenzoyl)-2-methyl-3-(2-[1-morpho-lino]ethyl)-5-methoxyindole (L768242), both of which have good affinity for the CB(2) receptor, but weak affinity for the CB(1) receptor. Efforts have been made to develop structure-activity relationships (SAR) at CB(2) for cannabimimetic indoles, but with limited success. Several derivatives of traditional dibenzopyran based cannabinoids have also been found to have significant selectivity for the CB(2) receptor. These include 1-methoxy-Delta(8)-THC derivatives, 1-methoxy-Delta(8)-THC-DMH (L759633), 1-methoxy-Delta(9(11))-THC-DMH (L759656), and 1-methoxy-3-(1',1'-dimethylhexyl)-Delta(8)-THC (JWH-229), plus a number of 1-deoxy-Delta(8)-THC analogues. In particular, 1-deoxy-3-(1',1'-dimethylbutyl)-Delta(8)-THC (JWH-133) shows two hundred-fold selectivity for the CB(2) receptor. Very recently several compounds belonging to other structural groups have also shown selectivity for the CB(2) receptor. This review will describe the current status of the results of these studies and discuss the SAR for these classes of ligands. PMID:16026310

  15. Formation of the first derivatives of praseodymium-containing metallofullerenes via regioselective carbene addition to Pr rate at C{sub 2v}(9)-C{sub 82}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qin; Li, Hui; Wang, Yan; Lian, Yongfu [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin (China)

    2014-12-01

    The first derivatives of praseodymium-containing metallofullerenes are formed through regioselective cycloaddition of adamantylidene carbene to Pr rate at C{sub 2v}(9)-C{sub 82}, and two isomers out of the 35 possible monoadducts are successfully isolated. Optical adsorption and electrical chemistry characterizations indicate that the electronic property of Pr rate at C{sub 2v}(9)-C{sub 82} is largely pertained in these derivatives, since their ?-electron systems are not altered markedly. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Blue phosphorescent nitrile containing C^C* cyclometalated NHC platinum(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronnier, Alexander; Metz, Stefan; Wagenblast, Gerhard; Muenster, Ingo; Strassner, Thomas

    2014-02-28

    Since C^C* cyclometalated Pt(II) complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have been identified as potential emitter materials in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), very promising results regarding quantum yields, colour and stability have been presented. Herein, we report on four nitrile substituted complexes with a chelating NHC ligand (1-(4-cyanophenyl)-3-isopropyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole or 4-(tert-butyl)-1-(4-cyanophenyl)-3-methyl-1H-imidazole) and a bidentate monoanionic auxiliary ligand (acetylacetone or dimesitoylmethane). The complexes have been fully characterized including extensive 2D NMR studies (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY, (195)Pt NMR), three of them also by solid-state structures. Photophysical measurements in amorphous PMMA films and pure emitter films at room temperature reveal the impact of the mesityl groups in the auxiliary ligand, which led to a significant increase of the quantum yield, while the decay lifetimes decreased. The electron withdrawing nitrile groups shift the emission towards blue colour coordinates. PMID:24362536

  17. Released ligand fluoroimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is one of the most sensitive and specific methods for analysis of proteins, drugs and other substances commonly found in biological fluids. Because of the limited stability and problems in handling radioisotopes (particularly 125I), there has been a continuous effort in recent years to develop non-isotopic immunoassays. Fluoroimmunoassay is one of the more promising alternatives to RIA, but has relatively low sensitivity due to background fluorescence from other substances in biological fluids. The authors have proposed an alternative type of fluoroimmunoassay, released ligand fluoroimmunoassay (RLFIA), wherein the fluorophore is released from the analyte and analyzed separately, thus reducing the problems of background fluorescence. 1-(4-(3-(2,3-dihydroxy-1-carboxyethyl))-phenyl)-3-(3-(7-diethylamino-4-methylcoumarinyl)) thiourea (IX), a fluorescent coumarin derivative with a periodate cleavable vic-glycol linkage, was synthesized and employed to demonstrate the principle of RLFIA. The principle of the RLFIA was tested by comparison with a commercially available kit Immuno-Fluor IgG Assay. Because of the lower quantum yield of the fluorophore used, the sensitivity of the resulting RLFIA was only one tenth that of the commercial kit. As an outgrowth of this project, a series of analogs of compound IX, having electron donating and withdrawing groups at the phenyl ring, were synthesized in order to study the effect of substituent on flu to study the effect of substituent on fluorescence yield. An interactive computer graphics system, Chemical Structure Drawing 2-Dimensional (CSD2D), developed by the author mainly for the generation of publication quality structure drawings is also described

  18. Synthesis, structural characterization, reactivity, and catalytic properties of copper(I) complexes with a series of tetradentate tripodal tris(pyrazolylmethyl)amine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldón, Estela; Delgado-Rebollo, Manuela; Prieto, Auxiliadora; Alvarez, Eleuterio; Maya, Celia; Nicasio, M Carmen; Pérez, Pedro J

    2014-04-21

    Novel tris(pyrazolylmethyl)amine ligands Tpa(Me3), Tpa*(,Br), and Tpa(Br3) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The coordination chemistries of these three new tetradentate tripodal ligands and the already known Tpa and Tpa* have been explored using different copper(I) salts as starting materials. Cationic copper(I) complexes [Tpa(x)Cu]PF6 (1-4) have been isolated from the reaction of [Cu(NCMe)4]PF6 and 1 equiv of the ligand. Complexes 2 (Tpa(x) = Tpa*) and 3 (Tpa(x) = Tpa(Me3)) have been characterized by X-ray studies. The former is a 1D helical coordination polymer, and the latter is a tetranuclear helicate. In both structures, the Tpa(x) ligand adopts a ?(2):?(2):?(1)-coordination mode. However, in solution, all of the four complexes form fluxional species. When CuI is used as the copper(I) source, neutral compounds 5-8 have been obtained. Complexes 6-8 exhibit a 1:1 metal-to-ligand ratio, whereas 5 presents 2:1 stoichiometry. Its solid-state structure has been determined by X-ray diffraction, revealing its 3D polymeric nature. The polymer is composed by the assembly of [Tpa2Cu4I4] units, in which Cu4I4 presents a step-stair structure. The Tpa ligands bridge the Cu4I4 clusters, adopting also a ?(2):?(2):?(1)-coordination mode. As observed for the cationic derivatives, the NMR spectra of 5-8 show the equivalence of the three pyrazolyl arms of the ligands in these complexes. The reactivities of cationic copper(I) derivatives 1-4 with PPh3 and CO have been explored. In all cases, 1:1 adducts [Tpa(x)CuL]PF6 [L = PPh3 (9-11), CO (12-15)] have been isolated. The crystal structure of [Tpa*Cu(PPh3)]PF6 (9) has been obtained, showing that the coordination geometry around copper(I) is trigonal-pyramidal with the apical position occupied by the tertiary amine N atom. The Tpa* ligand binds the Cu center to three of its four N atoms, with one pyrazolyl arm remaining uncoordinated. In solution, the carbonyl adducts 13-15 exist as a mixture of two isomers; the four- and five-coordinate species can be distinguished by means of their IR ?CO stretching bands. Finally, the catalytic activities of complexes 1-4 have been demonstrated in carbene- and nitrene-transfer reactions. PMID:24697594

  19. Spin-state energetics and spin-crossover behavior of pseudotetrahedral cobalt(III)-imido complexes. The role of the tripodal supporting ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasbotten, Ingar H; Ghosh, Abhik

    2007-09-17

    DFT calculations have underscored the importance of the tripodal supporting ligand in tuning the spin-state energetics of pseudotetrahedral transition metal imido complexes. In particular, we have focused on Co(III)-imido complexes, where our best estimate (OLYP) of the singlet-triplet splitting varies from 0.75 eV for a trisphosphine complex (1) and 0.3 eV for a tris(N-heteroyclic-carbene) complex (2) to essentially 0.0 eV for a hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate (3) complex. The experimentally studied analogues of 1, 2, and 3 all exhibit S = 0 ground states; however, the experimental analogue of 3 exhibits spin-crossover behavior due to a low-lying S = 1 state. Interestingly, whereas all the pure functionals examined successfully predict nearly equienergetic singlet end triplet states for 3, the hybrid functionals B3LYP and O3LYP exhibit a clear (and incorrect) preference for the S = 2 state. In addition, we have also carried out an exploratory survey of Cr(III), Mn(III), and Fe(III) imido complexes with trisphosphine and hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate (Tp) supporting ligands. Among the more interesting predictions of this study is that an FeIII(Tp)(imido) species should exhibit a high-spin S = 5/2 ground state, which would be unique for an iron-imido complex. PMID:17713903

  20. Site-directed ligand discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanson, Daniel A.; Braisted, Andrew C.; Raphael, Darren R.; Randal, Mike; Stroud, Robert M.; Gordon, Eric M.; Wells, James A.

    2000-01-01

    We report a strategy (called “tethering”) to discover low molecular weight ligands (?250 Da) that bind weakly to targeted sites on proteins through an intermediary disulfide tether. A native or engineered cysteine in a protein is allowed to react reversibly with a small library of disulfide-containing molecules (?1,200 compounds) at concentrations typically used in drug screening (10 to 200 ?M). The cysteine-captured ligands, which are readily identified by MS, are among the most stable complexes, even though in the absence of the covalent tether the ligands may bind very weakly. This method was applied to generate a potent inhibitor for thymidylate synthase, an essential enzyme in pyrimidine metabolism with therapeutic applications in cancer and infectious diseases. The affinity of the untethered ligand (Ki?1 mM) was improved 3,000-fold by synthesis of a small set of analogs with the aid of crystallographic structures of the tethered complex. Such site-directed ligand discovery allows one to nucleate drug design from a spatially targeted lead fragment. PMID:10944209

  1. Molecular Recognition and Ligand Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Riccardo; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We review recent developments in our understanding of molecular recognition and ligand association, focusing on two major viewpoints: (a) studies that highlight new physical insight into the molecular recognition process and the driving forces determining thermodynamic signatures of binding and (b) recent methodological advances in applications to protein-ligand binding. In particular, we highlight the challenges posed by compensating enthalpic and entropic terms, competing solute and solvent contributions, and the relevance of complex configurational ensembles comprising multiple protein, ligand, and solvent intermediate states. As more complete physics is taken into account, computational approaches increase their ability to complement experimental measurements, by providing a microscopic, dynamic view of ensemble-averaged experimental observables. Physics-based approaches are increasingly expanding their power in pharmacology applications.

  2. Mixed ligand complexes of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed ligand complexes of U(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) such as UCl4.2DPC.EA, 2UCl4.DPC.2EA, UO2Cl2.2DPC.EA, 2UO2Cl2.DPC.2EA, UO2Cl2.2DPTC.EA, UO2(NO3)2.2DPC.EA, and UO2(NO3)2.2DPTC.EA have been prepared by the interaction of UCl4, UO2Cl2 or UO2(NO3)2 with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) or 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazide (DPTC) as primary ligand and ethyl acetate (EA) as secondary ligand. The compounds have been characterised by elemental analysis, infrared spectral data, molar conductance and thermogravimetric analysis. (author). 12 refs

  3. Syntheses of sterically shielded stable carbenes of the 1,2,4-triazole series and their corresponding palladium complexes: efficient catalysts for chloroarene hydrodechlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinyanaya, Nataliya V; Saberov, Vagiz Sh; Korotkikh, Nikolai I; Cowley, Alan H; Butorac, Rachel R; Evans, Daniel A; Pekhtereva, Tatyana M; Popov, Anatolii F; Shvaika, Oles P

    2014-11-21

    The new sterically shielded 1,3,4-trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidenes 8b–d were synthesized by a three step method starting from 2-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole. The syntheses of palladium complexes 9a–d and 10a–d (including the sterically shielded derivatives 9c,d and 10a–d) were carried out via the reactions of the stable carbenes 8a–d with palladium halogenide salts in THF or toluene solution. Complexes 9c,d and 10a–d were found to be excellent catalysts for the reductive dechlorination (hydrodechlorination) of p-dichlorobenzene. The structures of 8c, 9a,b, and 10a were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. PMID:25030067

  4. Correcting ligands, metabolites, and pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Vriend Gert; Ott Martin A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background A wide range of research areas in bioinformatics, molecular biology and medicinal chemistry require precise chemical structure information about molecules and reactions, e.g. drug design, ligand docking, metabolic network reconstruction, and systems biology. Most available databases, however, treat chemical structures more as illustrations than as a datafield in its own right. Lack of chemical accuracy impedes progress in the areas mentioned above. We present a database of...

  5. Privileged chiral ligands and catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Qi-Lin

    2011-01-01

    This ultimate ""must have"" and long awaited reference for every chemist working in the field of asymmetric catalysis starts with the core structure of the catalysts, explaining why a certain ligand or catalyst is so successful. It describes in detail the history, the basic structural characteristics, and the applications of these ""privileged catalysts"". A novel concept that gives readers a much deeper insight into the topic.

  6. Tumor targeting via integrin ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HorstKessler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells.

  7. Radioiodinated ligands for dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dopamine receptor system is important for normal brain function; it is also the apparent action site for various neuroleptic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia and other metal disorders. In the past few years radioiodinated ligands for single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have been successfully developed and tested in humans: [123I]TISCH for D1 dopamine receptors; [123I]IBZM, epidepride, IBF and FIDA2, four iodobenzamide derivatives, for D2/D3 dopamine receptors. In addition, [123I]?-CIT (RTI-55) and IPT, cocaine derivatives, for the dopamine reuptake site are potentially useful for diagnosis of loss of dopamine neurons. The first iodinated ligand, (R)trans-7-OH-PIPAT, for D3 dopamine receptors, was synthesized and characterized with cloned cell lines (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) expressing the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors and with rat basal forebrain membrane preparations. Most of the known iodobenzamides displayed similar potency in binding to both D2 and D3 dopamine receptors expressed in the cell lines. Initial studies appear to suggest that by fine tuning the structures it may be possible to develop agents specific for D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. It is important to investigate D2/D3 selectivity for this series of potent ligands

  8. Ligand placement based on prior structures: the guided ligand-replacement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), has been developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein-ligand complexes are available. The process of iterative structure-based drug design involves the X-ray crystal structure determination of upwards of 100 ligands with the same general scaffold (i.e. chemotype) complexed with very similar, if not identical, protein targets. In conjunction with insights from computational models and assays, this collection of crystal structures is analyzed to improve potency, to achieve better selectivity and to reduce liabilities such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology. Current methods for modeling ligands into electron-density maps typically do not utilize information on how similar ligands bound in related structures. Even if the electron density is of sufficient quality and resolution to allow de novo placement, the process can take considerable time as the size, complexity and torsional degrees of freedom of the ligands increase. A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), was developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein–ligand complexes are available. At the heart of GLR is an algorithm based on graph theory that associates atoms in the target ligand with analogous atoms in the reference ligand. Based on this correspondence, a set of coordinates is generated for the target ligand. GLR is especially useful in two situations: (i) modeling a series of large, flexible, complicated or macrocyclic ligands in successive structures and (ii) modeling ligands as part of a refinement pipeline that can automatically select a reference structure. Even in those cases for which no reference structure is available, if there are multiple copies of the bound ligand per asymmetric unit GLR offers an efficient way to complete the model after the first ligand has been placed. In all of these applications, GLR leverages prior knowledge from earlier structures to facilitate ligand placement in the current structure

  9. Carbene reactions. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal cleavage of spiro[norbornadiene-7,2'-oxiranes] respectively after 14C labelling of the corresponding compound which was labelled by 14C at the methylen-group, generates ketenes probably via carbenaoxiranes. An equilibration carbenaoxirane reversible oxirene could not be detected. (orig./HK)

  10. M(0) - Aminocarbene complexes (M = Cr, W, Fe): Redox Behavior Tuned by Metal and/or ligand modification.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoskovcová, I.; Rohá?ová, J.; Dvo?ák, D.; Ludvík, Ji?í

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 2, ?. 23 (2006), s. 87-95. ISSN 1938-5862 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/04/0487 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : carbene complexes * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  11. Clinical Use of PPAR? Ligands in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hatton, Jennifer L.; Yee, Lisa D.

    2008-01-01

    The role of PPAR? in adipocyte differentiation has fueled intense interest in the function of this steroid nuclear receptor for regulation of malignant cell growth and differentiation. Given the antiproliferative and differentiating effects of PPAR? ligands on liposarcoma cells, investigation of PPAR? expression and ligand activation in other solid tumors such as breast, colon, and prostate cancers ensued. The anticancer effects of PPAR? ligands in cell culture and rodent models of a mul...

  12. Conformational readout of RNA by small ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Kligun, Efrat; Mandel-gutfreund, Yael

    2013-01-01

    RNA molecules have highly versatile structures that can fold into myriad conformations, providing many potential pockets for binding small molecules. The increasing number of available RNA structures, in complex with proteins, small ligands and in free form, enables the design of new therapeutically useful RNA-binding ligands. Here we studied RNA ligand complexes from 10 RNA groups extracted from the protein data bank (PDB), including adaptive and non-adaptive complexes. We analyzed the chemi...

  13. THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE MECHANISM OF CYCLOADDITION REACTION BETWEEN DICHLORO-SILYLENE CARBENE(CL2SI=C:) AND ACETONE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    XIUHUI, LU; PINGPING, XIANG; LEYI, SHI; JUNFENG, HAN; ZHENXIA, LIAN.

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction between singlet dichloro-silylene carbene and acetone has been investigated with DFT, including geometry optimization and vibrational analysis for the involved stationary points on the potential energy surface. The energies of the different conformations a [...] re calculated by CCSD(T)//B3LYP/6-31G* method. From the potential energy profile, it can be predicted that the reaction has two competitive dominant reaction pathways. The channel (I) consists of two steps: (1) the two reactants firstly form a four-membered ring intermediate through a barrier-free exothermic reaction of 307.1 kJ/mol; (2) four-membered ring intermediate then isomerizes to a CH3-transfer product via a transition state with energy barrier of 11.3 kJ/mol. The process of channel (II) is as following: on the basis of four-membered ring intermediate created between the two reactants, four-membered ring intermediate further reacts with acetone to form the intermediate through a barrier-free exothermic reaction of 165.8 kJ/mol; Then, intermediate isomerizes to a silicic bis-heterocyclic product via a transition state, for which the barrier is 57.6 kJ/mol.

  14. trans-Bis{1-[2-(2,6-diisopropyl­anilino)phenyl]-3-isopropyl­imidazolin-2-ylidenyl-?C 2}diiodidopalladium(II) benzene disolvate

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Christopher G.; Kuldip Singh; Cross, Warren B.

    2011-01-01

    In the title complex, [PdI2(C24H31N3)2]·2C6H6, the Pd2+ ion is located on an inversion centre in a slightly distorted square-planar geometry. The angle between the I2C2 square plane and the mean plane of the N-heterocyclic carbene ring is 79.8?(2)°, with I—Pd—C—N torsion angles of ?81.1?(6) and ?78.2?(5)°. The Pd—carbene and Pd—I distances are 2.016?(6) and ...

  15. Gold-catalyzed Intermolecular [4C + 3C] Cycloaddition Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gung, Benjamin W; Bailey, Lauren N; Wonser, Josh

    2010-04-28

    In the presence of the N-heterocyclic carbene gold catalyst (NHC-AuIPr, 7), propargyl esters 1a-f and 13 undergo a [4C + 3C] cycloaddition reaction with cyclopentadiene and furan under mild conditions. The evidence suggests the formation of the seven-membered ring occurs by a direct cycloaddition process, rather than a stepwise cyclopropanation/Cope rearrangement sequence. PMID:20352055

  16. Towards electrically conductive, self-healing materials

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Kyle A.; Boydston, Andrew J.; Bielawski, Christopher W.

    2007-01-01

    A novel class of organometallic polymers comprising N-heterocyclic carbenes and transition metals was shown to have potential as an electrically conductive, self-healing material. These polymers were found to exhibit conductivities of the order of 10?3?S?cm?1 and showed structurally dynamic characteristics in the solid-state. Thin films of these materials were cast onto silicon wafers, then scored and imaged using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scored films were subsequentl...

  17. 1,3-Bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium tetraoxidorhenate(VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilé Landman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C21H25N2[ReO4], was formed as the unexpected product in an attempted synthesis of a rhenium(I–N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC complex. The compound has crystallographic mirror symmetry with both the cation and the tetrahedral anion located across a mirror plane. The cation and anion are linked by a C—H...O hydrogen bond.

  18. A Facile Route to C2-Substituted Imidazolium Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Handy, Scott T.; Elliot Ennis

    2009-01-01

    A convenient route for the preparation of C2-substituted imidazolium ionic liquids is reported. This method involves the alkylation of N-heterocyclic carbenes, which are readily generated from the C2-unsubstituted imidazolium ionic liquids. It works well for non-functionalized alkyl chlorides, and less well for alkyl bromides and iodides, likely due to competing elimination reactions. The resulting C2-substituted salts can be transformed into ionic liquids via standard anion metathesis reacti...

  19. From spherical to leaf-like morphologies: tunable supramolecular assembly of alkynylgold(I) complexes through variations of the alkyl chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eugene Yau-Hin; Wong, Hok-Lai; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2015-04-01

    A series of luminescent polynuclear alkynylgold(I) complexes with different lengths of alkyl chains attached at the N-heterocyclic carbene moieties has been synthesised and demonstrated to display intriguing self-assembly behaviours through a cooperative growth mechanism. Variation of the alkyl chain length was found to cause drastic morphological differences in the aggregates and to strongly affect the thermodynamic parameters as revealed by the nucleation-elongation model. PMID:25707360

  20. Enantioselective ?-Protonation by a Cooperative Catalysis Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael H.; Cohen, Daniel T.; Schwamb, C. Benjamin; Mishra, Rama K.; Scheidt, Karl A.

    2015-01-01

    An enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed ?-protonation through the orchestration of three distinct organocatalysts has been developed. This cooperative catalyst system enhances both yield and selectivity, compared to only the NHC-catalyzed process. This new method allows for the efficient conversion of a large scope of aryl-oxobutenoates to highly enantioenriched succinate derivatives and demonstrates the benefits of combining different activation modes in organocatalysis. PMID:25929160

  1. A Facile Route to C2-Substituted Imidazolium Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T. Handy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A convenient route for the preparation of C2-substituted imidazolium ionic liquids is reported. This method involves the alkylation of N-heterocyclic carbenes, which are readily generated from the C2-unsubstituted imidazolium ionic liquids. It works well for non-functionalized alkyl chlorides, and less well for alkyl bromides and iodides, likely due to competing elimination reactions. The resulting C2-substituted salts can be transformed into ionic liquids via standard anion metathesis reactions.

  2. Efficient Boron-Copper Additions to Aryl-Substituted Alkenes Promoted by NHC–Based Catalysts. Enantioselective Cu-Catalyzed Hydroboration Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yunmi; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2009-01-01

    A Cu-catalyzed method for efficient boron-copper addition processes involving acyclic and cyclic disubstituted aryl olefins are reported. Reactions are promoted with 0.5–5 mol % of a readily available N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex; the presence of MeOH promotes in situ protonation of the C–Cu bond and leads to efficient catalyst turnover, constituting a net Cu-catalyzed hydroboration process. Reactions proceed in >98:

  3. Macrocyclic ligands for uranium complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, K.T.

    1991-04-01

    A highly preorganized 24-macrocycle containing biuret, thiobiuret and pyridine subunits has been prepared by high dilution ring-closure procedures. Intermediate products to this macrocycle have been utilized to extend this synthetic route to include further representatives where solubility and stability will be influenced by substituent variation. A 1:1 complex has been formed from uranyl acetate and a quinquepyridine derivative, this representing a new type of ligand for the uranyl ion. A very convenient synthetic procedure that will allow the incorporation of these macrocycles into polymeric systems has been developed for the introduction of a vinyl substituent into the 4-position of the pyridine ring. Using triflate, vinyltributyltin and Pd{sup 0} chemistry, this procedure should make a variety of substituted 4-vinylpyridines available for the first time. 3 refs.

  4. Ligand binding by PDZ domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Celestine N.; Bach, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The postsynaptic density protein-95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) protein domain family is one of the most common protein-protein interaction modules in mammalian cells, with paralogs present in several hundred human proteins. PDZ domains are found in most cell types, but neuronal proteins, for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, signaling, and trafficking events. The many functions of PDZ domains under normal physiological as well as pathological conditions have been reviewed recently. In this review, we focus on the molecular details of how PDZ domains bind their protein ligands and their potential as drug targets in this context.

  5. Inhibition of oxidative metabolism of tocopherols with ?-N-heterocyclic derivatives of vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnmacht, Stephan; Nava, Phillip; West, Ryan; Parker, Robert; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The oxidative metabolism of tocopherols and tocotrienols by monooxygenases is a key factor in the plasma and tissue clearance of forms of vitamin E other than ?-tocopherol. It is well known that a commonly ingested form of vitamin E, ?-tocopherol, has greatly reduced plasma half life (faster clearance) than ?-tocopherol. The tocotrienols are metabolized even faster than ?-tocopherol. Both ?-tocopherol and ?- and ?-tocotrienol possess intriguing biological activities that are different ...

  6. New cadmium(II) halides modified by N-heterocyclic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tie-Gang; Li, Su; Yu, Jie-Hui; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2015-03-01

    Under the solvothermal condition, the reaction of CdI2, bpp and KI at pH = 8 afforded compound [CdI2(bpp)] (bpp = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)propane) 1, while at the ambient conditions, the reactions of CdX2, dabco and KX at pH = 4-5 produced compounds [H2(dabco)][CdBr4]·H2O (dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane) 2 and [(Hdabco)CdI3] 3. X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis reveals that (i) compound 1 possesses a one-dimensional (1-D) zigzag chain structure. The large volume bpp molecule controls the Cd2+ ion to adopt a tetrahedral geometric configuration; (ii) both compounds 2 and 3 are mononuclear. Interestingly, in the same pH environments, dabco was in situ diprotonated in compound 2, while dabco was in situ monoprotonated in compound 3. The templating effect as well as the X- ion maybe plays a key role in the protonated degree for dabco in an acidic environment. The photoluminescence analysis indicates that compound 1 emits the strong green light, which should be attributed to a combination of two types of charge transfers: the charge transfer between Cd2+ and I-; the charge transfer between Cd2+ and bpp.

  7. Transient negative ions in benzene. Some N-heterocyclic and mono-substituted derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron transmission spectroscopy is used to study transient negative ions or shape resonances in various benzene derivatives. Because of the long lifetime of these ions (? > 10-14 S) the vibrational structure of their first two electronic states is observed superposed on the total electron cross section curves in the energy range 0-6 eV and the corresponding adiabatic electron affinities are determined. The comparison of the first electron affinity with the first ionization potential and the energy on the first excited state of each of the derivatives is used to characterize the 'donor' substituents on the benzene ring. As a complementary study, these derivatives are studied in the liquid phase using polarography (cyclic voltametry). The linear correlation established between polarographic potentials measured in dimethyl formamide and the electron affinities was used to deduce electron affinities for several molecules which are difficult to measure in the gas phase. (author)

  8. N-Heterocyclic compounds as radioprotectors. 1. 2-Pyridinemethanethiol, 2-pyrazinemethanethiol and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2-Pyridinemethanethiol 1, which is structurally related to cysteamine, showed good radioprotective potency in mice, but 2-pyrazine-methanethiol 9 was inactive. Certain derivatives of 1 and 9 that were synthesised were radioprotective. The 3 isomeric mercaptopyridines showed activity. Further study of N-heteroaromatic compounds as radioprotectors is indicated. An improved method for the preparation of 9 is described

  9. N-Heterocyclic compounds as radioprotectors II. Derivatives of pyridine and pyrimidine containing thiol precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyridine and 4-substitued pyrimidine derivatives incorporating a sulphur functional side-group were evaluated as potential radioprotective agents by screening tests in mice. 2-(2-Pyridyl)ethanethiol and its derivatives showed some radioprotective action when administered intraperitoneally, but all were inferior to 2-pyridinemethanethiol. They showed no protection when administered orally. Substitution of the pyridine ring by chlorine gave compounds which also showed inferior radioprotective properties to those demonstrated by 2-pyridinemethanethiol. Corresponding phosphorothioates also exhibited little activity. The pyrimidine derivatives showed protection of a low order

  10. New iodocuprates(I) with N-heterocyclic molecules as the cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jin-Jing [College of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130023 (China); Zhang, Xiao [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWRE) and Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150080 (China); Wang, Yan-Ning; Jia, Hong-Li [College of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130023 (China); Yu, Jie-Hui, E-mail: jhyu@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130023 (China); Xu, Ji-Qing, E-mail: xjq@mail.jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130023 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Under the hydrothermal conditions, the reactions between CuI, KI and bp/bpp (bp=4,4?-bipiperidine, bpp=1,3-bis(4-piperidyl)propane) in an acidic alcohol solution produced three new organically templated iodocuprates(I) as [H{sub 2}bp]{sub 2}[Cu{sub 2}I{sub 6}] 1, [tmbp][Cu{sub 2}I{sub 4}] 2 and [tmbpp] 2 [Cu{sub 4}I{sub 8}]·2H{sub 2}O 3 (tmbp{sup 2+}=N,N,N?,N?-tetramethyl-4,4?-bipiperidinium; tmbpp{sup 2+}=N,N,N?,N?-tetramethyl-1,3-bis(4-piperidyl)propane dication). X-ray analysis revealed that (i) tmbp{sup 2+} and tmbpp{sup 2+} in compounds 2 and 3 originated from the complete N-alklation of bp/bpp with CH{sub 3}OH; (ii) templated by H{sub 2}bp{sup 2+}, the inorganic anion [Cu{sub 2}I{sub 6}]{sup 2?} of 1 possesses a dinuclear structure, whereas templated by tmbp{sup 2+}, the inorganic anion [Cu{sub 2}I{sub 4}]{sup 2?} of 2 exhibits a one-dimensional (1D) chain structure; (iii) templated by tmbpp{sup 2+}, the inorganic anion [Cu{sub 4}I{sub 8}]{sup 4?} of 3 shows a cubane-like structure modified by four terminal I{sup ?} ions. The photoluminescence analysis indicates that compounds 1 and 2 emit blue light, while compound 3 emits green light. - Graphical abstract: By employing hydrothermal in situ N-alkylation of bp/bpp with CH{sub 3}OH, three new organically templated iodocuprates(I) were obtained. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three new organically templated iodocuprates(I) were reported. • Cations tmbp{sup 2+} and tmbpp{sup 2+} originated from in situ alkylation of bp/bpp with CH{sub 3}OH. • H{sup +} and I{sup ?} play a key role in alkylation of bp/bpp with CH{sub 3}OH. • Photoluminescence emission for iodocuprates(I) is related to Cu···Cu interaction.

  11. Effects of N-heterocyclic polyaromatic hydrocarbons on survival, reproduction, and biochemical parameters in Daphnia magna.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feldmanová, Marie; Hilscherová, Klára; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Lud?k

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 4 (2006), s. 425-431. ISSN 1520-4081 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA525/03/0367 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : N- PAH s * Daphnia magna * biomarkers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2006

  12. Selective Biodegradation of S and N Heterocycles by a Recombinant Rhodococcus erythropolis Strain Containing Carbazole Dioxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    YU, BO; Xu, Ping; ZHU, SHANSHAN; Cai, Xiaofeng; Wang, Ying(School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, PR China); Li, LI; Li, Fuli; Liu, Xiaoyong; Ma, Cuiqing

    2006-01-01

    The carbazole dioxygenase genes were introduced into a dibenzothiophene degrader. The recombinant Rhodococcus erythropolis SN8 was capable of efficiently degrading dibenzothiophene and carbazole simultaneously. SN8 could also degrade various alkylated derivatives of carbazole and dibenzothiophene in FS4800 crude oil by just a one-step bioprocess.

  13. NMR studies of protein-ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldflam, Michael; Tarragó, Teresa; Gairí, Margarida; Giralt, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has evolved into a powerful tool for characterizing protein-ligand interactions in solution under near physiological conditions. It is now frequently harnessed to assess the affinity and specificity of interactions; to identify binding epitopes on proteins and ligands; and to characterize the structural rearrangements induced by binding.The first section of this chapter provides a general overview of the NMR study of protein-ligand interactions. The section is divided according to two main categories of experiments: those based on observing protein signals and those based on observing ligand signals. The next section explains two case studies performed in the authors' laboratory. The first of these deals with the interaction between vascular endothelial growth factor and a peptidic ligand, and includes a detailed protocol of chemical shift perturbation experiments. The second one reports on the interaction between prolyl oligopeptidase and a small molecule as monitored by ligand saturation transfer difference (STD), and illustrates how NMR can be used to confirm binding and to identify the binding epitope of a ligand. PMID:22167678

  14. Study of the factors supporting the selective complexation of the trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain clear-cut information on the factors which favour the discrimination between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, we investigated the complexation of the tris(cyclopentadienyl) Ce(III) and U(III) compounds, (RCp)3M (R = tBu, SiMe3), with a series of monocyclic azines with distinct Lewis basicity and reduction potential. Coordination of pyrazine and 4,4' and 2,2'-bipyridines on the (RCp)3M complexes has also been studied. Of major interest is the reversible oxidation of the (RCp)3U species into the uranium(IV) [(RCp)3U]2(pyz) complexes by pyrazine. The presence of cooperativity in the binding of the cyclopentadienyl groups by U(III), due to late appearance of back-bonding, leads to a greater stabilization of the uranium(III) complexes. Complexation of the species Cp*2MI (M = Ce, U) by 2,2'-bipyridine, phenanthroline and ter-pyridine affords the adducts [Cp*2M(L)]I. For L = bipy and terpy, these compounds are reduced into Cp*2M(L). The magnetic data for [Cp*2M(terpy)]I and Cp*2M(terpy) are consistent with Ce(III) and U(III) species, with the formulation Cp*2MIII(terpy). An electron transfer reaction between these species was observed in NMR. Reactions of the [Cp*2M(terpy)]I and Cp*2M(terpy) complexes with H and H+ donor reagents lead to a clear differentiation of these trivalent ions. We studied the coordination of the stable N-heterocyclic carbene and isonitrile molecules on (RCp)3M and Cp*2MI; competition reactions and comparison of the crystal structures of the carbene compounds reveal the much better affinity of the NHC and tBuNC ligands for the 5f rather than for the 4f ion. (authors)

  15. Study of the factors supporting the selective complexation of the trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions; Etude des facteurs favorisant la complexation selective des ions lanthanides et actinides trivalents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdoui, T

    2005-09-15

    In order to obtain clear-cut information on the factors which favour the discrimination between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, we investigated the complexation of the tris(cyclopentadienyl) Ce(III) and U(III) compounds, (RCp)3M (R = tBu, SiMe3), with a series of monocyclic azines with distinct Lewis basicity and reduction potential. Coordination of pyrazine and 4,4' and 2,2'-bipyridines on the (RCp)3M complexes has also been studied. Of major interest is the reversible oxidation of the (RCp)3U species into the uranium(IV) [(RCp)3U]2(pyz) complexes by pyrazine. The presence of cooperativity in the binding of the cyclopentadienyl groups by U(III), due to late appearance of back-bonding, leads to a greater stabilization of the uranium(III) complexes. Complexation of the species Cp*2MI (M = Ce, U) by 2,2'-bipyridine, phenanthroline and ter-pyridine affords the adducts [Cp*2M(L)]I. For L = bipy and terpy, these compounds are reduced into Cp*2M(L). The magnetic data for [Cp*2M(terpy)]I and Cp*2M(terpy) are consistent with Ce(III) and U(III) species, with the formulation Cp*2MIII(terpy). An electron transfer reaction between these species was observed in NMR. Reactions of the [Cp*2M(terpy)]I and Cp*2M(terpy) complexes with H and H{sup +} donor reagents lead to a clear differentiation of these trivalent ions. We studied the coordination of the stable N-heterocyclic carbene and isonitrile molecules on (RCp)3M and Cp*2MI; competition reactions and comparison of the crystal structures of the carbene compounds reveal the much better affinity of the NHC and tBuNC ligands for the 5f rather than for the 4f ion. (authors)

  16. Ligand Interface Chemistry of Lead Chalcogenide Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Bealing, Clive; Hennig, Richard; Hennig Group Team

    2013-03-01

    Lead chalcogenides nanocrystals (NCs) have shown promise in photovoltaic applications. Surface chemistry is one of the most important, yet least understood aspects of NC synthesis and functionalization controlling their properties. For example, an incomplete surface passivation could create trap states that enhance undesired exciton recombination. Clever choices of ligands ensure that neighboring NCs are electronically coupled while maintaining their quantum size effects. These two barriers limiting performance of NC solar cells illustrate the importance of fundamental studies for the interaction between ligands and NC surfaces. We use density functional theory to determine the binding sites and energies of ligands commonly used in NC synthesis and functionalization. Specifically we study amine-, carboxyl-, and thiol-ligands on different PbSe and PbS surfaces. For methylamine ligands we find a similar binding energy on the (100) and (111) facet while carboxylic acid ligands strongly prefer the (111) facet leading to different effective NC shapes. Lead chalcogenides nanocrystals (NCs) have shown promise in photovoltaic applications. Surface chemistry is one of the most important, yet least understood aspects of NC synthesis and functionalization controlling their properties. For example, an incomplete surface passivation could create trap states that enhance undesired exciton recombination. Clever choices of ligands ensure that neighboring NCs are electronically coupled while maintaining their quantum size effects. These two barriers limiting performance of NC solar cells illustrate the importance of fundamental studies for the interaction between ligands and NC surfaces. We use density functional theory to determine the binding sites and energies of ligands commonly used in NC synthesis and functionalization. Specifically we study amine-, carboxyl-, and thiol-ligands on different PbSe and PbS surfaces. For methylamine ligands we find a similar binding energy on the (100) and (111) facet while carboxylic acid ligands strongly prefer the (111) facet leading to different effective NC shapes. This work was supported in part by Award No. KUS-C1-018-02, made by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) and by the Energy Materials Center at Cornell (EMC2) funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award Number DE-SC0001086

  17. Correcting ligands, metabolites, and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vriend Gert

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of research areas in bioinformatics, molecular biology and medicinal chemistry require precise chemical structure information about molecules and reactions, e.g. drug design, ligand docking, metabolic network reconstruction, and systems biology. Most available databases, however, treat chemical structures more as illustrations than as a datafield in its own right. Lack of chemical accuracy impedes progress in the areas mentioned above. We present a database of metabolites called BioMeta that augments the existing pathway databases by explicitly assessing the validity, correctness, and completeness of chemical structure and reaction information. Description The main bulk of the data in BioMeta were obtained from the KEGG Ligand database. We developed a tool for chemical structure validation which assesses the chemical validity and stereochemical completeness of a molecule description. The validation tool was used to examine the compounds in BioMeta, showing that a relatively small number of compounds had an incorrect constitution (connectivity only, not considering stereochemistry and that a considerable number (about one third had incomplete or even incorrect stereochemistry. We made a large effort to correct the errors and to complete the structural descriptions. A total of 1468 structures were corrected and/or completed. We also established the reaction balance of the reactions in BioMeta and corrected 55% of the unbalanced (stoichiometrically incorrect reactions in an automatic procedure. The BioMeta database was implemented in PostgreSQL and provided with a web-based interface. Conclusion We demonstrate that the validation of metabolite structures and reactions is a feasible and worthwhile undertaking, and that the validation results can be used to trigger corrections and improvements to BioMeta, our metabolite database. BioMeta provides some tools for rational drug design, reaction searches, and visualization. It is freely available at http://www.cmbi.ru.nl/biometa/ provided that the copyright notice of all original data is cited. The database will be useful for querying and browsing biochemical pathways, and to obtain reference information for identifying compounds. However, these applications require that the underlying data be correct, and that is the focus of BioMeta.

  18. Cations and dications of heavier group 14 elements in low oxidation states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, V S V S N; Pal, Shiv; Khan, Shabana; Sen, Sakya S

    2015-07-14

    Cations and dications of heavier group 14 elements in their low oxidation state have received widespread attention in recent years. The journey started with the isolation of a series of cations of the composition [(C5Me5)E:](+) [E = Si-Pb], followed by the more recent isolation of a Ge(ii) dication encapsulated within a cryptand, a carbodiphosphorane stabilized [GeCl](+) monocation with a two coordinate Ge atom, Si(ii) cations and dications stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), which highlights the ongoing growth and interest in the chemistry of tetrel(ii) cations. This is presumably because the central atom (E) in these compounds contains two or three unoccupied valence orbitals as well as holds a lone pair of electrons. Such an electronic description represents ambiphilicity, which is of great interest for catalysis. The successful synthesis of divalent group 14 cations requires new synthetic strategies based on the sterically demanding neutral or monoanionic ligands, utilization of counter anions, and solvents with low nucleophilicity in order to minimize the degree of interactions with the cations. An alternative approach for the realization of divalent cations of group 14 elements is their coordination to the transition metals. This synthetic approach was successfully applied for the isolation of a range of transition metal coordinated divalent cations of group 14 elements. Apart from arousing academic interest some of these cations have found application as activators in the Ziegler-Natta polymerization of alkenes. PMID:26084389

  19. Metrical oxidation states of 2-amidophenoxide and catecholate ligands: structural signatures of metal-ligand ? bonding in potentially noninnocent ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth N

    2012-02-01

    Catecholates and 2-amidophenoxides are prototypical "noninnocent" ligands which can form metal complexes where the ligands are best described as being in the monoanionic (imino)semiquinone or neutral (imino)quinone oxidation state instead of their closed-shell dianionic form. Through a comprehensive analysis of structural data available for compounds with these ligands in unambiguous oxidation states (109 amidophenolates, 259 catecholates), the well-known structural changes in the ligands with oxidation state can be quantified. Using these correlations, an empirical "metrical oxidation state" (MOS) which gives a continuous measure of the apparent oxidation state of the ligand can be determined based on least-squares fitting of its C-C, C-O, and C-N bond lengths to this single parameter (a simple procedure for doing so is provided via a spreadsheet in the Supporting Information). High-valent d(0) metal complexes, particularly those of vanadium(V) and molybdenum(VI), have ligands with unexpectedly positive, and generally nonintegral, MOS values. The structural effects in these complexes are attributed not to electron transfer, but rather to amidophenoxide- or catecholate-to-metal ? bonding, an interpretation supported by the systematic variation of the MOS values as a function of the degree of competition with the other ?-donating groups in the structures. PMID:22260321

  20. Labeled receptor ligands for spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Receptor specific imaging agents for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can potentially be useful in the understanding of basic biochemistry and pharmacology of receptors. SPECT images may also provide tools for evaluation of density and binding kinetics of a specific receptor, information important for diagnosis and patient management. Basic requirements for receptor imaging agents are: (a) they are labeled with short-lived isotopes, (b) they show high selectivity and specific uptake, (c) they exhibit high target/background ratio, and (d) they can be modeled to obtain quantitative information. Several good examples of CNS receptor specific ligands labeled with I-123 have been developed, including iodoQNB, iodoestrogen iodobenzadiazepine, iodobenazepine, iodobenzamides for muscarinic, estrogen benzadiazepine, D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors. With the advent of newer and faster SPECT imaging devices, it may be feasible to quantitate the receptor density by in vivo imaging techniques. These new brain imaging agents can provide unique diagnostic information, which may not be available through other imaging modalities, such as CT and MRI

  1. LigandRFs: random forest ensemble to identify ligand-binding residues from sequence information alone

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Peng

    2014-12-03

    Background Protein-ligand binding is important for some proteins to perform their functions. Protein-ligand binding sites are the residues of proteins that physically bind to ligands. Despite of the recent advances in computational prediction for protein-ligand binding sites, the state-of-the-art methods search for similar, known structures of the query and predict the binding sites based on the solved structures. However, such structural information is not commonly available. Results In this paper, we propose a sequence-based approach to identify protein-ligand binding residues. We propose a combination technique to reduce the effects of different sliding residue windows in the process of encoding input feature vectors. Moreover, due to the highly imbalanced samples between the ligand-binding sites and non ligand-binding sites, we construct several balanced data sets, for each of which a random forest (RF)-based classifier is trained. The ensemble of these RF classifiers forms a sequence-based protein-ligand binding site predictor. Conclusions Experimental results on CASP9 and CASP8 data sets demonstrate that our method compares favorably with the state-of-the-art protein-ligand binding site prediction methods.

  2. Screening protein-ligand interactions using 1H NMR techniques for detecting the ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR is a valuable screening tool for the binding of ligands to proteins providing structural information on both protein and ligands and is thus largely applied to drug-discovery. Among the recent NMR techniques to probe weak binding protein-ligand complexes we have critically evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of STD (Saturation Transfer Difference), WaterLOGSY (Water Ligand Observation with Gradient Spectroscopy), NOE pumping and DOSY-NOESY (Diffusion-Ordered NOESY) using a mixture of BSA (bovine serum albumin) plus salicylic acid, caffeine, citric acid, adipic acid and D-glucose. (author)

  3. Ligand binding and protein dynamics in neuroglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Kriegl, Jan M.; Bhattacharyya, Aninda J.; Nienhaus, Karin; DENG, PENGCHI; Minkow, Oleksandr; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered protein in vertebrate brain tissue that belongs to the globin family of proteins. It has been implicated in the neuronal response to hypoxia or ischemia, although its physiological role has been hitherto unknown. Ngb is hexacoordinate in the ferrous deoxy form under physiological conditions. To bind exogenous ligands like O2 and CO, the His E7 endogenous ligand is displaced from the sixth coordination. By using infrared spectroscopy and nanosecond ti...

  4. Construction of dinuclear complexes using multidentate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work details the synthesis of novel copper(I), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) dinuclear complexes. Attempts have been made to control the co-ordination architectures of the metal centres by using bis-bidentate and tridentate chelating N,S- and N-donor ligands to generate dinuclear systems. The ligands were both symmetrically and asymmetrically disubstituted pyridazine-based and pyridine-based ligands consisting of a mixture of N-only and mixed N,S-donors. The study using the pyridazine-based ligands continues previous research in our group using 3,6-bis disubstituted pyridazine-based ligands to form complexes with copper(l) and copper(II). The pyridazine-based ligands have been seen to be bis-bidentate upon co-ordination of copper. The pyridazine-based ligands could be envisaged to generate dinuclear complexes by directly bridging between two metal ions. This study involved the formation of copper(l), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes with these ligands. The structural properties of two particular complexes have been explored using X-ray crystallography and spectroscopic techniques. Pyridine-based ligands have also been used previously in our group as tridentate chelating ligands. They have been seen to form dinuclear complexes with copper(I) and copper(II) when reacted with an additional bridging ligand e.g. 4,4'-bipyridine. This provides an alternative method for generating dinuclear complexes. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to the area of supramoleculn introduction to the area of supramolecular chemistry from which we can learn the principles of polymer formation and them 'in reverse' to generate discrete dinuclear systems. Chapter 2 details the synthesis of the pyridazine and pyridine-based ligands including a detailed nmr study of the ligands. Since the ligands were synthesised using cyclic thioamides as terminal groups it has been found that thiol-thione tautomerisation occurred during synthesis giving rise to two possible ligand conformations. The nmr study has been used to try and predict the conformation of the ligands. Chapter 3 details the formation of dinuclear complexes using the pyridazine-based ligands including [{Cu(NCMe)}2(?-bmmip)2][BF4]2 which contains copper(l) ions in a biologically relevant N2S2 environment. The ligand 3,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridazine (bpp) has also been used to generate dinuclear complexes with nickel(II) and zinc(II) without the need for a hydroxide bridge. Several dinuclear complexes were structurally characterised and nmr spectroscopy was used to analyse the zinc(II) structures. Chapter 4 details the substitution work carried out on two pyridazine-based complexes [{Cu(NCMe)}2(?-bmmip)2][BF4]2 and [{Cu(pmmip)}2(?-pmmip)2][BF4]2. The complex [{Cu(NCMe)}2(?-bmmip)2][BF4]2 was shown to contain a potentially labile acetonitrile ligand and research was undertaken to substitute this with a different N-donor. A low temperature nmr study was carried out to study the solution behaviour of the complex. Reaction of the complex with imidazole produced a copper(II) species. This was studied using low temperature UV spectroscopy to gain information about the reaction. The complex [{Cu(pmmip)}2(?-pmmip)2][BF4]2 was shown to contain an unused N2-donor site, attempts were made to utilise this site by reaction with different metal ions including palladium(II). Chapter 5 details work carried out using two pyridazine-based ligands which have mereaptopyridine terminal groups with the nitrogen donor in the four position. This provided the possibility for forming hydrogen-bonded structures through protonation of the pyridine N-donor. Chapter 6 details the complexation study with the pyridine-based ligands and includes the work done to generate dinuclear complexes with the tridentate chelating ligands and an additional bridging ligand. The bridging ligands included 4,4'-bipyridine and 3,6-bis(pyridin-4-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine which were used to provide a range of bridge lengths from 6.5-12.5A. (author)

  5. Split Gaussia luciferase for imaging ligand-receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Kathryn E; Luker, Gary D

    2014-01-01

    Ligand binding to cell surface receptors activates signaling pathways in normal and pathologic conditions, and internalized ligand-receptor complexes may continue to signal from endosomes. Accessibility of cell surface receptors and the central function of ligand-receptor binding in signal transduction make ligand binding a prime target for therapeutic agents. We describe a Gaussia luciferase complementation method for imaging ligand-receptor binding in cell-based assays and living mice. While we illustrate this imaging method for chemokine ligand CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7, this imaging strategy can be generalized to a large number of ligand-receptor interactions. PMID:24166368

  6. Tethered ligands reveal glutamate receptor desensitization depends on subunit occupancy

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner, Andreas; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2014-01-01

    Cell signaling is often mediated by the binding of multiple ligands to a multi-subunit receptor. The probabilistic nature and slow rate of binding of diffusible ligands at low concentrations can impede attempts to determine how ligand occupancy controls signaling in such protein complexes. We describe a solution to this problem that uses a photoswitched tethered ligand as a “ligand clamp” to induce rapid and stable binding and unbinding at defined subsets of subunits. We applied the appro...

  7. PDBToSDF: Create ligand structure files from PDB file

    OpenAIRE

    Muppalaneni, Naresh Babu; Rao, Allam Appa

    2011-01-01

    Protein Data Bank (PDB) file contains atomic data for protein and ligand in protein-ligand complexes. Structure data file (SDF) contains data for atoms, bonds, connectivity and coordinates of molecule for ligands. We describe PDBToSDF as a tool to separate the ligand data from pdb file for the calculation of ligand properties like molecular weight, number of hydrogen bond acceptors, hydrogen bond receptors easily.

  8. Split Gaussia Luciferase for Imaging Ligand–Receptor Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Ligand binding to cell surface receptors activates signaling pathways in normal and pathologic conditions, and internalized ligand–receptor complexes may continue to signal from endosomes. Accessibility of cell surface receptors and the central function of ligand–receptor binding in signal transduction make ligand binding a prime target for therapeutic agents. We describe a Gaussia luciferase complementation method for imaging ligand–receptor binding in cell-based assays and living mice. Whil...

  9. RosettaLigand docking with flexible XML protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmon, Gordon; Meiler, Jens

    2012-01-01

    RosettaLigand is premiere software for predicting how a protein and a small molecule interact. Benchmark studies demonstrate that 70% of the top scoring RosettaLigand predicted interfaces are within 2 Å RMSD from the crystal structure (1). The latest release of Rosetta ligand software includes many new features, such as (1) docking of multiple ligands simultaneously, (2) representing ligands as fragments for greater flexibility, (3) redesign of the interface during docking, and (4) an XML scr...

  10. Posttranslational regulation of Fas ligand function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulsen Maren

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The TNF superfamily member Fas ligand acts as a prototypic death factor. Due to its ability to induce apoptosis in Fas (APO-1, CD95 expressing cells, Fas ligand participates in essential effector functions of the immune system. It is involved in natural killer cell- and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, the establishment of immune privilege, and in termination of immune responses by induction of activation-induced cell death. In addition, Fas ligand-positive tumours may evade immune surveillance by killing Fas-positive tumour-infiltrating cells. Given these strong cytotoxic capabilities of Fas ligand, it is obvious that its function has to be strictly regulated to avoid uncontrolled damage. In hematopoietic cells, the death factor is stored in secretory lysosomes and is mobilised to the immunological synapse only upon activation. The selective sorting to and the release from this specific lysosomal compartment requires interactions of the Fas ligand cytosolic moiety, which mediates binding to various adapter proteins involved in trafficking and cytoskeletal reorganisation. In addition, Fas ligand surface expression is further regulated by posttranslational ectodomain shedding and subsequent regulated intramembrane proteolysis, releasing a soluble ectodomain cytokine into the extracellular space and an N-terminal fragment with a potential role in intracellular signalling processes. Moreover, other posttranslational modifications of the cytosolic domain, including phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, have been described to affect various aspects of Fas ligand biology. Since FasL is regarded as a potential target for immunotherapy, the further characterisation of its biological regulation and function will be of great importance for the development and evaluation of future therapeutic strategies.

  11. Immobilisation of ligands by radio-derivatized polymers; Immobilisering av ligander med radioderiverte polymerer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, J.M.; Fritsch, P.

    1995-01-30

    The invention relates to radio-derivatized polymers and a method of producing them by contacting non-polymerizable conjugands with radiolysable polymers in the presence of irradiation. The resulting radio-derivatized polymers can be further linked with ligand of organic or inorganic nature to immobilize such ligands. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Ligand identification using electron-density map correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated ligand-fitting procedure is applied to (Fo ? Fc)exp(i?c) difference density for 200 commonly found ligands from macromolecular structures in the Protein Data Bank to identify ligands from density maps. A procedure for the identification of ligands bound in crystal structures of macromolecules is described. Two characteristics of the density corresponding to a ligand are used in the identification procedure. One is the correlation of the ligand density with each of a set of test ligands after optimization of the fit of that ligand to the density. The other is the correlation of a fingerprint of the density with the fingerprint of model density for each possible ligand. The fingerprints consist of an ordered list of correlations of each the test ligands with the density. The two characteristics are scored using a Z-score approach in which the correlations are normalized to the mean and standard deviation of correlations found for a variety of mismatched ligand-density pairs, so that the Z scores are related to the probability of observing a particular value of the correlation by chance. The procedure was tested with a set of 200 of the most commonly found ligands in the Protein Data Bank, collectively representing 57% of all ligands in the Protein Data Bank. Using a combination of these two characteristics of ligand density, ranked lists of ligand identifications were made for representative (Fo ? Fc)exp(i?c) difference density from entries in the Protein Data Bank. In 48% of the 200 cases, the correct ligand was at the top of the ranked list of ligands. This approach may be useful in identification of unknown ligands in new macromolecular structures as well as in the identification of which ligands in a mixture have bound to a macromolecule

  13. Dockomatic - automated ligand creation and docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampikian Greg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of computational modeling to rationally design drugs and characterize macro biomolecular receptors has proven increasingly useful due to the accessibility of computing clusters and clouds. AutoDock is a well-known and powerful software program used to model ligand to receptor binding interactions. In its current version, AutoDock requires significant amounts of user time to setup and run jobs, and collect results. This paper presents DockoMatic, a user friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI application that eases and automates the creation and management of AutoDock jobs for high throughput screening of ligand to receptor interactions. Results DockoMatic allows the user to invoke and manage AutoDock jobs on a single computer or cluster, including jobs for evaluating secondary ligand interactions. It also automates the process of collecting, summarizing, and viewing results. In addition, DockoMatic automates creation of peptide ligand .pdb files from strings of single-letter amino acid abbreviations. Conclusions DockoMatic significantly reduces the complexity of managing multiple AutoDock jobs by facilitating ligand and AutoDock job creation and management.

  14. Impact of receptor clustering on ligand binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caré Bertrand R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular response to changes in the concentration of different chemical species in the extracellular medium is induced by ligand binding to dedicated transmembrane receptors. Receptor density, distribution, and clustering may be key spatial features that influence effective and proper physical and biochemical cellular responses to many regulatory signals. Classical equations describing this kind of binding kinetics assume the distributions of interacting species to be homogeneous, neglecting by doing so the impact of clustering. As there is experimental evidence that receptors tend to group in clusters inside membrane domains, we investigated the effects of receptor clustering on cellular receptor ligand binding. Results We implemented a model of receptor binding using a Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate ligand diffusion and binding. In some simple cases, analytic solutions for binding equilibrium of ligand on clusters of receptors are provided, and supported by simulation results. Our simulations show that the so-called "apparent" affinity of the ligand for the receptor decreases with clustering although the microscopic affinity remains constant. Conclusions Changing membrane receptors clustering could be a simple mechanism that allows cells to change and adapt its affinity/sensitivity toward a given stimulus.

  15. Characteristic molecular vibrations of adenosine receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Hyun Keun; Yang, Jin-San; Joung, Je-Gun; Zhang, Byoung-Tak; Oh, S June

    2015-02-13

    Although the regulation of membrane receptor activation is known to be crucial for molecular signal transduction, the molecular mechanism underlying receptor activation is not fully elucidated. Here we study the physicochemical nature of membrane receptor behavior by investigating the characteristic molecular vibrations of receptor ligands using computational chemistry and informatics methods. By using information gain, t-tests, and support vector machines, we have identified highly informative features of adenosine receptor (AdoR) ligand and corresponding functional amino acid residues such as Asn (6.55) of AdoR that has informative significance and is indispensable for ligand recognition of AdoRs. These findings may provide new perspectives and insights into the fundamental mechanism of class A G protein-coupled receptor activation. PMID:25622891

  16. Physical limit to concentration sensing amid spurious ligands

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    To adapt their behaviour in changing environments, cells sense concentrations by binding external ligands to their receptors. However, incorrect ligands may bind nonspecifically to receptors, and when their concentration is large, this binding activity may interfere with the sensing of the ligand of interest. Here, I derive analytically the physical limit to the accuracy of concentration sensing amid a large number of interfering ligands. A scaling transition is found when the mean bound time of correct ligands is twice that of incorrect ligands. I discuss how the physical bound can be approached by a cascade of receptor states generalizing kinetic proof-reading schemes.

  17. A versatile dinucleating ligand containing sulfonamide groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundberg, Jonas; Witt, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Copper, iron, and gallium coordination chemistries of the new pentadentate bis-sulfonamide ligand 2,6-bis(N-2-pyridylmethylsulfonamido)-4-methylphenol (psmpH3) were investigated. PsmpH3 is capable of varying degrees of deprotonation, and notably, complexes containing the fully trideprotonated ligand can be prepared in aqueous solutions using only divalent metal ions. Two of the copper(II) complexes, [Cu2(psmp)(OH)] and [Cu2(psmp)(OAc)2]-, demonstrate the anticipated 1:2 ligand/metal stoichiometry and show that the dimetallic binding site created for exogenous ligands possesses high inherent flexibility since additional one- and three-atom bridging ligands bridge the two copper(II) ions in each complex, respectively. This gives rise to a difference of 0.4 Å in the Cu···Cu distances. Complexes with 2:3 and 2:1 ligand/metal stoichiometries for the divalent and trivalent metal ions, respectively, were observed in [Cu3(psmp)2(H 2O)] and [M(psmpH)(psmpH2)], where M = GaIII, FeIII. The deprotonated tridentate N-2-pyridylsulfonylmethylphenolato moieties chelate the metal ions in a meridional fashion, whereas in [Cu 3(psmp)2(H2O)] the rare ?2-N- sulfonamido bridging coordination mode is observed. In the bis-ligand mononuclear complexes, one picolyl arm of each ligand is protonated and uncoordinated. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on the doubly and triply bridged dicopper(II) complexes indicate strong and medium strength antiferromagnetic coupling interactions, with J = 234 cm-1 and 115 cm-1 for [Cu2(psmp)(OH)] and [Cu2(psmp)(OAc) 2]-, respectively (in HHDvV =...+JS 1S2 convention). The trinuclear [Cu3(psmp) 2(H2O)], in which the central copper ion is linked to two flanking copper atoms by two ?2-N-sulfonamido bridges and two phenoxide bridges shows an overall magnetic behavior of antiferromagnetic coupling. This is corroborated computationally by broken-symmetry density functional theory, which for isotropic modeling of the coupling predicts an antiferromagnetic coupling strength of J = 70.5 cm-1. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Catalysts for isopropylbenzene oxidation, activated by a conjugated heterocyclic ligand, 1,10-phenanthroline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examined the influence on oxidation of isopropylbenzene (IPB) not only of naphthenates of metals from Group II of the periodic system, but also of compounds which, in their oopinion, should form more labile complexes with cumenyl hydroperoxide (CHP) than napthenates. It is shown that a virtually complete absence of an induction period is a common feature in oxidation of isopropylbenzene in the presence of alkaline-earth naphthenates and also of various zinc and cadmium compounds activated with 1,10-phenanthroline. The magnitude of the synergistic effect in the isostructural series of mixed catalytic systems decreases in the folling series: alkaline-earth naphthelnates, alkali naphthenate, sinc (or cadmium) nathenates. It follows that systems containing zinc (or cadmium) compounds together with N-heterocycles are the most promising of the mixed catalysts studied for selective oxidation of IPB to the hydroperoxide

  19. Substrate coated with receptor and labelled ligand for assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements in the procedures for assaying ligands are described. The assay consists of a polystyrene tube on which receptors are present for both the ligand to be assayed and a radioactively labelled form of the ligand. The receptors on the bottom portion of the tube are also coated with labelled ligands, thus eliminating the necessity for separate addition of the labelled ligand and sample during an assay. Examples of ligands to which this method is applicable include polypeptides, nucleotides, nucleosides and proteins. Specific examples are given in which the ligand to be assayed is digoxin, the labelled form of the ligand is 3-0-succinyl digoxyigenin tyrosine (125I) and the receptor is digoxin antibody. (U.K.)

  20. Ligand iron catalysts for selective hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Charles P. (Madison, WI); Guan, Hairong (Cincinnati, OH)

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are iron ligand catalysts for selective hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A catalyst such as dicarbonyl iron hydride hydroxycyclopentadiene) complex uses the OH on the five member ring and hydrogen linked to the iron to facilitate hydrogenation reactions, particularly in the presence of hydrogen gas.

  1. Multidentate thioether ligands coating gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterle, Torsten; Leifert, Annika; Timper, Jan; Sologubenko, Alla; Simon, Ulrich; Mayor, Marcel

    2008-08-01

    The design and synthesis of oligomeric ligands based on benzylic thioethers is presented together with their ability to enwrap and stabilize gold nanoparticles with diameters below 2 nm, which become--with increasing length of the oligomer--more monodisperse and stable. PMID:18633515

  2. Supramolecular architectures constructed using angular bipyridyl ligands

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, S A

    2003-01-01

    This work details the synthesis and characterization of a series of coordination frameworks that are formed using bidentate angular N-donor ligands. Pyrimidine was reacted with metal(ll) nitrate salts. Reactions using Cd(NO sub 3) sub 2 receive particular focus and the analogous reactions using the linear ligand, pyrazine, were studied for comparison. In all cases, two-dimensional coordination networks were prepared. Structural diversity is observed for the Cd(ll) centres including metal-nitrate bridging. In contrast, first row transition metal nitrates form isostructural one-dimensional chains with only the bridging N-donor ligands generating polymeric propagation. The angular ligand, 2,4-bis(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (dpt), was reacted with Cd(NO sub 3) sub 2 and Zn(NO sub 3) sub 2. Whereas Zn(NO sub 3) sub 2 compounds exhibit solvent mediated polymorphism, a range of structures were obtained for the reactions with Cd(NO sub 3) sub 2 , including the first example of a doubly parallel interpenetrated 4.8 sup...

  3. Polyfluoroalkylated tripyrazolylmethane ligands: Synthesis and complexes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skalická, V.; Rybá?ková, M.; Skalický, M.; Kví?alová, Magdalena; Cva?ka, Josef; B?ezinová, Anna; ?ejka, J.; Kví?ala, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 132, ?. 7 (2011), s. 434-440. ISSN 0022-1139 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 857; GA MŠk ME09114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : tripyrazolylmethane * Tpm * tripyrazolylethanol * fluorinated * perfluoroalkylation * ligand Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2011

  4. SuperLigands – a database of ligand structures derived from the Protein Data Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Preissner Robert; Goede Andrean; Dunkel Mathias; Michalsky Elke

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Currently, the PDB contains approximately 29,000 protein structures comprising over 70,000 experimentally determined three-dimensional structures of over 5,000 different low molecular weight compounds. Information about these PDB ligands can be very helpful in the field of molecular modelling and prediction, particularly for the prediction of protein binding sites and function. Description Here we present an Internet accessible database delivering PDB ligands in the MDL Mo...

  5. Quantum.Ligand.Dock: protein-ligand docking with quantum entanglement refinement on a GPU system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantardjiev, Alexander A

    2012-07-01

    Quantum.Ligand.Dock (protein-ligand docking with graphic processing unit (GPU) quantum entanglement refinement on a GPU system) is an original modern method for in silico prediction of protein-ligand interactions via high-performance docking code. The main flavour of our approach is a combination of fast search with a special account for overlooked physical interactions. On the one hand, we take care of self-consistency and proton equilibria mutual effects of docking partners. On the other hand, Quantum.Ligand.Dock is the the only docking server offering such a subtle supplement to protein docking algorithms as quantum entanglement contributions. The motivation for development and proposition of the method to the community hinges upon two arguments-the fundamental importance of quantum entanglement contribution in molecular interaction and the realistic possibility to implement it by the availability of supercomputing power. The implementation of sophisticated quantum methods is made possible by parallelization at several bottlenecks on a GPU supercomputer. The high-performance implementation will be of use for large-scale virtual screening projects, structural bioinformatics, systems biology and fundamental research in understanding protein-ligand recognition. The design of the interface is focused on feasibility and ease of use. Protein and ligand molecule structures are supposed to be submitted as atomic coordinate files in PDB format. A customization section is offered for addition of user-specified charges, extra ionogenic groups with intrinsic pK(a) values or fixed ions. Final predicted complexes are ranked according to obtained scores and provided in PDB format as well as interactive visualization in a molecular viewer. Quantum.Ligand.Dock server can be accessed at http://87.116.85.141/LigandDock.html. PMID:22669908

  6. New pinene-derived pyridines as bidentate chiral ligands.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malkov, A. V.; Stewart-Liddon, A.; Teplý, Filip; Kobr, L.; Muir, K. W.; Haigh, D.; Ko?ovský, P.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 64, ?. 18 (2008), s. 4011-4025. ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : chiral ligands * transition metal catalysis * asymmetric catalysis * pyridine ligands * oxazoline ligands Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2008

  7. Mixed ligands complexes of cadmium(II) involving nitrilotriacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation and equilibria of mixed ligand cadmium(II) complexes involving nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and other ligands (L) have been investigated. Result s of pH-titration measurements have shown the formation of 1:1:1 mixed ligand comp lexes. Equilibrium constants of the complexes formed have been calculated. The mode of chelation has been deduced. (author). 27 refs

  8. Paired opposing leukocyte receptors recognizing rapidly evolving ligands are subject to homogenization of their ligand binding domains

    OpenAIRE

    Fossum, Sigbjørn; Saether, Per Christian; Vaage, John Torgils; Daws, Michael Rory; Dissen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Some leukocyte receptors come in groups of two or more where the partners share ligand(s) but transmit opposite signals. Some of the ligands, such as MHC class I, are fast evolving, raising the problem of how paired opposing receptors manage to change in step with respect to ligand binding properties and at the same time conserve opposite signaling functions. An example is the KLRC (NKG2) family, where opposing variants have been conserved in both rodents and primates. Phylogenetic analyses o...

  9. Hydrogen exchange and ligand binding: Ligand-dependent and ligand-independent protection in the Src SH3 domain

    OpenAIRE

    Wildes, David; Marqusee, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange has proven to be a powerful tool for detecting and characterizing high-energy conformations in protein ensembles. Since interactions with ligands can modulate these high-energy conformations, hydrogen exchange appears to be an ideal experimental probe of the physical mechanisms underlying processes like allosteric regulation. The chemical mechanism of hydrogen exchange, however, can complicate such studies. Here, we examine hydrogen exchange rates in a simple...

  10. Assessment of automatic ligand building in ARP/wARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the ligand-building module of the ARP/wARP software suite is assessed through a large-scale test on known protein–ligand complexes. The results provide a detailed benchmark and guidelines for future improvements. The efficiency of the ligand-building module of ARP/wARP version 6.1 has been assessed through extensive tests on a large variety of protein–ligand complexes from the PDB, as available from the Uppsala Electron Density Server. Ligand building in ARP/wARP involves two main steps: automatic identification of the location of the ligand and the actual construction of its atomic model. The first step is most successful for large ligands. The second step, ligand construction, is more powerful with X-ray data at high resolution and ligands of small to medium size. Both steps are successful for ligands with low to moderate atomic displacement parameters. The results highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both the method of ligand building and the large-scale validation procedure and help to identify means of further improvement

  11. Ligand-specific conformational changes in the alpha1 glycine receptor ligand-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Lynch, Joseph W

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the activation mechanism of Cys loop ion channel receptors is key to understanding their physiological and pharmacological properties under normal and pathological conditions. The ligand-binding domains of these receptors comprise inner and outer beta-sheets and structural studies indicate that channel opening is accompanied by conformational rearrangements in both beta-sheets. In an attempt to resolve ligand-dependent movements in the ligand-binding domain, we employed voltage-clamp fluorometry on alpha1 glycine receptors to compare changes mediated by the agonist, glycine, and by the antagonist, strychnine. Voltage-clamp fluorometry involves labeling introduced cysteines with environmentally sensitive fluorophores and inferring structural rearrangements from ligand-induced fluorescence changes. In the inner beta-sheet, we labeled residues in loop 2 and in binding domain loops D and E. At each position, strychnine and glycine induced distinct maximal fluorescence responses. The pre-M1 domain responded similarly; at each of four labeled positions glycine produced a strong fluorescence signal, whereas strychnine did not. This suggests that glycine induces conformational changes in the inner beta-sheet and pre-M1 domain that may be important for activation, desensitization, or both. In contrast, most labeled residues in loops C and F yielded fluorescence changes identical in magnitude for glycine and strychnine. A notable exception was H201C in loop C. This labeled residue responded differently to glycine and strychnine, thus underlining the importance of loop C in ligand discrimination. These results provide an important step toward mapping the domains crucial for ligand discrimination in the ligand-binding domain of glycine receptors and possibly other Cys loop receptors.

  12. Flexible Ligand Docking Using Differential Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, René

    2003-01-01

    Molecular docking of biomolecules is becoming an increasingly important part in the process of developing new drugs, as well as searching compound databases for promising drug candidates. The docking of ligands to proteins can be formulated as an optimization problem where the task is to find the most favorable energetic conformation among the large space of possible protein-ligand complexes. Stochastic search methods, such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs), can be used to sample large search spaces effectively and is one of the preferred methods for flexible ligand docking. The differential evolution algorithm (DE) is applied to the docking problem using the AutoDock program. The introduced DockDE algorithm is compared with the Lamarckian GA (LGA) provided with AutoDock, and the DockEA previously found to outperform the LGA. The comparison is performed on a suite of six commonly used docking problems. In conclusion, the introduced DockDE outperformed the other algorithms on all problems. Further, the DockDE showed remarkable performance in terms of convergence speed and robustness regarding the found solution.

  13. 153Sm complexes of phosphonic acid ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    153Sm was produced by irradiating enriched samarium-152 targets (Sm2O3) at a flux of 2.2x1013 n/cm2/s for 7 days. ?-Amino methylene phosphonic acid ligands such as propylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (PDTMP) and butylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate, (BDTMP) were synthesised by modifying a method reported for the synthesis of EDTMP. Complexation of these synthesised phosphonate ligands with 153Sm was carried out by varying experimental parameters such as mole ratios of ligand to metal, pH, time and temperature of the reaction in order to maximise the yields. The complexes were characterized for radiochemical purity by paper chromatography. Though quantitative complexation was obtained in the case of PDTMP, the complexation of BDTMP was not quantitative. Extensive studies on the in vitro stability, bone mineral uptake and biodistribution were carried out on 153Sm-PDTMP complex. About 30% bone uptake and retention were observed in 24 hours. However, 20% of the injected activity was seen in liver. The uptake in all other organs was insignificant. (author)

  14. ProBiS-ligands: a web server for prediction of ligands by examination of protein binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konc, Janez; Janeži?, Dušanka

    2014-07-01

    The ProBiS-ligands web server predicts binding of ligands to a protein structure. Starting with a protein structure or binding site, ProBiS-ligands first identifies template proteins in the Protein Data Bank that share similar binding sites. Based on the superimpositions of the query protein and the similar binding sites found, the server then transposes the ligand structures from those sites to the query protein. Such ligand prediction supports many activities, e.g. drug repurposing. The ProBiS-ligands web server, an extension of the ProBiS web server, is open and free to all users at http://probis.cmm.ki.si/ligands. PMID:24861616

  15. New functionalized ?-diketiminate ligands and f elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-diketiminate ligands have received increased interest in coordination chemistry, especially for homogeneous catalysis. Their successful applications arise from an easy and fine tuning of the ligand electronic and geometric properties. However, these modifications are limited to the introduction of neutral donors (ethers or amines), on the nitrogen substituents of the ?-diketiminate skeleton. The main focus of this research project is to overcome this limitation by synthesizing new ?-diketiminate ligands functionalized by one or two anionic aryl-oxide groups, and to study their coordination chemistry with lanthanide and actinide ions. Access to these species relies on a fine understanding of the mechanism underlying their formation, and the sensitivity of the ?-di-iminium skeleton towards nucleophiles (phenols) has been identified as the limiting side reaction in the synthetic route. Addition of reactants in well defined order allowed the formation of two new N-aryl-oxy-?-diketiminate dianions on a multi-gram scale. The two ligands differ by their steric bulk and exhibit different coordination behaviors towards lanthanides and actinide ions, which were rationalized on geometric considerations. The reactivity of three of these new complexes has been investigated. A Ce(III) N-aryl-oxy-?-diketiminate complex exhibits interesting reduction properties, due to the shift of its oxidation potential to negative values by its coordination environment. A Th(IV) complex presents a vacant coordination site, which has been probed with different Lewis bases, emphasizing two spatial arrangements ruled by inter-ligand repulsion. It has been compared to its U(IV) analogue, which can be oxidized to a rare terminal mono-oxo uranium(VI) species. The latter was reversibly reduced to its U(V) and U(IV) derivatives, creating the first series of terminal mono-oxo uranium complexes with three successive oxidation states. These compounds represent an opportunity to better understand the influence of f-electrons on the inverse trans influence (ITI) in uranium oxo complexes. Preliminary DFT calculations have been carried out to explore geometric and energetic aspects at play in this interaction. (author)

  16. Ligand-targeted particulate nanomedicines undergoing clinical evaluation: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meel, Roy; Vehmeijer, Laurens J C; Kok, Robbert J; Storm, Gert; van Gaal, Ethlinn V B

    2013-10-01

    Since the introduction of Doxil® on the market nearly 20years ago, a number of nanomedicines have become part of treatment regimens in the clinic. With the exception of antibody-drug conjugates, these nanomedicines are all devoid of targeting ligands and rely solely on their physicochemical properties and the (patho)physiological processes in the body for their biodistribution and targeting capability. At the same time, many preclinical studies have reported on nanomedicines exposing targeting ligands, or ligand-targeted nanomedicines, yet none of these have been approved at this moment. In the present review, we provide a concise overview of 13 ligand-targeted particulate nanomedicines (ligand-targeted PNMs) that have progressed into clinical trials. The progress of each ligand-targeted PNM is discussed based on available (pre)clinical data. Main conclusions of these analyses are that (a) ligand-targeted PNMs have proven to be safe and efficacious in preclinical models; (b) the vast majority of ligand-targeted PNMs is generated for the treatment of cancer; (c) contribution of targeting ligands to the PNM efficacy is not unambiguously proven; and (d) targeting ligands do not cause localization of the PNM within the target tissue, but rather provide benefits in terms of target cell internalization and target tissue retention once the PNM has arrived at the target site. Increased understanding of the in vivo fate and interactions of the ligand-targeted PNMs with proteins and cells in the human body is mandatory to rationally advance the clinical translation of ligand-targeted PNMs. Future perspectives for ligand-targeted PNM approaches include the delivery of drugs that are unable or inefficient in passing cellular membranes, treatment of drug resistant tumors, targeting of the tumor blood supply, the generation of targeted vaccines and nanomedicines that are able to cross the blood-brain barrier. PMID:24018362

  17. Mixed ligand complexes of Y(III) with nitrilotriacetic acid as primary ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stability constants of mixed ligand complexes of the Y(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid with the secondary ligands, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA), 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene-6-sulphonic acid (sodium salt) (DHNSA), 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid (OSA), 8-hydroxy-7-iodoquinoline-5-sulphonic acid (IOSA), nitroso-R-salt (NRS) and 5-sulphosalicylic acid (SSA) have been obtained at = 0.2M, at three different temperatures using Irving-Rossotti titration technique. The thermodynamic parameters, free change, enthalpy of complex formation have been evaluated for these ternary systems. (author)

  18. Infrared spectroscopy : Method development and ligand binding studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Saroj

    2010-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy detects molecular vibrations and assesses the properties of molecules and their environment. It is a powerful technique to detect ligand induced changes in biomolecules as it has distinct signals and provides different levels of structural information. An addition of a dialysis accessory to attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy makes this technique more universal for ligand binding studies. It facilitates to study ligand binding of substrates, activators, inh...

  19. Clinical Use of PPARγ Ligands in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Lisa D.; Hatton, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of PPARγ in adipocyte differentiation has fueled intense interest in the function of this steroid nuclear receptor for regulation of malignant cell growth and differentiation. Given the antiproliferative and differentiating effects of PPARγ ligands on liposarcoma cells, investigation of PPARγ expression and ligand activation in other solid tumors such as breast, colon, and prostate cancers ensued. The anticancer effects of PPARγ ligands in cell culture an...

  20. Docking Validation Resources: Protein Family and Ligand Flexibility Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sudipto; Balius, Trent E.; Rizzo, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    A database consisting of 780 ligand-receptor complexes, termed SB2010, has been derived from the Protein Databank to evaluate the accuracy of docking protocols for regenerating bound ligand conformations. The goal is to provide easily accessible community resources for development of improved procedures to aid virtual screening for ligands with a wide range of flexibilities. Three core experiments using the program DOCK, which employ rigid (RGD), fixed anchor (FAD), and flexible (FLX) protoco...

  1. Mixed ligand complexes of lanthanum-solution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation constants of the ternary complexes of lanthanum, choosing bipyridyl, 1, 10-phenanthroline, maltol, kojic acid or acetylacetone as primary ligands and amino acids (glycine, ?-alanine or phenylalanine) as auxiliary ligands, have been determined potentiometrically in aqueous medium and 0.1 M KNO3 at 30 degC. The stability order of these ternary complexes is in the order: phenylalanine > ?-alanine > glycine. Influence of the ligand structure on the stability of the complexes has been discussed. (author)

  2. Scorpionates the coordination chemistry of polypyrazolylborate ligands

    CERN Document Server

    Trofimenko, Swiatoslaw

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with polypyrazolylborates (scorpionates), a class of ligands known since 1966, but becoming rapidly popular with inorganic, organometallic and coordination chemists since 1986, because of their versatility and user-friendliness. They can be readily modified sterically and electronically through appropriate substitution on the pyrazole ring and on boron, and have led to a number of firsts in coordination chemistry (first stable CuCO complex, first monomeric MgR complex, and many other such firsts). Their denticity can range from two to four, their "Bite" can be adjusted, and add

  3. d Orbitals in an Octahedral Ligand Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here is a page that shows the d orbitals in an axis set. Running the mouse over an orbital reveals the "name" of that orbital. This is good practice for helping students link the name of an orbital to the orientation. This page is linked to an interactive 3-dimensional applet, similar to the one above, that shows the d orbitals in an octahedral ligand field. The user may also click on the name of any one of the d orbitals to obtain a larger 3-dimensional image. The images are rotatable and scalable.

  4. Mixed ligand oxovanadium(IV) complexes with salicylic acid and N,N-bidentate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two mixed-ligand oxovanadium(IV) complexes VO(A)(B) [where H2A=salicylic acid and B=2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline (hereafter, bipy and phen respectively)] have been synthesized and characterized by magnetic moment and spectral (IR, UV/VIS and EPR) data. The A2- ion acts as a bidentate dinegative ligand while B ligands acts as a neutral bidentate. The magnetic susceptibility values indicate the existence of a small amount of antiferromagnetic interaction. The vanadium atoms in the complexes are hexacoordinated and the coordination sphere is of the type [VO(OO)(NN)], where O atoms are of oxo, carboxylic and phenolic type and N atoms are of pyridine type. The sixth coordination site is occupied by phenolic oxygen of the neighbouring molecule forming a bridge. The vv=o confirms the hexacoordination. All the complexes have dxy1 type axial EPR spectra and they exhibit two ligand field transitions at 740 and 440 nm. (author)

  5. Ligand binding by the tandem glycine riboswitch depends on aptamer dimerization but not double ligand occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Karen M; Strobel, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    The glycine riboswitch predominantly exists as a tandem structure, with two adjacent, homologous ligand-binding domains (aptamers), followed by a single expression platform. The recent identification of a leader helix, the inclusion of which eliminates cooperativity between the aptamers, has reopened the debate over the purpose of the tandem structure of the glycine riboswitch. An equilibrium dialysis-based assay was combined with binding-site mutations to monitor glycine binding in each ligand-binding site independently to understand the role of each aptamer in glycine binding and riboswitch tertiary interactions. A series of mutations disrupting the dimer interface was used to probe how dimerization impacts ligand binding by the tandem glycine riboswitch. While the wild-type tandem riboswitch binds two glycine equivalents, one for each aptamer, both individual aptamers are capable of binding glycine when the other aptamer is unoccupied. Intriguingly, glycine binding by aptamer-1 is more sensitive to dimerization than glycine binding by aptamer-2 in the context of the tandem riboswitch. However, monomeric aptamer-2 shows dramatically weakened glycine-binding affinity. In addition, dimerization of the two aptamers in trans is dependent on glycine binding in at least one aptamer. We propose a revised model for tandem riboswitch function that is consistent with these results, wherein ligand binding in aptamer-1 is linked to aptamer dimerization and stabilizes the P1 stem of aptamer-2, which controls the expression platform. PMID:25246650

  6. The Use of Calorimetry to Study Ligand-DNA Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C.

    Calorimetry monitors heat changes accompanying biological or chemical processes. As applied to the study of ligand-DNA interactions, calorimetry can be used to monitor processes including the isothermal titration of DNA targets with putative DNA binding ligands; as well as, the thermal denaturation of DNA in the absence and presence of binding ligands. By monitoring the small heat changes accompanying these events calorimetry can directly provide thermodynamic information which is invaluable for understanding the basis of how molecules interact with each other. In this chapter, the use of calorimetric approaches to the study of ligand-DNA interactions will be discussed.

  7. Riboswitch Structure: an Internal Residue Mimicking the Purine Ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfosse, V.; Bouchard, P; Bonneau, E; Dagenais, P; Lemay, J; Lafontaine, D; Legault, P

    2009-01-01

    The adenine and guanine riboswitches regulate gene expression in response to their purine ligand. X-ray structures of the aptamer moiety of these riboswitches are characterized by a compact fold in which the ligand forms a Watson-Crick base pair with residue 65. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a strict restriction at position 39 of the aptamer that prevents the G39-C65 and A39-U65 combinations, and mutational studies indicate that aptamers with these sequence combinations are impaired for ligand binding. In order to investigate the rationale for sequence conservation at residue 39, structural characterization of the U65C mutant from Bacillus subtilis pbuE adenine riboswitch aptamer was undertaken. NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography studies demonstrate that the U65C mutant adopts a compact ligand-free structure, in which G39 occupies the ligand-binding site of purine riboswitch aptamers. These studies present a remarkable example of a mutant RNA aptamer that adopts a native-like fold by means of ligand mimicking and explain why this mutant is impaired for ligand binding. Furthermore, this work provides a specific insight into how the natural sequence has evolved through selection of nucleotide identities that contribute to formation of the ligand-bound state, but ensures that the ligand-free state remains in an active conformation.

  8. Melanoma Cell Galectin-1 Ligands Functionally Correlate with Malignant Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Erika M; Geddes-Sweeney, Jenna E; Cedeno-Laurent, Filiberto; Walley, Kempland C; Barthel, Steven R; Opperman, Matthew J; Liang, Jennifer; Lin, Jennifer Y; Schatton, Tobias; Laga, Alvaro C; Mihm, Martin C; Qureshi, Abrar A; Widlund, Hans R; Murphy, George F; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2015-07-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1)-binding to Gal-1 ligands on immune and endothelial cells can influence melanoma development through dampening antitumor immune responses and promoting angiogenesis. However, whether Gal-1 ligands are functionally expressed on melanoma cells to help control intrinsic malignant features remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed expression, identity, and function of Gal-1 ligands in melanoma progression. Immunofluorescent analysis of benign and malignant human melanocytic neoplasms revealed that Gal-1 ligands were abundant in severely dysplastic nevi, as well as in primary and metastatic melanomas. Biochemical assessments indicated that melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) was a major Gal-1 ligand on melanoma cells that was largely dependent on its N-glycans. Other melanoma cell Gal-1 ligand activity conferred by O-glycans was negatively regulated by ?2,6 sialyltransferase ST6GalNAc2. In Gal-1-deficient mice, MCAM-silenced (MCAM(KD)) or ST6GalNAc2-overexpressing (ST6(O/E)) melanoma cells exhibited slower growth rates, underscoring a key role for melanoma cell Gal-1 ligands and host Gal-1 in melanoma growth. Further analysis of MCAM(KD) or ST6(O/E) melanoma cells in cell migration assays indicated that Gal-1 ligand-dependent melanoma cell migration was severely inhibited. These findings provide a refined perspective on Gal-1/melanoma cell Gal-1 ligand interactions as contributors to melanoma malignancy. PMID:25756799

  9. Superior serum half life of albumin tagged TNF ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to their immune stimulating and apoptosis inducing properties, ligands of the TNF family attract increasing interest as therapeutic proteins. A general limitation of in vivo applications of recombinant soluble TNF ligands is their notoriously rapid clearance from circulation. To improve the serum half life of the TNF family members TNF, TWEAK and TRAIL, we genetically fused soluble variants of these molecules to human serum albumin (HSA). The serum albumin-TNF ligand fusion proteins were found to be of similar bioactivity as the corresponding HSA-less counterparts. Upon intravenous injection (i.v.), serum half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins, as determined by ELISA, was around 15 h as compared to approximately 1 h for all of the recombinant control TNF ligands without HSA domain. Moreover, serum samples collected 6 or 24 h after i.v. injection still contained high TNF ligand bioactivity, demonstrating that there is only limited degradation/inactivation of circulating HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins in vivo. In a xenotransplantation model, significantly less of the HSA-TRAIL fusion protein compared to the respective control TRAIL protein was required to achieve inhibition of tumor growth indicating that the increased half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins translates into better therapeutic action in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic fusion to serum albumin is a powerful and generally applicable mean to improve bioavailability and in vivo activity of TNF ligands.

  10. New functionalized ?-diketiminate ligands and f elementsNew functionalized ?-diketiminate ligands and f elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-diketiminate ligands have received increased interest in coordination chemistry, especially for homogeneous catalysis. Their successful applications arise from an easy and fine tuning of the ligand electronic and geometric properties. However, these modifications are limited to the introduction of neutral donors (ethers or amines), on the nitrogen substituents of the ?-diketiminate skeleton. The main focus of this research project is to overcome this limitation by synthesizing new ?-diketiminate ligands functionalized by one or two anionic aryl-oxide groups, and to study their coordination chemistry with lanthanide and actinide ions. Access to these species relies on a fine understanding of the mechanism underlying their formation, and the sensitivity of the ?-di-iminium skeleton towards nucleophiles (phenols) has been identified as the limiting side reaction in the synthetic route. Addition of reactants in well defined order allowed the formation of two new N-aryl-oxy-?-diketiminate dianions on a multi-gram scale. The two ligands differ by their steric bulk and exhibit different coordination behaviors towards lanthanides and actinide ions, which were rationalized on geometric considerations. The reactivity of three of these new complexes has been investigated. A Ce(III) N-aryl-oxy-?-diketiminate complex exhibits interesting reduction properties, due to the shift of its oxidation potential to negative values by its coordination environment. A Th(IV) complex presents a vacant coordination site, which has been probed with different Lewis bases, emphasizing two spatial arrangements ruled by inter-ligand repulsion. It has been compared to its U(IV) analogue, which can be oxidized to a rare terminal mono-oxo uranium(VI) species. The latter was reversibly reduced to its U(V) and U(IV) derivatives, creating the first series of terminal mono-oxo uranium complexes with three successive oxidation states. These compounds represent an opportunity to better understand the influence of f-electrons on the inverse trans influence (ITI) in uranium oxo complexes. Preliminary DFT calculations have been carried out to explore geometric and energetic aspects at play in this interaction. (author)?-diketiminate ligands have received increased interest in coordination chemistry, especially for homogeneous catalysis. Their successful applications arise from an easy and fine tuning of the ligand electronic and geometric properties. However, these modifications are limited to the introduction of neutral donors (ethers or amines), on the nitrogen substituents of the ?-diketiminate skeleton. The main focus of this research project is to overcome this limitation by synthesizing new ?-diketiminate ligands functionalized by one or two anionic aryl-oxide groups, and to study their coordination chemistry with lanthanide and actinide ions. Access to these species relies on a fine understanding of the mechanism underlying their formation, and the sensitivity of the ?-di-iminium skeleton towards nucleophiles (phenols) has been identified as the limiting side reaction in the synthetic route. Addition of reactants in well defined order allowed the formation of two new N-aryl-oxy-?-diketiminate dianions on a multi-gram scale. The two ligands differ by their steric bulk and exhibit different coordination behaviors towards lanthanides and actinide ions, which were rationalized on geometric considerations. The reactivity of three of these new complexes has been investigated. A Ce(III) N-aryl-oxy-?-diketiminate complex exhibits interesting reduction properties, due to the shift of its oxidation potential to negative values by its coordination environment. A Th(IV) complex presents a vacant coordination site, which has been probed with different Lewis bases, emphasizing two spatial arrangements ruled by inter-ligand repulsion. It has been compared to its U(IV) analogue, which can be oxidized to a rare terminal mono-oxo uranium(VI) species. The latter was reversibly reduced to its U(V) and U(IV) derivatives, creating the first series of terminal mono-o

  11. Dynamic Aminal-Based TPA Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuntao; Yuan, Yaofeng; You, Lei; Anslyn, Eric V

    2015-05-26

    The use of dynamic covalent reactions (DCRs) is gaining popularity for the construction of self-assembling architectures. We have recently introduced DCRs that exchange alcohols and aldehydes to create hemiaminal ethers within tri(2-picolyl)amine (TPA) ligands, all of which are templated by Zn(II) . To expand the scope of this assembly, aromatic imines derived from pyridine-2-carboxyaldehyde were explored as dynamic covalent receptors for di(2-picolyl)amine in the presence of Zn(II) to create TPA ligands that contain aminal linkages. This represents another metal-templated in situ multicomponent assembly. The stability of the assembly was successfully modulated through substituent effects, and the equilibrium constants from imines to aminals were correlated by a linear free energy relationship (LFER) with ?(+) values. Dynamic component exchange was investigated as a means of probing multiple equilibriums quantitatively in the system. Further, the mechanism was analyzed with a qualitative kinetics study. NMR spectra reveal the different extents of two competing pathways for assembly depending upon whether the aromatic amine has electron-withdrawing or electron-donating groups on the ring. Finally, mass spectral evidence supports the presence and differing extents of dominance of the two pathways as a function of the substituents. PMID:25919126

  12. Development of novel catalysts for the photocatalytic hydrogen formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilz, Thomas David

    2011-11-16

    For future conversion of sunlight into chemical energy, intramolecular systems for artifical photosynthesis were developed in several stages. This comprised the fabrication of novel ligands and the resulting charge transfer chromophores (Ru(bpy)3-type) and/or catalytically active complexes (Pt, Pd). These were combined into heteronuclear diades consisting of covalently bonded functional subunits. In particular, the chromophores and catalysis centers were bridged so that their individual properties were retained while their individual functions were combined into a supramolecular photocatalyst. This makes it possible to reduce protons to hydrogen on these catalysts when exposed to light. As bridging units, oligodentate ligands were produced and used that can coordinate the active metal centers via bipyridines and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC). A number of such heterobimetal complexes, their initial compounds and appropriate reference compounds were produced, characterized, and compared. Apart from structural, photophysical and electrochemical analyses, also successful catalysis experiment were carried out with the manufactured photocatalysts for light-induced hydrogen production from water. Further representative control experiments and dynamic light scattering analyses were carried out in order to gain deeper understanding of the processes going on during catalysis. By comparing the properties of the fabricated catalysts with selected reference compounds, information was obtained on the structure-property relationships of the systems. (orig.) [German] Fuer die zukuenftige Umwandlung von Sonnenlicht in chemische Energie wurden schrittweise intramolekular arbeitende Systeme fuer eine artifizielle Photosynthese aufgebaut. Dabei wurde eine Anzahl von neuen Liganden und den resultierenden Charge-Transfer-Chromophoren (Ru(bpy)3-artig) bzw. katalyseaktiven Komplexen (Pt, Pd) hergestellt. Diese wurden zu heteronuklearen Diaden zusammengefuegt, welche aus kovalent verbundenen Funktionsuntereinheiten bestehen. Insbesondere wurden Chromophor und Katalysezentrum so miteinander verbrueckt, dass ihre individuellen Eigenschaften weiterbestehen, ihre Einzelfunktionen aber im Zusammenspiel als supramolekularer Photokatalysator fungieren. Somit wird es moeglich unter Lichteinstrahlung die Reduktion von Protonen zu Wasserstoff an diesen Katalysatoren durchzufuehren. Als Brueckeneinheit wurden dafuer oligodentate Liganden hergestellt und verwendet, die ueber Bipyridine und N-heterozyklische Carbene (NHC) die aktiven Metallzentren koordinieren koennen. Eine Anzahl solcher heterobimetallischen Komplexe, deren Ausgangsverbindungen sowie geeignete Referenzverbindungen wurden hergestellt, charakterisiert und miteinander verglichen. Neben strukturellen, photophysikalischen und elektrochemischen Analysen wurden zusaetzlich erfolgreich Katalyseexperimente mit den erzeugten Photokatalysatoren zur lichtgetriebenen Wasserstoffentwicklung aus Wasser durchgefuehrt. Ebenso wurden repraesentative Kontrollexperimente und zusaetzliche Analysen mittels dynamischer Lichtstreuung ausgefuehrt, um ein tiefergehendes Verstaendnis von den Prozessen waehrend der Katalyse zu erhalten. Durch Vergleich der Eigenschaften der hergestellten Katalysatoren mit ausgewaehlten Referenzverbindungen konnten zudem weitere Aussagen ueber Struktur-Eigenschafts-Beziehungen der Systeme abgeleitet werden. (orig.)

  13. Prediction of ligand-binding sites of proteins by molecular docking calculation for a random ligand library

    OpenAIRE

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to predicting the ligand-binding sites of proteins was developed, using protein-ligand docking computation. In this method, many compounds in a random library are docked onto the whole protein surface. We assumed that the true ligand-binding site would exhibit stronger affinity to the compounds in the random library than the other sites, even if the random library did not include the ligand corresponding to the true binding site. We also assumed that the affinity of the true li...

  14. A family of immobilizable chiral bis(pinenebipyridine) ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Pöllnitz, Alpár; Skupienski, Radek; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen; Crochet, Aurélien; Silvestru, Anca; Fromm, Katharina M.; Mamula, Olimpia

    2014-01-01

    New enantiopure ligands containing two (–)-5,6-pinenebipyridine units connected by a bridge situated in position 6? of the bipyridines have been prepared. The chemically addressable groups of the bridging (hydroxyl or keto) can be covalently bound to various supports in order to heterogenize the ligand.

  15. Structural basis for ligand recognition of incretin receptors.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Christina Rye; Parthier, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor are homologous G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Incretin receptor agonists stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic ?-cells and are therefore promising agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It is well established that the N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) of incretin receptors is important for ligand binding and ligand specificity, whereas the transmembrane domain is involved in receptor activation. Structures of the ligand-bound ECD of incretin receptors have been solved recently by X-ray crystallography. The crystal structures reveal a similar fold of the ECD and a similar mechanism of ligand binding, where the ligand adopts an ?-helical conformation. Residues in the C-terminal part of the ligand interact directly with the ECD and hydrophobic interactions appear to be the main driving force for ligand binding to the ECD of incretin receptors. Obviously, the-still missing-structures of full-length incretin receptors are required to construct a complete picture of receptor function at the molecular level. However, the progress made recently in structural analysis of the ECDs of incretin receptors and related GPCRs has shed new light on the process of ligand recognition and binding and provided a basis to disclose some of the mechanisms underlying receptor activation at high resolution.

  16. Pharmacological profiles of opioid ligands at Kappa opioid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark J David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to describe the activity of a set of opioid drugs, including partial agonists, in a human embryonic kidney cell system stably expressing only the mouse ?-opioid receptors. Receptor activation was assessed by measuring the inhibition of cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (cAMP production stimulated by 5 ?M forskolin. Intrinsic activities and potencies of these ligands were determined relative to the endogenous ligand dynorphin and the ? agonist with the highest intrinsic activity that was identified in this study, fentanyl. Results Among the ligands studied naltrexone, WIN 44,441 and dezocine, were classified as antagonists, while the remaining ligands were agonists. Intrinsic activity of agonists was assessed by determining the extent of inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. The absolute levels of inhibition of cAMP production by each ligand was used to describe the rank order of intrinsic activity of the agonists; fentanyl = lofentanil ? hydromorphone = morphine = nalorphine ? etorphine ? xorphanol ? metazocine ? SKF 10047 = cyclazocine ? butorphanol > nalbuphine. The rank order of affinity of these ligands was; cyclazocine > naltrexone ? SKF 10047 ? xorphanol ? WIN 44,441 > nalorphine > butorphanol > nalbuphine ? lofentanil > dezocine ? metazocine ? morphine > hydromorphone > fentanyl. Conclusion These results elucidate the relative activities of a set of opioid ligands at ?-opioid receptor and can serve as the initial step in a systematic study leading to understanding of the mode of action of these opioid ligands at this receptor.

  17. Multifunctional ligand for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.; Singh, P.R.

    1996-05-14

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical are revealed. The ligand comprises either a phosphorous or germanium core and at least two hydrazine groups forming a ligand for bonding to a metal extending from the phosphorous or germanium core.

  18. The research status of dopamine D3 receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopamine D3 receptor ligands were reviewed. Aminotetralin derivatives is a main kind of them. After comparing the molecule structure, receptor affinity and receptor selectivity of them, The author made a prospective research future of high selective and affinity ligands of dopamine D3 receptor

  19. Immobilisation of ligands by radio-derivatized polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to radio-derivatized polymers and a method of producing them by contacting non-polymerizable conjugands with radiolysable polymers in the presence of irradiation. The resulting radio-derivatized polymers can be further linked with ligand of organic or inorganic nature to immobilize such ligands. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Metallic complexes with hydrazone ligands. Uranyl (II) combinations with sulfonamidobenzhydrazones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranyl complexes with sulfonamidobenzhydrazone ligands were prepared in solid state. The combination ratio was established by elemental analysis in accordance with the results of the studies performed in solution.Coordination behavior of the ligands and possible structures of the synthesized complexes are discussed on the basis of their infrared spectra. (authors)

  1. Gas adsorption and gas mixture separations using mixed-ligand MOF material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Joseph T. (Northfield, IL); Mulfort, Karen L. (Chicago, IL); Snurr, Randall Q. (Evanston, IL); Bae, Youn-Sang (Evanston, IL)

    2011-01-04

    A method of separating a mixture of carbon dioxiode and hydrocarbon gas using a mixed-ligand, metal-organic framework (MOF) material having metal ions coordinated to carboxylate ligands and pyridyl ligands.

  2. Electrochemical investigation of mixed ligand complexes of Cd (II) with L-amino acids as primary ligands and ?-picoline as secondary ligand: a polarographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An appreciable change due to side-chain and basicity of ligand on stability constants (log ?) of Cd(II) complexes with glycine, ?-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-asparagine and L-glutamine as primary ligands and ?-picoline as the secondary ligand has been observed at pH 8.50 ± 0.01 and at an ionic strength ? = 1.0 mol dm-3 (potassium nitrate). Cd(II) forms 1:1:1, 1:1:2 and 1:2:1 complexes at 25 deg C. The trend of stability constants of Cd(II) complexes with respect to amino acids and ?-picoline is L-glutamine < L-asparagine < L-valine < L-leucine < ?-alanine < glycine which is explained on the basis of size and basicities of these ligands. (author)

  3. Impact of receptor-ligand distance on adhesion cluster stability

    CERN Document Server

    Erdmann, T

    2006-01-01

    Cells in multicellular organisms adhere to the extracellular matrix through two-dimensional clusters spanning a size range from very few to thousands of adhesion bonds. For many common receptor-ligand systems, the ligands are tethered to a surface via polymeric spacers with finite binding range, thus adhesion cluster stability crucially depends on receptor-ligand distance. We introduce a one-step master equation which incorporates the effect of cooperative binding through a finite number of polymeric ligand tethers. We also derive Fokker-Planck and mean field equations as continuum limits of the master equation. Polymers are modeled either as harmonic springs or as worm-like chains. In both cases, we find bistability between bound and unbound states for intermediate values of receptor-ligand distance and calculate the corresponding switching times. For small cluster sizes, stochastic effects destabilize the clusters at large separation, as shown by a detailed analysis of the stochastic potential resulting fro...

  4. Exploiting Ultra Tight-Binding Ligands for Separations Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Daryle; Givens, Richard S.; Zuo, Xiaobin; Zhang, Chi; Mosha, Donnati; Lee, Jong0Ill; Bushan, K. Mani; Hassan, Mansour M.; Loving, Galen

    2003-09-10

    The classic slowness that has kept the most powerful ligands from being used in separations applications is under attack in two ways: (1) replacing metal ion - ligand equilibration with switch binding and release as the mode of complexation. By exploiting the tight-binding capabilities of cryptands, the capture of selected metal ions isolates them from their environment. These cryptands are constructed with photoactivatable functions that sever the cryptand, releasing encapsulated metal ions. The precursors have been modified to capture the metal ion concomitant with crytate formation. (2) developing a methodology (the soil poultice) so slow that powerful ligands can be used. A solution containing the specially designed ligand is mixed with a solid macroporous imprinted polymer (MIPs) and applied to the contaminated area. The ligand captures the metal ion and the MIPs captures the resulting complex. Current studies focus on combinations of MIPs-complex interactions to optimize strength of binding and selectivity.

  5. Automated identification of crystallographic ligands using sparse-density representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel procedure for identifying ligands in macromolecular crystallographic electron-density maps is introduced. Density clusters in such maps can be rapidly attributed to one of 82 different ligands in an automated manner. A novel procedure for the automatic identification of ligands in macromolecular crystallographic electron-density maps is introduced. It is based on the sparse parameterization of density clusters and the matching of the pseudo-atomic grids thus created to conformationally variant ligands using mathematical descriptors of molecular shape, size and topology. In large-scale tests on experimental data derived from the Protein Data Bank, the procedure could quickly identify the deposited ligand within the top-ranked compounds from a database of candidates. This indicates the suitability of the method for the identification of binding entities in fragment-based drug screening and in model completion in macromolecular structure determination

  6. Accurate sensing of multiple ligands with a single receptor

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Cells use surface receptors to estimate the concentration of external ligands. Limits on the accuracy of such estimations have been well studied for pairs of ligand and receptor species. However, the environment typically contains many ligands, which can bind to the same receptors with different affinities, resulting in cross-talk. In traditional rate models, such cross-talk prevents accurate inference of individual ligand concentrations. In contrast, here we show that knowing the precise timing sequence of stochastic binding and unbinding events allows one receptor to provide information about multiple ligands simultaneously and with a high accuracy. We argue that such high-accuracy estimation of multiple concentrations can be realized by the familiar kinetic proofreading mechanism.

  7. Phosphinothiolates as ligands for polyhydrido copper nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertos, Miguel A; Cano, Israel; Bandeira, Nuno A G; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Bo, Carles; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M

    2014-12-01

    The reaction of [CuI(HSC6 H4 PPh2 )]2 with NaBH4 in CH2 Cl2 /EtOH led to air- and moisture-stable copper hydride nanoparticles (CuNPs) containing phosphinothiolates as new ligands, one of which was isolated by crystallization. The X-ray crystal structure of [Cu18 H7 L10 I] (L=(-) S(C6 H4 )PPh2 ) shows unprecedented features in its 28-atom framework (18?Cu and 10?S atoms). Seven hydrogen atoms, in hydride form, are needed for charge balance and were located by density functional theory methods. H2 was released from the copper hydride nanoparticles by thermolysis and visible light irradiation. PMID:25284300

  8. Mechanochemical synthesis of mixed-ligand europium ?-diketonates with nitrogen-containing neutral ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid-phase reaction between europium salts of ?-diketones and nitrogen-containing neutral ligands in a planetary mill produces luminescent mixed-ligand compounds Eu(?-dic)3 · D, where ?-dic stands for dibenzoylmethane, benzoylacetone, thenoyltrifluoroacetone, or benzoyltrifluoroacetone; and D stands for 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2-dipyridyl, or diphenylguanidine. The mechanosynthesis and yield of lanthanide ?-diketonates are studied as affected by the treatment parameters and the nature of the reagents. Powder X-ray diffraction demonstrates a staged course of the mechanochemical synthesis. Examination of formation-rate curves shows that grinding/stirring is the rate-controlling stage of the process. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the mechanosynthesis can proceed in the self-propagation mode. The relative luminescence intensity is determined as a function of treatment time. Particles of the mechanically activated mixture have sizes of 10-100 ?m

  9. Regulation mechanisms of the FLT3-ligand after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hematopoietic compartment is one of the most severely damaged after chemotherapy, radiotherapy or accidental irradiations. Whatever its origin, the resulting damage to the bone marrow remains difficult to evaluate. Thus, it would be of great interest to get a biological indicator of residual hematopoiesis in order to adapt the treatment to each clinical situation. Recent results indicated that the plasma Flt3 ligand concentration was increased in patients suffering from either acquired or induced aplasia, suggesting that Flt3 ligand might be useful as a biological indicator of bone marrow status. We thus followed in a mouse model as well as in several clinical situations the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand concentration, after either homogeneous or heterogeneous irradiations. These variations were correlated to the number of hematopoietic progenitors and to other parameters such as duration and depth of pancytopenia. The results indicated that the concentration of Flt3 ligand in the blood reflects the bone marrow status, and that the follow-up of plasma Flt3 ligand concentration could give predictive information about the bone marrow function and the duration and severity of pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Nevertheless, the clinical use of Flt3 ligand as a biological indicator of bone marrow damage require the knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand concentration. We thus developed a study in the mouse model. The results indicated that the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand variations were not solely due to a balance between its production by lymphoid cells and its consumption by hematopoietic cells. Moreover, we showed that T lymphocytes are not the main regulator of plasma Flt3 ligand concentration as previously suggested, and that other cell types, possibly including bone marrow stromal cells, might be strongly implicated. These results also suggest that the Flt3 ligand is a main systemic regulator of hematopoiesis, especially during induced bone marrow aplasia. (author)

  10. Design and synthesis of benign, N- and O-containing, organic ligands for surface engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Renz, Robert Phillip

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of new organic ligands as corrosion inhibitors. The introductory chapter presents a review of the chemistry involved in the corrosion of metal surfaces. Chapter 2 considers the requirements necessary to develop new ligands. The ligand-surface complex must have a high thermodynamic and kinetic stability. The inclusion of multifunctionality allows the potential for intermolecular ligand-ligand or ligand-surface secondary bonding which can generate a...

  11. Substituted biurets as uranophilic ligands: A facile DMSO-induced conversion of a 1:1 into a 2:1 uranyl-ligand complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, K.T.; O' Brien, J.J.; Tham, F.S. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States))

    1990-01-01

    1,5-Bis(6-(1-ethoxycarbonyl-3-thioureido)-2-pyridindiyl)biuret and uranyl acetate gave a crystalline 1:1 uranyl-ligand complex which, on crystallization from DMSO, underwent rearrangement to a crystalline 2:1 uranyl-ligand complex and a stoichiometric amount of the uncomplexed ligand. Spectral characteristics of these ligands and their uranyl complexes together with single crystal x-ray data for the uranyl-ligand complexes are described.

  12. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of N-Heterocyclic Compounds [Síntese de Compostos N-Heterociclos Empregando Micro-ondas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego P. Sangi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Association of biological activity with heterocyclic motifs is well known and is important from drug discovery viewpoint. This article gives an account of the recent applications of microwaves in the synthesis of biologically active heterocyclic compounds from the literature and also from our research group.

  13. Preparation of Second Generation Ionic Liquids by Efficient Solvent-Free Alkylation of N-Heterocycles with Chloroalkanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bonrath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional techniques, such as microwave (MW and power ultrasound(US as well as combined MW/US irradiation, have been used to promote one-potsynthesis of second-generation ionic liquids (ILs, cutting down reaction times andimproving yields. However, the use of chloroalkanes in the alkylation of N-heterocyclesrequires more drastic conditions if results are to match those obtained with more reactivealkyl halides. The present paper describes a series of MW- or MW/US-promoted ILpreparations starting from chloroalkanes and classic heterocycles (1-methylimidazole,pyridine and 1-methylpyrrolidine. When reactions were carried out under conventionalheating in an oil bath they required longer reaction times and gave poorer yields. 1H-NMRanalysis and ion-exchange chromatography showed that the present solventless procedureafforded ILs of satisfactory purity. The observed high yields (usually 70-98% isolated,and short reaction times showed that a straightforward access to ILs can be also achievedwith the use of alkyl chlorides, resulting in a considerable reduction of costs.

  14. Toxicity and modulations of biomarkers in Xenopus laevis embryos exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their N-heterocyclic derivatives.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buryšková, B.; Hilscherová, Klára; Bláha, Lud?k; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Holoubek, I.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 1 (2006), s. 590-598. ISSN 1520-4081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : PAH -s * N- PAH s * Xenopus laevis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2006

  15. Asymmetric Ligand Binding Facilitates Conformational Transitions in Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Mowrey, David; Cheng, Mary Hongying; Liu, Lu Tian; Willenbring, Dan; Lu, Xinghua; Wymore, Troy; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei

    2013-01-01

    The anesthetic propofol inhibits the currents of the homo-pentameric ligand-gated ion channel GLIC, yet the crystal structure of GLIC with five propofol molecules bound symmetrically shows an open-channel conformation. To address this dilemma and determine if symmetry of propofol binding sites affects the channel conformational transition, we performed a total of 1.5 As of molecular dynamics simulations for different GLIC systems with propofol occupancies of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5. GLIC without pr...

  16. Labeling of amine ligands with sup(99m)Tc in aqueous solutions by ligand exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclam, ethylenediamine (EN) and a linear tetraamine (TA) form structurally similar complexes in high yields when pertechnetate is reduced with Sn(II) in aqueous solutions. Efficient labeling of these amine ligands is also accomplished by transfer of sup(99m)Tc from its complexes with diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) and citrate. The labeling yields of cyclam, TA and EN using [sup(99m)Tc]DTPA are greater than 95% after standing for 30 min at room temperature in 0.03 M solutions of the amine ligands at pH above 11, but less than 10% at pH below 9. Yields of greater than 90% are obtained using [sup(99m)Tc]citrate under similar conditions at pH 7 or greater. Ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (ENDA) also forms a complex with sup(99m)Tc that exhibits pH dependent stability characteristics that are the same as those of [sup(99m)Tc]EN. The labeling efficiency of ENDA with sup(99m)Tc as a function of pH is nearly identical to that of the other amine ligands. (author)

  17. SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF MIXED LIGAND COMPLEXES OF Mn(II,Cu(IIWITHOXYGEN AND NITROGEN DONAR LIGANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.SHIRODE

    Full Text Available The mixed ligand complexes of the type [M(L1(L2]Cl2 (whereM= Mn(IIand Cu(II and L1=Acetophenone emicarbazone,L2=Benzaldehydeemicarbazone,cyclohexanonesemicarbazone,acetonesemicarbazonehave been synthesized by the reactions of metal chlorides with two different semicarbazone compounds in 1:1:1 molar ratios. The resulting complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, magnetic measurement, IR and electronic spectra, conductivity measurement. The metal complexes shows ratio 1:1:1 with metal ligand L1 and ligand L2.The ligands acts as bidentate ligands and are bonded through oxygen and nitrogen to metal ion. The two co-ordinationpositions are occupied by two water molecules. The complexes have octahedral structure.

  18. Regulation mechanisms of the FLT3-ligand after irradiation; Mecanismes de regulation du FLT3-ligand apres irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat-Lepesant, M

    2005-06-15

    The hematopoietic compartment is one of the most severely damaged after chemotherapy, radiotherapy or accidental irradiations. Whatever its origin, the resulting damage to the bone marrow remains difficult to evaluate. Thus, it would be of great interest to get a biological indicator of residual hematopoiesis in order to adapt the treatment to each clinical situation. Recent results indicated that the plasma Flt3 ligand concentration was increased in patients suffering from either acquired or induced aplasia, suggesting that Flt3 ligand might be useful as a biological indicator of bone marrow status. We thus followed in a mouse model as well as in several clinical situations the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand concentration, after either homogeneous or heterogeneous irradiations. These variations were correlated to the number of hematopoietic progenitors and to other parameters such as duration and depth of pancytopenia. The results indicated that the concentration of Flt3 ligand in the blood reflects the bone marrow status, and that the follow-up of plasma Flt3 ligand concentration could give predictive information about the bone marrow function and the duration and severity of pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Nevertheless, the clinical use of Flt3 ligand as a biological indicator of bone marrow damage require the knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand concentration. We thus developed a study in the mouse model. The results indicated that the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand variations were not solely due to a balance between its production by lymphoid cells and its consumption by hematopoietic cells. Moreover, we showed that T lymphocytes are not the main regulator of plasma Flt3 ligand concentration as previously suggested, and that other cell types, possibly including bone marrow stromal cells, might be strongly implicated. These results also suggest that the Flt3 ligand is a main systemic regulator of hematopoiesis, especially during induced bone marrow aplasia. (author)

  19. Tethered ligands reveal glutamate receptor desensitization depends on subunit occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Andreas; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2014-04-01

    Cell signaling is often mediated by the binding of multiple ligands to multisubunit receptors. The probabilistic nature and sometimes slow rate of binding encountered with diffusible ligands can impede attempts to determine how the ligand occupancy controls signaling in such protein complexes. We describe a solution to this problem that uses a photoswitched tethered ligand as a 'ligand clamp' to induce rapid and stable binding and unbinding at defined subsets of subunits. We applied the approach to study gating in ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory neurotransmission and plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the brain. We probed gating in two kainate-type iGluRs, GluK2 homotetramers and GluK2-GluK5 heterotetramers. Ultrafast (submillisecond) photoswitching of an azobenzene-based ligand on specific subunits provided a real-time measure of gating and revealed that partially occupied receptors can activate without desensitizing. The findings have implications for signaling by locally released and spillover glutamate. PMID:24561661

  20. Colloidal nanocrystals with inorganic halide, pseudohalide, and halometallate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Jang, Jaeyoung; Liu, Wenyong; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2014-07-22

    We investigate simple halides and pseudohalides as an important class of inorganic ligands for nanocrystals (NCs) in solution phase ligand exchange. These short, robust, and easy to model ligands bind to the NC surface and provide electrostatic stabilization of NC dispersions in N-methylformamide. The replacement of organic ligands on NCs with compact halide and pseudohalide ligands greatly facilitates electronic communication between NCs. For example, a high electron mobility of ? ? 12 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) has been observed in thin films made of I(-)-capped CdSe NCs. We also studied charge transport properties of thin films based on the pseudohalide N3(-)-capped InAs NCs, suggesting the possibility of obtaining "all III-V" NC solids. In addition, we extend the surface chemistry of halometallates (e.g., CH3NH3PbI3), which can stabilize colloidal solutions of lead chalcogenide NCs. These halide, pseudohalide, and halometallate ligands enrich the current family of inorganic ligands and can open up more opportunities for applications of NCs in the fields of electronics, optoelectronics, and thermoelectrics. PMID:24988140

  1. Gold-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,7-enyne esters to structurally diverse cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Weidong; Sally; Koh, Ming Joo; Chan, Philip Wai Hong

    2013-04-01

    A synthetic method that relies on gold(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,7-enyne esters to prepare highly functionalized cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl ketone derivatives in good to excellent yields and as a single regio-, diastereo-, and enantiomer is described. By taking advantage of the distinctive differences in the electronic and steric properties between an NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) and phosphine ligand in the respective gold(I) complexes, a divergence in product selectivity was observed. In the presence of [PhCNAuIPr](+)SbF6(-) (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidine) as the catalyst, tandem 1,3-acyloxy migration/6-exo-trig cyclization/1,5-acyl migration of the substrate was found to selectively occur to give the ?-diketone-substituted 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine adduct. In contrast, reactions with the gold(I) phosphine complex [MeCNAu(JohnPhos)](+)SbF6(-) (JohnPhos = (1,1'-biphenyl-2-yl)-di-tert-butylphosphine) as the catalyst was discovered to result in preferential 1,3-acyloxy migration/6-exo-trig cyclization/hydrolysis of the 1,7-enyne ester and formation of the cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl ketone derivative. The utility of this piperidine forming strategy as a synthetic tool that makes use of 1,7-enyne esters was exemplified by its application to the synthesis of an enantiopure analogue of the bioactive 2,3,4,4a,5,9b-hexahydroindeno[1,2-c]pyridine family of compounds. PMID:23458312

  2. An intermediate cobalt(IV) nitrido complex and its N-migratory insertion product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnhofer, Eva M; Käß, Martina; Khusniyarov, Marat M; Heinemann, Frank W; Maron, Laurent; van Gastel, Maurice; Bill, Eckhard; Meyer, Karsten

    2014-10-22

    Low-temperature photolysis experiments (T = 10 K) on the tripodal azido complex [(BIMPN(Mes,Ad,Me))Co(II)(N3)] (1) were monitored by EPR spectroscopy and support the formation of an exceedingly reactive, high-valent Co nitrido species [(BIMPN(Mes,Ad,Me))Co(IV)(N)] (2). Density functional theory calculations suggest a low-spin d(5), S = 1/2, electronic configuration of the central cobalt ion in 2 and, thus, are in line with the formulation of complex 2 as a genuine, low-spin Co(IV) nitride species. Although the reactivity of this species precludes handling above 50 K or isolation in the solid state, the N-migratory insertion product [(NH-BIMPN(Mes,Ad,Me))Co(II)](BPh4) (3) is isolable and was reproducibly synthesized as well as fully characterized, including CHN elemental analysis, paramagnetic (1)H NMR, IR, UV-vis, and EPR spectroscopy as well as SQUID magnetization and single-crystal X-ray crystallography studies. A computational analysis of the reaction pathway 2 ? 3 indicates that the reaction readily occurs via N-migratory insertion into the Co-C bond (activation barrier of 2.2 kcal mol(-1)). In addition to the unusual reactivity of the nitride 2, the resulting divalent cobalt complex 3 is a rare example of a trigonal pyramidal complex with four different donor ligands of a tetradentate chelate-an N-heterocyclic carbene, a phenolate, an imine, and an amine-binding to a high-spin Co(II) ion. This renders complex 3 chiral-at-metal. PMID:25243488

  3. Binding of flexible and constrained ligands to the Grb2 SH2 domain: structural effects of ligand preorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, John H.; DeLorbe, John E.; Benfield, Aaron P.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Structures of the Grb2 SH2 domain complexed with a series of pseudopeptides containing flexible (benzyl succinate) and constrained (aryl cyclopropanedicarboxylate) replacements of the phosphotyrosine (pY) residue in tripeptides derived from Ac-pYXN-NH2 (where X = V, I, E and Q) were elucidated by X-ray crystallography. Complexes of flexible/constrained pairs having the same pY + 1 amino acid were analyzed in order to ascertain what structural differences might be attributed to constraining the phosphotyrosine replacement. In this context, a given structural dissimilarity between complexes was considered to be significant if it was greater than the corresponding difference in complexes coexisting within the same asymmetric unit. The backbone atoms of the domain generally adopt a similar conformation and orientation relative to the ligands in the complexes of each flexible/constrained pair, although there are some significant differences in the relative orientations of several loop regions, most notably in the BC loop that forms part of the binding pocket for the phosphate group in the tyrosine replacements. These variations are greater in the set of complexes of constrained ligands than in the set of complexes of flexible ligands. The constrained ligands make more direct polar contacts to the domain than their flexible counterparts, whereas the more flexible ligand of each pair makes more single-water-mediated contacts to the domain; there was no correlation between the total number of protein–ligand contacts and whether the phosphotyrosine replacement of the ligand was preorganized. The observed differences in hydrophobic interactions between the complexes of each flexible/constrained ligand pair were generally similar to those observed upon comparing such contacts in coexisting complexes. The average adjusted B factors of the backbone atoms of the domain and loop regions are significantly greater in the complexes of constrained ligands than in the complexes of the corresponding flexible ligands, suggesting greater thermal motion in the crystalline state in the former complexes. There was no apparent correlation between variations in crystal packing and observed structural differences or similarities in the complexes of flexible and constrained ligands, but the possibility that crystal packing might result in structural variations cannot be rigorously excluded. Overall, it appears that there are more variations in the three-dimensional structure of the protein and the ligand in complexes of the constrained ligands than in those of their more flexible counterparts. PMID:20944243

  4. Database of ligand-induced domain movements in enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayward Steven

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conformational change induced by the binding of a substrate or coenzyme is a poorly understood stage in the process of enzyme catalysed reactions. For enzymes that exhibit a domain movement, the conformational change can be clearly characterized and therefore the opportunity exists to gain an understanding of the mechanisms involved. The development of the non-redundant database of protein domain movements contains examples of ligand-induced domain movements in enzymes, but this valuable data has remained unexploited. Description The domain movements in the non-redundant database of protein domain movements are those found by applying the DynDom program to pairs of crystallographic structures contained in Protein Data Bank files. For each pair of structures cross-checking ligands in their Protein Data Bank files with the KEGG-LIGAND database and using methods that search for ligands that contact the enzyme in one conformation but not the other, the non-redundant database of protein domain movements was refined down to a set of 203 enzymes where a domain movement is apparently triggered by the binding of a functional ligand. For these cases, ligand binding information, including hydrogen bonds and salt-bridges between the ligand and specific residues on the enzyme is presented in the context of dynamical information such as the regions that form the dynamic domains, the hinge bending residues, and the hinge axes. Conclusion The presentation at a single website of data on interactions between a ligand and specific residues on the enzyme alongside data on the movement that these interactions induce, should lead to new insights into the mechanisms of these enzymes in particular, and help in trying to understand the general process of ligand-induced domain closure in enzymes. The website can be found at: http://www.cmp.uea.ac.uk/dyndom/enzymeList.do

  5. Effect of the functionalisation route on a Zr-MOF with an Ir-NHC complex for catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Fabian; Martínez-Castro, Elisa; Marcos, Rocío; Miera, Greco González; Jansson, Kjell; Zou, Xiaodong; Martín-Matute, Belén

    2015-06-23

    A new iridium N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) metallolinker has been synthesised and introduced into a metal-organic framework (MOF), for the first time, via two different routes: direct synthesis and postsynthetic exchange (PSE). The two materials were compared in terms of the Ir loading and distribution using X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), the local Ir structure using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and the catalytic activity. The materials showed good activity and recyclability as catalysts for the isomerisation of an allylic alcohol. PMID:26050822

  6. Utilisation of water soluble iridium catalysts for signal amplification by reversible exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, M; Gibard, C; Dear, G J; Green, G G R; Hooper, A J J; Roberts, A D; Cisnetti, F; Duckett, S B

    2015-04-21

    The catalytic hyperpolarisation of pyridine, 3-hydroxypyridine and oxazole by the Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange (SABRE) process is achieved by a series of water soluble iridium phosphine and N-heterocyclic carbene dihydride complexes. While the efficiency of the SABRE process in methanol-d4 solution or ethanol-d6 solution is high, with over 400-fold (1)H polarisation of pyridine being produced by [Ir(H)2(NCMe)(py)(IMes)(monosulfonated-triphenylphosphine)]BF4, changing to a D2O or a D2O-ethanol solvent mixture leads to dramatically reduced activity which is rationalised in terms of low H2 solubility. PMID:25823378

  7. Stille Catalyst-Transfer Polycondensation Using Pd-PEPPSI-IPr for High-Molecular-Weight Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yunyan; Mohin, Jacob; Tsai, Chia-Hua; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Gil, Roberto R; Kowalewski, Tomasz; Noonan, Kevin J T

    2015-05-01

    A commercially available palladium N-heterocyclic carbene (Pd-NHC) precatalyst is used to initiate chain-growth polymerization of 2-bromo-3-hexyl-5-trimethylstannylthiophene. The molecular weight of the resultant poly(3-hexylthiophene) can be modulated (7 to 73 kDa, ? = 1.14 to 1.53) by varying the catalyst concentration. Mass spectrometry data confirm control over the polymer end groups and (1) H NMR spectroscopy reveals that the palladium catalyst is capable of "ring-walking". A linear relationship between Mn and monomer conversion is observed. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray scattering verify the regioregular nature of the resultant polythiophene. PMID:25757046

  8. Simple synthesis of neutral and cationic Cu-NHC complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Ma, Xueji; Wu, Feifei; Chen, Wanzhi

    2015-01-28

    A direct and practical synthetic route to N-heterocyclic carbene copper complexes of [(NHC)CuX] (X = halide) and [(NHC)2Cu]PF6 types using commercially available copper powder is described. A number of copper-NHC complexes have been obtained in a range of yields from 26 to 99%. The reactions take place in air without removal of moisture and oxygen, and the excess of copper powder can be easily removed via simple filtration after completion. The direct reactions of imidazolium salts and copper powder can also be performed in aqueous media avoiding tedious purification processes. The procedure is also suitable for gram-scale preparation. PMID:25479082

  9. Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines by the Extrusion of Dihydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NordstrØm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk; Vogt, Henning

    2008-01-01

    An environmentally friendly method for synthesis of amides is presented where a simple ruthenium catalyst mediates the direct coupling between an alcohol and an amine with the liberation of two molecules of dihydrogen. The active catalyst is generated in situ from an easily available ruthenium complex, an N-heterocyclic carbene and a phosphine. The reaction allows primary alcohols to be coupled with primary alkyamines to afford the corresponding secondary amides in good yields. The amide formation presumably proceeds through a catalytic cycle where the intermediate aldehyde and hemiaminal are both coordinated to the metal catalyst.

  10. Coordination of Diatomic Ligands to Heme: Simply CO

    OpenAIRE

    Silvernail, Nathan J.; Noll, Bruce C.; Schulz, Charles E; Scheidt, W. Robert

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis and molecular structures of three iron(II) porphyrinates with only CO as the axial ligand(s) are reported. Two five-coordinate [Fe(OEP)(CO)] derivatives have Fe–C = 1.7077 (13) and 1.7140 (10) Å, much shorter than those of six-coordinate [Fe(OEP)(Im)(CO)], although ?C-O is 1944–1948 cm?1. The six-coordinate species [Fe(OEP)(CO)2] has also been studied. The competition for ?-back-bonding of two CO ligands leads to Fe–C distances of 1.8558 (10) Å and ?C-O is increased...

  11. Electrolytic formation of technetium complexes with ?-acceptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrolytic reduction of pertechnetate was performed in aqueous solution containing ?-acceptor ligands. Cyanide and 1,10-phenanthroline were the selected ligands. In both cases, electrolyses produced a cathodic TcO2 deposit and soluble Tc complexes. When cyanide was the ligand, the complexes formed were [Tc(CN)6]5- and [TcO2(CN)4]3-. When working with the amine, [Tc(phen)3]2+ and another positively charged species were found after reaction. Results are compared with previous studies with amines, and the usefulness of the electrolytic route to obtain Tc complexes is evaluated. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Effect of size and conformation of the ligand on asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated ligand internalization and degradation in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rates of internalization and degradation of 125-I-labeled desialylated cyanogen bromide fragment I of orosomucoid (AS-CNBr-I) and its reduced and carboxymethylated derivative (AS-RC-CNBr-I) were compared with those of 125I-labeled asialoorosomucoid (ASOR) in rat hepatocytes. At 30 nM the rates of internalization and degradation of 125I-AS-CNBr-I were greater than those of 125I-ASOR. 125I-AS-RC-CNBr-I also had a lower rate of internalization and degradation. In contrast to 125I-ASOR, when degradation was inhibited by 5 ?M colchicine there was a significant intracellular accumulation of the smaller ligands. At 40C the hepatocytes were found to bind the fragmented ligands more than 125I-ASOR. Incubation of the cells with bound ligand at 370 indicated that diacytosis of 125I-ASOR was greater than the smaller ligands. Colchincine markedly enhanced diacytosis of 125I-ASOR. On the other hand, there were marked accumulation of the smaller ligands by colchicine. These results suggest that the rates of internalization, degradation and diacytosis of the ligand are affected by the size and conformation of the ligand through different rates of receptor binding and intracellular transport

  13. Consensus scoring for ligand/protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert D; Strizhev, Alexander; Leonard, Joseph M; Blake, James F; Matthew, James B

    2002-01-01

    Several different functions have been put forward for evaluating the energetics of ligand binding to proteins. Those employed in the DOCK, GOLD and FlexX docking programs have been especially widely used, particularly in connection with virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) projects. Until recently, such evaluation functions were usually considered only in conjunction with the docking programs that relied on them. In such studies, the evaluation function in question actually fills two distinct roles: it serves as the objective function being optimized (fitness function), but is also the scoring function used to compare the candidate docking configurations generated by the program. We have used descriptions available in the open literature to create free-standing scoring functions based on those used in DOCK and GOLD, and have implemented the more recently formulated PMF [J. Med. Chem. 42 (1999) 791] scoring function as well. The performance of these functions was examined individually for each of several data sets for which both crystal structures and affinities are available, as was the performance of the FlexX scoring function. Various ways of combining individual scores into a consensus score (CScore) were also considered. The individual and consensus scores were also used to try to pick out configurations most similar to those found in crystal structures from among a set of candidate configurations produced by FlexX docking runs. We find that the reliability and interpretability of results can be improved by combining results from all four functions into a CScore. PMID:11858637

  14. Dynamic models for reversible ligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented for determining receptor density Bmax and the rate constants for association, koff and dissociation kon, in studies of radioligand binding in the human brain in vivo, with positron emission tomography (PET). This method utilizes the full time course of the radioligand in the tissue, measured with PET, and the requuirements of equilibrium and tracer dose are abandoned. Two experiments with different amounts of unlabelled ligand are utilized. All the three basic parameters can be determined simultaneously. The applied algorithm is fast, allowing parameter estimation pixel by pixel, i.e. brain maps can be constructed. The algorithm also enables construction of corresponding 'error maps'. A tracer that binds irreverisbly during the time span of the PET measurement can be treated as a special case with koff equal to zero. This 'kinetic method' is compared with a traditional scatchard analysis, utilizing the approximate equilibrium conditions reached after a certain time, to estimate Bmax and the equilibrium disociation constant KD. (author). 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Ligand-based reactivity of a platinum bisdithiolene: double diene addition yields a new C2-chiral chelate ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Mitchell J; Harrison, Daniel J; Lough, Alan J; Fekl, Ulrich

    2009-10-01

    The reaction of Pt(tfd)(2) [tfd = S(2)C(2)(CF(3))(2)] with excess 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene initially yields the expected 1:1 adduct, in which the diene has added across two sulfur atoms on separate tfd ligands. However, within 1 day at 50 degrees C, this kinetic product quantitatively converts into a thermodynamic product where two dienes have added to one tfd ligand via unprecedented addition across the dithiolene CS bonds. The new reaction is highly selective for the C(2)-symmetric diastereomer. A new chiral bisthioether chelate ligand has formed in the product, which has been characterized crystallographically. PMID:19634863

  16. Tris(N-benzyl-N-methyldithiocarbamato-κ2S,S′)(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′)europium(III)

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Baba; Indah Raya; Bohari M Yamin; Seik Weng Ng

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Eu(C9H10NS2)3(C12H8N2)], the EuIII atom exists in a distorted square-anti­prismatic coordination geometry. Both dithio­carbamate and the N-heterocyclic ligands function in a chelating mode.

  17. Tris(N-benzyl-N-methyldithiocarbamato-?2S,S?(1,10-phenanthroline-?2N,N?europium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Baba

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Eu(C9H10NS23(C12H8N2], the EuIII atom exists in a distorted square-antiprismatic coordination geometry. Both dithiocarbamate and the N-heterocyclic ligands function in a chelating mode.

  18. Synthesis and NMR Spectral Analysis of Amine Heterocycles: The Effect of Asymmetry on the [superscript 1]H and [superscript 13]C NMR Spectra of N,O-Acetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Shahrokh; Ciaccio, James A.; Espinal, Jennifer; Aman, Courtney E.

    2007-01-01

    The stereochemical investigation is conducted to give students the combined experience of chemical synthesis of amines and N-heterocycles and structural stereochemical analysis using NMR spectroscopy. Students are introduced to the concept of topicity-stereochemical relationships between ligands within a molecule by synthesizing N,O-acetals.

  19. catena-Poly[[[dichloridozinc(II]-?-1,4-bis(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-?N3butane] 1,4-bis(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylbutane solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title coordination polymer/co-crystal, {[ZnCl2(C18H18N4]·C18H18N4}n, the tetrahedrally coordinated ZnII ions are linked by the N-heterocycle into a linear chain. Another N-heterocycle present is not coordinated to the metal atom but interacts with the chain through N—H...N and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. The butyl chain of the uncoordinated ligand is disordered over three positions in a 0.511?(4:0.289?(5:0.200?(5 ratio.

  20. Clinical Use of PPARγ Ligands in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa D. Yee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of PPARγ in adipocyte differentiation has fueled intense interest in the function of this steroid nuclear receptor for regulation of malignant cell growth and differentiation. Given the antiproliferative and differentiating effects of PPARγ ligands on liposarcoma cells, investigation of PPARγ expression and ligand activation in other solid tumors such as breast, colon, and prostate cancers ensued. The anticancer effects of PPARγ ligands in cell culture and rodent models of a multitude of tumor types suggest broad applicability of these agents to cancer therapy. This review focuses on the clinical use of PPARγ ligands, specifically the thiazolidinediones, for the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  1. Ligand engineering in hybrid polymer:nanocrystal solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Greaney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of semiconducting polymers and inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals are receiving renewed interest as a type of inexpensive, solution-processed third generation solar cell. In these hybrid bulk heterojunctions (BHJs, the interface between the disparate organic and inorganic phases is a dominating factor in the overall performance of the resulting devices. Paramount to this interface is the ligand landscape on the nanocrystal surface, which as a result of the inherently large surface area to volume ratio of the nanocrystals, has a significant spatial and electronic influence on the boundary between the donor polymer and acceptor nanocrystal. We have investigated the importance of this three-part polymer/ligand/nanocrystal interface by studying the ligand effects in hybrid BHJ solar cells. In this article, we highlight the major research advances and the state-of-the-art in hybrid BHJ solar cells with respect to ligand engineering, as well as outline future research avenues deemed necessary for continued technological advancement.

  2. Increased CD40 ligand in patients with acute anterior uveitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgard, Carsten; SØrensen, Torben Lykke

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory response in acute anterior uveitis (AU) is believed to be primarily mediated by autoreactive T-cells. We wanted to evaluate whether the T-cell activation marker CD40 ligand is involved in the AU immunopathogenesis.

  3. Employing Photo assisted Ligand Exchange Technique in Layered Quantum Dot LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We presented in this paper a photo assisted ligand exchange approach whereby light will be introduced to facilitate the replacement of oleic acid (OA) ligand molecules over PbSe quantum dots (QDs). The ligand-exchanged QDs were used to fabricate quantum dot light-emitting-diodes (QD-LEDs), which outperform the devices comprising the QDs without ligand-replacement.

  4. Synthesis and applications of Azabis(oxazoline)-ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Hager, Markus

    2011-01-01

    It was aim of this work to synthesize new azabis(oxazoline)-ligands and apply the new and the already known ligands in different processes in asymmetric catalysis. Therefore varying asymmetric transformations like the Kharasch-Sosnovsky reactio, the Co(II) catalyzed reduction of ketones, the Aza-Michael addition or the benzoylation of beta-OH-amides were investigated. Furthermore a new method for the rapid determination of relativ catalyst activities was developed.

  5. Ginsenosides Are Novel Naturally-Occurring Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Qin; He, Guochun; Zhao, Jing; Soshilov, Anatoly; DENISON, Michael S.; Zhang, Aiqian; Yin, Huijun; Fraccalvieri, Domenico; Bonati, Laura; Xie, Qunhui; Zhao, Bin

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates many of the biological and toxicological actions of structurally diverse chemicals. In this study, we examined the ability of a series of ginsenosides extracted from ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, to bind to and activate/inhibit the AHR and AHR signal transduction. Utilizing a combination of ligand and DNA binding assays, molecular docking and reporter gene analysis, we demonstrated the abil...

  6. Ligand conjugation of chemically exfoliated MoS2

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Stanley S.; De, Mrinmoy; Kim, Jaemyung; Byun, Segi; Dykstra, Conner; Yu, Jin; Huang, Jiaxing; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2013-01-01

    MoS2 is a two-dimensional material that is gaining prominence due to its unique electronic and chemical properties. Here, we demonstrate ligand conjugation of chemically exfoliated MoS2 using thiol chemistry. Using this method, we modulate the zeta-potential and colloidal stability of MoS2 sheets through ligand designs, thus enabling its usage as a selective artificial protein receptor for ?-galactosidase. The facile thiol functionalization route opens the door for surface modifications of s...

  7. Pharmacological profiles of opioid ligands at Kappa opioid receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Clark J David; DeLorey Timothy M; Hashemi Ezzat; Gharagozlou Parham; Lameh Jelveh

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to describe the activity of a set of opioid drugs, including partial agonists, in a human embryonic kidney cell system stably expressing only the mouse ?-opioid receptors. Receptor activation was assessed by measuring the inhibition of cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (cAMP) production stimulated by 5 ?M forskolin. Intrinsic activities and potencies of these ligands were determined relative to the endogenous ligand dynorphin and the ? agonis...

  8. Molecular mechanisms and kinetics between DNA and DNA binding ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Sischka, Andy; Tönsing, Katja; Eckel, Rainer; Wilking, Sven David; Sewald, Norbert; Ros, Robert; Anselmetti, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical properties of single double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in the presence of different binding ligands were analyzed in optical-tweezers experiments with subpiconewton force resolution. The binding of ligands to DNA changes the overall mechanic response of the dsDNA molecule. This fundamental property can be used for discrimination and identification of different binding modes and, furthermore, may be relevant for various processes like nucleosome packing or applications like cancer therapy...

  9. Persistent Binding of Ligands to the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Bohonowych, Jessica E.; Denison, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates many of the biological and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other structurally diverse ligands. While HAHs are several orders of magnitude more potent in producing AhR-dependent biochemical effects than PAHs or other AhR agonists, only the HAHs have been observed to produce AhR-dependent toxicity in vivo. Here we have characterized...

  10. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? ligand inhibits adipocyte differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Oberfield, Jennifer L.; Collins, Jon L.; Holmes, Christopher P.; Goreham, Donna M.; Cooper, Joel P.; Cobb, Jeffery E.; Lenhard, James M.; Hull-ryde, Emily A.; Mohr, Christopher P.; Blanchard, Steven G.; Parks, Derek J.; Moore, Linda B.; Lehmann, Ju?rgen M.; Plunket, Kelli; Miller, Ann B.

    1999-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis. The PPAR? subtype plays a central role in the regulation of adipogenesis and is the molecular target for the 2,4-thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs. Structural studies have revealed that agonist ligands activate the PPARs through direct interactions with the C-terminal region of the ligand-binding domain, which includes the activation function 2 helix....

  11. Coordination chemistry of poly(thioether)borate ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Riordan, Charles G.

    2010-01-01

    This review traces the development and application of the tris(thioether)borate ligands, tripodal ligands with highly polarizable thioether donors. Areas of emphasis include the basic coordination chemistry of the mid-to-late first row transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Cu), and the role of the thioether substituent in directing complex formation, the modeling of zinc thiolate protein active sites, high-spin organo-iron and organo-cobalt chemistry, the preparation of monovalent complexes of Fe, C...

  12. Amino-terminal ligands prolong NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar, Kenneth R.; Westbrook, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    The amino-terminal domains of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits are important for receptor assembly and desensitization, and incorporate the high-affinity binding sites for zinc and ifenprodil. These amino-terminal ligands are thought of as subunit-specific receptor inhibitors. However, multiple combinations of NMDA receptor subunits contribute to excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at hippocampal synapses. To understand the action of amino-terminal ligands, we first used cul...

  13. Structural analysis uncovers lipid-binding properties of Notch ligands.

    OpenAIRE

    Chillakuri, Cr; Sheppard, D.; Ilagan, Mx; Holt, Lr; Abbott, F.; Liang, S.; Kopan, R.; Handford, PA; Lea, Sm

    2013-01-01

    The Notch pathway is a core cell-cell signaling system in metazoan organisms with key roles in cell-fate determination, stem cell maintenance, immune system activation, and angiogenesis. Signals are initiated by extracellular interactions of the Notch receptor with Delta/Serrate/Lag-2 (DSL) ligands, whose structure is highly conserved throughout evolution. To date, no structure or activity has been associated with the extreme N termini of the ligands, even though numerous mutations in this re...

  14. Asymmetric Hydrogenations : Syntheses of Ligands and Expansion of Substrate Scope

    OpenAIRE

    Cheruku, Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Asymmetric hydrogenation has emerged as a versatile methodology to obtain a wide range of chiral precursors. This thesis focused on the synthesis of new chiral ligands and the expansion of the substrate scope of asymmetric hydrogenations. Paper I described the synthesis and evaluation of N,P-ligands for the Ir-catalyzed hydrogenations of unfunctionalized olefins. The substrate scope of Ir-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenations is limited to a narrow range of “test” olefins. The foremost focu...

  15. Water and Protein Movements in Ligand-Receptor Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, P. -l

    2002-01-01

    I have recently developed a novel method `mutual repulsion' for simulating ligand unbindingfrom receptor. Combined with adiabatic switching,this method can evaluate the free energy change of unbinding. Mutualrepulsion has been applied to the bovine serum retinol-bindingprotein-retinol complex (1HBP). Large changes in amino acid configurationis observed in only three residues at the mouth of the binding site. Thechange in water structure around the ligand, from bulk-phase tohydrophobic hydrati...

  16. Tailoring the Properties of Metallic Clusters by Ligand Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Fresch, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Tuning the properties of metallic clusters using different protecting ligand shells is an important step toward the application-orientated design of nanoparticles for nano-electronics and catalysis. An attractive property of these materials is the ability to engineer ligand shells composed of different molecules that influence the electronic structure of the system due to their chemical interaction with the metal core. Sometimes properties are not simply additive, and cooperative effects emer...

  17. Reversible Size Control of Silver Nanoclusters via Ligand-exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa

    2015-05-21

    The properties of atomically monodisperse noble metal nanoclusters (NCs) are intricately intertwined with their precise molecular formula. The vast majority of size-specific NC syntheses start from the reduction of the metal salt and thiol ligand mixture. Only in gold was it recently shown that ligand-exchange could induce the growth of NCs from one atomically precise species to another; a process of yet unknown reversibility. Here, we present a process for the ligand-exchange-induced growth of atomically precise silver NCs, in a biphasic liquid-liquid system, which is particularly of interest because of its complete reversibility and ability to occur at room temperature. We explore this phenomenon in-depth using Ag35(SG)18 [SG= glutathionate] and Ag44(4-FTP)30 [4-FTP= 4-fluorothiophenol] as model systems. We show that the ligand-exchange conversion of Ag35(SG)18 into Ag44(4-FTP)30 is rapid (< 5 min) and direct, while the reverse process proceeds slowly through intermediate cluster sizes. We adapt a recently developed theory of reverse Ostwald ripening to model the NCs’ interconvertibility. The model’s predictions are in good agreement with the experimental observations, and they highlight the importance of small changes in the ligand-metal binding energy in determining the final equilibrium NC size. Based on the insight provided by this model, we demonstrated experimentally that by varying the choice of ligands, ligand-exchange can be used to obtain different sized NCs. The findings in this work establish ligand-exchange as a versatile tool for tuning cluster sizes.

  18. Solution studies of some technetium complexes containing sulfur ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interactions between technetium and a series of sulfur ligands such as 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thioadiazole, 1-methylimidazol-2-thiol, 6,6'-dithiodinicotinic acid, 2-amino-6-mercaptopurine and DL-?-amino-2-thiopheneacetic acid are described. The complexation reactions were investigated and the results obtained were comparatively evaluated with the aim to find relations between structure of the ligands and its complexing activity. (author)

  19. Structural Basis of Cooperative Ligand Binding by the Glycine Riboswitch

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Ethan B.; Xiong, Yong; Wang, Jimin; Strobel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    The glycine riboswitch regulates gene expression through the cooperative recognition of its amino acid ligand by a tandem pair of aptamers. A 3.6Å crystal structure of the tandem riboswitch from the glycine permease operon of Fusobacterium nucleatum reveals the glycine binding sites and an extensive network of interactions, largely mediated by asymmetric A-minor contacts, that serve to communicate ligand binding status between the aptamers. These interactions provide a structural basis for h...

  20. Designer ligands: The search for metal ion selectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, Perry T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews research conducted at Rhodes University towards the development of metal-selective ligands. The research has focused on the rational design, synthesis and evaluation of novel ligands for use in the formation of copper complexes as biomimetic models of the metalloenzyme, tyrosinase, and for the selective extraction of silver, nickel and platinum group metal ions in the presence of contaminating metal ions. Attention has also been given to the development of efficient, metal-s...

  1. Chlorophenylpiperazine analogues as high affinity dopamine transporter ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Motel, William C.; Healy, Jason R.; Viard, Eddy; Pouw, Buddy; Martin, Kelly; Matsumoto, Rae R.; Coop, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Selective ?2 ligands continue to be an active target for medications to attenuate the effects of psychostimulants. In the course of our studies to determine the optimal substituents in the ?2-selective phenyl piperazines analogues with reduced activity at other neurotransmitter systems, we discovered that 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-phenethylpiperazine actually had preferentially increased affinity for dopamine transporters (DAT), yielding a highly selective DAT ligand.

  2. Novel peptide ligand with high binding capacity for antibody purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, L. N.; Gustavsson, P. E.

    2012-01-01

    Small synthetic ligands for protein purification have become increasingly interesting with the growing need for cheap chromatographic materials for protein purification and especially for the purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Today, Protein A-based chromatographic resins are the most commonly used capture step in mAb down stream processing; however, the use of Protein A chromatography is less attractive due to toxic ligand leakage as well as high cost. Whether used as an alternative to the Protein A chromatographic media or as a subsequent polishing step, small synthetic peptide ligands have an advantage over biological ligands; they are cheaper to produce, ligand leakage by enzymatic degradation is either eliminated or significantly reduced, and they can in general better withstand cleaning in place (CIP) conditions such as 0.1 M NaOH. Here, we present a novel synthetic peptide ligand for purification of human IgG. Immobilized on WorkBeads, an agarose-based base matrix from Bio-Works, the ligand has a dynamic binding capacity of up to 48 mg/mL and purifies IgG from harvest cell culture fluid with purities and recovery of >93%. The binding affinity is similar to 10(5) M-1 and the interaction is favorable and entropy-driven with an enthalpy penalty. Our results show that the binding of the Fc fragment of IgG is mediated by hydrophobic interactions and that elution at low pH is most likely due to electrostatic repulsion. Furthermore, we have separated aggregated IgG from non-aggregated IgG, indicating that the ligand could be used both as a primary purification step of IgG as well as a subsequent polishing step. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural plasticity in the oestrogen receptor ligand-binding domain

    OpenAIRE

    Nettles, Kendall W.; Bruning, John B; Gil, German; O'Neill, Erin E; Nowak, Jason; Hughs, Alun; Kim, Younchang; DeSombre, Eugene R; Dilis, Robert; Hanson, Robert N; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2007-01-01

    The steroid hormone receptors are characterized by binding to relatively rigid, inflexible endogenous steroid ligands. Other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily bind to conformationally flexible lipids and show a corresponding degree of elasticity in the ligand-binding pocket. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the oestrogen receptor ? (ER?) bound to an oestradiol derivative with a prosthetic group, ortho- trifluoromethlyphenylvinyl, which binds in a novel extended pocket ...

  4. Predicting Efficient Antenna Ligands for Tb(III) Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Amanda P.S.; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth

    2008-10-06

    A series of highly luminescent Tb(III) complexes of para-substituted 2-hydroxyisophthalamide ligands (5LI-IAM-X) has been prepared (X = H, CH{sub 3}, (C=O)NHCH{sub 3}, SO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}, OCH{sub 3}, F, Cl, Br) to probe the effect of substituting the isophthalamide ring on ligand and Tb(III) emission in order to establish a method for predicting the effects of chromophore modification on Tb(III) luminescence. The energies of the ligand singlet and triplet excited states are found to increase linearly with the {pi}-withdrawing ability of the substituent. The experimental results are supported by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations performed on model systems, which predict ligand singlet and triplet energies within {approx}5% of the experimental values. The quantum yield ({Phi}) values of the Tb(III) complex increases with the triplet energy of the ligand, which is in part due to the decreased non-radiative deactivation caused by thermal repopulation of the triplet. Together, the experimental and theoretical results serve as a predictive tool that can be used to guide the synthesis of ligands used to sensitize lanthanide luminescence.

  5. Sequestering ability of polycarboxylic ligands towards dioxouranium(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Francesco; Foti, Claudia; Sammartano, Silvio

    2008-05-15

    In this paper we report a comparison on the sequestering ability of some polycarboxylic ligands towards dioxouranium(VI) (UO(2)(2+), uranyl). Ligands taken into account are mono- (acetate), di- (oxalate, malonate, succinate and azelate), tri- (1,2,3-propanetricarboxylate) and hexa-carboxylate (1,2,3,4,5,6-benzenehexacarboxylate). The sequestering ability of polycarboxylic ligands towards UO(2)(2+) was quantified by a new approach expressed by means of a sigmoid Boltzman type equation and of a empirical parameters (pL(50)) which defines the amount of ligand necessary to sequester 50% of the total UO(2)(2+) concentration. A fairly linear correlation was obtained between pL(50) or log K(110) (log K(110) refers to the equilibrium: UO(2)(2+)+L(z-)=UO(2)L((2-z)); L=generic ligand) and the polyanion charges. In order to complete the picture, a tetra-carboxylate ligand (1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylate) was studied in NaCl aqueous solutions at 0Pitzer equations. PMID:18585146

  6. A genetic algorithm for the ligand-protein docking problem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila S. de, Magalhães; Hélio J.C., Barbosa; Laurent E., Dardenne.

    Full Text Available We analyzed the performance of a real coded "steady-state" genetic algorithm (SSGA) using a grid-based methodology in docking five HIV-1 protease-ligand complexes having known three-dimensional structures. All ligands tested are highly flexible, having more than 10 conformational degrees of freedom. [...] The SSGA was tested for the rigid and flexible ligand docking cases. The implemented genetic algorithm was able to dock successfully rigid and flexible ligand molecules, but with a decreasing performance when the number of ligand conformational degrees of freedom increased. The docked lowest-energy structures have root mean square deviation (RMSD) with respect to the corresponding experimental crystallographic structure ranging from 0.037 Å to 0.090 Å in the rigid docking, and 0.420 Å to 1.943 Å in the flexible docking. We found that not only the number of ligand conformational degrees of freedom is an important aspect to the algorithm performance, but also that the more internal dihedral angles are critical. Furthermore, our results showed that the initial population distribution can be relevant for the algorithm performance.

  7. Acetate binding induces fluorescence enhancement in tryptophan ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Arup K.; Sarma, Rupam J., E-mail: rjs@gauhati.ac.in

    2014-03-15

    The anion coordination properties of bis-tryptophan dicarboxamide ligands 1–3 were investigated using fluorescence and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. It was observed that the coordination of acetate anions to these ligands produced emissions at 381 nm with gradual enhancement of fluorescence. In comparison, fluoride produced minor enhancement, the addition of chloride, bromide and nitrate anions caused quenching of ligand fluorescence. {sup 1}H NMR studies revealed that the ligands coordinated to the acetate anions through the indole and amide NH groups. -- Highlights: • We have synthesized and characterized three tryptophan-based diamide ligands 1–3. • We have reported new polymorph of ligand 1 (Crystal structure) in this article. • The role of intramolecular hydrogen bonding (1 vs. 2) in anion binding was investigated. • We were able to identify the role amide/indole NH in anion binding using {sup 1}H NMR. • On the basis of {sup 1}H NMR, we have established role of aromatic CH–anion interactions during anion complexation.

  8. Studies on mixed ligand complexes of oxovanadium(IV) with acetylacetone and nitrogen or oxygen donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed ligands complexes of oxovanadium(IV) of the type [VC (acac)2L], where acacH = acetylacetone and L = pyridine (py)/?-picoline (?-pic)/isoq uinoline (iq)/3, 5-lutidine (3,5.lut)/2-amino 4 methyl pyridine (2 am4me py) and triphenylphosphene oxide (tppo) have been synthesised and characterised by elemental analyses, molar conductance, room temperature magnetic moment, molecular weight measurements, infrared and electronic spectral data. The complexes are paramagnatic and non-electrolytic in nature and they have been assigned octahedral geometries. In continuation of authors' studies on mixed ligands complexes, the preparation and characterization of some mixed ligand complexes of oxovanadium(IV) containing acetylacetone and unidentate nitrogen or oxygen donor ligand are reported. (author). 1 tab., 12 refs

  9. Silver(I) complexes of tris(pyrazolyl)borate ligands bearing six trifluoromethyl and three additional electron-withdrawing substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratna, Naleen B; Pardue, Daniel B; Ray, Sriparna; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Thakur, Krishna G; Cundari, Thomas R; Dias, H V Rasika

    2013-11-21

    Sodium salts of two new tris(pyrazolyl)borates [HB(4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3](-) and [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3](-), which are not only highly fluorinated, but also loaded with additional electron-withdrawing substituents, have been synthesized by reacting 4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2PzH or 4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2PzH with NaBH4 under nitrogen in a solventless process, and isolated after a work up in tetrahydrofuran (THF) or diethyl ether (Et2O), as their THF or Et2O adducts. Metathesis of these sodium salts with AgOTf in THF leads to [HB(4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(THF) and [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(THF). The corresponding cis-cyclooctene (c-COE) complexes [HB(4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) and [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) were obtained by displacing THF with cis-cyclooctene. The related [HB(3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) can also be obtained via a similar process. X-ray crystal structures show that [HB(4-(R)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) (R = H, Cl, NO2) feature pseudo-tetrahedral silver sites supported by ?(3)-bound tris(pyrazolyl)borate ligands. [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) displays the smallest upfield shift of the alkene carbon peak (versus free alkene) followed by [HB(4-Cl-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) and [HB(3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE). Experimental and computational data indicate very electron poor silver(I) sites in all three [HB(4-(R)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) adducts with minimal Ag ? (cis-cyclooctene) backbonding. Although the impact of R (H, Cl, NO2) on the alkene carbon chemical shift of these adducts and the olefin ?/?* populations is small, the (13)C NMR chemical shifts and NBO analysis suggest that [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) possesses the most electrophilic metal site, which correlates with the pKa values of the free pyrazoles. [HB(4-(R)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) adducts effectively catalyze the insertion of the carbene moiety of ethyl diazoacetate into C-H bonds of 2,3-dimethylbutane. The [HB(4-(NO2)-3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE) catalyst shows a higher selectivity for primary C-H bonds compared to the reactions catalyzed by [HB(3,5-(CF3)2Pz)3]Ag(c-COE). PMID:24013162

  10. Dysprosium complexes with the tetraphenylporphyrin macrocyclic ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the results obtained on the synthesis, characterization and study of the chemical behavior of dysprosium complex with the acetylacetone chelating agent (Hacac) and the tetraphenylporphyrin macrocyclic ligand (H2TFP) are given. Based on the literature but according to our necessities and interest, the appropriate methodology settled down from the synthesis of prime matters until the obtaining and characterization of the products. The acetyl acetonate complex was obtained of mono hydrated dysprosium [Dy(acac)3. H20] and trihydrated [Dy(acac)3 .3 H20], the mono tetra phenyl porphyrinate [Dy(TFP)(acac). 2 ac] the double sandwich of the dysprosium porphyrinate [Dy(TFP)2] and the triple sandwich of the dysprosium porphyrinate [Dy(TFP)3. 2 TCB] (TCB = trichlorobenzene). Its were characterized by their melting points, solubility, IR, UV, TGA and DTA both first and besides the techniques already mentioned for NMR'H, RPE and Magnetic susceptibility the three last complexes. From the spectroscopic point of view, IR and RPE its suggested the existence of a complex of inverse mixed valence [Dy(TFP)2- (TFP) 1-] for the Dy(TFP)2 as a result of the existence of the free radical (TFP' 1- and that it was not in none of the other porphyrin compounds. In the NMR'H spectra of the compounds were not observed signals in the region from 0 to 10 ppm that which shows that the dysprosium complexes in special those of the porphyrin type are highly paramagnetic and its could be used as displacement reagents, creators of images and contrast agents of great utility in these days in studies of NMR, technique today by today used in medical diagnoses. (Author)

  11. FENTON REACTION DRIVEN BY IRON LIGANDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PABLO, SALGADO; VICTORIA, MELIN; DAVID, CONTRERAS; YANKO, MORENO; HECTOR D, MANSILLA.

    2096-21-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems is the Fenton reaction. In this, the Fe2+ or Fe3+ reacts with H2O2 to produce ROS as the hydroxyl radical (?OH), superoxide radical (O2-) and singlet oxygen (¹O2). The main ROS, responsible for the high oxidizin [...] g power of the Fenton reaction, is not clear. Some authors claim that the principal reactive species is ?OH, while others propose a ferryl specie (Fe4+ or [FeO]2+)(1,2). Recently, have been proposed that the kind of reaction species produced depends mainly of pH and the iron composition of the coordination sphere. This is highlighted for Fe³+, because in mono and (some) bis-complexes Fe3+ is reduced to Fe2+ and there are some positions occupied by water or hydroxide ligands, readily to be exchanged by H2O2. On the other hand, in tris-complexes there are not any positions occupied by water or hydroxide, avoiding the formation of peroxo-complexes, necessary for Fenton or Fenton like reaction. The 1,2-dihydroxybenzenes (DHBs) have been described as modulators of Fenton reaction. The DHBs driven Fenton reaction have been used for environmental applications as an advanced oxidation process. Furthermore, these systems participate in different biological process, as the wood biodegradation by fungi and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, the effect of 1,2-dihydroxybenzenes on the activated species production by the Fenton and Fenton like reaction will be discussed and its participation in different systems.

  12. Improved Ligand and Charge Distribution (LCD) Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humic substances present in nature interact strongly with mineral particles. This interaction influences the solubility of natural organic matter, as well as ion adsorption to mineral surfaces. To model the adsorption of variable charge particles to charged surfaces, one has to be able to calculate the adsorption free energy involved. In this work, expressions for the free energy change of variable charge particles are derived based on the equality of (electro)chemical potential of the particles in the bulk solution and adsorption phase. The expressions derived are named ADAPT model (ADsorption and adAPTation), because they are based on the change of the average chemical state (adaptation) of the particles upon adsorption. The LCD model (Ligand and Charge Distribution) has been recently proposed to describe the adsorption of humic substances to oxides, in which the CD-MUSIC model and the NICA model for ion binding to respectively oxides and humic substances are integrated. In this study, the LCD model is improved by applying the ADAPT model to calculate the equilibrium distribution of the humic substances. The improved LCD model is applied to calculate the adsorption of fulvic acid (Strichen) to goethite, in which it is assumed that the carboxylic type of groups of fulvic acid can form innersphere complexes with the surface sites. The calculation shows that the LCD model can describe sufficiently the effects of pH, ionic strength and loading on the adsorption of fulvigth and loading on the adsorption of fulvic acid. The model calculations indicate that the chemical complexation between fulvic acid and goethite is the main driving force of the adsorption, while the electrostatic repulsion between the particles and the surface is the major limiting factor for further adsorption

  13. Improved Ligand and Charge Distribution (LCD) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, L.P.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van; Hiemstra, T. [Dept. of Soil Quality, Wageni ngen Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands)]. e-mail: liping.weng@wur.nl

    2007-06-15

    Humic substances present in nature interact strongly with mineral particles. This interaction influences the solubility of natural organic matter, as well as ion adsorption to mineral surfaces. To model the adsorption of variable charge particles to charged surfaces, one has to be able to calculate the adsorption free energy involved. In this work, expressions for the free energy change of variable charge particles are derived based on the equality of (electro)chemical potential of the particles in the bulk solution and adsorption phase. The expressions derived are named ADAPT model (ADsorption and adAPTation), because they are based on the change of the average chemical state (adaptation) of the particles upon adsorption. The LCD model (Ligand and Charge Distribution) has been recently proposed to describe the adsorption of humic substances to oxides, in which the CD-MUSIC model and the NICA model for ion binding to respectively oxides and humic substances are integrated. In this study, the LCD model is improved by applying the ADAPT model to calculate the equilibrium distribution of the humic substances. The improved LCD model is applied to calculate the adsorption of fulvic acid (Strichen) to goethite, in which it is assumed that the carboxylic type of groups of fulvic acid can form innersphere complexes with the surface sites. The calculation shows that the LCD model can describe sufficiently the effects of pH, ionic strength and loading on the adsorption of fulvic acid. The model calculations indicate that the chemical complexation between fulvic acid and goethite is the main driving force of the adsorption, while the electrostatic repulsion between the particles and the surface is the major limiting factor for further adsorption.

  14. electronic Ligand Builder and Optimisation Workbench (eLBOW): A tool for ligand coordinate and restraint generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Nigel; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf; Adams, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The electronic Ligand Builder and Optimisation Workbench (eLBOW) is a program module of the PHENIX suite of computational crystallographic software. It's designed to be a flexible procedure using simple and fast quantum chemical techniques to provide chemically accurate information for novel and known ligands alike. A variety of input formats and options allow for the attainment of a number of diverse goals including geometry optimisation and generation of restraints.

  15. Secondary ligand-directed assembly of Co(II) coordination polymers based on a pyridine carboxylate ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the influence of hydrogen bonds and secondary ligands on the structures and properties of the resulting frameworks, five new Co(II) compounds have been synthesized by the reactions of Co(II) salts and 3,5-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)benzoic acid (HL) with four rationally selected dicarboxylic acid ligands. Without secondary ligand, we got one compound [CoL2(H2O)2]n·2nH2O (1), which possesses a 1D chain structure. In the presence of ancillary ligands, namely, 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid (H2adbc), terephthalic acid (H2tpa), thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H2tdc) and 1,4-benzenedithioacetic acid (H2bdtc), four 3D structures [Co2L2(adbc)]n·nH2O (2), [Co2L2(tpa)]n (3), [Co2L2(tdc)]n (4), [Co2L2(bdtc)(H2O)]n (5) were obtained, respectively. It can be observed from the architectures of 1–5 that hydrogen bonds and secondary ligands both have great effects on the spatial connective fashions, resulting in the formation of various dimensional compounds. The XRPD, TGA data of title polymers and the magnetic properties for 2 and 5 have also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: The structural differences show that the ancillary ligands have great effects on the spatial connective fashions, resulting in the formation of various dimensional compounds. - Highlights: • Five new Co(II) coordination polymers have been synthesized by solvothermal reactions based on 3,5-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)benzoic acid (HL). • The long-flexible ligand (HL) is a good candidate to produce interpenetrating architectures. • The secondary dicarboxylic acid ligands play important roles in the spatial connective fashions and the formation of various dimensional compounds. • The magnetism studies show that both 2 and 5 exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions

  16. Quantifying ligand-cell interactions and determination of the surface concentrations of ligands on hydrogel films: The measurement challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Meike V; Hahn, Kathrin; Diederichs, Sylvia; Fabry, Marlies; Singh, Smriti; Spencer, Steve J; Salber, Jochen; Möller, Martin; Shard, Alexander G; Groll, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels are extensively studied for biomaterials application as they provide water swollen noninteracting matrices in which specific binding motifs and enzyme-sensitive degradation sites can be incorporated to tailor cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Hydrogels also serve as excellent basis for surface modification of biomaterials where interfacial characteristics are decisive for implant success or failure. However, the three-dimensional nature of hydrogels makes it hard to distinguish between the bioactive ligand density at the hydrogel-cell interface that is able to interact with cells and the ligands that are immobilized inside the hydrogel and not accessible for cells. Here, the authors compare x-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the correlation with quantitative cell adhesion using primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) to gain insight into ligand distribution. The authors show that although XPS provides the most useful quantitative analysis, it lacks the sensitivity to measure biologically meaningful concentrations of ligands. However, ToF-SIMS is able to access this range provided that there are clearly distinguishable secondary ions and a calibration method is found. Detection by ELISA appears to be sensitive to the ligand density on the surface that is necessary to mediate cell adhesion, but the upper limit of detection coincides closely with the minimal ligand spacing required to support cell proliferation. Radioactive measurements and ELISAs were performed on amine reactive well plates as true 2D surfaces to estimate the ligand density necessary to allow cell adhesion onto hydrogel films. Optimal ligand spacing for HDF adhesion and proliferation on ultrathin hydrogel films was determined as 6.5?±?1.5?nm. PMID:25956179

  17. Steric and Electronic Factors Associated with the Photoinduced Ligand Exchange of Bidentate Ligands Coordinated to Ru(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Bryan A; Whittemore, Tyler; Durr, Christopher B; Turro, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    In an effort to create a molecule that can absorb low energy visible or near-infrared light for photochemotherapy (PCT), the new complexes [Ru(biq)2 (dpb)](PF6 )2 (1, biq = 2,2'-biquinoline, dpb = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)benzoquinoxaline) and [(biq)2 Ru(dpb)Re(CO)3 Cl](PF6 )2 (2) were synthesized and characterized. Complexes 1 and 2 were compared to [Ru(bpy)2 (dpb)](PF6 )2 (3, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(biq)2 (phen)](PF6 )2 (4, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline). Distortions around the metal and biq ligands were used to explain the exchange of one biq ligand in 4 upon irradiation. Complex 1, however, undergoes photoinduced dissociation of the dpb ligand rather than biq under analogous experimental conditions. Complex 3 is not photoactive, providing evidence that the biq ligands are crucial for ligand photodissociation in 1. The crystal structures of 1 and 4 are compared to explain the difference in photochemistry between the complexes. Complex 2 absorbs lower energy light than 1, but is photochemically inert although its crystal structure displays significant distortions. These results indicate that both the excited state electronic structure and steric bulk play key roles in bidentate photoinduced ligand dissociation. The present work also shows that it is possible to stabilize sterically hindered Ru(II) complexes by the addition of another metal, a property that may be useful for other applications. PMID:25403564

  18. Metal-Mediated Couplings of Primary Alcohols with Amines and Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was performed at the Department of Chemistry of the Technical University of Denmark during a three year Ph.D. program. The thesis involves two distinct Projects related to organometallic and carbohydrate chemistry. Project 1: Dehydrogenative synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines catalyzed by a ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex. The successful method development and application of a convenient and direct (one step) synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described. The developed method provides quick andextended access to structurally diverse and synthetically important imines. The reaction is catalyzed by the ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] (3) and proceeds in the presence of the ligand DABCO and molecular sieves with concomitant extrusion of water and hydrogen. A range of different primary alcohols and amines have been coupled in the presence of the catalyst to afford the corresponding imines in moderate to good yields.Optically pure amines gave the corresponding imines without any sign of racemization. Moreover, the one-pot diastereoselective addition of different organometallic reagents to the imine, obtained from the coupling between benzyl alcohol and (R)-1-phenylethylamine, was performed. To address specifics of the reaction mechanism, different experiments with deuterium-labeled benzyl alcohol were carried out indicating that that the catalytically active species is a ruthenium dihydride. The reaction is proposed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the alcohol to the aldehyde, which stays coordinated to the ruthenium centre. Then, nucleophilic attack of the amine affords the hemiaminal, which is released from ruthenium and converted into the imine. Project 2: Tin-mediated regioselective 6-O-glycosylations of unprotected phenyl 1-thioglycopyranosides Chemical glycosylation is of outstanding importance to access biologically relevant carbohydrate structures, but classical methods suffer from the disadvantage of extensive protecting group manipulations. Thus, approaches to reduce the number of steps connected to chemical synthesis are highly important. In this thesis approaches to the regioselective glycosylation of fully unprotected phenyl 1-thio-glycopyranoside acceptors via tin activation are described. Tin-mediated Koenigs-Knorr glycosylation of phenyl 1-thio-?-D-glucopyranoside (28), phenyl 1-thio-?-Dgalactopyranoside (32) and phenyl 1-thio-?-D-mannopyranoside (33) with different bromide donors afforded the corresponding (1?6) linked disaccharides in good to moderate yields. The disaccharides obtained from the first coupling can be activated as donors for subsequent tinmediated glycosylation reactions. The activation has been performed following two different strategies. The first involved one-step activation with a thiophilic reagent, while the second employed a two-step activation which entailed first formation of a glycosyl halide, and then activation with a halophilic reagent. This last approach is of particular interest; in fact, thioglycosides can be used as acceptors enabling an iterative oligosaccharide synthesis. Following these strategies a number of different trisaccharides have been successfully synthesized.

  19. Essential role of conformational selection in ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Austin D; Pozzi, Nicola; Chen, Zhiwei; Di Cera, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    Two competing and mutually exclusive mechanisms of ligand recognition - conformational selection and induced fit - have dominated our interpretation of ligand binding in biological macromolecules for almost six decades. Conformational selection posits the pre-existence of multiple conformations of the macromolecule from which the ligand selects the optimal one. Induced fit, on the other hand, postulates the existence of conformational rearrangements of the original conformation into an optimal one that are induced by binding of the ligand. In the former case, conformational transitions precede the binding event; in the latter, conformational changes follow the binding step. Kineticists have used a facile criterion to distinguish between the two mechanisms based on the dependence of the rate of relaxation to equilibrium, kobs, on the ligand concentration, [L]. A value of kobs decreasing hyperbolically with [L] has been seen as diagnostic of conformational selection, while a value of kobs increasing hyperbolically with [L] has been considered diagnostic of induced fit. However, this simple conclusion is only valid under the rather unrealistic assumption of conformational transitions being much slower than binding and dissociation events. In general, induced fit only produces values of kobs that increase with [L] but conformational selection is more versatile and is associated with values of kobs that increase with, decrease with or are independent of [L]. The richer repertoire of kinetic properties of conformational selection applies to kinetic mechanisms with single or multiple saturable relaxations and explains the behavior of nearly all experimental systems reported in the literature thus far. Conformational selection is always sufficient and often necessary to account for the relaxation kinetics of ligand binding to a biological macromolecule and is therefore an essential component of any binding mechanism. On the other hand, induced fit is never necessary and only sufficient in a few cases. Therefore, the long assumed importance and preponderance of induced fit as a mechanism of ligand binding should be reconsidered. PMID:24113284

  20. Potentiometric studies of mixed ligand complexes of lanthanum(III) and thorium(IV) with nitrilotriacetic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as primary ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation constants of mixed ligand complexes of lanthanum(III) and thorium(IV) with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as primary ligands, and anthranilic acid (ANA) as secondary ligand have been investigated potentiometrically. The values of log Ksub(MAL)sup(MA) have been found in the order log Ksub(MAL)sup(NTA) Th(IV). (author)

  1. Copper(II)-mediated transformation of a tridentate non-innocent ligand into a tetradentate salen-type innocent ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Samir; Mukherjee, Chandan

    2014-12-01

    A non-innocent ligand, H4L(CH2NH2), was synthesized by introducing a -CH2NH2 group at the ortho carbon atom to the aniline moiety of 2-anilino-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol. The new ligand was characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques. Upon treatment with CuCl2?2H2O, this non-innocent ligand provided a mononuclear four-coordinate salen-type Cu(II) complex by complete modification of the ligand backbone. The complex was characterized by IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, X-ray single-crystal diffraction, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and UV/Vis/near-IR spectroscopy techniques. X-ray crystallographic analysis showed an asymmetric environment around the Cu(II) center with a small (?12°) twist between the two biting planes. Analysis of the X-band EPR spectrum also supported the asymmetric environment and also indicated the presence of an unpaired electron on the dx2-y2 orbital. The UV/Vis/near-IR spectrum showed strong absorption bands for metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ligand-to-metal charge transfer along with a Cu(II) -centered d-d transition. Mechanistic investigation of the formation of complex 1 indicated that modification of the ligand backbone proceeded through ligand-centered amine to imine oxidation as well as through C-N bond-breaking processes. During these processes, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone and 2-aminobenzylidene were produced. Ammonia, generated in situ through hydrolysis of the imine to the aldehyde, reacted with 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone to form the corresponding 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-iminobenzoquinone moiety, which upon two-electron reduction in the reaction medium formed 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-aminophenol. This aminophenol underwent condensation with the H2L5 ligand that was formed by self-condensation of two molecules of 2-aminobenzaldehyde and provided the modified ligand backbone. PMID:25273849

  2. Ligand structure and mechanical properties of single-nanoparticle-thick membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, K. Michael; Bolintineanu, Dan S.; Lane, J. Matthew D.; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-06-01

    The high mechanical stiffness of single-nanoparticle-thick membranes is believed to result from the local structure of ligand coatings that mediate interactions between nanoparticles. These ligand structures are not directly observable experimentally. We use molecular dynamics simulations to observe variations in ligand structure and simultaneously measure variations in membrane mechanical properties. We have shown previously that ligand end group has a large impact on ligand structure and membrane mechanical properties. Here we introduce and apply quantitative molecular structure measures to these membranes and extend analysis to multiple nanoparticle core sizes and ligand lengths. Simulations of nanoparticle membranes with a nanoparticle core diameter of 4 or 6 nm, a ligand length of 11 or 17 methylenes, and either carboxyl (COOH) or methyl (CH3) ligand end groups are presented. In carboxyl-terminated ligand systems, structure and interactions are dominated by an end-to-end orientation of ligands. In methyl-terminated ligand systems large ordered ligand structures form, but nanoparticle interactions are dominated by disordered, partially interdigitated ligands. Core size and ligand length also affect both ligand arrangement within the membrane and the membrane's macroscopic mechanical response, but are secondary to the role of the ligand end group. Moreover, the particular end group (COOH or CH3) alters the nature of how ligand length, in turn, affects the membrane properties. The effect of core size does not depend on the ligand end group, with larger cores always leading to stiffer membranes. Asymmetry in the stress and ligand density is observed in membranes during preparation at a water-vapor interface, with the stress asymmetry persisting in all membranes after drying.

  3. Direct Functionalization of Nitrogen Heterocycles via Rh-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Jared; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2008-02-04

    Nitrogen heterocycles are present in many compounds of enormous practical importance, ranging from pharmaceutical agents and biological probes to electroactive materials. Direct funtionalization of nitrogen heterocycles through C-H bond activation constitutes a powerful means of regioselectively introducing a variety of substituents with diverse functional groups onto the heterocycle scaffold. Working together, our two groups have developed a family of Rh-catalyzed heterocycle alkylation and arylation reactions that are notable for their high level of functional-group compatibility. This Account describes their work in this area, emphasizing the relevant mechanistic insights that enabled synthetic advances and distinguished the resulting transformations from other methods. They initially discovered an intramolecular Rh-catalyzed C-2-alkylation of azoles by alkenyl groups. That reaction provided access to a number of di-, tri-, and tetracyclic azole derivatives. They then developed conditions that exploited microwave heating to expedite these reactions. While investigating the mechanism of this transformation, they discovered that a novel substrate-derived Rh-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex was involved as an intermediate. They then synthesized analogous Rh-NHC complexes directly by treating precursors to the intermediate [RhCl(PCy{sub 3}){sub 2}] with N-methylbenzimidazole, 3-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolein, and 1-methyl-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-one. Extensive kinetic analysis and DFT calculations supported a mechanism for carbene formation in which the catalytically active RhCl(PCy{sub 3}){sub 2} fragment coordinates to the heterocycle before intramolecular activation of the C-H bond occurs. The resulting Rh-H intermediate ultimately tautomerizes to the observed carbene complex. With this mechanistic information and the discovery that acid co-catalysts accelerate the alkylation, they developed conditions that efficiently and intermolecularly alkylate a variety of heterocycles, including azoles, azolines, dihydroquinazolines, pyridines, and quinolines, with a wide range of functionalized olefins. They demonstrated the utility of this methodology in the synthesis of natural products, drug candidates, and other biologically active molecules. In addition, they developed conditions to directly arylate these heterocycles with aryl halides. The initial conditions that used PCy{sub 3} as a ligand were successful only for aryl iodides. However, efforts designed to avoid catalyst decomposition led to the development of ligands based on 9-phosphabicyclo[4.2.1]nonane (Phoban) that also facilitated the coupling of aryl bromides. They then replicated the unique coordination environment, stability, and catalytic activity of this complex using the much simpler tetrahydrophosphepine ligands and developed conditions that coupled aryl bromides bearing diverse functional groups without the use of a glovebox or purified reagents. With further mechanistic inquiry, they anticipate that researchers will better understand the details of the aforementioned Rh-catalyzed C-H bond functionalization reactions, resulting in the design of more efficient and robust catalysts, expanded substrate scope, and new transformations.

  4. Aluminum complexes of the redox-active [ONO] pincer ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szigethy, Géza; Heyduk, Alan F

    2012-07-14

    A series of aluminum complexes containing the tridentate, redox-active ligand bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-phenol)amine ([ONO]H(3)) in three different oxidation states were synthesized. The aluminum halide salts AlCl(3) and AlBr(3) were reacted with the doubly deprotonated form of the ligand to afford five-coordinate [ONHO(cat)]AlX(solv) complexes (1a, X = Cl, solv = OEt(2); 1b, X = Br, solv = THF), each having a trigonal bipyramidal coordination geometry at the aluminum and containing the [ONHO(cat)](2-) ligand with a protonated, sp(3)-hybridized nitrogen donor. The [ONO] ligand platform may also be added to aluminum through the use of the oxidized ligand salt [ONO(q)]K, which was reacted with AlCl(3) in the presence of either diphenylacetylacetonate (acacPh(2)(-)) or 8-oxyquinoline (quinO(-)) to afford [ONO(q)]Al(acacPh(2))Cl (2) or [ONO(q)]Al(quinO)Cl (3), respectively, with well-defined [ONO(q)](-) ligands. Quinonate complexes 2 and 3 were reduced by one electron to afford the corresponding complexes K{[ONO(sq)]Al(acacPh(2))(py)} (4) and K{[ONO(sq)]Al(quinO)(py)} (5), respectively, containing well-defined [ONO(sq)](2-) ligands. The addition of tetrachloro-1,2-quinone to 1a in the presence of pyridine resulted in the expulsion of HCl and the formation of an aluminum complex with two different redox active ligands, [ONO]Al(o-O(2)C(6)Cl(4))(py) (6). Similar results were obtained when 1a was reacted with 9,10-phenanthrenequinone to afford [ONO]Al(o-O(2)C(14)H(8))(py) (7) or with pyrene-4,5-dione to afford [ONO]Al(o-O(2)C(16)H(8))(py) (8). Structural, spectroscopic and preliminary magnetic measurements on 6-8 suggest ligand non-innocent redox behavior in these complexes. PMID:22669327

  5. Organic ligands reduce copper toxicity in Pseudomonas syringae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azenha, M.; Vasconcelos, M.T. [Faculdade de Ciencias do Porto (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica; Cabral, J.P.S. [Univ. do Porto (Portugal)

    1995-03-01

    Pseudomonas syringae cells were exposed to 100 {mu}M copper alone, or to previously equilibrated copper sulfate-ligand solutions. Ligand concentrations were determined experimentally as those that reduced the free copper concentration to 5 {mu}M (determined with a Cu{sup 2+}-selective electrode). These values were in agreement with those calculated by computational equilibrium simulation based on published stability constants. Exposure of P. syringae cells to copper sulfate, chloride, or nitrate resulted in similar high mortality, suggesting that copper was responsible for cell death. Acetate, succinate, proline, lysine, cysteine, and EDTA significantly reduced both the amount of copper bound to the cells and cell death, indicating that not only strong chelating agents but also weak and moderate copper ligands can effectively antagonize copper toxicity. However, cysteine and EDTA were considerably more effective than acetate, succinate, proline, and lysine, indicating that copper toxicity is not simply a function of free copper concentration but depends on the nature of the ligand. The results suggested that a significant fraction of copper bound to acetate, succinate, proline, or lysine was displaced to the bacteria or, alternatively, mixed copper-ligand-cell complexes could be formed. On the contrary, none of these phenomena occurred for the copper complexes with cysteine or EDTA.

  6. Cloud computing for protein-ligand binding site comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Che-Lun; Hua, Guan-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery. PMID:23762824

  7. Nanoscale integrin ligand patterns determine melanoma cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amschler, Katharina; Erpenbeck, Luise; Kruss, Sebastian; Schön, Michael P

    2014-09-23

    Cells use integrin receptors to adhere onto surfaces by binding to ligands such as the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif. Cancer cells make use of this adhesion process, which has motivated the development of integrin-directed drugs. However, those drugs may exert paradoxical effects on tumor progression, which raises the question of how integrin function is governed in tumor cells on the nanoscale. We have utilized precisely defined and tunable RGD ligand site densities spanning 1 order of magnitude, i.e., 103 to 1145 ligand sites/?m(2), by using RGD-functionalized gold nanoparticle patterns immobilized on glass by block copolymer (micellar) nanolithography. In an ?V?3 integrin-dependent fashion, human melanoma cells spread, formed focal contacts, and reorganized cytoskeletal fibers on a physiologically relevant RGD density of 349 sites/?m(2). Intriguingly, low doses of solute RGD "shifted" the optimal densities of immobilized ligand along with corresponding melanoma cell integrin clusters and cytoskeletal changes toward those typical for "intermediate" ligand presentation. Consequently, melanoma cells were forced into a "permissive" state, optimizing interactions with suboptimal nanostructured biomimetic surfaces, thus providing an explanation for the seemingly paradoxical effects on tumor progression and a potential clue for individualized antitumoral therapies. PMID:25171587

  8. Engineering of erythropoietin receptor for use as an affinity ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Kouta; Ide, Teruhiko

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin receptor (rhEPOR) has applicability as an affinity ligand for purification of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) because of its specific binding to rHuEPO. For application of rhEPOR as a ligand for purification of rHuEPO, soluble rhEPOR was expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and engineered by directed evolution through random mutagenesis and integration of mutations. From the screening of random mutagenesis, we identified an amino acid mutation (H114Y) contributing to rHuEPO binding and four amino acid mutations (R76S, A132D, A162D, and C181Y) contributing to expression of soluble rhEPOR. However, the rHuEPO that binds to engineered rhEPOR having H114Y mutation is difficult to dissociate from the engineered rhEPOR. Therefore, H114Y mutation was not suitable for the construction of the rhEPOR ligand. As a rhEPOR ligand, engineered rhEPOR containing four amino acid mutations (EPORm4L) was constructed by integration of mutations except for H114Y. The expression of EPORm4L (127mgl(-1) of culture medium) was markedly increased in comparison with wild-type rhEPOR (2mgl(-1) of culture medium). Small-scale affinity chromatography demonstrated that EPORm4L worked as an affinity ligand for purification of rHuEPO. PMID:25795089

  9. Xanthene and Xanthone Derivatives as G-Quadruplex Stabilizing Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Altieri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Following previous studies on anthraquinone and acridine-based G-quadruplex ligands, here we present a study of similar aromatic cores, with the specific aim of increasing G-quadruplex binding and selectivity with respect to duplex DNA. Synthesized compounds include two and three-side chain xanthone and xanthene derivatives, as well as a dimeric “bridged” form. ESI and FRET measurements suggest that all the studied molecules are good G-quadruplex ligands, both at telomeres and on G-quadruplex forming sequences of oncogene promoters. The dimeric compound and the three-side chain xanthone derivative have been shown to represent the best compounds emerging from the different series of ligands presented here, having also high selectivity for G-quadruplex structures with respect to duplex DNA. Molecular modeling simulations are in broad agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Ligand reorganization and activation energies in nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activation energy and ligand reorganization energy for nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions in chemical and biological systems are investigated in this paper. The free energy surfaces and the activation energy are derived exactly in the general case in which the ligand vibration frequencies are not equal. The activation energy is derived by free energy minimization at the transition state. Our formulation leads to the Marcus-Hush [J. Chem. Phys. 24, 979 (1956); 98, 7170 (1994); 28, 962 (1958)] results in the equal-frequency limit and also generalizes the Marcus-Sumi [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] model in the context of studying the solvent dynamic effect on electron transfer reactions. It is found that when the ligand vibration frequencies are different, the activation energy derived from the Marcus-Hush formula deviates by 5%-10% from the exact value. If the reduced reorganization energy approximation is introduced in the Marcus-Hush formula, the result is almost exact

  11. Ligand screening by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, V V

    2005-04-26

    NMR based methods to screen for high-affinity ligands have become an indispensable tool for designing rationalized drugs, as these offer a combination of good experimental design of the screening process and data interpretation methods, which together provide unprecedented information on the complex nature of protein-ligand interactions. These methods rely on measuring direct changes in the spectral parameters, that are often simpler than the complex experimental procedures used to study structure and dynamics of proteins. The goal of this review article is to provide the basic details of NMR based ligand-screening methods, with particular focus on the saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment. In addition, we provide an overview of other NMR experimental methods and a practical guide on how to go about designing and implementing them.

  12. Muscarinic receptor ligands: A review of the chemistry and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioiodinated analog of 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) has been shown to bind to the mAChR by testing the saturability and the stereoselectivity in the corpus striatum, cerebellum, and the heart of rats. 3-Quinuclidinyl 4-iodobenzilate (4-IQNB) receptor binding can be inhibited by co-injection of small amounts of non-radioactive mAChR ligands as well as displaced by the same ligand after the 4-IQNB has bound to the receptor. Another important proof is obtained by using two stereomers of IQNB differing in the chirality at the quinuclidinyl carbon. The difference in distribution between the pharmacologically active form and the pharmacologically inactive form in those organs containing mAChR furnishes that proof. 4-IQNB was the first iodinated neuroceptor-binding ligand to show high receptor to nonreceptor binding in man

  13. Memetic algorithms for ligand expulsion from protein cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Rydzewski, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Ligand diffusion through a protein interior is a fundamental process governing biological signaling and enzymatic catalysis. A complex topology of channels in proteins leads often to difficulties in modeling ligand escape pathways by classical molecular dynamics simulations. In this paper two novel memetic methods for searching the exit paths and cavity space exploration are proposed: Memory Enhanced Random Acceleration (MERA) Molecular Dynamics and Immune Algorithm (IA). In MERA, a pheromone concept is introduced to optimize an expulsion force. In IA, hybrid learning protocols are exploited to predict ligand exit paths. They are tested on three protein channels with increasing complexity: M2 muscarinic GPCR receptor, enzyme nitrile hydratase and heme-protein cytochrome P450cam. In these cases, the memetic methods outperform Simulated Annealing and Random Acceleration Molecular Dynamics. The proposed algorithms are general and appropriate in all problems where an accelerated transport of an object through a n...

  14. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands; a patent review (2006-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündisch, Daniela; Eibl, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), pentameric ligand-gated cation channels, are potential targets for the development of therapeutics for a variety of disease states. Areas covered This article is reviewing recent advances in the development of small molecule ligands for diverse nAChR subtypes and is a continuation of an earlier review in this journal. Expert opinion The development of nAChR ligands with preference for ?4?2 or ?7 subtypes for the treatment of CNS disorders are in the most advanced developmental stage. In addition, there is a fast growing interest to generate so-called PAMs, positive allosteric modulators, to influence the channels’ functionalities. PMID:22098319

  15. Analytical developments for screening of lanthanides/ligands interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates the potential of hyphenated capillary electrophoresis and inductively coupled mass spectrometry to classify different ligands according to their europium binding affinity in a hydro-organic medium. On the one hand, this method enables to evaluate the affinity of phosphorus-containing ligands in less than two hours and using less than 15 ng of ligand. On the other hand, complexation constants could be determined. The results are in excellent agreement with the values obtained by spectrophotometric titrations.Moreover, a library of copolymers for solid/liquid extraction of europium is investigated. The extraction protocol enables to classify copolymers according to their europium affinity in a hydro-organic medium. This screening requires 60 mg of copolymers. For the most promising recognition properties and selectivity La3+/Eu3+/Lu3+ are evaluated. (author)

  16. Studies on some mixed ligand complexes of Ru(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruthenium(II) complexes of the general formula RuHCO(TPhP)L2Cl, where TPhP stands for triphenylphosphine, have been prepared by replacing coordinated TPhP molecules from RuHCO(TPhP)3Cl by various substituted 1-phenyltetrazole-5-thiones (L) under nitrogen atmosphere in benzene medium. Replacement reactions have also been carried out with Ru(TPhP)Cl2 under similar conditions using the same ligands. These monodentate ligands displace all but one coordinated TPhP molecules. However, when strong bidentate ligands such as thioacetic acid and thioacetamide are used, all the four coordinated TPhP molecules get replaced from Ru(TPhP)4Cl2. (author)

  17. From NMDA receptor antagonists to discovery of selective ?? receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Rosaria; De Luca, Laura; Ferro, Stefania; Scala, Angela; Ronsisvalle, Simone; Parenti, Carmela; Prezzavento, Orazio; Buemi, Maria Rosa; Chimirri, Alba

    2014-01-01

    Following previous studies focused on the search for new molecules targeting GluN2B-containing NMDA, a small series of 1-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl)ethanone derivatives has been synthesized by using Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS). Given that GluN2B ligands frequently exert off-target effects we also tested their affinity towards sigma receptors. Binding assay revealed that only the 1-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl)ethanone (7a) retained GluN2B affinity. Interestingly, the 5-methoxyindoles 5a and 6a were efficient and selective ligands toward ?? receptor (Ki values of 10nM and 20 nM, respectively). Thus, in this case the discovery of new ?? receptor selective ligands was an unexpected result emerging from the screening of cross-activity against other CNS receptors. PMID:24290063

  18. Iron in a trigonal tris(alkoxide) ligand environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Matthew B; Groysman, Stanislav; Villagrán, Dino; Nocera, Daniel G

    2013-03-18

    Mononuclear Fe(II) and Fe(III) complexes residing in a trigonal tris(ditox) (ditox = (t)Bu2(Me)CO(-)) ligand environment have been synthesized and characterized. The Fe(III) ditox complex does not react with oxidants such as PhIO, whereas NMe3O substitutes a coordinated tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the apical position without undergoing oxo transfer. In contrast, the Fe(II) ditox complex reacts rapidly with PhIO or Me3NO in THF or cyclohexadiene to furnish a highly reactive intermediate, which cleaves C-H bonds to afford the Fe(III)-hydroxide complex. When generated in 1,2-difluorobenze, this intermediate can be intercepted to oxidize phosphines to phosphine oxide. The fast rates at which these reactions occur is attributed to a particularly weak ligand field imparted by the tris(alkoxide) ancillary ligand environment. PMID:23432161

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands in cancer: friend and foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Iain A; Patterson, Andrew D; Perdew, Gary H

    2014-12-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is best known for mediating the toxicity and tumour-promoting properties of the carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, commonly referred to as ‘dioxin’. AHR influences the major stages of tumorigenesis — initiation, promotion, progression and metastasis — and physiologically relevant AHR ligands are often formed during disease states or during heightened innate and adaptive immune responses. Interestingly, ligand specificity and affinity vary between rodents and humans. Studies of aggressive tumours and tumour cell lines show increased levels of AHR and constitutive localization of this receptor in the nucleus. This suggests that the AHR is chronically activated in tumours, thus facilitating tumour progression. This Review discusses the role of AHR in tumorigenesis and the potential for therapeutic modulation of its activity in tumours. PMID:25568920

  20. Secondary ligand-directed assembly of Co(II) coordination polymers based on a pyridine carboxylate ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ke-Li; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Cai, Yi-Ni; Xu, Xiao-Wei; Feng, Yun-Long

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the influence of hydrogen bonds and secondary ligands on the structures and properties of the resulting frameworks, five new Co(II) compounds have been synthesized by the reactions of Co(II) salts and 3,5-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)benzoic acid (HL) with four rationally selected dicarboxylic acid ligands. Without secondary ligand, we got one compound [CoL2(H2O)2]n·2nH2O (1), which possesses a 1D chain structure. In the presence of ancillary ligands, namely, 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid (H2adbc), terephthalic acid (H2tpa), thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H2tdc) and 1,4-benzenedithioacetic acid (H2bdtc), four 3D structures [Co2L2(adbc)]n·nH2O (2), [Co2L2(tpa)]n (3), [Co2L2(tdc)]n (4), [Co2L2(bdtc)(H2O)]n (5) were obtained, respectively. It can be observed from the architectures of 1-5 that hydrogen bonds and secondary ligands both have great effects on the spatial connective fashions, resulting in the formation of various dimensional compounds. The XRPD, TGA data of title polymers and the magnetic properties for 2 and 5 have also been investigated.

  1. SANS Study on the Behaviors of Polymeric Ligands on the Nanoparticle Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyong; Choi, Soo-Hyung; Huh, June; Bang, Joona

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we employed small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and contrast variation technique to characterize the behaviors of polymer ligands on the nanoparticle (NPs) surfaces. The Janus-type Au NPs were coated with a mixture of two different ligands, PMMA-SH and deuterated PS-SH, and the Au NPs coated only with P(MMA-r-dS)-SH were also prepared for the control case of NPs with homogeneous ligands. From the SANS analysis, it was observed that the ligands become phase separated with increasing the molecular weight of ligands. Furthermore, computational simulation was performed to examine how ligands are phase separated on the curved NPs surfaces.

  2. The Ligand-Free State Of The TPP Riboswitch, A Partially Folded RNA Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mona; Lipfert, Jan; Seifert, Soenke; Herschlag, Daniel; Doniach, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Riboswitches are elements of mRNA that regulate gene expression by undergoing structural changes upon binding of small ligands. Although the structures of several riboswitches have been solved with their ligands bound, the ligand-free states of only a few riboswitches have been characterized. The ligand-free state is as important for the functionality of the riboswitch as the ligand-bound form, but the ligand-free state is often a partially folded structure of the RNA with conformational hete...

  3. Luminescent cyclometallated iridium(III) complexes having acetylide ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mark E.; Bossi, Alberto; Djurovich, Peter Ivan

    2014-09-02

    The present invention relates to phosphorescent (triplet-emitting) organometallic materials. The phosphorescent materials of the present invention comprise Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complexes for use as triplet light-emitting materials. The Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complexes comprise at least one cyclometallating ligand and at least one alkynyl ligand bonded to the iridium. Also provided is an organic light emitting device comprising an anode, a cathode and an emissive layer between the anode and the cathode, wherein the emissive layer comprises a Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complex as a triplet emitting material.

  4. Multitopic ligand design: a concept for single-source precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Sereda, Olha; Fromm, Katharina M.

    2009-01-01

    The multitopic ligand O,O?-bisnicotinic acid tetraethylene glycol, L, was designed for the coordination of two distinct types of metal ions. In this work, we describe how the O-donor part of L is used to coordinate to alkaline earth metal ions and that the N-donor atoms of L bind to group 11 elements. This makes L a suitable ligand for the combination of both metal ion types within the same compound. This concept will be exemplified by highlighting the pure Ca²? complexes, a Cu?-coordi...

  5. Blind docking of pharmaceutically relevant compounds using RosettaLigand

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Ian W.; Raha, Kaushik; Head, Martha S.; Baker, David

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to properly validate algorithms that dock a small molecule ligand into its protein receptor using data from the public domain: the predictions are not blind because the correct binding mode is already known, and public test cases may not be representative of compounds of interest such as drug leads. Here, we use private data from a real drug discovery program to carry out a blind evaluation of the RosettaLigand docking methodology and find that its performance is on average co...

  6. Designer ligands: The search for metal ion selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry T. Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews research conducted at Rhodes University towards the development of metal-selective ligands. The research has focused on the rational design, synthesis and evaluation of novel ligands for use in the formation of copper complexes as biomimetic models of the metalloenzyme, tyrosinase, and for the selective extraction of silver, nickel and platinum group metal ions in the presence of contaminating metal ions. Attention has also been given to the development of efficient, metal-selective molecular imprinted polymers.

  7. Triazole-based ligands for click chemistry and asymmetric catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkal, Erhan

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, different approaches for the application of click chemistry to the preparation of catalysts and ligands are developed. Several strategies towards the use of 1,2,3-triazoles from copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition(CuAAC) reaction as click ligands are explored. Mainly, 1,2,3-triazole is used as donor groups for transition metal complexes in metal-catalyzed reactions, following on the simplicity of the synthetic route. In particular, CuAAC reaction is used to synthesi...

  8. Piezoelectric PZT nanodevices from a hybrid ligand burning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piezoelectric PZT powders were synthesized via a nonconventional ligand combustion approach and through a novel hybrid synthesis, using commercially available starting materials. The effect of the different reactants and stabilizers was investigated through thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analyses, X-ray diffraction, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. The size, morphology, crystallinity, and sintering behavior of the final PZT particles were determined. They reflect the effects due to the specific ligand and to the synthetic procedure used. The electro-mechanical properties of the PZT nanoparticles were evaluated in the pure state and in a mixture with calcium carbonate. Pressure-induced electric responses up to 2 V were detected.

  9. Photoinduced ligand isomerisation in a pyrazine containing ruthenium polypyridyl complex

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Sabine; Ahmed, Hamid M. Younis; Hughes, Helen P.; Soman, Suraj; Browne, Wesley R.; Vos, Johannes G.

    2010-01-01

    Photochemically induced ligand rearrangements for the N2 and N4 coordination isomers of the complex [Ru(bpy)2(Hpztr)]2+ and its deprotonated analogue [Ru(bpy)2(pztr)]+, where bpy is 2,2’-bipyridyl and Hpztr is pyrazine-1,2,4-triazole ligand, are reported. 1H NMR spectroscopic and HPLC studies indicate that in acetone and acetonitrile the complexes are photostable when the triazole ring is deprotonated. Irradiation of the protonated N2 isomer in acetone results in formation of the N4 isome...

  10. Coordination chemistry of poly(thioether)borate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Charles G

    2010-08-01

    This review traces the development and application of the tris(thioether)borate ligands, tripodal ligands with highly polarizable thioether donors. Areas of emphasis include the basic coordination chemistry of the mid-to-late first row transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Cu), and the role of the thioether substituent in directing complex formation, the modeling of zinc thiolate protein active sites, high-spin organo-iron and organo-cobalt chemistry, the preparation of monovalent complexes of Fe, Co and Ni, and dioxygen and sulfur activation by monovalent nickel complexes. PMID:20607091

  11. Complexation of neptunium(V) by polyaminocarboxylate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability constants of complexes of NpO2+ ion with a series of polyaminocarboxylate, oxydiacetate (ODA) and thiodiacetate (TDA) ligands were determined using spectrophotometric and potentiometric techniques. The measurements were conducted at an ionic strength of 0.50 M (NaClO4). By contrast to lanthanide complexation, the interaction of the ether oxygen of ODA with NpO2+ cation is very small whereas TDA acts only as a monodentate ligand via one of the carboxylate groups. (orig.)

  12. Designer ligands: the search for metal ion selectivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Perry T, Kaye.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews research conducted at Rhodes University towards the development of metal-selective ligands. The research has focused on the rational design, synthesis and evaluation of novel ligands for use in the formation of copper complexes as biomimetic models of the metalloenzyme, tyrosinase, [...] and for the selective extraction of silver, nickel and platinum group metal ions in the presence of contaminating metal ions. Attention has also been given to the development of efficient, metal-selective molecular imprinted polymers.

  13. Double-ligand modulation for engineering magnetic nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongjune; Yang, Jaemoon; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Joseph; Suh, Jin-Suck; Park, Hyo Seon; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic nanoclusters (MNCs) are agglomerated individual magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) that show great promise in increasing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sensitivity. Here, we report an effective strategy to engineer MNCs based on double-ligand modulation to enhance MRI sensitivity. The oleic acid-coated individual MNPs self-assembled and then were enveloped by polysorbate 80, using a nanoemulsion method to prepare MNCs. By modulating the amounts of the two ligands, and thus the size and magnetic content of the resultant MNCs, we were able to enormously improve MRI sensitivity.

  14. Systematics of complexation constants of actinide ions with inorganic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic trends of complexation constants of actinide ions with inorganic ligands such as carbonate and fluoride were analyzed by using an improved hard sphere model. The effective charges of actinide ions were introduced into the model by considering possible contributions of non-electrostatic interactions of actinide ions in addition to those of ordinary electrostatic ones. The systematic trends of complexation constants were well fitted by the present model, and the effective charges and radii of the ligands were obtained together with those of actinide ions. (author)

  15. Systematics of complexation constants of actinide ions with inorganic ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Hirotake; Fujiwara, Kenso [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto (Japan); Yamana, Hajimu [Kyoto Univ., Research Reactor Institute, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Systematic trends of complexation constants of actinide ions with inorganic ligands such as carbonate and fluoride were analyzed by using an improved hard sphere model. The effective charges of actinide ions were introduced into the model by considering possible contributions of non-electrostatic interactions of actinide ions in addition to those of ordinary electrostatic ones. The systematic trends of complexation constants were well fitted by the present model, and the effective charges and radii of the ligands were obtained together with those of actinide ions. (author)

  16. Phosphorus(III) ligands in homogeneous catalysis design and synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kamer, Paul C J

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 60 years the increasing knowledge of transition metal chemistry has resulted in an enormous advance of homogeneous catalysis as an essential tool in both academic and industrial fields. Remarkably, phosphorus(III) donor ligands have played an important role in several of the acknowledged catalytic reactions. The positive effects of phosphine ligands in transition metal homogeneous catalysis have contributed largely to the evolution of the field into an indispensable tool in organic synthesis and the industrial production of chemicals. This book aims to address the design an

  17. The inter-ligand Overhauser effect: A powerful new NMR approach for mapping structural relationships of macromolecular ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR experiments that transfer conformational information from the bound to the uncomplexed state via exchange have been utilized for many years. It is demonstrated here that inter-ligand NOEs ('ILOEs'), which exist in ternary complexes with enzymes or other macromolecular receptors, can be transferred via exchange to pairs of uncomplexed ligands. This approach is illustrated by studies of glycolate + NAD+ in the presence of porcine heart lactate dehydrogenase, and by glucose-6-phosphate + NADPH in the presence of L. mesenteroides glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This strategy opens up a general methodology for exploring the active sites of enzymes and for the development of artificial ligands which can function as inhibitors, or more generally as modifiers of protein function

  18. Secondary ligand-directed assembly of Co(II) coordination polymers based on a pyridine carboxylate ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ke-Li; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Cai, Yi-Ni; Xu, Xiao-Wei; Feng, Yun-Long, E-mail: sky37@zjnu.cn

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the influence of hydrogen bonds and secondary ligands on the structures and properties of the resulting frameworks, five new Co(II) compounds have been synthesized by the reactions of Co(II) salts and 3,5-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)benzoic acid (HL) with four rationally selected dicarboxylic acid ligands. Without secondary ligand, we got one compound [CoL{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}·2nH{sub 2}O (1), which possesses a 1D chain structure. In the presence of ancillary ligands, namely, 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}adbc), terephthalic acid (H{sub 2}tpa), thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) and 1,4-benzenedithioacetic acid (H{sub 2}bdtc), four 3D structures [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(adbc)]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (2), [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(tpa)]{sub n} (3), [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(tdc)]{sub n} (4), [Co{sub 2}L{sub 2}(bdtc)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (5) were obtained, respectively. It can be observed from the architectures of 1–5 that hydrogen bonds and secondary ligands both have great effects on the spatial connective fashions, resulting in the formation of various dimensional compounds. The XRPD, TGA data of title polymers and the magnetic properties for 2 and 5 have also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: The structural differences show that the ancillary ligands have great effects on the spatial connective fashions, resulting in the formation of various dimensional compounds. - Highlights: • Five new Co(II) coordination polymers have been synthesized by solvothermal reactions based on 3,5-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethoxy)benzoic acid (HL). • The long-flexible ligand (HL) is a good candidate to produce interpenetrating architectures. • The secondary dicarboxylic acid ligands play important roles in the spatial connective fashions and the formation of various dimensional compounds. • The magnetism studies show that both 2 and 5 exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions.

  19. Combination of isothermal titration calorimetry and time-resolved luminescence for high affinity antibody-ligand interaction thermodynamics and kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Aweda, Tolulope A.; Meares, Claude F.

    2011-01-01

    For experiments using synthetic ligands as probes for biological experiments, it is useful to determine the specificity and affinity of the ligands for their receptors. As ligands with higher affinities are developed (KA >108 M?1; KD

  20. Organoosmium complexes of imidazole-containing chelate acceptor ligands.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarper, O.; Sarkar, B.; Fiedler, Jan; Lissner, F.; Kaim, W.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 363, ?. 12 (2010), s. 3070-3077. ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : arene ligand * electrochemistry * electronic structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.899, year: 2010

  1. Binding site preorganization and ligand discrimination in the purine riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, Johan; Lind, Christoffer; Åqvist, Johan

    2015-01-22

    The progress of RNA research has suggested a wide variety of RNA molecules as possible targets for pharmaceutical drug molecules. Structure-based computational methods for predicting binding modes and affinities are now important tools in drug discovery, but these methods have mainly been focused on protein targets. Here we employ molecular dynamics free-energy perturbation calculations and the linear interaction energy method to analyze the energetics of ligand binding to purine riboswitches. Calculations are carried out for 14 different purine complexes with the guanine and adenine riboswitches in order to examine their ligand recognition principles. The simulations yield binding affinities in good agreement with experimental data and rationalize the selectivity of the riboswitches for different ligands. In particular, it is found that these receptors have an unusually high degree of electrostatic preorganization for their cognate ligands, and this effect is further quantified by explicit free-energy calculations, which show that the standard electrostatic linear interaction energy parametrization is suboptimal in this case. The adenine riboswitch specifically uses the electrostatic preorganization to discriminate against guanine by preventing the formation of a G-U wobble base pair. PMID:25014157

  2. The crystalline sponge method: MOF terminal ligand effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhar, Timothy R; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Clardy, Jon

    2015-06-30

    Bromide and chloride analogs of the commonly used zinc iodide-based metal organic framework for the crystalline sponge method were synthesized and evaluated. Inclusion of (1R)-(-)-menthyl acetate into these MOFs was analysed using third-generation synchrotron radiation, and the effects and potential benefits of varying the MOF terminal ligand are discussed. PMID:26081991

  3. Dynamics of methionine ligand rebinding in cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Ma?olepsza, Edyta; Straub, John E

    2012-06-14

    Geminate recombination of the methionine ligand to the heme iron in ferrous cytochrome c protein following photodissociation displays rich kinetics. It is of particular interest to develop an understanding of fast and slow rebinding time scales, observed in experimental studies, in terms of features of the underlying complex energy landscape. The classical empirical force field in the heme pocket has been extended by incorporating ab initio potential energy surface calculations representing the ground singlet state and quintet state associated with methionine bond breaking and rebinding. An algorithm based on the Landau-Zener nonadiabatic transition theory has been employed to model the electronic surface hopping between two spin states during the process of ligand dissociation and recombination. Multiple conformational substates of the dissociated methionine ligand are found to participate in the reaction dynamics. Varying time scales for interconversion between substates lead to a mechanism elucidating the fast and slow rebinding time scales. The reaction system may be understood in terms of a two-dimensional reaction coordinate distinctly separated from the coupled bath of surrounding protein and solvent degrees of freedom. Insights into the reaction dynamics provided by this study lead to suggestions for future experiments to further probe the role of dynamic heterogeneity in the kinetics of ligand-protein binding. PMID:22432601

  4. Theoretical investigations of silver clusters and silver-ligand systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellinek, J.; Salian, U.; Srinivas, S.

    1999-05-19

    Studies directed at understanding structural and electronic properties of silver clusters have been and remain the subject of an active theoretical [1-22] and experimental [23- 38] effort. One of the reasons is the (still) important role these systems play in the photographic process. Investigations of interactions of silver clusters with different atoms and molecules are motivated primarily by a possible utility of these clusters in catalytic processes. The important role of silver in the selective oxidation of ethylene into ethylene oxide, the feedstock for polyester production, is well-known [39]. Possible variations in chemical reactivity with the cluster size and understanding of the mechanisms of interactions with different ligands may lead to new and more efficient applications. Investigations of cluster-ligand systems also contribute a great deal to a better understanding of gas-surface interactions. Accordingly, theoretical studies of silver clusters and cluster-ligand systems [40-44] fall into two categories--those that use clusters as models for silver surfaces [40], and those that target clusters and cluster-ligand interactions as subjects in their own right [41-44]. The common goal of all these studies is to elucidate the nature of the interatomic interactions and bonding at the microscopic level and thereby arrive at a fundamental understanding and description of the various structural and electronic properties.

  5. Structural analysis uncovers lipid-binding properties of Notch ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillakuri, Chandramouli R; Sheppard, Devon; Ilagan, Ma Xenia G; Holt, Laurie R; Abbott, Felicity; Liang, Shaoyan; Kopan, Raphael; Handford, Penny A; Lea, Susan M

    2013-11-27

    The Notch pathway is a core cell-cell signaling system in metazoan organisms with key roles in cell-fate determination, stem cell maintenance, immune system activation, and angiogenesis. Signals are initiated by extracellular interactions of the Notch receptor with Delta/Serrate/Lag-2 (DSL) ligands, whose structure is highly conserved throughout evolution. To date, no structure or activity has been associated with the extreme N termini of the ligands, even though numerous mutations in this region of Jagged-1 ligand lead to human disease. Here, we demonstrate that the N terminus of human Jagged-1 is a C2 phospholipid recognition domain that binds phospholipid bilayers in a calcium-dependent fashion. Furthermore, we show that this activity is shared by a member of the other class of Notch ligands, human Delta-like-1, and the evolutionary distant Drosophila Serrate. Targeted mutagenesis of Jagged-1 C2 domain residues implicated in calcium-dependent phospholipid binding leaves Notch interactions intact but can reduce Notch activation. These results reveal an important and previously unsuspected role for phospholipid recognition in control of this key signaling system. PMID:24239355

  6. Fluorescent ligands for studying neuropeptide receptors by confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beaudet

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of confocal microscopy as it pertains to the identification of G-protein coupled receptors and the study of their dynamic properties in cell cultures and in mammalian brain following their tagging with specific fluorescent ligands. Principles that should guide the choice of suitable ligands and fluorophores are discussed. Examples are provided from the work carried out in the authors' laboratory using custom synthetized fluoresceinylated or BODIPY-tagged bioactive peptides. The results show that confocal microscopic detection of specifically bound fluorescent ligands permits high resolution appraisal of neuropeptide receptor distribution both in cell culture and in brain sections. Within the framework of time course experiments, it also allows for a dynamic assessment of the internalization and subsequent intracellular trafficking of bound fluorescent molecules. Thus, it was found that neurotensin, somatostatin and mu- and delta-selective opioid peptides are internalized in a receptor-dependent fashion and according to receptor-specific patterns into their target cells. In the case of neurotensin, this internalization process was found to be clathrin-mediated, to proceed through classical endosomal pathways and, in neurons, to result in a mobilization of newly formed endosomes from neural processes to nerve cell bodies and from the periphery of cell bodies towards the perinuclear zone. These mechanisms are likely to play an important role for ligand inactivation, receptor regulation and perhaps also transmembrane signaling.

  7. Structural Analysis Uncovers Lipid-Binding Properties of Notch Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli R. Chillakuri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Notch pathway is a core cell-cell signaling system in metazoan organisms with key roles in cell-fate determination, stem cell maintenance, immune system activation, and angiogenesis. Signals are initiated by extracellular interactions of the Notch receptor with Delta/Serrate/Lag-2 (DSL ligands, whose structure is highly conserved throughout evolution. To date, no structure or activity has been associated with the extreme N termini of the ligands, even though numerous mutations in this region of Jagged-1 ligand lead to human disease. Here, we demonstrate that the N terminus of human Jagged-1 is a C2 phospholipid recognition domain that binds phospholipid bilayers in a calcium-dependent fashion. Furthermore, we show that this activity is shared by a member of the other class of Notch ligands, human Delta-like-1, and the evolutionary distant Drosophila Serrate. Targeted mutagenesis of Jagged-1 C2 domain residues implicated in calcium-dependent phospholipid binding leaves Notch interactions intact but can reduce Notch activation. These results reveal an important and previously unsuspected role for phospholipid recognition in control of this key signaling system.

  8. Ligand-receptor pairs in plant peptide signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2003-10-01

    Extensive studies on plant signaling molecules over the past decade indicate that plant cell-to-cell communication, as is the case with animal systems, makes use of small peptide signals and specific receptors. To date, four peptide-ligand-receptor pairs have been identified and shown to be involved in a variety of processes. Systemin and phytosulfokine (PSK), the first and second signaling peptides identified in plants, were isolated by biochemical purification based on their biological activities. Furthermore, their receptors have been biochemically purified from plasma membranes on the basis of specific ligand-receptor interactions. By contrast, the two other peptide signals, CLAVATA3 (CLV3) and the pollen S determinant SCR/SP11, were genetically identified during searches for specific ligands for receptors that had already been cloned. Systemin functions in the plant wound response, whereas PSK appears to cooperate with auxin and cytokinin to regulate cellular dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. CLV3 is important for meristem organization, binding to a heterodimeric receptor comprising the CLV1 and CLV2 proteins. SCR/SP11 instead plays a role in self-incompatibility, where it activates a signalling cascade that leads to rejection of pollen with the same S haplotype. These ligands all seem to bind to receptors that possess intrinsic kinase activity, and al least two of them are generated by proteolytic processing of larger precursor proteins. PMID:12953055

  9. Mixed-ligand scandium complexes with diantipyrylmethane and dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactions between scandium, some dyes (Chromazurol S, Bromopyrogallol Red, SFADNS) and diantipyrylmethane were studied. Optimal conditions and chemism of mixed-ligand complex formation were estimated. A method was developed for determination of scandium in perovskite with Bromopyrogallol Red. The value of relative standard deviation is not more 0.05

  10. Ligand substitution and interparticle interactions in solutions of fluoroborate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of behaviour of fluorocomplexes of p-elements in aqueous and nonaqueous media are considered using 7Li, 11B, 19F NMR spectroscopy. Possibilities of the method for decoding mechanisms of substitution reactions of ligands, interparticle interaction and lithium fluoride deintercalation from graphite masses are demonstrated

  11. Selective Electrocatalytic Activity of Ligand Stabilized Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, Douglas R; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Kail, Brian W; Matranga, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Ligand stabilization can influence the surface chemistry of Cu oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and provide unique product distributions for electrocatalytic methanol (MeOH) oxidation and CO{sub 2} reduction reactions. Oleic acid (OA) stabilized Cu{sub 2}O and CuO NPs promote the MeOH oxidation reaction with 88% and 99.97% selective HCOH formation, respectively. Alternatively, CO{sub 2} is the only reaction product detected for bulk Cu oxides and Cu oxide NPs with no ligands or weakly interacting ligands. We also demonstrate that OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs can reduce CO{sub 2} into CO with a {approx}1.7-fold increase in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to bulk Cu oxides. The OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs also show 7.6 and 9.1-fold increases in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to weakly stabilized and non-stabilized Cu oxide NPs, respectively. Our data illustrates that the presence and type of surface ligand can substantially influence the catalytic product selectivity of Cu oxide NPs.

  12. A muscarinic receptor ligand: Review to the chemistry and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioiodinated analog of 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) has been shown to bind to the mAChR by testing the saturability and the stereoselectivity in the corpus striatum, cerebellum, and the heart of rats. 3-Quinuclidinyl 4-iodobenzilate (4-IQNB) receptor binding can be inhibited by co-injection of small amounts of non-radioactive mAChR ligands as well as displaced by the same ligand after the 4-IQNB has bound to the receptor. Another important proof is obtained by using two stereomers of IQNB differing in the chirality of the quinuclidinyl carbon. The difference in distribution between the pharmacologically active form and the pharmacologically inactive form in those organs containing mAChR furnishes that proof. 4-IQNB was the first iodinated neuroreceptor-binding ligand to show high receptor to non-receptor binding in man. More importantly, 4-QNB has been recently validated as a ligand showing a high correlation between the radioactivity in the target organ and the receptor concentration

  13. Colloidal-quantum-dot photovoltaics using atomic-ligand passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiang; Kemp, Kyle W; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Jeong, Kwang S; Liu, Huan; Levina, Larissa; Furukawa, Melissa; Wang, Xihua; Debnath, Ratan; Cha, Dongkyu; Chou, Kang Wei; Fischer, Armin; Amassian, Aram; Asbury, John B; Sargent, Edward H

    2011-10-01

    Colloidal-quantum-dot (CQD) optoelectronics offer a compelling combination of solution processing and spectral tunability through quantum size effects. So far, CQD solar cells have relied on the use of organic ligands to passivate the surface of the semiconductor nanoparticles. Although inorganic metal chalcogenide ligands have led to record electronic transport parameters in CQD films, no photovoltaic device has been reported based on such compounds. Here we establish an atomic ligand strategy that makes use of monovalent halide anions to enhance electronic transport and successfully passivate surface defects in PbS CQD films. Both time-resolved infrared spectroscopy and transient device characterization indicate that the scheme leads to a shallower trap state distribution than the best organic ligands. Solar cells fabricated following this strategy show up to 6% solar AM1.5G power-conversion efficiency. The CQD films are deposited at room temperature and under ambient atmosphere, rendering the process amenable to low-cost, roll-by-roll fabrication. PMID:21927006

  14. microRNAs are ligands of Toll-like receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xi; Liang, Hongwei; ZHANG, JUNFENG; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this mini-review article, the authors discuss an unconventional regulatory mechanism mediated by miRNAs. They review the recent finding that a subset of miRNAs is transported from donor to recipient cells, where they function as ligands of Toll-like receptors.

  15. Fluorescent ligands for studying neuropeptide receptors by confocal microscopy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Beaudet; D., Nouel; T., Stroh; F., Vandenbulcke; C., Dal-Farra; J.-P., Vincent.

    1479-14-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of confocal microscopy as it pertains to the identification of G-protein coupled receptors and the study of their dynamic properties in cell cultures and in mammalian brain following their tagging with specific fluorescent ligands. Principles that should guide the choice o [...] f suitable ligands and fluorophores are discussed. Examples are provided from the work carried out in the authors' laboratory using custom synthetized fluoresceinylated or BODIPY-tagged bioactive peptides. The results show that confocal microscopic detection of specifically bound fluorescent ligands permits high resolution appraisal of neuropeptide receptor distribution both in cell culture and in brain sections. Within the framework of time course experiments, it also allows for a dynamic assessment of the internalization and subsequent intracellular trafficking of bound fluorescent molecules. Thus, it was found that neurotensin, somatostatin and mu- and delta-selective opioid peptides are internalized in a receptor-dependent fashion and according to receptor-specific patterns into their target cells. In the case of neurotensin, this internalization process was found to be clathrin-mediated, to proceed through classical endosomal pathways and, in neurons, to result in a mobilization of newly formed endosomes from neural processes to nerve cell bodies and from the periphery of cell bodies towards the perinuclear zone. These mechanisms are likely to play an important role for ligand inactivation, receptor regulation and perhaps also transmembrane signaling.

  16. Nickel Catalysis: Synergy between Method Development and Total Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Eric A; Tasker, Sarah Z; Jensen, Kim L; Jamison, Timothy F

    2015-05-19

    Nickel(0) catalysts have proven to be powerful tools for multicomponent coupling reactions in our laboratories over the past 15 years. This interest was originally sparked by the ubiquity of allylic alcohol motifs in natural products, such as (-)-terpestacin, which we envisioned assembling by the coupling of two ? components (alkyne and aldehyde) with concomitant reduction. Mechanistic investigations allowed us to elucidate several modes of controlling the regioselectivity and stereoselectivity in the oxidative cyclization, and these insights enabled us to leverage combinations of alkenes and phosphine ligands to direct regioselective outcomes. The initial success in developing the first intermolecular reductive alkyne-aldehyde coupling reaction launched a series of methodological investigations that rapidly expanded to include coupling reactions of alkynes with other electrophilic ? components, such as imines and ketones, as well as electrophilic ? components, such as epoxides. Aziridines proved to be more challenging substrates for reductive coupling, but we were recently able to demonstrate that cross-coupling of aziridines and alkylzinc reagents is smoothly catalyzed by a zero-valent nickel/phenanthroline system. Moreover, the enantioselective alkyne-aldehyde coupling and the development of novel P-chiral ferrocenyl ligands enabled the total synthesis of (-)-terpestacin, amphidinolides T1 and T4, (-)-gloeosporone, and pumiliotoxins 209F and 251D. We subsequently determined that alkenes could be used in place of alkynes in several nickel-catalyzed reactions when a silyl triflate activating agent was added. We reason that such an additive functions largely to enhance the electrophilicity of the metal center by coordination to the electrophilic ? component, such that less nucleophilic alkene ? donors can undergo productive combination with nickel complexes. This activation manifold was further demonstrated to be effective for alkene-aldehyde couplings. In a related manner, electrophilic promoters were also successfully employed for allylic substitution reactions of allylic carbonates with simple alkenes and in the Mizoroki-Heck reaction of both benzyl and aryl electrophiles. In these instances, it is proposed that counterion exchange from a more strongly coordinating anion to the weakly or noncoordinating triflate counterion enables reaction at an electrophilic Ni(II) center rather than by coordination to one of the coupling components. Mechanistic insights also played an important role in the development of mixed N-heterocyclic carbene/phosphite ligand systems to overcome challenges in regioselective alkene-aldehyde coupling reactions. We hope that, taken together, the body of work summarized in this Account demonstrates the constructive interplay among total synthesis, methodological development, and mechanistic investigation that has driven our research program. PMID:25905431

  17. Magnesium incorporation in calcite in the presence of organic ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatis, Vasileios; Baldermann, Andre; Purgstaller, Bettina; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The formation of authigenic Mg-calcites in marine early diagenetic environments is commonly driven by a bio-induced process, the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), which provides inorganic carbon required for the precipitation of such authigenic carbonates. In such settings the availability of major and/or trace divalent metal cations (Me2+) incorporated in calcite and their aqueous speciation are controlled by the presence of aqueous organic molecules that are produced either as (by-)products of biological activity (i.e. exopolymeric substances) or during degradation of allochthonous organic matter in the sediments. Despite the fact that the presence of aqueous organic ligands strongly affects the growth rates and the mineralogy of precipitating CaCO3 polymorphs, till now no study addresses the role of Me2+-ligand aqueous complexes on the extent of Mg and/or other trace element content of Mg-calcites. In order to shed light on this process, relevant to authigenic calcite formation in organic-rich marine sediments and continental soils, we precipitated calcite in the presence of aqueous Mg and a variety of low molecular weight carboxylic- and aminoacids. Our experimental data indicate that the presence of organic ligands augments significantly the saturation state of calcite in the parent fluid during its precipitation. Moreover, they suggest that the higher the ligand concentration, the higher the obtained distribution coefficient of Mg in calcite. The latter is directly proportional to the ratio of Mg2+/Ca2+ aqueous ions for all ligands used. Hydrogeochemical modelling of the aqueous fluids indicate that the observed correlation can be explained by the stronger complexation of Ca2+ with organic ligands compared to Mg2+, which results in higher availability of Mg2+ vs. Ca2+ aqueous ions. Overall the obtained results suggest that the higher the organic ligand aqueous concentration the higher the Mg content of calcite forming from this fluid. These findings are of great importance for the understanding of the mechanisms controlling impurities and trace element incorporation in carbonates forming in marine diagenetic and soil environments.

  18. A new method to estimate ligand-receptor energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Joel R; Gough, David A

    2002-11-01

    In the discovery of new drugs, lead identification and optimization have assumed critical importance given the number of drug targets generated from genetic, genomics, and proteomic technologies. High-throughput experimental screening assays have been complemented recently by "virtual screening" approaches to identify and filter potential ligands when the characteristics of a target receptor structure of interest are known. Virtual screening mandates a reliable procedure for automatic ranking of structurally distinct ligands in compound library databases. Computing a rank score requires the accurate prediction of binding affinities between these ligands and the target. Many current scoring strategies require information about the target three-dimensional structure. In this study, a new method to estimate the free binding energy between a ligand and receptor is proposed. We extend a central idea previously reported (Bock, J. R., and Gough, D. A. (2001) Predicting protein-protein interactions from primary structure. Bioinformatics 17, 455-460; Bock, J. R., and Gough, D. A. (2002) Whole-proteome interaction mining. Bioinformatics, in press) that uses simple descriptors to represent biomolecules as input examples to train a support vector machine (Smola, A. J., and Schölkopf, B. (1998) A Tutorial on Support Vector Regression, Neuro-COLT Technical Report NC-TR-98-030, Royal Holloway College, University of London, UK) and the application of the trained system to previously unseen pairs, estimating their propensity for interaction. Here we seek to learn the function that maps features of a receptor-ligand pair onto their equilibrium free binding energy. These features do not comprise any direct information about the three-dimensional structures of ligand or target. In cross-validation experiments, it is demonstrated that objective measurements of prediction error rate and rank-ordering statistics are competitive with those of several other investigations, most of which depend on three-dimensional structural data. The size of the sample (n = 2,671) indicates that this approach is robust and may have widespread applicability beyond restricted families of receptor types. It is concluded that newly sequenced proteins, or those for which three-dimensional crystal structures are not easily obtained, can be rapidly analyzed for their binding potential against a library of ligands using this methodology. PMID:12488466

  19. Construction and test of ligand decoy sets using MDock: CSAR benchmarks for binding mode prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Sheng-you; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    Two sets of ligand binding decoys have been constructed for the CSAR (Community Structure-Activity Resource) benchmark by using the MDock and DOCK programs for rigid-ligand and flexible-ligand docking, respectively. The decoys generated for each complex in the benchmark thoroughly cover the binding site and also contain a certain number of near-native binding modes. A few scoring functions have been evaluated using the ligand binding decoy sets for their abilities of predicting near-native bi...

  20. An NMR strategy for fragment-based ligand screening utilizing a paramagnetic lanthanide probe

    OpenAIRE

    Saio, Tomohide; Ogura, Kenji; Shimizu, Kazumi; Yokochi, Masashi; Burke, Terrence R.; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance-based ligand screening strategy utilizing a paramagnetic lanthanide probe is presented. By fixing a paramagnetic lanthanide ion to a target protein, a pseudo-contact shift (PCS) and a paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) can be observed for both the target protein and its bound ligand. Based on PRE and PCS information, the bound ligand is then screened from the compound library and the structure of the ligand–protein complex is determined. PRE is an isotrop...

  1. Covalent Coupling of Nanoparticles with Low-Density Functional Ligands to Surfaces via Click Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ina Rianasari; Jong, Michel P.; Jurriaan Huskens; Wiel, Wilfred G.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (“click” reaction) to couple gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with low densities of functional ligands. The ligand coverage on the citrate-stabilized Au NPs was adjusted by the ligand:Au surface atom ratio, while maintaining the colloidal stability of the Au NPs in aqueous solution. A procedure was developed to determine the driving forces governing the selectivity and reactivity of citrate-stabilized and ligand-fun...

  2. Use of differential scanning fluorimetry as a high-throughput assay to identify nuclear receptor ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Desantis, Kara; Reed, Aaron; Rahhal, Raneen; Reinking, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Identification of ligands that interact with nuclear receptors is both a major biological problem and an important initial step in drug discovery. Several in vitro and in vivo techniques are commonly used to screen ligand candidates against nuclear receptors; however, none of the current assays allow screening without modification of either the protein and/or the ligand in a high-throughput fashion. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) allows unmodified potential ligands to be screened as ...

  3. Cu(I) catalysed cyclopropanation with enantiopure scorpionate type ligands derived from (+)-camphor or (-)-menthone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godau, Tom; Bleifuss, Sascha M; Müller, Astrid L; Roth, Thomas; Hoffmann, Susanne; Heinemann, Frank W; Burzlaff, Nicolai

    2011-06-28

    One-pot syntheses of three new enantiopure heteroscorpionate ligands derived from (+)-camphor or (-)-menthone are described. The ligands are obtained by reacting pyrazoles derived from (+)-camphor or (-)-menthone with sodium hydride and thionyl chloride. Subsequent reactions with pyridine and various aldehydes afford the tripod ligands in multi-gram amounts. Especially the menthopyrazole based ligand 6 showed encouraging ee values up to 69% in the Cu(I) catalysed enantioselective cyclopropanation of styrene with ethyl diazoacetate. PMID:21584295

  4. Heterobifunctional crosslinkers for tethering single ligand molecules to scanning probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single molecule recognition force microscopy (SMRFM) is a versatile atomic force microscopy (AFM) method to probe specific interactions of cognitive molecules on the single molecule level. It allows insights to be gained into interaction potentials and kinetic barriers and is capable of mapping interaction sites with nm positional accuracy. These applications require a ligand to be attached to the AFM tip, preferably by a distensible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain between the measuring tip and the ligand molecule. The PEG chain greatly facilitates specific binding of the ligand to immobile receptor sites on the sample surface. The present study contributes to tip-PEG-ligand tethering in three ways: (i) a convenient synthetic route was found to prepare NH2-PEG-COOH which is the key intermediate for long heterobifunctional crosslinkers; (ii) a variety of heterobifunctional PEG derivatives for tip-PEG-ligand linking were prepared from NH2-PEG-COOH; (iii) in particular, a new PEG crosslinker with one thiol-reactive end and one terminal nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) group was synthesized and successfully used to tether His6-tagged protein molecules to AFM tips via noncovalent NTA-Ni2+-His6 bridges. The new crosslinker was applied to link a recombinant His6-tagged fragment of the very-low density lipoprotein receptor to the AFM tip whereupon specific docking to the capsid of human rhinovirus particles was obapsid of human rhinovirus particles was observed by force microscopy. In a parallel study, the specific interaction of the small GTPase Ran with the nuclear import receptor importin ?1 was studied in detail by SMRFM, using the new crosslinker to link His6-tagged Ran to the measuring tip [Nat. Struct. Biol. (2003), 10, 553-557

  5. Amino acids as chiral anionic ligands for ruthenium based asymmetric olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivry, Elisa; Ben-Asuly, Amos; Goldberg, Israel; Lemcoff, N Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    Several amino acid ligands were introduced into the Hoveyda-Grubbs 2nd generation complex by a facile anionic ligand exchange. The chiral pre-catalysts obtained displayed enantioselectivity in asymmetric ring-closing and ring-opening cross-metathesis reactions. Reduction of the lability of the carboxylate ligands was found to be cardinal for improving the observed enantiomeric product enrichment. PMID:25656548

  6. Synthesis of novel '4+1' Tc(III)/Re(III) mixed-ligand complexes with dendritically modified ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordination chemistry of technetium and rhenium attracts a considerable interest due to the nuclear medicine applications of their radionuclides. Inert, so-called '3+1' or '4+1' technetium/rhenium mixed-ligand complexes open a new way to application of 99mTc/188Re labeled compounds in tumor diagnosis and therapy. In the presented paper, authors describe the synthesis and study of novel 99mTc/188Re complexes with dendritically functionalized tetradentate (tripodal chelator 2,2',2''-nitrilotris(ethanethiol), NS3 and carboxyl group-bearing ligand, NS3(COOH)3) and monodentate (dendritically modified isocyanide, CN-R(COOMe)3 and isocyanide-modified peptide, CN-GGY) ligands. To verify the identity of the prepared n.c.a. complexes, non-radioactive analogous '4+1' Re compounds were synthesized. The experimental data show that a dendritic modification of the tetradentate/monodentate ligands changes the complex lipophilicity and does not influence its stability

  7. A series of cobalt and nickel clusters based on thiol-containing ligands accompanied by in situ ligand formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-De; Miao, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Sui-Jun; Bu, Xian-He

    2015-01-14

    Eight cobalt and nickel clusters with the formulae [Co4(?4-O)(MBT)5(?2-Piv)] (1), [Ni3(MBT)2(L1)2(OCH3)2] (2), [Ni4(?3-S)(?3-S2)(MBT)2(L2)] (3), [Ni4(L3)4] (4), [Ni6(?4-S)3(MBT)6]·(C2H5OH)2 (5), H[Co4(?4-O)(HMBI)6]·(NO3)(TEA)0.5(CH3OH)2(H2O) (6), [Ni2(HMBI)4]·(CH3OH)2 (7), and [Ni5(MBI)2(HMBI)4(OCH3)2]·(CH3OH)3(H2O)2 (8) (HPiv = pivalic acid, HL1 = 2-disulfanylbenzo[d]thiazole, H2L2 = (Z)-2-((2-mercaptophenyl)imino)benzo[d]thiazole-3(2H)-thiol, H2L3 = (Z)-2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylideneamino)benzenethiol, TEA = triethylamine) have been solvothermally prepared via assembling distinct metal resource and thiol-containing ligands 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (HMBT)/2-mercaptobenzimidazole (H2MBI). Complexes 1 and 6 are tetrahedral cobalt clusters. Complex 2 features linear arrangement of nickel ions. Complexes 3 and 4 are tetranuclear nickel clusters with the butterfly and square shape, respectively. Complex 5 displays a trigonal prism geometry. Complexes 7 and 8 exhibit paddle-wheel and trigonal bipyramidal geometry, respectively. The starting ligand HMBT undergoes in situ ligand transformation in the formation of the nickel clusters, and the new generated inorganic ligands (S(2-) and S2(2-)) and organic ligands (HL1, H2L2 and H2L3) were captured within the metallic cores. Magnetic studies indicate that complexes 1 and 6 show dominating antiferromagnetic couplings and that spin frustration exists in 6. PMID:25376980

  8. Biotic ligand model does not predict the bioavailability of rare Earth elements in the presence of organic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Mei; Wilkinson, Kevin J

    2015-02-17

    Due to their distinct physicochemical properties, rare earth elements (REEs) are critical to high-tech and clean-energy industries; however, their bioavailability is still largely unexplored. In this paper, the bioavailability of several REEs has been carefully examined for the freshwater alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In the presence of organic ligands (L), the biouptake of REEs was much higher than that predicted by the biotic ligand model (BLM). Enhancement of the biouptake flux was observed for six ligands (metal = thulium) and six REEs (ligand = citric acid), indicating that this could be a common feature for these metals. In order to explore the mechanism for the enhanced uptake, Tm internalization was carefully evaluated. The Tm internalization flux (Jint) followed first-order (Michaelis-Menten) kinetics with a calculated maximum internalization flux (Jmax) of (1.1 ± 0.08) × 10(-14) mol · cm(-2) · s(-1) and an affinity constant for the reaction of the metal with the transport sites (KTm-R) of 10(7.1) M(-1). In the presence of citric acid, malic acid, or NTA, the Jint for Tm was more than 1 order of magnitude higher than that predicted by the BLM when algae were exposed to a constant 10(-9) M Tm(3+). The bioavailability of the metal complexes could not be explained by a piggyback internalization (through an anion channel) or the contribution of labile complexes. The enhanced biouptake was attributed to the formation of a ternary Tm complex {L-Tm-R} at the metal transport site. In the natural environment where organic ligands are ubiquitous, classic models are unlikely to predict the bioavailability of REEs to aquatic organisms. PMID:25611881

  9. Asymmetric ligand binding facilitates conformational transitions in pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrey, David; Cheng, Mary Hongying; Liu, Lu Tian; Willenbring, Dan; Lu, Xinghua; Wymore, Troy; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei

    2013-02-13

    The anesthetic propofol inhibits the currents of the homopentameric ligand-gated ion channel GLIC, yet the crystal structure of GLIC with five propofol molecules bound symmetrically shows an open-channel conformation. To address this dilemma and determine if the symmetry of propofol binding sites affects the channel conformational transition, we performed a total of 1.5 ?s of molecular dynamics simulations for different GLIC systems with propofol occupancies of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5. GLIC without propofol binding or with five propofol molecules bound symmetrically, showed similar channel conformation and hydration status over multiple replicates of 100-ns simulations. In contrast, asymmetric binding to one, two or three equivalent sites in different subunits accelerated the channel dehydration, increased the conformational heterogeneity of the pore-lining TM2 helices, and shifted the lateral and radial tilting angles of TM2 toward a closed-channel conformation. The results differentiate two groups of systems based on the propofol binding symmetry. The difference between symmetric and asymmetric groups is correlated with the variance in the propofol-binding cavity adjacent to the hydrophobic gate and the force imposed by the bound propofol. Asymmetrically bound propofol produced greater variance in the cavity size that could further elevate the conformation heterogeneity. The force trajectory generated by propofol in each subunit over the course of a simulation exhibits an ellipsoidal shape, which has the larger component tangential to the pore. Asymmetric propofol binding creates an unbalanced force that expedites the channel conformation transitions. The findings from this study not only suggest that asymmetric binding underlies the propofol functional inhibition of GLIC, but also advocate for the role of symmetry breaking in facilitating channel conformational transitions. PMID:23339564

  10. Ligand sensitized fluorescence of Eu3+ in dimethyl sulphoxide using TTA as a ligand: an application of europium determination in U matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligand sensitized fluorescence of Eu3+ using thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) as a sensitizing ligand is studied in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) medium. TTA ligand enhances the fluorescence of Eu3+ by a factor of 40000 in DMSO. The quenching of Eu3+-TTA fluorescence by uranium is found to be less in DMSO solvent which leads the trace determination of europium in uranium matrix without any matrix removal. (author)

  11. Modification on Synthesis of Mixed Ligand Chelates by Using Di- and Trivalent Transition Metal Ions with Schiff Base as Primary Ligand

    OpenAIRE

    Abdussalam Ali Maihub; Faten Suliman Alassbaly; Marei Mailoud El-Ajaily; Abdunnaser Mohamed Etorki

    2014-01-01

    New mixed ligand chelates synthesized from di-and trivalent metal ions (Cr, Co, Ni, and Cu ions) and Schiff base (L1) resulted from the condensation of 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde with 2-aminophenol as primary ligand, whereas 2-nitroaniline (L2) represents the secondary ligand in a molar ratio of M:L1:L2 [1:1:1]. The synthesized Schiff base and chelates have been characterized by using several tools, such as, elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic moment measurements, infrared ...

  12. Novel bispidine ligands with a possible application in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to our current way of life and the environmental influences we are exposed in the industrial nations, cancer diseases turn out to be a more and more serious threat to our civilization. The ongoing research during the last decades leads to a better insight in cancer diseases and enables an earlier recognition of developing carcinoma. The detection of pathological tissue changes at an early stage increases the patients' chances of cure. Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) and computed tomography (CT) as well as radiopharmaceutically assisted imaging techniques, like positron emission tomography (PET) and scintigraphy are an indispensable clinical tool in the oncological early diagnosis. By the development of multimodality imaging agents that combine the benefits of several imaging techniques, the early recognition of tumors can be more efficient and in consequence a matching therapy can be applied. This thesis deals with the synthesis of novel bispidine based ligands and their transition metal complexes as potential mono- and bimodal imaging agents for a 64Cu-assisted radiopharmaceutical application in positron emission tomography (PET) and optical imaging (OI). The synthesized ligands L and LOH are offering the opportunity to build up a ruthenium(II) polypyridine complex by one of the ligand's donor sets, to act as a fluorescence dye for optical imaging (OI), and to coordinate 64CuII by the ligand's vacant cavity for positron emission tomography (PET). The RuII complex exhibits two different fluorescence activities with two different lifetimes and only one of the two fluorescences is quenched by subsequent complexation of CuII. The calculated CuII stability constant of L and LOH is similar to that of the isomeric ligand N2py2 which has been already evaluated as a 64Cu-radiotracer. Further transition metal complexes of FeII, FeIII and MnII are dealing with interesting structural properties like pentagonal bipyramidal geometries. For the development of stable and uncharged 64CuII complex for positron emission tomography, three cyclic bispidine ligands containing amide donors were synthesized. These bispidine dioxo tetraaza macrocycles represent a new class of highly preorganized cyclic bispidine ligands by fusing the rigid bispidine backbone with the motif of a macrocyclic diamide. Due to the deprotonatable amides, they form stable, uncharged square-planar respectively square-pyramidal CuII complexes and show also the stabilization of copper in the oxidation state +III. In evaluation experiments of the bispidine dioxo tetraaza macrocycles for a radiopharmaceutical application as 64Cu tracer for positron emission tomography, these ligands are showing an efficient radiolabeling with 64Cu >95% on benefiting timescale (60 min, tops) and a distinct specific activity up to 26 GBq/µmol. In particular the ligand H2BBDT features a high stability versus EDTA and in human blood plasma. In radio challenge experiments, merely 8% of transchelation was detected against a 20fold excess of EDTA and nearly no decomplexation in human blood plasma after 48 h. Biodistribution studies in Kyoto-Wistar rats are showing a rapid and nearly complete clearance from blood and normal tissue after 60 min pi (post injection). The CuII complex of the methyl propionate functionalized macrocycle H2BBDTA-Me offers the opportunity to couple its saponificated methyl propionate linker to biovectors, nanoparticles or fluorescence labels.

  13. A Structural Switch between Agonist and Antagonist Bound Conformations for a Ligand-Optimized Model of the Human Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligand Binding Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arden Perkins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates the expression of a diverse group of genes. Exogenous AHR ligands include the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, which is a potent agonist, and the synthetic AHR antagonist N-2-(1H-indol-3ylethyl-9-isopropyl-2- (5-methylpyridin-3-yl-9H-purin-6-amine (GNF351. As no experimentally determined structure of the ligand binding domain exists, homology models have been utilized for virtual ligand screening (VLS to search for novel ligands. Here, we have developed an “agonist-optimized” homology model of the human AHR ligand binding domain, and this model aided in the discovery of two human AHR agonists by VLS. In addition, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of an agonist TCDD-bound and antagonist GNF351-bound version of this model in order to gain insights into the mechanics of the AHR ligand-binding pocket. These simulations identified residues 307–329 as a flexible segment of the AHR ligand pocket that adopts discrete conformations upon agonist or antagonist binding. This flexible segment of the AHR may act as a structural switch that determines the agonist or antagonist activity of a given AHR ligand.

  14. High-affinity benzodiazepine receptor ligands among benzodiazepines and betacarbolines with different intrinsic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yliniemelae, A.; Gynther, J. (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland)); Konschin, H.; Tylli, H. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Rouvinen, J. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland))

    1989-01-01

    Structural and electrostatic features of diazepam, flumazenil, and methyl betacarboline-3-carboxylate (BCCM) have been investigated using the molecular superimposition method. These high-affinity benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor ligands are structurally unrelated and they have different intrinsic activity. These ligands are superimposed in such a way that common structural and electrostatic features essential for the high receptor binding affinity overlap. In addition to this binding pharmacophore, there are roughly three separate binding zones in the BZ receptor, one for each class of ligands. The intrinsic activity of BZ receptor ligands depends on the molecular structures and the way the ligand approaches the receptor.

  15. 2 : 2 Fe(III): ligand and "adamantane core" 4 : 2 Fe(III): ligand (hydr)oxo complexes of an acyclic ditopic ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiladi, Morten; Larsen, Frank B.

    2005-01-01

    A bis-hydroxo-bridged diiron(III) complex and a bis-mu-oxo-bis-mu-hydroxo-bridged tetrairon( III) complex are isolated from the reaction of 2,6-bis((N, N'-bis-(2-picolyl) amino) methyl)-4-tert-butylphenol (Hbpbp) with iron perchlorate in acidic and neutral solutions respectively. The X-ray structure of the dinuclear complex [{( Hbpbp) Fe(mu-OH)}(2)](ClO4)(4) center dot 2C(3)H(6)O ( 1 center dot 2C(3)H(6)O) shows that only one of the metal-binding cavities of each ligand is occupied by an iron( III) atom and two [Fe(Hbpbp)](3+) units are linked together by two hydroxo bridging groups to form a [ Fe(III) -(mu-OH)](2) rhomb structure with Fe center dot center dot center dot Fe = 3.109(1) angstrom. The non-coordinated tertiary amine of Hbpbp is protonated. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show a well-behaved weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the two Fe( III) atoms, J =- 8 cm(-1). The tetranuclear complex [(bpbp)(2)Fe-4(mu-O)(2)(mu-OH)(2)](ClO4)(4) (2) was isolated as two different solvates 2 center dot 4CH(3)OH and 2 center dot 6H(2)O with markedly different crystal morphologies at pH ca. 6. Complex 2 center dot 4CH(3)OH forms red cubic crystals and 2 center dot 6H(2)O forms green crystalline platelets. The Fe4O6 core of 2 shows an adamantane-like structure: The six bridging oxygen atoms are provided by the two phenolato groups of the two bpbp(-) ligands, two bridging oxo groups and two bridging hydroxo groups. The hydroxo and oxo ligands could be distinguished on the basis of Fe - O bond lengths of the two different octahedral iron sites: Fe -mu-OH, 1.953( 5), 2.013( 5) angstrom and Fe-mu-O, 1.803( 5), 1.802( 5) angstrom. The difference in ligand environment is too small for allowing Mossbauer spectroscopy to distinguish between the two crystallographically independent Fe sites. The best fit to the magnetic susceptibility of 2 center dot 4CH(3)OH was achieved by using three coupling constants J((Fe - OPh - Fe)) = 2.6 cm(-1), J((Fe - OH - Fe)) =- 0.9 cm(-1), J((Fe - O - Fe)) =- 101 cm(-1) and iron( III) single ion ZFS (| D| = 0.15 cm(-1)).

  16. The connection between metal ion affinity and ligand affinity in integrin I domains.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup-Jensen, Thomas; Waldron, TT

    2007-01-01

    Integrins are cell-surface heterodimeric proteins that mediate cell-cell, cell-matrix, and cell-pathogen interactions. Half of the known integrin alpha subunits contain inserted domains (I domains) that coordinate ligand through a metal ion. Although the importance of conformational changes within isolated I domains in regulating ligand binding has been reported, the relationship between metal ion binding affinity and ligand binding affinity has not been elucidated. Metal and ligand binding by several I domain mutants that are stabilized in different conformations are investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance studies. This work suggests an inverse relationship between metal ion affinity and ligand binding affinity (i.e. constructs with a high affinity for ligand exhibit a low affinity for metal). This trend is discussed in the context of structural studies to provide an understanding of interplay between metal ion binding and ligand affinities and conformational changes.

  17. 125I-LSD: a high sensitivity ligand for serotonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-labeled receptor ligands offer unique advantages over their 3H-labeled counterparts. Carrier-free 125I-labeled ligands can be synthesized with specific activities of up to 2170 Ci/mmol while (mono) tritium labeled ligands are limited to 29 Ci/mmol. Therefore, 125I-labeled ligands can be approximately 70-fold more sensitive than 3H-labeled ligands in detecting receptor sites. In addition, 125I-labeled ligands emit relatively energetic X-rays and ?-rays which are readily detected by gamma counting equipment. The authors report here the serotonergic binding properties of 125I-LSD the first reported 125I-labeled ligand for serotonin receptors. (Auth.)

  18. [Structure and electronic properties of heme complexes with various ligands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, T A; Kuzubov, A A; Krasnov, P O; Avramov, P V

    2003-01-01

    The electronic and atomic structures, and the molecular dynamics of the atomic structure at 310 K of a set of heme complexes with His and Gly amino acids in the 5th coordination position and some ligands (O2, NO) in the 6th position were studied by ab initio (3-21G basis set) and semiempirical (PM3) quantum chemistry methods and the method of molecular dynamics. It was shown that the type of coordination of the imidazole ring influences the constant of chemical bonding of molecular oxygen of the complexes. On the other hand, NO and O2 molecules have different transinfluence on the ligand in the 5th coordination position. It was shown that temperature affects profoundly the atomic and electronic structures of the complexes, the tightness of chemical bonding and their reactivity. PMID:14515479

  19. Assessment of ligand extraction properties: an intercomparison campaign amongst EUROPARTners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intercomparison campaign was organized at the beginning of the European FP6 EUROPART Integrated Project, among the partners involved in the assessment of the extracting properties of novel ligands, in order to check their accuracy and reliability when determining metal cation distribution ratios. Three different extracting systems, presenting various selectivity and affinity towards trivalent actinides were selected: (i) CMPO, (ii) TPTZ and (iii) BTP. Although some differences could be pointed out in the implementation of liquid-liquid extraction tests, the distribution ratios measured by the nine partners were fairly reproducible (< 20% deviation) for the first two extracting systems. However, large discrepancies occurred when testing the third extracting system, due to its strong hydrolytic instability, thus pointing out the difficulty of assessing extraction properties of instable ligands. (orig.)

  20. Heat capacity changes in heme protein-ligand interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has been used to determine thermodynamics of heme protein-ligand interactions with special emphasis of obtaining heat capacity changes (?Cp-values) for the reactions. Cyanide and azide have a relative high affinity to metmyoglobin with ?Cp-values of -175 ± 41 J/K mol and -197 ± 42 J/K mol, respectively, while imidazole to metmyoglobin, and azide and imidazole to cytochrome c are low affinity systems with ?Cp-values of 67 ± 4 J/K mol, 17 ± 4 J/K mol, and 0 ± 8 J/K mol, respectively. The small ?Cp-values correlate well with there being minor changes is apolar solvent accessible surface areas (ASAapolar). Also, the determination of ?Cp-values allowed for the parameterization of the reaction entropy changes (?Sr). Conformational entropy changes (?Sconf) were large, and hence, found to be in accordance previous studies describing changes in the heme protein structures upon ligand binding

  1. XAFS studies on copper(I) complexes containing scorpionate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to probe the local structure of copper(I) complexes containing scorpionate ligands. The EXAFS analysis, performed by using the GNXAS package, has permitted the identification of the local environment of the copper site. Copper is found to be 4-fold coordinated with two sets of Cu-N and Cu-P interactions describing a quasi planar figure, in the case of {Cu[(C6H5)2PCH2CH2P(C6H5)2][H2B(tzNO2)2]}. An additional coordination is revealed for the copper complex of bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)acetate due to the interaction of the copper with the acetate of the scorpionate ligand. XANES spectra behaviour confirms the occurrence of copper in the +1 oxidation state.

  2. Inside job: ligand-receptor pharmacology beneath the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Joseph J; Li, Min

    2013-07-01

    Most drugs acting on the cell surface receptors are membrane permeable and thus able to engage their target proteins in different subcellular compartments. However, these drugs' effects on cell surface receptors have historically been studied on the plasma membrane alone. Increasing evidence suggests that small molecules may also modulate their targeted receptors through membrane trafficking or organelle-localized signaling inside the cell. These additional modes of interaction have been reported for functionally diverse ligands of GPCRs, ion channels, and transporters. Such intracellular drug-target engagements affect cell surface expression. Concurrent intracellular and cell surface signaling may also increase the complexity and therapeutic opportunities of small molecule modulation. Here we discuss examples of ligand-receptor interactions that are present in both intra- and extracellular sites, and the potential therapeutic opportunities presented by this phenomenon. PMID:23685953

  3. The cholinergic ligand binding material of axonal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase, the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and hydrolysis of ACh, are present in nerve fibers. In crustacean peripheral nerves, release of ACh from cut nerve fibers has been demonstrated. Previously closed membrane vesicles have been prepared from lobster walking leg nerve plasma membrane and saturable binding of cholinergic agonsist and antagonists to such membranes have been demonstrated. This paper studies this axonal cholinergic binding material, and elucidates its functions. The binding of tritium-nicotine to lobster nerve plasma membranes was antagonized by a series of cholinergic ligands as well as by a series of local anesthetics. This preparation was capable of binding I 125-alpha-bungarotoxin, a ligand widely believed to be a specific label for nicotinic ACh receptor. The labelling of 50 K petide band with tritium-MBTA following disulfide reduction is illustrated

  4. MULTIDENTATE TEREPHTHALAMIDATE AND HYDROXYPYRIDONATE LIGANDS: TOWARDS NEW ORALLY ACTIVE CHELATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abergel, Rebecca J.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2011-07-13

    The limitations of current therapies for the treatment of iron overload or radioisotope contamination have stimulated efforts to develop new orally bioavailable iron and actinide chelators. Siderophore-inspired tetradentate, hexadentate and octadentate terephthalamidate and hydroxypyridonate ligands were evaluated in vivo as selective and efficacious iron or actinide chelating agents, with several metal loading and ligand assessment procedures, using {sup 59}Fe, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 241}Am as radioactive tracers. The compounds presented in this study were compared to commercially available therapeutic sequestering agents [deferoxamine (DFO) for iron and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DPTA) for actinides] and are unrivaled in terms of affinity, selectivity and decorporation efficacy, which attests to the fact that high metal affinity may overcome the low bioavailability properties commonly associated to multidenticity.

  5. Surface deformation and shear flow in ligand mediated cell adhesion

    CERN Document Server

    Sircar, Sarthok

    2015-01-01

    We present a single, unified, multi-scale model to study the attachment\\detachment dynamics of two deforming, near spherical cells, coated with binding ligands and subject to a slow, homogeneous shear flow in a viscous fluid medium. The binding ligands on the surface of the cells experience attractive and repulsive forces in an ionic medium and exhibit finite resistance to rotation via bond tilting. The macroscale drag forces and couples describing the fluid flow inside the small separation gap between the cells, are calculated using a combination of methods in lubrication theory and previously published numerical results. For a select range of material and fluid parameters, a hysteretic transition of the sticking probability curves between the adhesion and fragmentation domain is attributed to a nonlinear relation between the total microscale binding forces and the separation gap between the cells. We show that adhesion is favored in highly ionic fluids, increased deformability of the cells, elastic binders ...

  6. Mesoporous organosilica nanotubes containing a chelating ligand in their walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiao; Goto, Yasutomo; Maegawa, Yoshifumi; Inagaki, Shinji, E-mail: inagaki@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)/ACT-C, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1192 (Japan); Ohsuna, Tetsu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    We report the synthesis of organosilica nanotubes containing 2,2?-bipyridine chelating ligands within their walls, employing a single-micelle-templating method. These nanotubes have an average pore diameter of 7.8 nm and lengths of several hundred nanometers. UV-vis absorption spectra and scanning transmission electron microscopy observations of immobilized nanotubes with an iridium complex on the bipyridine ligands showed that the 2,2?-bipyridine groups were homogeneously distributed in the benzene-silica walls. The iridium complex, thus, immobilized on the nanotubes exhibited efficient catalytic activity for water oxidation using Ce{sup 4+}, due to the ready access of reactants to the active sites in the nanotubes.

  7. Silver, Gold, Palladium Nanoparticles: Ligand Design, Synthesis and Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad

    Metal nanoparticles, especially gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), have been extensively studied due to their interesting optical properties and potential applications in emerging technologies like drug delivery, cancer therapy, catalysis, chemical and bio-sensing and microelectronics devices. Alkyl thiol ligands in the form of self assembled monolayers are often used to stabilize and functionalize the gold nanoparticles while other types of ligands have been rarely employed and the properties of AuNPs protected by different types of ligands have not been studied comprehensively and comparatively. This dissertation reports the first comparative studies on the thermal and chemical stability of AuNPs protected by alkyl thiolates, alkyl selenolates, dialkyl dithiophosphinates, and dialkyl dithiophosphates (Chapters 2 and 3). AuNPs protected by dialkyl dithiophosphinates and dialkyl dithiophosphates are unprecedented. All AuNPs were prepared from amine protected precursor AuNPs by ligand exchange to ensure similar size, size distribution, and chemical composition. They were extensively characterized by solution 1H-NMR and UV-VIS spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. For the first time, thermal stability was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) that provided more accurate decomposition temperatures and enthalpies, whereas chemical stability was tested as the availability of the gold surface towards etching with cyanide in different solvents. Surprisingly, alkyl selenolate protected AuNPs are thermally less stable than alkyl thiolate protected AuNPs despite their proposed stronger binding to the gold surface and a much more crystalline monolayer, which suggests that different decomposition mechanisms apply to alkyl thiolate and alkyl selenolate protected AuNPs. Dialkyl dithiophosphinates and dialkyl dithiophosphates protected AuNPs are thermally least stable, although dialkyl dithiophosphates bind as bi-dentate ligands and are most stable towards cyanide etching. In contrast, dialkyl dithiophosphinates show mixed mono- and bi-dentate binding that generates loosely packed monolayers of low degree of crystallinity. Another part of this thesis (Chapter 4 and 5) employs AuNPs and silver particles as fillers to improve the electrical and thermal conductivities of polyurethane composites. High anisotropic electrical conductivity of thin composite films are obtained after curing at unprecedentedly low gold contents, which is reasoned with the coagulation of AuNPs to conductive gold networks in domains of high concentration of AuNPs. Silver particles and flakes of sizes between 20 nm and 1.5 micron were dispersed in polyurethane to investigate the effect of their size, morphology, aggregation, and dispersion on the thermal conductivity of the composites. Unexpectedly, composites filled with micron sized silver particles outperformed those filled with silver nanoparticles in thermal conductivity and stability. Finally, PdNPs were synthesized in the presence of thiolate ligands of different conical bulk (single phase surfactant free approach) to study the influence of the different ligands on their size (Chapter 6). No systematic effect was observed in contrast to a similar study on AuNPs, which is reasoned with a weaker binding of ligands to the Pd surface.

  8. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry for Measuring Macromolecule-Ligand Affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Duff, Jr; Grubbs, Jordan; Howell, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a useful tool for understanding the complete thermodynamic picture of a binding reaction. In biological sciences, macromolecular interactions are essential in understanding the machinery of the cell. Experimental conditions, such as buffer and temperature, can be tailored to the particular binding system being studied. However, careful planning is needed since certain ligand and macromolecule concentration ranges are necessary to obtain useful data...

  9. Theoretical implication of liganding reactions in axonal sodium channel gating

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogi, Peter L.; Neumann, Eberhard

    1980-01-01

    Mathematical simulation models for measured permeability properties of axonal Na+ channels point to the presence of bimolecular, as well as net-membrane-field-dependent intramolecular, reaction steps in channel gating reactions. An abstract chemical reaction model is presented, which postulates ligand binding reactions in both Na+ channel activation and subsequent desensitization as observed in voltage-clamp experiments. Membrane capacitance currents due to the movement of charged or dipolar ...

  10. Scintillation proximity radioimmunoassay utilizing 125I-labeled ligands.

    OpenAIRE

    Udenfriend, S.; Gerber, L D; Brink, L.; Spector, S.

    1985-01-01

    A unique type of radioimmunoassay is described that does not require centrifugation or separation. Microbeads containing a fluorophor are covalently linked to antibody. When an 125I-labeled antigen is added it binds to the beads and, by its proximity, the emitted short-range electrons of the 125I excite the fluorophor in the beads. The light emitted can be measured in a standard scintillation counter. Addition of unlabeled antigen from tissue extracts displaces the labeled ligand and diminish...

  11. A streptavidin mutant with altered ligand-binding specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Reznik, Gabriel O.; Vajda, Sandor; Sano, Takeshi; Cantor, Charles R

    1998-01-01

    The biotin-binding site of streptavidin was modified to alter its ligand-binding specificity. In natural streptavidin, the side chains of N23 and S27 make two of the three hydrogen bonds with the ureido oxygen of biotin. These two residues were mutated to severely weaken biotin binding while attempting to maintain the affinity for two biotin analogs, 2-iminobiotin and diaminobiotin. Redesigning of the biotin-binding site used the difference in local electrostatic charge distribution between b...

  12. Structural and Functional Profiling of Environmental Ligands for Estrogen Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfosse, Vanessa; Grimaldi, Marina; Cavaillès, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Individuals are exposed daily to environmental pollutants that may act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), causing a range of developmental, reproductive, metabolic, or neoplastic diseases. With their mostly hydrophobic pocket that serves as a docking site for endogenous and exogenous ligands, nuclear receptors (NRs) can be primary targets of small molecule environmental contaminants. However, most of these compounds are chemically unrelated to natural hormones, so their binding modes and associated hormonal activities are hardly predictable. Objectives: We conducted a correlative analysis of structural and functional data to gain insight into the mechanisms by which 12 members of representative families of pollutants bind to and activate the estrogen receptors ER? and ER?. Methods: We used a battery of biochemical, structural, biophysical, and cell-based approaches to characterize the interaction between ERs and their environmental ligands. Results: Our study revealed that the chemically diverse compounds bound to ERs via varied sets of protein–ligand interactions, reflecting their differential activities, binding affinities, and specificities. We observed xenoestrogens binding to both ERs—with affinities ranging from subnanomolar to micromolar values—and acting in a subtype-dependent fashion as full agonists or partial agonists/antagonists by using different combinations of the activation functions 1 and 2 of ER? and ER?. Conclusions: The precise characterization of the interactions between major environmental pollutants and two of their primary biological targets provides rational guidelines for the design of safer chemicals, and will increase the accuracy and usefulness of structure-based computational methods, allowing for activity prediction of chemicals in risk assessment. Citation: Delfosse V, Grimaldi M, Cavaillès V, Balaguer P, Bourguet W. 2014. Structural and functional profiling of environmental ligands for estrogen receptors. Environ Health Perspect 122:1306–1313;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408453 PMID:25260197

  13. Syntheses of novel high affinity ligands for opioid receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Wentland, Mark P; Lou, Rongliang; LU, QUN; Bu, Yigong; Denhardt, Christoph; Jin, Jin; Ganorkar, Rakesh; VanAlstine, Melissa A.; Guo, Chengyun; Cohen, Dana J.; Bidlack, Jean M.

    2009-01-01

    A series of novel high affinity opioid receptor ligands have been made whereby the phenolic-OH group of nalbuphine, naltrexone methiodide, 6-desoxonaltrexone, hydromorphone and naltrindole was replaced by a carboxamido group and the furan ring was opened to the corresponding 4-OH derivatives. These furan ring “open” derivatives display very high affinity for ? and ? receptors and much less affinity for ?. The observation that these target compounds have much higher receptor affinity than the ...

  14. Dioxouranium (VI) complexes with potential terdentate Schiff base ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a study of uranium (VI) complexes with multidentate Schiff bases, a report is presented on the synthesis in various solvents, of a series of dioxouranium (VI) complexes with potential terdentate ligands, obtained by the condensation of salicylaldehyde with o-aminophenol (H2SoAP), p-aminophenol (H2SpAP), o-methoxyaniline (HSoMA) and aniline (HSA). Analytical data and IR data are presented. The results are discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Amino-terminal ligands prolong NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Kenneth R.; Westbrook, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    The amino-terminal domains of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits are important for receptor assembly and desensitization, and incorporate the high-affinity binding sites for zinc and ifenprodil. These amino-terminal ligands are thought of as subunit-specific receptor inhibitors. However, multiple combinations of NMDA receptor subunits contribute to excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at hippocampal synapses. To understand the action of amino-terminal ligands, we first used cultured hippocampal neurons from N2A and N2B knockout mice. EPSCs from these neurons have properties that are consistent with N1/N2B and N1/N2A diheteromeric receptors, respectively. As expected, zinc reduced the EPSC peak amplitude from N2B KO neurons, but surprisingly also prolonged the deactivation, resulting in a marked redistribution of charge. Consistent with prolongation of the EPSC, zinc produced a longer latency to first opening of glutamate-bound receptors, which resulted in a decrease in the number of receptors that opened by the peak. Ifenprodil had similar effects on EPSCs from N2A KO neurons. In neurons from wild-type mice, zinc or ifenprodil reduced the EPSC peak, but only zinc caused significant charge redistribution, consistent with a small contribution of N1/N2B diheteromers in these neurons. Our results indicate that ligand binding to amino-terminal domains can alter the behavior of synaptic NMDA receptors under the non-equilibrium conditions of glutamate release during synaptic transmission. By prolonging EPSCs, amino-terminal ligands could markedly affect the computational properties of NMDA receptors and could potentially be exploited for therapeutic purposes. PMID:22674281

  16. A new implicit solvent model for protein-ligand docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Antonio; Gil-Redondo, Rubén; Ortiz, Angel R

    2007-05-15

    A new implicit solvent model for computing the electrostatics binding free energy in protein-ligand docking is proposed. The new method is based on an adaptation of the screening coulombic potentials proposed originally by Hassan et al. (J Phys Chem B 2000;104:6490-6498). In essence, it relies on two basic assumptions; (i) solvent screening can be accounted for by means of radially dependent sigmoidal dielectric functions and; (ii) the effective atom Born radii can be expressed only as a function of the exposed atom surface. Parameters of the model other than radii and charges are generic. These were optimized for a dataset of 826 protein-ligand complexes, comprising both X-ray complexes for 23 receptors as well as decoys generated by docking computations. We show that the new model provides satisfactory results when benchmarked against reference values based on the numerical solution of the Poisson equation, with a root mean square error of 4.2 kcal/mol over a range of approximately 40 kcal/mol in electrostatics binding free energies, a cross-validated r2 of 0.81, a slope of 0.97, and an intercept of 1.06 kcal/mol. We show that the model is appropriate for ligands of different sizes, polarities, overall charge, and chemical composition. Furthermore, not only the total value of the electrostatic contribution to the binding free energy, but also its components (coulombic term, receptor desolvation, and ligand desolvation) are reasonably well reproduced. Computation times of approximately 0.030 s per pose are obtained on a single processor desktop workstation. PMID:17330937

  17. Nanopore Force Spectroscopy of Aptamer–Ligand Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaut, Vera; Langecker, Martin; Simmel, Friedrich C.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of aptamer–ligand complexes is probed in nanopore-based dynamic force spectroscopy experiments. Specifically, the ATP-binding aptamer is investigated using a backward translocation technique, in which the molecules are initially pulled through an ?-hemolysin nanopore from the cis to the trans side of a lipid bilayer membrane, allowed to refold and interact with their target, and then translocated back in the trans–cis direction. From these experiments, the distribution of b...

  18. Evolutionary trace analysis at the ligand binding site of laccase

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin; Ong, Ai Ling; Ripen, Adiratna Mat

    2008-01-01

    Laccase belongs to the family of blue multi-copper oxidases and are capable of oxidizing a wide range of aromatic compounds. Laccases have industrial applications in paper pulping or bleaching and hydrocarbon bioremediation as a biocatalyst. We describe the design of a laccase with broader substrate spectrum in bioremediation. The application of evolutionary trace (ET) analysis of laccase at the ligand binding site for optimal design of the enzyme is described. In this attempt, cl...

  19. Engineering periplasmic ligand binding proteins as glucose nanosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery, Constance J.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes affects over 100 million people worldwide. Better methods for monitoring blood glucose levels are needed for improving disease management. Several labs have previously made glucose nanosensors by modifying members of the periplasmic ligand binding protein superfamily. This minireview summarizes recent developments in constructing new versions of these proteins that are responsive within the physiological range of blood glucose levels, employ new reporter groups, and/or are more robus...

  20. Calixspherands as ligands for the complexation of radioactive rubidium-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligands that form kinetically stable complexes with radioactive alkali cations are of use in the medicine. The spherands form very stable complexes with Li+ and Na+, but reject the larger alkali cations like K+ and Rb+. Macrocyclic hosts based on a m-teranisyl unit and a calix[4]arene moiety that form kinetically stable complexes with Na+ and K+ but also with Rb+ were synthesised. (author)