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Sample records for n-6 fatty acids

  1. cAMP-dependent signaling regulates the adipogenic effect of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Liaset, Bjørn; Ma, Tao; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Pan, Jie; Müller-Decker, Karin; Dülsner, Erik D; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Døskeland, Stein Ove; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    The effect of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) on adipogenesis and obesity is controversial. Using in vitro cell culture models, we show that n-6 PUFAs was pro-adipogenic under conditions with base-line levels of cAMP, but anti-adipogenic when the levels of cAMP were elevated. The anti-adipogenic action of n-6 PUFAs was dependent on a cAMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase expression and activity. We show that n-6 PUFAs were pro-adipogenic when combined wit...

  2. MOLECULAR SWITCH THAT CONTROLS THE FLUX OF LINOLEIC ACID INTO N-6 OR N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN MICROORGANISMS

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    Mingxuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA of the n-6 and n-3 series play important roles in nutrition. Microorganisms are important sources of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids; however, most produce either n-6 or n-3 fatty acids as the major PUFAs and very few produce both. This differential production suggests that PUFAs metabolic pathway is strictly controlled in microorganisms. The major pathway of n-6/n-3 faty acids biosynthesis in lower eukaryotes is composed of ?12 Desaturase (Des, ?3 Des (?15, ?17, ?6 Des, ?6 Elongase (Elo, ?5 Des, ?5 Elo and ?4 Des, among which ?6 Des and ?15 (?3 Des, located at the branch point of PUFAs metabolic pathways, are key regulators of the flux of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6 into either n-6 or n-3 fatty acid metabolic pathways. These latter two enzymes work together as a molecular switch that control the production of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. However the mechanism of the molecular switch is, so far, not clear. This review summarizes the recent advancement of the molecular base of the differentail production of n-6 or n-3 PUFAs in microorganisms.

  3. Conjugated linoleic acids alter bone fatty acid composition and reduce ex vivo prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis in rats fed n-6 or n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Watkins, B A

    1998-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on tissue fatty acid composition and ex vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in rats given diets varying in n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. Four groups of rats were given a basal semipurified diet (AIN-93G) containing 70 g/kg of added fat for 42 d. The fat treatments were formulated to contain CLA (0 vs. 10 g/kg of diet) and n-6 (soybean oil having an n-6/n-3 ratio of 7.3) and n-3 fatty acids (menhaden oil + safflower oil having an n-6/n-3 ratio of 1.8) in different ratios in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Fatty acids in liver, serum, muscle, heart, brain, spleen, and bone (cortical, marrow, and periosteum) were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The various dietary lipid treatments did not affect growth; however, CLA improved feed efficiency. The CLA isomers were found in all rat tissues analyzed although their concentrations varied. Dietary CLA decreased the concentrations of 16:1n-7, 18:1, total monounsaturates and n-6 fatty acids, but increased the concentrations of n-3 fatty acids (22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3), and saturates in the tissues analyzed. Ex vivo PGE2 production in bone organ culture was decreased by n-3 fatty acids and CLA. We speculate that CLA reduced the concentration of 18:1 fatty acids by inhibiting liver delta9-desaturase activity. The fact that CLA lowered ex vivo PGE2 production in bone organ culture suggests that these conjugated fatty acids have the potential to influence bone formation and resorption. PMID:9590630

  4. cAMP-depending signaling regulates the adipogenic effect of N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Pedersen, Lone MØller

    2008-01-01

    The effect of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) on adipogenesis and obesity is controversial as fundamentally opposing results both in vivo and in vitro have been reported. Using in vitro cell culture models we show that the adipogenic action of the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid was dependent on the intracellular levels of cAMP. In conditions with baseline intracellular levels of cAMP, n-6 PUFAs acted pro-adipogenic, whereas n-6 PUFAs acted anti-adipogenic when the intracellular levels of cAMP were elevated. The anti-adipogenic action of n-6 PUFAs was dependent on a PKA-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase (COX) expression and activity. In vivo the intracellular levels of cAMP are modulated in response to dietary intake of different classes of macronutrients. Accordingly, we show that n-6 PUFAs were pro-adipogenic when combined with a high carbohydrate diet, but non-adipogenic when combined with a high protein diet in mice. The high protein diet increased the glucagon/insulin ratio, leading to elevated cAMP-dependent signaling and induction of COX-mediated prostaglandin synthesis. Mice fed the high protein diet had a markedly lower feed efficiency than mice fed the high carbohydrate diet. Yet, oxygen consumption and apparent heat production were similar. Mice on a high protein diet had increased hepatic expression of PGC-1a and genes involved in energy demanding processes like urea synthesis and gluconeogenesis. We conclude that cAMP signaling is pivotal in regulating the adipogenic effect of n-6 PUFAs, and that diet-induced differences in cAMP levels can explain the ability of n-6 PUFAs to either enhance or counteract adipogenesis and obesity.

  5. Fluorescent n-3 and n-6 Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: THREE-PHOTON IMAGING IN LIVING CELLS EXPRESSING LIVER FATTY ACID-BINDING PROTEIN*

    OpenAIRE

    Avery L. McIntosh; Huang, Huan; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Wellberg, Elizabeth; Kuklev, Dmitry V.; Smith, William L.; Ann B. Kier; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    Despite the considerable beneficial effects of n-3 and n-6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs), very little is known about the factors that regulate their uptake and intracellular distribution in living cells. This issue was addressed in cells expressing liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) by real time multiphoton laser scanning microscopy of novel fluorescent VLC-PUFAs containing a conjugated tetraene fluorophore near the carboxyl group and natural methylene-in...

  6. Kinetics of chronic inflammation in Nile tilapia fed n?3 and n?6 essential fatty acids

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    Róberson Sakabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on the kinetics of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The supplementation sources were soybean oil (SO, source of omega 6, n?6 and linseed oil (LO, source of omega 3, n?3, in the following proportions: 100% SO; 75% SO + 25% LO; 50% SO + 50% LO; 25% SO + 75% LO; and 100% LO (four replicates per treatment. After a feeding period of three months, growth performance was evaluated, and glass coverslips were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of fish, being removed for examination at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after implantation. Growth performance did not differ between treatments. Fish fed 100% linseed oil diet had the greatest macrophage accumulation and the fastest Langhans cell formation on the sixth day. On the eighth day, Langhans cells were predominant on the coverslips implanted in the fish feed 75 and 100% linseed oil. n?3 fatty acids may contribute to macrophage recruitment and giant cell formation in fish chronic inflammatory response to foreign body.

  7. Fish, n?-?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n?-?6 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake and breast cancer risk: The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyabu, Grace Y; Inoue, Manami; Saito, Eiko; Abe, Sarah K; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shibuya, Kenji; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-12-15

    Limited and inconsistent studies exist on the association between the intake of fish, n?-?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n?-?6 PUFA and breast cancer. Fish and n?-?3 PUFA support various body functions and are thought to reduce the carcinogenesis risk while n?-?6 PUFA may have a positive association with cancer risk. We examined the association between intake of fish, n?-?3 PUFA [including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)] and n?-?6 PUFA and breast cancer with subanalyses on estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. We investigated 38,234 Japanese women aged 45-74 years from the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC study), and during 14.1 years of follow-up time, 556 breast cancer cases were newly diagnosed. Breast cancer risk was not associated with the intake of total fish, n?-?3 PUFA and n?-?6 PUFA when analyzed in totality through multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models with age as the time scale. Intake of total n?-?6 was positively associated with the development of ER+PR+ tumors [multivariable-adjusted HR Q4 vs. Q1 ?=?2.94 (95% CI: 1.26-6.89; ptrend ?=?0.02)]. Intake of EPA was associated with a decreased breast cancer risk for ER+PR+ tumors [multivariable-adjusted HR Q2 vs. Q1 ?=?0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.89; ptrend =0.47)]. While the overall association between the intake of total fish, n?-?3 PUFA and n?-?6 PUFA and breast cancer risk is null, for ER+PR+ tumors, a positive association was seen between n?-?6 intake and breast cancer, and a marginally significant inverse association was observed for EPA intake. PMID:26147326

  8. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio and vitamin E on semen quality, fatty acid composition and antioxidant status in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Zhou, Y F; Duan, R J; Wei, H K; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratio and vitamin E on the semen quality, FA composition and antioxidant status of boars. Forty-eight Landrace boars were randomly distributed in a 3×2 factorial design with three n-6:n-3 FA ratios (14.4, 6.6 and 2.2) by the inclusion of three oil sources (soybean, fish/soybean, fish) and two vitamin E levels (200 and 400mg/kg). During the 8 weeks of treatment, semen parameters were evaluated. Serum, sperm and seminal plasma samples were taken at 0 and 8 weeks to monitor the FA composition and antioxidant status. Results showed that the 6.6 and 2.2 dietary ratios very effectively increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and decreased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and n-6:n-3 ratio in spermatozoa. The 6.6 dietary ratio contributed to a greater progressive sperm motility (Pvitamin E, 400mg/kg supplementation of vitamin E increased the progressive sperm motility, SOD of sperm, TAC and SOD of seminal plasma and serum, and decreased sperm malondialdehyde (MDA) (Pvitamin E supplementation improve progressive sperm motility by modifying the sperm FA composition and antioxidant status. PMID:26417649

  9. Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products

    OpenAIRE

    Strobel Claudia; Jahreis Gerhard; Kuhnt Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying) which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA. The aim o...

  10. Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strobel Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA. The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123. Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Results Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply. Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %, however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4 but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Conclusions Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower n-3 PUFA portion in farmed fish can be offset by the higher fat content, however, with an unfavourable FA distribution compared to wild fellows.

  11. Effects of trans n-6 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of tissues and liver microsomal desaturation in the rat

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    Berdeaux, Olivier

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available 18:2? 9c,12t and 18:2 ?9t,12c are present in our diet, as result of heat treatment of vegetable oils. A nutritional study was carried out in order to obtain more precise information on the conversion of these two isomers into long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA by rat tissues. This in vivo study performed using rat fed with small quantities of mono trans linoleic acid isomers (0.6% of total energy showed that 18:2 ?9c,12t was converted into 20:4 ?5c,8c,11c,14t while 18:2 ?9t,12c was only slightly converted into 20:4 ?5c,8c,11t,14c. Furthermore 18:2 ?9t,12c was preferentially elongated into 20:2 ?11t,14c. Each C20 metabolite of these mono trans 18:2 isomers was isolated as methyl ester by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC followed by silver nitrate thin layer chromatography (AgNO3-TLC.The structure of the components was identified using partial hydrazine reduction, AgNO3-TLC of the resulting monoenes and gas-liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS of the 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX derivatives. Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (GC-FTIR confirmed the frans geometry. Gas-liquid chromatography (GC analyses showed that 18:2 ?9c,12t and 18:2 ?9t,12c were present in different tissue lipids (liver, heart, testes, brain and adipose tissue, and without any modification in the amount of 20:4n-6. 20:4 ?5c, 8c,11c,14t was incorporated in different rat tissues except in brain. Furthermore, its incorporation followed that of its structural analogue, 20:3n-9 in liver phospholipid classes (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. Finally, an in vitro study carried out with rat liver microsomes showed that dietary trans 18:2 isomers could inhibit the ?6- desaturation of 18:2n-6 to 18:3n-6 and the ?5-desaturation of 20:3n-6 to 20:4n-6.

  12. Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids

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    Somoza Veronika

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conversion of linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. Design and methods In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, human hepatoma cells were incubated with varying ratios of [13C] labeled linoleic acid ([13C]LA- and alpha-linolenic acid ([13C]ALA-methylesters. Regulative cellular signal transduction pathways involved were studied by determinations of transcript levels of the genes encoding delta-5 desaturase (D5D and delta-6 desaturase (D6D, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR? and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1 were also examined. Results Maximum conversion was observed in cells incubated with the mixture of [13C]LA/[13C]ALA at a ratio of 1:1, where 0.7% and 17% of the recovered [13C]ALA was converted to DHA and EPA, respectively. Furthermore, differential regulation of enzymes involved in the conversion at the transcript level, dependent on the ratio of administered n6 to n3 fatty acids in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Conclusion Formation of EPA and DHA was highest at an administered LA/ALA ratio of 1:1, although gene expression of PPAR?, SREBP-1c and D5D involved in ALA elongation were higher in the presence of ALA solely. Also, our findings suggest that a diet-induced enhancement of the cell membrane content of highly unsaturated fatty acids is only possible up to a certain level.

  13. Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on clinical outcome in a porcine model on postoperative infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; TØnnesen, Else Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) on clinical outcome in a porcine model on early aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI). A total of eighty-four pigs were randomised to a 35 d dietary treatment with 10 % (w/w) fish oil (rich in n-3 LC-PUFA), sunflower oil (rich in n-6 LC-PUFA) or animal fat. After 3 weeks of dietary treatment, the pigs had an aortic vascular prosthetic graft inserted, and it was inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (106 colony-forming units). Changes in selected plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations and in plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration were determined in the 3-week preoperative period. Clinical signs of infection, i.e. rectal temperature, hindquarter function, general appearance and feed intake, were monitored daily in the 14 d post-operative period, and, finally, daily body-weight gain was determined in both periods. The preoperative changes in plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations reflected the fatty acid compositions of the dietary treatments given, and plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration decreased in the fish oil treatment (P < 0·001). In the post-operative period, feed intake (P = 0·004) and body-weight gain (P = 0·038) were higher in the fish oil treatment compared with the sunflower oil treatment. The dietary treatments did not affect the number of days pigs were showing fever, weakness in the hindquarters or impaired general appearance. In conclusion, preoperative treatment with dietary fish oil compared with sunflower oil improved clinical outcome in pigs with AVPGI by improving feed intake and body-weight gain post-operatively.

  14. Effects of diets enriched in n-6 or n-3 fatty acids on cholesterol metabolism in older rats chronically fed a cholesterol-enriched diet.

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    Fukushima, M; Ohhashi, T; Ohno, S; Saitoh, H; Sonoyama, K; Shimada, K; Sekikawa, M; Nakano, M

    2001-03-01

    Hypocholesterolemic effects in older animals after long-term feeding are unknown. Therefore, aged rats (24 wk of age) fed a conventional diet were shifted to diets containing 10% perilla oil [PEO; oleic acid + linoleic acid + alpha-linolenic acid; n-6/n-3, 0.3; polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (P/S), 9.6], borage oil [oleic acid + linoleic acid + alpha-linolenic acid; n-6/n-3, 15.1; P/S, 5.3], evening primrose oil (EPO; linoleic acid + gamma-linolenic acid; P/S, 10.5), mixed oil (MIO; oleic acid + linoleic acid + gamma-linolenic acid + alpha-linolenic acid; n-6/n-3, 1.7; P/S, 6.7), or palm oil (PLO; palmitic acid + oleic acid + linoleic acid; n-6/n-3, 25.3; P/S, 0.2) with 0.5% cholesterol for 15 wk in this experiment. There were no significant differences in the food intake and body weight gain among the groups. The liver weight in the PEO (n-6/n-3, 0.3) group was significantly higher than those of other groups in aged rats. The serum total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) + intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) + low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations of the PLO (25.3) group were consistently higher than those in the other groups. The serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of the PEO (0.3) and EPO groups were significantly lower than in the other groups at the end of the 15-wk feeding period. The liver cholesterol concentration of the PLO (25.3) group was significantly higher than those of other groups. There were no significant differences in the hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level among the groups. Hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) B mRNA levels were not affected by the experimental conditions. The fecal neutral steroid excretion of the PLO (25.3) group tended to be low compared to the other groups. The results of this study demonstrate that both n-6 fatty acid and n-3 fatty acids such as gamma-linolenic acid and alpha-linolenic acid inhibit the increase of serum total cholesterol and VLDL + IDL + LDL-cholesterol concentrations of aged rats in the presence of excess cholesterol in the diet compared with dietary saturated fatty acid. PMID:11337981

  15. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tom?ala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different heat treatments (pan-frying, oven-baking, and grilling) on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish tissue. Four fish species were examined: pike, carp, cod, and herring. High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI/MS), was employed for determination of intact lipid molecules containing n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. Although mostly non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols, TGs) were present in the fish tissue, the PUFAs were present preferentially in the phospholipid fraction. Omnivorous fish species (carp, herring) contained more TGs than did predatory ones (pike, cod). Higher amounts of PUFAs were detected in the marine species than in the freshwater ones. The impact of heat treatments on the lipid composition in the fish tissue seems to be species-specific, as indicated by multivariate data analysis. Herring tissue is most heat-stable, and the mildest heat treatment for PUFA preservation was oven-baking. PMID:25624225

  16. Maternal dietary fat alters amniotic fluid and fetal intestinal membrane essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Russell; Innis, Sheila M

    2006-03-01

    We investigated whether maternal fat intake alters amniotic fluid and fetal intestine phospholipid n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. Female rats were fed a 20% by weight diet from fat with 20% linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) and 8% alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) (control diet, n = 8) or 72% LA and 0.2% ALA (n-3 deficient diet, n = 7) from 2 wk before and then throughout gestation. Amniotic fluid and fetal intestine phospholipid fatty acids were analyzed at day 19 gestation using HPLC and gas-liquid chromotography. Amniotic fluid had significantly lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and higher docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-6) levels in the n-3-deficient group than in the control group (DHA: 1.29 +/- 0.10 and 6.29 +/- 0.33 g/100 g fatty acid; DPA: 4.01 +/- 0.35 and 0.73 +/- 0.15 g/100 g fatty acid, respectively); these differences in DHA and DPA were present in amniotic fluid cholesterol esters and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Fetal intestines in the n-3-deficient group had significantly higher LA, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and DPA levels; lower eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and DHA levels in PC; and significantly higher DPA and lower EPA and DHA levels in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) than in the control group; the n-6-to-n-3 fatty acid ratio was 4.9 +/- 0.2 and 32.2 +/- 2.1 in PC and 2.4 +/- 0.03 and 17.1 +/- 0.21 in PE in n-3-deficient and control group intestines, respectively. We demonstrate that maternal dietary fat influences amniotic fluid and fetal intestinal membrane structural lipid essential fatty acids. Maternal dietary fat can influence tissue composition by manipulation of amniotic fluid that is swallowed by the fetus or by transport across the placenta. PMID:16282365

  17. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. ? fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. ? fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ? The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  18. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  19. Effects of ELOVL4 gene overexpress on the synthesis efficiency of n3 and n6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

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    Man Yu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the synthesis efficiency of n3 and n6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid(VLC-PUFAby overexpressing ELOVL4 protein, providing guidance for treating Stargardt-like macular dystrophy(STGD3.METHODS:To establish recombinant adenovirus with the ELOVL4 protein and green fluorescent protein, transferred into cultured PC12 cells. The cells were divided into 3 groups: PC12, PC12+Ad-GFP and PC12+Ad- ELOVL4, former two groups serve as controls. ELOVL4 gene expression was quantified by qRT-PCRs. ELOVL4 protein was analyzed by Western-Blot(WB. The transduced cells were treated with both EPA and AA(1:1. After 48h of incubation, cells were collected, total lipids extracted and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS. RESULTS: When supplemented together, 20:5n3(EPAand 20:4n6(AAwere efficiently taken up at almost the same amounts in the PC12 cells regardless of ELOVL4 expression. The ELOVL4-expressing cells elongated both EPA and AA to a series of n3 and n6 VLC-PUFAs. From 20:5n3/EPA, 34:5n3 and 36:5n3 account for 0.71% and 1.6%, respectively. From 20:4n6/DHA, 34:4n6 and 36:4n6 were only 0.46% and 0.61%, respectively. The total relative mol% of n3 VLC-PUFAs synthesized from EPA was almost two times that of n6 VLC-PUFAs synthesized from AA.CONCLUSION: ELOVL4 protein preferentially elongates n3 PUFA to VLC-PUFAs over n6 PUFA. Dietary supplementation of appropriate n3/n6 PUFAs may provide STGD3 patients with some therapeutic benefits.

  20. Suicide Mortality in Relation to Dietary Intake of n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Fish: Equivocal Findings From 3 Large US Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander C. Tsai; Lucas, Michel; Okereke, Olivia I.; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Mirzaei, Fariba; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ascherio, Alberto; Willett, Walter C

    2014-01-01

    Intake of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. We sought to estimate the association between intake of fish and n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and suicide mortality over the course of long-term follow-up. In this prospective cohort study, biennial questionnaires were administered to 42,290 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1988–2008), 72,231 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study (1986–2008), and 90,836 women enr...

  1. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids alter serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein concentrations and reduce bone formation in rats fed (n-6) or (n-3) fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Seifert, M F; Ney, D M; Grahn, M; Grant, A L; Allen, K G; Watkins, B A

    1999-07-01

    A study was designed to examine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) and the relationship of these factors to bone metabolism. Weanling male rats were fed AIN-93G diet containing 70 g/kg of added fat for 42 days. Treatments included 0 g/kg or 10 g/kg of CLA and soybean oil (SBO) or menhaden oil + safflower oil (MSO) following a 2 x 2 factorial design. Serum IGFBP was influenced by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) type ((n-6) and (n-3)) and CLA (p = 0.01 for 38-43 kDa bands corresponding to IGFBP-3). CLA increased IGFBP level in rats fed SBO (p = 0.05) but reduced it in those fed MSO (p = 0.01). Rats fed MSO had the highest serum IGFBP-3 level. Both (n-3) fatty acids and CLA lowered ex vivo prostaglandin E2 production in bone organ culture. In tibia, rats given CLA had reduced mineral apposition rate (3.69 vs. 2.79 microm/day) and bone formation rate (BFR) (0.96 vs. 0.65 microm3/microm2/day); however, the BFR tended to be higher with MSO. Dietary lipid treatments did not affect serum intact osteocalcin or bone mineral content. These results showed that dietary PUFA type and CLA modulate local factors that regulate bone metabolism. PMID:10404015

  2. Effect of Blend Probiotics on Rumen Fermentation and Plasma Fatty Acid Contents and Plasma n6:n3 Ratios of Growing Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Traiyakun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed with the purpose of investigating effect of additional blend of probiotics Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus on plasma fatty acid profiles particularly Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA in growing goats fed corn silage and selected the optimal levels of the probiotics for further study. Twenty four growing crossbred (Thai native x Anglo-Nubian goats that weighed (14.2±2.3 kg, aged about 6 months were purchased and allocated to 4 treatments according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with 6 goats in each treatment. The blocks were made by weight into heavy, medium and light goats and each of the treatments contained two goats from each of the blocks. In the mean time, ruminal average pH unaffected but the NH3-N and also plasma urea nitrogen (p0.05 were raised but propionic proportion (p0.05 were reduced in concurrent with raise of acetic proportion and resultantly C2:C3 ratio (p>0.05. On plasma fatty acid profiles, total saturated fatty acids (p>0.05 was increased and contrasted with decrease of C15:0 (p0.05 and C18-C22 poly unsaturated fatty acids (p0.05 and for raising ratio of n6:n3 (p<0.05.

  3. Association of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membrane and plasma with severity of normal tension glaucoma

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    Man Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine whether red blood cell (RBC membrane and plasma lipids, particularly long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, arachidonic acid (AA are significantly correlated with severity of normal tension glaucoma (NTG.METHODS:This study included 35 patients with NTG and 12 healthy normal control subjects, matched for age and sex with the study group. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification. Lipids were extracted from RBC membranes and plasma, and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.RESULTS:When RBC lipids were analyzed, the levels of EPA, the levels of DHA and the ratio of n3 to n6 were positively associated with the Humphrey Perimetry mean deviation (MD score (r=0.617, P<0.001; r=0.727, P<0.001 and r=0.720, P<0.001, respectively, while the level of AA was negatively associated with the MD score (r=-0.427, P=0.001. When plasma lipids were analyzed, there was a significant positive relationship between the levels of EPA and the MD score (r=0.648, P<0.001, and the levels of AA were inversely correlated with the MD score (r=-0.638, P<0.001.CONCLUSION:The levels of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in RBC membrane and plasma lipids were associated with severity of NTG.

  4. The effect of reducing the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio during pregnancy and lactation on maternal and fetal adipokines

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    The INFAT-study examines the effect of a reduction in the ratio of n-6/n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation on adipose tissue development of the infant. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of the dietary intervention on adipokines (leptin, sOB-R, adiponectin) and insulin in maternal blood and breast milk samples during pregnancy and lactation in a subgroup of the INFAT-study. Moreover, these adipokines, insulin and oth...

  5. n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulate prostaglandin E secretion but not markers of lipogenesis in adipocytes

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    Saxton Arnold M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A dramatic rise in the incidence of obesity in the U.S. has accelerated the search for interventions that may impact this epidemic. One recently recognized target for such intervention is adipose tissue, which secretes a variety of bioactive substances including prostaglandins. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 has been shown to decrease lipolysis in adipocytes, but limited studies have explored alternative mechanisms by which PGE2 might impact obesity, such as adipogenesis or lipogenesis. Studies conducted on ApcMin/+ mice indicated that selective inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX-2 enzyme led to significant reductions in fatty acid synthase (FAS activity in adipose tissue suggesting lipogenic effects of PGE2. To further investigate whether these lipid mediators directly regulate lipogenesis, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes to determine the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and celecoxib on PGE2 formation and FAS used as a lipogenic marker. Both arachidonic acid (AA and EPA dose-dependently increased PGE secretion from adipocytes. AA was expectedly more potent and exhibiting at 150 uM dose a 5-fold increase in PGE2 secretion over EPA. Despite higher secretion of PGE by EPA and AA compared to control, neither PUFA significantly altered FAS activity. By contrast both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA levels. Addition of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, significantly decreased PGE2 secretion (p 2 and celecoxib further decreased the FAS activity compared to PGE2 alone or untreated controls. In conclusion, EPA-mediated inhibition of AA metabolism did not significantly alter FAS activity while both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA expression. COX-2 inhibition significantly decreased PGE2 production resulting in a decrease in FAS activity and expression that was not reversed with the addition of exogenous PGE2, suggesting an additional mechanism that is independent of COX-2.

  6. Dietary n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratios differentially influence hormonal signature in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome relative to healthy controls

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    Koch Lauren G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary ratios of omega-3 (n-3 to omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been implicated in controlling markers of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profiles and adiposity. However, the role of dietary PUFAs in regulating energy systems in healthy relative to metabolic diseased backgrounds has not been systematically addressed. We used dietary manipulation of n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios in an animal model of metabolic syndrome and a related healthy line to assay feeding behavior and endocrine markers of feeding drive and energy regulation. Two related lines of rodents with a healthy and a metabolic syndrome phenotype were fed one of two isocaloric diets, comprised of either a 1:1 or a 1:30 n-3 to n-6 ratio, for 30 days. Food intake and weight gain were monitored; and leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and a suite of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in energy regulation were assayed following the dietary manipulation period. There was no difference in caloric intake or weight gain between diet groups, however there was a significant interaction between diet and phenotypic line on central and peripheral markers of energy homeostasis. Thus serum levels of leptin, acylated-ghrelin and adiponectin, and mRNA levels of the anorexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, cocaine-amphetamine related transcript (CART, showed differential, dietary responses with HCR rats showing an increase in anorexigenic signals in response to unbalanced n-3:6 ratios, while LCR did not. These data are the first to demonstrate that a rodent line with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype responds differentially to dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids relative to a related healthy line with regard to endocrine markers of energy homeostasis. The dietary n-3:n-6 ratios used in this experiment represent extreme points of natural human diets, however the data suggest that optimal recommendations regarding omega-3 and omega-6 intake may have differing effects in healthy subjects relative to metabolic syndrome patients. Further research is necessary to establish these responses in human populations.

  7. Lower Concentration of n-3 in the Red Blood Cells and Plasma of Lambs when their Dams were Fed a Diet High Compared with Low in n-6 Fatty Acids at Joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, E H; Wilkins, J F; Refshauge, G; Friend, M A

    2015-09-01

    Feeding ewes a diet high in n-6 in late gestation can affect fatty acid concentrations in the newborn lamb. The effect of feeding ewes a high n-6 diet prior to conception and in early gestation on lamb n-6 and n-3 status has not previously been examined. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the concentration of n-6 was higher and n-3 was lower in lamb red blood cells (RBC) and plasma when Merino dams were fed a diet high in n-6 either pre-conception only or both pre-conception and in early gestation. Dams were fed a diet low (silage) or high (oats/CSM) in n-6 for either 6 weeks pre-mating only or 6 weeks pre-mating and 17 days post-mating. The fatty acid status of lamb RBC and plasma was determined following birth and compared with dam fatty acids around parturition. The concentration of lamb RBC and plasma n-3 was lower (p < 0.05) when dams received the high n-6 compared with low-n-6 diet around mating, independent of the length of time of feeding. The concentration of n-3 in lamb plasma was also higher when lambs were assessed as being likely rather than unlikely to have suckled prior to blood collection. Lamb RBC and plasma n-3 fatty acids were lower when dams were fed the high compared with the low n-6 diet for only a short time around mating. Transfer of fatty acids via the placenta and milk may account for the differences. PMID:26178199

  8. Kinetics of chronic inflammation in Nile tilapia fed n?3 and n?6 essential fatty acids / Cinética da inflamação crônica em tilápia?do?nilo alimentada com ácidos graxos essenciais n?3 e n?6

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Róberson, Sakabe; Flávio Ruas de, Moraes; Marco Antonio de Andrade, Belo; Fabiana, Pilarski; Julieta Rodini Engrácia de, Moraes.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da suplementação alimentar com ácidos graxos essenciais sobre a cinética do acúmulo de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes em tilápia?do?nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). As fontes de suplementação foram óleo de soja (OS, fonte de ômega 6, n?6) e [...] óleo de linhaça (OL, fonte de ômega 3, n?3), nas seguintes proporções: 100% OS; 75% OS + 25% OL; 50% OS + 50% OL; 25% OS + 75% OL; e 100% OL (quatro repetições por tratamento). Após período de alimentação de três meses, foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo, e lamínulas de vidro foram implantadas no tecido subcutâneo dos peixes, as quais foram removidas para exame aos 2, 4, 6 e 8 dias após o implante. O desempenho produtivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os peixes alimentados com 100% de óleo de linhaça tiveram maior acúmulo de macrófagos e formação mais rápida de células de Langhans, no sexto dia. No oitavo dia, as células de Langhans foram predominantes nas lamínulas implantadas nos peixes alimentados com 75 e 100% de óleo de linhaça. Os ácidos graxos n?3 podem contribuir para o recrutamento de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes, na resposta inflamatória crônica a corpo estranho em peixes. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on the kinetics of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The supplementation sources were soybean oil (SO, source of omega 6, n?6) and li [...] nseed oil (LO, source of omega 3, n?3), in the following proportions: 100% SO; 75% SO + 25% LO; 50% SO + 50% LO; 25% SO + 75% LO; and 100% LO (four replicates per treatment). After a feeding period of three months, growth performance was evaluated, and glass coverslips were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of fish, being removed for examination at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after implantation. Growth performance did not differ between treatments. Fish fed 100% linseed oil diet had the greatest macrophage accumulation and the fastest Langhans cell formation on the sixth day. On the eighth day, Langhans cells were predominant on the coverslips implanted in the fish feed 75 and 100% linseed oil. n?3 fatty acids may contribute to macrophage recruitment and giant cell formation in fish chronic inflammatory response to foreign body.

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Fish Oil and Multivitamin Supplementation on the Incorporation of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids into Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pipingas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160 were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  10. Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata Terue

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

  11. Differential response to an algae supplement high in DHA mediated by maternal periconceptional diet: intergenerational effects of n-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Edward H; Lamb, Tracy A; Refshauge, Gordon; Kerr, Matthew J; Bailes, Kristy L; Ponnampalam, Eric N; Friend, Michael A; Hopkins, David L

    2014-08-01

    Algae high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may provide a source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) for inclusion in the diet of lambs to improve the LCn-3PUFA status of meat. The effect of background LCn-3PUFA status on the metabolism of high DHA algae is, however, unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the response to a high in DHA algae supplement fed to lambs for six weeks prior to slaughter was mediated by a maternal periconceptional diet. Forty Poll Dorset × Border Leicester × Merino weaner lambs were allocated to receive either a ration based on oat grain, lupin grain, and chopped lucerne (control) or the control ration with DHA-Gold™ algae included at 1.92 % DM (Algae) based on whether the dams of lambs had previously been fed a diet high in n-3 or n-6 around conception. LCn-3PUFA concentration was determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) prior to and following feeding. The concentrations of EPA and DHA in the plasma and RBC of lambs receiving the control ration were significantly (p lambs received the ration for 14 days compared with pre-feeding concentrations. The concentrations of EPA and DHA were also significantly (p lambs consumed the Algae ration compared with the control ration for 42 days. The increase in EPA and DHA was, however, significantly (p lamb dams had previously been fed a diet high in n-6 at conception. Assessing the previous nutrition and n-3 status of lambs may allow producers to more accurately predict the likely response to supplements high in LCn-3PUFA, particularly, DHA. PMID:24996881

  12. Partial replacement of dietary (n-6) fatty acids with medium-chain triglycerides decreases the incidence of spontaneous colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañé, Josep; Pedrosa, Elisabet; Lorén, Violeta; Ojanguren, Isabel; Fluvià, Lourdes; Cabré, Eduard; Rogler, Gerhard; Gassull, Miquel A

    2009-03-01

    Enteral nutrition has a primary therapeutic effect in active Crohn's disease. It is unknown which nutrient(s) account for this action, but a role for both the amount and type of dietary fat has been postulated. Some clinical and experimental data suggest that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) may reduce intestinal inflammation. We aimed to assess the effect of replacing part of the dietary fat with MCT on the incidence and severity of colitis in interleukin (IL)-10(-/-) mice under specific pathogen-free conditions. Twenty-four IL-10(-/-) 4-wk-old mice were randomized to receive a control diet based on sunflower oil [(n-6) fatty acids (FA)] and an experimental isocaloric, isonitrogenous diet with 50% sunflower and 50% coconut oil (MCT diet). When the mice were 12 wk old, they were killed and the colon was examined for the presence of colitis, lymphocyte subpopulations and apoptosis, ex vivo cytokine production in supernatant of colon explants, toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-9 mRNA, and FA profile in colonic tissue homogenates. Colitis incidence was lower in the IL-10(-/-) mice fed the MCT diet (1/12) than in the mice fed the control diet (8/12; P = 0.03). The histological damage score was also lower in the former (P production of IL-6 and interferon-gamma, and reduced TLR-9 mRNA. We conclude that partial replacement of dietary (n-6) FA with MCT decreases the incidence of colitis in a model of spontaneous intestinal inflammation and provide experimental arguments for a possible primary therapeutic effect of MCT in human Crohn's disease. PMID:19126671

  13. Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalised n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Ragna

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high dietary intake of n-6 compared to n-3 fatty acids (FAs may promote the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. In two recent studies, short-term (10-day duodenal administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich seal oil ameliorated joint pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Using unpublished data from these two studies we here investigated whether normalisation of the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood and tissues by seal oil administration was associated with improved health related quality of life (HRQOL as assessed by the generic short-form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire. Results In the first pilot study, baseline n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosal biopsies from 10 patients with IBD (9 of those had joint pain was significantly increased compared with that in 10 control patients without IBD or joint pain. Following seal oil administration, the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio of the IBD-patients was significantly lowered to the level seen in untreated controls. In the subsequent, randomized controlled study (n = 19, seal oil administration reduced the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood similarly and also the SF-36 assessed bodily pain, while n-6 FA rich soy oil administration had no such effect. Conclusion In these two separate studies, short-term duodenal administration of seal oil normalised the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and improved the bodily pain dimension of HRQOL of patients with IBD-related joint pain. The possibility of a causal relationship between n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and bodily pain in IBD-patients warrants further investigations.

  14. Levels of Soybean Oil and Time of Treatment for Nile Tilapia: a Factorial Design for Total n-3 Fatty Acids, n-6/n-3 and PUFA/SFA Ratios

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana P., Lopes; Vanessa V. A., Schneider; Paula F., Montanher; Ingrid L., Figueiredo; Hevelyse M. C., Santos; Swami A., Maruyama; Angela M. M., Araújo; Jesuí V., Visentainer.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A 22 factorial design (two factors with two levels, in triplicate) was performed to investigate the influence of factors A (soybean oil content in supplemented diet, at 2.1 and 4.2%) and B (time of treatment, 15 and 30 days) in three responses [(a) total n-3 fatty acids; (b) n-6/n-3 ratio; and (c) p [...] olyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)/saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio] from lipids of Nile tilapia submitted to experimental treatment. Normality of residuals was assessed through statistical tests. Factors A and B were significant in all obtained regression models, while AB interaction was not a significant contributor for PUFA/SFA response. ANOVA and response surfaces obtained from factorial design indicated best results in tilapia that received the diet containing 4.2% of soybean oil during 30 days.

  15. Impact of 20 : 4n-6 supplementation on the fatty acid composition and hemocyte parameters of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

    OpenAIRE

    Delaporte, Maryse; Soudant, Philippe; Moal, Jeanne; Giudicelli, Emilie; Lambert, Christophe; Seguineau, Catherine; Samain, Jean-francois

    2006-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ArA) and its eicosanoid metabolites have been demonstrated to be implicated in immune functions of vertebrates, fish, and insects. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of ArA supplementation on the FA composition and hemocyte parameters of oysters Crassostrea gigas. Oyster dietary conditioning consisted of direct addition of ArA solutions at a dose of 0, 0.25, or 0.41 mu g ArA per mL of seawater into tanks in the presence or absence of T-Iso algae. R...

  16. Ácidos graxos poli-insaturados n-3 e n-6: metabolismo em mamíferos e resposta imune / Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: metabolism in mammals and immune response

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Ângelo De Lima, Perini; Flávia Braidotti, Stevanato; Sheisa Cyléia, Sargi; Jeane Eliete Laguila, Visentainer; Márcia Machado De Oliveira, Dalalio; Makoto, Matshushita; Nilson Evelázio De, Souza; Jesuí Vergílio, Visentainer.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A experimentação animal apresenta uma grande importância para o desenvolvimento da ciência. O uso de camundongos em experimentos ocorre devido à semelhança destes animais com os seres humanos, fácil criação e manutenção e resposta experimental bastante rápida. Esses animais possuem as mesmas enzimas [...] dessaturases e elongases que os humanos, por isso são usados em pesquisas envolvendo incorporação e síntese de ácidos graxos em tecidos. Os ácidos graxos da família ômega-3 e ômega-6 são de suma importância na dieta humana, pois estes não são sintetizados pela síntese de novo e são precursores dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados de cadeia muito longa, como os ácidos eicosapentaenóico, docosahexaenóico e araquidônico. Estes desempenham funções importantes no organismo, como a síntese de eicosanóides que estão envolvidos diretamente no sistema imune e nas respostas inflamatórias. A razão entre o consumo de ácidos graxos n-6 e n-3 na dieta é um importante fator para determinar a ingestão adequada de ácidos graxos bem como prevenir o aparecimento de doenças. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar a incorporação de ácidos graxos em tecidos de animais e discutir a importância dos ácidos da família n-3 e seus metabólitos no sistema imunológico. Abstract in english Experiments with animals are very important for the improvement of science. The use of mice in experiments is due to their similarity with humans, the easy of raising and maintaining them and their very fast response. These animals have the same desaturase and elongase enzymes as humans and so they [...] are used in research involving the incorporation and synthesis of fatty acids in tissues. The fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 are extremely important in the human diet because they are not synthesized de novo and are precursors of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as the eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids. These acids play important roles in animals, such as precursors of eicosanoids, which are directly involved in the immune system and inflammatory response. The dietary n-3:n-6 intake ratio is important for assessing proper fatty acid intake and for preventing the development of diseases. Thus, this article assessed the incorporation of fatty acids in animal tissues and discussed the importance of n-3 fatty acids and its metabolites for the immune system.

  17. Ácidos graxos poli-insaturados n-3 e n-6: metabolismo em mamíferos e resposta imune Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: metabolism in mammals and immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ângelo De Lima Perini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A experimentação animal apresenta uma grande importância para o desenvolvimento da ciência. O uso de camundongos em experimentos ocorre devido à semelhança destes animais com os seres humanos, fácil criação e manutenção e resposta experimental bastante rápida. Esses animais possuem as mesmas enzimas dessaturases e elongases que os humanos, por isso são usados em pesquisas envolvendo incorporação e síntese de ácidos graxos em tecidos. Os ácidos graxos da família ômega-3 e ômega-6 são de suma importância na dieta humana, pois estes não são sintetizados pela síntese de novo e são precursores dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados de cadeia muito longa, como os ácidos eicosapentaenóico, docosahexaenóico e araquidônico. Estes desempenham funções importantes no organismo, como a síntese de eicosanóides que estão envolvidos diretamente no sistema imune e nas respostas inflamatórias. A razão entre o consumo de ácidos graxos n-6 e n-3 na dieta é um importante fator para determinar a ingestão adequada de ácidos graxos bem como prevenir o aparecimento de doenças. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar a incorporação de ácidos graxos em tecidos de animais e discutir a importância dos ácidos da família n-3 e seus metabólitos no sistema imunológico.Experiments with animals are very important for the improvement of science. The use of mice in experiments is due to their similarity with humans, the easy of raising and maintaining them and their very fast response. These animals have the same desaturase and elongase enzymes as humans and so they are used in research involving the incorporation and synthesis of fatty acids in tissues. The fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 are extremely important in the human diet because they are not synthesized de novo and are precursors of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as the eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids. These acids play important roles in animals, such as precursors of eicosanoids, which are directly involved in the immune system and inflammatory response. The dietary n-3:n-6 intake ratio is important for assessing proper fatty acid intake and for preventing the development of diseases. Thus, this article assessed the incorporation of fatty acids in animal tissues and discussed the importance of n-3 fatty acids and its metabolites for the immune system.

  18. Investigation of gene expressions related to cholesterol metabolism in rats fed diets enriched in n-6 or n-3 fatty acid with a cholesterol after long-term feeding using quantitative-competitive RT-PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, M; Shimada, K; Ohashi, E; Saitoh, H; Sonoyama, K; Sekikawa, M; Nakano, M

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a method to quantitate hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) B, LDL receptor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet after long-term feeding using competitive RT-RCR. Rats (8 wk of age) fed a conventional diet were shifted to diets containing 10% perilla oil (PEO, oleic acid+linoleic acid+alpha-linolenic acid), borage oil (BRO, oleic acid+linoleic acid+gamma-linolenic acid), evening primrose oil (EPO, linoleic acid+gamma-linolenic acid), mixed oil (MIO, oleic acid+linoleic acid+gamma-linolenic acid+alpha-linolenic acid), or palm oil (PLO, palmitic acid+oleic acid+linoleic acid) with 0.5% cholesterol for 15 wk. There were no significant differences in the food intake and body weight gain among the groups. The liver weight in the PEO and PLO groups was significantly higher than other groups. The serum total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)+intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL)+low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations were consistently higher in PLO group than in the other groups. The serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in the PEO group than in the other groups. The liver cholesterol concentration group was significantly higher in the PEO than in the other groups. There were no significant differences in the hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level among the groups. Hepatic apo B, HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA levels were not affected by the experimental conditions. However, hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA level in the PEO and MIO groups tended to be higher than in the other groups. The fecal cholesterol extraction was significantly higher in the MIO and PLO groups than in the PEO and EPO groups and the total bile acid extraction was significantly higher in the PEO and MIO groups than in the PLO group. The results of this study demonstrated that both n-6 fatty acid and n-3 fatty acids such as gamma-linolenic acid and alpha-linolenic acid lowered serum total cholesterol and VLDL+IDL+LDL-cholesterol concentrations of rats in the presence of excess cholesterol in the diet compared with dietary saturated fatty acid. PMID:11575578

  19. Impact of 20:4n-6 supplementation on the fatty acid composition and hemocyte parameters of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaporte, Maryse; Soudant, Philippe; Moal, Jeanne; Giudicelli, Emilie; Lambert, Christophe; Séguineau, Catherine; Samain, Jean-François

    2006-06-01

    Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ArA) and its eicosanoid metabolites have been demonstrated to be implicated in immune functions of vertebrates, fish, and insects. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of ArA supplementation on the FA composition and hemocyte parameters of oysters Crassostrea gigas. Oyster dietary conditioning consisted of direct addition of ArA solutions at a dose of 0, 0.25, or 0.41 microg ArA per mL of seawater into tanks in the presence or absence of T-Iso algae. Results showed significant incorporation of ArA into gill polar lipids when administered with algae (up to 19.7%) or without algae (up to 12.1%). ArA supplementation led to an increase in hemocyte numbers, phagocytosis, and production of reactive oxygen species by hemocytes from ArA-supplemented oysters. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of Vibrio aestuarianus extracellular products on the adhesive proprieties of hemocytes was lessened in oysters fed ArA-supplemented T-Iso. All changes in oyster hemocyte parameters reported in the present study suggest that ArA and/or eicosanoid metabolites affect oyster hemocyte functions. PMID:16981435

  20. Trabajos de Investigación Increase of plasma fatty acids without changes in n-6/n-3-PUFA ratio in asymptomatic obese subjects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jerusa, Brignardello; Pamela, Morales; Erik, Diaz; Oscar, Brunser; Martin, Gotteland.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad está asociada con una inflamación de bajo grado que contribuye al desarrollo de la insulino-resistencia y de la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos saturados (AGS), monoinsaturados (AGMI) y poliinsaturados (AGPI) en sujetos o [...] besos asintomáticos y determinar el ratio ácido araquidónico/ácido eicosapentanoico [ARA/EPA] como un posible marcador de inflamación, con su eventual asociación con los niveles de proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (PCRus). Se reclutaron 14 sujetos obesos (34,4 ± 11.1 años; índice de masa corporal: 36,0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) y 12 normopeso (30,6 ± 7.8 años; índice de masa corporal: 23,6 ± 2,4 kg/m2); las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos fueron determinados por cromatografía de gases. Los niveles de PCRus fueron más elevadas en los sujetos obesos (p=0,01) y correlacionaron con el contenido de grasa corporal. Los porcentajes relativos de AGS, AGMI, AGPI no se vieron afectados en los sujetos obesos, pero sus concentraciones plasmáticas se incrementaron en comparación con el grupo control. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias en las concentraciones de PUFAs de cadena larga (DHA, EPA y ARA) ni en el ratio ARA/EPA en los sujetos obesos. Estas observaciones no apoyan el uso del ratio ARA/EPA como un marcador de inflamación de bajo grado evaluada por PCRus en este grupo de sujetos obesos asintomáticos. Abstract in english Obesity is associated with a low grade inflammation which contributes to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the total saturated (SFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma from asymptomatic obese subjects and [...] to determine the arachidonic/eicosapentanoic acid ratio [ARA/EPA] as a marker of inflammation, and its eventual association with ultrasensitive CRP. Fourteen obese (34.4 ± 11.1y.; BMI: 36.0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) and 12 normal-weight (30.6 ± 7.8y.; BMI: 23,6± 2,4 kg/m2) subjects were recruited and their plasma fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. usCRP was higher in the obese subjects (p=0,01) and correlates with their body fat content. The percentages of SFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs were not affected in the obese subjects but their concentrations were increased, compared with the control group. However, no differences in the long chain PUFAs (DHA and EPA) concentrations or in the plasmatic ARA/EPA ratio were observed in these subjects. These observations do not support a relation between the ARA/EPA ratio and the presence of low grade inflammation evaluated by plasma usCRP in this group of asymptomatic obese subjects.

  1. Targeted alterations in dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids improve life functioning and reduce psychological distress among patients with chronic headache: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Christopher E; Faurot, Keturah R; Zamora, Daisy; Palsson, Olafur S; MacIntosh, Beth A; Gaylord, Susan; Taha, Ameer Y; Rapoport, Stanley I; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M; Mann, J Douglas

    2015-04-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are precursors of bioactive lipid mediators posited to modulate both physical pain and psychological distress. In a randomized trial of 67 subjects with severe headaches, we recently demonstrated that targeted dietary manipulation-increasing omega-3 fatty acids with concurrent reduction in omega-6 linoleic acid (the H3-L6 intervention)-produced major reductions in headache compared with an omega-6 lowering (L6) intervention. Because chronic pain is often accompanied by psychological distress and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL), we used data from this trial to examine whether the H3-L6 intervention favorably impacted these domains. Additionally, we examined the effect of the interventions on the number of cases with substantial physical or mental impairments as defined by cutoff values in the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18), Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms 12 (SF-12), Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), and the number of headache days per month. In the intention-to-treat analysis, participants in the H3-L6 group experienced statistically significant reductions in psychological distress (BSI-18 mean difference: -6.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11.43 to -1.69) and improvements in SF-12 mental (mean difference: 6.01; 95% CI: 0.57 to 11.45) and physical (mean difference: 6.65; 95% CI: 2.14 to 11.16) health summary scores. At 12 weeks, the proportion of subjects experiencing substantial impairment according to cutoff values in the BSI-18, SF-12 physical, HIT-6, and headache days per month was significantly lower in the H3-L6 group. Dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, previously shown to produce major improvements in headache, was found to also reduce psychological distress and improve HRQOL and function. PMID:25790451

  2. Efeito dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 na expressão de genes do metabolismo de lipídeos e risco de aterosclerose / Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in the lipid metabolism and risk of atherosclerosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Helena Fonseca, Raposo.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A aterosclerose, principal responsável pela patogênese do infarto miocárdico e cerebral, bem como pela gangrena e por outras doenças vasculares periféricas, permanece como principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade nas populações "ocidentalizadas". Estima-se que 17,5 milhões de pessoas morreram por [...] doenças cardiovasculares em 2005, o que representou 30% das causas de morte nesse ano, e que, em 2015, 20 milhões de pessoas morrerão por doenças cardiovasculares no mundo. Os ácidos graxos n-3, principalmente os de cadeia longa, encontrados nos peixes, têm-se mostrado particularmente úteis na prevenção e tratamento de doenças como dislipidemias, diabetes mellitus e obesidade, apresentando importante efeito cardioprotetor. Nesse contexto, pesquisas têm evidenciado que ao menos parte dos benefícios dos ácidos graxos eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico sobre o risco de doenças cardiovasculares é decorrente da modulação de genes responsivos aos receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomos e envolvidos no metabolismo lipídico. Nesta revisão, pretende-se expor alguns mecanismos de ação dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 sobre o metabolismo de lipídeos e de lipoproteínas. Conclui-se que muitos aspectos que contribuem para o risco de doenças cardiovasculares são afetados pela ingestão de n-3. Além da redução de triglicérides, fatores como o aumento de adiponectina, a redução da concentração de colesterol plasmático e a melhora do transporte reverso de colesterol também são responsáveis pela redução do risco de aterosclerose promovida pelos ácidos graxos n-3. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos adicionais para definir mais claramente os mecanismos celulares e moleculares responsáveis pelo efeito cardioprotetor dos ácidos graxos n-3. Abstract in english Atherosclerosis, the main cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, gangrene and other peripheral vascular diseases, also persists as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Western populations. Roughly 17.5 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2005, representing 30% of the causes [...] of death in that year, and in 2015, another 20 million people will die of cardiovascular diseases around the world. The n-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain n-3 found in fish, have been shown to be particularly effective in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus and obesity, presenting an important cardioprotective effect. In this context, studies have found that at least some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids regard the modulation of genes that respond to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors involved in lipid metabolism. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of some n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In conclusion, many aspects that contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases are affected by n-3 intake. N-3 fatty acids not only reduce triglycerides, but also promote factors that increase adiponectin, reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the reverse cholesterol transport, and all of these contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. However, additional studies are still necessary to elucidate all the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the cardioprotective effect of n-3 fatty acids.

  3. Efeito dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 na expressão de genes do metabolismo de lipídeos e risco de aterosclerose Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in the lipid metabolism and risk of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Fonseca Raposo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A aterosclerose, principal responsável pela patogênese do infarto miocárdico e cerebral, bem como pela gangrena e por outras doenças vasculares periféricas, permanece como principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade nas populações "ocidentalizadas". Estima-se que 17,5 milhões de pessoas morreram por doenças cardiovasculares em 2005, o que representou 30% das causas de morte nesse ano, e que, em 2015, 20 milhões de pessoas morrerão por doenças cardiovasculares no mundo. Os ácidos graxos n-3, principalmente os de cadeia longa, encontrados nos peixes, têm-se mostrado particularmente úteis na prevenção e tratamento de doenças como dislipidemias, diabetes mellitus e obesidade, apresentando importante efeito cardioprotetor. Nesse contexto, pesquisas têm evidenciado que ao menos parte dos benefícios dos ácidos graxos eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico sobre o risco de doenças cardiovasculares é decorrente da modulação de genes responsivos aos receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomos e envolvidos no metabolismo lipídico. Nesta revisão, pretende-se expor alguns mecanismos de ação dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 sobre o metabolismo de lipídeos e de lipoproteínas. Conclui-se que muitos aspectos que contribuem para o risco de doenças cardiovasculares são afetados pela ingestão de n-3. Além da redução de triglicérides, fatores como o aumento de adiponectina, a redução da concentração de colesterol plasmático e a melhora do transporte reverso de colesterol também são responsáveis pela redução do risco de aterosclerose promovida pelos ácidos graxos n-3. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos adicionais para definir mais claramente os mecanismos celulares e moleculares responsáveis pelo efeito cardioprotetor dos ácidos graxos n-3.Atherosclerosis, the main cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, gangrene and other peripheral vascular diseases, also persists as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Western populations. Roughly 17.5 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2005, representing 30% of the causes of death in that year, and in 2015, another 20 million people will die of cardiovascular diseases around the world. The n-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain n-3 found in fish, have been shown to be particularly effective in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus and obesity, presenting an important cardioprotective effect. In this context, studies have found that at least some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids regard the modulation of genes that respond to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors involved in lipid metabolism. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of some n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In conclusion, many aspects that contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases are affected by n-3 intake. N-3 fatty acids not only reduce triglycerides, but also promote factors that increase adiponectin, reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the reverse cholesterol transport, and all of these contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. However, additional studies are still necessary to elucidate all the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the cardioprotective effect of n-3 fatty acids.

  4. Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Lands

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential fatty acids (EFA are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy.

  5. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition. In particular it relates to the use of said composition as a feed and/or a food composition

  6. Effect of a dietary intervention to reduce the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation on selected maternal and cord blood biomarkers in relation to infant body composition up to 2 years of life

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Within a randomized controlled trial (INFAT study), the impact of a dietary intervention to reduce the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation on selected biomarkers in maternal blood, cord blood and breast milk (the adipokines leptin and adiponectin, insulin, triglycerides) was investigated. Additionally, in an observational approach, associations of these parameters with infant weight gain and body composition up to 2 years postpartum were explored.

  7. Interaction of Fatty Acid Genotype and Diet on Changes in Colonic Fatty Acids in a Mediterranean Diet Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Porenta, Shannon R.; Ko, Yi-An; Gruber, Stephen B.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Baylin, Ana; Raskin, Leonid; Ren, Jianwei; DJURIC, Zora

    2013-01-01

    A Mediterranean diet increases intakes of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids and lowers intake of n-6 fatty acids. This can impact colon cancer risk since n-6 fatty acids are metabolized to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interactions of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase genes, FADS1 and FADS2, and changes in diet on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. A total of 108 individuals at increased risk of colon cancer were randomized to either a Medit...

  8. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  9. Comparative Effects of n-3, n-6 and n-9 Unsaturated Fatty Acid-Rich Diet Consumption on Lupus Nephritis, Autoantibody Production and CD4+ T Cell-Related Gene Responses in the Autoimmune NZBWF1 Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Pestka, James J.; Vines, Laura L.; Bates, Melissa A.; He, Kaiyu; Langohr, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypical autoimmune disease, correlates with the onset and severity of kidney glomerulonephritis. There are both preclinical and clinical evidence that SLE patients may benefit from consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in fish oil, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we employed the NZBWF1 SLE mouse model to compare the effects of dietary lipids on the onset and severity of autoimmune glomerulonephritis after ...

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  11. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effl...

  12. Discovery of essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Arthur A; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  13. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA...

  14. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan?ica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  15. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation and separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed acco...

  16. BIOSYNTHESIS OF TETRAHYDROFURANYL FATTY ACIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavibacter sp. ALA2 converts linoleic acid into many novel oxygenated products including hydroxy fatty acids and tetrahydrofuranyl unsaturated fatty acids (THFAs). One of them was tentatively identified by GC/MS as 12,13,16-trihydroxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid (12,13,16-THOA, Hou et al. J Am. Oil Che...

  17. Human requirement for N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, A P

    2000-07-01

    The diet of our ancestors was less dense in calories, being higher in fiber, rich in fruits, vegetables, lean meat, and fish. As a result, the diet was lower in total fat and saturated fat, but contained equal amounts of n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids. Linoleic acid (LA) is the major n-6 fatty acid, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the major n-3 fatty acid. In the body, LA is metabolized to arachidonic acid (AA), and ALA is metabolized to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The ratio of n-6 to n-3 essential fatty acids was 1 to 2:1 with higher levels of the longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as EPA, DHA, and AA, than today's diet. Today this ratio is about 10 to 1:20 to 25 to 1, indicating that Western diets are deficient in n-3 fatty acids compared with the diet on which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established. The n-3 and n-6 EPA are not interconvertible in the human body and are important components of practically all cell membranes. The N-6 and n-3 fatty acids influence eicosanoid metabolism, gene expression, and intercellular cell-to-cell communication. The PUFA composition of cell membranes is, to a great extent, dependent on dietary intake. Therefore, appropriate amounts of dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids need to be considered in making dietary recommendations. These two classes of PUFA should be distinguished because they are metabolically and functionally distinct and have opposing physiological functions; their balance is important for homeostasis and normal development. Studies with nonhuman primates and human newborns indicate that DHA is essential for the normal functional development of the retina and brain, particularly in premature infants. A balanced n-6/n-3 ratio in the diet is essential for normal growth and development and should lead to decreases in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases and improve mental health. Although a recommended dietary allowance for essential fatty acids does not exist, an adequate intake (AI) has been estimated for n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids by an international scientific working group. For Western societies, it will be necessary to decrease the intake of n-6 fatty acids and increase the intake of n-3 fatty acids. The food industry is already taking steps to return n-3 essential fatty acids to the food supply by enriching various foods with n-3 fatty acids. To obtain the recommended AI, it will be necessary to consider the issues involved in enriching the food supply with n-3 PUFA in terms of dosage, safety, and sources of n-3 fatty acids. PMID:10901194

  18. Depression and long chain n-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue in adults from Crete

    OpenAIRE

    Mamalakis, G.; Kalogeropoulos, N.; Andrikopoulos, N.; Hatzis, C.; Kromhout, D; Moschandreas, J.; Kafatos, A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Only one study has investigated the relationship of essential fatty acids in the adipose tissue with depression in adults and suggested an inverse relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) (DHA) and depression. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between adipose tissue polyunsaturated fatty acids especially n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, an index of long-term or habitual fatty acid intake, and depression in adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of healthy adults from the islan...

  19. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid. 1. Fatty acid modification of yolks and neonatal fatty acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, M A; Devitt, A A; Meunier, R A; Stewart, J J; Watkins, B A

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on neonatal fatty acid metabolism. In this study, layer hens (n = 40) were divided into four equal groups and subjected to the following treatments. Group A served as the control group, Group B received 1 g CLA every other day, Group C received 1 g CLA every 4th d, and Group D was sham-supplemented with 1 g safflower oil every other day. After 4 mo of feeding, Group B hens exhibited an increase in BW and egg size; however, there were no differences noted in feed consumption among the various treatment groups. At the same time, hens were inseminated with a constant dose of pooled rooster semen to evaluate changes in chick liver and yolk fatty acid metabolism during neonatal growth. At hatch and through 6 d of age, there were no significant differences in breakout data (fertility and numbers of early-, mid-, or late-dead chicks) or chick BW, respectively. However, Group B chicks exhibited an increase in liver 18:3n3 and 22:1n9 and a decrease in 20:3n6 and 22:5n3 fatty acids when compared with chicks from Groups A and D. Also noted for Group B chicks, yolk 18:0 fatty acid was higher than that for Group A and D chicks. These results suggest that CLA alters lipid metabolism in growing chicks. PMID:10875761

  20. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  1. Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, C; Ross, R.P; Fitzgerald, G F; Patterson, E; Wall, R.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed “eicosanoids,” which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show str...

  2. Autistic Children Exhibit Decreased Levels of Essential Fatty Acids in Red Blood Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Brigandi, Sarah A.; Shao, Hong; Qian, Steven Y.; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-Lin; Jing X. Kang

    2015-01-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3–17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids showed that the pe...

  3. Fatty Acid Composition of Rickettsiae

    OpenAIRE

    Tzianabos, Theodore; Moss, C. Wayne; McDade, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    The fatty acid compositions of selected strains of rickettsiae were studied by gas-liquid chromatography. The profiles of all the rickettsiae except Coxiella burnetii were qualitatively similar. The fatty acid composition of C. burnetii was similar to that of certain Legionella species.

  4. Incorporation of chylomicron fatty acids into the developing rat brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, G. J.; Tso, P S; Connor, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    The developing brain obtains polyunsaturated fatty acids from the circulation, but the mechanism and route of delivery of these fatty acids are undetermined. 14C-labeled chylomicrons were prepared by duodenal infusion of [1-14C]16:0, [1-14C]18:2(n-6), [1-14C]18:3(n-3), or [1-14C]22:6(n-3) into adult donor rats, and were individually injected into hepatectomized 2-wk-old suckling rats. After minor correction for trapped blood in the brain, the incorporation of chylomicron fatty acids after 30 ...

  5. Heterogeneity in limb fatty acid kinetics in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchetti, M; Olsen, D B; Saltin, B; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In order to test the hypothesis that disturbances in skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism with type 2 diabetes are not equally present in the upper and lower limbs, we studied fatty acid kinetics simultaneously across the arm and leg of type 2 diabetic patients (n=6) and matched control subjects (n=7) for 5 h under baseline conditions and during a 4-h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. METHODS: Limb fatty acid kinetics was determined by means of continuous [U-(13)C]palmitate ...

  6. Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thidarat Noiraksar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp. five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synechocystis sp..Medium for culture diatoms and green microalgae was F/2, and BG-11 media was used for Cyanophyceae. The microalgae were cultured beneath light intensity 143 ?Em-2s-1, light: dark illustration 12:12 hrs., temperature 28ºC, and salinities 8-30 psu. The microalgae were harvested for analyzing fatty acid by centrivugal machine at 3500 rpm. for 5 min. at temperature 20ºC and stored at -80ºC prior to analysis.Fatty acids composition of microalgae differed from species to species. The majority fatty acids composition of diatoms at the exponential phase and the stationary phase were C16:1n-7 (17.12-31.47% and 28.22-42.02%, C16:0 (13.25-19.61% and 18.83-20.67%, C20:5 n-3 (16.65-26.67% and 11.32-23.68% respectively. The principle fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae, Tetraselmis sp. were C18:3n-3 (16.17-16.67%, C16:0 (15.33-17.45%, C18:1n-9 (12.25-15.43%, C18:2n-6 (9.66-19.97%. The fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Chlorophyceae, were C18:3 n-3 (20.02-26.49% and 15.35- 30.63%, C16:0 (5.76-17.61% and 11.41-20.03%, C18:2n-6 (4.67-17.54% and 7.48-20.61% respectively. The major amounts of fatty acids content of blue green microalgae were C16:1n-7 (9.28-34.91% and 34.48- 35.04%, C14:0 (13.34-25.96% and 26.69-28.24%, C16:0 (5.89-29.15% and 5.70-16.81% except for Anacystis sp.which had a high amount of C18:3 n-3 (23.18-27.98% but low amount of C14:0 (3.66-4.98%.Bacillariophyceae contained the highest amount of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs at both growth phases. Prasinophyceae had a small amount while in Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae they were not detected. Nitzschia cf. ovalis and Thalassiosira sp. had amount of C20:4n-6 (0.08-4.40%,C20:5 n-3 (11.32- 26.67% and C22:6 n-3 (0.80-4.20% respectively. Tetraselmis sp. had amounts of C20:4n-6 and C20:5 n-3 ranging from 0.99-1.13% and 4.18-4.70% respectively. In conclusion, Nitzschia cf. ovalis and Thalassiosira sp. would serve as good nutritional sources of HUFAs for aquaculture animals.

  7. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Meilan Xue; Yinlin Ge; Jinyu Zhang; Qing Wang(Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R. China); Lin Hou

    2012-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to constr...

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2010-01-01

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin; Buhl, Thora; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children.

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin; Buhl, Thora; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background:Polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the last thirty years. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast-milk has been suggested a contributing factor. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast-milk, body composition and timing of adiposity rebound in children.Methods:In the Copenhagen Prosp...

  11. Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihela Dujmovi?

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an infant´s daily energy needs and provide a supply of fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. The characteristics of milk lipids are largely determined by their fatty acid composition. In this work the general characteristics of breast milk and milk lipids, as well as the influence of maternal diet on composition of fatty acids in breast milk, are discussed. Breast milk provides all dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n-6 and ?-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, as well as their longer-chain more-unsaturated metabolites, including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular importance in visual and neural development, and their content in milk is a reflection of the mother´s current and long-term dietary intake. A positive association has been established between the maternal intake of fish and seafood and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid in milk. Numerous researches have been shown that supplementation with docosahexaenoic acids during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation significantly increases the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk.

  12. Product Fat-1 Transgenic Simmental Crossbred Cattle Endogenously Synthesizing Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using OSM

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Jia Lai; Jian Wang; Xiao-Mao Guo; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Meat products normally contain low omega-3 fatty acids and high ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may contribute to the prevalence of many diseases. In order to obtained in such beef with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids will be more healthy to meet people’s diet, researchers generated the fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans c fat-1 gene encoding an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the gene is absent in m...

  13. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Meilan, Xue; Yinlin, Ge; Jinyu, Zhang; Qing, Wang; Lin, Hou.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficie [...] ntly expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  14. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilan Xue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  15. Fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membrane in relation to menopausal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworek; Muti; Micheli; Krogh; Riboli; Berrino

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: Menopausal status effects female anatomical functioning at a variety of system-wide and cellular levels, including cellular membrane composition. This study analyzed a nested case-control ORDET data set of 433 pre and post-menopausal breast cancer controls to examine the effects of menopausal status on the fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membrane.METHODS: ORDET is a prospective cohort study conducted in Italy to investigate the etiologic role of hormones and diet in breast cancer development. The fatty acid composition was measured and analyzed by gas chromotography, comparing retention time with standard measurement. Twenty-two individual fatty acids were measured, recorded, and categorized into four fatty acid groups: saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated n-6 (PUFA n-6), and polyunsaturated (PUFA n-3) fatty acids.RESULTS: Post-menopausal women had consistently lower mean values for all four fatty acid categories and all individual fatty acids. Statistically significant mean differences, by menopausal status, were observed for three of the four fatty acid categories: saturated fatty acids (p = 0.006), PUFA n-6 acids (p = 0.001), and PUFA n-3 acids (p = 0.000). The biggest statistically significant differences in mean values among individual fatty acids for each category were observed for Palmitic acid (p = 0.009), Oleic acid (p = 0.040), Linoleic acid (p = 0.000), and Docosahexaenoic acid (p = 0.000). Individual fatty acids were also less highly correlated among post-menopausal women.CONCLUSIONS: There was an observed relationship between menopausal status and the fatty acid composition of the red blood cell membrane that warrants further study. This relationship may contribute to the physiological and psychological changes that occur during and after menopause, and may have far-reaching implications for women's health. PMID:11018419

  16. Extracellular secretion of free fatty acids by the chrysophyte Ochromonas danica under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah; El-Sheekh, Mostafa; Hanelt, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Recently, microalgae have gained a lot of attention because of their ability to produce fatty acids in their surrounding environments. The present paper describes the influence of organic carbon on the different fatty acid pools including esterified fatty acids, intracellular free fatty acids and extracellular free fatty acids in Ochromonas danica. It also throws light on the ability of O. danica to secrete free fatty acids in the growth medium under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. Biomass production of photoautotrophically grown O. danica was higher than that of mixotrophically grown, where a cellular biomass formation of 1.8 g L(-1) was observed under photoautotrophic condition which was about five folds higher than that under mixotrophic conditions. Contrary, the esterified fatty acid content reached up to 99 mg g(-1) CDW under photoautotrophic conditions at the late exponential phase, while during mixotrophic conditions a maximum of 212 mg g(-1) CDW was observed at the stationary phase. Furthermore, O. danica cells grown under mixotrophic conditions showed higher intracellular free fatty acid and extracellular free fatty acid contents (up to 51 and 20 mg g(-1) CDW, respectively) than cells grown under photoautotrophic conditions (up to 26 and 4 mg g(-1) CDW, respectively). The intra- and extracellular free fatty acids consisted of a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6. PMID:25212544

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    BELTZ, BARBARA S.; Michael F. Tlusty; Benton, Jeannie L.; SANDEMAN, DAVID C.

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus america...

  18. The role of essential fatty acids in the control of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, Mia Sadowa; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from various research paradigms supports the cardiovascular benefits of a high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the long-chain, marine-derived n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids. The effect of the plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is, however, not clear. Concerns about a high n-6 PUFA intake has been raised, because n-6 PUFA may weaken the effects of n-3 PUFA.

  19. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated. PMID:25772191

  20. Investigation of the constituent fatty acids of some freshwater fishes common in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ugoala

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the constituent fatty acids of some freshwater fish species as well as compare the nutritional quality of freshwater fish with that of marine fish by comparing the levels of essential fatty acids present. The fatty acids profile of freshwater fish species include minor amounts of odd-number, branched-chain, and even-number fatty acids as well as saturated components, the monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major saturated fatty acids were C14:0 and C16:0. The C18:1 is the prominent monounsaturated fatty acids while the C18:2 is the dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids. The essential fatty acids compositions showed prominence in C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6. The overall significance of this study had been its revelation that freshwater fish are good source of omega-6 essential fatty acids. The high percent of saturated fatty acids in freshwater fish gives them an advantage in curing processing.

  1. Analysis of Fatty Acids from Gentiana olivieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsala Mansoor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The plants of Gentiana olivieri collected from Hazar Ganji, Quetta, were analysed for their fatty acid composition. The acids were converted into methyl esters and identified by Gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which revealed the presence of pentadecanoic, hexadecanoic, heptadecanoic, octadecenoic and nonadecanoic acid. The only unsaturated fatty acid found was heptadecatrienoic acid.

  2. Effect of Linseed Supplementation on Carcass, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž ?ervek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of linseed supplementation on carcass, meat quality and fatty acid profile of fat tissue was studied. No differences in carcass and meat quality traits were observed, the exception being drip loss that was lower in pigs supplemented with linseed. As regards fatty acids, linseed supplementation led to the increased content of unsaturated, polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids and decreased content of saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3 ratio in the subcutaneous and intramuscular fat of pigs.

  3. Seasonal Effects on the Levels of Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Swordfish (Xiphias Gladius) Muscles According to Body Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Ali Ben Smida

    2014-01-01

    Contents and total levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were determined for swordfish samples collected during the four seasons and at seven body parts of swordfish. Variability in the levels of total fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in n-3 and n-6 was observed during the seasons and between samples taken at different locations. Seasonal variability is greater than the variability between body parts of swordfish. A content of 33.7g/100g F...

  4. Fatty Acid Composition of Human Colostrums of Burkinabe Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbone Virginia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare/contrast the colostrum lipid composition of 53 Burkinabe women, collected in 2005 at the Maternity of Centre Medical Saint Camille in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso, with similar data obtained in breast milk, five years ago and then to show the evolution of this important aliment. The fatty acid composition of colostrum samples was determined by Gas-liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Saturated lipids (C8:0-C:14-0 showed a progressive increasing trend in the Burkinabe woman colostrum with respect those already measured five years ago. The C15:0-C24:0 fractions were found costantly higher, but their trends were in progressive decrement. The 18:2n-6 fraction (linoleic acid reached the highest value in the third day post partum. The 18:3n-3 was constantly higher in the second and third days. The 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid and LC n-6 PUFA were lower ever since the first day, but with a trend to increase. Also 22: 6n-3 and LC n-3 PUFA were costantly lower. The 18:2n-6/18:3n-3 and LC n-6/LC n-3 ratios were lower and higher, respectively, if compared with those already measured five years ago. These results suggest the need to improve alimentary habits of mothers in order to restore the balanced n-6/n3 PUFA ratio in their colostrums.

  5. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed. The ten species were: chicory (Cichorium intybus), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), birds-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), white meliot (Melilotus officinalis), ...

  6. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  7. Fatty acid composition of frequently consumed foods in Turkey with special emphasis on trans fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Ihsan

    2007-12-01

    Fatty acid compositions of frequently consumed foods in Turkey were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with particular emphasis on trans fatty acids. The survey was carried out on 134 samples that were categorized as meat products, chocolates, bakery products and others. The meat products except chicken-based foods have trans fatty acids, arising as a result of ruminant activity, with an average content of 1.45 g/100 g fatty acids. The conjugated linoleic acid content of meat and chicken doner kebabs were found higher than other meat products. Chocolate samples contained trans fatty acids less than 0.17 g/100 g fatty acids, with the exceptional national product of chocolate bars and hazelnut cocoa cream (2.03 and 3.68 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). Bakery products have the highest trans fatty acid contents and ranged from 0.99 to 17.77 g/100 g fatty acids. The average trans fatty acid contents of infant formula and ice-cream, which are milk-based products, were 0.79 and 1.50 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively. Among the analyzed foods, it was found that coffee whitener and powdered whipped topping had the highest saturated fatty acid contents, with an average content of 98.71 g/100 g fatty acids. PMID:17852509

  8. Sex differences in the relationship of dietary fatty acids to cognitive measures in American children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Lassek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Because the first neurons evolved in an environment high in the n-3 (omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, this fatty acid became a major component of neural structure and function and makes up 10% of the dry weight of the human brain. Since n-3 fatty acids must come from the diet, this suggests a possible positive role for dietary n-3 fatty acids in cognition and a possible negative role for n-6 fatty acids, which compete with n-3 for access to critical enzymes. Because human females must provide DHA for the growth of the unusually large brains of their offspring from maternal fat stored during childhood, their need for DHA is especially great. We used stepwise regression to determine whether particular dietary fatty acids and other nutrients were related to cognitive performance in over 4000 American children aged 6 to 16 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; a variety of possible biological, social and environmental risk factors were statistically controlled. In this context the only dietary factors related to cognitive performance were n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Dietary n-3 fatty acids were positively related to cognitive test scores in male and female children, while n-6 showed the reverse relationship, significantly so in females. In female children the positive effects of n-3 intake were twice as strong as in males and exceeded the negative effects of lead exposure. This suggests that increasing dietary intake of n-3 and decreasing n-6 fatty acids may have cognitive benefits in children, especially in females.

  9. Plasma Fatty Acid Profile of Gestating Ewes Supplemented with Fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun M. Or-Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (>18C cannot be adequately synthesized by ruminant tissues to meet their requirements; therefore, their concentration in body depends on the supply through feed. It may be possible to improve the essential fatty acid status of ruminant animals, during gestation by manipulating the maternal diet with Fishmeal (FM. The objectives of this research were to (1 determine the effect of fishmeal supplementation on the plasma fatty acid profile of ewes during late gestation and (2 determine the status of the plasma docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 of lambs born to these ewes. Approach: Eight gestating ewes [Rideau-Arcott, 97±5 kg initial body weight, 100 days of gestation] were used in a completely randomized design. Ewes were individually-housed and fed either a control diet (supplemented with soybean meal or a fishmeal supplemented diet. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture for plasma fatty acids analysis on 100, 114, 128 and 142 days of â??gestationâ?. Blood samples from the lambs were also collected via jugular venipuncture immediately after birth and before receiving their mothersâ?? colostrum. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The ewes from both groups, i.e., control and fishmeal supplemented, had a similar fatty acid profile prior to supplementation (at 100 days, p>0.05. Thereafter, there was an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid, total n3-PUFA and total very long chain n3-PUFA (>C18 contents in plasma for the fishmeal supplemented ewes compared to the control (p0.05 in total saturated fatty acids, total monounsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid, total trans-18:1, total cis-18:1, or total n6-PUFA contents in ewe plasma between control and fishmeal supplemented groups. Lambs born to ewes fed the fishmeal supplemented diet had greater (pConclusion: The ewes supplemented with fishmeal supplementation showed a positive response with the enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and total very long chain n3-PUFA in plasma during gestation and these fatty acids were transferred to the fetus as well.

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

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    Stewart Jeromson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  11. Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By incorporation of 3H2O into the fatty acid chain in the presence of unlabelled precursor, we showed that fatty acids are synthesized from PGA, PEP and pyruvate by intact spinach chloroplasts in the light. 13C-tracer experiments confirmed that 1-C of pyruvate is decarboxylated and 2-C is incorporated into fatty acids by the chloroplasts. The patterns of fatty acids synthesized from PGA and pyruvate were the same as that from acetate. The highest rate of fatty acid synthesis was reached at the physiological concentration of PGA (3 mM) and pyruvate (1 mM). These results indicate the operation of the following path in the chloroplasts in light: PGA?PEP?pyruvate?acetylCoA?fatty acids. Since citrate and OAA were much less active and malate and glyoxylate were inert as precursors for fatty acid synthesis, PEP or pyruvate carboxylation, citrate lyase reaction and malate synthetase reaction are not involved in the formation of acetylCoA and fatty acids. Since pyruvate was much more effective as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis than lactate, acetaldehyde or acetate, direct decarboxylation path is considered to be the primary path from pyruvate to acetylCoA. The insignificant effect of chloroplast-washing on fatty acid synthesis from PGA and pyruvate indicates that the glycolytic path from PGA to pyruvate is associated with the chloroplasts. Since pyruvate was more effectively incorporated into fatty acids than acetylCoA, it is unlikely that pyruvate decarboxylation to acetylCoA is due to mitochondria contaminating the chloroplast preparation. On the basis of measurements of 3H2O incorporation in the light and dark, the activity of fatty acid synthesis in spincah leaves appears to be shared by the activities in chloroplasts (87%) and other organelles (13%). (author)

  12. Simulation of Palm based Fatty Acids Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Peng Jiun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have long been recognized for their commercial value in the absence of glycerol. Chemicals derived from fatty acids are widely used in the formulation of detergents, lubricant, surfactants and in pharmaceutical industries. In addition, fatty acids also play a vital role in human metabolism and are widely used as catalyst in some chemical reactions. Commercially produced fatty acids are derived from naturally occurring fats and oils through the process of hydrolysis. Most of these raw materials result in nature as complex mixtures of triglycerides, alcohols and other esters. Alternatively, common edible oils used are sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, palm and palm kernel oil. Crude fatty acids can be obtained from the process of hydrolysis and will be purified through total distillation. Due to fatty acid market demand, the purity requirement of distillated fatty acid products is increasing greatly. Since desired purity of fatty acid is achievable through the most common and most efficient means of fractionation distillation process, study on simulation of fatty acids distillation has a significant contribution to the oleo chemical industry. In this simulation study, the optimization of the tray specification, feed stream pressure and temperature on the purity performance of the fatty acid composition are investigated. In South East Asia, palm tree fruit ripen continuously and can be harvested all year round. Therefore, palm based fatty acids are selected to be used as the feed components. In the present study, binary and multi-component distillations of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are studied. This simulation model is developed by using HYSYS simulator with suitable thermodynamic package chosen. A shortcut simulation method is built in advanced for preliminary estimations and for determining rigorous operating limits. Eventually, parametric optimization is performed to obtain the optimum operating conditions of the rigorous distillation column.

  13. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Atshaves, B.P.; Martin, G G; Hostetler, H.A.; McIntosh, A.L.; Kier, A. B.; Schroeder, F.

    2010-01-01

    While low levels of unesterified long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are normal metabolic intermediates of dietary and endogenous fat, LCFAs are also potent regulators of key receptors/enzymes, and at high levels become toxic detergents within the cell. Elevated levels of LCFAs are associated with diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mammals evolved fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that bind/sequester these potentially toxic free fatty acids in the cytosol and present them f...

  14. Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of three Mediterranean cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Feist, Christian; Sagredos, Angelos

    2006-10-01

    Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in three commercially important cephalopods of the Mediterranean sea (cuttlefish, octopus and squid) were determined. The results of the proximate analysis showed that these species had very high protein:fat ratios similar to lean beef. Docosahexaenoic, palmitic and eicosipentaenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids among analyzed species. The amount of n-3 fatty acids was higher than that of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 fatty acids. Despite the fact that cephalopods contain small amounts of fat they were found quite rich in n-3 fatty acids. Finally, PDCAAS indicated that these organisms had a very good protein quality. PMID:17009215

  15. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX. : Fatty Acid Synthesis from Enzymically and Chemically Acetylated Rabbit Mammary Gland Fatty Acid Synthetase.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids. Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles of acetate were bound per mole of fatty acid synthetase, with 20–25 moles being bound to thiol groups per mole of enzyme. Acylation did not inhibit enzyme activity. The majority of the bound acetate was stable to hydrolysis at o °C. Out of the 60 moles of acetate bound per mole of acetylated enzyme, up to 20 moles were incorporated into fatty acids in the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH. # 4. 4. Due to the rapid hydrolysis of acetyl-fatty acid synthetase prepared from both acetyl-CoA and acetic anhydride, direct carboxylation of acetyl-fatty acid synthetase to form malonyl-fatty acid synthetase could not be demonstrated by CO2 fixation under the experimental conditions used. With acetic anhydride as acetyl donor, there was a low rate of incorporation of acetate into fatty acids in the presence of NADPH but absence of added malonyl-CoA. This could be due to direct carboxylation of the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase or, if any CoA were associated with the fatty acid synthetase, to carboxylation of acetyl-CoA formed by chemical acetylation of this CoA.

  16. Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompéia C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

  17. Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Pompéia; L.R., Lopes; C.K., Miyasaka; J., Procópio; P., Sannomiya; R., Curi.

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion mole [...] cule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

  18. Centesimal composition and fatty acids of meat from lambs fed diets containing soybean hulls

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lívia Santos, Costa; Robério Rodrigues, Silva; Fabiano Ferreira da, Silva; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Julliana Izabelle, Simionato; Jair de Araújo, Marques; Vinícius Lopes da, Silva; Cláudia Batista, Sampaio.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and fatty acids in meat from animals fed diets containing levels of soybean hulls. The experiment was conducted at UESB in Itapetinga-BA, Brazil. Twenty-five confined Santa Inês rams were used. Treatments consisted of different l [...] evels of substitution of corn by soybean hulls (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) and elephant grass silage as forage. The design was completely randomized. Samples of concentrate and silage were collected to evaluate the fatty acid composition. The experimental period lasted 110 days. After this period, the animals were slaughtered and samples of the longissimus muscle were collected and vacuum-packed for further analysis. The levels of total lipid and protein showed quadratic effect with the increase of soybean hulls in the diet, as the moisture increased linearly with inclusion. There was no effect of treatments on the percentage of ash. The composition of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA/SFA and omega 6 (n-6) did not change, but increases in n-3 and reduction in the n-6:n-3 ratio were observed when the the amount of soybean hulls in the diet increased. The content of fatty acid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ranged from 3.0 to 4.0 g/kg at levels of substitution. The inclusion of soybean hulls in the diet increased CLA, the n-3 and decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio.

  19. Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Fatty Acid Binding Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jun; Lücke, Christian; Chen, Zhongjing; Qiao, Ye; Klimtchuk, Elena; Hamilton, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a cytosolic protein most abundant in liver, is associated with intracellular transport of fatty acids, nuclear signaling, and regulation of intracellular lipolysis. Among the members of the intracellular lipid binding protein family, L-FABP is of particular interest as it can i), bind two fatty acid molecules simultaneously and ii), accommodate a variety of bulkier physiological ligands such as bilirubin and fatty acyl CoA. To better understand the p...

  20. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF1?). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1? knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1? as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  1. Creating ?-3 Fatty-Acid-Enriched Chicken Using Defatted Green Microalgal Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatrell, Stephanie K; Kim, JongGun; Derksen, Theodore J; O'Neil, Eleanore V; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-10-28

    This study was to create an ?-3 (n-3) fatty-acid-enriched chicken product using defatted green microalgae (DGA, Nannochloropsis oceanica) biomass out of biofuel research. Hatching Ross broiler chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 0 (control), 2, 4, 8, or 16% DGA for 6 weeks (n = 6 cages/diet). The DGA inclusion resulted in a linear (p broilers to produce a n-3 fatty-acid-enriched chicken meat. PMID:26395320

  2. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of raw and hot smoked sturgeon (Huso huso, L. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yalçin; Turan, Hülya; Erdem, M Emin

    2008-01-01

    Changes in fatty acid and amino acid composition in hot smoked sturgeon (Huso huso, L. 1758) were studied. The sturgeon was smoked for 20 min at 30 degrees C, followed by 90 min at 50 degrees C and 40 min at 80 degrees C. The palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) increased (Psmoking, respectively. The oleic acid content in smoked sturgeon decreased from 28.29% to 25.93%, but no change (P>0.05) was observed in the total monounsaturated fatty acid composition of fish after smoking. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents decreased from 21.03% to 4.93%, from 4.65% to 0.49% and from 12.41% to 0.51% in sturgeon after smoking, respectively. The total n-3 and n-6 contents and the n-3/n-6 ratio of raw and smoked sturgeon were 17.48-1.35, 3.54-3.58 and 4.94-0.38, respectively. The atherogenic index and index of thrombogenicity values of raw and smoked sturgeon were determined as 1.01-0.31 and 1.93-1.24, respectively. The smoking process caused an increase (Pisoleucine >methionine >hidoksil-1-proline >valine, and a decrease (Pserine >threonine >leucine >tyrosine >histidine >lysine >proline. However, the changes in alanine, glycine and phenylalanine were insignificant (P>0.05). PMID:19382336

  3. Influence of goats feeding on the fatty acids content in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Klir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of modeling the content of fatty acids of milk fat, in order to increase the contents of desirable n-3 unsaturated fatty acids and decrease saturated fatty acid with adequate nutrition of goats. Previous studies showed that the milk of goats on pasture increased content of caproic (C6:0, caprylic (C8:0, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, linolenic (C18:3, eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. In the same group of goats lower content of palmitoleic (C16:1, linoleic (C18:2 and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was found, as well as lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared with group of goats kept indoors and fed with alfalfa hay. In milk of goats fed with diets supplemented with safflower oil, content of CLA significantly increased, while goats fed with diets supplement with linseed oil had significantly higher content of C18:3 in milk, compared with group of goats fed without addition of these oils. Goats fed with addition of protected fish oil had significant transfer of eicosapentaenoic-EPA and docosahexaenoic-DHA fatty acids in milk. Protected fish oil reduced the negative impact of long chain fatty acids on the activity of ruminal microorganisms, consumption and digestibility of fiber, as well as inhibition of synthesis of fatty acids in milk gland. When adding unprotected fish oil, increase of stearic (C18:0 and oleic (C18:1 fatty acids occurred, because of the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen.

  4. Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SG Rondelli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn; T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fat. The lipids from the diets had significantly statistical effects (p<0,05 on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat. Multivariate techniques also showed differences in fatty acid composition within treatments due to sex. The studied dietary lipids affected the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S but had only small effects on the n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio.

  5. Product Fat-1 Transgenic Simmental Crossbred Cattle Endogenously Synthesizing Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using OSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Jia Lai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Meat products normally contain low omega-3 fatty acids and high ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may contribute to the prevalence of many diseases. In order to obtained in such beef with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids will be more healthy to meet people’s diet, researchers generated the fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans c fat-1 gene encoding an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the gene is absent in mammals. In this study, researchers successful product the embryo of fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle using OSM. The results of Western Blotting and fluoroscopic examination have proved that the fat-1 gene has been into genome of clone embryo and translated into proteins which could be used to embryo transfer.

  6. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  7. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  8. Hepatic steatosis in n-3 fatty acid depleted mice: focus on metabolic alterations related to tissue fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaisse WJ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only few data relating the metabolic consequences of feeding diets very low in n-3 fatty acids. This experiment carried out in mice aims at studying the impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA depletion on hepatic metabolism. Results n-3 PUFA depletion leads to a significant decrease in body weight despite a similar caloric intake or adipose tissue weight. n-3 PUFA depleted mice exhibit hypercholesterolemia (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol as well as an increase in hepatic cholesteryl ester and triglycerides content. Fatty acid pattern is profoundly modified in hepatic phospholipids and triglycerides. The decrease in tissue n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio correlates with steatosis. Hepatic mRNA content of key factors involved in lipid metabolism suggest a decreased lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, PPAR?, and an increased ?-oxidation (CPT1, PPAR? and PGC1? without modification of fatty acid esterification (DGAT2, GPAT1, secretion (MTTP or intracellular transport (L-FABP. Histological analysis reveals alterations of liver morphology, which can not be explained by inflammatory or oxidative stress. However, several proteins involved in the unfolded protein response are decreased in depleted mice. Conclusion n-3 PUFA depletion leads to important metabolic alterations in murine liver. Steatosis occurs through a mechanism independent of the shift between ?-oxidation and lipogenesis. Moreover, long term n-3 PUFA depletion decreases the expression of factors involved in the unfolded protein response, suggesting a lower protection against endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatocytes upon n-3 PUFA deficiency.

  9. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress. PMID:26358696

  10. Effects of free fatty acids per se on glucose production, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Peter; Hother-Nielsen, Ole; Landau, Bernard R; Chandramouli, Visvanathan; Holst, Jens Juul; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2003-01-01

    Insulin-independent effects of a physiological increase in free fatty acid (FFA) levels on fasting glucose production, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis were assessed by administering [6,6-(2)H(2)]-glucose and deuteriated water ((2)H(2)O) in 12 type 1 diabetic patients, during 6-h infusions of either saline or a lipid emulsion. Insulin was either fully replaced (euglycemic group, n = 6), or underreplaced (hyperglycemic group, n = 6). During saline infusions, plasma FFA levels remained unchange...

  11. Milk in human nutrition: Comparison of fatty acid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsi? Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk and milk products are very important in human nutrition. Fatty acids (FA, which are the major component of milk lipids, have different effects on human health. The aim of this study was to determine and compare fatty acid composition of human milk, infant formula and cow's milk most often consumed in Serbian population. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Our results showed that saturated FA were predominant in all types of milk, particularly in cow's milk with more than 70%. Monounsaturated oleic acid was significantly higher in human milk (36% than in infants formula (30% and cow's milk (26%. Although polyunsaturated FA content of cow's milk was very low (3.6% compared with infant formula (15% and human milk (19%, cow's milk had the most desirable n6/n3 ratio, and content of n-3 precursor ?-linolenic acid. Low content of n-3 FA may be due to a relatively low consumption of marine foods in Serbian population. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are important in infant development and maintenance of overall human health, were detected only in human milk. These results suggest that human milk is the most desirable food in infants' nutrition, but low content of n-3 FA indicates that supplementation of lactating women with n-3 FA is highly recommendable.

  12. Inhibition of hypothalamic fatty acid synthase triggers rapid activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Seung Hun; Hu, Zhiyuan; Chohnan, Shigeru; Lane, M. Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Malonyl-CoA functions as a mediator in the hypothalamic sensing of energy balance and regulates the neural physiology that governs feeding behavior and energy expenditure. The central administration of C75, a potent inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase (FAS), increases malonyl-CoA concentration in the hypothalamus and suppresses food intake while activating fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Closely correlated with the increase in muscle fatty acid oxidation is the phosphorylation/inact...

  13. Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

  14. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.; Elgersma, A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude pro...

  15. Polyhydroxy Fatty Acids Derived from Sophorolipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting from 17-hydroxyoleic acid, which is readily available from acid alcoholysis of sophorolipids, several new polyhydroxy fatty acids have been synthesized. These compounds contain from 2 to 5 hydroxy groups, in some instances combined with other functional groups. The added hydroxy groups ca...

  16. Modification of essential fatty acid composition in broodstock of cultured European eel Anguilla anguilla L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Jarlbæk, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Farmed eels had lower levels of arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) (ARA) and higher ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) (EPA):ARA compared to wild European eels collected from the Baltic Sea and southern Norwegian coast. Eels fed a formulated feed (JD) with a distribution of essential fatty acids (EFA) resembling wild European eel were sampled after 0, 5, 10, 14 and 44 weeks of feeding to examine changes in fatty acid composition (FAC) in ovaries, visceral fat and muscle. The results showed a sl...

  17. The effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D on growth and bone mineralization in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D are important for fat and bone metabolism but the intake is declining in Western societies with a potential deleterious effect on growth and bone health. Dietary PUFA composition favors the intake of omega-6 (n-6 PUFA) compared to omega-3 (n-3 PUFA). Hormones (eicosanoids) from n-6 PUFA induce fat cell differentiation and an intake high in n-3 PUFA relative to n-6 PUFA is hypothesized to inhibit differentiation and hypertrophy of adipose cells and...

  18. Synthesis and utilization of fatty acids by wild-type and fatty acid auxotrophs of Caulobacter crescentus.

    OpenAIRE

    Letts, V; Shaw, P.; SHAPIRO, L; Henry, S.(CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille, France)

    1982-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was found to consist primarily of 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids, both saturated and monounsaturated, in agreement with the findings of Chow and Schmidt (J. Gen. Microbiol. 83:359-373, 1974). In addition, two minor but as yet unidentified fatty acids were detected. Chromatographic mobilities suggested that these fatty acids may be a cyclopropane and a branched-chain fatty acid. In addition, we demonstrated that the fa...

  19. Plasma Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Major Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Milak, Matthew S.; Hibbeln, Joseph. R.; Freed, Peter J.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Malone, Kevin M; Parsey, Ramin V.; Mann, J. John

    2009-01-01

    Deficiencies in polyunsaturated essential fatty acids (PUFA) are implicated in mood disorders, although mechanisms of action and regional specificity in the brain are unknown. We hypothesized that plasma phospholipid PUFA levels are correlated with regionally specific relative cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (rCMRglu). 29 medication-free depressed subjects were studied using [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6...

  20. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calder P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6. Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

  1. The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Nutritional Landscape: Health Benefits and Sources123

    OpenAIRE

    Deckelbaum, Richard J; Torrejon, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids (FA) are increasingly recognized as major biologic regulators and have properties that relate to health outcomes and disease. The longer chain, more bioactive (n-6) (or omega-6) FA and (n-3) (or omega-3) FA share similar elongation and desaturation enzymes in their conversion from the essential (n-6) FA, linoleic acid, and (n-3) FA, ?-linolenic acid (ALA). Conversion from these essential FA is very inefficient. However, now for the (n-3) FA series, soy oil can be enriched ...

  2. Study of fatty acid-bacteria interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. During our work we investigated fatty acid-bacteria interactions. The antibacterial property of fatty acids was reported by several authors. Despite of them there is not reassuring explanation about the mechanism of the antibacterial activity of these compounds. An effect can considerably change in case of different structured fatty acids. Our earlier studies conduct that small changes in the structures can modify changes in their behavior towards bacteria. The stearic acid does not cause any antibacterial effects during the first few hours of the investigation, may even help the bacterial growth. However, linolic acid (C18:2) shows a strong antibacterial effect during the first hours. After 24 hours this effect wears out and the bacteria have adapted to the stress. We studied the antibacterial activity using direct bioautography. This method has the advantage to allow examining lipophilic compounds. The linoleic acid decomposes in time under different physiological conditions creating numerous oxidized molecules. This may be the reason of its antimicrobial effect. For studying this phenomenon we used infrared and mass spectroscopic methods. We applied infrared spectroscopy for indicating any changes in the spectra of the fatty acids after the interaction of fatty acids with bacteria. So we are able to deduct on what could happen during these process. We paid great attention towards the changes of double bonds, on methylation and demethylation processes. Using mass spectroscopy we searched for oxidized products that may play important role in this process. These studies are only part of our more widespreading investigations, dealing with the antimicrobial properties of fatty acids.

  3. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  4. Effect of intravenous omega-3 fatty acid infusion and hemodialysis on fatty acid composition of free fatty acids and phospholipids in patients with end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup

    2011-01-01

    Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have been reported to have decreased levels of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ?-3 PUFAs administered intravenously during HD, as well as the effect of HD treatment, on the fatty acid composition of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), plasma phospholipids, and platelet phospholipids.

  5. Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Total Fatty Acids in Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Gomis, Domingo; Mangas, J.J. (Juan); Margolles, Inmaculada; Arias, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the composition of total fatty acids in an apple beverage, cider. Fatty acids are present in the free or esterified form and contribute to both the flavor and foam properties of cider. Fatty acids were separated and identified as methyl esters by GC-MS, and 12 of these were subsequently determined by GC-FID. The major fatty acids found in cider were caproic, caprylic, capric, and palmitic acid, the saturated acids predominating over the unsaturated ones. The pro...

  6. Fatty acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hepatocytes and influence of dietary vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubhaug, Ingunn; Tocher, Douglas R; Bell, J Gordon; Dick, James R; Torstensen, Bente E

    2005-06-01

    Isolated hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), fed diets containing either 100% fish oil or a vegetable oil blend replacing 75% of the fish oil, were incubated with a range of seven (14)C-labelled fatty acids. The fatty acids were [1-(14)C]16:0, [1-(14)C]18:1n-9, 91-(14)C]18:2n-6, [1-(14)C]18:3n-3, [1-(14)C]20:4n-6, [1-(14)C]20:5n-3, and [1-(14)C]22:6n-3. After 2 h of incubation, the hepatocytes and medium were analysed for acid soluble products, incorporation into lipid classes, and hepatocytes for desaturation and elongation. Uptake into hepatocytes was highest with [1-(14)C]18:2n-6 and [1-(14)C]20:5n-3 and lowest with [1-(14)C]16:0. The highest recovery of radioactivity in the cells was found in triacylglycerols. Of the phospholipids, the highest recovery was found in phosphatidylcholine, with [1-(14)C]16:0 and [1-(14)C]22:6n-3 being the most prominent fatty acids. The rates of beta-oxidation were as follows: 20:4n-6>18:2n-6=16:0>18:1n-9>22:6n-3=18:3n-3=20:5n-3. Of the fatty acids taken up by the hepatocytes, [1-(14)C]16:0 and [1-(14)C]18:1n-9 were subsequently exported the most, with the majority of radioactivity recovered in phospholipids and triacylglycerols, respectively. The major products from desaturation and elongation were generally one cycle of elongation of the fatty acids. Diet had a clear effect on the overall lipid metabolism, with replacing 75% of the fish oil with vegetable oil resulting in decreased uptake of all fatty acids and reduced incorporation of fatty acids into cellular lipids, but increased beta-oxidation activity and higher recovery in products of desaturation and elongation of [1-(14)C]18:2n-6 and [1-(14)C]18:3n-3. PMID:15921956

  7. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.

    2002-01-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  8. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory

  9. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.; Gerward, Leif

    2002-01-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the...

  10. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  11. Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graça, Silva; Renato B., Pereira; Patrícia, Valentão; Paula B., Andrade; Carla, Sousa.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the consumption of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatizat [...] ion. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid was found in all but one species. Additionally, some species contained docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid of the ?-6 series, was present in all studied macroalgae. Fucus spiralis L. exhibited the highest amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ?-3 and ?-6 series. The ?-6/?-3 ratio in half of the studied species was lower than 1. This information reinforces the potential application of some brown macroalgae as dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  12. Involvement of N6 and N3 polyunsaturated faty acids on the lipidic profile in central nervous system of the animals of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Iamandei1, Veronica Mocanu1, T. Oboroceanu2, Veronica Luca1

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: N-3 and N-6polyunsaturated fatty acids has manyinvolvements in activities within orentering in regulating various physiologicalprocesses and in certain pathologies.Among systemic physiological effects inwhich they are involved we mention thecentral nervous system development andrecall of the retina, regulating plasma lipidlevels, cardiovascular and immune systemfunctions, regulating the activity of insulin.Material and methods: The experimentthere were used 60 male Wistar rats , weight180 ± 20 grams, procured from the animalfarm of the Department ofPathophysiology, University of Medicineand Pharmacy “Gr.T. Popa”, Ia?i.Male Wistar rats were divided into twostudy groups: normal control animals (Mand test animals.Test group was further divided intothree groups - each group being composedof 15 animals.Administration of the substances wasmade for 36 weeks (nine months, afterwhich the animals were evaluated andsubsequently sacrificed.Results: Following statistical analysis, wedetermined the following:• Averages of AGP n3 were significantlyhigher in groups 2 (p <0.001 and 3 (p<0.001 compared with group 4• Averages ratio n6: n3 in nerve cellmembrane were significantly lower ingroups 2 (p <0.001 and 3 (p <0.001compared with group 4Discussions: Our experimentdemonstrates that increased amounts ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids in themembranes of nerve cells which can justifythe positive evolution of animals inassessing the performance of concomitantbehavioral tests.Conclusions: This study brings new lighton the importance of the existence of abalance between PUFA intake and dailydiet.

  13. Membrane Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition Regulates Cardiac SERCA Activity in a Hibernator, the Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Giroud, Sylvain; Frare, Carla; Strijkstra, Arjen; Boerema, Ate; Arnold, Walter; Ruf, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (Tb) and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+?ATPase 2a (SERCA) in the heart of hib...

  14. Synthesis and utilization of fatty acids by wild-type and fatty acid auxotrophs of Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, V; Shaw, P; Shapiro, L; Henry, S

    1982-09-01

    The fatty acid composition of the dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was found to consist primarily of 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids, both saturated and monounsaturated, in agreement with the findings of Chow and Schmidt (J. Gen. Microbiol. 83:359-373, 1974). In addition, two minor but as yet unidentified fatty acids were detected. Chromatographic mobilities suggested that these fatty acids may be a cyclopropane and a branched-chain fatty acid. In addition, we demonstrated that the fatty acid composition of wild-type C. crescentus can be altered by growing the cells in medium supplemented with any one of a variety of unsaturated fatty acids. Linoleic acid, a diunsaturated fatty acid which is not synthesized by C. crescentus, was incorporated into phospholipids without apparent modification. In addition, we found that C. crescentus, like Escherichia coli, synthesizes vaccenic acid (18:1 delta 11,cis) rather than oleic acid (18:1 delta 9,cis). This result allowed us to deduce that the mechanism of fatty acid desaturation in C. crescentus is anaerobic, as it is in E. coli. Finally, we examined the fatty acid biosynthesis and composition of two unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophs of C. crescentus. Neither of these mutants resembled the E. coli unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophs, which have defined enzymatic lesions in fatty acid biosynthesis. Rather, the mutants appeared to have defects relating to the complex coordination of membrane biogenesis and cell cycle events in C. crescentus. PMID:7107555

  15. Effects of n3 Intake on Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Sex Hormone Profiles in Postmenopausal Women: Potential for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer risk is associated with dietary fat intake. Omega-6 fatty acids (n6) promote while omega-3 fatty acids (n3) inhibit tumorigenesis. Increased sex hormone (SH) concentrations are associated with risk of breast cancer. The effects of total fat and n3 on SH and PLFA were assessed in a f...

  16. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Martemucci Giovanni; D’Alessandro Angela Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference...

  17. Fatty acid composition of Piedmont "Ossolano" cheese

    OpenAIRE

    ZEPPA, Giuseppe; GIORDANO, Manuela; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Arlorio, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of 66 samples of "Ossolano", a typical semi-hard cheese produced from raw cow milk in the Ossola valley (North Piedmont, West Italy) was determined. The survey was carried out on 24 summer cheeses produced in mountain farms (1500-2200 m) with milk from pasture-fed cows and 42 winter cheeses produced in valley farms (500-800 m) with milk from hay- and concentrate-fed cows. Seasonal variation in feeding condition was responsible for the observed variations in fatty acid c...

  18. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, SØren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive value and FA concentrations. FA concentrations were generally lower in June after a heavy cut than in May and August.

  19. / Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nabeel M, Alikunhi; Rajendran, Narayanasamy; Kathiresan, Kandasamy.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lacto [...] bacillus xylosus), camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii) y peces (Mugil cephalus), que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar. Abstract in english Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus), prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macr [...] obrachium rosenbergii) and finfish (Mugil cephalus), that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2): 577-587. Epub 2010 June 02.

  20. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel M Alikunhi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus, camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii y peces (Mugil cephalus, que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar.Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus, prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii and finfish (Mugil cephalus, that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2: 577-587. Epub 2010 June 02.

  1. Essential fatty acid deficiency in malnourished children : erythrocyte and breastmilk fatty acid compositions in different populations

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Elsiena Neeltina,

    2002-01-01

    Many studies have shown that essential fatty acids (EFA) and their long-chain metabolites (long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, abbreviated LCPUFA) play important roles in processes like growth and development. EFA and LCPUFA are either from the ?3 series (e.g. ?-linolenic acid, ALA; docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) or ?6 series (e.g. linoleic acid,LA; arachidonic acid, AA). They are mainly derived from vegetable oils, animal products (e.g. meat, eggs and fish) and breastmilk. Intake of thes...

  2. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; SØegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed. The ten species were: chicory (Cichorium intybus), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), birds-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), white meliot (Melilotus officinalis), caraway (Carum carvi), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), white clover (Trifolium repens) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). FA content in single species deviated considerably, although the main FA were C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6, with chervil being the exception with C18:1n-9 as main FA. The majority of FA were found in the phospholipid and sterol fraction, with C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6 as the dominating FA.

  3. Adding value to plant oils and fatty acids: Biological transformation of fatty acids into ?-hydroxycarboxylic, ?,?-dicarboxylic, and ?-aminocarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Mee; Lee, Jinwon; Park, Jin-Byung

    2015-12-20

    Not only short chain ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids, ?,?-dicarboxylic acids, and ?-aminocarboxylic acids but also medium to long chain carboxylic acids are widely used as building blocks and intermediates in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Thereby, recent achievements in biological production of medium to long chain carboxylic acids are addressed here. ?-Hydroxycarboxylic and ?,?-dicarboxylic acids were synthesized via terminal CH bond oxygenation of fatty acids and/or internal oxidative cleavage of the fatty acid carbon skeletons. ?-Aminocarboxylic acids were enzymatically produced from ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids via ?-oxocarboxylic acids. Productivities and product yields of some of the products are getting close to the industrial requirements for large scale production. PMID:26546054

  4. Effect of Feeding with Algae on Fatty Acid Profile of Goat’S Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou?imská L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine whether the inclusion of algae Chlorella vulgaris in dairy goats’ diets would change the fatty acid profile and increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in goat’s milk. White short-haired dairy goats on 2nd and 3rd lactations were fed 5 and 10 g of dried algae supplementation for six weeks. The fatty acids profile of milk was analyzed using gass chromatography (flame ionization detector (FID. The addition of dried algae caused changes of the profile of fatty acids in the milk. The more algae were added to the diet, the greater the changes in the fatty acids profile of milk were found. A statistically significant effect (P = 0.0390 was found between the control group and the group supplemented with 10 g of Chlorella vulgaris per goat per day. The greatest effect of dietary treatment was seen in the relative reduction of palmitic acid content and increased oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids content. Results suggested that the addition of algae also increased the nutritional quality of goat’s milk. There was a positive change in the ratio of SFA:MUFA:PUFA in terms of reducing the proportion of saturated fatty acids, as well as a change in the ratio of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Keulen Herman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods The fatty acid (FA composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum and two from tropical seas (Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum natans was determined using GCMS. Four independent replicates were taken from each seaweed species. Results Omega-3 (n-3 and omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, were in the concentration range of 2-14 mg/g dry matter (DM, while total lipid content ranged from 7-45 mg/g DM. The n-9 FAs of the selected seaweeds accounted for 3%-56% of total FAs, n-6 FAs for 3%-32% and n-3 FAs for 8%-63%. Red and brown seaweeds contain arachidonic (C20:4, n-6 and/or eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA, C20:5, n-3, the latter being an important "fish" FA, as major PUFAs while in green seaweeds these values are low and mainly C16 FAs were found. A unique observation is the presence of another typical "fish" fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 at ? 1 mg/g DM in S. natans. The n-6: n-3 ratio is in the range of 0.05-2.75 and in most cases below 1.0. Environmental effects on lipid-bound FA composition in seaweed species are discussed. Conclusion Marine macroalgae form a good, durable and virtually inexhaustible source for polyunsaturated fatty acids with an (n-6 FA: (n-3 FA ratio of about 1.0. This ratio is recommended by the World Health Organization to be less than 10 in order to prevent inflammatory, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. Some marine macroalgal species, like P. palmata, contain high proportions of the "fish fatty acid" eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3, while in S. natans also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 was detected.

  6. Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI PRARTONO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

  7. Extraction of Fatty Acids from Microalgae.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rousková, Milena; Kohoutková, J.; Veselý, Václav; Kaštánek, František; Šolcová, Olga

    Praha : Orgit, 2013 - (Kalenda, P.; Lubojacký, J.), s. 123-128 ISBN 978-80-86238-55-5. [International Conference on Chemical Technology (ICCT 2013) /1./. Mikulov (CZ), 08.04.2013-10.04.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : extraction * chlorella vulgaris * fatty acids Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tanja, Hess; Trinette, Ross-Jones.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different l [...] evels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  9. Lipid and Fatty Acid Requirements of Tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary lipids are an important source of highly digestible energy and are the only source of essential fatty acids required for normal growth and development. They are also carriers and assist in the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients, such as sterols and fat-soluble vitamins, serve as a source of...

  10. Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Hui; Yu Chao; Feng Dexin; Cheng Tao; Meng Xin; Liu Wei; Zou Huibin; Xian Mo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and th...

  11. Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Santos Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

  12. Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Breast Cancer Risk in Chinese Women: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Murff, Harvey J.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Xiaoyan WU; Cai, Hui; Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Controversy exists regarding the role of dietary fat in breast cancer etiology. We investigated the association of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the ratio of n-6 PUFAs to marine-derived n-3 PUFAs with breast cancer risk in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study, a prospective cohort study including 72,571 cancer-free participants at baseline. Dietary fatty acid intake was determined using food frequency questionnaires. We used Cox ...

  13. A Review of the Metabolic Origins of Milk Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria COZMA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat and its fatty acid profile are important determinants of the technological, sensorial, and nutritional properties of milk and dairy products. The two major processes contributing to the presence of fatty acids in ruminant milk are the mammary lipogenesis and the lipid metabolism in the rumen. Among fatty acids, 4:0 to 12:0, almost all 14:0 and about a half of 16:0 in milk fat derive from de novo synthesis within the mammary gland. De novo synthesis utilizes as precursors acetate and butyrate produced through carbohydrates ruminal fermentation and involves acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase as key enzymes. The rest of 16:0 and all of the long-chain fatty acids derive from mammary uptake of circulating lipoproteins and nonesterified fatty acids that originate from digestive absorption of lipids and body fat mobilization. Further, long-chain fatty acids as well as medium-chain fatty acids entering the mammary gland can be desaturated via ?-9 desaturase, an enzyme that acts by adding a cis-9-double bond on the fatty acid chain. Moreover, ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids results in the formation of numerous fatty acids available for incorporation into milk fat. Ruminal biohydrogenation is performed by rumen microbial population as a means of protection against the toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Within the rumen microorganisms, bacteria are principally responsible for ruminal biohydrogenation when compared to protozoa and anaerobic fungi.

  14. Fatty acids composition in South African freshwater fish as indicators of food quality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erasmus, Chauke; Ewa, Cukrowska; Mary-Jane, Thaela-Chimuka; Luke, Chimuka; Hermogene, Nsengimana; Hlanganani, Tutu.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid classes and fatty acid composition of three commercially important freshwater fish species Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia), Clarias gariepinus (African catfish) and Cyprinus carpio (carp) obtained from an aquaculture, different river systems and fish markets from different provinc [...] es in South Africa were investigated. Fatty acids were extracted from the fish fillets through the Folch extraction method (using chloroform: methanol at the ratio of 2:1). Generally, tilapia fish species was found to be the richest in fatty acid composition. In all fish species analysed, palmitic acid (16:0) was found to be the most abundant fatty acid ranging from 18.24 to 21.84%. Appreciable quantities of essential polyunsaturated fatty acid such as docosahexaenoic (DHA) (22:6 n-3, 3.92 to 6.16%), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5 n-3, 1.91 to 2.92%) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6, 7.19 to 8.50%) were also found. Observations show that fish species obtained from Gauteng Province are richer in fatty acids compared to those in Limpopo Province. The study points out that all fish species investigated contain appreciable levels of Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and are therefore suitable for an unsaturated low-fat diet. This is important especially for poor communities who cannot afford to get a balanced diet, rich in some essential fatty acids.Therefore, it is important to determine the nutritional value of local fish, since it significantly contribute to a healthy diet in rural communities.

  15. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk is associate to weight gain and growth in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Anibal S; Setta Cecília L; Sichieri Rosely; Tinoco Sandra; Carmo Maria

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Linoleic 18:2 (n-6) and ?-linolenic 18:3 (n-3) essential fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are essential nutrients for growth and neonatal development. Consumption of preformed n-3 LC-PUFA has been shown to increase gestational duration and to decrease the incidence of premature birth in human studies. This study evaluated the association of essential fatty acids and LC-PUFA in breast milk on the growth of premature children (weight, height a...

  16. Vitamin B-6 restriction impairs fatty acid synthesis in cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, MEI; Ralat, Maria A.; Da Silva, Vanessa; Garrett, Timothy J.; Melnyk, Stephan; James, S Jill; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 deficiency has been reported to alter n-6 and n-3 fatty acid profiles in plasma and tissue lipids; however, the mechanisms underlying such metabolic changes remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin B-6 restriction on fatty acid profiles and fatty acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Cells were cultured for 6 wk in media with four different vitamin B-6 concentrations (10, 20, 50, and 2,000 nM added pyridoxal, representing deficient, marginal, ad...

  17. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Bascuñán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of maternal diet and erythrocyte phospholipid status in Chilean pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán, Karla A; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20-36 years old) in the 3rd-6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  19. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic and alpha linolenic fatty acids into Pimedolus maculatus fillets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Beatriz, Zanqui; Swami Arêa, Maruyama; Deoclécio José, Barilli; Suellen Andressa Oenning, Ribeiro; Sandra Terezinha Marques, Gomes; Jesuí Vergílio, Visentainer; Nilson Evelázio De, Souza; Wilson Rogério, Boscolo; Makoto, Matsushita.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the fatty acid composition of Pimedolus maculatus fillets of fish fed with different diets. The fish were submitted to an adaptation period (over 30 days) and fed only a control diet (diet I). After this period, the fish were divided into two groups: on [...] e group received a diet enriched with flaxseed oil (diet II), and the other received a diet enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (diet III). Subsequent collections were undertaken after 25 and 50 days. Compared to the control samples, fish fed diet II showed an increase in concentrations of total fatty acid omega-3 (n-3) in the fillets, with an improvement ratio of n-6/n-3. The incorporation of CLA into fish fed diet III was successful. Supplementing the diet of Pimedolus maculatus with CLA and flaxseed oil led to improvements in nutritional quality and fatty acid profile of the fish fillets.

  20. Chemical composition and fatty acid contents in farmed freshwater prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Gasperi Portella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid contents of Amazonian and giant river prawns. After four-month farming, with the same diet for both species, palmitic and stearic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. Oleic acid was the main monounsatured fatty acid, and the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the most abundant polyunsaturated acids. Amazonian prawn has higher levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids than those of the giant river prawn, which shows its potential for aquaculture.

  1. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Q; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures. No significant interactions with the dietary macronutrient composition were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokineswere not associated with absolute PUFA intake, but the macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) was associated with the n-3/n-6 ratio. CONCLUSION: In humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs, in particular ALA, is beneficially associated with body fatness. The favourable association is, however, not reflected in systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nor is it influenced by macronutrients in the diet.

  2. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martemucci Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly ?-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

  3. Fatty acids intake in the Mexican population. Results of the National Nutrition Survey 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal-Medina Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006, collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ? 25%E fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA among all age-groups (45-60% and of trans fatty acids (TrFA in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk.

  4. Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Ni Fong Fong; Jumat Salimon

    2013-01-01

    Epoxidation of palm kernel oil fatty acids using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out effectively using a homogeneous reaction. It was found that epoxidation reaction occurred optimally at a temperature of 40oC and reaction time of 120 minits. The oxirane conversion was the highest at 1.46mol and 0.85mol of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid respectively. It was found that a maximum of 99% relative conversion of ethylenic oxirane was obtained, similar to the conversion of iodine v...

  5. Determination of Fatty Acid in Asparagus by Gas Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    HAJRULAI-MUSLIU, Zehra; UZUNOV, Risto; STOJANOVSKA-DIMZOSKA, Biljana; DIMITRIEVSKA-STOJKOVIC, Elizabeta; ANGELEVSKA, Aleksandra; STOJKOVSKI, Velimir

    2015-01-01

    Asparagus contain a lot of macronutrients and micronutrients including folate, dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble) and phenolic compounds. Also asparagus is a good source of unsaturated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids which are precursors for Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA). Unsaturated fatty acids have important biological effects and they have important role in human health. The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition of asparagus as a pot...

  6. The biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    MIURA, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    The author focuses on the biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids. Early studies revealed that there is a subsidiary pathway for ?-oxidation of fatty acids when ?-oxidation is blocked. Many studies demonstrated that the ?-oxidation serves to provide succinyl-CoA for the citric acid cycle and for gluconeogenesis under conditions of starvation and diabetes. Acylglucosylceramides which are composed of linoleic acid, long chain ?-hydroxy fatty acids, eicosasphingenine (or trihydroxy...

  7. Essential fatty acids influence metabolic rate and tolerance of hypoxia in Dover sole ( Solea solea ) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David; Lund, Ivar; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    Dover sole (Solea solea, Linneaus 1758) were raised from first feeding on brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) with different contents and compositions of the essential fatty acids (EFA) arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n - 6); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n - 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n - 3), and their metabolic rate and tolerance to hypoxia measured prior to and following metamorphosis and settlement. Four dietary Artemia preparations were compared: (1) un-enriched; (2) enriched with a commerc...

  8. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Gerward, L. E-mail: gerward@fysik.dtu.dk

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH{sub 2}O{sub 2}), acetic acid (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}), propionic acid (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}), butyric acid (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}O{sub 2}), n-hexanoic acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}O{sub 2}), n-caprylic acid (C{sub 8}H{sub 16}O{sub 2}), lauric acid (C{sub 12}H{sub 24}O{sub 2}), myristic acid (C{sub 14}H{sub 28}O{sub 2}), palmitic acid (C{sub 16}H{sub 32}O{sub 2}), oleic acid (C{sub 18}H{sub 34}O{sub 2}) and stearic acid (C{sub 18}H{sub 36}O{sub 2}), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  9. Protein:fatty acid complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Christel Rothe; Thiel, Steffen; Otzen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    13 years ago, ?-lactalbumin (?-LA) was first reported to form a complex with oleic acid (OA). This complex, called HAMLET, was found to be cytotoxic to cancer cells. In HAMLET, ?-LA assumes a partially unfolded conformation and can bind OA in various stoichiometries. Subsequently, different groups have been able to prepare HAMLET-like cytotoxic complexes in different ways which all involve destabilization of ?-LA, and a number of different proteins have been able to form similar complexes. This ...

  10. Effect of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) oil administered by gavage on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stress of mouse liver

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.P., Silva; C.K., Miyasaka; E.F., Martins; J.R.S.A., Leite; Z.G.M., Lacava; R., Curi; R.B., Azevedo.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of daily intragastric administration of bullfrog oil (oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic acid-rich oil), corresponding to 0.4% of body weight for four weeks, on fatty acid composition and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and catalase activ [...] ity) in mouse liver. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), biomarkers of tissue injury, were determined in liver homogenates and serum. The proportions of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids, from 37 to 60%) in the total fatty acid content were increased in the liver of the bullfrog oil-treated group (P

  11. Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids

    CERN Document Server

    Ghelmez-Dumitru, M; Piscureanu, M; Sterian, A

    2003-01-01

    Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd sup 3 sup + glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations.

  12. Phytophthora infestans Cholinephosphotransferase with Substrate Specificity for Very-Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, YAN; Chi, Hsiang-yun; Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Qiu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    The effective flux between phospholipids and neutral lipids is critical for a high level of biosynthesis and accumulation of very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). Here we describe a cDNA (PiCPT1) from Phytophthora infestans, a VLCPUFA-producing oomycete, that may have a role in acyl trafficking between diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) durin...

  13. Anorexia nervosa, seasonality, and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolnick, Barbara; Mostofsky, David I

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious neurobehavioral disorder marked by semistarvation, extreme fear of weight gain, frequently hyperactivity, and low body temperature. The etiology remains unknown. We present a speculation that a primary causative factor is that polyunsaturated fatty acids are skewed to prevent oxidative damage in phospholipid membranes. This causes a change in the trade off of oxidation protection vs homeoviscous adaptation to lower temperatures, which sets off a metabolic cascade that leads to the rogue state of anorexia nervosa. PMID:25981875

  14. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ?mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ?Ci [14C]acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest [14C]acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total 14C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1

  15. Fatty Acid Synthesis by Indonesian Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTA RIKA PRATIWI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the primary storage nutrients in diatoms consist of lipid, they are potential for the industrial fatty acid production. High value fatty acids include arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This study aimed to analyze fatty acid synthesis by Chaetoceros gracilis diatom during growth. There was a large increase in lipid yield from 4pg cell-1 mass of lipid per cell at the exponential phase to 283pg cell-1 at stationary phase. The lipid concentrations also increased significantly from the stationary phase to the death phase, but not significantly from the end exponential phase to the stationary phase. The relative percentage of saturated fatty acid (SAFA of the total fatty acid was higher than that of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at all of growth phase. The highest PUFA was found at stationary phase at the same time when SAFA was being the lowest. The majority of SAFA was palmitic acid (24.03-40.35%. MUFA contained significant proportion of oleic acid (19.6-20.9%. Oleic acid, linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid were found at every stage growth. These fatty acids are considered as precursor for production of long chain PUFA-Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA/22:6?3 through series of desaturation and elongation step with all of desaturase enzyme (?8-D, ?9-D, ?12-D, ?15-D, ?17-D, ?6-D, ?5-D, and ?4-D and elongase enzyme (E.

  16. Overview of omega-3 Fatty Acid therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, J Chris; Hilleman, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    The triglyceride (TG)-lowering benefits of the very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are well documented. Available as prescription formulations and dietary supplements, EPA and DHA are recommended by the American Heart Association for patients with coronary heart disease and hypertriglyceridemia. Dietary supplements are not subject to the same government regulatory standards for safety, efficacy, and purity as prescription drugs are; moreover, supplements may contain variable concentrations of EPA and DHA and possibly other contaminants. Reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remains the primary treatment goal in the management of dyslipidemia. Dietary supplements and prescription formulations that contain both EPA and DHA may lower TG levels, but they may also increase LDL-C levels. Two prescription formulations of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are available in the U.S. Although prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (OM-3-A EEs, Lovaza) contain high-purity EPA and DHA, prescription icosapent ethyl (IPE, Vascepa) is a high-purity EPA agent. In clinical trials of statin-treated and non-statin-treated patients with hypertriglyceridemia, both OM-3-A EE and IPE lowered TG levels and other atherogenic markers; however, IPE did not increase LDL-C levels. Results of recent outcomes trials of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, and niacin have been disappointing, failing to show additional reductions in adverse cardiovascular events when combined with statins. Therefore, the REDUCE-IT study is being conducted to evaluate the effect of the combination of IPE and statins on cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients. The results of this trial are eagerly anticipated. PMID:24391388

  17. Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adolescents: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meckling Kelly

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies of Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have focused on either young children or older adults. The current study compared 11 ADHD adolescents with 12 age-matched controls. The purpose was to examine differences in dietary intake, particularly of essential fatty acids, and determine whether this could explain the typical abnormalities in red blood cell fatty acids observed in previous studies of young children. A secondary purpose was to determine if there were relationships between circulating concentrations of essential fatty acids and specific ADHD behaviours as measured by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-L. Methods Eleven ADHD adolescents and twelve age-matched controls were recruited through newspaper ads, posters and a university website. ADHD diagnosis was confirmed by medical practitioners according to DSM-IV criteria. Blood, dietary intake information as well as behavioural assessments were completed. Results Results showed that ADHD adolescents consumed more energy and fat than controls but had similar anthropometry. ADHD children consumed equivalent amounts of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids to controls, however they had significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 and total omega-3 fatty acids, higher omega-6 fatty acids and a lower ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids than control subjects. In addition, low omega-3 status correlated with higher scores on several Conners' behavioural scales. Conclusion These data suggest that adolescents with ADHD continue to display abnormal essential fatty acid profiles that are often observed in younger children and distinctly different from normal controls of similar age. Further these red blood cell fatty acid differences are not explained by differences in intake. This suggests that there are metabolic differences in fatty acid handling between ADHD adolescents and normal controls. The value of omega-3 supplements to improve fatty acid profiles and possibly behaviours associated with ADHD, need to be examined.

  18. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ronaldo; Faria, Mario; Silva, Raimundo; Bezerra, Leilson; Carvalho, Gleidson; Pinheiro, Alyson; Simionato, Juliana; Leão, André

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables) are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg). Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001) fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016). However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045). There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05). The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065) quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%). Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12) and tridecanoic (C13) acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index. PMID:26305244

  19. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(lll)/O-2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde...

  20. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leshukov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  1. Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and ?-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA and ?-linolenic acid (LNA for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05 the ?-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in ?-linolenic acid (p < 0.05 decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05 upregulation of PPAR? and PPAR? gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene in the ST muscle for the high ?-linolenic acid group compared with the low ?-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of ?-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPAR? and PPAR?, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

  2. Fatty acid utilisation and metabolism in caecal enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed dietary fish or copepod oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Anthony; Tocher, Douglas R; Torstensen, Bente E; Olsen, Rolf E

    2005-12-15

    A combined fatty acid metabolism assay was employed to determine fatty acid uptake and relative utilisation in enterocytes isolated from the pyloric caeca of rainbow trout. In addition, the effect of a diet high in long-chain monoenoic fatty alcohols present as wax esters in oil derived from Calanus finmarchicus, compared to a standard fish oil diet, on caecal enterocyte fatty acid metabolism was investigated. The diets were fed for 8 weeks before caecal enterocytes from each dietary group were isolated and incubated with [1-14C]fatty acids: 16:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:1n-9, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3. Uptake was measured over 2 h with relative utilisation of different [1-14C]fatty acids calculated as a percentage of uptake. Differences in uptake were observed, with 18:1n-9 and 18:2n-6 showing the highest rates. Esterification into cellular lipids was highest with 16:0 and C18 fatty acids, accounting for over one-third of total uptake, through predominant incorporation in triacylglycerol (TAG). The overall utilisation of fatty acids in phospholipid synthesis was low, but highest with 16:0, the most prevalent fatty acid recovered in intracellular phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), although exported PC exhibited higher proportions of C20/C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Other than 16:0, incorporation into PC and PI was highest with C20/C22 PUFA and 20:4n-6 respectively. Recovery of labelled 18:1n-9 in exported TAG was 3-fold greater than any other fatty acid which could be due to multiple esterification on the glycerol 'backbone' and/or increased export. Approximately 20-40% of fatty acids taken up were beta-oxidised, and was highest with 20:4n-6. Oxidation of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was also surprisingly high, although 22:6n-3 oxidation was mainly attributed to retroconversion to 20:5n-3. Metabolic modification of fatty acids by elongation-desaturation was generally low at oil had generally little effect on fatty acid metabolism in enterocytes, although it stimulated the elongation and desaturation of 16:0 and elongation of 18:1n-9, with radioactivity recovered in longer n-9 monoenes. The monoenoic fatty acid, 20:1n-9, abundant in copepod oil as the homologous alcohol, was poorly utilised with 80% of uptake remaining unesterified in the enterocyte. However, the fatty acid composition of pyloric caeca was not influenced by dietary copepod oil. PMID:16257262

  3. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes by exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids is caused by lipid peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L.; Hansen, Harald S.; Grunnet, N.; Dich, J.

    1993-01-01

    Rat hepatocyte long-term cultures were utilized to investigate the impact of different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the insulin-induced de novo fatty acid synthesis in vitro. The addition of 0.5 mM albumin-complexed oleic, linoleic, columbinic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid resulted in a marked suppression of fatty acid synthesis. By evaluation of cell viability (determined as the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) it turned our, that the antioxidant used (5...

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids production by Schizochytrium sp. isolated from mangrove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.W. Fan

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Schizochytrium strains (N-1, N-2, N-5, N-6, and N-9 were isolated from fallen, senescent leaves of mangrove tree (Kandelia candel in Hong Kong. The fungi were cultivated in glucose yeast extract medium containing 60 g of glucose, 10 g of yeast extract and 1 L of 15‰ artificial seawater, initial pH 6.0, with shaking for 52 hr at 25ºC. Biomass yields of 5 isolates ranged from 10.8 to 13.2 g/l. Isolate N-2 yielding the highest dried cell mass at 13.2 g/l and isolate N-9 grew poorly with 10.8 g/l of biomass. EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3 yield was low in most strains, while DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3 was high on the same medium. The contents of DHA in biomass varied: 174.9, 203.6, 186.1, 171.3 and 157.9 mg/g of dried-biomass for Schizochytrium isolate N-1, N-2, N-5, N-6, and N-9, respectively. Isolate N-2 had the highest proportion of DHA in fatty acid profile with 15:0, 28.7%; 16:0, 21.3%; 18:0, 0.9%; 18:3, 0.2%; 20:4, 0.3%; 20:5, 0.9%; 22:4, 6.7%; 22:6, 36.1%; and others, 9.3%. The salinity range for growth of Schizochytrium isolates was from 0-30‰ with optimum salinity for growth between 20-30‰.

  5. Incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine or vegetable origin into rat enterocyte phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian; Christensen, Michael SØberg

    1997-01-01

    We examined time related effects of an intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the fatty acid profiles of rat enterocyte phospholipids. Three diets containing 20 wt% fat with similar levels of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6), approximately 11 wt% of the fatty acids, were prepared. The diets were: Palm oil diet (PD), 0.6 wt% n-3 PUFA; fish oil diet (FD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C20-C22); and linseed oil diet (LD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C18:3n-3). Forty weanling male Wistar rats were fed PD for 34 days and then divided into three groups. Two groups of sixteen rats each were then fed FD or LD, respectively, and eight rats remained on PD as a control group. At 6, 12, 18, 24, 72, 144, and 288 hours following the change of diets rats were killed, the enterocytes were isolated and the fatty acid profiles of the intestinal phospholipids were examined. During the first 12 hours following the change from PD to FD, the content of n-3 PUFA in the intestinal phospholipids increased from less than 1 mol% to approximately 20 mol%,whereas the contents of n-6 PUFA and of monoenes were reduced from 40 mol% to 28 mol% and from 19 mol% to 12 mol%, respectively. The fatty acid profiles were then largely constant during the remaining experimental period. In the LD group, the n-3 PUFA contents rose from less than 1 mol% to 10 mol% during the first 144 hours, and the content of n-6 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acids were reduced from 40 mol% to 36 mol% and from 19 mol% to 14 mol%, respectively. Desaturation and elongation products of C18:3n-3, such as C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3, were observed following intake of LD. All three groups contained approximately 40 mol% of saturated fatty acids in the intestinal phospholipids. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Inc.

  6. The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Khosro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. Methods GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA, DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (74–77% linoleic acid. Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 8–12 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR-? and retinoid × receptor-? (RXR-? were determined in a set of 18 animals per group. Results DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-? or RXR-? expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression.

  7. Proximate composition and quantification of fatty acids in breaded chicken steak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailey Aparecida Coelho Tanamati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the fatty acid and proximate composition of five brands of breaded chicken steak (A, B, C, D, and E by accurate chromatographic quantification and to compare the experimental results with food label nutrition facts. The protein values of all brands were in agreement with the Brazilian regulation values, except for that of sample E, which presented the highest lipid content. Thirteen fatty acids were identified in the studied brands and the major ones were oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. The polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios were within the values considered appropriate for human health; however, the high n-6/n-3 ratios found can result in an unbalanced intake of these fat acids. Only samples D and E can be considered trans free according to the regulations. The comparison of the analyses' results and the food label nutrition facts showed little variation in protein values. Nevertheless, most brands underestimated their lipid and energy levels. Brand B and C labels declared "free of trans", but the obteined results showed levels excedding those especified by regulation to be considered trans free values.

  8. Fatty acid composition in the mature milk of Bolivian forager-horticulturalists: controlled comparisons with a US sample

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Melanie A.; Lassek, William D.; Gaulin, Steven J.C.; Evans, Rhobert W; Woo, Jessica G; Geraghty, Sheela R.; Davidson, Barbara S.; Ardythe L. Morrow; Kaplan, Hillard S.; GURVEN, MICHAEL D

    2012-01-01

    Breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition varies greatly among individual women, including in percentages of the long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LCPUFA) 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid, AA) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), which are important for infant neurological development. It has been suggested that owing to wide variation in milk LCPUFA and low DHA in Western diets, standards of milk FA composition should be derived from populations consuming traditional diets. We collected breast milk...

  9. Fatty acid ethanolamides modulate CD36-mRNA through dietary fatty acid manipulation in Syrian Golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Rideout, Todd; Yurkova, Natalia; Yang, Haifeng; Eck, Peter; Jones, Peter J H

    2013-08-01

    Fatty acids convert to fatty acid ethanolamides which associate with lipid signalling, fat oxidation, and energy balance; however, the extent to which dietary fatty acids manipulation can impact such control processes through fatty acid ethanolamides-related mechanisms remains understudied. The objective was to examine the impact of diets containing 6% corn oil, high oleic canola oil, docosahexaenoic acid + high oleic canola oil, and fish oil on plasma and organ levels of fatty acid ethanolamides, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? regulatory targets, and lipid metabolism in Syrian Golden hamsters. After 29 days, in plasma, animals that were fed fish oil showed greater (p palmitoylethanolamide levels compared with other groups, while animals fed canola oil showed higher (p palmitoylethanolamid, which were accompanied by changes in gene expression, lipogenesis, and energy expenditure, suggesting mechanisms through which dietary fatty acids influence disease risk. PMID:23855275

  10. Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool

  11. Evolution of fatty acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L. mesocarp at different stages of ripening

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    Strnad, M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of medlar (Mespilus germanica L. varied significantly among the ripening stages sampled at 157, 172 and 187 DAFs (days after full bloom. Twenty-one different fatty acids were detected in preclimacteric fruit and 17 when the climacteric began. Principal fatty acids, determined in medlar fruit harvested from October (157 and 172 DAFs to November (187 DAF were mainly palmitic acid (16:0, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, and a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. While the content of saturated fatty acids [palmitic acid (16:0 and stearic acid (18:0] increased, the content of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and linolenic acid (18:3n-3] decreased through ripening, in parallel with pulp darkening. The percentage of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in ripe, hard fruits was 60.0 and 13.5 % of dry wt at 157 DAF which decreased throughout ripening, remaining at 28.7 and 5.6 % of dry wt, respectively, in the fully softened and darkened pulp. A marked decreases in the double bond index, percentage of unsaturation and the ratio of unsaturation/saturation were also seen throughout the medlar ripening. The contribution of unsaturated fatty acid to the total fatty acid content decreased markedly as the medlar fruit became progressively softer and darkened.La composición en ácidos grasos del níspero (Mespilus germanica L. varió significativamente entre los estados de maduración muestreados a los 157, 172 y 187 DAFs (días después de la floración. Veinte y un ácidos grasos diferentes fueron detectados en el fruto preclimatérico y 17 cuando comenzó el climaterio. Los ácidos grasos principales encontrados en nísperos, recolectados desde Octubre (157 y 172 DAFs hasta Noviembre (187 DAF, fueron principalmente ácido palmítico (16:0, ácido linoléico (18:2n-6, y ácido a-linolénico (18:3n-3. En tanto que el contenido en ácidos grasos saturados (ácido palmítico (16:0 y ácido esteárico (18:0 aumentó, el contenido en ácidos grasos esenciales (ácido linoleico (18:2n-6 y ácido linolénico (18:3n-6 disminuyó durante la maduración, en paralelo con el oscurecimiento de la pulpa. El porcentaje de ácido linoleico y de ácido a-linolénico en frutos maduros sin reblandecer fue de 60.0 y 13.5 % del peso seco a 157 DAF, disminuyendo durante la maduración, y permaneciendo a 28.7 y 56 % del peso seco, respectivamente, en la pulpa completamente blanda y oscura. También se observó durante la maduración del níspero una marcada disminución en el número de dobles enlaces, en el tanto por ciento de instauración y en la relación instauración / saturación. La contribución de los ácidos grasos insaturados al contenido de ácidos grasos totales disminuyó marcadamente cuando el níspero comenzó progresivamente a reblandecerse y oscurecerse.

  12. Unsaturated fatty acids and viability of Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazell, S L; Graham, D. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori was found to be sensitive to the toxic effects of an unsaturated fatty acid (arachidonic acid). Data are presented that support the hypothesis that exogenous catalase added to basal media enhances the growth of H. pylori by preventing the formation of toxic peroxidation products from long-chain unsaturated fatty acids.

  13. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan?ica Delaš; Tanja Ka?unko; Jasna Beganovi?; Frane Delaš

    2005-01-01

    The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available die...

  14. Fatty Acid Composition of Raw and Roasted Kulthi Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Harsha Mishra; Shahin Pathan

    2011-01-01

    Raw and roasted kulthi (Dolichos biflorus) seeds of drought prone area of Maharashtra were studied for their fatty acid composition using gas chromatographic analysis. Kulthi is under cultivation in remote areas of India. It is used as food and fodder. Legumes are in general good source of unsaturated fatty acids, which are beneficial for health. Therefore study was performed for analysis and characterization of fatty acids of raw and roasted kulthi seeds and to obtain reliable data on their ...

  15. Radioiodinated PHIPA's; metabolically trapped fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodinated PHIPA 3-10 [13-(4'-iodophenyl)-3-(p-phenylene)tridecanoic acid] has been developed for nuclear-cardiological investigation of coronary artery disease or cardiomyopathies of various origin. The compound features a phenylene group located within the backbone of a long-chain fatty acid. In spite of its bulky structure [123I]PHIPA 3-10 is extracted by the myocardium in a manner similar to that for the unmodified fatty acid analogue, [123I]IPPA. The retention of PHIPA 3-10 in heart muscle results from the presence of the p-phenylene group which prevents more than one ?-oxidation cycle. Only one single, rapidly formed metabolite was found in rat-heart extracts. According to comparative HPLC with synthetic metabolites and mass spectrometric analysis this metabolite was identified as [123I]PHIPA 1-10, a by two methylene groups shortened PHIPA derivative. Formation of this metabolite could be suppressed by Etomoxir, a carnitine palmitoyl fransferase I inhibitor, indicating ?-oxidation of [123I]PHIPA 3-10 in mitochondria. Final evidence for the involvement of mitochondria in the degradation of [123I]PHIPA 3-10 was obtained performing density-gradient centrifugation with homogenized rat heart tissue. Labeled free PHIPA 3-10 and free metabolite peaked with the fraction containing mitochondria. With respect to its biochemical characteristics, [123I]PHIPA 3-10 may be considered as a useful tool for nuclear cardiological investigations. (orig.)

  16. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Orsavova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC. Saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%, oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1% and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%, respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI, PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI, n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI, expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g. The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD and cardiovascular diseases (CVD in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations.

  17. Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    TRI PRARTONO; MUJIZAT KAWAROE; DAHLIA WULAN SARI; DINA AUGUSTINE

    2010-01-01

    High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this resea...

  18. Enveloped virus inactivation by fatty acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, J A; Auperin, L D; Reinhardt, A

    1979-01-01

    The enveloped bacteriophage phi6 has been shown to be a valuable model system for the preliminary screening of compounds that might be expected to inactivate herpes simplex virus and other enveloped mammalian viruses. A variety of fatty acid derivatives that form fluid micelles in aqueous media have been found to be potent inactivators of phi6. The chemical nature of the polar head group, the length of the alkyl chain(s), and the extent and geometry of unsaturation are all important parameters in determining the antiviral effectiveness of this class of compounds. PMID:218498

  19. Fatty acid binding receptors in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Kaemmerer, Patrick Plum, Christina Klaus, Ralf Weiskirchen, Christian Liedtke, Maximilian Adolf, Angela Schippers, Norbert Wagner, Andrea Reinartz, Nikolaus Gassler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Free fatty acids are essential dietary components and recognized as important molecules in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In the last decade, the molecular pathways for free fatty acid sensing in the gastrointestinal tract have been further elucidated by molecular identification and functional characterization of fatty acid binding receptors. These sensing molecules belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. In the intestine, four important receptors have been described so far. They differ in molecular structure, ligand specificity, expression pattern, and functional properties. In this review, an overview of intestinal fatty acid binding receptors and their role in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology is given.

  20. An alternative n-3 fatty acid elongation pathway utilising 18:3n-3 in barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Chun; Mühlhäusler, Beverly S; James, Michael J; Stone, David A J; Gibson, Robert A

    2012-06-22

    Desaturase and elongase are two key enzyme categories in the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) pathway that convert dietary ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). The ?6 desaturase is considered as rate limiting in the conversion. In a previous study in barramundi we demonstrated that the desaturase had a low ?6 activity but noted that the enzyme also possessed ?8 ability that utilised 20-carbon fatty acids. This observation suggests that an alternative pathway may exist in the barramundi via elongases to form 20-carbon metabolites from 18:3n-3 to 20:3n-3 and then ?6/8 desaturase to 20:4n-3. Cloning of the barramundi elongation of very long-chain fatty acid gene (ELOVL) and heterologous expression of the corresponding elongase were performed to examine activity with regard to time course, substrate concentration and substrate preference. Results revealed that the barramundi elongase showed a broad range of substrate specificity including 18-carbon PUFA (including 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6), 20- and 22-carbon LCPUFA, with greater activity towards omega-3 (n-3) than n-6 fatty acids. The findings from this study provide molecular evidence for an alternative n-3 fatty acid elongation pathway utilising 18:3n-3 in barramundi. PMID:22640739

  1. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

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    Gao Qianqian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS, have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

  2. Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures, a suitable system for polyunsaturated fatty acid studies and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravelo Ángel G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic and health promoting role of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs from fish, i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 are well known. These same benefits may however be shared by some of their precursors, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3. In order to obtain alternative sources for the large-scale production of PUFAs, new searches are being conducted focusing on higher plants oils which can contain these n-3 and n-6 C18 precursors, i.e. SDA and GLA (18:3n-6, ?-linolenic acid. Results The establishment of the novel Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures represents a powerful tool in order to research the accumulation and metabolism of fatty acids (FAs in a plant particularly rich in GLA and SDA. Furthermore, this study constitutes the first example of a Boraginaceae species hairy root induction and establishment for FA studies and production. The dominant PUFAs, 18:2n-6 (LA, linoleic acid and 18:3n-6 (GLA, accounted for about 50% of total FAs obtained, while the n-3 PUFAs, 18:3n-3 (ALA, ?-linolenic acid and 18:4n-3 (SDA, represented approximately 5% of the total. Production of FAs did not parallel hairy root growth, and the optimal productivity was always associated with the highest biomass density during the culture period. Assuming a compromise between FA production and hairy root biomass, it was determined that sampling times 4 and 5 gave the most useful FA yields. Total lipid amounts were in general comparable between the different hairy root lines (29.75 and 60.95 mg/g DW, with the major lipid classes being triacylglycerols. The FAs were chiefly stored in the hairy roots with very minute amounts being released into the liquid nutrient medium. Conclusions The novel results presented here show the utility and high potential of E. acanthocarpum hairy roots. They are capable of biosynthesizing and accumulating a large range of polyunsaturated FAs, including the target GLA and SDA fatty acids in appreciable quantities.

  3. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat and blood plasma in pruritic dogs and dogs without skin problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Taugbøl, O; Baddaky-Taugbøl, B; Saarem, K

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in subcutaneous fat and the relative amounts of PUFAs in plasma in two groups of dogs. Group 1 included dogs with a good skin and coat condition. Group 2 was comprised of dogs with pruritus and compatible clinical signs of atopy. The fatty acid composition of the total lipid fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography. In subcutaneous fat, the concentration of adrenic acid (22:4n-6) was lower...

  4. Changes in the fatty acid composition of wild harlequin shrimp, Hymenocera picta Dana, 1852 from eggs, newly hatched zoea and juvenile stages: an insight into the fatty acid requirements for aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarunan Pratoomyot

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The colourful harlequin shrimp, Hymenocera picta, is a valuable marine ornamental species but low survival remains a bottleneck to successful commercial culture. Understanding the biochemical composition, notably through the determination of the fatty acid profiles in wild eggs, newly hatched and juvenile shrimp, can provide important information on the nutritional requirements of H. picta. Following analysis, the rank order of fatty acid composition was saturates > monoenes > polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Within the PUFA content, n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA was the major representative in all three stages; n-6 PUFA was found in lower amounts, and, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6 was not detectable. Observed increases in EPA and DHA from the eggs through to newly hatched zoea and juvenile shrimp indicate the importance of n-3 HUFA for growth and survival, i.e. as components in the formation of cell membranes. These findings should be given due consideration as a first approach to understanding the fatty acid requirements of harlequin shrimp.

  5. Liquid biofuel production from volatile fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.

    2010-03-19

    The production of renewable fuels and chemicals reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and limits the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere only if a sustainable feedstock and an energy efficient process are used. The thesis assesses the possibility to use municipal and industrial waste as biomass feedstock to have little of no competition with food production, and to save greenhouse gasses emissions. Waste is a complex substrate with a diverse composition and high water content. It can be homogenized without losing its initial energy value by anaerobic conversion to volatile fatty acids (VFA). Using VFA gives the opportunity to process cheap and abundantly present biomass residues to a fuel and chemical instead of sugar containing crops or vegetable oil. This thesis describes the feasibility to convert VFA to compounds with a higher energy content using mixed culture fermentations by eliminating of oxygen and/or increasing the carbon and hydrogen content. At high hydrogen pressure, protons and electrons release via the reduction of organic products such as VFA becomes thermodynamically more attractive. Three VFA reduction reactions were studied: hydrogenation to an alcohol with (1) hydrogen and (2) an electrode as electron donor, and (3) by chain elongation with hydrogen and ethanol. Based on concentration, production rate and efficiency, elongation of acetate with hydrogen and/or ethanol was the best technique to convert VFA into a fuel. In a CSTR (Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor), 10.5 g L{sup -1} caproic acid and 0.48 g L{sup -1} caprylic acid were produced with ethanol and/or hydrogen at a specific MCFA (medium-chain fatty acids) production activity of 2.9 g caproate and 0.09 g caprylate per gram VSS d{sup -1} (volatile suspended solids). The products were selectively removed by calcium precipitation and solvent extraction with ethyl hexanoate and petroleum ether. Microbial characterization revealed that the microbial populations were stable and dominated by relatives of Clostridium kluyveri. VFA could also be reduced to alcohols. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids were biohydrogenated with hydrogen and acetic acid also with an electrode. Observed alcohol concentrations were 0.62 g L{sup -1} ethanol, 0.49 g L{sup -1} propanol and 0.27 g L{sup -1} n-butanol. Methanogenesis was successfully inhibited after thermal pre-treatment incubated at pH 6, while acetate reduction was enhanced. In the second study, ethanol (0.084 g L{sup -1}) was produced at the cathodic compartment of a bioelectrochemical system, in which the electron transport was mediated by methyl viologen. The ethanol production activity at the cathode was only of very short term, since the mediator irreversibly reacted at the surface of the cathode. Of the two VFA conversion processes, biohydrogenation and chain elongation, the latter was a more dominant process that consumes ethanol with acetate to medium chain fatty acids. With this technology, wet organic waste can be converted to biofuels carbon and energy efficient. The technology is promising due to the good fuel and separation properties of medium chain fatty acids, and the possibility to produce them at high concentrations and specific production rates comparable to other anaerobic conversions.

  6. Acetylenes and fatty acids from Codonopsis pilosula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueping Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Four new acetylenes (1–4 and one new unsaturated ?-hydroxy fatty acid (5, together with 5 known analogues, were isolated from an aqueous extract of Codonopsis pilosula roots. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The new acetylenes are categorized as an unusual cyclotetradecatrienynone (1, tetradecenynetriol (2, and rare octenynoic acids (3 and 4, respectively, and 3 and 4 are possibly derived from oxidative metabolic degradation of 1 and/or 2. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by comparison of the experimental circular dichroism (CD spectrum with the calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra of stereoisomers based on the quantum-mechanical time-dependent density functional theory, while the configuration of 2 was assigned by using modified Mosher?s method based on the MPA determination rule of ??RS values for diols.

  7. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 ?M fatty acids; ?-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFN?. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  8. Increased Brain Fatty Acid Uptake in Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jussi; Fielding, Barbara A.; Virtanen, Kirsi; Oikonen, Vesa; Kemppainen, Jukka; Viljanen, Tapio; Guiducci, Letizia; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Någren, Kjell; Solin, Olof; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured brain fatty acid uptake in a group of 23 patients with MS and 7 age-matched healthy control subjects during fasting conditions using positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]-palmitate and [18F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid ([18F]-FTHA). Sixteen MS subjects were restudied after 6 weeks of very low calorie diet intervention. RESULTS At baseline, brain global fatty acid uptake derived from [18F]-FTHA was 50% higher in patients with MS compared with control subjects. The mean percentage increment was 130% in the white matter, 47% in the gray matter, and uniform across brain regions. In the MS group, the nonoxidized fraction measured using [11C]-palmitate was 86% higher. Brain fatty acid uptake measured with [18F]-FTHA-PET was associated with age, fasting serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Both total and nonoxidized fractions of fatty acid uptake were associated with BMI. Rapid weight reduction decreased brain fatty acid uptake by 17%. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first study on humans to observe enhanced brain fatty acid uptake in patients with MS. Both fatty acid uptake and accumulation appear to be increased in MS patients and reversed by weight reduction. PMID:20566663

  9. Genetic variability of fatty acids in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeurt H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of bovine milk influences the technological properties of butterfat and also presents some potential benefits for human health. Impact of feeding on fat composition is well described in the literature; less information is available about the impact of genetics. Based on few studies, essentially conducted to isolate some feeding effect, the breed seemed to influence the fatty acids composition. The variation in the activity of ?-9 desaturase, key enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk, could explain these differences. Very few studies have been focussing on the estimation of genetic parameters of fatty acids composition. However, the moderate heritability estimates observed by these studies for the major fatty acids could suggest a potential genetic effect.

  10. Fatty Acid Profiles and Cholesterol Composition of Venison from Farmed Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Norfarizan-Hanoon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate venison characteristics as a new high quality red meat in the meat marketing system. This information is vital to ensure their commercial success and dietary benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the venison quality from farmed deer according to cuts or muscles based on fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content and to do comparative study on venison quality between species of farmed deer (rusa, sambar, fallow and imported red deer and feeding regimens, i.e., grass-fed vs concentrate-fed venison. The samples of venison were derived from javan rusa (Cervus timorensis russa, moluccan rusa (Cervus timorensis moluccensis, sambar (Cervus unicolor brookei, fallow (Dama dama and imported red deer (Cervus elaphus. Moluccan rusa and red deer were grass-fed deer. Javan rusa, sambar and fallow deer were concentrate-fed deer. Cholesterol content in Longissimus Dorsi (LD muscles of sambar, fallow and rusa deer were 75.36, 76.61 and 77.58 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Cholesterol content in Biceps Femoris (BF muscles of moluccan rusa, sambar, fallow and red deer were 56.61, 59.26, 86.37 and 98.44 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Concentrate-fed deer LD and Psoas Major (PM muscles show higher C18:2 (n-6 than grass-fed deer. Grass-fed rusa deer shows the highest C18:3 (n- 3 percentages in PM muscle. Grass-fed rusa and red deer gave an ideal n-6:n-3 ratio of less than 5. Species of deer did not influence n-6:n-3 ratio and fatty acid composition in venison. Feeding regimens (grass-fed vs concentrate-fed significantly (p< 0.05 influence n-6:n-3 ratio, fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content in the venison of farmed deer in this study.

  11. Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.C., Calder.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Most vegetable oils are ri [...] ch in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6), the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor) and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

  12. Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Calder

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6, the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

  13. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes by exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids is caused by lipid peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1993-01-01

    Rat hepatocyte long-term cultures were utilized to investigate the impact of different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the insulin-induced de novo fatty acid synthesis in vitro. The addition of 0.5 mM albumin-complexed oleic, linoleic, columbinic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid resulted in a marked suppression of fatty acid synthesis. By evaluation of cell viability (determined as the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) it turned our, that the antioxidant used (50 µM a-tocopherol phosphate) had a low antioxidant activity, resulting in cytotoxic effects by the peroxidized PUFA. Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid showed a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Two other antioxidants: 50 µM a-tocopherol acid succinate and 1 µM N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, both proved more efficient than a-tocopherol phosphate. There was a significant correlation between LDH-leakage and inhibition of fatty acid synthesis. Lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, also showed a significant correlation with the degree of inhibition of fatty acid synthesis. Furthermore, PUFA had no inhibitory effect on fatty acid synthesis when peroxidation was minimized by the use of proper antioxidants. These data indicate that PUFA in vitro inhibit the insulin-induced de novo fatty acid synthesis in hepatocytes from starved rats, due to cytotoxic effects caused by lipid peroxidation.

  14. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700...3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical...generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800...polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical...polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct (PMN...

  16. Fatty acids and terpenoids from Trigonia fasciculata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jair, Mafezoli; Regina Helena A., Santos; Maria Teresa P., Gambardela; Edilberto R., Silveira.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A fração lipídica do extrato hexânico das raízes de Trigonia fasciculata foi analisada por CG/EM sob a forma de seus ésteres metílicos, identificando-se dezessete ácidos graxos, sendo o ácido oléico (38,8%) o principal componente. A análise por CG/EM da fração menos polar da parte insaponificável do [...] extrato hexânico das raízes permitiu identificar quinze sesquiterpenos não oxigenados, sendo o alfa-santaleno (28,4%) o componente majoritário. Cromatografia em gel de sílica da fração mais polar permitiu o isolamento de dois triterpenos conhecidos, ácido betulínico e friedelina, e o diterpeno inédito 7-(2-hidroxiacetil)-10-hidroxitetradecaidro-1-metileno-4b,7,10a-trimetilfenantreno (6alfa-hidroxi-15-oxo-allodevadarool). Todas as substâncias isoladas e identificadas são inéditas para a espécie. A determinação estrutural foi realizada por derivatização química, comparação com dados da literatura, análise espectral, incluíndo RMN 2D (COSY, HETCOR e COLOC), e cristalografia de raios X. Abstract in english The fatty portion of the hexane extract from roots of Trigonia fasciculata has been determined by GC/MS analysis of the methyl ester mixture. Seventeen fatty acids were identified and oleic acid (38.8%) was the major component. The GC/MS analysis of the less polar fraction of the non-saponifiable pa [...] rt of the root hexane extract allowed the identification of fifteen sesquiterpenes and alpha-santalene (28.4%) was the major component. Chromatography over silica gel of the more polar fraction allowed the isolation of two known compounds: betulinic acid and friedelin, and a novel diterpene 7-(2-hydroxy-acetyl)-10-hydroxy-tetradecahydro-1-methylene-4b,7,10a-trimethyl -phenantrene (6alpha-hydroxy-15-oxo-allodevadarool), all unknown for the species. Structure determination was accomplished by chemical derivatization, comparison to literature data and spectral analysis, including 2D NMR (COSY, HETCOR, COLOC) and X-ray crystallography.

  17. Seasonal Effects on the Levels of Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Swordfish (Xiphias Gladius Muscles According to Body Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Ben Smida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Contents and total levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were determined for swordfish samples collected during the four seasons and at seven body parts of swordfish. Variability in the levels of total fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in n-3 and n-6 was observed during the seasons and between samples taken at different locations. Seasonal variability is greater than the variability between body parts of swordfish. A content of 33.7g/100g FW was observed in spring in white muscle (D1 and an amount of 26.7g/100g FW at the red muscle (RM of the caudal part in summer. For the n-3, percentages of 44.5% (of TFA at V2 was observed in the spring, at 37% D2 and D3 was 34% at V1 and D3 fall to 40% level of D1 and D2 in the winter. For red muscle, the percentages ranged from 30.2% in summer and 36.6% in winter. For n-6, the highest percentages were obtained at D1 (spring and at V2 (summer with respectively 12% and 10.6% (of TFA. During the four seasons, concentrations vary between EPA + DHA 267 mg and 8865mg / 100g (FW. Arguably, whatever the season, each body part of the swordfish is a good source of EPA + DHA.

  18. Gut Microbial Fatty Acid Metabolites Reduce Triacylglycerol Levels in Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Furumoto, Hidehiro; Zheng, Jiawen; Kim, Young-Il; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxy and oxo fatty acids were recently found to be produced as intermediates during gut microbial fatty acid metabolism. Lactobacillus plantarum produces these fatty acids from unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of these gut microbial fatty acid metabolites on the lipogenesis in liver cells. We screened their effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in HepG2 cells treated with a synthetic liver X receptor ? (LXR?) agonist (T0901317). The results showed that 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (18:1) (HYA), 10-hydroxy-6(Z),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) (?HYA), 10-oxo-12(Z)-18:1 (KetoA), and 10-oxo-6(Z),12(Z)-18:2 (?KetoA) significantly decreased SREBP-1c mRNA expression induced by T0901317. These fatty acids also downregulated the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes by suppressing LXR? activity and inhibiting SREBP-1 maturation. Oral administration of KetoA, which effectively reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) expression in HepG2 cells, for 2 weeks significantly decreased Srebp-1c, Scd-1, and Acc2 expression in the liver of mice fed a high-sucrose diet. Our findings suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of the fatty acid metabolites produced by L. plantarum can be exploited in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or dyslipidemia. PMID:26399511

  19. Role of trans fatty acids in health and challenges to their reduction in Indian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorunissa, Ghafoorunissa

    2008-01-01

    Evidence indicates that dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) obtained from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Studies have implicated TFA in increasing the risk and incidence of diabetes. Furthermore, TFA may compromise fetal and early infant growth and development. In rats, partial substitution of either linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) with saturated fatty acids (SFA, 6 en %) or SFA with TFA (3 en % from vanaspati) decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity, but these effects were greater in TFA group. Since a large proportion of Indian population is insulin resistant, the TFA content in Indian edible fats/oils and foods should be reduced. Vanaspati (PHVO) provides up to 40% TFA, is used in Indian cooking and in the preparation of commercially fried, processed, bakery, ready-to-eat and street foods. TFA in biscuits and sweets range 30-40 and 6-26% of total fatty acids respectively. There is no regulation on TFA content in vanaspati, bakery fats and shortenings. Reduction in Indian edible fats/ oils and foods can be achieved by: a) specifying limits of TFA in vanaspati, bakery fats and shortenings by upgrading technology; b) advocating the substitution of natural plant oils containing lower percent of polyunsaturated fatty acids for PHVO. Indian edible oil industry needs to develop and adopt alternative technologies to produce zero TFA. Consumer education about negative health effects of TFA and providing food based guidelines to reduce TFA consumption in the entire population need to be actively pursued. PMID:18296340

  20. Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. Results In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing ‘TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3 improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn’t strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-‘tesA-?fadL produced 4.8 g?L?1 extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g?h?1 g?1dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-‘tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired product. The strain pACY-‘tesA could also be chosen as the original strain for the next genetic manipulations. Conclusions The general strategy of metabolic engineering for the extracellular fatty acid production should be the cyclic optimization between cultivation performance and strain improvements. On the basis of our cultivation process optimization, strain improvements should be further carried out for the effective and cost-effective production process.

  1. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HesterMDen Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term ?3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ?3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ?3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ?3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ?3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (?3 or sunflower oil (?9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ?3-PUFAs. Plasma of ?3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of ?3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ?3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ?9 myocytes. In the ?9 myocytes, but not in the ?3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ?3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ?3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ?3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ?3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  2. Fatty acids composition in fruits of wild rose species

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Nowak

    2005-01-01

    The oil content and fatty acids profile of a number of Polish wild species of rose fruits were examined by GC. The total fatty acid contents ranged from 6.5% to 12.9% of dry mass in fruits. The composition of oils was similar in the investigated species. 17 components were identified. An average composition was estimated as follows: linoleic acid (44.4-55.7%), a-linolenic acid (18.6-31.4%), oleic acid (13.5-20.3%), palmitic acid (2.3-3.3%), stearic acid (1-2.5%), octadecenoic acid (0.38-0.72%...

  3. RNAi knockdown of fatty acid elongase1 alters fatty acid composition in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianghua; Lang, Chunxiu; Wu, Xuelong; Liu, Renhu; Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Dongqing; Chen, Jinqing; Wu, Guanting

    2015-10-23

    The quality and end-use of oil from oilseed crops is determined by its fatty acid composition. In particular, the relative proportions of erucic and oleic acids are key selection traits for breeders. The goal of our research is to genetically improve the nutritional quality of Brassica napus cultivar CY2, the oil of which is high in erucic acid (about 40%) and low in oleic acid (about 20%). Here, we report the use of a seed-specific napin A promoter to drive the knockdown of BnFAE1 in transgenic CY2. Southern blotting results confirmed the presence of the transgene. RT-PCR analysis showed that the levels of BnFAE1 were greatly decreased in BnFAE1-Ri lines compared with the CY2 cultivar. Knockdown of BnFAE1 sharply decreased the levels of erucic acid (less than 3%), largely increased the contents of oleic acid (more than 60%) and slightly increased the polyunsaturated chain fatty acids. Compared with high erucic acid parents, expression of BnFAE1 was dramatically decreased in developing F1 seeds derived from reciprocally crossed BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars. In addition, F1 seeds derived from reciprocal crosses between BnFAE1-Ri lines and high erucic acid cultivars showed significantly increased oleic acid (more than 52%) and sharply decreased erucic acid (less than 4%), demonstrating that the RNAi construct of BnFAE1 can effectively interfere with the target gene in F1 seeds. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BnFAE1 is a reliable target for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil quality promotion. PMID:26381181

  4. Genetic and epigenetic transgenerational implications related to omega-3 fatty acids. Part I: maternal FADS2 genotype and DNA methylation correlate with polyunsaturated fatty acid status in toddlers: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Daniel S; Cheatham, Carol L; Corbin, Karen D; Niculescu, Mihai D

    2015-11-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in toddlers is regulated by a complex network of interacting factors. The contribution of maternal genetic and epigenetic makeup to this milieu is not well understood. In a cohort of mothers and toddlers 16 months of age (n = 65 mother-child pairs), we investigated the association between maternal genetic and epigenetic fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) profiles and toddlers' n-6 and n-3 fatty acid metabolism. FADS2 rs174575 variation and DNA methylation status were interrogated in mothers and toddlers, as well as food intake and plasma fatty acid concentrations in toddlers. A multivariate fit model indicated that maternal rs174575 genotype, combined with DNA methylation, can predict ?-linolenic acid plasma concentration in all toddlers and arachidonic acid concentrations in boys. Arachidonic acid intake was predictive for its plasma concentration in girls, whereas intake of 3 major n-3 species (eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were predictive for their plasma concentrations in boys. FADS2 genotype and DNA methylation in toddlers were not related to plasma concentrations or food intakes, except for CpG8 methylation. Maternal FADS2 methylation was a predictor for the boys' ?-linolenic acid intakes. This exploratory study suggests that maternal FADS2 genetic and epigenetic status could be related to toddlers' polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26439440

  5. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of m: longissimus of free-range and conventionally reared mangalitsa pigs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N., Parunovic; M., Petrovic; V., Matekalo-Sverak; D., Trbovic; M., Mijatovic; C., Radovic.

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different feeding systems (free-range versus conventional rearing) on carcass characteristics, chemical composition, fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) of Mangalitsa pigs. Depending on the rearing [...] system employed and live weight observed, we found statistically significant differences in the weight of the warm and cold Mangalitsa carcasses. Furthermore, we observed that conventionally reared Mangalitsa pigs weighed more. Measurements showed that the free-range-fed pigs had a lower total backfat thickness in comparison with the group reared in the conventional system, but that these differences were not significant. Outdoor rearing of the pigs led to higher protein, ash and water contents, and to a decrease in total fat content and pH values of the MLLT. The choice of rearing system did not significantly affect the cholesterol content. The fat of the free-range pigs had a higher concentration of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), while the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was significantly lower than in conventionally reared pigs. The proportion of PUFA/SFA (saturated fatty acids) was not significantly different, whereas the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFA) was significantly lower in the free-range group. It is concluded that the rearing system affects the carcass properties and chemical characteristics of Mangalitsa meat; it does so in particular by improving the fatty acid composition in free-range pigs.

  6. Halogenated fatty acids : I. Formation and occurrence in lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids. However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their determination.

  7. Identification and characterization of new ?-17 fatty acid desaturases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhixiong; He, Hongxian; Hollerbach, Dieter; Macool, Daniel J; Yadav, Narendra S; Zhang, Hongxiang; Szostek, Bogdan; Zhu, Quinn

    2013-03-01

    ?-3 fatty acid desaturase is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids via the oxidative desaturase/elongase pathways. Here we report the identification of three ?-3 desaturases from oomycetes, Pythium aphanidermatum, Phytophthora sojae, and Phytophthora ramorum. These new ?-3 desaturases share 55 % identity at the amino acid level with the known ?-17 desaturase of Saprolegnia diclina, and about 31 % identity with the bifunctional ?-12/?-15 desaturase of Fusarium monoliforme. The three enzymes were expressed in either wild-type or codon optimized form in an engineered arachidonic acid producing strain of Yarrowia lipolytica to study their activity and substrate specificity. All three were able to convert the ?-6 arachidonic acid to the ?-3 eicosapentanoic acid, with a substrate conversion efficiency of 54-65 %. These enzymes have a broad ?-6 fatty acid substrate spectrum, including both C18 and C20 ?-6 fatty acids although they prefer the C20 substrates, and have strong ?-17 desaturase activity but weaker ?-15 desaturase activity. Thus, they belong to the ?-17 desaturase class. Unlike the previously identified bifunctional ?-12/?-15 desaturase from F. monoliforme, they lack ?-12 desaturase activity. The newly identified ?-17 desaturases could use fatty acids in both acyl-CoA and phospholipid fraction as substrates. The identification of these ?-17 desaturases provides a set of powerful new tools for genetic engineering of microbes and plants to produce ?-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid, at high levels. PMID:22639141

  8. Disulfide bonds in rat cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, S; Namba, Y; Ishii, A; Ono, T; Fujii, H

    2000-09-01

    Unlike other fatty acid-binding proteins, cutaneous (epidermal) fatty acid-binding proteins contain a large number of cysteine residues. The status of the five cysteine residues in rat cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein was examined by chemical and mass-spectrometric analyses. Two disulfide bonds were identified, between Cys-67 and Cys-87, and between Cys-120 and Cys-127, though extent of formation of the first disulfide bond was rather low in another preparation. Cys-43 was free cysteine. Homology modeling study of the protein indicated the close proximity of the sulfur atoms of these cysteine pairs, supporting the presence of the disulfide bonds. These disulfide bonds appear not to be directly involved in fatty acid-binding activity, because a recombinant rat protein expressed in Escherichia coli in which all five cysteines are fully reduced showed fatty acid-binding activity as examined by displacement of a fluorescent fatty acid analog by long-chain fatty acids. However, the fact that the evolutionarily distant shark liver fatty acid-binding protein also has a disulfide bond corresponding to the one between Cys-120 and Cys-127, and that fatty acid-binding proteins play multiple roles suggests that some functions of cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein might be regulated by the cellular redox state through formation and reduction of disulfide bonds. Although we cannot completely exclude the possibility of oxidation during preparation and analysis, it is remarkable that a protein in cytosol under normally reducing conditions appears to contain disulfide bonds. PMID:10965032

  9. Therapeutic Benefits Of ?-3 Fatty Acids from Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta S Khora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids play important roles in human nutrition and disease management. Fish are rich in Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LC- PUFAs. Marine fish are the best source of these fatty acids. They typically include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The major health maintenance and prevention of diseases recognized in EPA and DHA. These forms of fatty acids have excellent body usability component: Reduces heart attack risks, Reduce stroke risks, Brings down blood pressure, Manages heart rhythms and hence reducing possible heart failures. Further, Omega-3 fatty acids from fish supplements could also be useful in preventing a number of diseases including: Diabetes, Arthritis, Heart disease, Cancer, Depression, Hyperactivity. Factors underlying the popularity of ?-3 fatty acids, their recommended daily indices, clinical trials showing their benefits on cardiovascular health, and prevention of arthritis, inflammation, and allergy, child development, mental alertness, cognitive function and mood have been pointed out in this review Diseases that may be prevented or ameliorated with Omega-3 fatty acids, in descending order of the strength of the available evidence

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiac arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rix, Thomas A; Christensen, Jeppe H

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are suggestions of effects of marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in relation to ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death and, more recently, also of possible effects related to atrial fibrillation. RECENT FINDINGS: On the basis of the recently published human studies, this article not only focusses primarily on recent developments and current knowledge on the effect of marine omega-3 PUFAs on atrial fibrillation, but also provides a status for their effects on ventricular arrhythmias. SUMMARY: Marine omega-3 PUFAs may protect against ventricular arrhythmias, and there is growing evidence for an effect of marine omega-3 PUFAs in the prevention and treatment of atrial fibrillation. Further studies are needed to establish which patients are more likely to benefit from omega-3 PUFAs, the timing of treatment, and the dosages.

  12. Umbilical cord PUFA are determined by maternal and child fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genetic variants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattka, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold; Zeilinger, Sonja; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Klopp, Norman; Ring, Susan M.; Steer, Colin D.

    2012-01-01

    Fetal supply with long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy is important for brain growth and visual and cognitive development and is provided by materno–fetal placental transfer. We recently showed that maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotypes modulate the amounts of LC-PUFA in maternal blood. Whether FADS genotypes influence the amounts of umbilical cord fatty acids has not been investigated until now. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maternal and child FADS genotypes on the amounts of LC-PUFA in umbilical cord venous plasma as an indicator of fetal fatty acid supply during pregnancy. A total of eleven cord plasma n-6 and n-3 fatty acids were analysed for association with seventeen FADS gene cluster SNP in over 2000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In a multivariable analysis, the maternal genotype effect was adjusted for the child genotype and vice versa to estimate which of the two has the stronger influence on cord plasma fatty acids. Both maternal and child FADS genotypes and haplotypes influenced amounts of cord plasma LC-PUFA and fatty acid ratios. Specifically, most analysed maternal SNP were associated with cord plasma levels of the precursor n-6 PUFA, whereas the child genotypes were mainly associated with more highly desaturated n-6 LC-PUFA. This first study on FADS genotypes and cord fatty acids suggests that fetal LC-PUFA status is determined to some extent by fetal fatty acid conversion. Associations of particular haplotypes suggest specific effects of SNP rs498793 and rs968567 on fatty acid metabolism. PMID:22877655

  13. Fatty acid profiles indicate the habitat of mud snails Hydrobia ulvae within the same estuary: Mudflats vs. seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Helena; Lopes da Silva, Teresa; Reis, Alberto; Queiroga, Henrique; Serôdio, João; Calado, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    Mud snails Hydrobia ulvae occupy different habitats in complex estuarine ecosystems. In order to determine if fatty acid profiles displayed by mud snails can be used to identify the habitat that they occupy within the same estuary, fatty acids of H. ulvae from one mudflat and one seagrass meadow in the Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) were analyzed and compared to those displayed by microphytobenthos (MPB), the green leaves (epiphyte-free) of Zostera noltii, as well as those exhibited by the epiphytic community colonizing this seagrass. MPB and epiphytic diatom-dominated samples displayed characteristic fatty acids, such as 16:1 n-7 and 20:5 n-3, while 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3 were the dominant fatty acids in the green leaves of Z. noltii. Significant differences between the fatty acid profiles of H. ulvae specimens sampled in the mudflat and the seagrass meadow could be identified, with those from the mudflat displaying higher levels of fatty acids known to be characteristic of MPB. This result points towards the well known existence of grazing activity on MPB by mud snails. The fatty acid profiles displayed by H. ulvae inhabiting the seagrass meadows show no evidence of direct bioaccumulation of the two most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids of Z. noltii (18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3) in the mud snails, which probably indicates that either these compounds can be metabolized to produce energy, used as precursors for the synthesis of essential fatty acids, or that the snails do not consume seagrass leaves at all. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles of mud snails inhabiting the seagrass meadows revealed the existence of substantial inputs from microalgae, suggesting that the epiphytic community colonizing the leaves of Z. noltii displays an important role on the diet of these organisms. This assumption is supported by the high levels of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 recorded in mud snails sampled from seagrass meadows. In conclusion, fatty acid analyses of H. ulvae can be successfully used to identify the habitat occupied by these organisms within the same estuary (e.g. mudflats and seagrass meadows) and reveal the existence of contrasting dietary regimes.

  14. Fatty acid profiles in marine and freshwater fish from fish markets in northeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uczy?ska Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid compositions were studied in eight commercially important fish from fish markets: salmon, Salmo salar L.; cod, Gadus morhua L.; common sole, Solea solea (L.; European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.; catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walb.; Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.; and pangasius, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage. The freshwater fish contained 25.69-42.18% saturated, 34.90-43.79% monounsaturated, 8.46-16.32% n-6 polyunsaturated, and 5.01-20.43% n-3 polyunsaturated acid, while marine fish contained 18.53-32.77% saturated, 17.95-49.89% monounsaturated, 3.40-11.51% n-6 polyunsaturated, and 18.74-45.42% n-3 polyunsaturated acid. Marine fish contained significantly more ?n-3 PUFA (29.79%, EPA (12.26%, DHA (13.20%, and a higher n-3/n-6 (6.95 ratio than freshwater fish (13.13, 2.47, 7.14, 1.29% (P? 0.05. There were statistically significant differences in the n-3/n-6 ratio among fish species (cod (13.40 > sole (8.47 > flounder (4.30 > rainbow trout (2.41 > catfish (1.83 ? salmon (1.63 > tilapia (0.57 ? pangasius (0.36 (P ?0.05.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    OpenAIRE

    Sieswerda Lee E; Seguin Jennifer; Ross Brian M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determi...

  16. Fatty acid composition evaluation of edible parts of Eriocheir sinensis in intensive ponds of Gucheng waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J Y; Yan, P S

    2015-01-01

    In Gucheng Lake, Jiangsu Province, China, randomly selected crabs were fed 2 diet types. Crab crude oil methyl ester analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acid compositions in the 3 edible parts of a crab - the hepatopancreas, gonad, and muscle - were analyzed. C16:1 and C18:2 were significantly higher in most commercial pellet feed-feeding crabs than in small trash fish-feeding crabs, while the opposite was observed for eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Phytanic acid reached 1.93% in the hepatopancreas of small trash fish-feeding crabs. Furan fatty-acid-DiMe (11,5) contents in the testes of small trash fish-feeding crabs was 1.49%. These values were higher in male crabs than in female crabs. According to a standard ratio of 1:1:1 which meaning the saturated fathy acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were 33.33 each, fatty acid structure analysis of crab edible parts showed that SFA:MUFA:PUFA of crab edible parts was 2.3-4.1:2.9-5.0:1.3-4.8. The highest muscle score was 29.53 in male trash fish-feeding crabs, and the lowest hepatopancreas score was -40.81 in female commercial pellet feed-feeding crabs. The n-6/n-3 ratio was 0.36-2.48. Muscle ratio was the lowest in female commercial pellet feed-feeding crabs. Thus, small trash fish-feeding and commercial pellet feed-feeding crabs are healthy foods. Overall, for consumption, the males of small trash fish-feeding crabs were better than the females, the muscle was better than the gonads and hepatopancreas, and the testis was better than the ovary. PMID:26125730

  17. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with ?-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Hernandez Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids or ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%. At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

  18. Analysis of mixtures of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Ting; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Huo, Weiyan; Yan, Daojiang; Chen, Jinjin; Zhou, Jiemin; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Microbial production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols has attracted increasing concerns because of energy crisis and environmental impact of fossil fuels. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for the extraction and quantification of these compounds become necessary. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection (HPLC-RID) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in these samples. The optimum chromatographic conditions are C18 column eluted with methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v); column temperature, 26°C; flow rate, 1.0mL/min. Calibration curves of all selected analytes showed good linearity (r(2)?0.9989). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the 10 compounds were less than 4.46% and 5.38%, respectively, which indicated that the method had good repeatability and precision. Besides, a method for simultaneous extraction of fatty acids and fatty alcohols from fermentation broth was optimized by orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: solvent, ethyl acetate; solvent to sample ratio, 0.5:1; rotation speed, 2min at 260rpm; extraction temperature, 10°C. This study provides simple and fast methods to simultaneously extract and quantify fatty acids and fatty alcohols for the first time. It will be useful for the study of microbial production of these products. PMID:24290170

  19. Maternal High Fat Diet Is Associated with Decreased Plasma n–3 Fatty Acids and Fetal Hepatic Apoptosis in Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Wilmon F.; Gillingham, Melanie B; Batra, Ayesha K.; Fewkes, Natasha M.; Comstock, Sarah M.; Takahashi, Diana; Braun, Theodore P; Grove, Kevin L.; Friedman, Jacob E.; Marks, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD) contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's) and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR), we found signific...

  20. The association between n-3 fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes and insulin resistance: The Inuit Health in Transition Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseng, Trine; Witte, Daniel R; Vistisen, Dorte; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association between the content of n-3 fatty acids and insulin resistance in an Inuit population. Study design. The Inuit Health in Transition Study was carried out between 2003 and 2007 in Greenland as a cross-sectional study. Our preliminary results are based on the first 452 participants aged 18 and above. Only participants with at least 1 Inuit grandparent and without diabetes were included. Methods. The contents of n-3 fatty acids and the n-3/n-6 ratio were measur...

  1. Dietary Intake and Plasma Metabolomic Analysis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Bipolar Subjects Reveal Dysregulation of Linoleic Acid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon J.; Ringrose, Rachel N.; Harrington, Gloria J; Mancuso, Peter; Burant, Charles F; McInnis, Melvin G

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) profiles associate with risk for mood disorders. This poses the hypothesis of metabolic differences between patients and unaffected healthy controls that relate to the primary illness or are secondary to medication use or dietary intake. However, dietary manipulation or supplementation studies show equivocal results improving mental health outcomes. This study investigates dietary patterns and metabolic profiles relevant to PUFA metabolism, in bipolar I individuals compared to non-psychiatric controls. We collected seven-day diet records and performed metabolomic analysis of fasted plasma collected immediately after diet recording. Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender and energy intake found that bipolar individuals had significantly lower intake of selenium and PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (n-3), arachidonic acid (AA) (n-6) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (n-3/n-6 mix); and significantly increased intake of the saturated fats, eicosanoic and docosanoic acid. Regression analysis of metabolomic data derived from plasma samples, correcting for age, gender, BMI, psychiatric medication use and dietary PUFA intake, revealed that bipolar individuals had reduced 13S-HpODE, a major peroxidation product of the n-6, linoleic acid (LA), reduced eicosadienoic acid (EDA), an elongation product of LA; reduced prostaglandins G2, F2 alpha and E1, synthesized from n-6 PUFA; and reduced EPA. These observations remained significant or near significant after Bonferroni correction and are consistent with metabolic variances between bipolar and control individuals with regard to PUFA metabolism. These findings suggest that specific dietary interventions aimed towards correcting these metabolic disparities may impact health outcomes for individuals with bipolar disorder. PMID:24953860

  2. Effect of dietary fatty acid saturation on egg production at end-of-lay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.C, Buitendach; F.H, de Witt; A, Hugo; H.J, van der Merwe; M.D, Fair.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fatty acid saturation on production performances of laying hens at end-of-lay. Five isoenergetic (12.6 MJ AME/kg DM) and isonitrogenous (170 g CP/kg DM) diets were formulated using different lipid sources at a constant 30 g/kg inclusion [...] level. The control diet was formulated using a blend (50 : 50) of linseed- and fish oil, while the other treatments consist of pure fish oil (polyunsaturated n-3), sunflower oil (polyunsaturated n-6), high oleic acid (HO) sunflower oil (monounsaturated n-9) and tallow (SFA). Two hundred, individually caged Hy-Line Silver-Brown laying hens (20 weeks of age) were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments (n = 40 replicates/treatment) and received the experimental diets for 54 weeks from 20 to 74 weeks of age. During weeks 58, 62, 66, 70 and 74 of age (end-of-lay period), all eggs produced were recorded and individually weighed while feed intake, as well as body weights of birds, were determined. Data for the respective collection weeks were pooled to calculate and statistical analyse production parameter means for the end-of-lay period. Average daily feed intake of birds in the polyunsaturated n-3 treatment (97.5 g/b/d) were the lowest while that of the polyunsaturated n-6 treatment (102.4 g/b/d) the highest. Furthermore, despite the significant effect of fatty acid saturation on feed intake, it had no effect on hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg output, feed efficiency or body weight of hens during end-of-lay. Since results of the current study fail to indicate a clear trend regarding dietary fatty acid saturation on feed intake of birds, it could be concluded that the long term exposure to a range of fatty acid saturation levels, has no negative effect on hen performance.

  3. Distribution of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the whole rat body and 25 compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, N M; Lin, Y H; Moriguchi, T; Lim, S Y; Salem, N; Hibbeln, J R

    2015-09-01

    The steady state compositions of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) throughout the various viscera and tissues within the whole body of rats have not previously been described in a comprehensive manner. Dams consumed diets containing 10wt% fat (15% linoleate and 3% ?-linolenate). Male offspring (n=9) at 7-week of age were euthanized and dissected into 25 compartments. Total lipid fatty acids for each compartment were quantified by GC/FID and summed for the rat whole body; total n-6 PUFA was 12wt% and total n-3 PUFA was 2.1% of total fatty acids. 18:2n-6 accounted for 84% of the total n-6 PUFA, 20:4n-6 was 12%, 18:3n-3 was 59% of the total n-3 PUFA, 20:5n-3 was 2.1%, and 22:6n-3 was 32%. The white adipose tissue contained the greatest amounts of 18:2n-6 (1.5g) and 18:3n-3 (0.2g). 20:4n-6 was highest in muscle (60mg) and liver (57mg), while 22:6n-3 was greatest in muscle (46mg), followed by liver (27mg) and carcass (20mg). In terms of fatty acid composition expressed as a percentage, 18:2n-6 was the highest in the heart (13wt%), while 18:3n-3 was about 1.3wt% for skin, white adipose tissue and fur. 20:4n-6 was highest (21-25wt%) in the circulation, kidney, and spleen, while 22:6n-3 was highest in the brain (12wt%), followed by the heart (7.9wt%), liver (5.9wt%), and spinal cord (5.1wt%). Selectivity was greatest when comparing 22:6n-3 in brain (12%) to white adipose (0.08%) (68-fold) and 22:5n-6 in testes (15.6%) compared to white adipose (0.02%), 780-fold. PMID:26120061

  4. Efeito sazonal sobre os ácidos graxos e colesterol do polvo Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797 Seasonal effects on fatty acids and cholesterol contents in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Maria Monteiro Vasconcelos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos e colesterol na manta de polvo comum, Octopus vulgaris, capturado na praia de Camocim - CE, no decorrer dos meses de abril a outubro em coletas bimensais. Apesar do ácido oleico (C18: 1n9 apresentar comportamento uniforme ao longo do tempo de coleta, a maioria dos demais ácidos graxos foi afetada (p = 1% pela época de coleta. Os níveis dos ácidos araquidônico (C20:4n6, oleico (C18:1n9, esteárico (C18:0 e linoleico (C18:2n6 foram superiores àqueles reportados na literatura. O somatório de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados e monoinsaturados revelou que o óleo de polvo apresenta um teor significativo de ácidos graxos insaturados. Foi observado um aumento gradativo de colesterol ao longo do tempo estudado e um comportamento inverso para a relação de ácidos graxos n3/n6.The aim of this study was to investigate the fatty acids and cholesterol profile in the mantle of common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, collected twice a month in in coastal waters of Camocim/CE beach over the period from April to October. Although the Oleic acid (C18:n9 did not show significant changes over the months, the majority of fatty acids varied during this period of time. The Arachidonic (C20:4n6, oleic (C18:n9, stearic (C18:0, and linoleic (C18:2n6 acids were found in higher levels than those reported in the literature. Polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids accounted for most of the octopus fatty acids. During the time of analysis, it was observed a gradual increase in the cholesterol and the fatty acids n3/ n6 ratio presented the opposite result, i.e., a gradual decrease.

  5. Efeito sazonal sobre os ácidos graxos e colesterol do polvo Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797 / Seasonal effects on fatty acids and cholesterol contents in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarida Maria Monteiro, Vasconcelos; Jorge Fernando Fuentes, Zapata.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos e colesterol na manta de polvo comum, Octopus vulgaris, capturado na praia de Camocim - CE, no decorrer dos meses de abril a outubro em coletas bimensais. Apesar do ácido oleico (C18: 1n9) apresentar comportamento uniforme ao longo do tempo de [...] coleta, a maioria dos demais ácidos graxos foi afetada (p = 1%) pela época de coleta. Os níveis dos ácidos araquidônico (C20:4n6), oleico (C18:1n9), esteárico (C18:0) e linoleico (C18:2n6) foram superiores àqueles reportados na literatura. O somatório de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados e monoinsaturados revelou que o óleo de polvo apresenta um teor significativo de ácidos graxos insaturados. Foi observado um aumento gradativo de colesterol ao longo do tempo estudado e um comportamento inverso para a relação de ácidos graxos n3/n6. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the fatty acids and cholesterol profile in the mantle of common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, collected twice a month in in coastal waters of Camocim/CE beach over the period from April to October. Although the Oleic acid (C18:n9) did not show significant change [...] s over the months, the majority of fatty acids varied during this period of time. The Arachidonic (C20:4n6), oleic (C18:n9), stearic (C18:0), and linoleic (C18:2n6) acids were found in higher levels than those reported in the literature. Polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids accounted for most of the octopus fatty acids. During the time of analysis, it was observed a gradual increase in the cholesterol and the fatty acids n3/ n6 ratio presented the opposite result, i.e., a gradual decrease.

  6. Absolute quantification of fatty acid and proximate composition of cow and goat powdered milks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Weliton P., Batiston; Swami A., Maruyama; Sandra T. M., Gomes; Jesuí V., Visentainer; Nilson E. de, Souza; Makoto, Matsushita.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investigou a qualidade lipídica de leites processados por quantificação de ácidos graxos. Dez amostras de leite em pó integral de vaca e duas de cabra foram submetidas à extração de lipídios totais e à preparação dos ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos. Estes foram separados em cromatóg [...] rafo a gás. A variação da quantidade de ácidos graxos por gramas de lipídios para compostos poliinsaturados, ômega 6, ômega 3 e ácido linoléico conjugado, foi respectivamente: 25,20-46,67, 12,82-31,45, 1,77-7,65 e 7,77-11,60 mg g-1. A razão n-6/n-3 foi menor para os leites em pó de vaca (2,85-6,07) em relação aos de cabra (11,31-12,75) e a quantidade de ácidos graxos trans variou de 0,09 a 0,17 g por porção de 26 g. As amostras apresentaram ácidos graxos essenciais ômega 6 e ômega 3, isômeros do ácido linoléico conjugado e quantidade de ácidos graxos trans em conformidade com a legislação brasileira. Abstract in english This work investigated of the lipid quality of processed milks by fatty acid quantification. Ten samples of dry whole milk from cow and two from goat were submitted to total lipid extraction and to fatty acid methyl ester synthesis. Then, the synthesized products were separated in a gas chromatograp [...] h. The variation of the fatty acid per total lipid gram for polyunsaturated compounds, omega-6, omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid, was 25.20-46.67, 12.82-31.45, 1.77-7.65 and 7.77-11.60, respectively. The n-6/n-3 ratio for the cow powdered milk samples (2.85-6.07) was lesser reagarding goat milk samples (11.31-12.75) and the trans fatty acid amount varied from 0.09 to 0.17 g per 26 g portion. Essential fatty acids from the omega-3 and omega-6 groups were present in every sample, besides conjugated linoleic acid isomers. The trans fatty acid contents of the samples is in accordance with the Brazilian legislation.

  7. Identification and characterization of new ?-17 fatty acid desaturases

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Zhixiong; He, Hongxian; Hollerbach, Dieter; Macool, Daniel J.; Yadav, Narendra S.; Zhang, Hongxiang; Szostek, Bogdan; Zhu, Quinn

    2012-01-01

    ?-3 fatty acid desaturase is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids via the oxidative desaturase/elongase pathways. Here we report the identification of three ?-3 desaturases from oomycetes, Pythium aphanidermatum, Phytophthora sojae, and Phytophthora ramorum. These new ?-3 desaturases share 55 % identity at the amino acid level with the known ?-17 desaturase of Saprolegnia diclina, and about 31 % identity with the bifunctional ?-12/?-15 desaturase of Fusarium mo...

  8. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric (Pitt); (Michigan); (Van Andel); (Morehouse-MED)

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  9. Inactivation of Ascaris suum by Short-Chain Fatty Acids?

    OpenAIRE

    Butkus, Michael A.; Hughes, Kelly T; Bowman, Dwight D.; Liotta, Janice L.; Jenkins, Michael B.; Labare, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Ascaris suum eggs were inactivated in distilled water and digested sludge by butanoic, pentanoic, and hexanoic acids. The fatty acids (short-chain fatty acids [SCFA]) were effective only when protonated and at sufficient concentrations. The conjugate bases were not effective at the concentrations evaluated. Predictions from an inhibition model (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]) based on quantitative structure-activity relationships were congruent with inactivation data.

  10. Effects of Fatty Acid Inclusion in a DMPC Bilayer Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    2009-01-01

    Free fatty acids in biomembranes have been proposed to be a central component in several cellular control and regulatory mechanisms. To elucidate some fundamental elements underlying this, we have applied molecular dynamics simulations and experimental density measurements to study the molecular packing and structure of oleic acid (HOA) and stearic acid (HSA) in fluid bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The experimental data show a small but consistent positive excess volume for fatty acid concentrations below 10 mol %. At higher concentrations the fatty acids mix ideally with fluid DMPC. The simulations, which were benchmarked against the densitometric data, revealed interesting differences in the structure and location of the fatty acids depending on their protonation status. Thus, the protonated (uncharged) acid is located rather deeply in the membrane with an average position of the carboxy group near the second carbon segment of the lipid chains with a typical end-to-end distance of 16?18 Å. This structure of the fatty acid brings about a rather tight lateral packing in the mixed membrane and a moderate ordering and hence stretching of the lipid chains. Deprotonation of the fatty acids is associated with a pronounced movement of their carboxy group to a more hydrated position at the membrane interface and a lateral expansion driven by the mutual repulsion of the anions. These changes increase both the disorder and the degree of interdigitation of the lipid chains, and they make the membrane thinner by 2?3 Å.

  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astorg Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of a role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the pathophysiology of depression has emerged from the observation that depressed patients had decreased levels of n-3 long-chain PUFA (especially eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA in plasma, erythrocytes, or adipose tissue, as compared to healthy controls, a decrease which was not observed with n-6 PUFA. Suicide attempters have much lower levels of EPA and DHA in red blood cells than hospital controls. Recently, a decreased level of DHA has also been observed in the post-mortem brain cortex of patients with major depression. The fact that these changes were specific of the n-3 family suggests that a low n-3 PUFA status or intake predisposes to depression. International ecological studies show a strong negative correlation between apparent fish consumption and the prevalence of depression or of bipolar disorder, as well as between DHA content of maternal milk and the prevalence of postpartum depression. In cross-sectional studies in several countries, a higher risk of depression or of depressive symptoms has been found in subjects with a lower fish consumption. In a French cohort of adults, habitual fatty fish consumption or a higher n-3 PUFA intake were associated with a lower risk of depression, especially of recurrent depression. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have been conducted to test the effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA in depressive or bipolar patients. EPA as an adjunct to a standard treatment appears to improve depressive patients or bipolar patients in depressive phase when given at the dose of 1-2 g/day, and fish oil prevents depressive recurrences in bipolar patients. Recently, a mixture of EPA plus DHA has proven efficiency in untreated depressive children. In summary, many epidemiological and clinical works in the last ten years have abundantly documented the existence of an association between a low n-3 PUFA intake or status and a greater risk of mood disorder, as well as a therapeutic potential of n-3 PUFA in depressed or bipolar patients. Other works are necessary in order to establish a causal relation between n-3 PUFA deficiency and depression, and to further explore their preventive or therapeutic use.

  12. Transgenic Mice Convert Carbohydrates to Essential Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Victor J.; Wang, Bin; LI, XIANGYONG; Wu, Lin; Jing X. Kang

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic mice (named “Omega mice”) were engineered to carry both optimized fat-1 and fat-2 genes from the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and are capable of producing essential omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids from saturated fats or carbohydrates. When maintained on a high-saturated fat diet lacking essential fatty acids or a high-carbohydrate, no-fat diet, the Omega mice exhibit high tissue levels of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, with a ratio of ?1?1. This study thus presents an in...

  13. Fatty acid composition of meat of Sarda suckling lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fat has an important role in human nutrition because can help to reduce the risk of appearance of some diseases. In this work fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb was studied in order to improve meat fat quality in relation to human health. Aim of this thesis was firstly to assess the effect of different management systems, indoor vs. outdoor, on fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb. Lambs which followed their mother on pasture h...

  14. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. PMID:25510639

  15. Caulobacter crescentus fatty acid-dependent cell cycle mutant.

    OpenAIRE

    HODGSON, D.; Shaw, P.; O'Connell, M; Henry, S.(CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille, France); SHAPIRO, L

    1984-01-01

    A fatty acid auxotroph of Caulobacter crescentus, AE6001, which displays a strict requirement for unsaturated fatty acids to grow on glucose as the carbon source has been isolated. Starvation of AE6001 for unsaturated fatty acids resulted in a block in the cell cycle. Starved cultures accumulated at the predivisional cell stage after a round of DNA replication had been completed and after a flagellum had been assembled at the pole of the cell. Cell division and cell growth failed to occur pro...

  16. Effect of dietary fat type on the fatty acids composition of irradiated and frozen storage japanese quails meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of substitution of dietary cotton seed oil (CSO) by used restaurant oil (URO) with different percentages 25% group 2 (G2), 50% group 3 (G3) and 100% group 4 (G4) in Japanese quail diets on the fatty acids composition of their meat especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The effect of gamma irradiation doses (1.5, 3 and 5 kGy) at frozen storage -18 C (degree) for 2 and 4 months in comparison with unirradiated and un storage were studied. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in quail meat fed G4 diet (100% URO) increased significantly in comparison with SFA in G2 (25% URO) and G3 (50% URO) but there is no significant effect with G2 and G3 in comparison with G1 (100% CSO).The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were not affected by G2 and G3 diet. Also, linoleic acid (C 18:2, n-6) had the same trend in those groups with range (32.75% to 33.35%). It is concluded that feeding a diet with URO 25% and 50% conserve the content of linoleic acid and the content of PUFA in quail meat. The irradiation doses and storage periods had no significant effect on the linoleic acid, MUFA and PUFA content.

  17. Generation and esterification of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes in triacylglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzari, Marco; Khoo, Nicholas; Woodcock, Steven R; Li, Lihua; Freeman, Bruce A; Schopfer, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    Electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes (NO2-FA) are products of nitric oxide and nitrite-mediated unsaturated fatty acid nitration. These electrophilic products induce pleiotropic signaling actions that modulate metabolic and inflammatory responses in cell and animal models. The metabolism of NO2-FA includes reduction of the vinyl nitro moiety by prostaglandin reductase-1, mitochondrial ?-oxidation, and Michael addition with low molecular weight nucleophilic amino acids. Complex lipid reactions of fatty acid nitroalkenes are not well defined. Herein we report the detection and characterization of NO2-FA-containing triacylglycerides (NO2-FA-TAG) via mass spectrometry-based methods. In this regard, unsaturated fatty acids of dietary triacylglycerides are targets for nitration reactions during gastric acidification, where NO2-FA-TAG can be detected in rat plasma after oral administration of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). Furthermore, the characterization and profiling of these species, including the generation of beta oxidation and dehydrogenation products, could be detected in NO2-OA-supplemented adipocytes. These data revealed that NO2-FA-TAG, formed by either the direct nitration of esterified unsaturated fatty acids or the incorporation of nitrated free fatty acids into triacylglycerides, contribute to the systemic distribution of these reactive electrophilic mediators and may serve as a depot for subsequent mobilization by lipases to in turn impact adipocyte homeostasis and tissue signaling events. PMID:26066303

  18. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  19. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.A.A., Pires; R.R., Grummer.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vit [...] ro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  20. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Varela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented.

  1. Esterification of free fatty acids over chitosan with sulfonic acid groups

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano, CS; Caiado, M; Ramos, A.; Fonseca, I.; Vital, J; Castanheiro, J.

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan, which is an abundant biopolymer, with sulfonic acid groups was used as an efficient, environmentally friendly heterogeneous catalyst for the esterification of free fatty acids with methanol into their more fatty acid methyl ester. Sulfonic acid catalysts supported on chitosan have been studied in the esterification of palmitic acid with methanol at 60 C. The sulfonic acid groups were introduced onto chitosan (CT) through cross-linking with sulfosuccinic acid (SSA). The catalytic...

  2. Studies on stability and distribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelsalam, Rokaia

    2008-01-01

    In the wider field of nutrition, intensive efforts are under way to determine the effects of various nutrients on growth and development. The object of the present study is to demonstrate the effects of different dietary levels of DHA and/ or GLA from different oils in the presence of constant amount of LCPs n-3 (EPA) and AA as LCPs n-6 on the fatty acid patterns of brain, liver, plasma and their phospholipids during experiment at two stage (the first one after four weeks and the second after...

  3. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissue of beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Juri?

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissue was investigated in intensively fed beef cattle. Heifers had more intramuscular fat with higher proportion of monounsaturated FA, while bulls had higher proportion of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA. The same was found in adipose tissue accompanied by higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA in bulls. The PUFA/SFA ratio was close to recommendation for human diet only in bulls’ muscle, while n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios were generally higher than recommended. The observed FA variability between sexes was due to the differences in fatness. To improve the nutritional value, the n-3 PUFA in beef should be increased.

  4. Trienoic fatty acids and plant tolerance of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Routaboul Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The biophysical reactions of light harvesting and electron transport during photosynthesis take place in a uniquely constructed bilayer, the thylakoid. In all photosynthetic eukaryotes, the complement of atypical glycerolipid molecules that form the foundation of this membrane are characterised by sugar head-groups and a very high level of unsaturation in the fatty acids that occupy the central portion of the thylakoid bilayer. alpha-linolenic (18:3 or a combination of 18:3 and hexadecatrienoic (16:3 acids typically account for approximately two-thirds of all thylakoid membrane fatty acids and over 90% of the fatty acids of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, the major thylakoid lipid [1, 2]. The occurrence of trienoic fatty acids as a major component of the thylakoid membrane is especially remarkable since these fatty acids form highly reactive targets for active oxygen species and free radicals, which are often the by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is one of the most temperature-sensitive functions of plant [3, 4]. There remains a widespread belief that these trienoic fatty acids might have some crucial role in plants to be of such universal occurrence, especially in photosynthesis tolerance of temperature [5].

  5. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Tsai, Lin

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(lll)/O-2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(ll) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls, These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(ll) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed, In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.

  6. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (?,?-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.

  7. Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intact chloroplasts (about 70% Class I chloroplasts) isolated from spinach leaves incorporated 150 nmoles of [1-14C] acetate into fatty acids per mg chlorophyll in 1 hr at pH 8.3, 250C and 25,000 lux. On electron and phase-contrast microscopies combined with hypotonic treatment of chloroplasts, this synthetic activity was shown to be proportional to the percentage of Class I chloroplasts in the preparation. Light was necessary for the synthesis, the activity in the complete reaction mixture in the dark being only 2% of that in the light. The synthetic activity increased with increasing intensities of light to reach saturation at 6000 lux. CoA and ATP were most effective as cofactors, HCO3-, HPO42-, Mg2+ and Mn2+ were less effective. ATP could be replaced by ADP in the presence of Pi, suggesting possible supply of ATP by photophosphorylation. Omission of the NADPH-generation system and NADH did not affect the synthesis, indicating sufficient provision of endogenous NADPH and NADH in intact chloroplasts under light. Addition of DTE did not cause recovery of the synthetic activity of intact chloroplasts in the dark. (author)

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders, from the biochemical rationale for their use to the growing body of data supporting their clinical efficacy.

  9. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...172.862. (b) They are used as emulsifiers in food, in amounts not greater than...esters of butter oil fatty acids are used as emulsifiers in combination with other approved emulsifiers in dry, whipped topping base. The...

  10. Fatty acid methyl esters production: chemical process variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Narváez Rincón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of fatty acid methyl esters as basic oleochemicals over fatty acids, the seventies world energy crisis and the use of those oleochemicals as fuels, have increased research interest on fats and oils trans-esterification. In this document, a review about basic aspects, uses, process variables and problems associated to the production process of fatty acid methyl esters is presented. A global view of recent researches, most of them focused in finding a new catalyst with same activity as the alcohol-soluble hydroxides (NaOH, KOH, and suitable to be used in transforming fats and oils with high levels of free fatty acids and water avoiding separation problems and reducing process costs, is also discussed.

  11. A New Polyunsaturated Brominated Fatty Acid from a Haliclona Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Tanaka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A new polyunsaturated brominated fatty acid possessing acetylenic bonds 1 was isolated from the Indonesian sponge Haliclona sp. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by analyzing its spectral data. It showed moderate cytotoxicity against cultured cells.

  12. Fatty acids changes of baby food fat by ? irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a mutual protection when mixtures of components irradiated together, so experimental investigation is necessary for determination of the effects that actually occur in different class of nutrients in formulated foods. This work is concerned with the effect of ? irradiated on fatty acids content of a formulated baby food fat and the results is compared with changes of fatty acids in irradiated whole foods. Irradiation was performed with a gamma cell (Co-60) at dose levels of 0.5, 1.5, 6, 10, 30, 45 kGy at room temperature and in the presence of air. The samples were analyzed immediately after irradiation by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that destruction of fatty acids in this formulated food is reasonably less than fatty acids of whole foods fat

  13. Cytosolic fatty acid-binding proteins: subjects and tools in metabolic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are major targets for specific binding of fatty acids in vivo. They constitute a widely expressed family of genetically related, small cytosolic proteins which very likely mediate intracellular transport of free long chain fatty acids. Genetic inhibition of FABP expression in vivo should therefore provide a useful tool to investigate and engineer fatty acid metabolism. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of fatty acid content of fresh and frozen fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Walbaum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Celia, Chávez-Mendoza; José Arturo, García-Macías; Alma Delia, Alarcón-Rojo; Juan Ángel, Ortega-Gutiérrez; Celia, Holguín-Licón; Gabriela, Corral-Flores.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the percentage content of fatty acids (FA) of 54 rainbow trout fresh and frozen fillets. Frozen fillets were stored at -15ºC for 45 and 90 days. Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty ac [...] ids were determined by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometry. The results indicated that during frozen storage, SFA and MUFA content increased by 32.63 and 9.25%, respectively, while PUFA content decreased by 25.3%, n-6 by 12.4% and n-3 by 32.55%. These changes were more significant (P ? 0.05) during the first 45 d of storage. It was concluded that the frozen storage had a negative impact on meat quality of rainbow trout due to the reduction of PUFA, n-3/n-6, polyene index and PUFA/ SFA and the increase of the SFA, and atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes, which meant a substantial loss of nutritional value in the fillets of rainbow trout.

  15. Occurrence of Hexacosapolyenoic Acids 26:7(n-3), 26:6(n-3), 26:6(n-6) and 26:5(n-3) in Deep-Sea Brittle Stars from Near the Kuril Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetashev, Vasily; Kharlamenko, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    Significant amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with a chain length of 26 carbon atoms were detected in lipids of five deep water species of Ophiuroidea besides common fatty acids with chain lengths between 14 and 24. By means of hydrogenation, GC-MS of the methyl esters, and 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) derivatives of these C26 acids were characterized as 5,8,11,14,17,20,23-hexacosaheptaenoic [26:7(n-3)]; 8,11,14,17,20,23-hexacosahexaenoic [26:6(n-3)]; 5,8,11,14,17,20- hexacosahexaenoic [26:6(n-6)]; and 11,14,17,20,23-hexacosapentaenoic [26:5(n-3)]. Concentrations of these acids varied from 0.3 to 4.5 mol% of the total FA. In all the samples investigated, the main component of C26PUFA was hexacosaheptaenoic acid 26:7(n-3). These C26PUFA are localized mainly in polar lipids. The presence of the possible biosynthesis precursors suggests that the C26PUFA are produced by the brittle stars, and are not accumulated from food sources. This finding can also explain the presence of small amounts of the 26:7(n-3) acid detected earlier in flesh lipids of the roughscale sole Clidoderma asperrimum, which feeds on deep water brittle stars. We suggest a possible scheme of the biosynthesis of C26 PUFA. PMID:26037519

  16. Functional screening of a novel ?15 fatty acid desaturase from the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotajima, Tomonori; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Iwane

    2014-10-01

    The coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi is a bloom-forming marine phytoplankton thought to play a key role as a biological pump that transfers carbon from the surface to the bottom of the ocean, thus contributing to the global carbon cycle. This alga is also known to accumulate a variety of polyunsaturated fatty acids. At 25°C, E. huxleyi produces mainly 14:0, 18:4n-3, 18:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. When the cells were transferred from 25°C to 15°C, the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3 and 18:5n-3, gradually increased. Among the predicted desaturase genes whose expression levels were up-regulated at low temperature, we identified a gene encoding novel ?15 fatty acid desaturase, EhDES15, involved in the production of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in E. huxleyi. This desaturase contains a putative transit sequence for localization in chloroplasts and a ?6 desaturase-like domain, but it does not contain a cytochrome b5 domain nor typical His-boxes found in ?15 desaturases. Heterologous expression of EhDES15 cDNA in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells increased the level of n-3 fatty acid species, which are produced at low levels in wild-type cells grown at 30°C. The orthologous genes are only conserved in the genomes of prasinophytes and cryptophytes. The His-boxes conserved in orthologues varied from that of the canonical ?15 desaturases. These results suggested the gene encodes a novel ?15 desaturase responsible for the synthesis of 18:3n-3 from 18:2n-6 in E. huxleyi. PMID:25046625

  17. Nrf2 affects the efficiency of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Ludtmann, Marthe H. R.; Angelova, Plamena R.; Zhang, Ying; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45-related factor 2) regulates the cellular redox homoeostasis and cytoprotective responses, allowing adaptation and survival under conditions of stress. The significance of Nrf2 in intermediary metabolism is also beginning to be recognized. Thus this transcription factor negatively affects fatty acid synthesis. However, the effect of Nrf2 on fatty acid oxidation is currently unknown. In the present paper, we report that the mitochondrial oxidation of long-ch...

  18. Regulation and limitations to fatty acid oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Kiens, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA) as fuel for energy utilization during exercise originate from different sources: FA transported in the circulation either bound to albumin or as triacylglycerol (TG) carried by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and FA from lipolysis of muscle TG stores (IMTG). Despite a high rate of energy expenditure during high intensity exercise the total fatty acid oxidation is suppressed to below that observed during moderate intensity exercise. Although this has been known for many year...

  19. AMPK-independent pathways regulate skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzamko, Nicolas; Schertzer, Jonathan D.; Ryall, James G.; Steel, Rohan; Macaulay, S. Lance; Wee, Sheena; Chen, Zhi-Ping; Michell, Belinda J.; Oakhill, Jonathan S.; Watt, Matthew J.; Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Lynch, Gordon S.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    The activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylation/inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) is believed to be the principal pathway regulating fatty acid oxidation. However, during exercise AMPK activity and ACC Ser-221 phosphorylation does not always correlate with rates of fatty acid oxidation. To address this issue we have investigated the requirement for skeletal muscle AMPK in controlling aminoimidazole-4-carboxymide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and contractio...

  20. Fatty acids are precursors of alkylamines in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, R.; Y. Huang

    1992-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans contains novel phospholipids of which the structures of three have been previously described. These three lipids contain both fatty acids and alkylamines. Both the fatty acid and alkylamine constituents were found to be composed of a mixture of species, of which C15, C16, and C17 saturated and monounsaturated alkyl chains predominated. Alkylamines contained a relatively higher proportion of saturated species. Progression of bacterial growth through the mid-log to stati...

  1. Oxidized Fatty Acids as Inter-Kingdom Signaling Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina H. Pohl; Johan L. F. Kock

    2014-01-01

    Oxylipins or oxidized fatty acids are a group of molecules found to play a role in signaling in many different cell types. These fatty acid derivatives have ancient evolutionary origins as signaling molecules and are ideal candidates for inter-kingdom communication. This review discusses examples of the ability of organisms from different kingdoms to “listen” and respond to oxylipin signals during interactions. The interactions that will be looked at are signaling between animals and plants; ...

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids stimulate phosphatidylcholine synthesis in PC12 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, U. Ingrid; Wurtman, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of phospholipids in mammalian cells is regulated by the availability of three critical precursor pools: those of choline, cytidine triphosphate and diacylglycerol. Diacylglycerols containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) apparently are preferentially utilized for phosphatide synthesis. PUFAs are known to play an important role in the development and function of mammalian brains. We therefore studied the effects of unsaturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid...

  3. Effect of Wood Constituents Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi Movahed, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the mechanisms of free radicals in a model system between fatty acids oxidation process and wood components. The aim is to create a better understanding of new environmentally friendly materials for exterior wood protection. The drying mechanisms of the unsaturated fatty acids with wood model system in the real time were monitored by using RT-IR. This method together with SEC and NMR are enormously powerful spectroscopy techniques to determine the physical and chemical prop...

  4. Cellular fatty acid composition of marine-derived fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Shridhar, M.P.D.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.

    Fatty acids are building blocks of lipids and in fungi lipids form important components of the membrane constitution 1 . Several studies have demonstrated the importance of this class of compounds for development, sporulation, germination... to certain microorganisms, it has become a common practice to determine microbial community structure using fatty acids as biomarkers, especially for microorganism chemotaxonomy 4-6 . Studies on fungal lipids began in the late nineteenth century...

  5. Metabolically engineered cells for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The present invention relates to the construction and engineering of cells, more particularly microorganisms for producing PUFAs with four or more double bonds from non-fatty acid substrates through heterologous expression of an oxygen requiring pathway. The invention especially involves improvement of the PUFA content in the host organism through fermentation optimization, e.g. decreasing the temperature and/or designing an optimal medium, or through improving the flux towards fatty acids by me...

  6. Fatty acid modification of Newcastle disease virus glycoproteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Chatis, P A; Morrison, T G

    1982-01-01

    The fatty acid acylation of Newcastle disease virus hemagglutininin-neuraminidase and fusion glycoproteins was assayed. [3H]palmitate label was associated with cytoplasmic fusion proteins (F0 and F1) and virion-associated F1. In contrast, there was no detectable [3H]palmitate label associated with the hemagglutin-neuraminidase protein in Newcastle disease virus-infected Chinese hamster ovary cells or chicken embryo cells or in virions released from these cells. Thus, fatty acid modification m...

  7. Association between whole-blood polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnant women and early fetal weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, K; Pedersen, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:Studies suggest that intake of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in pregnancy have an impact on birth weight, but only few have investigated the effect on early fetal growth. The objective of the study was to investigate the association between levels of PUFA in maternal blood in gestational week 24 and biometric measures and estimated fetal weight in gestational week 20.Subjects/methods:In the COPSAC2010 cohort, whole-blood fatty acid composition (a biomarker of PUFA intake) from 583 women in week 24 was analyzed by gas chromatography. Biometric data (head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length) were collected by ultra sound in week 20 and fetal weight was estimated. Associations between whole-blood PUFA (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), total n-3 PUFA, n-6/n-3 PUFA, total n-6 PUFA) and fetal weight and biometrics measures were analyzed by multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses.Results:There was a wide range in maternal blood DHA, which varied from1.8 to 6.9% depending on socioeconomic status, smoking and body mass index. After adjusting for these variables, no association was observed between any of the assessed PUFA components and the circumference of head or abdomen or fetal weight. However, an inverse association was established between DHA and total n-3 PUFA and femur length (P

  8. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, L.

    2008-01-01

    Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (170). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO-supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (it 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (4-4 (2-0-5-6) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or r...

  9. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 £ 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO-supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapese...

  10. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Because of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their metabolic pathways, blood levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are determined by both endogenous metabolism and dietary intake making the need of balanced dietary intake essential for health and disease prevention. Whether an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3:1 to 4:1 could prevent the pathogenesis of many diseases induced by today’s Western diets (AFSSA, 2010, a target of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment, and genetics. A target of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment and genetics. A balanced ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is important for health and in the prevention of CHD and possibly other chronic diseases.

  11. A method for measuring fatty acid oxidation in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Ida Coordt; RØdkær, Steven Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    The nematode C. elegans has during the past decade proven to be a valuable model organism to identify and examine molecular mechanisms regulating lipid storage and metabolism. While the primary approach has been to identify genes and pathways conferring alterations in lipid accumulation, only a few recent studies have recognized the central role of fatty acid degradation in cellular lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we show how complete oxidation of fatty acids can be determined in live C. elegans by examining oxidation of tritium-labeled fatty acids to tritiated H2O that can be measured by scintillation counting. Treating animals with sodium azide, an inhibitor of the electron transport chain, reduced (3)H2O production to approximately 15%, while boiling of animals prior to assay completely blocked the production of labeled water. We demonstrate that worms fed different bacterial strains exhibit different fatty acid oxidation rates. We show that starvation results in increased fatty acid oxidation, which is independent of the transcription factor NHR-49. On the contrary, fatty acid oxidation is reduced to approximately 70% in animals lacking the worm homolog of the insulin receptor, DAF-2. Hence, the present methodology can be used to delineate the role of specific genes and pathways in the regulation of ?-oxidation in C. elegans.

  12. Nrf2 affects the efficiency of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtmann, Marthe H R; Angelova, Plamena R; Zhang, Ying; Abramov, Andrey Y; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

    2014-02-01

    Transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45-related factor 2) regulates the cellular redox homoeostasis and cytoprotective responses, allowing adaptation and survival under conditions of stress. The significance of Nrf2 in intermediary metabolism is also beginning to be recognized. Thus this transcription factor negatively affects fatty acid synthesis. However, the effect of Nrf2 on fatty acid oxidation is currently unknown. In the present paper, we report that the mitochondrial oxidation of long-chain (palmitic) and short-chain (hexanoic) fatty acids is depressed in the absence of Nrf2 and accelerated when Nrf2 is constitutively active. Addition of fatty acids stimulates respiration in heart and liver mitochondria isolated from wild-type mice. This effect is significantly weaker when Nrf2 is deleted, whereas it is stronger when Nrf2 activity is constitutively high. In the absence of glucose, addition of fatty acids differentially affects the production of ATP in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from wild-type, Nrf2-knockout and Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1)-knockout mice. In acute tissue slices, the rate of regeneration of FADH2 is reduced when Nrf2 is absent. This metabolic role of Nrf2 on fatty acid oxidation has implications for chronic disease conditions including cancer, metabolic syndrome and neurodegeneration. PMID:24206218

  13. Comparative Analysis of Fatty Acid Desaturases in Cyanobacterial Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzhi Lin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid desaturases are enzymes that introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids. The fatty acid desaturases from 37 cyanobacterial genomes were identified and classified based upon their conserved histidine-rich motifs and phylogenetic analysis, which help to determine the amounts and distributions of desaturases in cyanobacterial species. The filamentous or N2-fixing cyanobacteria usually possess more types of fatty acid desaturases than that of unicellular species. The pathway of acyl-lipid desaturation for unicellular marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus differs from that of other cyanobacteria, indicating different phylogenetic histories of the two genera from other cyanobacteria isolated from freshwater, soil, or symbiont. Strain Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 was isolated from calcareous rock and lacks thylakoid membranes. The types and amounts of desaturases of this strain are distinct to those of other cyanobacteria, reflecting the earliest divergence of it from the cyanobacterial line. Three thermophilic unicellular strains, Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 and two Synechococcus Yellowstone species, lack highly unsaturated fatty acids in lipids and contain only one Δ9 desaturase in contrast with mesophilic strains, which is probably due to their thermic habitats. Thus, the amounts and types of fatty acid desaturases are various among different cyanobacterial species, which may result from the adaption to environments in evolution.

  14. Characterization of Aspergillus species based on fatty acid profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga, Marcelo E.; Djalva Maria N Santana; Mario Jorge Gatti; Gloria Maria Direito; Lilia R. Cavaglieri; Carlos Alberto R Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) composition was utilized as a taxonomic tool to discriminate between different Aspergillus species. Several of the tested species had the same FA composition and different relative FA concentrations. The most important FAs were palmitic acid (C16:0), estearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which represented 95% of Aspergillus FAs. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated that FA analysis is a useful tool for differentiating species belongin...

  15. Plasma Elaidic Acid Level as Biomarker of Industrial Trans Fatty Acids and Risk of Weight Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chajès, Véronique; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Romieu, Isabelle; Freisling, Heinz; Huybrechts, Inge; Scalbert, Augustin; Bueno de Mesquita, Bas; Romaguera, Dora; Gunter, Marc J; Vineis, Paolo; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verana; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Boeing, Heiner; Bachlechner, Ursula; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Pala, Valeria; Masala, Giovanna; Mattiello, Amalia; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Huerta, Jose Maria; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, Maria Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, Jose Ramon; Johansson, Ingegerd; Winkvist, Anna; Sonested, Emily; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicolas J; Peeters, Petra H M; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between dietary trans fatty acids and weight gain, and the evidence remains inconsistent. The main objective of the study was to investigate the prospective association between biomarker of industrial trans fatty acids and change in weight within the large study European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Baseline plasma fatty acid concentrations were determined in a representative EPIC...

  16. Effects of heavy metals and light levels on the biosynthesis of carotenoids and fatty acids in the macroalgae Gracilaria tenuistipitata (var. liui Zhang & Xia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernani, Pinto; Ana Paula, Carvalho; Karina Helena Morais, Cardozo; Francisco Xavier, Malcata; Fabyana Maria dos, Anjos; Pio, Colepicolo.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We present here the effect of heavy metals and of different light intensities on the biosynthesis of fatty acids and pigments in the macroalga Gracilaria tenuistipitata (var. liui Zhang & Xia). In order to verify the fatty acid content, gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was [...] employed. Pigments (major carotenoids and chlorophyl-a) were monitored by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Cultures of G. tenuistipitata were exposed to cadmium (Cd2+, 200 ppb) and copper (Cu2+, 200 ppb), as well as to different light conditions (low light: 100 µmol.photons.m-2.s-1, or high light: 1000 µmol.photons.m-2.s-1). Cd2+ and Cu2+ increased the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content [14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 (n-7) and 18:1 (n-9)] and all major pigments (violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, chlorophyll-a and ?-carotene). Both heavy metals decreased the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) [18:2 (n-6), 18:3 (n-6), 18:5 (n-4), 20:4 (n-6), 20:5 (n-3), 22:6 (n-3)]. G. tenuistipitata cultures were exposed to high light intensity for five days and no statistically significant differences were observed in the content of fatty acids. On the other hand, the levels of pigments rose markedly for chlorophyll-a and all of the carotenoids studied.

  17. Fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle and adipose tissues in Chilota lambs grazing on two different low quality pasture types in Chiloé Archipelago (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin

    2014-11-01

    There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP?vs.?NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues. PMID:24964067

  18. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  19. Arachidonic acid has a dominant effect to regulate lipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared to omega-3 fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Hitesh; Cheema, Sukhinder Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of long-chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the regulation of adipocytes metabolism are well known. These fatty acids are generally consumed together in our diets; however, the metabolic regulation of adipocytes in the presence of these fatty acids when given together is not known. Objective To investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA and arachidonic acid (AA), an n-6 PUFA, on the regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated in the presence or absence of 100 µM of eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA; docosahexaenoic acid, DHA; docosapentaenoic acid, DPA and AA, either alone or AA+n-3 PUFA; control cells received bovine serum albumin alone. The mRNA expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes was measured. The fatty acid composition of adipocytes was analyzed using gas chromatography. Results Individual n-3 PUFA or AA had no effect on the mRNA expression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-?; however, AA+EPA and AA+DPA significantly increased (P<0.05) the expression compared to control cells (38 and 42%, respectively). AA and AA+EPA increased the mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (P<0.05). AA treatment decreased the mRNA expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) (P<0.01), while n-3 PUFA, except EPA, had no effect compared to control cells. AA+DHA and AA+DPA inhibited SCD1 gene expression (P<0.05) suggesting a dominant effect of AA. Fatty acids analysis of adipocytes revealed a higher accretion of AA compared to n-3 PUFA. Conclusions Our findings reveal that AA has a dominant effect on the regulation of lipogenic genes in adipocytes. PMID:25797050

  20. Arachidonic acid has a dominant effect to regulate lipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared to omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Vaidya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of long-chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on the regulation of adipocytes metabolism are well known. These fatty acids are generally consumed together in our diets; however, the metabolic regulation of adipocytes in the presence of these fatty acids when given together is not known. Objective: To investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA and arachidonic acid (AA, an n-6 PUFA, on the regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated in the presence or absence of 100 µM of eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA; docosahexaenoic acid, DHA; docosapentaenoic acid, DPA and AA, either alone or AA+n-3 PUFA; control cells received bovine serum albumin alone. The mRNA expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes was measured. The fatty acid composition of adipocytes was analyzed using gas chromatography. Results: Individual n-3 PUFA or AA had no effect on the mRNA expression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-?; however, AA+EPA and AA+DPA significantly increased (P<0.05 the expression compared to control cells (38 and 42%, respectively. AA and AA+EPA increased the mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (P<0.05. AA treatment decreased the mRNA expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 (P<0.01, while n-3 PUFA, except EPA, had no effect compared to control cells. AA+DHA and AA+DPA inhibited SCD1 gene expression (P<0.05 suggesting a dominant effect of AA. Fatty acids analysis of adipocytes revealed a higher accretion of AA compared to n-3 PUFA. Conclusions: Our findings reveal that AA has a dominant effect on the regulation of lipogenic genes in adipocytes.

  1. Iodinated fatty acids as hepatic imaging agent for CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodinated hexadecanoic acid has previously been used as a radionuclide myocardial and hepatic imaging agent. Using nonradioactive iodinated decanoic and hexadecanoic acid, the authors observed enhancement of both myocardium and liver. With quantities of 1-3 g of fatty acid intravenously injected into cats, cardiac enhancement of 30 HU was observed within 60 seconds. Hepatic enhancement was in the 10-20 HU range. A variety of vehicles to enhance solubilities were used, including albumin and surfactants. The authors' results warrant further investigation of iodinated fatty acids as organ-specific myocardial and hepatic contrast agents for CT

  2. Role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acid binding protein in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Motoko; Owada, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder that afflicts about 1% of the population worldwide. Despite intensive, multifaceted research, its exact etiology remains elusive. Epidemiological data shows that when pregnant mothers experienced malnutrition or famine (e.g. the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1994-1945 and the Chinese famine of 1959-1961), the risk of schizophrenia in their children increased by two fold. This fact could be considered in the context of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) or fetal programming. The concept of DOHaD is well referenced in the understanding of adult metabolic diseases, but less so in the field of mental disorders. We will attempt to show how the mechanisms of DOHaD could contribute at least in part to schizophrenia pathogenesis. Resonating with this concept, we introduce mainly our data showing increased expression of genes for fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) in the postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia and the beneficial effect conferred by the administration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during the early developmental period of rats. PMID:21355837

  3. ?12-Fatty Acid Desaturase from Candida parapsilosis Is a Multifunctional Desaturase Producing a Range of Polyunsaturated and Hydroxylated Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Bu?ek, Aleš; Matoušková, Petra; Sychrová, Hana; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Numerous ?12-, ?15- and multifunctional membrane fatty acid desaturases (FADs) have been identified in fungi, revealing great variability in the enzymatic specificities of FADs involved in biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here, we report gene isolation and characterization of novel ?12/?15- and ?15-FADs named CpFad2 and CpFad3, respectively, from the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis. Overexpression of CpFad3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains supplement...

  4. Hepatic steatosis in n-3 fatty acid depleted mice : focus on metabolic alterations related to tissue fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Malaisse WJ; Sohet FM; Bindels LB; De Backer FC; Deldicque L; Portois L; Cani PD; Neyrinck AM; Pachikian BD; Francaux M; Carpentier YA; Delzenne NM

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There are only few data relating the metabolic consequences of feeding diets very low in n-3 fatty acids. This experiment carried out in mice aims at studying the impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) depletion on hepatic metabolism. Results n-3 PUFA depletion leads to a significant decrease in body weight despite a similar caloric intake or adipose tissue weight. n-3 PUFA depleted mice exhibit hypercholesterolemia (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol) as we...

  5. Effect of randomized supplementation with high dose olive, flax or fish oil on serum phospholipid fatty acid levels in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Genevieve; Conquer, Julie; Thomas, René

    2005-01-01

    Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has been positively correlated with cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric health in several studies. The high seafood intake by the Japanese and Greenland Inuit has resulted in low ratios of the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), with the Japanese showing AA:EPA ratios of approximately 1.7 and the Greenland Eskimos showing ratios of approximately 0.14. It was the objective of this study to determine th...

  6. Identification of a ?5-like fatty acyl desaturase from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier 1797) involved in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Oscar; Navarro, Juan C; Dick, James R; Alemany, Frederic; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-08-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) have been identified as essential compounds for common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), but precise dietary requirements have not been determined due, in part, to the inherent difficulties of performing feeding trials on paralarvae. Our objective is to establish the essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements for paralarval stages of the common octopus through characterisation of the enzymes of endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways. In this study, we isolated a cDNA with high homology to fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Functional characterisation in recombinant yeast showed that the octopus Fad exhibited ?5-desaturation activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acyl substrates. Thus, it efficiently converted the yeast's endogenous 16:0 and 18:0 to 16:1n-11 and 18:1n-13, respectively, and desaturated exogenously added PUFA substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6 to 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 20:4n-6 (ARA), respectively. Although the ?5 Fad enables common octopus to produce EPA and ARA, the low availability of its adequate substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6, either in the diet or by limited endogenous synthesis from C(18) PUFA, might indicate that EPA and ARA are indeed EFA for this species. Interestingly, the octopus ?5 Fad can also participate in the biosynthesis of non-methylene-interrupted FA, PUFA that are generally uncommon in vertebrates but have been found previously in marine invertebrates, including molluscs, and now also confirmed to be present in specific tissues of common octopus. PMID:22160425

  7. Study of UltraHigh Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to measure free fatty acids with out fatty acid ester preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Isaac, G; Rainville, P; Fountain, K; Taylor, L T

    2015-08-01

    Most lipids are best characterized by their fatty acids which may differ in (a) chain length, (b) degree of unsaturation, (c) configuration and position of the double bonds, and (d) the presence of other functionalities. Thus, a fast, simple, and quantitative analytical technique to determine naturally occurring free fatty acids (FFA) in different samples is very important. Just as for saponified acylglycerols, the determination of FFA's has generally been carried out by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The use of an open tubular capillary column coupled with a flame ionization or mass spectrometric detector provides for both high resolution and quantification of FFA's but only after conversion of all free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or pentafluorobenzyl esters. Unfortunately, volatilization of labile ester derivatives of mono- and poly-unsaturated FFA's can cause both thermal degradation and isomerization of the fatty acid during HRGC. The employment of a second generation instrument (here referred to as UltraHigh Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatograph, UHPSFC) with high precision for modified flow and repeated back pressure adjustment in conjunction with sub-2?m various bonded silica particles (coupled with evaporative light scattering, ELSD, and mass spectrometric, MS, detection) for separation and detection of the following mixtures is described: (a) 31 free fatty acids, (b) isomeric FFA's, and (c) lipophilic materials in two real world fish oil samples. Limits of detection for FFA's via UHPSFC/MS and UHPSFC/ELSD versus detection of FAME's via HRGC/MS are quantitatively compared. PMID:26093119

  8. Conjugated fatty acids accumulate to high levels in phospholipids of metabolically engineered soybean and Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Edgar B; Dietrich, Charles R; Meyer, Knut; Damude, Howard G; Dyer, John M; Kinney, Anthony J

    2006-06-01

    Expression of Delta(12)-oleic acid desaturase-related fatty acid conjugases from Calendula officinalis, Momordica charantia, and Vernicia fordii in seeds of soybean (Glycine max) or an Arabidopsis thaliana fad3/fae1 mutant was accompanied by the accumulation of the conjugated fatty acids calendic acid or alpha-eleostearic acid to amounts as high as 20% of the total fatty acids. Conjugated fatty acids, which are synthesized from phosphatidylcholine (PC)-linked substrates, accumulated in PC and phosphatidylethanolamine, and relative amounts of these fatty acids were higher in PC than in triacylglycerol (TAG) in the transgenic seeds. The highest relative amounts of conjugated fatty acids were detected in PC from seeds of soybean and A. thaliana that expressed the C. officinalis and M. charantia conjugases, where they accounted for nearly 25% of the fatty acids of this lipid class. In these seeds, >85% of the conjugated fatty acids in PC were detected in the sn-2 position, and these fatty acids were also enriched in the sn-2 position of TAG. In marked contrast to the transgenic seeds, conjugated fatty acids composed seeds of five unrelated species that naturally synthesize a variety of conjugated fatty acid isomers, including seeds that accumulate conjugated fatty acids to >80% of the total fatty acids. These results suggest that soybean and A. thaliana seeds are deficient in their metabolic capacity to selectively catalyze the flux of conjugated fatty acids from their site of synthesis on PC to storage in TAG. PMID:16762380

  9. Effect of dietary fat source on fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of eggs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.J., King; A., Hugo; F.H., de Witt; H.J., van der Merwe; M.D., Fair.

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of supplementary dietary lipid sources on the fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of eggs. Five isoenergetic (12.6 MJ AME/kg DM) and isonitrogenous (170 g CP/kg DM) diets were formulated, using a control diet (50 : 50 blend of fish- and linseed oil), fish oil, [...] sunflower oil, high oleic acid (HO) sunflower oil and tallow at a 30 g/kg inclusion level. Two hundred individually caged HyLine Silver-Brown hens (20 weeks of age) were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments (n = 40 hens/treatment). Birds received the experimental diets from 20 weeks of age. At 30 weeks of age, 12 eggs per treatment were randomly selected for analyses of egg yolk fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values (PV). Dietary lipid sources affected FAME, TBARS and PV of egg yolk significantly. The fish oil treatment resulted in the highest TBARS (0.27 mg malonaldehyde/kg yolk) and PV (3.96 milli-equivalent peroxide/kg fat) whereas the HO sunflower oil resulted in the lowest TBARS (0.13 mg malonaldehyde/kg yolk) and PV (2.77 milli-equivalent peroxide/kg fat). Fish oil also resulted in the lowest n-6 to n-3 ratio (1.16 to 1), while sunflower oil resulted in the highest ratio (24.6 to 1). Results indicate that the fatty acid profile of eggs could be altered by means of dietary intervention. However, an improvement of omega-3 type fatty acids of eggs will result in a higher susceptibility to lipid oxidation and possibly a shorter shelf-life of stored eggs.

  10. Effects of smoking on fatty acid composition of phospholipid sperm membrane and the malondialdehyde levels in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štramová, X; ?egan, A; Hampl, R; Kan?ár, R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acids composition of sperm phospholipids, level of lipoperoxidation represented by malondialdehyde and to examine differences between recent smokers and nonsmokers. The levels of malondialdehyde were in the group of all patients 1.51 ± 0.56 ?mol l(-1) , in smokers 1.36 ± 0.59 ?mol l(-1) and in nonsmokers 1.53 ± 0.55 ?mol l(-1) . Total sperm membrane phospholipid fatty acids were profiled into several groups, saturated acids (in smokers 61.86 ± 9.02%, in nonsmokers 61.20 ± 11.66%), polyunsaturated acids n-3 (in smokers 12.62 ± 8.18%, in nonsmokers 14.28 ± 13.65%), polyunsaturated acids n-6 (in smokers 9.13 ± 4.37%, in nonsmokers 10.10 ± 3.79%) and other acids (in smokers 14.36 ± 3.94%, in nonsmokers 13.88 ± 2.31%). Significant correlations were found between the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total sperm motility in all patients (r = -0.358, P = 0.013), between both the level of MDA and progressive motility (r = -0.465, P = 0.001) and between the level of MDA and total motility (r = -0.382, P = 0.037) in nonsmokers. There were no statistically significant differences between composition of sperm phospholipid important fatty acids in smokers and nonsmokers. Significant correlations between selected sperm fatty acids and sperm motility and morphology in smokers and nonsmokers were not observed. PMID:25311153

  11. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L. and flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So?a Nitrayová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.. The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter. Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05, except that for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality, was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry matter. The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, ?- linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all tested samples. The ?-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio. Results of our study confirmed the excellent quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA ?-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do not.

  12. Characterizing plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles of polycystic ovary syndrome patients with and without insulin resistance using GC-MS and chemometrics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Huang, Li-Li; Su, Huanxing; Chen, Ya-Xiao; Huang, Jia; He, Chengwei; Li, Peng; Yang, Dong-Zi; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2014-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a heterogeneous endocrine and metabolic disorder, is the leading cause of infertility in women of reproductive age. Insulin resistance (IR) occurs in 50-70% of women with PCOS. In this study, we aimed to characterize the plasma phospholipid fatty acid profile for PCOS patients with and without IR, as well as for the early prognosis of PCOS and its IR complication. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) followed by multivariate statistical analysis was established to globally characterize the phospholipid fatty acid profiles in plasma from non-IR PCOS, IR PCOS, and eligible healthy controls, and subsequently discovered fatty acid biomarkers. A total of 22 fatty acids were identified and quantified. Their proportions varied among three groups, suggesting each group has its own fatty acid pattern. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) according to their fatty acid profiles showed that 29 tested samples could be clearly differentiated according to groups. More importantly, nervonic acid (C24:1 n-9) and dihomo-?-linolenic acid (C20:3 n-6) were identified as the potential fatty acid biomarkers of PCOS and its IR complication, respectively, for their most contribution to group separation. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that C24:1 n-9 and C20:3 n-6 were well correlated with clinical characteristics of PCOS and IR indicators, respectively. These findings demonstrated that GC-MS-based plasma phospholipid fatty acid profile might provide a complementary approach for clinical diagnosis of PCOS and its IR complication. PMID:24637052

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno; Anna Russolillo; Roberta Lupoli; Pasquale Ambrosino; Alessandro Di Minno; Giovanni Tarantino (ed.)

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as a major health burden. It is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and a major independent cardiovascular risk factor. Lacking a definite treatment for NAFLD, a specific diet and an increase in physical activity represent the most commonly used therapeutic approaches. In this review, major literature data about the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) as a potential treatment of NAFLD have been desc...

  14. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition regulates cardiac SERCA activity in a hibernator, the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Sylvain; Frare, Carla; Strijkstra, Arjen; Boerema, Ate; Arnold, Walter; Ruf, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (T(b)) and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+-)ATPase 2a (SERCA) in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6) in SR phospholipids (PL) should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum T(b) in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in vitro at 35 °C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that SERCA activity strongly increased as the proportion of LA in SR PL increased but was negatively affected by the content of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3). SR PL from hibernating hamsters were characterized by high proportions of LA and low proportions of DHA. As a result, SERCA activity was significantly higher during entrance into torpor and in torpor compared to inter-bout arousal. Also, animals with increased SERCA activity reached lower T(b) during torpor. Interestingly, a subgroup of hamsters which never entered torpor but remained euthermic throughout winter displayed a phenotype similar to animals in summer. This was characterized by lower proportions of LA and increased proportions of DHA in SR membranes, which is apparently incompatible with torpor. We conclude that the PUFA composition of SR membranes affects cardiac function via modulating SERCA activity, and hence determines the minimum T(b) tolerated by hibernators. PMID:23650545

  15. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49?g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18?g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22?g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78?g/L with a high yield of 0.21?g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: ???-???. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25943383

  16. Biodiesel development from high free fatty acid Punnakka oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaraju A.; Ashok Kumar T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Punnakka oil, non-edible oil available in India, was esterified to produce biodiesel. The procedure involves a two stage process, acid esterification and alkaline esterification. The oil contains high free fatty acid (FFA) content of 19.8%. The acid value of the oil was reduced by acid esterification. The product from this stage was subjected to alkaline esterification to produce biodiesel. The effects of important parameters like methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst concentr...

  17. Development of Escherichia coli MG1655 strains to produce long chain fatty acids by engineering fatty acid synthesis (FAS) metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunyoung; Lee, Sunhee; Won, Jong-In; Han, Sung Ok; Kim, Jihyeon; Lee, Jinwon

    2011-06-10

    The goal of this research was to develop recombinant Escherichia coli to improve fatty acid synthesis (FAS). Genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase (accA, accB, accC), malonyl-CoA-[acyl-carrier-protein] transacylase (fabD), and acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase (EC 3.1.2.14 gene), which are all enzymes that catalyze key steps in the synthesis of fatty acids, were cloned and over-expressed in E. coli MG1655. The acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) enzyme catalyzes the addition of CO(2) to acetyl-CoA to generate malonyl-CoA. The enzyme encoded by the fabD gene converts malonyl-CoA to malonyl-[acp], and the EC 3.1.2.14 gene converts fatty acyl-ACP chains to long chain fatty acids. All the genes except for the EC 3.1.2.14 gene were homologous to E. coli genes and were used to improve the enzymatic activities to over-express components of the FAS pathway through metabolic engineering. All recombinant E. coli MG1655 strains containing various gene combinations were developed using the pTrc99A expression vector. To observe changes in metabolism, the in vitro metabolites and fatty acids produced by the recombinants were analyzed. The fatty acids (C16) from recombinant strains were produced 1.23-2.41 times higher than that from the wild type. PMID:22112270

  18. Characterization of selected strains of mucorales using fatty acid profiles

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    Silva Manuela da

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profiles of several fungi of the order Mucorales (Zygomycetes, including Backusella lamprospora (Lendner Benny and R.K. Benj., Benjaminiella youngii P.M. Kirk, Circinella simplex van Tieghem, Cunninghamella blakesleeana Lendner, Mortierella ramanniana (Möller Linnem., Mucor circinelloides f. janssenii (Lendner Schipper, Mycotypha microspora Fenner, Rhizomucor miehei (Cooney and R. Emerson Schipper and Rhizomucor pusillus (Lindt Schipper, and of Volutella sp. Fr., from the class Ascomycetes, were qualitatively analysed by gas-liquid chromatography in order to determine the taxonomic value of these chemotaxonomic markers. The fatty acids present in all strains were palmitic (16:0, oleic (18:1, linoleic (18:2 and g-linolenic (18:3 acid, with the exception that the latter was not found in Volutella sp. Chemotaxonomic markers for some species and genera were obtained, including a non-identified fatty acid, FAME8 (minimum and maximum retention times of 27.92 and 28.28 minutes for Rhizomucor miehei CCT 2236 and Rhizomucor pusillus CCT 4133, and FAME3 (minimum and maximum of 16.53 and 16.61 minutes for Benjaminiella youngii CCT 4121. The chemotaxonomic marker of the order Mucorales was the fatty acid 18:3w6, confirming previous data from literature. The results of the present study suggest that qualitative fatty acid analysis can be an important chemotaxonomic tool for the classification of fungi assigned to the order Mucorales (Zygomycetes.

  19. Effect of weight, sex and hunting period on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from wild boar

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    Art?ras Šiukš?ius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of weight, sex and month of hunting on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from 49 free ranging wild boars hunted in Lithuania during the winter season. A total number of 27 and 25 fatty acids were identified in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous tissue of wild boars, respectively. The weight of the wild boar had mainly affected only the levels of separate fatty acids both in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA were found in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of males compared with females. The effect of both weight and sex on the levels of fatty acids was higher in the subcutaneous fat than in the intramuscular fat. Weight, sex and hunting month had no effect on PUFA/SFA and n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio in subcutaneous fat were more favorable in females compared with males and in the January hunting season than in November and December.

  20. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85?±?0.48a, 8.8?±?0.24b and 7.1?±?0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P?ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94?±?3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75?±?2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P?>?0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1?±?0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78?±?2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits. PMID:25694719

  1. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; FrØkiær, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 £ 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO-supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed dietary records at baseline, during and 8 weeks after the intervention and tissue ncorporation as fatty acid composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The fat intervention gave a mean difference in the 18: 2n-6 intake of 73 g/d (95% CI 46, 100) and a similar 18: 3n-3 intake in the groups. The R/K groups had a 02% fatty acid (FA%) (95% CI 00, 04, P¼002) higher content of 22: 5n-3 in the PBMC, a tendency of slightly higher 20: 5n-3 (P¼006), but no more 22: 6n-3 (P¼083) than the S/B groups. FO effectively raised the PBMC content of all n-3 LCPUFA (P,0001). The fat intervention did not markedly influence the effect of FO; the mean PBMC content of n-3 LCPUFA was 103 (SEM 03) FA% in the FO þ S/B group and 106 (SEM 02) FA% in the FO þ R/K group. In conclusion, increasing the 18: 2n-6 intake did not have any pronounced effect on incorporation of n-3 LCPUFA in PBMC, either alone or with simultaneous FO supplementation.

  2. Use of Fatty Acid Analysis to Determine Dispersal of Caspian Terns in the Columbia River Basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranto, C.J.; Parrish, J.K.; Herman, D.P.; Punt, A.E.; Olden, J.D.; Brett, M.T.; Roby, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lethal control, which has been used to reduce local abundances of animals in conflict with humans or with endangered species, may not achieve management goals if animal movement is not considered. In populations with emigration and immigration, lethal control may induce compensatory immigration, if the source of attraction remains unchanged. Within the Columbia River Basin (Washington, U.S.A.), avian predators forage at dams because dams tend to reduce rates of emigration of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), artificially concentrating these prey. We used differences in fatty acid profiles between Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia) at coastal and inland breeding colonies and terns culled by a lethal control program at a mid-Columbia River dam to infer dispersal patterns. We modeled the rate of loss of fatty acid biomarkers, which are fatty acids that can be traced to a single prey species or groups of species, to infer whether and when terns foraging at dams had emigrated from the coast. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that coastal terns had high levels of C20 and C22 monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas fatty acids of inland breeders were high in C18:3n3, C20:4n6, and C22:5n3. Models of the rate of loss of fatty acid showed that approximately 60% of the terns collected at Rock Island Dam were unlikely to have bred successfully at local (inland) sites, suggesting that terns foraging at dams come from an extensive area. Fatty acid biomarkers may provide accurate information about patterns of dispersal in animal populations and may be extremely valuable in cases where populations differ demonstrably in prey base. ??2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Fatty acids, cholesterol, oxidative rancidity, and color of irradiated shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves Abreu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 4, and 6 kGy doses applied to frozen and packed headed shrimp on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content, and lipid and color stability was evaluated. Myristic acid was higher in shrimp irradiated with 4 and 6 kGy and palmitic acid was higher in samples irradiated with 2 and 6 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. Stearic and behenic acids were lower in shrimp irradiated with 6 kGy compared to non-irradiated shrimp. With regard to non-irradiated shrimp, palmitoleic, oleic, and linoleic acids and total monounsaturated fatty acids were higher in shrimp irradiated with 6 kGy. Saturated fatty acid and cholesterol contents in irradiated samples were not different from those in non-irradiated shrimp. Lipid oxidation was higher in samples irradiated with 2, 4, and 6 kGy. Redness and yellowness of cooked shrimp were higher in samples irradiated with 6 kGy than in those in non-irradiated samples. The application of irradiation in doses up to 6 kGy on frozen and packed headed shrimp does not affect negatively the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content, and lipid and color stability.

  4. Inactivation of Ascaris suum by short-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris suum eggs were inactivated in distilled water and digested sludge by butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids. The fatty acids (FA) were only effective when protonated and at sufficient concentration. The conjugate bases were not effective at the concentrations evaluated. Predictions from an ...

  5. Surface investigation of chitosan film with fatty acid monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esam A. El-hefian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface pressure- molecular area (?-A isotherm curves of two fatty acids of different chain lengths, i.e. stearic (C18 and arachidic (C20 acids, were obtained by using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB technique. Results showed clear isotherm plots with limiting mean molecular area around 21 Å2 for both acids. However, the monolayer was found to collapse at higher than 33 mN m-1 and 21 mN m-1 for stearic acid and arachidic acid respectively. The effect of Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of the acids was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM. Chitosan film, before and after dipping in water, was also studied by means of AFM so that it could be used for comparison. It was found that the surface of chitosan was more homogeneous and smoother after dipping in water. In addition, more homogeneous surfaces were achieved after transferring a layer of the fatty acid onto the substrate.

  6. Activation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by rat tissues in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of labeled palmitic, linoleic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids to their respective acyl CoA's was studied in homogenates and microsomes of rat tissues. The highest activity, both in homogenates and microsomes, was seen in liver and heart. There was moderate activity in retina, brain, lung, kidney and testes and the lowest activity was found in spleen. Docosahexaenoic acid was activated much less actively in heart tissue than the other fatty acids. In all tissues examined, the highest activation was observed with arachidonic acid and the lowest with docosahexaenoic acid. Except for liver, those tissues that contained high levels of docosahexaenoic acid also had the highest activation capacity for this fatty acid

  7. FATTY ACIDS PATTERN OF OLIVE OIL UNDER ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasab Al-Rawashdeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming is considered as a mitigation strategy to face adverse effect of climate change and Consumers’ increasing their need for safe and quality food has motivated this research study. The olive oil of the Roman olive trees (Landrace Olea Europea belong to the Oleaceae family growing under organic farming (in the transition period conditions in Jordan Ajlun area was extracted by traditional method; warming water to the about 60°C and grounded the seeds make as paste then pour in the warmed water then take the oil layer floated at the surface. The oil was analyzed for fatty acids pattern and compared with Romans trees olive oil grown at Burma Agriculture Station which has organic Certificate according to the Japanese Agriculture Standard (JAS since 2007. The separation patterns of fatty acids were done by Gas Chromatography (GC. Results showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly oleic acid (up to 67.49%, linoleic acid (13.31% and linolenic acid (0.74% in the oil of Romans trees growing in Ajlun area, while the organic olive oil from the Romans olive trees growing at Burma Station showed 68.88% of oleic acid, 11.73% of linoleic acid and 0.67% of Linolenic acid. The analysis also showed that the palmatic saturated fatty acid was 12.54% at Burma Station compared to 11.82% in Ajlun area. The medicinal value of unsaturated fatty acids play great role for reducing cholesterol rate that was found in high level of Romans olive trees (landrace.

  8. Lipids, fatty acids composition and carotenoids of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in hydroponic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcelos Oliveira, Jorge Luiz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative culture media have been evaluated for the cultivation of microalgae, among them are, industrial and agriculture wastewaters, that make residue recycling possible by bioconverting it into a rich, nourishing biomass that can be used as a feeding complement in aquaculture and in diverse areas. The objective of this research is to determine the lipid, fatty acid profile and carotenoid produced by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in a hydroponic wastewater, with different dilutions. The results showed that lipid contents did not present significant differences. Fatty acids were predominantly 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:3n-6. For total carotenoids, the dilution of hydroponic wastewater did not stimulate the production of these pigments. From this study, it was determined that, the use of hydroponic wastewater as an alternative culture medium for  the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris generates good perspectives for lipid, fatty acid and carotenoid production.Medios de cultivo alternativos vienen siendo evaluados para el cultivo de microalgas, entre ellos, están los afluentes industriales y agrícolas, que posibilitan la reciclaje del residuo, bioconvirtiéndose en una biomasa enriquecida bajo el punto de vista nutricional, que puede ser utilizada como complemento alimenticio, para la acuacultura y en varias otras áreas de actuación. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar los contenidos de lípidos, composición de ácidos grasos y carotenoides producidos por la microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultivada en solución hidropónica residual, con diferentes diluciones. Los resultados de los contenidos de lípidos totales no presentaron diferencia significativa. Los ácidos grasos predominantes fueron los 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 e 18:3n-6. Para los carotenoides totales, la dilución de la solución hidropónica residual no estimuló la producción de estos pigmentos por la microalga. La utilización de la solución hidropónica residual como medio de cultivo alternativo para Chlorella vulgaris genera buenas perspectivas para la producción de lípidos, ácidos grasos y carotenoides.

  9. Lipid Classes and Fatty Acid Regiodistribution in Triacylglycerols of Seed Oils of Two Sambucus Species (S. nigra L. and S. ebulus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisc Vasile Dulf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The oil content and fatty acid composition of total lipids (TLs and main lipid classes (NLs- neutral and PLs- polar lipids in seeds of two wild Sambucus species (S. nigra and S. ebulus from Transylvania (Romania were determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC-MS. In addition, the positional distribution of fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols (TAGs was determined by hydrolysis with pancreatic lipase. The seeds were found to be rich in fat (22.40–24.90 g/100g with high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs ranging from 68.96% (S. ebulus to 75.15% (S. nigra. High ratios of PUFAs/SFAs (saturated fatty acids, ranging from 7.06 (S. nigra to 7.64 (S. ebulus, and low ratios of n-6/n-3, ranging from 0.84 (S. nigra to 1.51 (S. ebulus, were determined in both oils. The lipid classes/subclasses analyzed (PLs, MAGs—monoacylglycerols, DAGs—diacylglycerols, FFAs—free fatty acids, TAGs and SEs—sterol esters were separated and identified using thin-layer chromatography. The fatty acid compositions of the TAG fractions were practically identical to the profiles of TLs, with the same dominating fatty acids in both analyzed species. SEs and FFAs, were characterized by high proportions of SFAs. The sn-2 position of TAGs was esterified predominantly with linoleic acid (43.56% for S. nigra and 50.41% for S. ebulus.

  10. Lipid classes and fatty acid regiodistribution in triacylglycerols of seed oils of two Sambucus species (S. nigra L. and S. ebulus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Oroian, Ioan; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen; Pintea, Adela

    2013-01-01

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of total lipids (TLs) and main lipid classes (NLs- neutral and PLs- polar lipids) in seeds of two wild Sambucus species (S. nigra and S. ebulus) from Transylvania (Romania) were determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC-MS). In addition, the positional distribution of fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) was determined by hydrolysis with pancreatic lipase. The seeds were found to be rich in fat (22.40-24.90 g/100g) with high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ranging from 68.96% (S. ebulus) to 75.15% (S. nigra). High ratios of PUFAs/SFAs (saturated fatty acids), ranging from 7.06 (S. nigra) to 7.64 (S. ebulus), and low ratios of n-6/n-3, ranging from 0.84 (S. nigra) to 1.51 (S. ebulus), were determined in both oils. The lipid classes/subclasses analyzed (PLs, MAGs--monoacylglycerols, DAGs--diacylglycerols, FFAs--free fatty acids, TAGs and SEs--sterol esters) were separated and identified using thin-layer chromatography. The fatty acid compositions of the TAG fractions were practically identical to the profiles of TLs, with the same dominating fatty acids in both analyzed species. SEs and FFAs, were characterized by high proportions of SFAs. The sn-2 position of TAGs was esterified predominantly with linoleic acid (43.56% for S. nigra and 50.41% for S. ebulus). PMID:24071984

  11. Valproic acid and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A possible association?

    OpenAIRE

    Farinelli, Edoardo; Giampaoli, David; Cenciarini, Anja; Cercado, Ephraim; Verrotti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the most prescribed drugs in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Weight gain and obesity have been observed as side effects of VPA. These are often linked with other metabolic disturbances such as development of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD refers to a group of liver disorders with marked hepatic steatosis. It is associated with an increased...

  12. NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLD COOKING ON FISH FATTY ACIDS PROFILE USING ATHEROGENICITY AND THROMBOGENICITY INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Reffaei W.H. Moussa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Different cooking methods were effects on the fatty acids and food nutritional qualities. Fish is the most nourished food containing a higher ratio of essential fatty acids. This study is contacted to determine the effect of different cooking methods (microwaving, boiling and grilling for preparing salmon, mackerel, sardine and tuna had on the fatty acid profiles, in particular the ?-3 fatty acid.  Depending on estimated polyunsaturated/saturated ratio and ?-6/ ?-3 ratio as a measure of the propensity of the fish and cooked fish to influence the incidence of coronary heart disease indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity which were identified nutritional benefit from fish lipid. Also determine the level of minerals and toxic contaminant in fish meat according different cooking methods. Study was carried on salmon, sardine, mackerel and tuna fishes. The samples were cooking by different methods. These were microwaving, grilling and boiling. By lipid extraction, fatty acids profile was determined in all fresh and processed fish. From the fatty acid profile, the atherogenicity index (AI and thrombogenicity (TI indices were calculated. Mineral and toxic hazardous mineral were also identified in the cooked fish. It could be concluded that the use of heating process of fish especially microwave is advantageous over conventional cooking like grilled and blanched fish especially with salmon and mackerel. It also, the ?3 fatty acids retarded the decline in cognition over time. So, then ?-3 also produces a potent anti-thrombotic effect by decreasing production of thromboxane. There is evidence that the type of fat is more important than the total amount of fat in the quantification of cardiovascular disease risk; therefore, the Atherogenicity Index (AI and the thrombogenicity Index (TI were also evaluated. Using grilling and boiling process in the most of the fishes were able to decrease the level of cadmium in all studied fish.

  13. Fatty acid biosynthesis VII. Substrate control of chain-length of products synthesised by rat liver fatty acid synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Carey, E.M.

    1970-01-01

    - 1. Gas-liquid and paper chromatography have been used to determine the chain-lengths of fatty acids synthesised by purified rat liver fatty acid synthetase from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA, [1,3-14C2]malonyl-CoA and from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA plus partially purified rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase. - 2. A wide range (C4:0–C18:0) of fatty acids was synthesised and the proportions were modified by substrate concentrations in the same manner as for purified rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase. - 3. The relative amount of radioactivity incorporated from added acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA depended on the substrate concentrations used. At excess acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, greater amounts of acetyl-CoA were incorporated than theoretically expected from the malonyl-CoA pathway. At excess malonyl-CoA, less acetyl-CoA was incorporated than theoretically expected. - 4. An increase in the chain-length of fatty acids synthesised from malonyl-CoA was observed with increasing malonyl-CoA concentrations and malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA ratios. A similar increase was observed when increasing amounts of a malonyl-CoA generating system were added. However, at the same overall rate of synthesis, a lower proportion of long-chain fatty acids was synthesised from carboxylated acetyl-CoA than from added malonyl-CoA. - 5. It is suggested that acetyl-CoA carboxylase may carboxylate acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase.

  14. Inhibition of fatty acid mobilization by arterial free fatty acid concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J; Bülow, J

    1986-01-01

    Subcutaneous, inguinal adipose tissue from dogs was perfused with blood in which the free fatty acid (FFA) concentration was varied corresponding to FFA/albumin molar ratios between 1 and 6. Otherwise the composition of the perfusate was kept constant. In order to stimulate lipolysis, isoprenaline and theophyllamine were added to the perfusate. A raise in arterial FFA/albumin molar ratio was without influence on lipolysis (as reflected in the release of glycerol), but reduced the FFA release indicating an increased re-esterification. At FFA/albumin ratios above 3 a marked increase in vascular resistance was seen. This increase was partly reversible within the time of a perfusion. When lipolysis is stimulated in the intact organism, the effects of increasing arterial FFA/albumin ratio on re-esterification and vascular resistance may serve as feedback mechanisms regulating FFA mobilization.

  15. The multiple roles of Fatty Acid Handling Proteins in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CélineCruciani-Guglielmacci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are essential components of a living organism as energy source but also as constituent of the membrane lipid bilayer. In addition fatty acid (FA derivatives interact with many signaling pathways. FAs have amphipathic properties and therefore require being associated to protein for both transport and intracellular trafficking. Here we will focus on several fatty acid handling proteins, among which the fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36, members of fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs, and lipid chaperones fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs. A decade of extensive studies has helped decipher the mechanism of action of these proteins in peripheral tissue with high lipid metabolism. However, considerably less information is available regarding their role in the brain, despite the high lipid content of this tissue. This review will primarily focus on the recent studies that have highlighted the crucial role of lipid handling proteins in brain FA transport, neuronal differentiation and development, cognitive processes and brain diseases. Finally a special focus will be made on the recent studies that have revealed the role of FAT/CD36 in brain lipid sensing and nervous control of energy balance.

  16. Meat quality and tissue fatty acid profiles in rabbits fed diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Sk?ivanová, V.; Dokoupilová, A.; Czauderna, M.; Berladyn, A.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 52, ?. 12 (2007), s. 552-561. ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbits * conjugated linoleic acid * fatty acids Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2007

  17. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Donald B; Depner, Christopher M; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C(20-22) ? 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C(20-22) ? 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C(20-22) ? 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ? 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ? 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ? 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C(20-22) ? 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ? 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ? 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ? 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C(20-22) ? 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  18. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and bioactive compounds of guava seeds (Psidium guajava L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria Athayde, Uchôa-thomaz; Eldina Castro, Sousa; José Osvaldo Beserra, Carioca; Selene Maia De, Morais; Alessandro De, Lima; Clécio Galvão, Martins; Cristiane Duarte, Alexandrino; Pablito Augusto Travassos, Ferreira; Ana Livya Moreira, Rodrigues; Suliane Praciano, Rodrigues; José Celso De Albuquerque, Thomaz; Jurandy Do Nascimento, Silva; Larissa Lages, Rodrigues.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition, determine the fatty acid profile, and quantify the bioactive compounds present in guava seed powder (Psidium guajava L.). The powder resulted from seeds obtained from guava pulp processing. The agro-industrial seeds from red guava cv. paluma [...] were used, and they were donated by a frozen pulp fruit manufacturer. They contain varying amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, with a high content of total dietary fiber (63.94 g/100g), protein (11.19 g/100g), iron (13.8 mg/100g), zinc (3.31 mg/100g), and reduced calorie content (182 kcal/100g). Their lipid profile showed a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids (87.06%), especially linoleic acid (n6) and oleic acid (n9). The powder obtained contained significant amounts of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid (87.44 mg/100g), total carotenoids (1.25 mg/100 g) and insoluble dietary fiber (63.55 g/100g). With regard to their microbiological quality, the samples were found suitable for consumption. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the powder produced has favorable attributes for industrial use, and that use of these seeds would be a viable alternative to prevent various diseases and malnutrition in our country and to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural waste.

  19. Modification of essential fatty acid composition in broodstock of cultured European eel Anguilla anguilla L.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    StØttrup, Josianne; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Farmed eels had lower levels of arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) (ARA) and higher ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) (EPA):ARA compared to wild European eels collected from the Baltic Sea and southern Norwegian coast. Eels fed a formulated feed (JD) with a distribution of essential fatty acids (EFA) resembling wild European eel were sampled after 0, 5, 10, 14 and 44 weeks of feeding to examine changes in fatty acid composition (FAC) in ovaries, visceral fat and muscle. The results showed a slow but steady incorporation of EFA. Lipids are incorporated in the oocytes early in oogenesis, and the leading cohort of oocytes is rich in lipid droplets before the onset of vitellogenesis. This indicates that feeding with optimized broodstock feeds should start early to allow the incorporation of EFA in the first cohort of oocytes. At least 14 weeks of feeding is required to change lipid EFA in broodstock eel to resemble EFA in the diet or in wild fish. After 44 weeks of feeding, ARA was significantly higher in the neutral lipids of ovaries (1.9%) compared to visceral fat (1.2%) or muscle (1.0%). EPA:ARA ratios decreased two- to threefold in all tissues examined during that time. ARA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) (DHA) had accumulated in ovarian polar lipids

  20. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and bioactive compounds of guava seeds (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Athayde Uchôa-thomaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition, determine the fatty acid profile, and quantify the bioactive compounds present in guava seed powder (Psidium guajava L.. The powder resulted from seeds obtained from guava pulp processing. The agro-industrial seeds from red guava cv. paluma were used, and they were donated by a frozen pulp fruit manufacturer. They contain varying amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, with a high content of total dietary fiber (63.94 g/100g, protein (11.19 g/100g, iron (13.8 mg/100g, zinc (3.31 mg/100g, and reduced calorie content (182 kcal/100g. Their lipid profile showed a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids (87.06%, especially linoleic acid (n6 and oleic acid (n9. The powder obtained contained significant amounts of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid (87.44 mg/100g, total carotenoids (1.25 mg/100 g and insoluble dietary fiber (63.55 g/100g. With regard to their microbiological quality, the samples were found suitable for consumption. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the powder produced has favorable attributes for industrial use, and that use of these seeds would be a viable alternative to prevent various diseases and malnutrition in our country and to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural waste.

  1. ?12-Fatty acid desaturase from Candida parapsilosis is a multifunctional desaturase producing a range of polyunsaturated and hydroxylated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu?ek, Aleš; Matoušková, Petra; Sychrová, Hana; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Numerous ?12-, ?15- and multifunctional membrane fatty acid desaturases (FADs) have been identified in fungi, revealing great variability in the enzymatic specificities of FADs involved in biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here, we report gene isolation and characterization of novel ?12/?15- and ?15-FADs named CpFad2 and CpFad3, respectively, from the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis. Overexpression of CpFad3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains supplemented with linoleic acid (?9,?12-18:2) and hexadecadienoic acid (?9,?12-16:2) leads to accumulation of ?15-PUFAs, i.e., ?-linolenic acid (?9,?12,?15-18:3) and hexadecatrienoic acid with an unusual terminal double bond (?9,?12,?15-16:3). CpFad2 produces a range of ?12- and ?15-PUFAs. The major products of CpFad2 are linoleic and hexadecadienoic acid (?9,?12-16:2), accompanied by ?-linolenic acid and hexadecatrienoic acid (?9,?12,?15-16:3). Using GC/MS analysis of trimethylsilyl derivatives, we identified ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid) as an additional product of CpFad2. These results demonstrate that CpFAD2 is a multifunctional FAD and indicate that detailed analysis of fatty acid derivatives might uncover a range of enzymatic selectivities in other ?12-FADs from budding yeasts (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina). PMID:24681902

  2. Higher fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris (pyrenoidosa): Content of indivudual acids and use of the algae for the preparation of higher fatty acids - 14C(G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of data on the occurrence of higher fatty acids in the lipids of C h l o r e l l a v u l g a r i s (pyrenoidosa) is presented with a view to the biosynthetical preparation of fatty acids-14C(G). (author)

  3. Characterization of Aspergillus species based on fatty acid profiles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo E, Fraga; Djalva Maria N, Santana; Mario Jorge, Gatti; Gloria Maria, Direito; Lilia R, Cavaglieri; Carlos Alberto R, Rosa.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellular fatty acid (FA) composition was utilized as a taxonomic tool to discriminate between different Aspergillus species. Several of the tested species had the same FA composition and different relative FA concentrations. The most important FAs were palmitic acid (C16:0), estearic acid (C18:0), o [...] leic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which represented 95% of Aspergillus FAs. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated that FA analysis is a useful tool for differentiating species belonging to genus Aspergillus. All the species analyzed showed significantly FA acid profiles (p

  4. Inhibition of atherosclerotic lesion development in the ApoE-/- mouse by a novel ?-oxa polyunsaturated fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheimani, Fatemeh; Moore, Lynette; Ferrante, Judith V; Trout, Neil; Hii, Charles S; Ferrante, Antonio

    2010-10-01

    Recent findings that a novel polyunsaturated fatty acid, ?-oxa 23:4n-6, inhibits adhesion molecule expression on vascular endothelial cells and leukocyte adhesion led us to examine its ability to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis in the apoE-deficient (apoE) mouse. The mice were kept on normal chow or a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet for various periods and treated with either vehicle or ?-oxa 23:4n-6 by the intraperitoneal route. The hearts and aortae were isolated and lesion development at the aortic root was determined. Morphometric assessment revealed that lesion development was a function of compensatory aortic enlargement, suggesting that measurement of plaque size per se is the appropriate assessment of lesion size. Using this criterion, we found that atherosclerosis development was reduced in response to ?-oxa 23:4n-6, plaque size by 74% and aortic cross-sectional area by 62%, under an optimized regime. The number of foam cells per unit tissue area in the lesions of ?-oxa 23:4n-6-treated mice was significantly reduced by 37.5%. The blood levels of ?-oxa23:4n-6 in these mice exceeded the concentrations previously found to inhibit adhesion molecule expression in cultured endothelial cells. These data show that ?-oxa23:4n-6 protects against experimental atherosclerosis, most likely by reducing the number of infiltrating monocytes. PMID:20930595

  5. Fatty Acid Incubation of Myotubues from Humans with Type 2 Diabetes Leads to Enhanced Release of Beta Oxidation Products Due to Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensaas, Andreas J; Rustan, Arild C; Just, Marlene; Berge, Rolf K; Drevon, Christian A; Gaster, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased availability of fatty acids is important for accumulation of intracellular lipids and development of insulin resistance in human myotubes. It is unknown whether different types of fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) influence these processes. Research Design and Methods: We examined fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle cells from control and T2D individuals after four days preincu...

  6. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN INFANT FORMULA BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY WITHOUT DERIVATIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Oveisi; Sadeghi, N (Nader); M Hajimahmoodi; B. Jannat; A. Behfar H. Sobhani

    2006-01-01

    Fatty acids play important roles in biological systems and the newborns fatty acids requirements are covered only by the milk. It is of particular interest to qualify the content of the fatty acids in the milk. This study was performed to determine the levels of some fatty acids in the infant formulas and also to describe a method without derivatization for the fatty acids analysis and applying it to the control of infant formulas. Free fatty acids were produced by adding isopropanol- KOH to ...

  7. Total lipids and fatty acids of strains of Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupin Antonio Marcos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two growth stages, conidia (C and mycelium (M, and two media, minimal medium (MM and complete medium (MC, were compared in 10 strains of M. anisopliae, and two strains of M. anisopliae var. majus were similar in percentages of total lipids. Tukey test for average of lipid content in conidia (C and mycelia (M cultured on minimal (MM and complete (MC media showed significant differences between means at the 5% level for mycelia and conidia, indicating variability in total lipid production and storage during growth. Strains 5 and 7, both variety majus, did not present sizable differences from variety anisopliae. For fatty acids, C18:1 and C18:2, oleic and linoleic, respectively, the differences were all highly significant (p= 1% with the highest means being obtained for conidia for fatty acid C18:1 and for myclelia for fatty acid C18:2.

  8. 20 Years of Fatty Acid Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcone Augusto Leal de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A review taking into account the literature reports covering 20 years of fatty acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis is presented. This paper describes the evolution of fatty acid analysis using different CE modes such as capillary zone electrophoresis, non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography employing different detection systems, such as ultraviolet-visible, capacitively coupled contactless conductivity, laser-induced fluorescence and mass spectrometry. In summary, the present review signals that CE seems to be an interesting analytical separation technique that is very useful for screening analysis or quantification of the usual fatty acids present in different matrices, offering short analysis times and a simple sample preparation step as inherent advantages in comparison with the classical methodology, making it a separation technique that is very attractive for quality control in industry and government agencies.

  9. Phenotypic correlations of backfat thickness with meatiness traits, intramuscular fat, longissimus muscle cholesterol and fatty acid composition in pigs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Jacyno; A., Pietruszka; M., Kaw& #281; cka; W., Biel; A., Kotodziej-Skalska.

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the phenotypic correlations of backfat thickness with meatiness traits and intramuscular fat, cholesterol and fatty acid composition in the longissimus muscle of pigs. For this study, 60 barrows and 60 gilts (Pietrain ? Duroc boars and Polish Large White [...] crossbred sows) were slaughtered at 100 kg bodyweight. Lean meat percentage (LMP), loin muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness measured at five locations and average backfat thickness (ABF), and intramuscular fat (IMF), cholesterol (CHLM) and fatty acid composition in the longissimus muscle were determined. Phenotypic correlations of individual backfat thickness measured at five locations and ABF with LMP, LMA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including C18 :2n-6, were negative and moderate to high, while with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), including C16:1 and C18:1 were positive and very low. Correlations of individual backfat thickness and ABF with saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and C16:0 were positive (0.29 to 0.56), while for C18:0 were low (0.10 to 0.23). Correlations of IMF and CHLM with LMP, LMA and PUFAs, especially C18:2n-6, were negative and high, while with SFAs and MUFAs were positive and moderate to high. Correlation between IMF and CHLM was high (0.74). The results of the present study indicate that increased IMF content results a significant decrease in carcass meatiness (LMP and LMA) and of PUFAs content and an increase in backfat thickness and contents of SFAs, MUFAs and CHLM.

  10. Effects of olive oil calcium soaps and phase of lactation on the fatty acid composition in the milk of Massese ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Verità

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A basic diet of hay and concentrate, the latter supplemented with olive oil calcium soap (7% as fed was given to 11Massese ewes (group S for a 3-month period, while a basic diet without the supplement was given to 11 control Masseseewes (group C during the same period. Fatty acid composition of milk produced from the 5th to the 16th week post-partumwas evaluated monthly.In group S, the fatty acids C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C18:3n-6 and C20:3n-3 (Pand C16:0, C18:1, total CLA, C20:0, C20:1, C20:2, C20:5n-3 (EPA, C23:0 (Pincreased with respect to the control group C. This trend lead to a decrease in short-chain fatty acids (Pincrease in unsaturated fatty acids (Plactation phase also significantly influenced fatty acid composition: the unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio was higherat the end of the lactation period.It can be concluded that the addition of protected olive oil fats to the diet of lactating ewes may improve fatty acid milkcomposition. In addition, the final phase of production positively affects milk quality relative to human health.

  11. Menhaden oil, but not safflower or soybean oil, aids in restoring the polyunsaturated fatty acid profile in the novel delta-6-desaturase null mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Jessica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have diverse biological effects, from promoting inflammation to preventing cancer and heart disease. Growing evidence suggests that individual PUFA may have independent effects in health and disease. The individual roles of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA and ?-linolenic acid (ALA, have been difficult to discern from the actions of their highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA downstream metabolites. This issue has recently been addressed through the development of the ?-6 desaturase knock out (D6KO mouse, which lacks the rate limiting ?-6 desaturase enzyme and therefore cannot metabolize LA or ALA. However, a potential confounder in this model is the production of novel ?-5 desaturase (D5D derived fatty acids when D6KO mice are fed diets containing LA and ALA, but void of arachidonic acid. Objective The aim of the present study was to characterize how the D6KO model differentially responds to diets containing the essential n-6 and n-3 PUFA, and whether the direct provision of downstream HUFA can rescue the phenotype and prevent the production of D5D fatty acids. Methodology Liver and serum phospholipid (PL fatty acid composition was examined in D6KO and wild type mice fed i 10% safflower oil diet (SF, LA rich ii 10% soy diet (SO, LA+ALA or iii 3% menhaden oil +7% SF diet (MD, HUFA rich for 28?days (n?=?3-7/group. Results Novel D5D fatty acids were found in liver PL of D6KO fed SF or SO-fed mice, but differed in the type of D5D fatty acid depending on diet. Conversely, MD-fed D6KO mice had a liver PL fatty acid profile similar to wild-type mice. Conclusions Through careful consideration of the dietary fatty acid composition, and especially the HUFA content in order to prevent the synthesis of D5D fatty acids, the D6KO model has the potential to elucidate the independent biological and health effects of the parent n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, LA and ALA.

  12. AMPK-independent pathways regulate skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzamko, Nicolas; Schertzer, Jonathan D.

    2008-01-01

    The activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylation/inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) is believed to be the principal pathway regulating fatty acid oxidation. However, during exercise AMPK activity and ACC Ser-221 phosphorylation does not always correlate with rates of fatty acid oxidation. To address this issue we have investigated the requirement for skeletal muscle AMPK in controlling aminoimidazole-4-carboxymide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and contraction-stimulated fatty acid oxidation utilizing transgenic mice expressing a muscle-specific kinase dead (KD) AMPK alpha2. In wild-type (WT) mice, AICAR and contraction increased AMPK alpha2 and alpha1 activities, the phosphorylation of ACC2 and rates of fatty acid oxidation while tending to reduce malonyl-CoA levels. Despite no activation of AMPK in KD mice, ACC2 phosphorylation was maintained, malonyl-CoA levels were reduced and rates of fatty acid oxidation were comparable between genotypes. During treadmill exercise both KD and WT mice had similar values of respiratory exchange ratio. These studies suggested the presence of an alternative ACC2 kinase(s). Using a phosphoproteomics-based approach we identified 18 Ser/Thr protein kinases whose phosphorylation was increased by greater than 25% in contracted KD relative to WT muscle. Utilizing bioinformatics we predicted that extracellular regulated protein-serine kinase (ERK1/2), inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB protein-serine kinase beta (IKKbeta) and protein kinase D (PKD) may phosphorylate ACC2 at Ser-221 but during in vitro phosphorylation assays only AMPK phosphorylated ACC2. These data demonstrate that AMPK is not essential for the regulation of fatty acid oxidation by AICAR or muscle contraction.

  13. Reducing isozyme competition increases target fatty acid accumulation in seed triacylglycerols of transgenic Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    One goal of green chemistry is the production of industrially useful fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants. We focus on the engineering of industrial FAs, specifically hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) and conjugated polyenoic fatty acids (a-eleostearic acid, ESA), using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a m...

  14. Catalytic cracking of fatty oils and fatty acids. A novel route towards bio-jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heil, Volker; Kraft, Axel; Menne, Andreas; Unger, Christoph A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Components for bio-jet fuel production can be achieved by catalytic cracking of fatty oils and fatty acids over activated carbon catalyst. At reaction temperatures of about 450 C, mainly C15- and C16-n-Alkanes that can be isomerized for jet fuel-usage are produced. They can be used for bio-kerosene after isomerization. Introducing high-oleic feedstock like HO-sunflower-oil and slightly raising the reaction temperature leads to high amounts of n-alkanes in the jet-fuel boiling range. The process proves to be very robust concerning feedstock compositions and impurities. Therefore, catalytic cracking over activated carbon is an ideal pathway to transform not only bio-based oils, but also their wastes and fatty acid-containing by-products from plant oil processing into high-quality fuel components. Using alternative catalysts leads to an enhanced production of alkylated benzenes which are indispensable for aviation jet fuel. (orig.)

  15. Fatty acid profile, cholesterol and oxidative status in broiler chicken breast muscle fed different dietary oil sources and calcium levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.R., Abdulla; T.C., Loh; H., Akit; A.Q., Sazili; H.L., Foo; R., Mohamad; R., Abdul Rahim; M., Ebrahimi; A.B., Sabow.

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of three feeds containing 6% oils: palm oil (PO), soybean oil (SO) and linseed oil (LO); and three calcium levels (NRC recommendation, 1.25% and 1.50%) on the fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and cholesterol concentrations of broiler breast [...] meat in a 3 ? 3 factorial experiment. A total of 378 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to the diets and fed for six weeks. Birds fed diet supplemented with LO, SO and PO had higher proportions of ?-linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids, respectively. The LO diet increased the total n-3 fatty acids and decreased the n-6 : n-3 compared with the PO and SO diets. Birds fed the PO diet had higher oxidative stability and cholesterol compared with those fed the SO and LO diets. However, the level of cholesterol in all treatments was within the normal range. The level of calcium and interaction between source of oil and calcium level did not influence lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile and cholesterol level of broiler breast muscle. It can be concluded that dietary LO and SO enhanced n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively, while dietary PO enhanced the oleic acid and oxidative stability of broiler breast muscle. Thus, this study showed that PO can be used as an alternative oil source in broiler diets with a positive effect on the oxidative stability of chicken meat refrigerated at seven days when compared with vegetable oils that are rich in linoleic and ?-linolenic acid.

  16. Why do mitochondria synthesize fatty acids? Evidence for involvement in lipoic acid production

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Hajime; Shintani, David; Ohlrogge, John

    1997-01-01

    The function of acyl carrier protein (ACP) in mitochondria isolated from pea leaves has been investigated. When pea leaf mitochondria were labeled with [2-14C]malonic acid in vitro, radioactivity was incorporated into fatty acids, and, simultaneously, ACP was acylated. [1-14C]Acetate was much less effective as a precursor for fatty acid synthesis, suggesting that mitochondria do not possess acetyl-CoA carboxylase. The incorporation of radioactivity from [2-14C]malonate into fatty acids and th...

  17. Oxidized Fatty Acids as Inter-Kingdom Signaling Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina H. Pohl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxylipins or oxidized fatty acids are a group of molecules found to play a role in signaling in many different cell types. These fatty acid derivatives have ancient evolutionary origins as signaling molecules and are ideal candidates for inter-kingdom communication. This review discusses examples of the ability of organisms from different kingdoms to “listen” and respond to oxylipin signals during interactions. The interactions that will be looked at are signaling between animals and plants; between animals and fungi; between animals and bacteria and between plants and fungi. This will aid in understanding these interactions, which often have implications in ecology, agriculture as well as human and animal health.

  18. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60% of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased du...

  19. Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AM, Kessler; DS, Lubisco; MM, Vieira; AML, Ribeiro; AM, Penz Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO), acid corn oil (ACO), linseed oil (LO) or coconu [...] t fat (CoF). Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA ) x (2 n6:n3 ratios) x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC). Performance responses and dry matter (DMM), crude protein (CPM), and crude fat (CFM) metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS), acid soybean oil (ASO), or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO). Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.

  20. Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Kessler

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO, acid corn oil (ACO, linseed oil (LO or coconut fat (CoF. Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA x (2 n6:n3 ratios x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC. Performance responses and dry matter (DMM, crude protein (CPM, and crude fat (CFM metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS, acid soybean oil (ASO, or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO. Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.

  1. Effects of weight loss on liver and erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acid pattern and oxidative stress status in obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALEJANDRA, ELIZONDO; JULIA, ARAYA; RAMÓN, RODRIGO; CINZIA, SIGNORINI; CRISTIANA, SGHERRI; MARIO, COMPORTI; JAIME, PONIACHIK; LUIS A, VIDELA.

    Full Text Available Our aim was to study the influence of weight loss on the fatty acid (FA) composition of liver and erythrocyte phospholipids and oxidative stress status in obese, non-alcoholic, fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Seven obese NAFLD patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy with a gastro-jejunal a [...] nastomosis in roux and Y were studied immediately and 3 months after surgery. Seven non-obese patients who underwent anti-reflux surgery constituted the control group. Serum F2-isoprostane levels were measured by GS/NICI-MS/MS and FA composition was determined by GC. At the time of surgery, controls and obese patients exhibited a hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) pattern that correlated with that of erythrocytes. Three months after surgery, NAFLD patients lost 21% of initial body weight; serum F2-isoprostane levels decreased by 76%; total PUFA, long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA), n-3 PUFA, and n-3 LCPUFA increased by 22, 29, 81, and 93%, respectively; n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio decreased by 51%; docosahexaenoic acid/docosapentaenoic acid ratio increased by 19-fold; and the n-3 product/precursor ratio (20: 5 + 22: 5 + 22: 6)/18: 3 increased by 164% (p

  2. Metabolic engineering of yeast to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels: bottlenecks and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles. PMID:26106371

  3. Influence of fatty acid precursors, including food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10degreesC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2010-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C(15:0) fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37 degrees C and 10 degrees C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C(4), C(5), and C(6) branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C(3) and C(4) straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein. PMID:20048057

  4. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, John (Shoreham, NY); Whittle, Edward J. (Greenport, NY)

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  5. Associations between tissue fatty acid composition and physiological traits of performance and metabolism in the seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelier, Aurelien; McKenzie, David; Prinet, Aurelie; Galois, Robert; Robin, Jean; Zambonino, Jose-luis; Claireaux, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Seabass were fed for 4 months with diets where the lipid was provided as either canola oil (CO), palm oil ( PO) or fish oil (FO), to generate diversity in their tissue fatty acid (FA) composition and investigate how this influenced major traits of exercise performance, cardiac performance and respiratory metabolism. In particular, based upon previous observations, we investigated the hypothesis that enriching the fish tissues with oleic and linoleic acids (OA, 18:1n-9 and LA, 18:2n-6, respect...

  6. Project DyAdd: Fatty acids and cognition in adults with dyslexia, ADHD, or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Hokkanen, Laura; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2009-07-01

    Both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia are suggested to co-occur with altered fatty acid (FA) metabolism, but it is unknown how FAs are associated with the cognitive domains that characterize these disorders. In the project DyAdd, we investigated the associations between FAs in serum phospholipids and phonological processing, reading, spelling, arithmetic, executive functions, and attention. Healthy controls (n=36), adults with ADHD (n=26), dyslexia (n=36), or both (n=9) were included in the study. FAs included saturated, monounsaturated, total polyunsaturated, n-3, and n-6 FAs, together with n-6/n-3, AA/EPA, and LA/ALA ratios. When all the study subjects were included in the analyses, especially polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) were positively associated with cognition, but reading was least associated with FAs. These associations were modulated by gender, intelligence, n-3 PUFA intake, and group. Accordingly, within the ADHD group, only few associations emerged with PUFAs, n-6 PUFAs, and cognitive domains, whereas in the dyslexia group the more prevalent associations appeared with PUFAs and n-3 PUFAs. PMID:19464861

  7. Unveiling of novel regio-selective fatty acid double bond hydratases from Lactobacillus acidophilus involved in the selective oxyfunctionalization of mono- and di-hydroxy fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Oh, Hye-Jin; Park, Chul-Soon; Hong, Seung-Hye; Park, Ji-Young; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is the first time demonstration of cis-12 regio-selective linoleate double-bond hydratase. Hydroxylation of fatty acids, abundant feedstock in nature, is an emerging alternative route for many petroleum replaceable products thorough hydroxy fatty acids, carboxylic acids, and lactones. However, chemical route for selective hydroxylation is still quite challenging owing to low selectivity and many environmental concerns. Hydroxylation of fatty acids by hydroxy fatty acid forming enzymes is an important route for selective biocatalytic oxyfunctionalization of fatty acids. Therefore, novel fatty acid hydroxylation enzymes should be discovered. The two hydratase genes of Lactobacillus acidophilus were identified by genomic analysis, and the expressed two recombinant hydratases were identified as cis-9 and cis-12 double-bond selective linoleate hydratases by in vitro functional validation, including the identification of products and the determination of regio-selectivity, substrate specificity, and kinetic parameters. The two different linoleate hydratases were the involved enzymes in the 10,13-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid biosynthesis. Linoleate 13-hydratase (LHT-13) selectively converted 10?mM linoleic acid to 13S-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid with high titer (8.1?mM) and yield (81%). Our study will expand knowledge for microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes and facilitate the designed production of the regio-selective hydroxy fatty acids for useful chemicals from polyunsaturated fatty acid feedstocks. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 2206-2213. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25952266

  8. The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid Attenuates Organic Dust-Induced Airway Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Nordgren, Tara M.; Friemel, Taylor D.; Heires, Art J.; Poole, Jill A; Wyatt, Todd A.; Debra J. Romberger

    2014-01-01

    Workers exposed to organic dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are at risk for developing airway inflammatory diseases. Available preventative and therapeutic measures for alleviating dust-induced lung disease are inadequate. Because omega-3 fatty acids can mitigate inflammatory processes, we aimed to determine whether nutritional supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could reduce the airway inflammatory consequences of exposures to organ...

  9. Poultry fat decreased fatty acid transporter protein mRNA expression and affected fatty acid composition in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Jianmin; Zhang Bingkun; Guo Yuming

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A study was undertaken to examine the effects of poultry fat (PF) compared with those of soybean oil (SBO) on intestinal development, fatty acid transporter protein (FATP) mRNA expression, and fatty acid composition in broiler chickens. A total of 144?day-old male commercial broilers were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups (6 replicates of 12 chicks for each treatment) and fed isocaloric diets containing 3.0% PF or 2.7% SBO at 0 to 3 wk and 3.8% PF or 3.5% SBO at 4 t...

  10. The association between n-3 fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes and insulin resistance : the Inuit Health in Transition Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseng, Trine; Witte, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between the content of n-3 fatty acids and insulin resistance in an Inuit population. STUDY DESIGN: The Inuit Health in Transition Study was carried out between 2003 and 2007 in Greenland as a cross-sectional study. Our preliminary results are based on the first 452 participants aged 18 and above. Only participants with at least 1 Inuit grandparent and without diabetes were included. METHODS: The contents of n-3 fatty acids and the n-3/n-6 ratio were measured in the erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. BMI was calculated and questions concerning diabetes and ethnicity were answered. Insulin resistance was estimated using the HOMA-IR index based on fasting-glucose and fasting-insulin. RESULTS: We found an inverse association between C20:5 n-3 (EPA), C22:3 n-3, the n-3/n-6 ratio and HOMA-IR and a positive association between C18:3 n-3 cis and HOMA-IR. When adjusted for age, gender, BMI and ethnicity, the association remained statistically significant for C20:5 n-3 (EPA),C22:3 n-3 and C18:3 n-3 cis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that some types of n-3 fatty acids may have a protective effect against insulin resistance. The role of potential confounders such as physical activity, diet, energy intake, socio-economic status and contaminants deserves further exploration.

  11. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... true Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid...

  12. Radiometric measurement of differential metabolism of fatty acid by mycobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assay system has been developed based on automated radiometric quantification of 14CO2 produced through oxidation of [1-14C] fatty acids by mycobacteria. Two stains of M. tuberculosis (H37Rv and Erdman) and one of M. bovis (BCG) in 7H9 medium (ADC) with 1.0 microCi of one of the fatty acids (butyric, hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic) were studied. Results previously published on M. lepraemurium (Hawaiian) were also included for comparison. Both strains of M. tuberculosis had maximum 14CO2 production from hexanoic acid. Oxidation of butyric and avid oxidation of lauric acids were also found with the H37Rv strain but not with Erdman. In contrast, 14CO2 production by M. bovis was greatest from lauric and somewhat less from decanoic acid. M. lepraemurium showed increasing oxidation rates from myristic, decanoic and lauric acids. Assimilation studies of M. tuberculosis H37Rv confirmed that most of the oxidized substrates were converted into by-products with no change in those from which no oxidation was found. These data suggest that the radiometric measurement of differential fatty acid metabolism may provide a basis of strain identification of the genus Mycobacterium

  13. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid ?-Hydroxylase (CYP4) Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Byoung-Joon Song; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Hardwick, James P.; Douglas Osei-Hyiaman; Homer Wiland

    2009-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis), due to a decrease in mitochondria ?-oxidation with an increase in both perox...

  14. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissues in fat-tailed sheep under identical feeding conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Maleki; F., Kafilzadeh; G.Y., Meng; M.A., Rajion; M., Ebrahimi.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were [...] used in this investigation. All animals were weighed and slaughtered at the end of a 90-day fattening period and FA composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat was determined. Significant breed differences in total FA, total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6PUFA contents were observed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, but not in the tailfat. Breed differences were observed in the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of subcutaneous adipose tissue, with higher levels in Sanjabi than in Mehraban lambs. Linoleic and ?-linolenic acid of subcutaneous adipose were significantly higher in the Sanjabi breed than in the Mehraban breed. Thus, adipose tissue from fat-tailed Sanjabi lamb has a higher proportion of health-promoting linoleic and ?-linolenic acids, unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and CLA, suggesting that the Sanjabi breed could be used for producing healthier lamb products.

  15. Formation and degradation of dicarboxylic acids in relation to alterations in fatty acid oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, P B

    1992-02-20

    Dicarboxylic acids are excreted in urine when fatty acid oxidation is increased (ketosis) or inhibited (defects in beta-oxidation) and in Reye's syndrome. omega-Hydroxylation and omega-oxidation of C6-C12 fatty acids were measured by mass spectrometry in rat liver microsomes and homogenates, and beta-oxidation of the dicarboxylic acids in liver homogenates and isolated mitochondria and peroxisomes. Medium-chain fatty acids formed large amounts of medium-chain dicarboxylic acids, which were easily beta-oxidized both in vitro and in vivo, in contrast to the long-chain C16-dicarboxylic acid, which was toxic to starved rats. Increment of fatty acid oxidation in rats by starvation or diabetes increased C6:C10 dicarboxylic acid ratio in rats fed medium-chain triacylglycerols, and increased short-chain dicarboxylic acid excretion in urine in rats fed medium-chain dicarboxylic acids. Valproate, which inhibits fatty acid oxidation and may induce Reye like syndromes, caused the pattern of C6-C10-dicarboxylic aciduria seen in beta-oxidation defects, but only in starved rats. It is suggested, that the origin of urinary short-chain dicarboxylic acids is omega-oxidized medium-chain fatty acids, which after peroxisomal beta-oxidation accumulate as C6-C8-dicarboxylic acids. C10-C12-dicarboxylic acids were also metabolized in the mitochondria, but did not accumulate as C6-C8-dicarboxylic acids, indicating that beta-oxidation was completed beyond the level of adipyl CoA. PMID:1543729

  16. Fatty acid utilization in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have previously shown that the levels of total tissue coenzyme A and carnitine are reduced in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. It was therefore of interest to determine if these changes were associated with alterations in fatty acid oxidation by the hypertrophied myocardium. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats and perfused at 10 cm H2O left atrial filling pressure with a ventricular afterload of 80 cm of H2O with buffer containing 1.2 mM 14C-linoleate. Heart rate and peak systolic pressure were not different in control and hypertrophied hearts. 14CO2 production was linear in both groups of hearts between 10 and 30 minutes of perfusion. The rate of fatty acid oxidation determined by 14CO2 production during this time was 0.728 +/- 0.06 ?moles/min/g dry in control hearts and 0.710 +/- 0.02 ?moles/min/g dry in hypertrophied hearts. Comparable rates of fatty acid oxidation were associated with comparable rates of O2 consumption in the two groups of hearts (39.06 +/- 3.50 and 36.78 +/- 2.39 ?moles/g dry/min for control and hypertrophied hearts, respectively). The data indicate that the ability of the hypertrophied heart to oxidize fatty acids under these perfusion conditions is not impaired in spite of significant reductions in tissue levels of coenzyme A and carnitine

  17. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  18. Antiatherogenic effects of n-3 fatty acids - evidence and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Zampolli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available N-3 (omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids are thought to display a variety of beneficial effects for human health. Clues to the occurrence of cardiovascular protective effects have been, however, the spur for the first biomedical interest in these compounds, and are the best documented. Historically, the epidemiologic association between dietary consumption of n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular protection was first suggested by Bang and Dyerberg, who identified the high consumption of fish, and therefore, of fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids, as the likely explanation for the strikingly low rate of coronary heart disease events reported in the Inuit population. Since their initial reports, research has proceeded in parallel to provide further evidence for their cardioprotection and to understand underlying mechanisms. Decreased atherogenesis is currently thought to be a part of the cardiovascular protection by n-3 fatty acids. This article summarizes the evidence for such a claim and the mechanisms putatively involved. (Heart International 2006; 3-4: 141-54

  19. Biotechnology for Fats and Oils: New Oxygenated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the three groups of natural products (starch, protein and fat), fat and oil are the most under-investigated. The US has a large amount of surplus soybean oil annually, and using vegetable oils or their component fatty acids as starting material provides a new opportunity for bioindustry. Veg...

  20. Adsorption Assisted Ion Exchanger Catalyst for Fatty Acid Esterification.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Je?ábek, Karel; Holub, Ladislav; Hanková, Libuše; Corain, B.; Centomo, P.; Zecca, M.

    Prague : J.Heyrovský Institute of Physycal Chemistry of the ASCR , v.v.i, 2011 - (Žilková, N.; Horá?ek, M.), Op14 ISBN 978-80-87351-15-4. [Symposium on Catalysis /43./. Prague (CZ), 07.11.2011-08.11.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fatty acid * esterification Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  1. Inhibition of fatty acid-supported mitochondrial respiration by cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmi, C A; Miller, R L; Rajfer, J

    1990-12-01

    We have shown that, in addition to inhibition of the succinate-supported energy pathway (5), CS inhibition of mitochondrial Complex II activity also limits fatty acid oxidation. These results are consistent with the participation of altered lipid metabolism in CS nephrotoxicity. PMID:2288768

  2. Dietary trans-fatty acids and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzis?aw Kochan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trans-fatty acids (TFAs, products of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, have become more prevalent in our diet since the 1960s, when they replaced animal fats. TFAs also occur naturally in meat and dairy products from ruminants. There is growing evidence that dietary trans-fatty acids may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated adverse effects of TFAs on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. In dietary trials, trans-fatty acids have been shown to raise the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and Lp(a levels in blood. Moreover, a high intake of TFAs has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Prospective cohort studies have shown that dietary trans-fatty acids promote abdominal obesity and weight gain. In addition, it appears that TFA consumption may be associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The documented adverse health effects of TFAs emphasise the importance of efforts to reduce the content of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in foods.

  3. Fatty Acid Signaling: The New Function of Intracellular Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Papackova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, intracellular triacylglycerols (TAG stored in the form of cytoplasmic lipid droplets have been considered to be only passive “energy conserves”. Nevertheless, degradation of TAG gives rise to a pleiotropic spectrum of bioactive intermediates, which may function as potent co-factors of transcription factors or enzymes and contribute to the regulation of numerous cellular processes. From this point of view, the process of lipolysis not only provides energy-rich equivalents but also acquires a new regulatory function. In this review, we will concentrate on the role that fatty acids liberated from intracellular TAG stores play as signaling molecules. The first part provides an overview of the transcription factors, which are regulated by fatty acids derived from intracellular stores. The second part is devoted to the role of fatty acid signaling in different organs/tissues. The specific contribution of free fatty acids released by particular lipases, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose triacylglycerol lipase and lysosomal lipase will also be discussed.

  4. Drosophila lacks C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila melanogaster has been considered an ideal model organism to investigate human diseases and genetic pathways. Whether Drosophila is an ideal model for nutrigenomics, especially for fatty acid metabolism, however, remains to be illustrated. This study was to examine the metabolism of C20 an...

  5. Regulation and limitations to fatty acid oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Kiens, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA) as fuel for energy utilization during exercise originate from different sources: FA transported in the circulation either bound to albumin or as triacylglycerol (TG) carried by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and FA from lipolysis of muscle TG stores (IMTG). Despite a high rate of energy expenditure during high intensity exercise the total fatty acid oxidation is suppressed to below that observed during moderate intensity exercise. Although this has been known for many years, the mechanisms behind this phenomenon are still not fully elucidated. A failure of adipose tissue to deliver sufficient fatty acids to exercising muscle has been proposed, but evidence is emerging that factors within the muscle might be of more importance. The high rate of glycolysis during high intensity exercise might be the "driving force" via the increased production of acetyl CoA which in turn is trapped by carnitine. This will lead to less availability of free carnitine for fatty acid transport into mitochondria. This review summarizes our present view on how FA metabolism is regulated during exercise with a special focus on the limitations in FA oxidation in the transition from moderate to high intensity exercise in humans.

  6. Negative confounding by essential fatty acids in methylmercury neurotoxicity associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Anna L; Mogensen, Ulla Brasch

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury, a worldwide contaminant of fish and seafood, can cause adverse effects on the developing nervous system. However, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in seafood provide beneficial effects on brain development. Negative confounding will likely result in underestimation of both mercury toxicity and nutrient benefits unless mutual adjustment is included in the analysis.

  7. Regulation of Inflammation by Short Chain Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato T. Nachbar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The short chain fatty acids (SCFAs acetate (C2, propionate (C3 and butyrate (C4 are the main metabolic products of anaerobic bacteria fermentation in the intestine. In addition to their important role as fuel for intestinal epithelial cells, SCFAs modulate different processes in the gastrointestinal (GI tract such as electrolyte and water absorption. These fatty acids have been recognized as potential mediators involved in the effects of gut microbiota on intestinal immune function. SCFAs act on leukocytes and endothelial cells through at least two mechanisms: activation of GPCRs (GPR41 and GPR43 and inhibiton of histone deacetylase (HDAC. SCFAs regulate several leukocyte functions including production of cytokines (TNF-?, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10, eicosanoids and chemokines (e.g., MCP-1 and CINC-2. The ability of leukocytes to migrate to the foci of inflammation and to destroy microbial pathogens also seems to be affected by the SCFAs. In this review, the latest research that describes how SCFAs regulate the inflammatory process is presented. The effects of these fatty acids on isolated cells (leukocytes, endothelial and intestinal epithelial cells and, particularly, on the recruitment and activation of leukocytes are discussed. Therapeutic application of these fatty acids for the treatment of inflammatory pathologies is also highlighted.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Moderate Effects of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Leckie, Regina L.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Bhattacharee, Neha; MULDOON, MATTHEW F.; Flory, Janine M.; Erickson, Kirk I.

    2014-01-01

    Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 pa...

  9. Association of an ACSL1 gene variant with polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Widmann Philipp; Nuernberg Karin; Kuehn Christa; Weikard Rosemarie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The intramuscular fat deposition and the fatty acid profiles of beef affect meat quality. High proportions of unsaturated fatty acids are related to beef flavor and are beneficial for the nutritional value of meat. Moreover, a variety of clinical and epidemiologic studies showed that particularly long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from animal sources have a positive impact on human health and disease. Results To screen for genetic factors affecting fatty acid profiles in beef,...

  10. Extraction, Methylation and Quantification of Fatty Acids in Fast Food Items and Its Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesha Wasti; Uzaira Rafique

    2013-01-01

    The research is designed to study the relationship of intake of fatty acids through fast food items, consumption trends and related health issues. Fried food products most commonly consumed at restaurants were selected. Food outlets of both branded and non-branded vendors were included in the study for comparison. Total fat content, Fatty acids and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME’s) in food samples were determined experimentally using titrimetric and spectrophotometric methods. Fatty acids of...

  11. Lymphatic fatty acids in canine with pharmaceutical formulations containing structured triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, R.; Porsgaard, Trine; Porter, C.J.H.; Høy, Carl-Erik; Edwards, G.A.; Mullertz, A.; Kristensen, H.G.; Charman, W.N.

    2006-01-01

    The intramolecular structure of dietary triacylglycerols (TAG) influences absorption. In this study, two different pharmaceutical formulations were compared containing TAG differing in fatty acid profiles and intramolecular structures: LML and MLM, where M represented medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; 8:0) and L represented long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Lymph was collected from thoracic duct-cannulated canines for 12 h and the fatty acid composition was determined. The lymphatic transport of tota...

  12. The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the treatment of dyslipidemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, G; Galvani, M; Leitersdorf, E; Volpato, S; Cavalieri, M; Fellin, R

    2009-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are a family of lipids including some subgroups identified by the position of the last double bond in their structure. PUFA n-3 include alpha linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), while PUFA n-6 include linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA). Since PUFA n-3 consumption has been shown to be inversely correlated with coronary heart diseases (CHD) incidence, clinical trials have been principally conducted by administering fish oil supplements or purified PUFA n-3. The relationship between dietary PUFA n-3 and CHD is believed to be only partially mediated by their effects on plasma lipoprotein profile. PUFA n-3 have shown to reduce only slightly total and LDL cholesterol, probably as they crowd saturated fatty acids out of diet. Data on HDL cholesterol suggest that PUFA n-3 produce only a small increase in this fraction. The effect of PUFA n-3 supplementation on plasma triglycerides (TG) is much more important, with a reduction of about 25% in normolipidemic subjects and about 50% in hypertriglyceridemic patients. This effect seems to be mediated by an inhibition of hormone-sensitive lipase, and VLDL secretion, and an increase in apo B liver degradation. They also increase lipoprotein lipase activity resulting in a reduction of post-prandial TG. PUFA n-3 might be used as second line therapy, additional or alternative to fibrates and nicotinic acid, in the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, the addition of PUFA n-3 to statin therapy might contribute to normalize TG levels in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. PMID:20041810

  13. Liver Fatty acid binding protein (L-Fabp) modulates murine stellate cell activation and diet induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Anping; Tang, Youcai; Davis, Victoria; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Kennedy, Susan M; Song, Haowei; Turk, John; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Newberry, Elizabeth P.; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2013-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is crucial to the development of fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Quiescent HSCs contain lipid droplets (LDs), whose depletion upon activation induces a fibrogenic gene program. Here we show that liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-Fabp), an abundant cytosolic protein that modulates fatty acid (FA) metabolism in enterocytes and hepatocytes also modulates HSC FA utilization and in turn regulates the fibrogenic program. L-Fabp expression ...

  14. Expression of fatty acid synthesis genes and fatty acid accumulation in haematococcus pluvialis under different stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Anping

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofuel has been the focus of intensive global research over the past few years. The development of 4th generation biofuel production (algae-to-biofuels based on metabolic engineering of algae is still in its infancy, one of the main barriers is our lacking of understanding of microalgal growth, metabolism and biofuel production. Although fatty acid (FA biosynthesis pathway genes have been all cloned and biosynthesis pathway was built up in some higher plants, the molecular mechanism for its regulation in microalgae is far away from elucidation. Results We cloned main key genes for FA biosynthesis in Haematococcus pluvialis, a green microalga as a potential biodiesel feedstock, and investigated the correlations between their expression alternation and FA composition and content detected by GC-MS under different stress treatments, such as nitrogen depletion, salinity, high or low temperature. Our results showed that high temperature, high salinity, and nitrogen depletion treatments played significant roles in promoting microalgal FA synthesis, while FA qualities were not changed much. Correlation analysis showed that acyl carrier protein (ACP, 3-ketoacyl-ACP-synthase (KAS, and acyl-ACP thioesterase (FATA gene expression had significant correlations with monounsaturated FA (MUFA synthesis and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA synthesis. Conclusions We proposed that ACP, KAS, and FATA in H. pluvialis may play an important role in FA synthesis and may be rate limiting genes, which probably could be modified for the further study of metabolic engineering to improve microalgal biofuel quality and production.

  15. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on muscle fatty acid composition in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat. PMID:25789610

  16. The Examination of Fatty Acid Taste with Edible Strips

    OpenAIRE

    Ebba, Sahbina; Abarintos, Ray A.; Kim, Dae G.; Tiyouh, Melissa; Stull, Judith C.; Movalia, Ankur; Smutzer, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether humans could detect long-chain fatty acids when these lipid molecules are delivered to the oral cavity by edible taste strips. For suprathreshold studies, up to 1.7 umoles of stearic acid or linoleic acid were incorporated into 0.03 mm thick, one-inch square taste strips. Normalized taste intensity values for stearic acid were in the barely detectable range, with values equal to, or slightly above control strips. One-third of test subjects ...

  17. Proton tunneling in fatty acid/soap crystals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, A. Marco; Klein, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Fatty acids and acid/soap crystals have a bilayer structure, which is held together by hydrogen bonding between head groups. The present ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics calculations suggest that proton tunneling or sharing along such hydrogen bonds could be the key structural features in the acid/soap crystal but not in the pure acid. This effect seems to be due to sodium cations, which induce a dramatic shortening of the hydrogen bond and its signature should be visible in the experimental vibrational spectra.

  18. [Reconstitution of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis enzymes in mammalian cells to convert LA to DHA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guiming; Saleh, Abdulmomen Ali Mohammed; Bahwal, Said Ahmed; Qiu, Lihong; Sun, Jie; Shang, Yu; Jiang, Xudong; Ge, Tangdong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-02-01

    DHA (22:6n-3) is a ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with 22 carbon atoms and 6 double bonds, which has important biological functions in human body. Human and other mammals synthesize only limited amounts of DHA, more requirements must be satisfied from food resources. However, the natural resources of DHA (Mainly deep-sea fish and other marine products) are prone to depletion. New resources development is still insufficient to satisfy the growing market demand. Previous studies have revealed that the mammals can increase the synthesis of DHA and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids after transgenic procedures. In this study, mammalian cells were transfected with ?6, ?5 desaturase, ?6, ?5 elongase, ?15 desaturase (Isolated from nematode Caenorhabditis elegans) and ?4 desaturase (Isolated from Euglena gracilis), simultaneously. Results show that the expression or overexpression of these 6 enzymes is capable of conversion of the o-6 linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) in DHA (22:6n-3). DHA content has increased from 16.74% in the control group to 25.3% in the experimental group. The strategy and related technology in our research provided important data for future production the valuable DHA (22:6n-3) by using genetically modified animals. PMID:26062349

  19. Fatty acid metabolism in lambs fed citrus pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, M; Scerra, M; Bognanno, M; Buccioni, A; Cilione, C; Biondi, L; Priolo, A; Luciano, G

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we have hypothesized that replacing barley with high proportions of dried citrus pulp in a concentrate-based diet for lambs could increase the intake of unsaturated fatty acids and could reduce the rate of the ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA, with a consequent improvement of the intramuscular fatty acid composition. To test this hypothesis, 26 Comisana lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 56 d were fed a barley-based concentrate diet (CON; 8 lambs) or 2 diets in which barley was replaced with 24% (CIT24; 9 lambs) or 35% (CIT35; 9 lambs) dried citrus pulp. An overall improvement of the fatty acid composition of LM from lambs fed citrus pulp-containing diets was found. The PUFA/SFA ratio was lower (P lambs in the CON group compared with both the CIT24 and CIT35 groups. The thrombogenic index was lower (P lambs fed the CIT35 diet compared with those fed the CON diet. The CIT35 diet increased the proportion of C20:5 n-3 in the LM (P feeding the CIT24 and CIT35 diets increased the intake of total fatty acids (P feeding the CON treatment. On the other hand, phenolic compounds present in citrus pulp could have inhibited the ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA. This is supported by the fact that regardless of the level of inclusion in the diet, citrus pulp increased the proportion of rumenic acid (P lambs fed both CIT24 and CIT35 diets had a greater percentage of vaccenic acid (VA; lambs fed the CON diet, and the CIT35 diet increased the proportion of rumenic acid in plasma compared with the CON treatment (P lambs fed the CIT35 diet compared with that of the CON group. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that replacing barley with citrus pulp in the diet of growing lambs improves intramuscular fatty acid composition and underline the need for specific studies to clarify the mechanisms by which feeding citrus pulp affects the fatty acid metabolism in ruminants. PMID:26115304

  20. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. 381.462 Section 381...content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements...about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be made on...

  1. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. 317.362 Section 317...content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements...about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be made on...

  2. Drought and heat stress effects on soybean fatty acid composition and oil stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that oil concentration and fatty acid profile (composition) change with genotype, environment (mainly heat and drought), and geographical location. The changes in fatty acid composition under these conditions affect fatty acid stability, creating a challenge to oil proces...

  3. Fatty Acid Data in the USDA National Nutrient Databank: Data handling and currency issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modifications in the USDA National Nutrient Databank System have facilitated the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) in upgrading fatty acid handling. High priority was given to enabling fatty acid data to be entered in units as received (e.g. percent methyl esters, percent fatty acid of total fat) and t...

  4. Enzymatic esterification of tapioca maltodextrin fatty acid ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomrati, Sunsanee; Gohtani, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    In this work new types of hydrophobically modified maltodextrin were prepared by enzyme-catalyzed reaction of maltodextrin and three fatty acids: decanoic acid (C-10), lauric acid (C-12) and palmitic acid (C-16). Lipase obtained from Thermomyces lanuginosus was found to be a useful biocatalyst in the maltodextrin esterification. Esterified maltodextrin with a degree of substitution (DS) 0.015-0.084 was prepared at the optimum conditions of 60 °C for 4 h. The DS was found to be at its highest when maltodextrin and fatty acids were taken in the ratio 1:0.5. The functional properties of these esterified maltodextrin were investigated. All esterified maltodextrin did not completely dissolve in water. Esterified maltodextrin at a concentration of 25% (w/w) exhibited Newtonian flow behavior similar to that of native maltodextrin. Esterified maltodextrin had a higher viscosity compare to native maltodextrin. X-ray diffraction pattern of esterified maltodextrin indicated crystallization of the fatty acid side chains. The thermal stability of esterified maltodextrin was checked by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Esterified maltodextrin was then used as an emulsifier to make n-hexadecane O/W emulsions. The emulsions were characterized according to their oil droplet characteristics and emulsification index. PMID:24274521

  5. A chemometric model applied to fatty acid determination in blood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago I. B., Lopes; Casey A., Rimland; Sabrina, Nagassaki; Bruno, Geloneze; Anita J., Marsaioli.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mudanças no perfil de ácidos graxos têm sido associadas a vários processos patofisiológicos. Dados obtidos por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas (GC-MS) usando monitoramento seletivo de íons foram empregados para revelarem, após análise por análise de componentes principais (PCA), um con [...] junto relevante de íons para quantificação e caracterização de ácidos graxos. Este protocolo foi aplicado com sucesso na análise de ácidos graxos presentes em diversas frações lipídicas de sangue, permitindo a quantificação de diversos ácidos graxos e revelando seus números de insaturações. Adicionalmente, a presença de contaminantes, artefatos e co-eluições no cromatograma também foram reveladas sem análises adicionais. Por fim, ácidos graxos presentes em triacilglicerídeos, fosfolipídios e ésteres de colesterol presentes em plasma e membrana de eritrócitos foram determinados com exatidão adequada, repetibilidade e baixos limites de detecção e de quantificação. Abstract in english Changes in fatty acid profiles have been associated with several pathophysiological processes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data monitoring of selected ions was used with principal components analysis (PCA), revealing a set of relevant ions for quantification and characterization of [...] fatty acids. This protocol was successfully applied to the analyses of fatty acids in different human blood lipids, allowing the quantification of several fatty acids and revealing their unsaturation numbers. Moreover the presences of contaminants, artifacts and co-eluitions in the chromatogram were also revealed without any additional analyses. Thus, fatty acid constituents of triglycerides, phospholipids and esters of cholesterol present in plasma and erythrocyte membranes were accurately determined, with repeatability, low limits of determination and of quantification.

  6. Micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se, Zn) assessment and fatty acids profile in fish most consumed by Cubatao community, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curcho, Michel R.S.M.; Farias, Luciana A.; Fonseca, Barbara C.; Nascimento, Soraia M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: mrcurcho@ipen.b, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kuniyoshi, Leonardo S.; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos (LABNUT); Baggio, Sueli R., E-mail: sueli@ital.sp.gov.b [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Qualidade de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein, providing omega-3 (n-3) the fatty acids that reduce cholesterol levels, and reduce the incidence of heart disease and stroke. The purpose of the present study was to assess the concentration of some micronutrients and also fatty acids profile in muscles of the most consumed fish species from Cubatao coastal region. Cubatao carnivorous fish species analyzed were: Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina), Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada) and Menticirrhus americanus (Perna-de-Moca), and planktivorous species Sardinella braziliensis (Sardinha) and Mugil liza (Tainha). Micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se, Zn) in fish muscle were determined by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Fatty acids profiles in these muscle fish samples were performed by gas chromatography. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 23.0% in M. ancylodon to 50.0% in M. liza. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid contents varied from 10.9% in M. liza 38.4% in S. braziliensis. These fish species presented different proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 family and of the n-6 family. Regarding the n-6 family, M. furnieri showed the highest values (13.3%) and M. ancylodon, the lowest ones (4.1%). On the other hand, for the n-3 family, S. braziliensis presented the highest value (31.8%) and M. liza the lowest one (5.7%). Regarding micronutrients content, great concentration variations between individual of the same species and between different species were observed. From the nutritional point of view S. braziliensis is the best choice showing highest content of fatty acid n-3 family and micronutrient concentrations. (author)

  7. Micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se, Zn) assessment and fatty acids profile in fish most consumed by Cubatao community, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish are a healthy source of protein, providing omega-3 (n-3) the fatty acids that reduce cholesterol levels, and reduce the incidence of heart disease and stroke. The purpose of the present study was to assess the concentration of some micronutrients and also fatty acids profile in muscles of the most consumed fish species from Cubatao coastal region. Cubatao carnivorous fish species analyzed were: Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina), Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada) and Menticirrhus americanus (Perna-de-Moca), and planktivorous species Sardinella braziliensis (Sardinha) and Mugil liza (Tainha). Micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se, Zn) in fish muscle were determined by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Fatty acids profiles in these muscle fish samples were performed by gas chromatography. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 23.0% in M. ancylodon to 50.0% in M. liza. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid contents varied from 10.9% in M. liza 38.4% in S. braziliensis. These fish species presented different proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 family and of the n-6 family. Regarding the n-6 family, M. furnieri showed the highest values (13.3%) and M. ancylodon, the lowest ones (4.1%). On the other hand, for the n-3 family, S. braziliensis presented the highest value (31.8%) and M. liza the lowest one (5.7%). Regarding micronutrients content, great concentration variations between individual of the same species and between different species were observed. From the nutritional point of view S. braziliensis is the best choice showing highest content of fatty acid n-3 family and micronutrient concentrations. (author)

  8. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. PMID:26213011

  9. Effect of storage temperature in a Cambodian field setting on the fatty acid composition in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurhasan, Mulia; Roos, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid analysis requires standardized collection and storage of samples, which can be a challenge under field conditions. This study describes the effect of storage temperature on fatty acid composition in two sets of whole blood samples collected from 66 children in a rural area in Cambodia. The samples were stored with butylated hydroxytoluene at -20°C and -80°C and the latter required extra transfers due to storage facility limitation. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by high-throughput gas-chromatography and evaluated by paired t-tests and Bland-Altman plots. Total amounts of fat in -20°C and -80°C samples did not differ, but there was relatively more highly unsaturated fatty acids (15.8±2.7 vs. 14.4±2.5%, p<0.001) and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio (6.4±1.4 vs. 6.9±1.4, p<0.001) in the -20°C samples. Our results indicate that the importance of storage temperature should be evaluated in the context of storage facility availability and risk of temperature fluctuations during transport.

  10. CUTICULAR LIPIDS OF THE STORED FOOD PEST, LIPOSCELIS BOSTRYCHOPHILA BADONNEL (PSOCOPTERA: LIPOSCELIDIDAE): HYDROCARBONS, ALDEHYDES, FATTY ACIDS AND FATTY ACID AMIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila, has increasingly become a common pest of stored food products worldwide. We report here the cuticular hydrocarbon composition of this pest (the first report of the hydrocarbons of any member of the Order Psocoptera) and the first report of fatty acid amides...

  11. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ?-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

  12. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, ?-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, ?-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ?-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ?-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  13. Influence of extractive solvents on lipid and fatty acids content of edible freshwater algal and seaweed products, the green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vicha, Robert; Machu, Ludmila; Samek, Dusan; Baron, Mojmir; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2014-01-01

    Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C), red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D), and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H) commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S) products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK) and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP) were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I) and n-hexane (solvent II). Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II) to 18.02% (I) by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs). Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I) were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%-65.49%), monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9); 2.79%-26.45%), polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6); 0.71%-36.38%), ?-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3); 0.00%-21.29%), ?-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6); 1.94%-17.36%), and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6); 0.00%-15.37%). The highest content of ?-3 fatty acids (21.29%) was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ?-6 fatty acids (41.42%) was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent. PMID:24566307

  14. Effect of the inclusion of fish residue oils in diets on the fatty acid profile of muscles of males and females lambari (Astyanax altiparanae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ligia Uribe, Gonçalves; Felipe, Ferroli; Elisabete Maria Macedo, Viegas.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of two lipids sources of fish residue (tilapia and salmon) compared with a vegetable oil source (soybean oil) on the fatty acid profiles of male and female lambari. This experiment was developed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 × 2 factorial arra [...] ngement, totaling 6 treatments resulting from the combination of the three experimental diets for both sexes, with four replications for each treatment. This study involved 120 male (2.58±0.13 g) and 72 female lambari (4.00±0.09 g), fed the experimental diets twice a day until apparent satiation for a period of 60 days. Oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic fatty acids were found at higher concentrations in all experimental oils and diets, as well in the muscle of male and female lambari. The low amounts of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the experimental diets and subsequent greater concentrations in muscle tissue, suggested that lambari are able to desaturate and elongate the chain of fatty acids with 18 carbons. The fish of both sexes that received the diet with soybean oil showed high levels of n-6 fatty acids, especially of C18: 2n-6 and low levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. The diet with salmon residue oil promoted higher levels of fatty acids of the n-3 series and resulted in the best n-3/n-6 ratio in the muscle of male and female lambari. The oils from fish residues can be a substitute for traditional fish oil and its use in the lambari diets does not impair its growth.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieswerda Lee E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in mood disorders compared to schizophrenia are discussed as is a rational for the possibly greater efficacy of EPA compared to DHA. Conclusion While it is not currently possible to recommend omega-3 PUFA as either a mono- or adjunctive-therapy in any mental illness, the available evidence is strong enough to justify continued study, especially with regard to attentional, anxiety and mood disorders.

  16. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk is associate to weight gain and growth in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Anibal S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Linoleic 18:2 (n-6 and ?-linolenic 18:3 (n-3 essential fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are essential nutrients for growth and neonatal development. Consumption of preformed n-3 LC-PUFA has been shown to increase gestational duration and to decrease the incidence of premature birth in human studies. This study evaluated the association of essential fatty acids and LC-PUFA in breast milk on the growth of premature children (weight, height and head circumference. Study design Thirty-seven premature infants with a gestational age of 37 weeks or less were followed until 6 months of gestational age, adjusted for prematurity. The milk from mothers, weight, height and head circumference measures of children were collected during the follow up. The breast milk fatty acids were quantified by gas-liquid chromatography. Results Our results showed that total n-3 PUFA was positively associated with weight gain (p = 0.05, height (p = 0.04 and body mass index (BMI of children (p = 0.05. Our results also indicate that both linoleic acid and total essential fatty acids were positively associated with BMI and head circumference, whereas oleic acid was positively associated only with head circumference. Conclusion These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA composition of milk may be associated with weight gain and growth. Considering the advantages of n-3 LC-PUFA consumption on infant growth and visual function and its association with reduced incidence of premature birth, dietitians should advise pregnant women to increase their intake of foods high in n-3 LC-PUFA.

  17. Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency in 2015: The Impact of Novel Intravenous Lipid Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, Leah; Meddings, Liisa; Alberda, Cathy; Wichansawakun, Sanit; Robbins, Sarah; Driscoll, David; Bistrian, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    The fatty acids, linoleic acid (18:2?-6) and ?-linolenic acid (18:3?-3), are essential to the human diet. When these essential fatty acids are not provided in sufficient quantities, essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) develops. This can be suggested clinically by abnormal liver function tests or biochemically by an elevated Mead acid and reduced linoleic acid and arachidonic acid level, which is manifested as an elevated triene/tetraene ratio of Mead acid/arachidonic acid. Clinical features of EFAD may present later. With the introduction of novel intravenous (IV) lipid emulsions in North America, the proportion of fatty acids provided, particularly the essential fatty acids, varies substantially. We describe a case series of 3 complicated obese patients who were administered parenteral nutrition (PN), primarily using ClinOleic 20%, an olive oil-based lipid emulsion with reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids, linoleic and ?-linolenic, compared with more conventional soybean oil emulsions throughout their hospital admission. Essential fatty acid profiles were obtained for each of these patients to investigate EFAD as a potential cause of abnormal liver enzymes. Although the profiles revealed reduced linoleic acid and elevated Mead acid levels, this was not indicative of the development of essential fatty acid deficiency, as reflected in the more definitive measure of triene/tetraene ratio. Instead, although the serum fatty acid panel reflected the markedly lower but still adequate dietary linoleic acid content and greatly increased oleic acid content in the parenteral lipid emulsion, the triene/tetraene ratio remained well below the level, indicating EFAD in each of these patients. The availability and use of new IV lipid emulsions in PN should encourage the clinician to review lipid metabolism based on the quantity of fatty acids provided in specific parenteral lipid emulsions and the expected impact of these lipid emulsions (with quite different fatty acid composition) on measured fatty acid profiles. PMID:26187936

  18. Towards sustainable sources for omega-3 fatty acids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarme-Vega, T Catalina; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA), provide significant health benefits for brain function/development and cardiovascular conditions. However, most EPA and DHA for human consumption is sourced from small fatty fish caught in coastal waters and, with depleting global fish stocks, recent research has been directed towards more sustainable sources. These include aquaculture with plant-based feeds, krill, marine microalgae, microalgae-like protists and genetically-modified plants. To meet the increasing demand for EPA and DHA, further developments are needed towards land-based sources. In particular large-scale cultivation of microalgae and plants is likely to become a reality with expected reductions in production costs, yield increasese and the adequate addressing of genetically modified food acceptance issues. PMID:24607804

  19. Fatty acid biomarkers: validation of food web and trophic markers using C-13-labelled fatty acids in juvenile sandeel ( Ammodytes tobianus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; St. John, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A key issue in marine science is parameterizing trophic interactions in marine food webs, thereby developing an understanding of the importance of top-down and bottom-up controls on populations of key trophic players. This study validates the utility of fatty acid food web and trophic markers using C-13-labelled fatty acids to verify the conservative incorporation of fatty acid tracers by juvenile sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus) and assess their uptake, clearance, and metabolic turnover rates. Juve...

  20. Development of radioiodinated fatty acids for applications in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioiodinated fatty acids for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion and the assessment of regional fatty acid metabolism in relation to myocardial disease have seen rapid growth in the last few years. In this paper the development and use of these agents are reviewed. In addition to a discussion of the design of structurally modified fatty acids, the development of new radiolabeling methods for preparation of the iodine-123-labeled agents is presented. The development of these new agents is discussed, and their potential use in conjunction with single-photon tomography is an exciting new area. A summary of the clinical studies involving measurement of regional washout rate which have been performed with agents such as 17-([123I]iodo)heptadecanoic acid and 15-(p-[123I]iodo phenyl)pentadecanoic acid is also presented. The combined interest and expertise of chemists and clinicians have worked effectively together to make many recent contributions to this area of radiopharmaceutical development

  1. Radioactive photoreactive fatty acid analogues: Synthesis, biological utilization and tools for the study of fatty acid transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, P.

    1991-01-01

    The present study focused on the development, synthesis and investigation of the biological activity of a radioactive photoreactive homologous series of fatty acid analogues. The carbene precursor m-diazirinophenol was chosen because of its known photolytic properties. A synthesis of an homologous series of omega tritiated omega hydroxy fatty acids was developed based on the oxidation of commercially available olefins with catalytic amounts of OsO[sub 4] in the presence of NaIO[sub 4] to produce the precursor semialdehydes. The photoreactive homologous series was found to be biologically active both in vitro and in vivo. Using rat liver microsomes it was possible to compare Michaelis-Menten constants with those observed for normal substrates for the production of acyl-CoA derivatives. Furthermore, these derivatives were converted to phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine when the corresponding lysophospholipids were present in the incubation mixture. In vivo investigations consisted of incubating L-cells, a fibroblastic cell line, in culture with the radioactive photoreactive fatty acid analogues. Analyses of the lipid fraction of these cells showed that these analogues were present mostly in phosphatidylcholine and in phosphatidylethanolamine. These phospholipids form the major components of L-cell membranes. The photolysis at 360 nm of cells grown in the presence of these analogues resulted in the radioactive labelling of a large number of proteins presumed to be integral membrane proteins. In a collaborative effort, it was found that upon infection of these cells with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), followed by isolation and photolysis of the virions, the viral membrane glycoprotein G was intensely labelled. Prior to photolysis it was demonstrated that radioactivity attached to the G protein corresponded to the nonphotolyzed fatty acid. An Escherichia coli membrane protein was also identified, and a fatty acid diffusion assay was developed.

  2. Fatty Acid and Lipid Profiles with Emphasis on n-3 Fatty Acids and Phospholipids from Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yadong; Wang, Miao; Lindström, Mikael E; Li, Jiebing

    2015-10-01

    In order to establish Ciona intestinalis as a new bioresource for n-3 fatty acids-rich marine lipids, the animal was fractionated into tunic and inner body tissues prior to lipid extraction. The lipids obtained were further classified into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis using GC-FID, GC-MS, (1)H NMR, 2D NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS methods. It was found that the tunic and inner body tissues contained 3.42-4.08 % and 15.9-23.4 % of lipids respectively. PL was the dominant lipid class (42-60 %) irrespective of the anatomic fractions. From all lipid fractions and classes, the major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:1n-9, C20:1n-9, C20:5n-3 (EPA) and C22:6n-3 (DHA). The highest amounts of long chain n-3 fatty acids, mainly EPA and DHA, were located in PL from both body fractions. Cholestanol and cholesterol were the dominant sterols together with noticeable amounts of stellasterol, 22 (Z)-dehydrocholesterol and lathosterol. Several other identified and two yet unidentified sterols were observed for the first time from C. intestinalis. Different molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (34 species), sphingomyelin (2 species), phosphatidylethanolamine (2 species), phosphatidylserine (10 species), phosphatidylglycerol (9 species), ceramide (38 species) and lysophospholipid (5 species) were identified, representing the most systematic PL profiling knowledge so far for the animal. It could be concluded that C. intestinalis lipids should be a good alternative for fish oil with high contents of n-3 fatty acids. The lipids would be more bioavailable due to the presence of the fatty acids being mainly in the form of PL. PMID:26233815

  3. Structure of zebrafish IRBP reveals fatty acid binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Haswell, Karen M; Sprada, Molly; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) has a remarkable role in targeting and protecting all-trans and 11-cis retinol, and 11-cis retinal during the rod and cone visual cycles. Little is known about how the correct retinoid is efficiently delivered and removed from the correct cell at the required time. It has been proposed that different fatty composition at that the outer-segments and retinal-pigmented epithelium have an important role is regulating the delivery and uptake of the visual cycle retinoids at the cell-interphotoreceptor-matrix interface. Although this suggests intriguing mechanisms for the role of local fatty acids in visual-cycle retinoid trafficking, nothing is known about the structural basis of IRBP-fatty acid interactions. Such regulation may be mediated through IRBP's unusual repeating homologous modules, each containing about 300 amino acids. We have been investigating structure-function relationships of Zebrafish IRBP (zIRBP), which has only two tandem modules (z1 and z2), as a model for the more complex four-module mammalian IRBP's. Here we report the first X-ray crystal structure of a teleost IRBP, and the only structure with a bound ligand. The X-ray structure of z1, determined at 1.90 Å resolution, reveals a two-domain organization of the module (domains A and B). A deep hydrophobic pocket with a single bound molecule of oleic acid was identified within the N-terminal domain A. In fluorescence titrations assays, oleic acid displaced all-trans retinol from zIRBP. Our study, which provides the first structure of an IRBP with bound ligand, supports a potential role for fatty acids in regulating retinoid binding. PMID:26344741

  4. Fat content and fatty acids profile of colostrum and milk of primitive Konik horses ( Equus caballus gmelini Ant.) during six months of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikul, Jan; Wójtowski, Jacek; Danków, Romualda; Kuczy?ska, Beata; Lojek, Jacek

    2008-08-01

    The effect of the stage of lactation, the number of foals and age of the mare on changes in the fat content and fatty acid composition of colostrum and milk of primitive Konik horses was investigated. Colostrum and milk samples from 12 lactating mares were collected at the beginning of lactation, on the days 1 and 2 after foaling and then, starting from the first month of lactation, at 4-week intervals up to the sixth month of lactation. Significant differences were observed in fat content as well as the composition of some analysed fatty acids between colostrum and milk of mares of the Konik breed. The number of foalings and the age of mares did not have a statistically significant effect on the fat content in milk and had only a slight effect on the fatty acid composition. Milk produced by mares of the Konik breed is characterized by a considerable content of polyene fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms, a low ratio of n-6 fatty acids to n-3 fatty acids as well as low, highly advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. PMID:18680614

  5. Metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris to produce ricinoleic acid, a hydroxy fatty acid of industrial importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Chen, Yan; Ng, Siew Hon; Chen, Jianan; Qiu, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid) has many specialized uses in bioproduct industries, while castor bean is currently the only commercial source for the fatty acid. This report describes metabolic engineering of a microbial system (Pichia pastoris) to produce ricinoleic acid using a "push" (synthesis) and "pull" (assembly) strategy. CpFAH, a fatty acid hydroxylase from Claviceps purpurea, was used for synthesis of ricinoleic acid, and CpDGAT1, a diacylglycerol acyl transferase for the triacylglycerol synthesis from the same species, was used for assembly of the fatty acid. Coexpression of CpFAH and CpDGAT1 produced higher lipid contents and ricinoleic acid levels than expression of CpFAH alone. Coexpression in a mutant haploid strain defective in the ?12 desaturase activity resulted in a higher level of ricinoleic acid than that in the diploid strain. Intriguingly, the ricinoleic acid produced was mainly distributed in the neutral lipid fractions, particularly the free fatty acid form, but with little in the polar lipids. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the metabolic engineering strategy and excellent capacity of the microbial system for production of ricinoleic acid as an alternative to plant sources for industrial uses. PMID:26323290

  6. Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs); Sintese de novas amidas graxas a partir da aminolise de esteres metilicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carolina R.; Montes D' Oca, Caroline da Ros; Duarte, Rodrigo da C.; Kurz, Marcia H.S.; Primel, Ednei G.; Clementin, Rosilene M.; Villarreyes, Joaquin Ariel M.; Montes D' Oca, Marcelo G., E-mail: dqmdoca@furg.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Escola de Quimica e Alimentos

    2010-07-01

    Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

  7. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis Induce PPAR?-Regulated Fatty Acid ?-Oxidative Genes: Synergistic Roles of L-FABP and Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Huang; Avery L. McIntosh; Martin, Gregory G.; Petrescu, Anca D.; Kerstin K. Landrock; Danilo Landrock; Ann B. Kier; Friedhelm Schroeder

    2013-01-01

    While TOFA (acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor) and C75 (fatty acid synthase inhibitor) prevent lipid accumulation by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, the mechanism of action is not simply accounted for by inhibition of the enzymes alone. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a mediator of long chain fatty acid signaling to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) in the nucleus, was found to bind TOFA and its activated CoA thioester, TOFyl-CoA, with high affinity whil...

  8. Fatty acid biomarkers: validation of food web and trophic markers using C-13-labelled fatty acids in juvenile sandeel ( Ammodytes tobianus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; St. John, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A key issue in marine science is parameterizing trophic interactions in marine food webs, thereby developing an understanding of the importance of top-down and bottom-up controls on populations of key trophic players. This study validates the utility of fatty acid food web and trophic markers using C-13-labelled fatty acids to verify the conservative incorporation of fatty acid tracers by juvenile sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus) and assess their uptake, clearance, and metabolic turnover rates. Juvenile sandeel were fed for 16 days in the laboratory on a formulated diet enriched in (13)C16:0 followed by 14 days on a formulated diet enriched in (13)C18:3(n - 3). An exponential model was employed to estimate the uptake and clearance rates of recovered labelled fatty acids as a function of growth and fatty acid metabolism. The model predicted a faster uptake of (13)C18:3(n - 3) than (13)C16:0 (0.0353 and 0.0086.day(-1), respectively), consistent with a structural role of (n - 3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes, whereas saturated fatty acids presumably play a larger metabolic role. Clearance and metabolic rates of assimilated (13)C16:0 were estimated as 0.0572 and 0.0211.day(-1), respectively. Lack of temporal trends in nonlabelled fatty acids confirmed the conservative incorporation of labelled fatty acids by the fish.

  9. Direct acid methylation for extraction of fatty acid content from microalgae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin D; Wang, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Direct acid methylation was examined as a means for both analysis of fatty acid content in microalgal cells and biodiesel production without pretreatment. Microalgal cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta were prepared and examined. It appeared that direct acid methylation extracted higher fatty acid content than the solvent-based Soxhlet extraction process. It also revealed that the latter was prone to extract a significant amount of nonlipid hydrophobic impurities, including hydrophobic proteins and phytol-type compounds, while direct methylation produces essentially pure ester product. This work demonstrates that direct acid methylation provides superior fatty acid extraction, promising an efficient process for either quantification of lipid content or production of biodiesel. PMID:24838798

  10. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids aid in the modulation of inflammation and metabolic health

    OpenAIRE

    Zivkovic, Angela M.; Telis, Natalie; German, J Bruce; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of omega-3 fatty acids as precursors for lipid signaling molecules known as oxylipins. Although omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases and heart disease, they are generally underrepresented in the American diet. A literature review confirms that the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids — whether in food sources such as walnuts, flax seeds and fatty fish (including salmon and sardines), or in supplements — is associated ...

  11. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C. P.; Álvares, T. S.; Gomes, L. S.; Torres, A. G.; Paschoalin, V. M. F.; Conte-Junior, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when pfermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7g/100g fatty acids) contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher ?9-desaturase activity (0.31) that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0g/100g fatty acids) and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids) contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality. PMID:26444286

  12. FATTY ACID PROFILE OF CYNOMETRA IRIPA KOSTEL FROM SEEDS AND LEAVES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrunalini N.Desai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Present paper describes oil composition of the seed and leaves of Cynometra iripa Kostel. The analysis of fatty acids was performed following extraction in petroleum ether, and esterification using GC-FID. The saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid were found 39.3%, 18.2% and 42.4%respectively in seed oil and leaves oil content was 76.5%, 17.9% and 5.6% as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids respectively. The major fatty acids in Cynometra iripa seeds oil were Linoleicacid, oleic acid, palmitic acid and caproic acid. However major components of leaves oil are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, myristic acid. Stearic acid is observed in both, seed oil and leaf oil in appreciable quantities. This analysis reveals that seeds and leaves of Cynometra iripa serves as a source of essential fatty acids (C18: 2W6, C18:1w9.

  13. Fatty acid sulphoalkyl amides and esters as cosmetic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petter, P J

    1984-10-01

    Synopsis A review is given of the manufacture, properties and applications of the anionic surfactants commonly known as taurates and isethionates (fatty acid sulphoalkyl amides and esters, respectively). Originally developed in the 1930s for textile processing, these surfactants are used increasingly in the cosmetic field, particularly those derived from coconut fatty acid. Both types are produced from sodium isethionate, HO degrees C(2)H(4)SO(3)Na. The acyl isethionate, R degrees COO degrees C(2)H(4)SO(3)Na, is obtained by reaction with a fatty acid ('direct process'). or fatty acid chloride ('indirect process'). The direct process is cheaper but requires extreme conditions which can lead to discoloration of the product and a loss of shorter chain fatty acid components. The N-methyl-N-acyltaurate, R degrees CON(R(1))C(2)H(4)SO(3)Na, is obtained by Schotten-Baumann reaction of a fatty acid chloride with N-methyltaurine, which is derived from sodium isethionate via methylamine. Taurates and isethionates retain the benefits of the soaps to which they are structurally similar, but chemical modifications have eliminated many undesirable features. Thus they combine good detergency and wetting with high foaming, and maintain their performance in hard or salt water. Taurates are stable to hydrolysis over the whole pH range. Isethionates are prone to hydrolysis at high (>8) or low (alkaline pH of soap, and have been shown in various studies to be milder than soap and better tolerated by the young, the old and those with sensitive skins. Similarly, isethionates have been shown to be less irritating than other anionic or amphoteric surfactants used in cosmetics. The difference has been related to the negligible effect of isethionate on the water-binding capacity of stratum corneum. Other cosmetic applications besides toilet bars include shampoos (excellent cleaning, mild to scalp, some hair conditioning effects), liquid soaps (mild for all-over body use), bubble baths (copious stable foam, efficient lime soap dispersal, low irritancy), skin creams and lotions (emulsification, alleviation of 'dry skin'), baby care products (ultra-mild cleansing bars and milks, impregnated baby wipes) and oral products (foaming agents with low toxicity for toothpastes and mouthwashes). PMID:19467117

  14. Fatty acids linked to cardiovascular mortality are associated with risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven O. E. Ebbesson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although saturated fatty acids (FAs have been linked to cardiovascular mortality, it is not clear whether this outcome is attributable solely to their effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C or whether other risk factors are also associated with FAs. The Western Alaskan Native population, with its rapidly changing lifestyles, shift in diet from unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and dramatic increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD, presents an opportunity to elucidate any associations between specific FAs and known CVD risk factors. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that the specific FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality are also associated with individual CVD risk factors. Methods: In this community-based, cross-sectional study, relative proportions of FAs in plasma and red blood cell membranes were compared with CVD risk factors in a sample of 758 men and women aged ?35 years. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze relations between specific FAs and CVD risk factors (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, fasting glucose and fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose and 2-hour insulin. Results: The specific saturated FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality, the palmitic and myristic acids, were adversely associated with most CVD risk factors, whereas unsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and the marine n-3 FAs were not associated or were beneficially associated with CVD risk factors. Conclusions: The results suggest that CVD risk factors are more extensively affected by individual FAs than hitherto recognized, and that risk for CVD, MI and stroke can be reduced by reducing the intake of palmitate, myristic acid and simple carbohydrates and improved by greater intake of linoleic acid and marine n-3 FAs.

  15. Characterization of Aspergillus species based on fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Marcelo E; Santana, Djalva Maria N; Gatti, Mario Jorge; Direito, Gloria Maria; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Rosa, Carlos Alberto R

    2008-09-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) composition was utilized as a taxonomic tool to discriminate between different Aspergillus species. Several of the tested species had the same FA composition and different relative FA concentrations. The most important FAs were palmitic acid (C16:0), estearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which represented 95% of Aspergillus FAs. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated that FA analysis is a useful tool for differentiating species belonging to genus Aspergillus. All the species analyzed showed significantly FA acid profiles (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it will be possible to distinguish among Aspergillus spp. in the Flavi Section. FA composition can serve as a useful tool for the identification of filamentous fungi. PMID:18949322

  16. Uptake of algal carbon and the synthesis of an "essential" fatty acid by Uvigerina ex. gr. semiornata (Foraminifera within the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone: evidence from fatty acid biomarker and 13C tracer experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Larkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraminifera are an important component of benthic communities in oxygen depleted settings, where they potentially play a~significant role in the processing of organic matter. We tracked the uptake of a 13C-labeled algal food source into individual fatty acids in the benthic foraminiferal species, Uvigerina ex. gr. semiornata, from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. The tracer experiments were conducted on the Pakistan Margin during the late/post monsoon period (August–October 2003. A monoculture of the diatom Thalassiosira weisflogii was 13C-labeled and used to simulate a pulse of phytoplankton in two complementary experiments. A lander system was used for in situ incubations at 140 m and for 2.5 days duration, whilst a laboratory incubation used an oxystat system to maintain ambient dissolved oxygen concentrations. These shipboard experiments were terminated after 5 days. Uptake of diatoms was rapid, with high incorporation of diatom fatty acids into foraminifera after ~2 days in both experiments. Ingestion of the diatom food source was indicated by the increase over time in the quantity of diatom biomarker fatty acids in the foraminifera and by the high percentage of 13C in many of the fatty acids present at the endpoint of both in~situ and laboratory-based experiments. These results indicate that U. ex. gr. semiornata rapidly ingested the diatom food source and that this foraminifera will play an important role in the short-term cycling of organic matter within this OMZ environment. The experiments also suggested that U. ex. gr. semiornata consumed non-labeled bacterial food items, particularly bacteria, and synthesised the polyunsaturated fatty acid 20:4(n-6 de novo. 20:4(n-6 is often abundant in benthic fauna yet its origins and function have remained unclear. This study demonstrates that U. ex. gr. semiornata is capable of de novo synthesis of this "essential fatty acid" and is potentially a major source of this dietary nutrient in benthic food webs.

  17. Contaminants, diet, plasma fatty acids and smoking in Greenland 1999-2005.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to monitor and assess human exposure to pollution in the Arctic which presents a potential future health risk for the local populations. Epidemiological studies in Greenland have shown that human blood levels of several organic contaminants are very high, especially in the North where people depend on local food. In East Greenland (Ittoqqortoormiit (Scoresbysund)) the population shows the highest blood levels of several persistent organic pollutants found in Arctic countries, especially PCB, the levels of which exceed Canadian guideline levels. As in other Arctic countries, the predominant source of these contaminants is the local diet. However, other factors such as smoking may influence the metabolism and thereby the accumulation of toxic substances. STUDY DESIGN: This project is part of the human health program of the ongoing circumpolar "Artic Monitoring and Assessment Programme". Lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and dietary survey results covering 500 men and women from 6 Greenlandic districts were analyzed along with other factors blood lipids, fatty acid profiles, heavy metals and concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). RESULTS: The dietary survey showed that the traditional food on the average provided 20-30% of the total energy intake. However, the relative monthly meal intake of seal, whale, polar bear, fish and game, and the composition of imported food, varied between districts. Seal and polar bear intake, and, in particular all the plasma n-3 fatty acids, were significantly correlated with organic contaminant concentrations, (betaHCH, chlordanes, DDTs, Hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, PCBs, and toxaphenes) p<0.01(). After adjusting for age, district, dietary factors or plasma n-3 fatty acids, smoking was significantly correlated with high levels of all the above mentioned POPs. CONCLUSION: The main predictors of high contaminant levels in Greenland were age, district, male gender, smoking and high plasma n-3/n-6 ratio as a marker of high dietary intake of local marine mammals. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan-1

  18. Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the retina: analysis and clinical relevance in physiological and pathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdeaux Olivier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The retina is one of the vertebrate tissues with the highest content in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. A large proportion of retinal glycerophospholipids, especially those found in photoreceptor membranes, are dipolyunsaturated molecular species. Among them, dipolyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC molecular species are known to contain very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFA from the n-3 and n-6 series having 24-36 carbon atoms and four to six double bonds. Recent interest in the role played by VLC-PUFA arose from the findings that a protein called Elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids 4 (ELOVL4 is involved in their biosynthesis and that mutations in the ELOVL4 gene are associated with Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3, a dominantly inherited juvenile macular degeneration leading to vision loss. In this context, PC molecular species containing VLC-PUFA in retina must be precisely characterized to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of STGD3. For 25 years, several current approaches using gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have been used for the characterisation and quantification of VLC-PUFA. These methods allowed characterizing with precision the structures (carbon chain length and double bond positions of the different VLC-PUFA in bovine retina. Thus, retinal C28-C36 fatty acids are polyunsaturated and belong to the n-3 and n-6 families. The n-6 family of C28-C36 fatty acids has four or five double bonds, while the n-3 family of VLC-PUFA contains five or six double bonds. Moreover, some studies allowed determining the position of VLC-PUFA in the VLC-PC species. But most of these conventional approaches are timeconsuming, requiring successive extraction, chromatographic steps and often a derivatization step before. Recently, a normal LC-ESI-MS/MS method was proposed for the structural characterization and the quantification of VLC-PC species in retinas from bovines and human donors. It directly analyses phospholipids as intact molecules and preserves the information based on the relative position of acyl radicals on the glycerol backbone. Since the results from molecular and biochemical studies led to the conclusion that VLC-PUFA are involved in the pathogenesis of STGD3, this specific and accurate method may be useful to more precisely investigate the molecular mechanisms leading to photoreceptor dysfunction and death in STD3.

  19. Caulobacter crescentus fatty acid-dependent cell cycle mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, D; Shaw, P; O'Connell, M; Henry, S; Shapiro, L

    1984-04-01

    A fatty acid auxotroph of Caulobacter crescentus, AE6001, which displays a strict requirement for unsaturated fatty acids to grow on glucose as the carbon source has been isolated. Starvation of AE6001 for unsaturated fatty acids resulted in a block in the cell cycle. Starved cultures accumulated at the predivisional cell stage after a round of DNA replication had been completed and after a flagellum had been assembled at the pole of the cell. Cell division and cell growth failed to occur probably because the mutant was unable to synthesize a membrane. An analysis of double mutants containing the fatB503 allele and other mutations in membrane biogenesis demonstrated that the cell cycle of AE6001 blocked at a homeostatic state. The addition of oleic acid to starved cultures permitted cell division and the initiation of a new round of DNA replication. The coincident block in both the initiation of DNA replication and membrane assembly, exhibited by starved cultures of this mutant, suggests that the fatB503 gene product may be involved in the coordination of these events. PMID:6201473

  20. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%. PMID:26304436

  1. Lubricant and Bactericidal Properties of Calcium Salts of Fatty Acids: Effect of Degree of Unsaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Kijima, Tatsuro; Morikawa, Toshiya; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-10-01

    Fatty acids containing a C18 alkyl chain such as stearic acid (C18:0 fatty acid), oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (C18:2 fatty acid) are common emulsifiers in skin-care products and cosmetics and are also used in skin cleansers. In this study, we prepared calcium salts (Ca salts) of the above fatty acids to determine the effect of the degree of unsaturation of the alkyl chain. Scanning electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction patterns show that C18:0 and C18:1 fatty acid Ca salts are plate-shaped, lamellar-crystalline powder, while C18:2 fatty acid Ca salt is amorphous powder. Therefore, C18:2 fatty acid Ca salt exhibits a lower lubrication ability than do C18:0 and C18:1 fatty acid Ca salts. In addition, the bactericidal ability against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes improved with increasing degree of unsaturation. These findings suggest that Ca salts of unsaturated fatty acids have potential applications in cleansing and cosmetic products. PMID:26369591

  2. Morphology and Structure of Amino-fatty Acid Intercalated Montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Larry; Sumera, Florentino

    2015-04-01

    Natural clays and its modified forms have been studied for their wide range of applications, including polymer-layered silicate, catalysts and adsorbents. For nanocomposite production, montmorillonite (MMT) clays are often modified with organic surfactants to favor its intermixing with the polymer matrix. In the present study, Na+-montmorillonite (Na+-MMT) was subjected to organo-modification with a protonated 12-aminolauric acid (12-ALA). The amount of amino fatty acid surfactants loaded was 25, 50, 100 and 200% the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na+-MMT (25CEC-AMMT, 50CEC-AMMT, 100CEC-AMMT and 200CEC-AMMT). Fatty acid-derived surfactants are an attractive resource of intercalating agents for clays due to their renewability and abundance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to determine the occurrence of intercalation of 12-ALA and their molecular structure in the clay's silicates. XRD analysis revealed that the interlayer spacing between the alumino-silicate layers increased from 1.25 nm to 1.82 nm with increasing ALA content. The amino fatty acid chains were considered to be in a flat monolayer structure at low surfactant loading, and a bilayered to a pseudotrilayered structure at high surfactant loading. On the other hand, FTIR revealed that the alkyl chains adopt a gauche conformation, indicating their disordered state based on their CH2symmetric and asymmetric vibrations. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) allows the determination of the moisture and organic content in clays. Here, TGA revealed that the surfactant in the clay was thermally stable, with Td ranging from 353° C to 417° C. The difference in the melting behavior of the pristine amino fatty acids and confined fatty acids in the interlayer galleries of the clay were evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimerty (DSC). The melting temperatures (Tm) of the amino fatty acid in the clay were initially found to be higher than those of the free amino fatty acid, but decreased with increasing surfactant loading. This suggested that the amino fatty acid may be tethered to the clay structure via ionic interaction and/or ion-dipole attraction. Significant changes in the clay morphology, particle size and surface charge were observed after organo-modification. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the organo-clays have a disordered and flaky morphology, while the unmodified MMT appeared to be dispersed spherical grains. The effective (Z) diameter of Na+-MMT was found to be ~520 nm, but increased up to ~937 nm upon intercalation of 12-ALA. The zeta potential (?) of the clay materials, on the other hand, ranged from -33 mV for undmodified MMT to -16 mv (200CEC-AMMT clay). The possible occupational hazards of working with nanoclays should also be explored. Presently, the MTT-dye reduction assay was performed to determine cell viability of mouse monocyte-macrophages (J774A.1) after direct exposure to the clays. The cytotoxicity of the clays exhibited a chemistry and dose dependent response, with unmodified Na+-MMT as the most cytotoxic while the organo-clays exhibited low toxicity. These results demonstrated the successful intercalation of the surfactant for the production of organophilic clay materials for a wide range of applications.

  3. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, third (HF3 or all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-insulin resistance were also determined. HF3 fetuses were heaviest concomitant with elevated glycemia and insulin resistance (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had elevated plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6 acid proportions (p < 0.05. In the liver, HF3 fetuses displayed elevated linoleic, eicosatrienoic (20:3 n-6 and arachidonic acid proportions (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had reduced hepatic docosatrienoic acid (22:5 n-3 proportions (p < 0.05. High fat maintenance during the final week of fetal life enhances hepatic omega-6 FA profiles in fetuses concomitant with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance thereby presenting a metabolically compromised phenotype.

  4. Proximate composition and quantification of fatty acids in five major Brazilian chocolate brands / Composição centesimal e quantificação de ácidos graxos nas cinco maiores marcas de chocolates do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rúbia Michele, Suzuki; Paula Fernandes, Montanher; Jesuí Vergilio, Visentainer; Nilson Evelázio de, Souza.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar a composição centesimal e quantificar os ácidos graxos com ênfase em ácidos graxos trans em chocolates normal e dietéticos de cinco grandes marcas. As amostras foram adquiridas em diferentes supermercados na região de Maringá. As marcas foram nomeadas [...] por letras, sendo que para cada marca, foram analisados cinco lotes, com três unidades de chocolate por lote e as análises foram realizadas em triplicatas. Observou-se que os chocolates diets apresentaram maiores teores de lipídios que os chocolates normais das mesmas marcas. Os principais ácidos graxos observados foram os ácidos graxos saturados (SFA), ácido mirístico (14:0), ácido palmítico (16:0) e ácido esteárico (18:0). Entre os ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (AGMI), ácidos graxos poli-insaturados (AGPI) e ácidos graxos trans, o ácido oleico (18:1 n-9), ácido linoleico (18:2 n-6), ácido e elaídico (18:1-9t) predominaram. O conteúdo de ácidos graxos trans encontrado nas amostras analisadas foram inferiores e/ou iguais aos limites estabelecidos pela regulamentação brasileira. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to characterize the centesimal composition and quantify fatty acids in regular and diet chocolate brands with emphasis on trans fatty acids. Regular and diet dark chocolate samples from the major brands analyzed were purchased from different local supermarkets [...] in the city of Maringá. The brands were labeled with letters and five lots of each brand with three chocolate units per lot were analyzed in triplicate. We observed that the diet chocolates from the same brands presented larger lipid contents. The main fatty acids observed were saturated fatty acids (SFA), myristic acid (14:0), palmitic acid (16:0), and estearic acid (18:0). Among the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and trans fatty acids, oleic acid (18:1n-9), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), and elaidic acid (18:1-9t) predominated. The trans fatty acid contents found in the analyzed samples were lower than and/or in accordance with the limits proposed by the Brazilian regulation.

  5. Early behavior and development are influenced by the n-6 and n-3 status in prematures*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strandvik Birgitta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cohort of premature infants, consecutively included in the study at birth and followed to 18 months of age, the neonatal status of essential fatty acids and longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA were investigated and correlated to the development at 40 and 44 weeks gestational age and at 3, 6, 10 and 18 months corrected age. The diet reported by the mothers contained low EFA, 98% had an intake < 1 energy% of n-3 fatty acids. Fatty acid analyses were performed in early breast milk and in mothers’ and infants’ plasma phospholipids early after birth and at gestational age 40 and 44 weeks. The development of the infants were assessed with Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS at 40 and 44 weeks and with Bayley’s Scales of Infant Development (Second Edition (BSID-II at 3, 6, 10 and 18 months corrected age. At 40 weeks and 3 months videotapes were made of the infants’ spontaneous motor behavior to assess the quality of their general movements. Adjustments for confounding background factors were made in multiple logistic regression analyses and mothers’ education had the highest impact of the background variables. At all ages tested the n-6 fatty acid concentrations, expressed as total concentrations, LA, AA or as ratios to n-3 fatty acids in breast milk and early plasma phospholipids were negatively associated with development. Positive associations with LCPUFA, especially DHA, were mainly found after 10 months of age. Both mental and motor developments had similar pattern of associations, fatty acid concentrations and background factors explaining 20-50% (R2 of the developmental scores. This was only an observational study, and it cannot be excluded that the highly negative influence of n- 6 fatty acids was an effect of the low intake of n-3 fatty acids, which in the context of the changes generally seen in Western diet imply urgent need for larger studies.

  6. Fatty acid composition of commercially available Iranian edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Trans-fatty acids (TFAs, unsaturated fats with at least one double bond in the Trans configuration, are industrially formed in large quantities when vegetable oils are partially hydrogenated. This study was  ndertaken to quantify the amounts of the common fatty acids in several commercial oils marketing in Iran.
    • METHODS: The most consumed commercially available brands of vegetable oils were randomly selected from products available in supermarkets. A 10g sample was drawn from each mixed sample and prepared for fatty cid analysis by gas chromatography (GC.
    • RESULTS: Palmitic acid (C16:0 and stearic acid (C18:0 jointly constituted 21% of total fatty acids in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs. More than one third of total fatty acids in Iranian PHVOs were Trans fats. TFAs constituted almost 1% and 3% of total fatty  cids in Iranian cooking and frying oils. This study  howed higher contents of TFAs in Iranian commercially available hydrogenated vegetable oils. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used for all statistical analyses.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Although several studies reported multiple adverse effects of TFAs on human health, limited  nformation is available about total fatty acid composition, particularly TFAs, in Iranian edible oils. Our findings indicated higher content of TFAs in Iranian commercially available PHVOs.
    • KEYWORDS: Fatty Acids, Vegetable Oils, Trans Fats.

  7. Regiospecific synthesis of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Paulo; Santos, Juliane M. dos; D' Oca, Marcelo G. M.; Piovesan, Luciana A., E-mail: lpiovesan@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (UFRS), RS (Brazil). Escola de Quimica e Alimentos; Kuhn, Bruna L.; Moreira, Dayse N.; Flores, Alex F.C.; Martins, Marcos A.P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-11-15

    A series of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters was synthesized by the cyclo condensation of respective fatty hydrazides with 4-alkoxy- 1,1,1-trial omethyl-3-alquen-2-ones. Efficient and regiospecific cyclizations catalyzed by BF{sub 3}-MeOH gave the desired products in good to excellent yields and at high purity. (author)

  8. 77 FR 65834 - Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated Propoxylated; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0278; FRL-9365-4] Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated...from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of fatty acids, tall-oil, ethoxylated...establish a maximum permissible level for residues of fatty [[Page 65835

  9. Fatty acid composition of human milk in atopic Danish mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Halkjaer, Liselotte Brydensholt; Mikkelsen, Tina Buur; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Michaelsen, Kim F; Loland, Lotte; Bisgaard, Hans

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis has been related to a disturbed metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the PUFA composition of breast milk differs significantly between mothers with atopic dermatitis, mothers with other types of atopy, and nonatopic mothers. We also investigated whether differences in diet can explain possible observed differences. DESIGN: Mothers with current or previous asthma (n = 396) were divided into 3 groups according to history of a...

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Blood Levels Clinical Significance Update

    OpenAIRE

    Superko, H Robert; Superko, Alex R.; Lundberg, Gina P.; Margolis, Basil; Garrett, Brenda C.; Nasir, Khurram; Agatston, Arthur S

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefit of fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids) consumption to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains controversial. Some investigations report reduced CVD risk associated with fish or fish oil consumption while others report no benefit. This controversy is in part resolved when consideration is given to omega-3 blood levels in relation to CVD risk as well as blood levels achieved in clinical trials of omega-3 supplementation and CVD benefit. There is a wide variation in ome...

  11. Chronic quercetin exposure affects fatty acid catabolism in rat lung

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, V.C.J., de; van Schothorst, E. M.; Dihal, A.A.; Woude, H., van der; Arts, I.C.W.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Keijer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary quercetin intake is suggested to be health promoting, but this assumption is mainly based on mechanistic studies performed in vitro. Previously, we identified rat lung as a quercetin target tissue. To assess relevant in vivo health effects of quercetin, we analyzed mechanisms of effect in rat lungs of a chronic (41 weeks) 1% quercetin diet using whole genome microarrays. We show here that fatty acid catabolism pathways, like beta-oxidation and ketogenesis, are up-regulated by Dietary ...

  12. Fatty acid transformation in zooplankton: from seston to benthos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiselius, Peter; Hansen, Benni Winding; Calliari, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    All organic matter, fatty acids (FA) in particular, is transformed in the pelagic plankton food web before reaching fishes or benthic organisms. Mesozooplankton (0.2 to 2 mm) is the main conduit for FA transfer, and FA profiles in sedimenting matter should therefore be significantly affected by its activity. To test this hypothesis, we sampled seston, zooplankton and sediment trap material for FA analysis during 5 campaigns spanning 4 seasons at a coastal site on the west coast of Sweden. Satura...

  13. Significance of Fatty Acids in Pregnancy-Induced Immunosuppression

    OpenAIRE

    Crocker, Ian; Lawson, Nigel; Daniels, Ian; Baker, Philip; Fletcher, John

    1999-01-01

    Pregnancy can exert suppressive effects on chronic inflammatory conditions. We have previously demonstrated a depression in polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) respiratory burst during pregnancy which could explain this amelioration. To elucidate the biochemical mechanism, we have examined PMN phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and its relationship to cellular and circulating fatty acids in pregnant women (30 to 34 weeks) and nonpregnant controls. PMN PLA2 activity was...

  14. Enzymatic synthesis and application of fatty acid ascorbyl esters

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovi? Marija M.; Carevi? Milica B.; Mihailovi? Mladen D.; Kneževi?-Jugovi? Zorica D.; Petrovi? Slobodan D.; Bezbradica Dejan I.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid ascorbyl esters are liposoluble substances that possess good antioxidative properties. These compounds could be synthesized by using various acyl donors for acylation of vitamin C in reaction catalyzed by chemical means or lipases. Enzymatic process is preferred since it is regioselective, performed under mild reaction conditions, with the obtained product being environmentally friendly. Polar organic solvents, ionic liquids, and supercritical fluids has been successfully use...

  15. Membrane fatty acids as markers of bacterial antibiotic-producers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Petrásek, Ji?í; Krišt?fek, Václav; Jágr, Michal; Chro?áková, Alica; Pet?í?ek, Miroslav

    Cairns : International Society for Microbial Ecology, 2008. [International Symposium on Microbial Ecology ISME 12. Microbial Diversity - Sustaining the Blue Planet /12./. 17.08.2008-22.08.2008, Cairns] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA600660607; GA MŠk 2B06154 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : membrane fatty acids * bacterial antibiotic -producers * microorganisms Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Predictors of Dementia : Insulin, Fatty Acids and Vascular Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnemaa, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is crucial in order to diminish suffering from this devastating disease. The aim of this thesis was to investigate if different aspects of glucose metabolism, insulin, fatty-acid composition or other vascular risk factors predict the future development of AD and dementia. This thesis is based on the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) cohort, which started in 1970. A total of 2322 men at age 50 were examined wi...

  17. Modes of Fatty Acid Desaturation in Cyanobacteria: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Los, Dmitry A.; Mironov, Kirill S.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of individual species of cyanobacteria is conserved and it may be used as a phylogenetic marker. The previously proposed classification system was based solely on biochemical data. Today, new genomic data are available, which support a need to update a previously postulated FA-based classification of cyanobacteria. These changes are necessary in order to adjust and synchronize biochemical, physiological and genomic data, which may help to establish an adequate comprehen...

  18. WHO Scientific Update on trans fatty acids: summary and conclusions

    OpenAIRE

    R Uauy; Aro, A.; Clarke, R.(Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America); Ghafoorunissa, R; L'Abbe, M; Mozaffarian, D.; Skeaff, M.; Stender, S; Tavella, M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the WHO scientific review on trans fatty acids (TFAs) was to examine the evidence generated since the 1993 Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Fats and Oils in Human Nutrition, and to inform member countries on the health consequences of TFAs consumption that have emerged since the last report was released. The new information was deemed sufficient to recommend the need to significantly reduce or to virtually eliminate industrially produced TFA from the food supply in agreemen...

  19. Verification of Organic Feed Identity by Fatty Acid Fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Tres, A; van Ruth, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    The origin and authenticity of feed for laying hens is an important and fraud-susceptible aspect in the production of organic eggs. Chemical fingerprinting in combination with chemometric methods is increasingly used in conjunction with administrative controls to verify and safeguard the authenticity of food commodities. On the basis of fatty acid fingerprinting data of 36 organic and 60 conventional feeds, we have developed a chemometric classification model to discriminate between organic a...

  20. Transcriptional Regulation of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhardt, Tom H.; Skotnicka, Dorota; Kok, Jan de; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2013-01-01

    Here we study the influence of the putative fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB) regulator FabT (originally called RmaG [Llmg_1788]) on gene transcription in Lactococcus lactis MG1363. A strain with a knockout mutation of the putative regulator was constructed, and its transcriptome was compared to that of the wild-type strain. Almost all FAB genes were significantly upregulated in the knockout. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and DNase I footprinting, the binding motif of the re...

  1. The clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Choroma?ska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive levels of free fatty acids are toxic to cells. The human body has evolved a defense mechanism in the form of small cytoplasmic proteins called fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs that bind long-chain fatty acids (LCFA, and then refer them to appropriate intracellular disposal sites (oxidation in mitochondria and peroxisomes or storage in the endoplasmic reticulum. So far, nine types of these proteins have been described, and their name refers to the place in which they were first identified or where they can be found in the greatest concentration. The most important FABPs were isolated from the liver (L-FABP, heart (H-FABP, intestine (I-FABP, brain (B-FABP, epidermis (E-FABP and adipocytes (A-FABP. Determination of H-FABP is used in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and L-FABP in kidney lesions of different etiologies. It is postulated that FABPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Elevated levels of A-FABP have been found in the pericardial fat tissue and were associated with cardiac dysfunction in obese people. A rise in A-FABP has been observed in patients with type II diabetes. I-FABP is known as a marker of cell damage in the small intestine. Increased concentration of B-FABP has been associated with human brain tumors such as glioblastoma and astrocytoma, as well as with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other disorders of cognitive function. The aim of this work was to present current data on the clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins.

  2. Hepatic fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism in nephrotic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seungyeup; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Gollapudi, Pavan; Kwok, Vincent; Moradi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Heavy proteinuria (nephrotic syndrome) is associated with hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and a high risk of atherosclerosis. Hypertriglyceridemia in nephrotic syndrome (NS) is partly due to increased TG and TG-rich lipoprotein production. However, data on the effect of NS on fatty acid production and catabolic machinery are limited. NS was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by IP injection of puromycin aminonucleoside. Six weeks after the second injection the animals were euthani...

  3. Evolutionary diversification of the avian fatty acid-binding proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Austin L. Hughes; Piontkivska, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of avian and other vertebrate fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) supported the hypothesis that several gene duplications within this family occurred prior to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of tetrapods and bony fishes. The chicken genome encodes two liver-expressed FABPs: (1) L-FABP or FABP1; and (2) Lb-FABP. We propose that the latter be designated FABP10, because in our phylogenetic analysis it clustered with zebrafish FABP10. Bioinformatic analysis of across-...

  4. Overview of prescription omega-3 fatty acid products for hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Howard S

    2014-11-01

    Patients with elevated triglycerides (TG) may be at a higher risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs), particularly the long-chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), effectively reduce TG and thus may impact CV outcomes; however, clinical data have been inconsistent. This review discusses the efficacy, safety, and key considerations of currently approved prescription OM3FA products in patients with elevated TG with or without concomitant elevations in other atherogenic parameters. Currently, 6 prescription OM3FA formulations are approved in the United States: omega-3-acid ethyl esters (Lovaza, Omtryg, and 2 generic formulations), omega-3-carboxylic acids (Epanova), which contain both EPA and DHA, and icosapent ethyl (Vascepa), which is an EPA-only formulation. All prescription OM3FA products effectively lower TG, with the magnitude of TG reduction affected by baseline TG level. Products that contain DHA can raise levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is of particular concern in patients with atherosclerosis; Vascepa, however, does not raise these levels and therefore provides these patients with another option. Long-term outcomes trials for Vascepa (ongoing) and Epanova (planned) will help clarify the potential CV benefits in patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia despite statin therapy. PMID:25387209

  5. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Angela V; Davis, Brenda C; Garg, Manohar L

    2013-08-19

    While intakes of the omega-3 fatty acid ?-linolenic acid (ALA) are similar in vegetarians and non-vegetarians, intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are low in vegetarians and virtually absent in vegans. Plasma, blood and tissue levels of EPA and DHA are lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, although the clinical significance of this is unknown. Vegetarians do not exhibit clinical signs of DHA deficiency, but further research is required to ascertain whether levels observed in vegetarians are sufficient to support optimal health. ALA is endogenously converted to EPA and DHA, but the process is slow and inefficient and is affected by genetics, sex, age and dietary composition. Vegetarians can take practical steps to optimise conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, including reducing intake of linoleic acid. There are no official separate recommendations for intake of fatty acids by vegetarians. However, we suggest that vegetarians double the current adequate intake of ALA if no direct sources of EPA and DHA are consumed. Vegetarians with increased needs or reduced conversion ability may receive some advantage from DHA and EPA supplements derived from microalgae. A supplement of 200-300 mg/day of DHA and EPA is suggested for those with increased needs, such as pregnant and lactating women, and those with reduced conversion ability, such as older people or those who have chronic disease (eg, diabetes). PMID:25369925

  6. Chromium–tungsten–titanium mixed oxides solid catalyst for fatty acid methyl ester synthesis from palm fatty acid distillate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chromium–tungsten–titanium mixed oxides as solid catalyst. • Catalyst used for esterification of palm fatty acid distillate to methyl esters. • The maximum methyl ester content is 83%. • Catalyst has shown good activity and can be recycled for 4 times. - Abstract: Chromium–tungsten–titanium mixed oxides solid catalysts were prepared and evaluated in the esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Esterification was conducted in a batch reactor at 110–200 °C temperature ranges. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques such as BET, TEM, FTIR, TGA, XRD, EDX and SEM. The treatment conditions during catalyst preparation, effect of reaction parameters, leaching of the active species and the recycled use of the catalyst were investigated. The catalyst with formula CrWTiO2 was found to be the most active with maximum FAME content of 83% obtained at best reaction conditions of 170 °C for 3 h, 2:1 (methanol to oil molar ratio) and 2 wt.% catalyst dosage. The catalyst can be recycled for 4 times. The results revealed CrWTiO2 good potentials for use in esterification of high acid value oil

  7. Fatty acid derivatives ?-substituted with a neutral technetium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical importance of noninvasive probes of myocardial metabolism continues to promote investigation into the preparation of radiolabeled fatty acid derivatives useful for diagnostic imaging. The preparation of such compounds labeled with Tc-99m remains a major goal. Based on previous investigations of oxotechnetium(+5) bisamido bisthiolato (N/sub 2/S/sub 2/) complexes, the authors now report the synthesis of a series of ligands designed to form stable neutral technetium complexes whilst retaining the essential characteristics of a fatty acid. The design allows both for the incorporation of diverse fatty acid fragments and for metabolism of these fragments to produce a small readily excretable technetium complex as the final labeled metabolite. The first of these ligands, N,N'-ethylenebis-(2-mercapto)[2'-(11-carboxyundecyl)thio]acetamide, undergoes ligand exchange with Tc-99-[TcO(ethanediolato)2]/sup -/ to form a stable neutral lipophilic oxotechnetium(+5) complex as a diastereomeric pair of enantiomers. One pair of enantiomers has been characterized by elemental analysis, by its /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR, IR, and UV spectra, and by fast-atom bombardment spectrometry. All data are consistent with the formulation: oxo(N,N'-ethylenebis- (2-mercapto)[2'-(11-carboxyundecyl)thio]acetamido)-technetium(+5). This complex can also be prepared at the tracer level by ligand exchange with Tc-99m-glucoheptonate. The Tc-99 and Tc-99m complexes co-elute on reverse-phase HPLC

  8. Halogenated fatty acids : II. Methods of determination in lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation and separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained by calculation of retention indices. For closer identification of halogenated FAMEs, mass spectrometry (MS) is very useful, in particular when employing the chemical ionisation mode. MS identification, however, is highly facilitated if halogenated species are first indicated by element-selective methods.

  9. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in child development*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osendarp Saskia JM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA are important constituents of the maturing brain and therefore considered crucial for brain development in utero and in early infancy. However, it is uncertain whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation can have beneficial, sustainable effects on visual or cognitive development. Beneficial effects on child cognitive function after supplementation with EPA and DHA during pregnancy and lactation were observed at 4 years of age, but not at 3, 6 months or 7 years. In term infants LCPUFA when given in relative high dosages, seems to improve visual acuity, but not cognitive function. Evidence for an effect of LCPUFA supplementation of preterm infants remains inconclusive. In children older than 2 years of age, epidemiological evidence suggests an association between psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders and omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies. However, the evidence from randomized controlled trials exploring the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance or brain function in school-aged children is not conclusive. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFA are highly present in the maturing brain and are important for normal brain functioning and development. When provided in relative high dosages, n-3 LCPUFA may improve visual acuity in term infants. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy, early infancy, and childhood can improve cognitive function.

  10. Nutritional skewing of conceptus sex in sheep: effects of a maternal diet enriched in rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Jim E; Murphy Clifton N; Kimura Koji; Parks Tina E; Spate Lee D; Green Mark P; Kerley Monty S; Green Jonathan A; Keisler Duane H; Roberts R Michael

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, we examined whether maternal diet, specifically increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, of ewes with a constant body condition sc...

  11. Amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin and mineral contents of the edible garden snail (Helix aspersa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Ça??ltay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive and market value of meat of edible garden snail from northern Turkey was deter¬mined. Protein, fat, ash, water and carbohydrate value of edible garden snail were found 9.87, 0.58, 1.07, 82.50 and 5.99 % wet weight, respectively. The results of this study have showed that garden snails are good sources of amino acid, fatty acid, vitamins and minerals. The ly¬sine, isoleucine and leucine content from essential amino acids were 721, 467.57 and 611.50 mg/100g, respectively. The major amino acids detected were aspartic acid (996.814 mg/100g, glutamic acid (1405.158 mg/100g, alanine (1063.877 mg/100g, serine (1039.248 mg/100g. Total saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid were de¬termined 28, 76, 20.66 and 34.38 %. The vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin B1, B2, B3 and B6 of vitamins were 5.462, 0.887, 0.154, 0.065, 3.226 and 0.288 mg/100g wet wt, respectively. Min¬eral analysis of garden snails showed that they are rich in calcium and potassium (1357 and 1054 mg/kg and low in iron (5.21 mg/kg.

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Antioxidants in Edible Wild Plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ARTEMIS P, SIMOPOULOS.

    Full Text Available Human beings evolved on a diet that was balanced in the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and was high in antioxidants. Edible wild plants provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and higher amounts of vitamin E and vitamin C than cultivated plants. In addition to the antioxidant vit [...] amins, edible wild plants are rich in phenols and other compounds that increase their antioxidant capacity. It is therefore important to systematically analyze the total antioxidant capacity of wild plants and promote their commercialization in both developed and developing countries. The diets of Western countries have contained increasingly larger amounts of linoleic acid (LA), which has been promoted for its cholesterol-lowering effect. It is now recognized that dietary LA favors oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and increases platelet response to aggregation. In contrast, ALA intake is associated with inhibitory effects on the clotting activity of platelets, on their response to thrombin, and on the regulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. In clinical studies, ALA contributed to lowering of blood pressure, and a prospective epidemiological study showed that ALA is inversely related to the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Dietary amounts of LA as well as the ratio of LA to ALA appear to be important for the metabolism of ALA to longer-chain omega-3 PUFAs. Relatively large reserves of LA in body fat, as are found in vegans or in the diet of omnivores in Western societies, would tend to slow down the formation of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from ALA. Therefore, the role of ALA in human nutrition becomes important in terms of long-term dietary intake. One advantage of the consumption of ALA over omega-3 fatty acids from fish is that the problem of insufficient vitamin E intake does not exist with high intake of ALA from plant sources.

  13. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and Visual Loss in Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Neuringer, M; Connor, W.E.; Van Petten, C; Barstad, L

    1984-01-01

    Linolenic acid (18:3 omega 3) is a dietary precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3), the major fatty acid in the photoreceptor membranes of the retina. We hypothesized that rhesus monkeys deprived of dietary omega-3 fatty acids during prenatal and postnatal development would show plasma depletion of these fatty acids and visual impairment. Semipurified diets low in omega-3 fatty acids were fed to one group of adult female rhesus