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New biological and clinical roles for the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids  

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Four new findings of the biochemistry and biology of the essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids have recently been demonstrated. These findings will augment current knowledge as to the role of the essential fatty acids in human health.

Hansen, Harald S.

1994-01-01

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Specific markers of lipid peroxidation issued from n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several markers of lipid peroxidation are available with different degrees of specificity, from malondialdehyde as a global marker, to F(2)-isoprostane, which is specifically produced from arachidonic acid. Among these, 4-hydroxynonenal is recognized as a breakdown product of fatty acid hydroperoxides, such as 15-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroperoxy-octade cadienoic acid from the n -6 fatty acids. Furthermore, 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) derives from n -3 fatty acid hydroperoxides. We have recently described the occurrence of 4-hydroxydodecadienal (4-HDDE) from the 12-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid 12-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid. These three hydroxy-alkenals may be measured in human plasma by GC-MS, but they may partly be generated in the course of sampling, and the relative volatility of 4-HHE makes its measurement quite unreliable. We have successfully characterized and measured the stable oxidized carboxylic acid products from the hydroxy-alkenals 4-HNA, 4-HHA and 4-HDDA in urine. The ratio between 4-HHA and 4-HNA found in the same urinary sample might provide useful information on the location of lipid peroxidation, accounting for the high enrichment of the cerebrovascular system with docosahexaenoic acid, the main n -3 fatty acid in humans. PMID:14748733

Guichardant, M; Chantegrel, B; Deshayes, C; Doutheau, A; Moliere, P; Lagarde, M

2004-02-01

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cAMP-depending signaling regulates the adipogenic effect of N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) on adipogenesis and obesity is controversial as fundamentally opposing results both in vivo and in vitro have been reported. Using in vitro cell culture models we show that the adipogenic action of the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid was dependent on the intracellular levels of cAMP. In conditions with baseline intracellular levels of cAMP, n-6 PUFAs acted pro-adipogenic, whereas n-6 PUFAs acted anti-adipogenic when the intracellular levels of cAMP were elevated. The anti-adipogenic action of n-6 PUFAs was dependent on a PKA-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase (COX) expression and activity. In vivo the intracellular levels of cAMP are modulated in response to dietary intake of different classes of macronutrients. Accordingly, we show that n-6 PUFAs were pro-adipogenic when combined with a high carbohydrate diet, but non-adipogenic when combined with a high protein diet in mice. The high protein diet increased the glucagon/insulin ratio, leading to elevated cAMP-dependent signaling and induction of COX-mediated prostaglandin synthesis. Mice fed the high protein diet had a markedly lower feed efficiency than mice fed the high carbohydrate diet. Yet, oxygen consumption and apparent heat production were similar. Mice on a high protein diet had increased hepatic expression of PGC-1a and genes involved in energy demanding processes like urea synthesis and gluconeogenesis. We conclude that cAMP signaling is pivotal in regulating the adipogenic effect of n-6 PUFAs, and that diet-induced differences in cAMP levels can explain the ability of n-6 PUFAs to either enhance or counteract adipogenesis and obesity.

Madsen, Lise; Pedersen, Lone MØller

2008-01-01

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High levels of fat and (n-6 fatty acids in cancellous bone in osteoarthritis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is strongly linked with obesity and patients with osteoporosis (OP have a low body mass index. Anecdotal evidence, clinical and laboratory, suggests that OA bone contains more fat. However, conversion of osteoblasts to adipocytes is reported in OP and this would suggest that the more porous OP cancellous bone would have a high fat content. Objectives To test the hypothesis that OA bone contains more fat than OP bone. Methods Cores of cancellous bone were obtained from femoral heads of patients undergoing surgery for either OA or OP. Lipids were extracted using chloroform-methanol, weighed and expressed as a fraction of core mass and volume. A fatty acid analysis was performed using gas chromatography. Results OA bone contained twice as much fat per unit volume of tissue as OP. Levels of n-6 fatty acids were elevated in OA, especially arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6 which was almost double that found in OP. Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that lipids may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of OA and may provide part of the key to understanding why OA and OP lie at opposite ends of the spectrum of bone masses.

Aspden Richard M

2004-06-01

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Fluorescent n-3 and n-6 Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: THREE-PHOTON IMAGING IN LIVING CELLS EXPRESSING LIVER FATTY ACID-BINDING PROTEIN*  

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Despite the considerable beneficial effects of n-3 and n-6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs), very little is known about the factors that regulate their uptake and intracellular distribution in living cells. This issue was addressed in cells expressing liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) by real time multiphoton laser scanning microscopy of novel fluorescent VLC-PUFAs containing a conjugated tetraene fluorophore near the carboxyl group and natural methylene-in...

Mcintosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Wellberg, Elizabeth; Kuklev, Dmitry V.; Smith, William L.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

2010-01-01

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Interaction of (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids in desaturation and chain elongation of essential fatty acids in cultured glioma cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research in various biological systems has revived interest in interactions between the (n-6) and (n-3) essential fatty acids. We have utilized cultured glioma cells to show that linolenic acid, 18:3(n-3), is rapidly desaturated and chain elongated; 20:5(n-3) is the major product and accumulates almost exclusively in phospholipids. We examined effects of various (n-6), (n-3), (n-9) and (n-7) fatty acids at 40 microM concentration on desaturation and chain elongation processes using [1-14C]18:3(n-3) as substrate. In general, monoenoic fatty acids were without effect. The (n-6) fatty acids (18:2, 18:3, 20:3, 20:4 and 22:4) had little effect on total product formed. There was a shift of labeled product to triacylglycerol, and in phospholipids, slightly enhanced conversion of 20:5 to 22:5 was evident. In contrast, 22:6(n-3) was inhibitory, whereas 20:3(n-3) and 20:5(n-3) had much less effect. At concentrations less than 75 microM, all acids were inhibitory. Most products were esterified to phosphatidylcholine, but phosphatidylethanolamine also contained a major portion of 20:5 and 22:5. We provide a condensed overview of how the (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids interact to modify relative rates of desaturation and chain elongation, depending on the essential fatty acid precursor. Thus, the balance between these dietary acids can markedly influence enzymes providing crucial membrane components and substrates for biologically active oxygenated derivatives

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Searching for health beneficial n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in plant seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various plant seeds have received little attention in fatty acid research. Seeds from 30 species mainly of Boraginaceae and Primulaceae were analysed in order to identify potential new sources of the n-3 PUFA ?-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) and of the n-6 PUFA ?-linolenic acid (GLA). The fatty acid distribution differed enormously between genera of the same family. Echium species (Boraginaceae) contained the highest amount of total n-3 PUFA (47.1%), predominantly ALA (36.6%) and SDA (10.5%) combined with high GLA (10.2%). Further species of Boraginaceae rich in both SDA and GLA were Omphalodes linifolia (8.4, 17.2%, resp.), Cerinthe minor (7.5, 9.9%, resp.) and Buglossoides purpureocaerulea (6.1, 16.6%, resp.). Alkanna species belonging to Boraginaceae had comparable amounts of ALA (37.3%) and GLA (11.4%) like Echium but lower SDA contents (3.7%). Different genera of Primulaceae (Dodecatheon and Primula) had varying ALA (14.8, 28.8%, resp.) and GLA portions (4.1, 1.5%, resp.), but similar amounts of SDA (4.9, 4.5%, resp.). Cannabis sativa cultivars (Cannabaceae) were rich in linoleic acid (57.1%), but poor in SDA and GLA (0.8, 2.7%, resp.). In conclusion, several of the presented plant seeds contain considerable amounts of n-3 PUFA and GLA, which could be relevant for nutritional purposes due to their biological function as precursors for eicosanoid synthesis. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: N-3 PUFA are important for human health and nutrition. Unfortunately, due to the increasing world population, overfishing of the seas and generally low amounts of n-3 PUFA in major oil crops, there is a demand for new sources of n-3 PUFA. One approach involves searching for potential vegetable sources of n-3 PUFA; especially those rich in ALA and SDA. The conversion of ALA to SDA in humans is dependent on the rate-limiting ?6-desaturation. Plant-derived SDA is therefore a promising precursor regarding the endogenous synthesis of n-3 long-chain PUFA in humans. The present study shows that, in addition to seed oil of Echium, other species of Boraginaceae (Cerinthe, Omphalodes, Lithospermum, Buglossoides) and Primulaceae (Dodecatheon, Primula), generally high in n-3 PUFA (30-50%), contain considerable amounts of SDA (5-10%). Therefore, these seed oils could be important for nutrition. PMID:22745569

Kuhnt, Katrin; Degen, Christian; Jaudszus, Anke; Jahreis, Gerhard

2012-02-01

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Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in tilapia and human health: a review.  

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A recent publication questions the nutritional value of tilapia in the human diet following the movement to eat fish for their omega fatty acid (FA) content. It suggests that tilapia have an elevated amount of omega-6 FAs (n-6) and a deficient amount of omega-3 FAs (n-3), a possibly unhealthy proportion for humans. A high n-6:n-3 ratio is problematic because too much arachidonic acid, an n-6 FA, promotes inflammation, which aggravates heart disease and other illnesses. This paper analyzes the numbers from different tilapia composition studies in an effort to understand the range of n-6 and n-3 totals and ratios present in both farmed and wild tilapia. Generally, wild tilapia have more n-3 FAs than farmed tilapia, but diet adjustments can alter the body composition of the domesticated variety. Consumers should consider fish as part of a balanced diet and evaluate their FA needs on an individual basis. PMID:19757249

Young, Kaolin

2009-01-01

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Effect of Different Dietary n-6 to n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios on the Performance and Fatty Acid Composition in Muscles of Broiler Chickens.  

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The objective of this study was to investigate the different dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 (n-6/n-3) fatty acid (FA) on performance and n-6/n-3 FA in muscles of broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 10 replicates in each (10 birds/replicate). Birds were fed on a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 1% oil during starter (day 1 to 21) and 2% oil during finisher (day 22 to 39) phases, respectively. Treatments of high, medium and low dietary n-6/n-3 FA were formulated by replacing rice bran oil with linseed oil to achieve n-6/n-3 FA close to >20:1, 10:1 and 5:1, respectively. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05) among the treatments. Serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. In breast, concentration of C18:3n-3 was significantly greater (p = 0.001) for medium and low vs high n-6/n-3 FA, while concentrations of C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3, total n-3 FA, and n-6/n-3 FA were significantly higher for low vs medium, and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In contrast, concentrations of C18:2 and mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA) were lower for low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In thigh muscles, concentrations of C20:5n-3 were higher (pchickens, but enhanced beneficial long-chain n-3 FA and decreased n-6/n-3 FA in chicken breast and thigh, which could be advantageous for obtaining healthy chicken products. PMID:25358321

Mandal, G P; Ghosh, T K; Patra, A K

2014-11-01

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Hydroxy-alkenals from the peroxidation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and urinary metabolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

4-Hydroxy-2E-hexenal (4-HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal (4-HNE) have been characterized as prominent by-products of n-3 and n-6 hydroperoxy derivatives of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, respectively. We also have characterized the homolog 4-hydroxy-2E,6Z-dodecadienal (4-HDDE) as a specific by-product of the 12-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid 12-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoate (12-HpETE). The three hydroxy-alkenals have been found in human plasma with 4-HHE being the most prominent followed by 4-HNE. They were found increased in tissues submitted to oxidative stress, according to the fatty acid characteristic of those tissues, e.g., 4-HNE and 4-HDDE in blood platelets and 4-HHE in the retina. We have shown they covalently bind to the primary amine moiety of ethanolamine phospholipids (PE), especially the plasmalogen subclass, with the highest hydrophobic alkenal (4-HDDE) being the most reactive. Their carboxylic acid metabolites, 4-hydroxy-2E-hexenoic acid (4-HHA), 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenoic acid (4-HNA) and 4-hydroxy-2E,6Z-dodecadienoic acid (4-HDDA), respectively, were found in human urine and measured in higher amounts in situations in which oxidative stress has been reported such as aging and diabetes. As reported above with their hydroxy-alkenals precursors, 4-HHA proved to be the most prominent followed by 4-HNA. Altogether, the three hydroxy-alkenals, either in their free form or bound to membrane PE, may be considered as specific markers of lipid peroxidation able to discriminate between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. This is corroborated by the measurement of their urinary carboxylic acid metabolites. PMID:16828271

Guichardant, M; Bacot, S; Molière, P; Lagarde, M

2006-09-01

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Effects of dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immunoglobulins, cytokines, fatty acid composition, and performance of lactating sows and suckling piglets.  

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This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the performance of lactating sows and their piglets. Thirty pregnant Landrace sows were assigned to one of three treatments from d 108 of gestation until weaning (26-29 d) and were fed diets containing different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA including 3:1, 9:1 and 13:1. The effects on sow and litter production traits were examined together with an assessment of sow body condition. No differences were detected among the treatments for the daily feed intake of sows or changes in sow weight and back-fat levels during lactation (P?>?0.05). Litter size at d 14 and d 21 were tended to increase in 3:1 treatment compared with 9:1 and 13:1 treatments (P?colostrum, milk, and piglets plasma (P?colostrum, milk, and piglet plasma immunoglobulin concentrations are studied. No difference was observed among treatments in the concentrations of IgM, and IgA in colostrum (P?>?0.05). A great significant difference for IgG concentration was observed among 3 group in colostrum. A great significant difference for IgA, and IgM (P?immunoglobulin and cytokines, and it tended to increase the litter average daily gain and improve the immune status of piglets when dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA was 9:1. PMID:23270637

Yao, Wei; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun Jun; Zhou, Weiliang; Wang, Qingbo; Zhu, Rongchang; Wang, Fenglai; Thacker, Phil

2012-01-01

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Seasonal Variations of n-6: n-3 Ratios and Fatty Acid Compositions in Foot and Tissue of Chiton lamyi in a High Primary Productivity Area  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Fatty acid content and composition in mollusks is a function of their feeding diversity. Chabahar bay located in the northern part of Oman sea in Indian ocean provides high rates of primary productivity and a diverse food source for mollusks in this area. Identification of fatty acid compositions of Chiton lamyi and study their seasonal changes in the intertidal zone of Chabahar bay. Study the meat quality by n-6: n-3 ratios calculation throughout the year. Approach: Chiton lamyi species analyzed seasonally for its fatty acid compositions in foot and internal tissue separately by GC/MS chromatography. Temperature and nutrients measured monthly for evaluating their effects on investigated seasonal variations of fatty acids. Pearson analysis showed effects of measured environmental factors on studied fatty acids composition. n-6: n-3 ratio calculated seasonally in order to study meat quality. Results: Thirteen fatty acids identified in foot and internal tissue of Chiton lamyi. The major Saturated Fatty Acids (SFAs were myristic, palmitic and stearic acids. The major Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs were palmitoleic, oleic and 11-eicosenoic acids and Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs were linoleic, eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids. Palmitic acid was the most abundant in this species. Fatty acid contents of foot and internal tissue of Chiton lamyi were similar but their seasonal variations were different. Pearson analysis showed correlation among palmitic and oleic acids with silicate; oleic acid with phosphate; Linoleic and arachidonic acids with nitrate in Chiton lamyi internal tissues, but no correlation observed in foot. Although temperature showed correlation with heptadecanoic and methyl-heptadecanoic acids in Chiton lamyi foot, no correlation found in internal tissues. Also, n-6: n-3 ratio calculations showed domination of n-3 fatty acid over n-6 only in spring. Conclusion: Fatty acid variations were not same at different organs and environmental factors could have opposite effects on them in this species. Also, n-6: n-3 ratio showed the lack of food loads throughout the year except in spring for this species. These findings can lead the best exploitation periods for such marine mollusks.

Nooshin Sajjadi

2009-01-01

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Effects of trans n-6 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of tissues and liver microsomal desaturation in the rat  

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Full Text Available 18:2? 9c,12t and 18:2 ?9t,12c are present in our diet, as result of heat treatment of vegetable oils. A nutritional study was carried out in order to obtain more precise information on the conversion of these two isomers into long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA by rat tissues. This in vivo study performed using rat fed with small quantities of mono trans linoleic acid isomers (0.6% of total energy showed that 18:2 ?9c,12t was converted into 20:4 ?5c,8c,11c,14t while 18:2 ?9t,12c was only slightly converted into 20:4 ?5c,8c,11t,14c. Furthermore 18:2 ?9t,12c was preferentially elongated into 20:2 ?11t,14c. Each C20 metabolite of these mono trans 18:2 isomers was isolated as methyl ester by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC followed by silver nitrate thin layer chromatography (AgNO3-TLC.The structure of the components was identified using partial hydrazine reduction, AgNO3-TLC of the resulting monoenes and gas-liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS of the 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX derivatives. Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (GC-FTIR confirmed the frans geometry. Gas-liquid chromatography (GC analyses showed that 18:2 ?9c,12t and 18:2 ?9t,12c were present in different tissue lipids (liver, heart, testes, brain and adipose tissue, and without any modification in the amount of 20:4n-6. 20:4 ?5c, 8c,11c,14t was incorporated in different rat tissues except in brain. Furthermore, its incorporation followed that of its structural analogue, 20:3n-9 in liver phospholipid classes (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. Finally, an in vitro study carried out with rat liver microsomes showed that dietary trans 18:2 isomers could inhibit the ?6- desaturation of 18:2n-6 to 18:3n-6 and the ?5-desaturation of 20:3n-6 to 20:4n-6.

Berdeaux, Olivier

1996-04-01

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Fatty acid metabolism in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): effects of n-6 PUFA and MUFA in fish oil replaced diets.  

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Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)-rich and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA)-rich vegetable oils are increasingly used as fish oil replacers for aquafeed formulation. The present study investigated the fatty acid metabolism in juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, 38.4 g) fed diets containing fish oil (FO, as the control treatment) or two different vegetable oils (the MUFA-rich canola/rapeseed oil, CO; and the n-6 PUFA-rich cottonseed oil, CSO) tested individually or as a 50/50 blend (CO/CSO). The whole-body fatty acid balance method was used to deduce the apparent in vivo fatty acid metabolism. No effect on growth performance and feed utilization was recorded. However, it should be noted that the fish meal content of the experimental diets was relatively high, and thus the requirement for n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) may have likely been fulfilled even if dietary fish oil was fully replaced by vegetable oils. Overall, relatively little apparent in vivo fatty acid bioconversion was recorded, whilst the apparent in vivo ?-oxidation of dietary fatty acid was largely affected by the dietary lipid source, with higher rate of ?-oxidation for those fatty acids which were provided in dietary surplus. The deposition of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, as % of the dietary intake, was greatest for the fish fed on the CSO diet. It has been shown that European sea bass seems to be able to efficiently use n-6 PUFA for energy substrate, and this may help in minimizing the ?-oxidation of the health benefiting n-3 LC-PUFA and thus increase their deposition into fish tissues. PMID:23212581

Eroldo?an, Tufan O; Y?lmaz, Asuman H; Turchini, Giovanni M; Arslan, Murat; Sirkecio?lu, Necdet A; Engin, Kenan; Öz?ahino?lu, Ilgin; Mumo?ullar?nda, P?nar

2013-08-01

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Effects of dietary ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3)/linoleic acid (18:2n-6) ratio on fatty acid metabolism in Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii).  

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Global shortages in fish oil are forcing the aquaculture feed industry to use alternative oil sources, the use of which negatively affects the final fatty acid makeup of cultured fish. Thus, the modulation of fatty acid metabolism in cultured fish is the core of an intensive global research effort. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of various dietary ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3)/linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) ratios in cultured fish. A feeding trial was implemented on the freshwater finfish Murray cod, in which fish were fed either a fish oil-based control diet or one of five fish oil-deprived experimental diets formulated to contain an ALA/LA ratio ranging from 0.3 to 2.9, but with a constant total C?? PUFA (ALA+LA) content. The whole-body fatty acid balance method was used to evaluate fish in vivo fatty acid metabolism. The results indicate that dietary ALA was more actively ?-oxidized and bioconverted, whereas LA appears to be more efficiently deposited. LA was ?-oxidized at a constant level (~36% of net intake) independent of dietary availability, whereas ALA was oxidized proportionally to dietary supply. The in vivo apparent ?-6 desaturase activity on n-3 and n-6 PUFA exhibited an increasing and decreasing trend, respectively, in conjunction with the increasing dietary ALA/LA ratio, clearly indicating that this enzymatic activity is substrate dependent. However, the maximum ?-6 desaturase activity acting on ALA peaked at the substrate level of 3.2186 (?mol g fish?¹ day?¹), suggesting that additional inclusion of ALA is not only wasteful but counterproductive in terms of n-3 LC-PUFA production. Despite a constant total supply of ALA+LA, the recorded total in vivo apparent ?-6 desaturase activity on both substrates (ALA and LA) increased in synchrony with the ALA/LA ratio, peaking at 1.54, and a 3.2-fold greater ?-6 desaturase affinity toward ALA over LA was recorded. PMID:21222433

Senadheera, Shyamalie D; Turchini, Giovanni M; Thanuthong, Thanongsak; Francis, David S

2011-02-01

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High serum n6 fatty acid proportion is associated with lowered LDL oxidation and inflammation: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.  

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The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is generally linked with a reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but an elevated n6PUFA intake, without simultaneous n3PUFA supply, may elevate the risk. PUFAs are suspected as being easily oxidized and have a potential role in lipoprotein oxidation and inflammation. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are resistant to oxidation. However, in a Western diet, their most important source is red meat, a food stuff rich in heme iron which can catalyze oxidative reactions. Therefore, different serum fatty acid (FA) proportions (free + esterified) were correlated with the status of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vivo (conjugated dienes = oxLDLlipids and antibody-based oxidized proteins = oxLDLprot) and inflammation (serum CRP) in 2196 Finnish subjects (age: 24-39 years) using CVD risk factor-adjusted linear regression models. High n6PUFA, PUFA/SFA and n6/n3 ratios, and low SFA and MUFA were all associated with reduced levels of oxLDLlipids, oxLDLprot, and CRP. These findings at the population level suggest that PUFAs are negatively and SFAs and MUFAs positively related with LDL oxidation and inflammation; these conclusions are in line with previous observations linking PUFAs, particularly n6PUFAs, with lower CVD risk, and SFAs with increased risk. PMID:24437974

Kaikkonen, J E; Kresanov, P; Ahotupa, M; Jula, A; Mikkilä, V; Viikari, J S A; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Raitakari, O T

2014-04-01

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Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells  

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Highlights: ? Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. ? fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. ? fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ? The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

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Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells  

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Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

2012-11-23

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Effects of ELOVL4 gene overexpress on the synthesis efficiency of n3 and n6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids  

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Full Text Available AIM:To compare the synthesis efficiency of n3 and n6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid(VLC-PUFAby overexpressing ELOVL4 protein, providing guidance for treating Stargardt-like macular dystrophy(STGD3.METHODS:To establish recombinant adenovirus with the ELOVL4 protein and green fluorescent protein, transferred into cultured PC12 cells. The cells were divided into 3 groups: PC12, PC12+Ad-GFP and PC12+Ad- ELOVL4, former two groups serve as controls. ELOVL4 gene expression was quantified by qRT-PCRs. ELOVL4 protein was analyzed by Western-Blot(WB. The transduced cells were treated with both EPA and AA(1:1. After 48h of incubation, cells were collected, total lipids extracted and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS. RESULTS: When supplemented together, 20:5n3(EPAand 20:4n6(AAwere efficiently taken up at almost the same amounts in the PC12 cells regardless of ELOVL4 expression. The ELOVL4-expressing cells elongated both EPA and AA to a series of n3 and n6 VLC-PUFAs. From 20:5n3/EPA, 34:5n3 and 36:5n3 account for 0.71% and 1.6%, respectively. From 20:4n6/DHA, 34:4n6 and 36:4n6 were only 0.46% and 0.61%, respectively. The total relative mol% of n3 VLC-PUFAs synthesized from EPA was almost two times that of n6 VLC-PUFAs synthesized from AA.CONCLUSION: ELOVL4 protein preferentially elongates n3 PUFA to VLC-PUFAs over n6 PUFA. Dietary supplementation of appropriate n3/n6 PUFAs may provide STGD3 patients with some therapeutic benefits.

Man Yu

2014-08-01

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n-6 fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.  

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Randomised controlled trials (RCT) of mixed n-6 and n-3 PUFA diets, and meta-analyses of their CHD outcomes, have been considered decisive evidence in specifically advising consumption of 'at least 5-10 % of energy as n-6 PUFA'. Here we (1) performed an extensive literature search and extracted detailed dietary and outcome data enabling a critical examination of all RCT that increased PUFA and reported relevant CHD outcomes; (2) determined if dietary interventions increased n-6 PUFA with specificity, or increased both n-3 and n-6 PUFA (i.e. mixed n-3/n-6 PUFA diets); (3) compared mixed n-3/n-6 PUFA to n-6 specific PUFA diets on relevant CHD outcomes in meta-analyses; (4) evaluated the potential confounding role of trans-fatty acids (TFA). n-3 PUFA intakes were increased substantially in four of eight datasets, and the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid was raised with specificity in four datasets. n-3 and n-6 PUFA replaced a combination of TFA and SFA in all eight datasets. For non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)+CHD death, the pooled risk reduction for mixed n-3/n-6 PUFA diets was 22 % (risk ratio (RR) 0.78; 95 % CI 0.65, 0.93) compared to an increased risk of 13 % for n-6 specific PUFA diets (RR 1.13; 95 % CI 0.84, 1.53). Risk of non-fatal MI+CHD death was significantly higher in n-6 specific PUFA diets compared to mixed n-3/n-6 PUFA diets (P = 0.02). RCT that substituted n-6 PUFA for TFA and SFA without simultaneously increasing n-3 PUFA produced an increase in risk of death that approached statistical significance (RR 1.16; 95 % CI 0.95, 1.42). Advice to specifically increase n-6 PUFA intake, based on mixed n-3/n-6 RCT data, is unlikely to provide the intended benefits, and may actually increase the risks of CHD and death. PMID:21118617

Ramsden, Christopher E; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Majchrzak, Sharon F; Davis, John M

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Hypercholesterolemia increases plasma saturated and n-6 fatty acids altering prostaglandin homeostasis and promotes endothelial dysfunction in rabbits.  

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The present study evaluated the plasma fatty acid levels and the vascular prostaglandin (PG) release in a rabbit model of early hypercholesterolemia with endothelial dysfunction. Rabbits were fed either a control diet (CD) or a diet containing 1 % cholesterol (HD) for 5-6 weeks. The level of fatty acids was measured in plasma. The levels of PG and nitric oxide (NO) released from the aorta were also determined. Vascular morphology of the aorta was characterized by intima and media thickness measurements. The rabbits fed with HD had higher levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and lower levels of oleic acid. The linoleic acid level was unchanged. PGI(2) and NO were diminished and PGF(2?) levels, the PGI(2)/TXA(2) ratio and the intima/media ratio were increased in rabbits fed with HD. In conclusion, feeding HD for a short period increased ARA plasma levels and unbalanced release of vasodilator/vasoconstrictor PG redirected the pathway to vasoconstrictor metabolite release. These lipid metabolism alterations in addition to the reduced NO levels and the moderate changes in the vascular morphology contributed to the endothelial dysfunction in this animal model. Therefore, the present findings support the importance of early correction or prevention of high cholesterol levels to disrupt the endothelial dysfunction process that leads to cardiovascular disease. PMID:24880668

Medina, M; Alberto, M R; Sierra, L; Van Nieuwenhove, C; Saad, S; Isla, M I; Jerez, S

2014-07-01

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Effect of Blend Probiotics on Rumen Fermentation and Plasma Fatty Acid Contents and Plasma n6:n3 Ratios of Growing Goats  

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Full Text Available This study was performed with the purpose of investigating effect of additional blend of probiotics Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus on plasma fatty acid profiles particularly Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA in growing goats fed corn silage and selected the optimal levels of the probiotics for further study. Twenty four growing crossbred (Thai native x Anglo-Nubian goats that weighed (14.2±2.3 kg, aged about 6 months were purchased and allocated to 4 treatments according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with 6 goats in each treatment. The blocks were made by weight into heavy, medium and light goats and each of the treatments contained two goats from each of the blocks. In the mean time, ruminal average pH unaffected but the NH3-N and also plasma urea nitrogen (p0.05 were raised but propionic proportion (p0.05 were reduced in concurrent with raise of acetic proportion and resultantly C2:C3 ratio (p>0.05. On plasma fatty acid profiles, total saturated fatty acids (p>0.05 was increased and contrasted with decrease of C15:0 (p0.05 and C18-C22 poly unsaturated fatty acids (p0.05 and for raising ratio of n6:n3 (p<0.05.

S. Traiyakun

2011-01-01

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Changes in rat n-3 and n-6 fatty acid composition during pregnancy are associated with progesterone concentrations and hepatic FADS2 expression.  

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The mechanisms responsible for changes to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC PUFA) status during pregnancy have not been fully elucidated. Tissue samples were collected from virgin and pregnant (day 12 and 20) female rats. LC PUFA status, sex hormone concentrations and hepatic mRNA expression of FADS1, FADS2 and elongase were assessed. Day 20 gestation females had higher plasma and liver docosahexaenoic acid and lower arachidonic acid content than virgin females (P<0.05). There was higher FADS2 mRNA expression during pregnancy (P=0.051). Progesterone and oestradiol concentrations positively correlated with hepatic FADS2 mRNA expression (P=0.043, P=0.004). Progesterone concentration positively correlated with hepatic n-6 docosapentaenoic acid content (P=0.006), and inversely correlated with intermediates in LC PUFA synthesis including n-3 docosapentaenoic acid, ?-linolenic acid and 20:2n-6 (P<0.05). Changes in progesterone and oestradiol during pregnancy may promote the synthesis of LC PUFA via increased FADS2 expression. PMID:22495065

Childs, C E; Hoile, S P; Burdge, G C; Calder, P C

2012-04-01

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n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulate prostaglandin E secretion but not markers of lipogenesis in adipocytes  

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Full Text Available Abstract A dramatic rise in the incidence of obesity in the U.S. has accelerated the search for interventions that may impact this epidemic. One recently recognized target for such intervention is adipose tissue, which secretes a variety of bioactive substances including prostaglandins. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 has been shown to decrease lipolysis in adipocytes, but limited studies have explored alternative mechanisms by which PGE2 might impact obesity, such as adipogenesis or lipogenesis. Studies conducted on ApcMin/+ mice indicated that selective inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX-2 enzyme led to significant reductions in fatty acid synthase (FAS activity in adipose tissue suggesting lipogenic effects of PGE2. To further investigate whether these lipid mediators directly regulate lipogenesis, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes to determine the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and celecoxib on PGE2 formation and FAS used as a lipogenic marker. Both arachidonic acid (AA and EPA dose-dependently increased PGE secretion from adipocytes. AA was expectedly more potent and exhibiting at 150 uM dose a 5-fold increase in PGE2 secretion over EPA. Despite higher secretion of PGE by EPA and AA compared to control, neither PUFA significantly altered FAS activity. By contrast both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA levels. Addition of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, significantly decreased PGE2 secretion (p 2 and celecoxib further decreased the FAS activity compared to PGE2 alone or untreated controls. In conclusion, EPA-mediated inhibition of AA metabolism did not significantly alter FAS activity while both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA expression. COX-2 inhibition significantly decreased PGE2 production resulting in a decrease in FAS activity and expression that was not reversed with the addition of exogenous PGE2, suggesting an additional mechanism that is independent of COX-2.

Saxton Arnold M

2009-01-01

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Diets rich in n-9, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids differentially affect the generation of inositol phosphates and of thromboxane by stimulated platelets, in the rabbit.  

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We have studied the effects of semi-synthetic diets rich in either n-9 (olive oil, OO) or n-6 (corn oil, CO), or n-3 (fish oil, FO, as MaxEPA) fatty acids on the levels of major PUFA in platelet lipids, on the generation of inositol phosphates by [3H]inositol labelled platelets after stimulation with thrombin and of thromboxane B2 (TxB2) by platelet rich plasma (PRP) after stimulation with collagen. The predicted elevations of oleic (OA), linoleic (LA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids were observed in platelet lipids of each animal group, but in the MaxEPA fed group accumulation of EPA was associated with depletion of linoleic acid (LA) rather than of arachidonic acid (AA). Basal levels of inositol-tris-phosphate (IP3) in platelets were lowest in the OO group and highest in the CO group, whereas the increment after thrombin stimulation (1 unit/ml NIH) was maximal in the OO group and minimal in the FO group. Instead, when generation of TxB2 by stimulated platelets was evaluated, no appreciable difference among the various groups could be detected, in accordance with the limited modifications of platelet AA content induced by the diets. The overall data indicate that dietary fatty acids modulate the pathway of inositol phosphate generation in rabbit platelets, independently of modifications of TxB2 production. PMID:2105092

Medini, L; Colli, S; Mosconi, C; Tremoli, E; Galli, C

1990-01-01

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Dietary n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratios differentially influence hormonal signature in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome relative to healthy controls  

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Full Text Available Abstract Dietary ratios of omega-3 (n-3 to omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been implicated in controlling markers of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profiles and adiposity. However, the role of dietary PUFAs in regulating energy systems in healthy relative to metabolic diseased backgrounds has not been systematically addressed. We used dietary manipulation of n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios in an animal model of metabolic syndrome and a related healthy line to assay feeding behavior and endocrine markers of feeding drive and energy regulation. Two related lines of rodents with a healthy and a metabolic syndrome phenotype were fed one of two isocaloric diets, comprised of either a 1:1 or a 1:30 n-3 to n-6 ratio, for 30 days. Food intake and weight gain were monitored; and leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and a suite of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in energy regulation were assayed following the dietary manipulation period. There was no difference in caloric intake or weight gain between diet groups, however there was a significant interaction between diet and phenotypic line on central and peripheral markers of energy homeostasis. Thus serum levels of leptin, acylated-ghrelin and adiponectin, and mRNA levels of the anorexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, cocaine-amphetamine related transcript (CART, showed differential, dietary responses with HCR rats showing an increase in anorexigenic signals in response to unbalanced n-3:6 ratios, while LCR did not. These data are the first to demonstrate that a rodent line with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype responds differentially to dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids relative to a related healthy line with regard to endocrine markers of energy homeostasis. The dietary n-3:n-6 ratios used in this experiment represent extreme points of natural human diets, however the data suggest that optimal recommendations regarding omega-3 and omega-6 intake may have differing effects in healthy subjects relative to metabolic syndrome patients. Further research is necessary to establish these responses in human populations.

Koch Lauren G

2010-06-01

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Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of clinical depression in women: a 10-y prospective follow-up study1234  

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Background: The associations between different sources of dietary n?3 (omega-3) and n?6 (omega-6) fatty acids and the risk of depression have not been prospectively studied. Objective: The objective was to examine the relation between different n?3 and n?6 types with clinical depression incidence. Design: We prospectively studied 54,632 US women from the Nurses' Health Study who were 50–77 y of age and free from depressive symptoms at baseline. Information on diet was obtained from validated food-frequency questionnaires. Clinical depression was defined as reporting both physician-diagnosed depression and regular antidepressant medication use. Results: During 10 y of follow-up (1996–2006), 2823 incident cases of depression were documented. Intake of long-chain n?3 fatty acids from fish was not associated with depression risk [relative risk (RR) for 0.3-g/d increment: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.10], whereas ?-linolenic acid (ALA) intake was inversely associated with depression risk (multivariate RR for 0.5-g/d increment: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.94). The inverse association between ALA and depression was stronger in women with low linoleic acid (LA) intake (P for interaction = 0.02): a 0.5-g/d increment in ALA was inversely associated with depression in the first, second, and third LA quintiles [RR (95% CI): 0.57 (0.37, 0.87), 0.62 (0.41, 0.93), and 0.68 (0.47, 0.96), respectively] but not in the fourth and fifth quintiles. Conclusions: The results of this large longitudinal study do not support a protective effect of long-chain n?3 from fish on depression risk. Although these data support the hypothesis that higher ALA and lower LA intakes reduce depression risk, this relation warrants further investigation. PMID:21471279

Lucas, Michel; Mirzaei, Fariba; O'Reilly, Eilis J; Pan, An; Willett, Walter C; Kawachi, Ichiro; Koenen, Karestan

2011-01-01

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Kinetics of chronic inflammation in Nile tilapia fed n?3 and n?6 essential fatty acids / Cinética da inflamação crônica em tilápia?do?nilo alimentada com ácidos graxos essenciais n?3 e n?6  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da suplementação alimentar com ácidos graxos essenciais sobre a cinética do acúmulo de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes em tilápia?do?nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). As fontes de suplementação foram óleo de soja (OS, fonte de ômega 6, n?6) e [...] óleo de linhaça (OL, fonte de ômega 3, n?3), nas seguintes proporções: 100% OS; 75% OS + 25% OL; 50% OS + 50% OL; 25% OS + 75% OL; e 100% OL (quatro repetições por tratamento). Após período de alimentação de três meses, foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo, e lamínulas de vidro foram implantadas no tecido subcutâneo dos peixes, as quais foram removidas para exame aos 2, 4, 6 e 8 dias após o implante. O desempenho produtivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os peixes alimentados com 100% de óleo de linhaça tiveram maior acúmulo de macrófagos e formação mais rápida de células de Langhans, no sexto dia. No oitavo dia, as células de Langhans foram predominantes nas lamínulas implantadas nos peixes alimentados com 75 e 100% de óleo de linhaça. Os ácidos graxos n?3 podem contribuir para o recrutamento de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes, na resposta inflamatória crônica a corpo estranho em peixes. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on the kinetics of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The supplementation sources were soybean oil (SO, source of omega 6, n?6) and li [...] nseed oil (LO, source of omega 3, n?3), in the following proportions: 100% SO; 75% SO + 25% LO; 50% SO + 50% LO; 25% SO + 75% LO; and 100% LO (four replicates per treatment). After a feeding period of three months, growth performance was evaluated, and glass coverslips were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of fish, being removed for examination at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after implantation. Growth performance did not differ between treatments. Fish fed 100% linseed oil diet had the greatest macrophage accumulation and the fastest Langhans cell formation on the sixth day. On the eighth day, Langhans cells were predominant on the coverslips implanted in the fish feed 75 and 100% linseed oil. n?3 fatty acids may contribute to macrophage recruitment and giant cell formation in fish chronic inflammatory response to foreign body.

Róberson, Sakabe; Flávio Ruas de, Moraes; Marco Antonio de Andrade, Belo; Fabiana, Pilarski; Julieta Rodini Engrácia de, Moraes.

2013-03-01

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Kinetics of chronic inflammation in Nile tilapia fed n?3 and n?6 essential fatty acids / Cinética da inflamação crônica em tilápia?do?nilo alimentada com ácidos graxos essenciais n?3 e n?6  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da suplementação alimentar com ácidos graxos essenciais sobre a cinética do acúmulo de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes em tilápia?do?nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). As fontes de suplementação foram óleo de soja (OS, fonte de ômega 6, n?6) e [...] óleo de linhaça (OL, fonte de ômega 3, n?3), nas seguintes proporções: 100% OS; 75% OS + 25% OL; 50% OS + 50% OL; 25% OS + 75% OL; e 100% OL (quatro repetições por tratamento). Após período de alimentação de três meses, foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo, e lamínulas de vidro foram implantadas no tecido subcutâneo dos peixes, as quais foram removidas para exame aos 2, 4, 6 e 8 dias após o implante. O desempenho produtivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os peixes alimentados com 100% de óleo de linhaça tiveram maior acúmulo de macrófagos e formação mais rápida de células de Langhans, no sexto dia. No oitavo dia, as células de Langhans foram predominantes nas lamínulas implantadas nos peixes alimentados com 75 e 100% de óleo de linhaça. Os ácidos graxos n?3 podem contribuir para o recrutamento de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes, na resposta inflamatória crônica a corpo estranho em peixes. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on the kinetics of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The supplementation sources were soybean oil (SO, source of omega 6, n?6) and li [...] nseed oil (LO, source of omega 3, n?3), in the following proportions: 100% SO; 75% SO + 25% LO; 50% SO + 50% LO; 25% SO + 75% LO; and 100% LO (four replicates per treatment). After a feeding period of three months, growth performance was evaluated, and glass coverslips were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of fish, being removed for examination at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after implantation. Growth performance did not differ between treatments. Fish fed 100% linseed oil diet had the greatest macrophage accumulation and the fastest Langhans cell formation on the sixth day. On the eighth day, Langhans cells were predominant on the coverslips implanted in the fish feed 75 and 100% linseed oil. n?3 fatty acids may contribute to macrophage recruitment and giant cell formation in fish chronic inflammatory response to foreign body.

Róberson, Sakabe; Flávio Ruas de, Moraes; Marco Antonio de Andrade, Belo; Fabiana, Pilarski; Julieta Rodini Engrácia de, Moraes.

30

Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

Kawabata Terue

2011-08-01

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Partial replacement of dietary (n-6) fatty acids with medium-chain triglycerides decreases the incidence of spontaneous colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice.  

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Enteral nutrition has a primary therapeutic effect in active Crohn's disease. It is unknown which nutrient(s) account for this action, but a role for both the amount and type of dietary fat has been postulated. Some clinical and experimental data suggest that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) may reduce intestinal inflammation. We aimed to assess the effect of replacing part of the dietary fat with MCT on the incidence and severity of colitis in interleukin (IL)-10(-/-) mice under specific pathogen-free conditions. Twenty-four IL-10(-/-) 4-wk-old mice were randomized to receive a control diet based on sunflower oil [(n-6) fatty acids (FA)] and an experimental isocaloric, isonitrogenous diet with 50% sunflower and 50% coconut oil (MCT diet). When the mice were 12 wk old, they were killed and the colon was examined for the presence of colitis, lymphocyte subpopulations and apoptosis, ex vivo cytokine production in supernatant of colon explants, toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-9 mRNA, and FA profile in colonic tissue homogenates. Colitis incidence was lower in the IL-10(-/-) mice fed the MCT diet (1/12) than in the mice fed the control diet (8/12; P = 0.03). The histological damage score was also lower in the former (P < 0.0005). Feeding the MCT diet resulted in fewer total and apoptotic intraepithelial CD3+ and lamina propria CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes, as well as downregulated production of IL-6 and interferon-gamma, and reduced TLR-9 mRNA. We conclude that partial replacement of dietary (n-6) FA with MCT decreases the incidence of colitis in a model of spontaneous intestinal inflammation and provide experimental arguments for a possible primary therapeutic effect of MCT in human Crohn's disease. PMID:19126671

Mañé, Josep; Pedrosa, Elisabet; Lorén, Violeta; Ojanguren, Isabel; Fluvià, Lourdes; Cabré, Eduard; Rogler, Gerhard; Gassull, Miquel A

2009-03-01

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Antioxidant status, lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet containing currant oil rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

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Plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a prospective antiatherogenic potential. Currant oil from Ribes nigrum L. is one of the few plant oils containing PUFAn-3 (15.3 mol%) in addition to PUFAn-6 (60.5 mol%). This study was aimed at comparing the effects of currant oil with those of lard fat, rich in saturated (43.8 mol%) and monounsaturated (47.0 mol%) fatty acids, on antioxidant parameters, the lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on 1 % (w/w) cholesterol diets containing either 10 % of currant oil (COD) or lard fat (LFD). After 3 weeks of feeding, the COD induced a significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and an increase in Cu(2+) induced oxidizability of serum lipids, but did not affect liver GSH and t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of liver microsomes. Although the COD did not cause accumulation of liver triacylglycerols as LFD, the lipoprotein profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) was not significantly improved after COD. The consumption of PUFAn-3 was reflected in LDL as an increase in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that currant oil affects positively the lipid metabolism in the liver, above all it does not cause the development of a fatty liver. However, adverse effects of currant oil on the antioxidant status in the blood still remain of concern. PMID:12678660

Vecera, R; Skottová, N; Vána, P; Kazdová, L; Chmela, Z; Svagera, Z; Walterá, D; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

2003-01-01

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n-3 and n-6 fatty acid processing and growth effects in neoplastic and non-cancerous human mammary epithelial cell lines.  

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The type rather than the amount of dietary fat may be more important in breast carcinogenesis. While animal studies support this view, little is known about the effects of essential fatty acids (EFAs) at the cellular level. The MCF-7 breast cancer and the MCF-10A non-cancerous human mammary epithelial cell lines are compared in terms of growth response to EFAs and ability to incorporate and process the EFAs. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA, n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, n-3) acids, presented bound to ...

Grammatikos, S. I.; Subbaiah, P. V.; Victor, T. A.; Miller, W. M.

1994-01-01

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Ácidos graxos poli-insaturados n-3 e n-6: metabolismo em mamíferos e resposta imune / Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: metabolism in mammals and immune response  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A experimentação animal apresenta uma grande importância para o desenvolvimento da ciência. O uso de camundongos em experimentos ocorre devido à semelhança destes animais com os seres humanos, fácil criação e manutenção e resposta experimental bastante rápida. Esses animais possuem as mesmas enzimas [...] dessaturases e elongases que os humanos, por isso são usados em pesquisas envolvendo incorporação e síntese de ácidos graxos em tecidos. Os ácidos graxos da família ômega-3 e ômega-6 são de suma importância na dieta humana, pois estes não são sintetizados pela síntese de novo e são precursores dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados de cadeia muito longa, como os ácidos eicosapentaenóico, docosahexaenóico e araquidônico. Estes desempenham funções importantes no organismo, como a síntese de eicosanóides que estão envolvidos diretamente no sistema imune e nas respostas inflamatórias. A razão entre o consumo de ácidos graxos n-6 e n-3 na dieta é um importante fator para determinar a ingestão adequada de ácidos graxos bem como prevenir o aparecimento de doenças. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar a incorporação de ácidos graxos em tecidos de animais e discutir a importância dos ácidos da família n-3 e seus metabólitos no sistema imunológico. Abstract in english Experiments with animals are very important for the improvement of science. The use of mice in experiments is due to their similarity with humans, the easy of raising and maintaining them and their very fast response. These animals have the same desaturase and elongase enzymes as humans and so they [...] are used in research involving the incorporation and synthesis of fatty acids in tissues. The fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 are extremely important in the human diet because they are not synthesized de novo and are precursors of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as the eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids. These acids play important roles in animals, such as precursors of eicosanoids, which are directly involved in the immune system and inflammatory response. The dietary n-3:n-6 intake ratio is important for assessing proper fatty acid intake and for preventing the development of diseases. Thus, this article assessed the incorporation of fatty acids in animal tissues and discussed the importance of n-3 fatty acids and its metabolites for the immune system.

João Ângelo De Lima, Perini; Flávia Braidotti, Stevanato; Sheisa Cyléia, Sargi; Jeane Eliete Laguila, Visentainer; Márcia Machado De Oliveira, Dalalio; Makoto, Matshushita; Nilson Evelázio De, Souza; Jesuí Vergílio, Visentainer.

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Impact of 20:4n-6 supplementation on the fatty acid composition and hemocyte parameters of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ArA) and its eicosanoid metabolites have been demonstrated to be implicated in immune functions of vertebrates, fish, and insects. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of ArA supplementation on the FA composition and hemocyte parameters of oysters Crassostrea gigas. Oyster dietary conditioning consisted of direct addition of ArA solutions at a dose of 0, 0.25, or 0.41 microg ArA per mL of seawater into tanks in the presence or absence of T-Iso algae. Results showed significant incorporation of ArA into gill polar lipids when administered with algae (up to 19.7%) or without algae (up to 12.1%). ArA supplementation led to an increase in hemocyte numbers, phagocytosis, and production of reactive oxygen species by hemocytes from ArA-supplemented oysters. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of Vibrio aestuarianus extracellular products on the adhesive proprieties of hemocytes was lessened in oysters fed ArA-supplemented T-Iso. All changes in oyster hemocyte parameters reported in the present study suggest that ArA and/or eicosanoid metabolites affect oyster hemocyte functions. PMID:16981435

Delaporte, Maryse; Soudant, Philippe; Moal, Jeanne; Giudicelli, Emilie; Lambert, Christophe; Séguineau, Catherine; Samain, Jean-François

2006-06-01

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Trabajos de Investigación Increase of plasma fatty acids without changes in n-6/n-3-PUFA ratio in asymptomatic obese subjects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La obesidad está asociada con una inflamación de bajo grado que contribuye al desarrollo de la insulino-resistencia y de la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos saturados (AGS), monoinsaturados (AGMI) y poliinsaturados (AGPI) en sujetos o [...] besos asintomáticos y determinar el ratio ácido araquidónico/ácido eicosapentanoico [ARA/EPA] como un posible marcador de inflamación, con su eventual asociación con los niveles de proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (PCRus). Se reclutaron 14 sujetos obesos (34,4 ± 11.1 años; índice de masa corporal: 36,0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) y 12 normopeso (30,6 ± 7.8 años; índice de masa corporal: 23,6 ± 2,4 kg/m2); las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos fueron determinados por cromatografía de gases. Los niveles de PCRus fueron más elevadas en los sujetos obesos (p=0,01) y correlacionaron con el contenido de grasa corporal. Los porcentajes relativos de AGS, AGMI, AGPI no se vieron afectados en los sujetos obesos, pero sus concentraciones plasmáticas se incrementaron en comparación con el grupo control. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias en las concentraciones de PUFAs de cadena larga (DHA, EPA y ARA) ni en el ratio ARA/EPA en los sujetos obesos. Estas observaciones no apoyan el uso del ratio ARA/EPA como un marcador de inflamación de bajo grado evaluada por PCRus en este grupo de sujetos obesos asintomáticos. Abstract in english Obesity is associated with a low grade inflammation which contributes to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the total saturated (SFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma from asymptomatic obese subjects and [...] to determine the arachidonic/eicosapentanoic acid ratio [ARA/EPA] as a marker of inflammation, and its eventual association with ultrasensitive CRP. Fourteen obese (34.4 ± 11.1y.; BMI: 36.0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) and 12 normal-weight (30.6 ± 7.8y.; BMI: 23,6± 2,4 kg/m2) subjects were recruited and their plasma fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. usCRP was higher in the obese subjects (p=0,01) and correlates with their body fat content. The percentages of SFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs were not affected in the obese subjects but their concentrations were increased, compared with the control group. However, no differences in the long chain PUFAs (DHA and EPA) concentrations or in the plasmatic ARA/EPA ratio were observed in these subjects. These observations do not support a relation between the ARA/EPA ratio and the presence of low grade inflammation evaluated by plasma usCRP in this group of asymptomatic obese subjects.

Jerusa, Brignardello; Pamela, Morales; Erik, Diaz; Oscar, Brunser; Martin, Gotteland.

2011-06-01

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Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor ? protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ? expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

Nuernberg Karin

2011-08-01

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Efeito dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 na expressão de genes do metabolismo de lipídeos e risco de aterosclerose / Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in the lipid metabolism and risk of atherosclerosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A aterosclerose, principal responsável pela patogênese do infarto miocárdico e cerebral, bem como pela gangrena e por outras doenças vasculares periféricas, permanece como principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade nas populações "ocidentalizadas". Estima-se que 17,5 milhões de pessoas morreram por [...] doenças cardiovasculares em 2005, o que representou 30% das causas de morte nesse ano, e que, em 2015, 20 milhões de pessoas morrerão por doenças cardiovasculares no mundo. Os ácidos graxos n-3, principalmente os de cadeia longa, encontrados nos peixes, têm-se mostrado particularmente úteis na prevenção e tratamento de doenças como dislipidemias, diabetes mellitus e obesidade, apresentando importante efeito cardioprotetor. Nesse contexto, pesquisas têm evidenciado que ao menos parte dos benefícios dos ácidos graxos eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico sobre o risco de doenças cardiovasculares é decorrente da modulação de genes responsivos aos receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomos e envolvidos no metabolismo lipídico. Nesta revisão, pretende-se expor alguns mecanismos de ação dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 sobre o metabolismo de lipídeos e de lipoproteínas. Conclui-se que muitos aspectos que contribuem para o risco de doenças cardiovasculares são afetados pela ingestão de n-3. Além da redução de triglicérides, fatores como o aumento de adiponectina, a redução da concentração de colesterol plasmático e a melhora do transporte reverso de colesterol também são responsáveis pela redução do risco de aterosclerose promovida pelos ácidos graxos n-3. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos adicionais para definir mais claramente os mecanismos celulares e moleculares responsáveis pelo efeito cardioprotetor dos ácidos graxos n-3. Abstract in english Atherosclerosis, the main cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, gangrene and other peripheral vascular diseases, also persists as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Western populations. Roughly 17.5 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2005, representing 30% of the causes [...] of death in that year, and in 2015, another 20 million people will die of cardiovascular diseases around the world. The n-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain n-3 found in fish, have been shown to be particularly effective in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus and obesity, presenting an important cardioprotective effect. In this context, studies have found that at least some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids regard the modulation of genes that respond to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors involved in lipid metabolism. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of some n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In conclusion, many aspects that contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases are affected by n-3 intake. N-3 fatty acids not only reduce triglycerides, but also promote factors that increase adiponectin, reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the reverse cholesterol transport, and all of these contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. However, additional studies are still necessary to elucidate all the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the cardioprotective effect of n-3 fatty acids.

Helena Fonseca, Raposo.

39

Efeito dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 na expressão de genes do metabolismo de lipídeos e risco de aterosclerose Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in the lipid metabolism and risk of atherosclerosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A aterosclerose, principal responsável pela patogênese do infarto miocárdico e cerebral, bem como pela gangrena e por outras doenças vasculares periféricas, permanece como principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade nas populações "ocidentalizadas". Estima-se que 17,5 milhões de pessoas morreram por doenças cardiovasculares em 2005, o que representou 30% das causas de morte nesse ano, e que, em 2015, 20 milhões de pessoas morrerão por doenças cardiovasculares no mundo. Os ácidos graxos n-3, principalmente os de cadeia longa, encontrados nos peixes, têm-se mostrado particularmente úteis na prevenção e tratamento de doenças como dislipidemias, diabetes mellitus e obesidade, apresentando importante efeito cardioprotetor. Nesse contexto, pesquisas têm evidenciado que ao menos parte dos benefícios dos ácidos graxos eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico sobre o risco de doenças cardiovasculares é decorrente da modulação de genes responsivos aos receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomos e envolvidos no metabolismo lipídico. Nesta revisão, pretende-se expor alguns mecanismos de ação dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 sobre o metabolismo de lipídeos e de lipoproteínas. Conclui-se que muitos aspectos que contribuem para o risco de doenças cardiovasculares são afetados pela ingestão de n-3. Além da redução de triglicérides, fatores como o aumento de adiponectina, a redução da concentração de colesterol plasmático e a melhora do transporte reverso de colesterol também são responsáveis pela redução do risco de aterosclerose promovida pelos ácidos graxos n-3. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos adicionais para definir mais claramente os mecanismos celulares e moleculares responsáveis pelo efeito cardioprotetor dos ácidos graxos n-3.Atherosclerosis, the main cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, gangrene and other peripheral vascular diseases, also persists as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Western populations. Roughly 17.5 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2005, representing 30% of the causes of death in that year, and in 2015, another 20 million people will die of cardiovascular diseases around the world. The n-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain n-3 found in fish, have been shown to be particularly effective in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus and obesity, presenting an important cardioprotective effect. In this context, studies have found that at least some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids regard the modulation of genes that respond to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors involved in lipid metabolism. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of some n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In conclusion, many aspects that contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases are affected by n-3 intake. N-3 fatty acids not only reduce triglycerides, but also promote factors that increase adiponectin, reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the reverse cholesterol transport, and all of these contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. However, additional studies are still necessary to elucidate all the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the cardioprotective effect of n-3 fatty acids.

Helena Fonseca Raposo

2010-10-01

40

Efeito dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 na expressão de genes do metabolismo de lipídeos e risco de aterosclerose / Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in the lipid metabolism and risk of atherosclerosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A aterosclerose, principal responsável pela patogênese do infarto miocárdico e cerebral, bem como pela gangrena e por outras doenças vasculares periféricas, permanece como principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade nas populações "ocidentalizadas". Estima-se que 17,5 milhões de pessoas morreram por [...] doenças cardiovasculares em 2005, o que representou 30% das causas de morte nesse ano, e que, em 2015, 20 milhões de pessoas morrerão por doenças cardiovasculares no mundo. Os ácidos graxos n-3, principalmente os de cadeia longa, encontrados nos peixes, têm-se mostrado particularmente úteis na prevenção e tratamento de doenças como dislipidemias, diabetes mellitus e obesidade, apresentando importante efeito cardioprotetor. Nesse contexto, pesquisas têm evidenciado que ao menos parte dos benefícios dos ácidos graxos eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico sobre o risco de doenças cardiovasculares é decorrente da modulação de genes responsivos aos receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomos e envolvidos no metabolismo lipídico. Nesta revisão, pretende-se expor alguns mecanismos de ação dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 sobre o metabolismo de lipídeos e de lipoproteínas. Conclui-se que muitos aspectos que contribuem para o risco de doenças cardiovasculares são afetados pela ingestão de n-3. Além da redução de triglicérides, fatores como o aumento de adiponectina, a redução da concentração de colesterol plasmático e a melhora do transporte reverso de colesterol também são responsáveis pela redução do risco de aterosclerose promovida pelos ácidos graxos n-3. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos adicionais para definir mais claramente os mecanismos celulares e moleculares responsáveis pelo efeito cardioprotetor dos ácidos graxos n-3. Abstract in english Atherosclerosis, the main cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, gangrene and other peripheral vascular diseases, also persists as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Western populations. Roughly 17.5 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2005, representing 30% of the causes [...] of death in that year, and in 2015, another 20 million people will die of cardiovascular diseases around the world. The n-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain n-3 found in fish, have been shown to be particularly effective in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus and obesity, presenting an important cardioprotective effect. In this context, studies have found that at least some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids regard the modulation of genes that respond to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors involved in lipid metabolism. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of some n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In conclusion, many aspects that contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases are affected by n-3 intake. N-3 fatty acids not only reduce triglycerides, but also promote factors that increase adiponectin, reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the reverse cholesterol transport, and all of these contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. However, additional studies are still necessary to elucidate all the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the cardioprotective effect of n-3 fatty acids.

Helena Fonseca, Raposo.

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
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A low omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) diet increases omega-3 (n-3) long chain PUFA status in plasma phospholipids in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to determine the effect of reducing the dietary linoleic acid (LA) intake from ~5% to phospholipids. LA intakes were reduced from 4.6%E to 2%E during the low LA intervention (Pphospholipids were significantly reduced after the low LA diet phase (Pphospholipids was significantly increased after the low LA diet compared to baseline (6.22% vs. 5.53%, P<0.001). These data demonstrate that reducing LA intake for 4 weeks increases n-3 LCPUFA status in humans in the absence of increased n-3 LCPUFA intake. PMID:24456663

Wood, K E; Lau, A; Mantzioris, E; Gibson, R A; Ramsden, C E; Muhlhausler, B S

2014-04-01

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Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Essential fatty acids (EFA are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy.

Bill Lands

2012-09-01

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Immunoglobulin and fatty acids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition. In particular it relates to the use of said composition as a feed and/or a food composition

Munk, Jens Kristian Technical University of Denmark,

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Generation of novel metabolites of dietary linoleic acid (18:2n6) by guinea pig epidermis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the authors have demonstrated the inability of rat and guinea pig (GP) skin enzyme preparations to desaturate 18:2n6 into gammalinolenic acid (18:3n6) using an in vitro microsomal system, the fate of this dietary essential fatty acid in the GP epidermis is unknown. To explore the fate of 18:2n6, intact tissue slices from GP epidermis were incubated with [1-14C]18:2n6. After incubation, the extracted lipids were transesterified using methanolic-HCL. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed using a combination of (i) argentation TLC, scanned using a proportional TLC radioscanner, and (ii) reverse phase HPLC, equipped with a flow through radioscanner. The results indicate that the intact epidermis metabolized 14C-18:2n6 to a group of novel products more polar than 18:2n6. In subsequent experiments, 14C-18:2n6 was either incubated with the 800 xg supernatant, the 105,000 xg pellet or supernatant from GP epidermis. Metabolism of 18:2n6 by the high speed supernatant resulted in the generation of polar products with chromatographic properties of not greater than 2 double bonds. These results indicate that although the GP epidermis lacks the capacity to desaturate 18:2n6 to 18:3n6, it can convert dietary 18:2n6 into a group of novel polar metabolites via a cytosolic mediated process. The function of these metabolites in the GP integumentary system remains to be determined

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Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated [18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)] fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of [1-14C]labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism

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Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammation : Observational and Interventional Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dietary fat quality influences the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A low-grade inflammation is suggested to contribute to the disease development, often accompanied by obesity. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been considered anti-inflammatory, n-6 PUFA have been proposed to act pro-inflammatory. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) act pro-inflammatory in vitro. This thesis aimed to investigate effects of different fatty acids on low-grade inflammation in observ...

Bjermo, Helena

2011-01-01

47

Fatty acids profiles of some Spanish wild vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in human nutrition, being associated with several health benefits. The analyzed vegetables, in spite of its low fat content, lower than 2%, present a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3, n-6 and n-9 series, such as ?-linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids, respectively. Wild edible plants contain in general a good balance of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The present study tries to contribute to the preservation and valorization of traditional food resources, studying the fatty acids profile of 20 wild vegetables by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection. Results show that species in which leaves are predominant in their edible parts have in general the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios: Rumex pulcher (5.44), Cichorium intybus (5.14) and Papaver rhoeas (5.00). Due to the low n-6/n-3 ratios of the majority of the samples, they can be considered interesting sources of n-3 fatty acids, especially those with higher total fat amount, such as Bryonia dioica, Chondrilla juncea or Montia fontana, with the highest contents of ?-linolenic acid (67.78, 56.27 and 47.65%, respectively). The wild asparaguses of Asparagus acutifolius and Tamus communis stand out for their linoleic acid content (42.29 and 42.45%, respectively). All these features reinforce the interest of including wild plants in diet, as an alternative to the variety of vegetables normally used. PMID:22701061

Morales, P; Ferreira, I C F R; Carvalho, A M; Sánchez-Mata, M C; Cámara, M; Tardío, J

2012-06-01

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Origin of fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfthe chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be studied. (author). Abstract only

49

Improving the fatty acid profile of fairy shrimp, Streptocephalus dichotomus, using a lipid emulsion rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids are the largest component of lipids and have become a useful tool in the determination of live feeds to a variety of cultured species. Bioencapsulation is a technique which allows high-level incorporation of desired components (i.e., fatty acids, vitamins, antibiotics, etc.) in live feeds, which in turn can be supplemented to the consumer organisms. The procedure described in the present study serves as a platform of technology for enriching the Streptocephalus dichotomus. Uptake of two enrichment diets (ALGAMAC2000 and DHA-SELCO) by adult S. dichotomus was investigated. The fatty acid profile supports the hypothesis that the enrichment diet increases the level of essential fatty acids, such as linolic, linolenic, eicosapentenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids. The average content (percent of total fatty acids detected) of the enriched organism by different highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) products were as follows: ALGAMAC2000 showed 14-22% saturated fatty acid (SFA), 17-18% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), 28-41% polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), 23-34% n-3, and 4.9-7.5% n-6, whereas DHA-SELCO showed about 20-23% SFA, 20-26% MUFA, 38% PUFA, 28-31% n-3, and 7.5-10% n-6. Our present investigation proves that both HUFA-rich diets appear to be an appropriate enrichment diet, and further provides an additional rationale for using fairy shrimp as a maturation diet for any cultivable freshwater organism. PMID:15537314

Velu, Chinavenmeni S; Munuswamy, Natesan

2004-11-17

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Depression and long chain n-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue in adults from Crete  

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BACKGROUND: Only one study has investigated the relationship of essential fatty acids in the adipose tissue with depression in adults and suggested an inverse relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) (DHA) and depression. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between adipose tissue polyunsaturated fatty acids especially n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, an index of long-term or habitual fatty acid intake, and depression in adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of healthy adults from the islan...

Mamalakis, G.; Kalogeropoulos, N.; Andrikopoulos, N.; Hatzis, C.; Kromhout, D.; Moschandreas, J.; Kafatos, A.

2006-01-01

51

Fatty acid-producing hosts  

Science.gov (United States)

Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

2013-12-31

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Interaction of fatty acid genotype and diet on changes in colonic fatty acids in a Mediterranean diet intervention study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Mediterranean diet increases intakes of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids and lowers intake of n-6 fatty acids. This can impact colon cancer risk as n-6 fatty acids are metabolized to proinflammatory eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interactions of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes, FADS1 and FADS2, and changes in diet on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. A total of 108 individuals at increased risk of colon cancer were randomized to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet. Fatty acids were measured in both serum and colonic mucosa at baseline and after six months. Each individual was genotyped for four single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster. Linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of diet, genotype, and the diet by genotype interaction on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. Genetic variation in the FADS genes was strongly associated with baseline serum arachidonic acid (n-6) but serum eicosapentaenoic acid (n-3) and colonic fatty acid concentrations were not significantly associated with genotype. After intervention, there was a significant diet by genotype interaction for arachidonic acid concentrations in colon. Subjects who had all major alleles for FADS1/2 and were following a Mediterranean diet had 16% lower arachidonic acid concentrations in the colon after six months of intervention than subjects following the Healthy Eating diet. These results indicate that FADS genotype could modify the effects of changes in dietary fat intakes on arachidonic acid concentrations in the colon. PMID:24022589

Porenta, Shannon R; Ko, Yi-An; Gruber, Stephen B; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Baylin, Ana; Ren, Jianwei; Djuric, Zora

2013-11-01

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Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional influence on unsaturated fatty acid metabolism and platelet aggregation in patients with PKU was detected. PMID:22912778

Mutze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

2012-01-01

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Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species  

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Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp. five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synechocystis sp..Medium for culture diatoms and green microalgae was F/2, and BG-11 media was used for Cyanophyceae. The microalgae were cultured beneath light intensity 143 ?Em-2s-1, light: dark illustration 12:12 hrs., temperature 28ºC, and salinities 8-30 psu. The microalgae were harvested for analyzing fatty acid by centrivugal machine at 3500 rpm. for 5 min. at temperature 20ºC and stored at -80ºC prior to analysis.Fatty acids composition of microalgae differed from species to species. The majority fatty acids composition of diatoms at the exponential phase and the stationary phase were C16:1n-7 (17.12-31.47% and 28.22-42.02%, C16:0 (13.25-19.61% and 18.83-20.67%, C20:5 n-3 (16.65-26.67% and 11.32-23.68% respectively. The principle fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae, Tetraselmis sp. were C18:3n-3 (16.17-16.67%, C16:0 (15.33-17.45%, C18:1n-9 (12.25-15.43%, C18:2n-6 (9.66-19.97%. The fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Chlorophyceae, were C18:3 n-3 (20.02-26.49% and 15.35- 30.63%, C16:0 (5.76-17.61% and 11.41-20.03%, C18:2n-6 (4.67-17.54% and 7.48-20.61% respectively. The major amounts of fatty acids content of blue green microalgae were C16:1n-7 (9.28-34.91% and 34.48- 35.04%, C14:0 (13.34-25.96% and 26.69-28.24%, C16:0 (5.89-29.15% and 5.70-16.81% except for Anacystis sp.which had a high amount of C18:3 n-3 (23.18-27.98% but low amount of C14:0 (3.66-4.98%.Bacillariophyceae contained the highest amount of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs at both growth phases. Prasinophyceae had a small amount while in Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae they were not detected. Nitzschia cf. ovalis and Thalassiosira sp. had amount of C20:4n-6 (0.08-4.40%,C20:5 n-3 (11.32- 26.67% and C22:6 n-3 (0.80-4.20% respectively. Tetraselmis sp. had amounts of C20:4n-6 and C20:5 n-3 ranging from 0.99-1.13% and 4.18-4.70% respectively. In conclusion, Nitzschia cf. ovalis and Thalassiosira sp. would serve as good nutritional sources of HUFAs for aquaculture animals.

Thidarat Noiraksar

2005-11-01

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Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids stimulate cellular fatty acid uptake in human placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is advocated during pregnancy in some countries although very little information is available on their effects on placental ability to take up these fatty acids for fetal supply to which the fetal growth and development are critically dependent. To identify the roles of LCPUFAs on placental fatty acid transport function, we examined the effects of LCPUFAs on the uptake of fatty acids and expression of fatty acid transport/metabolic genes using placental trophoblast cells (BeWo). Following 24 h incubation of these cells with 100 microM of LCPUFAs (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6, eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3, or docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3), the cellular uptake of [(14)C] fatty acids was increased by 20-50%, and accumulated fatty acids were preferentially incorporated into phospholipid fractions. Oleic acid (OA, 18:1n-9), on the other hand, could not stimulate fatty acid uptake. LCPUFAs and OA increased the gene expression of ADRP whilst decreased the expression of ASCL3, ACSL4, ACSL6, LPIN1, and FABP3 in these cells. However, LCPUFAs but not OA increased expression of ACSL1 and ACSL5. Since acyl-CoA synthetases are involved in cellular uptake of fatty acids via activation for their channelling to lipid metabolism and/or for storage, the increased expression of ACSL1 and ACLS5 by LCPUFAs may be responsible for the increased fatty acid uptake. These findings demonstrate that LCPUFA may function as an important regulator of general fatty acid uptake in trophoblast cells and may thus have impact on fetal growth and development. PMID:19880178

Johnsen, G M; Weedon-Fekjaer, M S; Tobin, K A R; Staff, A C; Duttaroy, A K

2009-12-01

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21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food...

2010-04-01

57

Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

Daniela Pittau

2013-10-01

58

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children

2010-01-01

59

Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis and Elongation  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid elongation are two parts of a critically important pathway in plants. The endproducts are essential components of cell membranes, waxes, and suberin. Two chemical families of herbicide (groups that share similar chemical structures) inhibit fatty acid synthesis, while fatty acid elongation is inhibited by two other families. This lesson will provide an overview of fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and explain where herbicides inhibit the pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to these herbicides will be described.

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Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet  

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Full Text Available Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an infant´s daily energy needs and provide a supply of fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. The characteristics of milk lipids are largely determined by their fatty acid composition. In this work the general characteristics of breast milk and milk lipids, as well as the influence of maternal diet on composition of fatty acids in breast milk, are discussed. Breast milk provides all dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n-6 and ?-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, as well as their longer-chain more-unsaturated metabolites, including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular importance in visual and neural development, and their content in milk is a reflection of the mother´s current and long-term dietary intake. A positive association has been established between the maternal intake of fish and seafood and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid in milk. Numerous researches have been shown that supplementation with docosahexaenoic acids during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation significantly increases the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk.

Mihela Dujmovi?

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
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Product Fat-1 Transgenic Simmental Crossbred Cattle Endogenously Synthesizing Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using OSM  

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Meat products normally contain low omega-3 fatty acids and high ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may contribute to the prevalence of many diseases. In order to obtained in such beef with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids will be more healthy to meet people’s diet, researchers generated the fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans c fat-1 gene encoding an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the gene is ab...

Song-Jia Lai; Jian Wang; Xiao-Mao Guo; Wei Wang,

2012-01-01

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Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficie [...] ntly expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

Meilan, Xue; Yinlin, Ge; Jinyu, Zhang; Qing, Wang; Lin, Hou.

1141-11-01

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Dietary fatty acids, serum lipids, platelet biochemistry and function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fatty acids of the n-6 mainly linoleic acid (LA) series, and of the n-3, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) series both reduce plasma cholesterol levels and platelet responses to aggregating agents. The potency of n-3 fatty acids, which are present in relatively high concentrations in fish oils, is at least one order of magnitude greater than that of LA. The effects of fish oils appear to be related to the incorporation of EPA into plasma lipoproteins and cell phospholipid pools, thus modulating metabolic processes within specific lipid pools. Inhibition of platelet function and modifications of the activity of other blood cells, such as leukocytes, is attributed to interference with the eicosanoid system. Competition of EPA with arachidonic acid (AA) for the oxygenases and/or generation of less active metabolites from this precursor are the major mechanisms of action. Feeding studies in experimental animals indicate that exogenously administered n-3 fatty acids undergo distribution among the major plasma lipid classes and platelet phospholipids quite different to that of endogenous AA. In addition, the generation of inositolphosphates by stimulated platelets is decreased by dietary n-3 fatty acids in a manner independent of the effects on the eicosanoid system. It appears that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-6 and n-3 series are differently handled in various lipid pools and that early steps of cell activation, in addition to the generation of eicosanoids, are affected by dietary fatty acids. This indicates that fatty acids modulate key steps in the regulation of cell function and biochemistry.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2658330

Galli, C; Mosconi, C; Medini, L; Tremoli, E

1989-04-14

64

A simplified method for analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of fatty acid composition of biological materials is a common task in lipid research. Conventionally, preparation of samples for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography involves two separate procedures: lipid extraction and methylation. This conventional method is complicated, tedious and time consuming. Development of a rapid and simple method for lipid analysis is warranted. Results We simplified the conventional method by combining the extraction and methylation into a single step (omitting the procedure of prior extraction. Various biological samples including cultured cells, animal tissues and human specimens have been tested using the new method. Statistical analysis indicates that the recovery of long chain fatty acids from tissue samples by the simplified method is significantly higher than that by the traditional method, but there is no difference in relative fatty acid composition between the two methods. This simplified method can significantly save time and materials, and reduce the potentials of sample loss and contamination. Conclusion The lipid extraction procedure prior to methylation employed conventionally in lipid analysis can be omitted without affecting the recovery of long chain (? 18 C fatty acids and their composition. The simplified method is rapid, easy-to-use, suitable for analysis of total long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (e.g. n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in various biological samples, especially when the number of samples to be analyzed is large and/or the specimen size is small.

Wang Jingdong

2005-03-01

65

Thai jute seed oil: a potential polyunsaturated fatty acid source  

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Full Text Available This study examined lipid and fatty acid compositions of different varieties of jute (Po-kra-jao, Corchorus olitorius L. seed grown in Thailand. Four different jute seeds (Nonn-Soong, Keaw-Yai, Cuba and Khonkaen harvested from northeastern Thailand were ground, their lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v, and lipid composition was determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed using GLC with standard methods. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in jute seed oil, ranging from 70% to 74%, and other two minor components were phytosterol (12% to 28% and diacylglycerol (0% to 9%. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates, was approximately 2: 3: 4. Most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was linoleic acid (18:2n-6, accounting for 40-67% of total fatty acid. Nonn-Soong had the highest amount of PUFA (67.7%, followed by Khonkaen (44.53%, Keaw-Yai (41.14%, and Cuba (40.19%. Another PUFA found was ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, accounting for about 1% of total fatty acid. The results indicated that jute seed oil was a potential edible PUFA source. The oils obtained from different kinds of jute seeds had significantly different lipid and fatty acid compositions.

Maitree Suttajit

2006-03-01

66

Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis  

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Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus america...

Beltz, Barbara S.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Benton, Jeannie L.; Sandeman, David C.

2007-01-01

67

Nutritional aspects of trans unsaturated fatty acids  

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Dietary trans unsaturated fatty acids from hydrogenated vegetable and fish oils have been shown to raise plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at 10%, 6% and 3% of energy intake. As trans fatty acid intake has not been previously assessed in Ireland a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to assess fat intake with particular focus on trans fatty acids. A nutrient database was developed which included the fatty acid and tota...

Cantwell, Mary

2000-01-01

68

Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds  

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Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein). Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P<0,05). The PUFA/SFA ratio was the highest in Simmental calves and the lowest in Holstei...

Ivica Kos; Jelena Ramljak; Ante Ivankovi?; Miljenko Konja?i?; Nikolina Kelava

2010-01-01

69

Simulation of Palm based Fatty Acids Distillation  

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Fatty acids have long been recognized for their commercial value in the absence of glycerol. Chemicals derived from fatty acids are widely used in the formulation of detergents, lubricant, surfactants and in pharmaceutical industries. In addition, fatty acids also play a vital role in human metabolism and are widely used as catalyst in some chemical reactions. Commercially produced fatty acids are derived from naturally occurring fats and oils through the process of hydrolysis. Most of these ...

Chin Peng Jiun; Oh Pin Pin; Awang Bono

2010-01-01

70

Fatty acid metabolism in the freshwater fish Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) deduced by the whole-body fatty acid balance method.  

Science.gov (United States)

The whole-body fatty acid balance method was used to investigate the fatty acid metabolism in Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) fed diets containing canola (CO) or linseed oil (LO). Murray cod were able to elongate and desaturate both 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. In fish fed the CO diet, 54.4% of the 18:2n-6 consumed was accumulated, 38.5% oxidized and 6.4% elongated and desaturated to higher homologs. Fish fed the LO diet accumulated 52.9%, oxidized 37% and elongated and desaturated 8.6% of the consumed 18:3n-3. The overall roles of n-6 fatty acids appeared more important in Murray cod compared to other freshwater species. Murray cod also showed a preferential order of utilization of C18 fatty acid for energy production (18:3n-3 > 18:2n-6 > 18:1n-9). Moreover, it is demonstrated that an increase in dietary 18:3n-3 is directly responsible of increased desaturase activity and augmented saturated fatty acid accumulation in the fish body. The present study also suggests that, in the context of the possible maximization of the natural ability of fish to produce long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, the whole-body approach can be considered well suited and informative and Murray cod is a suited candidate to fish oil replacement for its diets. PMID:16513379

Turchini, Giovanni M; Francis, David S; De Silva, Sena S

2006-05-01

71

Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency selectively up-regulates delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices in rat liver: prevention by normalization of omega-3 fatty acid status.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would normalize this response. Adult rats fed the n-3-free diet during perinatal development exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte, liver, and frontal cortex LCn-3 fatty acid composition and reciprocal elevations in LC omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid composition compared with controls (CONs) and repleted rats. Liver Fads2, but not Fads1, Elovl2, or Elovl5, mRNA expression was significantly greater in n-3-deficient (DEF) rats compared with CONs and was partially normalized in repleted rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, an index of delta6-desturase activity, was significantly greater in DEF rats compared with CON and repleted rats and was positively correlated with Fads2 mRNA expression among all rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, but not Fads2 mRNA expression, was also positively correlated with erythrocyte and frontal cortex LCn-6 fatty acid compositions. Neither Fads1 or Fads2 mRNA expression was altered in brain cortex of DEF rats. These results confirm previous findings that liver, but not brain, delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices are negatively regulated by dietary n-3 fatty acids. PMID:22024496

Hofacer, Rylon; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Magrisso, I Jack; Benoit, Stephen C; McNamara, Robert K

2011-09-01

72

The role of essential fatty acids in the control of coronary heart disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Evidence from various research paradigms supports the cardiovascular benefits of a high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the long-chain, marine-derived n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids. The effect of the plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is, however, not clear. Concerns about a high n-6 PUFA intake has been raised, because n-6 PUFA may weaken the effects of n-3 PUFA.

Vedtofte, Mia S.; Jakobsen, Marianne U

2012-01-01

73

Fatty acid composition of wild anthropoid primate milks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids in milk reflect the interplay between species-specific physiological mechanisms and maternal diet. Anthropoid primates (apes, Old and New World monkeys) vary in patterns of growth and development and dietary strategies. Milk fatty acid profiles also are predicted to vary widely. This study investigates milk fatty acid composition of five wild anthropoids (Alouatta palliata, Callithrix jacchus, Gorilla beringei beringei, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca sinica) to test the null hypothesis of a generalized anthropoid milk fatty acid composition. Milk from New and Old World monkeys had significantly more 8:0 and 10:0 than milk from apes. The leaf eating species G. b. beringei and A. paliatta had a significantly higher proportion of milk 18:3n-3, a fatty acid found primarily in plant lipids. Mean percent composition of 22:6n-3 was significantly different among monkeys and apes, but was similar to the lowest reported values for human milk. Mountain gorillas were unique among anthropoids in the high proportion of milk 20:4n-6. This seems to be unrelated to requirements of a larger brain and may instead reflect species-specific metabolic processes or an unknown source of this fatty acid in the mountain gorilla diet. PMID:17916436

Milligan, Lauren A; Rapoport, Stanley I; Cranfield, Michael R; Dittus, Wolfgang; Glander, Kenneth E; Oftedal, Olav T; Power, Michael L; Whittier, Christopher A; Bazinet, Richard P

2008-01-01

74

3???????????????? Three Fishes Muscle Fatty Acid Composition Analysis of Lha-sa River  

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Full Text Available ??????(Schizothorax waltoni??????(Ptychobarbus dipogon???????(Shizopygopsis younghusbandi?????????????????????????10??????????????????16:0?18:0????????16:1n-9?18:1n-9?18:1n-7????????18:2n-6?20:4n-6?20:5n-3?22:5n-3?22:6n-3?????????????????????????????????n-3???????????????? The fatty acid composition in muscle of three freshwater fishes Schizothorax waltoni, Ptychobarbus dipogon, Shizopygopsis younghusbandi was analyzed. The most abundant 10 fatty acids are the saturated fatty acids 16:0 and 18:0, the monounsaturated fatty acids 16:1n-9, 18:1n-9 and 18:1n-7, the polyunsaturated fatty acids 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3. The result showed that the pattern of fatty acids in the Tibetan fish resembled that of marine fish, and the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were relatively higher.  

??

2013-02-01

75

Investigation of the constituent fatty acids of some freshwater fishes common in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the constituent fatty acids of some freshwater fish species as well as compare the nutritional quality of freshwater fish with that of marine fish by comparing the levels of essential fatty acids present. The fatty acids profile of freshwater fish species include minor amounts of odd-number, branched-chain, and even-number fatty acids as well as saturated components, the monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major saturated fatty acids were C14:0 and C16:0. The C18:1 is the prominent monounsaturated fatty acids while the C18:2 is the dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids. The essential fatty acids compositions showed prominence in C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6. The overall significance of this study had been its revelation that freshwater fish are good source of omega-6 essential fatty acids. The high percent of saturated fatty acids in freshwater fish gives them an advantage in curing processing.

C. Ugoala

2009-07-01

76

Analysis of Fatty Acids from Gentiana olivieri  

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Full Text Available The plants of Gentiana olivieri collected from Hazar Ganji, Quetta, were analysed for their fatty acid composition. The acids were converted into methyl esters and identified by Gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which revealed the presence of pentadecanoic, hexadecanoic, heptadecanoic, octadecenoic and nonadecanoic acid. The only unsaturated fatty acid found was heptadecatrienoic acid.

Arsala Mansoor

1999-01-01

77

Fatty Acid Composition of Human Colostrums of Burkinabe Women  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare/contrast the colostrum lipid composition of 53 Burkinabe women, collected in 2005 at the Maternity of Centre Medical Saint Camille in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso, with similar data obtained in breast milk, five years ago and then to show the evolution of this important aliment. The fatty acid composition of colostrum samples was determined by Gas-liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Saturated lipids (C8:0-C:14-0 showed a progressive increasing trend in the Burkinabe woman colostrum with respect those already measured five years ago. The C15:0-C24:0 fractions were found costantly higher, but their trends were in progressive decrement. The 18:2n-6 fraction (linoleic acid reached the highest value in the third day post partum. The 18:3n-3 was constantly higher in the second and third days. The 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid and LC n-6 PUFA were lower ever since the first day, but with a trend to increase. Also 22: 6n-3 and LC n-3 PUFA were costantly lower. The 18:2n-6/18:3n-3 and LC n-6/LC n-3 ratios were lower and higher, respectively, if compared with those already measured five years ago. These results suggest the need to improve alimentary habits of mothers in order to restore the balanced n-6/n3 PUFA ratio in their colostrums.

Carbone Virginia

2006-01-01

78

Multi-targeted Therapy of Cancer by Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids necessary for human health. Currently, the Western diet contains a disproportionally high amount of n-6 PUFAs and low amount of n-3 PUFAs, and the resulting high n-6/n-3 ratio is thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. Studies in human populations have linked high consumption of fish or fish oil to reduced risk of colon, prostate and breast cancer, although other st...

Berquin, Isabelle M.; Edwards, Iris J.; Chen, Yong Q.

2008-01-01

79

Proximate Composition and Fatty Acids Profile in Oleaginous Seeds  

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Full Text Available Fatty acids were quantified in oleaginous seeds: pistachio, almonds, European nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, pecan nuts, and macadamia nuts. Three brands of each sample were purchased in three lots (n = 9. The proximate composition, energetic value, and fatty acids (FA were determined by gas chromatography. All seeds had large amounts of total lipids and the highest contents (ca. 70% were found in macadamia, pecan, and European nuts. The samples had significant amounts of crude protein. Pistachio and cashew nuts had the greatest amount (ca. 20%, as well as the largest carbohydrate contents (32%. All seeds were rather energetic, ranging from 600 to 760 Kcal.g-1. From seven to nine FA were identified and quantified, oleic (n-9 and linoleic (n-6 acids were the major acids. Essential fatty acid a-linolenic (n-3 was found in European nuts (except pistachio with an n-6/n-3 ratio (4:1 that is very beneficial to health. Trans FA were also observed in salted roasted cashew nuts. The major saturated FA (SFA was palmitic, stearic, and arachidonic acids, however, their amounts were much lower than those of polyunsaturated acids (PUFA and monounsaturated acids (MUFA. European nuts had the greatest PUFA/SFA ratio (9, followed by almonds (3.6.

Angela Claudia Rodrigues

2012-11-01

80

Thermodynamics of fatty acid degradation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this communication, the correlation of some thermodynamic properties of structurally similar biological compounds with items such as the number of carbon atoms or the number of its characteristic groups, such as phosphates, was applied to enzyme thermodynamics, to advance the thermodynamics of fatty acid degradation. It was shown that these concepts apply equally well for all three major thermodynamic functions: Gibbs energy of formation, enthalpy of formation, and entropy of formation. First, the standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation, ?(f)G'(o), were calculated for the major portion of saturated fatty acids at 25 °C and pH 5, pH 7, and pH 9. Second, a total ATP yield was calculated for complete combustion of major saturated fatty acids to CO(2) and water. Third, the standard transformed Gibbs energies of reaction, ?(r)G'(o), were calculated for enzyme reactions catalyzing complete ?-oxidation of butyryl-CoA to acetyl-CoA at 25 °C and pH 7. PMID:21090612

Leskovac, Vladimir; Trivi?, Svetlana; Peri?in, Draginja; Popovi?, Mira; Kandra?, Julijan

2010-12-16

 
 
 
 
81

Lipid content and fatty acid composition in foods commonly consumed by nursing Congolese women: incidences on their essential fatty acid intakes and breast milk fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition of nearly 40 foods, currently consumed by 102 nursing Congolese mothers living in Brazzaville, were determined to assess their impact on mothers' essential fatty acid (EFA) intakes and breast milk FA. Data on mothers' milk FA and dietary habits which allowed food selection were recently published (Rocquelin et al., 1998). Most foods were locally produced. Food samples were collected at local markets, bleached if necessary to avoid microbial degradation, and stored at +4 degrees C or -20 degrees C. They were lyophilized upon their arrival in the laboratory before lipid analyses. FA composition of food lipids was determined by capillary gas chromatography. Staple diets included low-fat, high-carbohydrate foods (processed cassava roots, wheat bread) and high-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) foods: soybean oil (high in 18 : 2 n-6 and alpha-18 : 3 n-3), bushbutter (dacryodes edulis), peanuts, avocado (high in fat and 18 : 2 n-6), freshwater and salt-water fish (high in LC n-3 and/or n-6 PUFA), and leafy green vegetables (low in fat but very high in alpha-18 : 3 n-3). Their frequent consumption by nursing mothers provided enough EFA to meet requirements due to lactation. It also explains why mothers' breast milk was rich in C8-C14 saturated FA (26% of total FA) and in n-6, n-3 PUFA (respectively 15.0% and 2.4% of total FA) highly profitable for breastfed infants' development. From this point of view, dietary habits of Congolese mothers have to be sustained for they are more adequate than most Western-type diets. PMID:10367004

Rocquelin, G; Tapsoba, S; Mbemba, F; Gallon, G; Picq, C

1998-09-01

82

21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and tallow and the fatty acids...and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements...cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with §...

2010-04-01

83

The content of favorable and unfavorable polyunsaturated fatty acids found in commonly eaten fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in diet during the past century have caused a marked increase in consumption of saturated fatty acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a concomitant decrease in the intake of n-3 PUFAs. Increased fish consumption has been shown to be the only realistic way to increase dietary quantities of beneficial long-chain n-3 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and re-establish more balanced n-6:n-3 ratios in the diets of human beings. Our objective in this research was to characterize some of the relevant fatty acid chemistry of commonly consumed fish, with a particular focus on the four most commonly consumed farmed fish. To do this, 30 commonly consumed farmed and wild fish were collected from supermarkets and wholesalers throughout the United States. Fatty acid composition of samples from these fish was determined using gas chromatography. The 30 samples studied contained n-3 PUFAs ranging from fish having almost undetectable levels to fish having nearly 4.0 g n-3 PUFA per 100 g fish. The four most commonly farmed fish, Atlantic salmon, trout, tilapia, and catfish, were more closely examined. This analysis revealed that trout and Atlantic salmon contained relatively high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, low n-6:n-3 ratios, and favorable saturated fatty acid plus monounsaturated fatty acid to PUFA ratios. In contrast, tilapia (the fastest growing and most widely farmed fish) and catfish have much lower concentrations of n-3 PUFA, very high ratios of long chain n-6 to long chain n-3 PUFAs, and high saturated fatty acid plus monounsaturated fatty acid to PUFA ratios. Taken together, these data reveal that marked changes in the fishing industry during the past decade have produced widely eaten fish that have fatty acid characteristics that are generally accepted to be inflammatory by the health care community. PMID:18589026

Weaver, Kelly L; Ivester, Priscilla; Chilton, Joshua A; Wilson, Martha D; Pandey, Prativa; Chilton, Floyd H

2008-07-01

84

Selective incorporation of various C-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three 14C-labeled 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, 7,10,13,16-[14C]docosatetraenoic acid (22:4(n-6)), 7,10,13,16,19-[14C]docosapentaenoic acid (22:5(n-3)), and 4,7,10,13,16,19-[14C]docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)), were compared with [3H]arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6] and [14C]linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)) to characterize their incorporation into the lipids of Ehrlich ascites cells. The relatively rapid incorporation of the labeled 22-carbon acids into phosphatidic acid indicated that substantial amounts of these acids may be incorporated through the de novo pathway of phospholipid synthesis. In marked contrast to 20:4(n-6), the 22-carbon acids were incorporated much less into choline glycerophospholipids (CGP) and inositol glycerophospholipids (IGP). No selective preference was apparent for the (n-3) or (n-6) type of fatty acids. The amounts of the acids incorporated into diacylglycerophosphoethanolamine were in the order of: 22:6(n-3) greater than 20:4(n-6) much greater than 22:5(n-3) greater than or equal to 22:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6), whereas for alkylacylglycerophosphoethanolamine they were in the order of: 22:4(n-6) greater than 22:6(n-3) greater than 22:5(n-3) much greater than 20:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6). Of the mechanisms possibly responsible for the selective entry of 22-carbon acids into ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, the most reasonable explanation was that the cytidine-mediated ethanolamn was that the cytidine-mediated ethanolamine phosphotransferase may have a unique double selectivity: for hexaenoic species of diacylglycerol and for 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing species of alkylacylglycerol. The relative distribution of fatty acids between newly incorporated and already maintained lipid classes suggested that IGP may function in Ehrlich cells as an intermediate pool for the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acids in glycerolipids

85

Sex differences in the relationship of dietary fatty acids to cognitive measures in American children  

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Full Text Available Because the first neurons evolved in an environment high in the n-3 (omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, this fatty acid became a major component of neural structure and function and makes up 10% of the dry weight of the human brain. Since n-3 fatty acids must come from the diet, this suggests a possible positive role for dietary n-3 fatty acids in cognition and a possible negative role for n-6 fatty acids, which compete with n-3 for access to critical enzymes. Because human females must provide DHA for the growth of the unusually large brains of their offspring from maternal fat stored during childhood, their need for DHA is especially great. We used stepwise regression to determine whether particular dietary fatty acids and other nutrients were related to cognitive performance in over 4000 American children aged 6 to 16 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; a variety of possible biological, social and environmental risk factors were statistically controlled. In this context the only dietary factors related to cognitive performance were n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Dietary n-3 fatty acids were positively related to cognitive test scores in male and female children, while n-6 showed the reverse relationship, significantly so in females. In female children the positive effects of n-3 intake were twice as strong as in males and exceeded the negative effects of lead exposure. This suggests that increasing dietary intake of n-3 and decreasing n-6 fatty acids may have cognitive benefits in children, especially in females.

WillLassek

2011-11-01

86

?-tocopherol and Fatty acids of Spirulina platensis Biomass in Glass Panel Bioreactor  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature, at 26°C, on growth, ?-tocopherols and fatty acid composition of S. platensis, grown in laboratory batch cultures with glass panel bioreactor. ?-tocopherol among of S. platensis was 63.48±10.73 ?g g-1 in the dried samples. The cell density of S. platensis increased rapidly to 32.38±3.58x104 cells mL-1 and the maximum specific growth rate was 0.36 day-1. The percentage of total SFA, total MUFAs and total PUFAs of dry weight were 70.3, 1.9 and 18.6%, respectively. The predominant fatty acids were by order of abundance: palmitic acid (16:0, palmitoleic acid (16:1(n-7, oleic acid (18:1 (n-9, linoleic acid (18:2(n-6 and ?-linoleic acid (18:3(n-6. Among the PUFAs, 18:3 (n-6 was the major fatty acids reaching 18.5±0.7% of total fatty acids followed by 18:2 (n-6 (13.8±0.5%. The concentrations of ?-linolenic acid varied from 12-20% for S. platensis, at the optimum growth temperatures and it was concluded that the temperature did not affect ?-linolenic acid. Finally, the major goal of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the supplementation procedure together with low growth temperatures on improving the ?-linoleic acid level and ?-tocopherol in S. platensis.

Durmaz YaOar

2006-01-01

87

Propylenated fatty acids as emulsifiers  

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Full Text Available Hydroxy propylenyl stéarate, palmitate, laurate, oléate and linoleate were prepared by reaction of propylene oxide with fatty acid at 160 °C for five hours stirring in presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. Physico-chemical properties of the five products, regarding their use as emulsifiers, were determined.

Se prepararon estearato, palmitato, laurato, oleato y linoleato de hidroxipropilenilos mediante reacción de oxido de propileno con ácido graso a 160 °C durante cinco horas de agitación en presencia de hidróxido potásico como catalizador. Se determinaron las propiedades físico-químicas de los cinco productos, en cuanto a su uso como emulsionantes.

El-Shattory, Y.

1999-08-01

88

Simulation of Palm based Fatty Acids Distillation  

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Full Text Available Fatty acids have long been recognized for their commercial value in the absence of glycerol. Chemicals derived from fatty acids are widely used in the formulation of detergents, lubricant, surfactants and in pharmaceutical industries. In addition, fatty acids also play a vital role in human metabolism and are widely used as catalyst in some chemical reactions. Commercially produced fatty acids are derived from naturally occurring fats and oils through the process of hydrolysis. Most of these raw materials result in nature as complex mixtures of triglycerides, alcohols and other esters. Alternatively, common edible oils used are sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, palm and palm kernel oil. Crude fatty acids can be obtained from the process of hydrolysis and will be purified through total distillation. Due to fatty acid market demand, the purity requirement of distillated fatty acid products is increasing greatly. Since desired purity of fatty acid is achievable through the most common and most efficient means of fractionation distillation process, study on simulation of fatty acids distillation has a significant contribution to the oleo chemical industry. In this simulation study, the optimization of the tray specification, feed stream pressure and temperature on the purity performance of the fatty acid composition are investigated. In South East Asia, palm tree fruit ripen continuously and can be harvested all year round. Therefore, palm based fatty acids are selected to be used as the feed components. In the present study, binary and multi-component distillations of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are studied. This simulation model is developed by using HYSYS simulator with suitable thermodynamic package chosen. A shortcut simulation method is built in advanced for preliminary estimations and for determining rigorous operating limits. Eventually, parametric optimization is performed to obtain the optimum operating conditions of the rigorous distillation column.

Chin Peng Jiun

2010-01-01

89

Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.  

Science.gov (United States)

n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 fatty acids) have been shown to have a beneficial effect on bone in animal studies, although little is known about their role in bone metabolism in humans. We investigated the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and daily n-3 fatty acid intake. This cross-sectional, community-based, epidemiologic study was conducted among 205 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 63.5 years, range 46-79). We examined BMD, serum N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), urinary type-I collagen cross-linked-N-telopeptide (uNTX), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Nutrient intake was calculated using a food-frequency questionnaire. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Simple regression analysis showed that intake of neither n-3 fatty acid nor n-6 fatty acid was associated with age or lipid metabolism indices. However, simple regression analysis showed that n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with both lumbar spine BMD and femoral neck BMD. n-6 fatty acid intake was positively associated with femoral neck BMD but not lumbar spine BMD. Multiple regression analysis showed that n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, BMI, duration of menopausal state, grip strength, PINP, uNTX, and intakes of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, and n-6 fatty acid. In conclusion, n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with lumbar spine BMD independent of bone resorption and serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in postmenopausal women. PMID:23708886

Nawata, Kiyoko; Yamauchi, Mika; Takaoka, Shin; Yamaguchi, Toru; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

2013-08-01

90

Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition 1,2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Home parenteral nutrition (HPN), initiated in patients with severe malabsorption or decreased oral intake, may exhaust stores of essential fatty acids and cause clinical manifestations, mainly dermatitis. Plasma fatty acid profiles were measured by gas-liquid chromatography in 37 healthy control subjects and 56 patients receiving HPN. The concentration (% by wt of total fatty acids) of 18:2n-6 was 22.8% and 11.4% (P 200 cm of remaining small intestine, those receiving parenteral lipids had only minor changes in the fatty acids of plasma phospholipids compared with patients not receiving parenteral lipids. In patients with < 100 cm of remaining small intestine, those receiving parenteral lipids had increased concentrations of total n-6 fatty acids; however, these did not reach the concentrations in control subjects. No differences were seen in n-3 fatty acids. Twenty-five of the 56 patients receiving HPN reported skin problems. No differences were found in plasma phospholipid fatty acids, Holman index, or the supply of parenteral lipids between patients with and without skin problems. Patients receiving HPN had biochemical signs of EFAD. Parenteral lipids did not increase the concentration of essential fatty acids to values comparable with those of control subjects, but 500 mt 20% Intralipid once a week was sufficient to prevent an increase in the Holman index above 0.2.

HØy, Carl-Erik

1998-01-01

91

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX. : Fatty Acid Synthesis from Enzymically and Chemically Acetylated Rabbit Mammary Gland Fatty Acid Synthetase.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

# 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids. Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles of acetate were bound per mole of fatty acid synthetase, with 20–25 moles being bound to thiol groups per mole of enzyme. Acylation did not inhibit enzyme activity. The majority of the bound acetate was stable to hydrolysis at o °C. Out of the 60 moles of acetate bound per mole of acetylated enzyme, up to 20 moles were incorporated into fatty acids in the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH. # 4. 4. Due to the rapid hydrolysis of acetyl-fatty acid synthetase prepared from both acetyl-CoA and acetic anhydride, direct carboxylation of acetyl-fatty acid synthetase to form malonyl-fatty acid synthetase could not be demonstrated by CO2 fixation under the experimental conditions used. With acetic anhydride as acetyl donor, there was a low rate of incorporation of acetate into fatty acids in the presence of NADPH but absence of added malonyl-CoA. This could be due to direct carboxylation of the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase or, if any CoA were associated with the fatty acid synthetase, to carboxylation of acetyl-CoA formed by chemical acetylation of this CoA.

Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max

1972-01-01

92

Exploring the Role of Fatty Acid on Transcription Factors Regulating Fatty Acid Metabolism with Emphasis on Trans Fatty Acid  

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Full Text Available Fatty acids are unique macromolecules as they act as biological modulators of transcription factors and regulate their own metabolism by controlling the activity or abundance of transcription factors of fatty acid metabolism either by RNA processing and RNA stability. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR-? and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP-1c are transcription factors expressed primarily in adipose tissue. We have studied the relation of fatty acid including trans fatty acid assessed in adipose tissue with the transcription factors. Adipose tissue was collected from 50 healthy subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Fatty acid was assessed in the tissue by gas chromatography. The expressions of PPAR? and SREBP-1c were studied by real time RT-PCR. The expressions of PPAR? and SREBP1c were significantly correlated (r = 0.4 p

Varna Seenu

2013-08-01

93

Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function  

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Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

Pompéia C.

2000-01-01

94

Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion mole [...] cule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

C., Pompéia; L.R., Lopes; C.K., Miyasaka; J., Procópio; P., Sannomiya; R., Curi.

1255-12-01

95

Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion mole [...] cule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

C., Pompéia; L.R., Lopes; C.K., Miyasaka; J., Procópio; P., Sannomiya; R., Curi.

96

Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of beef at retail of Piemontese, Limousin and Friesian breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of longissimus thoracis muscle of young bulls belonging to Piemontese (n=10), Limousin (n=11) and Friesian (n=10) breeds were analysed in order to study the chemical composition, fatty acids and cholesterol content of beef purchased at retail. The breeds and their differences in intramuscular fat content strongly influenced the fatty acids profile. The Piemontese animals displayed the lowest intramuscular fat and SFA content, while Friesian animals showed the highest intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA content. In general, Limousin animals had intermediate characteristics. A higher PUFA proportion on total fatty acids was observed in Piemontese breed, but the PUFA absolute content (mg/100 g meat) did not differ among breeds. All the three breeds displayed a high content of n-6 fatty acids family and, consequently, a very unbalanced n-6/n-3 ratio. No differences were found for cholesterol content. PMID:24018276

Brugiapaglia, A; Lussiana, C; Destefanis, G

2014-01-01

97

Shellfish: proximate composition, minerals, fatty acids, and sterols.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proximate composition, minerals, fatty acids, and sterols were determined for eight species of shellfish commonly marketed in the Northwest. Moisture and total lipid content varied with the size of the species, with more variation in mollusca than in crustacea; total lipid content ranged from 0.7% in sea scallops to 3.1% in blue mussels but only from 1.2% in Dungeness crab to 1.3% in pink shrimp. The mineral content was highly variable; the mineral content of Northwest samples tended to be lower than that reported in other studies. Generally, shellfish are good sources of zinc, and Pacific oysters, blue mussels, and Manila clams are also good sources of iron. Five fatty acids (16:0, 16:1, 18:1, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3) represented from 60% to 84% of the fatty acid content. Palmitic acid ranged from 13% to 32% of the total fatty acids. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were predominant (37.6% to 54.3%), with sea scallops containing more than 50%; n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 1.5% to 6.5%. In crustacea, cholesterol was the primary sterol, and brassicasterol was the only other measurable sterol. In all mollusca except California squid, cholesterol averaged 37 mg/100 gm and ranged from 23% to 39% of the total sterols. In squid, cholesterol, at 231 mg/100 gm, was the only measurable sterol. We conclude that shellfish vary widely in their nutrient content but, in general, are valuable additions to the diet. PMID:2335682

King, I; Childs, M T; Dorsett, C; Ostrander, J G; Monsen, E R

1990-05-01

98

Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency disturbs the fatty acid composition of mouse testis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a key enzyme in the mobilization of fatty acids from intracellular stores. In mice, HSL deficiency results in male sterility caused by a major defect in spermatogenesis. The testes contain high concentrations of PUFA and specific PUFA are essential for spermatogenesis. We investigated the fatty acid composition and the mRNA levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism in testis of HSL-knockout mice. HSL deficiency altered fatty acid composition in the testis but not in plasma. The most important changes were decreases in the essential n-6 PUFA LNA and the n-3 PUFA ALA, and an increase in the corresponding synthesis intermediates C22:4n-6 and C22:5n-3 without changes in DPAn-6 or DHA acids. Mead acid, which has been associated with an essential fatty acid deficit leading to male infertility, was increased in the testis from HSL-knockout mice. Moreover, the expression of SCD-1, FADS1, and FADS2 was increased while expression of ELOVL2, an essential enzyme for the formation of very-long PUFA in testis, was decreased. Given the indispensability of these fatty acids for spermatogenesis, the changes in fatty acid metabolism observed in testes from HSL-knockout male mice may underlie the infertility of these animals. PMID:23369366

Casado, M E; Pastor, O; Mariscal, P; Canfrán-Duque, A; Martínez-Botas, J; Kraemer, F B; Lasunción, M A; Martín-Hidalgo, A; Busto, R

2013-03-01

99

40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. 721.3629...Chemical Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical...substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of fatty acids (PMN...

2010-07-01

100

21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

...sucrose with fatty acids and are derived...edible vegetable oils. The only solvents...preparation of sucrose fatty acid esters are those...to fresh apples, avocados, bananas, banana... (d) Sucrose fatty acid esters are...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). ...Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). ...substance identified generically as a Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN...

2010-07-01

102

21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this...

2010-04-01

103

Effect of Fat-Mineral Preparation From Fish Oil on Fatty Acid Content on Cow Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 8-week-lasting investigation aimed at the assessment of the effect of fish oil application in the form of fat-mineral preparation (F-M on fatty acid content in milk fat. The subject of this investigation were highly efficient dairy cows (primiparous and multiparous. The cows were administered F-M containing fish oil (1% in dry mass of ration which resulted in decreased level of shortchain fatty acids in milk fat and increased level of longchain fatty acids. There was recorded significant increase in isomer cis-9,trans-11 CLA content, as well as the one of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 - EPA and DHA group. The number of n-3 group acid did considerably increase. The fatty acids n-6/n-3 ratio showed significant decrease in both experimental groups.

Witold Janeczek

2007-01-01

104

LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES.  

Science.gov (United States)

The very long chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids, octacosaheptaenoic [28:7(n-6)] and octacosaoctaenoic acid [28:8(n-3)], were found to be associated with phospholipids, obtained by fractionation of total lipid extracts into distinct lipid classes, in 4 and 6, respectively, ...

105

Changes in fatty acid composition of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk) fed on microalgal and wheat germ diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fatty acid incorporation and changes in various lipid and phospholipid classes in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis subjected to three different dietary regimens were analysed and compared. Group A was unfed; group B received a diet consisting of 100% Thalassiosira weissflogii, exhibiting the typical fatty acid composition of diatoms, and group C received a diet consisting of 100% wheat germ conferring a 18:2:n-6 abundance. Biochemical analyses of diets and mussels were carried out at the beginning and at the end of the 30-day experimental period. Starvation and T. weissflogii based diet poorly affected mussel growth and fatty acid composition which remained unchanged. On the contrary, the wheat germ-based diet increased the condition index and deeply affected the fatty acid profile of all lipid and phospholipid classes. The high dietary 18:2n-6 level drastically reduced tissue content of 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. The biosynthesis of Non Methylene Interrupted (NMI) dienoic fatty acid appeared to be insensitive to the high input of 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-9 respectively from diet B and C, and to the PUFA shortage of diet C. Nevertheless the two NMI trienoic derivatives, 20:3Delta5,11,14 and 22:3Delta7,13 16, were found higher in C with respect to other groups, presumably due to the high 18:2n-6 content of this diet. PMID:17482494

Pirini, Maurizio; Manuzzi, Maria P; Pagliarani, Alessandra; Trombetti, Fabiana; Borgatti, Anna R; Ventrella, Vittoria

2007-08-01

106

Dietary fatty acid profile: effects on caecal fermentation and performance of young and fattening rabbits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present work was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of different fatty acid combinations (saturated, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; PUFA) on caecal fermentation activity, feed intake, growth rate and feed efficiency of young rabbits around weaning (17 to 44 d) and fattening rabbits (28 to 63 d of age). Five diets were formulated using the same raw materials and including 3% of lard (A diet, rich in saturated fat), sunflower oil (S diet, rich in n-6 PUFA), linseed...

Casado, Cristina; Moya, Javier; Pascual, Juan Jose?; Blas, Enrique; Cervera, Concha

2013-01-01

107

Influence of goats feeding on the fatty acids content in milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of modeling the content of fatty acids of milk fat, in order to increase the contents of desirable n-3 unsaturated fatty acids and decrease saturated fatty acid with adequate nutrition of goats. Previous studies showed that the milk of goats on pasture increased content of caproic (C6:0, caprylic (C8:0, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, linolenic (C18:3, eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. In the same group of goats lower content of palmitoleic (C16:1, linoleic (C18:2 and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was found, as well as lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared with group of goats kept indoors and fed with alfalfa hay. In milk of goats fed with diets supplemented with safflower oil, content of CLA significantly increased, while goats fed with diets supplement with linseed oil had significantly higher content of C18:3 in milk, compared with group of goats fed without addition of these oils. Goats fed with addition of protected fish oil had significant transfer of eicosapentaenoic-EPA and docosahexaenoic-DHA fatty acids in milk. Protected fish oil reduced the negative impact of long chain fatty acids on the activity of ruminal microorganisms, consumption and digestibility of fiber, as well as inhibition of synthesis of fatty acids in milk gland. When adding unprotected fish oil, increase of stearic (C18:0 and oleic (C18:1 fatty acids occurred, because of the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen.

Željka Klir

2012-12-01

108

Fatty acids in bovine milk fat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Milk fat contains approximately 400 different fatty acid, which make it the most complex of all natural fats. The milk fatty acids are derived almost equally from two sources, the feed and the microbial activity in the rumen of the cow and the lipids in bovine milk are mainly present in globules as an oil-in-water emulsion. Almost 70% of the fat in Swedish milk is saturated of which around 11% comprises short-chain fatty acids, almost half of which is butyric acid. Approximately 25% of the fa...

Ma?nsson, Helena Lindmark

2008-01-01

109

Unsaturated fatty acids as endogenous bioregulators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most biological functions of unsaturated fatty acids are due to their ability to act as second messengers or modulators of activities of functionally important proteins; these functions are not related to oxidative metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids. These acids regulate the activity of phospholipases, ion channels, ATPases, G-proteins, and protein kinases; they also modulate the phosphoinositide and sphingomyelin cycles, the transfer of hormonal information, and gene transcription. The great diversity of effects of unsaturated fatty acids and their presence at the earliest stages of evolution suggest for these bioregulators a system-forming role in the living body. PMID:9526089

Kogteva, G S; Bezuglov, V V

1998-01-01

110

Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

2003-01-01

111

Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn; T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fat. The lipids from the diets had significantly statistical effects (p<0,05 on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat. Multivariate techniques also showed differences in fatty acid composition within treatments due to sex. The studied dietary lipids affected the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S but had only small effects on the n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio.

SG Rondelli

2004-09-01

112

Product Fat-1 Transgenic Simmental Crossbred Cattle Endogenously Synthesizing Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using OSM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Meat products normally contain low omega-3 fatty acids and high ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may contribute to the prevalence of many diseases. In order to obtained in such beef with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids will be more healthy to meet people’s diet, researchers generated the fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans c fat-1 gene encoding an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the gene is absent in mammals. In this study, researchers successful product the embryo of fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle using OSM. The results of Western Blotting and fluoroscopic examination have proved that the fat-1 gene has been into genome of clone embryo and translated into proteins which could be used to embryo transfer.

Song-Jia Lai

2012-01-01

113

Phospholipid and triacylglycerol fatty acid composition of major life stages of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Phospholipid and triacylglycerol fatty acid compositions of whole animals from all life stages of Eurygaster integriceps, including eggs, nymphs, pre-diapausing adults and diapausing adults, were determined. The fatty acid composition of total lipids of their food, wheat, was also determined. The major components of the insects and their food were the expected C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Since fatty acid compositions of third-stadium nymphs were not similar to the profiles of their food, most likely, dietary fatty acids are modified by the insect. The fact is that the food does not provide C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but the insect tissue lipids include these components. We suggest biosynthesis of the C20 components by elongation/desaturation of C18:2n-6, an abundant component of the diets. We also show differences in fatty acid profiles from each of the life stages. PMID:12031463

Bashan, Mehmet; Akbas, Halit; Yurdakoc, Kadir

2002-06-01

114

Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (pacid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (pacids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (pacid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

Hwang, J A; Islam, M M; Ahmed, S T; Mun, H S; Kim, G M; Kim, Y J; Yang, C J

2014-08-01

115

Dietary lipid source modulates in vivo fatty acid metabolism in the freshwater fish, Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the fate of C18 and long chain polyunsaturated dietary fatty acids in the freshwater fish, Murray cod, using the in vivo, whole-body fatty acid balance method. Juvenile Murray cod were fed one of five iso-nitrogenous, iso-energetic, semipurified experimental diets in which the dietary fish oil (FO) was replaced (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) with a blended vegetable oil (VO), specifically formulated to match the major fatty acid classes [saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and n-6 PUFA] of cod liver oil (FO). However, the PUFA fraction of the VO was dominated by C18 fatty acids, while C20/22 fatty acids were prevalent in the FO PUFA fraction. Generally, there was a clear reflection of the dietary fatty acid composition across each of the five treatments in the carcass, fillet, and liver. Lipid metabolism was affected by the modification of the dietary lipid source. The desaturation and elongation of C18 PUFAs increased with vegetable oil substitution, supported by the occurrence of longer and higher desaturated homologous fatty acids. However, increased elongase and desaturase activity is unlikely to fulfill the gap observed in fatty acid composition resulting from decreased highly unsaturated fatty acids intake. PMID:17243697

Francis, David S; Turchini, Giovanni M; Jones, Paul L; De Silva, Sena S

2007-02-21

116

The fatty acid composition of human milk in northern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors previously reported that the milk of Yoruba women in southwestern Nigeria was deficient in alpha-linolenic acid and contained a high percentage (42%) of medium chain-length fatty acids (MCFA, C10-C14). In the present study, the authors used capillary gas-liquid chromatography to analyze the milk of Hausa women in the northern region of Nigeria. The milk of the Hausa women contained 27% MCFA, 10.6% linoleic acid, 0.41% alpha-linolenic acid, 0.52% arachidonic acid, and 0.32% docosahexaenoic acid. The proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in the serum phospholipids of a subset of exclusively breastfed infants (n = 15; mean age, 6.2 +/- 0.3 months) was below the limit of detection (< 0.03%). While the milk of women in northern Nigeria is adequate with regard to n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, to satisfy the requirements for alpha-linolenic acid, it may be necessary to supplement the infants of these women after the first 6 months of life. PMID:11138221

Okolo, S N; VanderJagt, T J; Vu, T; VanderJagt, T A; VanderJagt, D J; Okonji, M; Huang, Y S; Chuang, L T; Onwuanaku, C; Glew, R H

2000-02-01

117

Myristoylation as a target for inhibiting HIV assembly: Unsaturated fatty acids block viral budding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modification of HIV-1 Gag with myristic acid, a saturated 14-carbon fatty acid (14:0), is essential for HIV-1 assembly. We recently showed that exogenous treatment of cells with unsaturated 14-carbon fatty acids, 5-cis-tetradecenoic acid (14:1n-9) and 5-cis,8-cis-tetradecadienoic acid (14:2n-6), reduces the affinity of some myristoylated proteins for plasma membrane rafts, membrane subdomains that have been shown to be required for efficient assembly of HIV. Here we demonstrate that treatment...

Lindwasser, O. Wolf; Resh, Marilyn D.

2002-01-01

118

Fatty acid profiles in tissues of mice fed conjugated linoleic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The incorporation of vaccenic acid (VA, 0.5 and 1.2%), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, mixture of primarily c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA, 1.2%), linoleic acid (LA, 1.2%) and oleic acid (OA, 1.2%) into different tissues of mice was examined. The effects on the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) in kidney, spleen, liver and adipose tissue were investigated. VA and CLA (c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA) were primarily found in TAG, especially in kidney and adipose tissue, respectively. Conversion of VA to c9,t11-CLA was indicated by our results, as both fatty acids were incorporated into all the analyzed tissues when a diet containing VA but not c9,t11-CLA was fed. Most of the observed effects on the fatty acid profiles were seen in the CLA group, whereas only minor effects were observed in the VA groups compared with the CA group. Thus, CLA increased n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PL from kidney and spleen and lowered the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in these tissues. Furthermore, CLA increased C-22 PUFA in the PL fraction of kidney, spleen and liver, but reduced the level of arachiclonic acid in PL of liver and spleen and lowered the Delta(9)-desaturation indexes in all analyzed tissue TAG.

GØttsche, Jesper; Straarup, Ellen Marie

2006-01-01

119

Fatty acid and cholesterol content, chemical composition and sensory evaluation of horsemeat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed to determine the fatty acid and chemical composition and cholesterol concentration of horsemeat, and to evaluate its taste acceptability by the Brazilian population. Horsemeat samples (M. longissimus dorsi) were obtained from a Paraná State slaughterhouse. The chemical composition r [...] evealed a low lipid (2.9%) and high protein content (22.5%). The concentrations of the nutritionally important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), were 2.97% and 0.43%, respectively. The polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA) ratio was 0.97, which is within the recommended range. The cholesterol concentration of 40.5 mg/100 g is lower than that of other meat such as chicken, beef, mutton and pork. The sensory evaluation revealed excellent acceptability.

I.B., Tonial; A.C., Aguiar; C.C., Oliveira; E.G., Bonnafé; J.V., Visentainer; N.E., de Souza.

120

Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 ± 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 ± 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells

 
 
 
 
121

Omega-3 fatty acids for bipolar disorder.  

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BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder and is amongst the top thirty causes of worldwide disability. Mood stabilisers are the primary pharmacological intervention, both in the treatment of acute episodes and in prophylaxis. There is, however, mounting evidence that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in psychiatric conditions, particularly those involving disturbances of mood. OBJECTIVES: To review the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids as e...

Montgomery, P.; Richardson, Aj

2008-01-01

122

Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

123

Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO2 in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO2 and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and ?-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by ?-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the ?-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the ?-ketothiolase step of the ?-oxidation pathway. The [14C]acetoacetate formed from the [1-14C]labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the [14C]acetoacetate formed from the (?-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1

124

[Fatty acids--2. Clinical and physiological significance].  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids play multiple roles in humans and other organisms. In triglycerides they are the source of metabolic energy, in adipose tissue they serve also as temperature and mechanical isolators, in the form of phospholipids they are structural components of membranes. Fatty acids originating from the sn-2 glycerol carbon of phosphatidylcholine can influence the activity of diglycerides as second messengers. Unsaturated FA with 18-20 carbon atoms are precursors of prostaglandins, leucotrienes and thromboxanes, which have a broad scale of regulatory properties and have autocrine as well as paracrine effects. Fatty acids are ligands of several nuclear receptors, which take part in the subcellular control of a number of metabolic pathways. Covalent modification of proteins by FA (acylation) enables FA incorporation into the membranes. Number of pathological stages is accompanied with changes in fatty acid composition, often expressed as decreased content of unsaturated and increased content of saturated fatty acids (e.g. dyslipidemia, malnutrition, inflammation and inherited diseases). Polyunsaturated fatty acids as dietary supplements are used in prevention and in the therapy of cardiovascular diseases and other metabolic disturbances. PMID:19634271

Tvrzická, E; Stanková, B; Vecka, M; Zák, A

2009-01-01

125

Effect of diet and plasma fatty acid composition on immune status in elderly men  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The relationship between fatty acids in plasma and basal (B), interleukin-2-(IL-2), and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha)-stimulated natural killer (NK) cell activity was studied in healthy elderly men aged on average 70.5 y (65-81 y). B-NK correlated significantly with the fraction of plasma fatty acids consisting of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), total n-6 fatty acids, and linoleic acid (r = -0.68, r = -0.62, and r = -0.52, respectively). Significant negative correlations were also found between IFN-alpha stimulated NK cells and the three groups of fatty acids and between IL-2-stimulated NK cells and PUFAs. Likewise, negative correlations between PUFAs in the diet and BNK, IL-2, and IFN-alpha stimulated NK cell activity were found. The number of NK cells increased significantly but NK cell activity did not change after 5 wk on a diet lower in fat but higher in PUFAs than the subjects' habitual diet. It is concluded that the amount and type of dietary fatty acids influence in vitro measures of immune function in elderly men. From an immunological point of view, a high intake of n-6 PUFAs may be inadvisable.

Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Kiens, B.

1994-01-01

126

Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was <4, regardless of dietary n3:n6. In future studies on wild eel, these measures can be used to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats of individual European eel.

Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

2012-03-01

127

Evaluation of the impact of dietary petroselinic acid on the growth performance, fatty acid composition, and efficacy of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis of farmed Nile tilapia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to investigate the potential role of dietary petroselinic acid (PSA) in enhancing the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content in fish tissues. Three isolipidic casein-based diets were formulated to comprise graded levels of PSA (0, 10, or 20% of total fatty acid) with the incremented inclusion of coriander seed oil. Fish growth and nutrient digestibility were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by dietary PSA level. In general, dietary PSA affected the fatty acid composition of tilapia tissues and whole-body, which reflected dietary fatty acid ratios. Dietary PSA significantly (P < 0.05) increased ?-oxidation, particularly on ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6). This study provided evidence that PSA, a pseudoproduct mimicking the structure of 18:3n-6, did reduce ?-6 desaturation on 18:2n-6 but, contrary to popular speculation, did not stimulate more ?-6 desaturase activity on 18:3n-3. The overall ?-6 desaturase enzyme activity may be suppressed at high dietary levels of PSA. Nevertheless, the n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA biosynthesis was not significantly inhibited by dietary PSA, indicating that the bioconversion efficiency is not modulated only by ?-6 desaturase. The deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in liver and fillet lipids was higher in fish fed PSA-supplemented diets. PMID:23718861

Teoh, Chaiw-Yee; Ng, Wing-Keong

2013-06-26

128

Role and significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in nutrition in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis  

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Full Text Available Introduction Hyperlipoproteinemia is a key factor in development of atherosclerosis, whereas regression of atherosclerosis mostly depends on decreasing the plasma level of total and LDL-cholesterol. Many studies have reported the hypocholesterolemic effect of linolenic acid. Types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA Linoleic and ?-linolenic acids are essential fatty acids. The main sources of linoleic acid are vegetable seeds and of ?-linolenic acid - green parts of plants. ?-linolenic acid is converted to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid is converted into arachidonic acid competing with eicosapentaenoic acid in the starting point for synthesis of eicosanoids, which are strong regulators of cell functions and as such, very important in physiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular system. Eicosanoids derived from eicosapentaenoic acid have different biological properties in regard to those derived from arachidonic acid, i.e. their global effects result in decreased vasoconstriction platelet aggregation and leukocyte toxicity. Role and significant of PUFA The n-6 to n-3 ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food is very important, and an optimal ratio 4 to 1 in diet is a major issue. Traditional western diets present absolute or relative deficiency of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a ratio 15-20 to 1. In our diet fish and fish oil are sources of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Refined and processed vegetable oils change the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids and obtained derivates have atherogenic properties.

Risti? Vanja I.

2003-01-01

129

Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids were 49.2 +/- 3.1, 44.9 +/- 1.8, and 37.7 +/- 1.7, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 3.3 +/- 0.7, 5.8 +/- 2.0, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Beef contained 2.1 +/- 0.8 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids, about half that found in veal (4.0 +/- 1.2 g/100 g fatty acids) and lamb (4.5 +/- 0.6 g/100 g fatty acids). Trans C-16:1 was 0.24 +/- 0.01, 0.14 +/- 0.02, and 0.79 +/- 0.02 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Only small variations in trans and other fatty acids could be demonstrated between cuts. The overlap between cis and trans C-18:1 by capillary GLC was verified by argentation-thin-layer chromatography followed by GLC, on three samples of veal and three samples of lamb. In veal 1.0 g, and in lamb 1.4 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids were hidden under the cis C-18:1 peak. The mean intake of trans fatty acids from ruminant meat is estimated at 0.2 g/d.

Leth, Torben

1998-01-01

130

Fatty acids composition of erythrocytes in arterial hypertension associated with dyslipidemia  

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Full Text Available Studied the fatty acid (FA composition of erythrocyte membranes in patients with arterial hypertension associated with dyslipidemia. The fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes was studied by gaz chromatography. In all hypertensive patients are disturbed lipid FA composition of erythrocytes: increase in saturated fatty acids (15:0, 16:0, monoenic fatty acids (18:1n9, 18:1n7, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA family n6 (20:4n6, decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids family n3:22:5n3, 22:6n3, the total value of n3 PUFA. Cells endogenous deficiency of n3 PUFA leads to the changes of the plasmatic membranes physicochemical properties, activation of eicosanoids synthesis with proinflammatory and vasoconstriction activity, the formation of the systemic inflammatory syndrome and conditions for the atherogenesis. Thus, structural and functional changes in erythrocyte membranes in hypertension developed as a part of the common systemic disorder of lipid metabolism.

Tatyana P. Novgorodtseva

2013-04-01

131

Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6). Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substra [...] te for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids) including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

P.C., Calder.

132

Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6). Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substra [...] te for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids) including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

P.C., Calder.

2003-04-01

133

Synthesis and utilization of fatty acids by wild-type and fatty acid auxotrophs of Caulobacter crescentus.  

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The fatty acid composition of the dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was found to consist primarily of 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids, both saturated and monounsaturated, in agreement with the findings of Chow and Schmidt (J. Gen. Microbiol. 83:359-373, 1974). In addition, two minor but as yet unidentified fatty acids were detected. Chromatographic mobilities suggested that these fatty acids may be a cyclopropane and a branched-chain fatty acid. In addition, we demonstrated that the fa...

Letts, V.; Shaw, P.; Shapiro, L.; Henry, S.

1982-01-01

134

Cell membrane fatty acid composition differs between normal and malignant cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-eight fatty acids (C8:0 to C24:l n-9) were measured by gas chromatography in four normal cell lines (C3H / 10T1 / 2, CCD-18Co, CCD-25SK and CCD-37Lu) and seven cancer cell lines (C-41, Caov-3, LS-180, PC-3, SK-MEL-28, SK-MES-1 and U-87 MG). Results show differences in the content and proportions of fatty acids when comparing cancer cell lines with their normal counterparts. Cancer cell lines showed lower C20: 4 n-6, C24:1 n-9, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) and ratios of C20:4 n-6 to C20:5 n-3 and C16:0 to C18:1 n-9 and stearic to oleic (SA/OA) than their normal counterparts. All cancer cell lines had SA/OA ratios lower than 7.0 while normal cell lines had ratios greater than 0.7 (p<0.05). In addition, the ratios of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) to PUFA'S and the concentration of C18:1 n-9, C18:2 n-6, C20:5 n-3 were higher in cancer cell lines as compared to normal cell lines. A positive correlation was detected between C16:0 and longer SFA'S (r = +0.511, p<0.05) in normal cell lines whereas a negative correlation (r=0.608, p<0.05) was obtained for malignant cell lines. Moreover, cancerous cell lines exhibited a particular desaturation defect and an abnormal incorporation of C18:2 n-6 and C20-4 n-6 fatty acids. PMID:15377057

Meng, Xialong; Riordan, Neil H; Riordan, Hugh D; Mikirova, Nina; Jackson, James; González, Michael J; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Mora, Edna; Trinidad Castillo, Waleska

2004-06-01

135

Variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions in Thai Perilla seeds grown at different locations  

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Full Text Available Perilla or Nga-Kee-Mon (Perilla frutescens seed has long been known as a rich source of ?-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3. It is widely cultivated throughout Thailand. However, there are no data on the variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions among crops from different regions. The aim of this study was to examine the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seed grown at different locations. Two different perilla seeds were harvested from Maehongsorn and Chiang Mai districts, and one commercial perilla was purchased from local market. Seeds were ground, lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v and its composition determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed with GLC using standard methods. Lipid content was between 34-36% (w/w. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in perilla seed (97% of total lipids, and a minor component was phytosterol (3% of total lipids. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates was approximately 1: 1: 8. Most predominant fatty acid was ?-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3 (55-60% of total fatty acid. Seeds from Maehongsorn district had the highest concentration of ?-linolenic acid, and commercial perilla had the lowest (P<0.05. Other two predominant fatty acids were linoleic acid (18:2, n-6 (18-22% of total fatty acid and oleic acid (18:1 (11-13% of total fatty acid. The results showed that the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seeds varied significantly among samples from different locations.

Maitree Suttajit

2006-03-01

136

Effects of dietary flaxseed oil supplementation on equine plasma fatty acid concentrations and whole blood platelet aggregation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An 18-week feeding trial was performed to investigate the effects of an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid-enriched ration on plasma fatty acid concentrations and platelet aggregation in healthy horses. Flaxseed oil served as the source of the n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Twelve horses were fed dietary maintenance requirements using a complete pelleted ration (80%) and timothy grass hay (20%) for a 2-week acclimation period before being randomly assigned either to a treatment (group 1) or control (group 2) group. Group 2 horses (n = 6) were fed the diet described in the acclimation period, whereas group I horses (n = 6) were fed a 10% flaxseed oil-enriched complete pellet (80%) and grass hay (20%). Biological samples and physical measurements were collected at one point during the acclimation period (week 0) and every 4 weeks thereafter (weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16). Body weight, CBC (including platelet count), plasma fibrinogen. electrolyte (Na, K, and Cl) concentrations, and biochemical profile enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and creatine kinase) did not change markedly with diet. Platelet aggregation was not altered by the supplementation of flaxseed oil in these healthy horses, although increases in plasma cis-polyunsaturated 18-carbon fatty acids C18:3; n-3 (ALA) and C18:2; n-6 (linoleic acid), biologically active C20:5; n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evident. There were no marked decreases in C20:4; n-6 (arachidonic acid [AA]) or increases in C22:6; n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]), signifying that flaxseed oil may have had a high percentage of omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids as well as n-3 fatty acids, and this relatively high n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio may have affected the biochemical effect of n-3 fatty acids. In healthy horses supplemented with flaxseed oil, platelet aggregation was not altered, which may have been due to the limited biologic effect in healthy subjects or the inability of flaxseed oil to induce the necessary biochemical effect of replacing n-6 fatty acids with n-3 types. PMID:12141309

Hansen, Rodney A; Savage, Catherine J; Reidlinger, Karen; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L; Ogilvie, Gregory K; Mitchell, Denise; Fettman, Martin J

2002-01-01

137

Modification of fatty acids composition in erythrocytes lipids in arterial hypertension associated with dyslipidemia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Modification of fatty acids (FA composition in erythrocytes lipids as an early indicator of the development of arterial hypertension (AH and lipid disorders. Methods We included 34 patients with arterial hypertension and 11 healthy individuals. Each patient was examined the lipid composition of serum. From erythrocytes by gas chromatography were identified fatty acids. The quantitative composition of the erythrocyte lipids FA in patients with AH presented with saturated and polyunsaturated monoenic acids with carbon chain lengths from C12 to C22. Results In all hypertensive patients is disturbed lipid FA composition of erythrocytes. The patients with a normal level of serum lipids revealed deficiency of polyunsaturated acids n6-linoleic (18:2 n6, arachidonic (20:4 n6, dokozatetraenic 14,4% (22:4 n6. The patients with dislipidemia installed more profound restructuring of the lipid matrix of the membrane of erythrocytes. A decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids family n3: dokozapentaenovoy (22:5 n3, docosahexaenoic PUFA (22:6 n3, the total value of n3 PUFA in 1,3 times was revealed. Conclusion Thus, modification of erythrocyte FA are fairly subtle indicator of pathology of lipid metabolism, which manifest themselves much earlier than changes in the lipoprotein of blood plasma.

Antonyuk Marina V

2011-01-01

138

Effect of intravenous omega-3 fatty acid infusion and hemodialysis on fatty acid composition of free fatty acids and phospholipids in patients with end-stage renal disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have been reported to have decreased levels of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ?-3 PUFAs administered intravenously during HD, as well as the effect of HD treatment, on the fatty acid composition of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), plasma phospholipids, and platelet phospholipids.

Madsen, Trine; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup

2011-01-01

139

Trans Fatty Acids: Their Chemical Structures, Formation and Dietary Intake  

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Full Text Available Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least a double bond in trans configuration or geometry.The double-bond angle of the trans fatty acids is smaller than the cis isomeric configuration and the acylchain is more linear, resulting in a more rigid molecule with different physical properties such as a highermelting point and greater thermodynamic stability. These appear in dairy fat because of ruminal activity, andin hydrogenated oils. Trans unsaturated fatty acids are solid fats produced artificially by heating liquidvegetable oils in the presence of metal catalysts and hydrogen. Trans fatty acids are found in numerousfoods. Margarines, shortenings and baked goods contain relatively high levels of trans fatty acids. Similar tosaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids also increase LDL cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol thereforeincreasing the risk of heart diseases. Therefore, the possible increase in risk for those diseases caused by ahigh trans fatty acid consumption should be carefully considered.

O. Daglioglu

2005-01-01

140

Features of fatty acid synthesis in higher plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the biosynthesis of fatty acid in the presence of 3H2O, 3H is incorporated into the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acid. The features in the fatty acid synthesis of higher plants were investigated by applying 3H2O method to the measurement of the ability of spinach leaves synthesizing fatty acid. Sucrose, acetate, pyruvate, PGA, PEP, OAA, citrate, etc. were employed as the substrates of fatty acid synthesis to trace the process of synthesis of each fatty acid. The demand of various cofactors related to the ability of spinach chloroplast fatty acid synthesizing was also examined. Light dependence of the fatty acid synthesis of chloroplast as well as the influences of N,N'-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide, carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy phenyl hydrazone and NH4Cl were discussed. The results were compared with the reports on the fatty acid synthesis of avocado pear, castor bean, etc. (Kobatake, H.)

 
 
 
 
141

Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.  

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Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

Geis, G.; Leying, H.; Suerbaum, S.; Opferkuch, W.

1990-01-01

142

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory

143

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

Gerward, Leif

2002-01-01

144

Fatty acid compositions of six wild edible mushroom species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

2013-01-01

145

Chain-modified radioiodinated fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several carbon chain manipulations have been studied in terms of their effects on myocardial activity levels and residence time. The manipulations examined included: chain length, chain branching, chain unsaturation, and carbon-iodine bond stabilization. It was found that chain length affects myocardial activity levels for both straight-chain alkyl acids and branched chain alkyl and aryl acids. Similar results have been reported for the straight-chain aryl acids. Generally, the longer chain lengths correlated with higher myocardial activity levels and longer residence times. This behavior is attributed to storage as triglycerides. Branched chain acids are designed to be anti-metabolites but only the aryl ?-methyl acids possessed the expected time course of constant or very slowly decreasing activity levels. The alkyl ?-methyl acids underwent rapid deiodination - a process apparently independent of ?-oxidation. Inhibition of ?-oxidation by incorporation of carbon-carbon double and triple bonds was studied. Deiodination of ?-iodo alkyl fatty acids prevented an assessment of suicide inhibition using an unsaturated alkynoic acid. Stabilization of the carbon-iodine bond by attachment of iodine to a vinylic or aryl carbon was studied. The low myocardial values and high blood values observed for an eleven carbon ?-iodo vinylic fatty acid were not encouraging but ?-iodo aryl fatty acids appear to avoid the problems of rapid deiodination. (Auth.)on. (Auth.)

146

Comparative fatty acid profiles of wild and farmed tropical freshwater fish rohu (Labeo rohita).  

Science.gov (United States)

The proximate composition of the whole body and the fatty acid composition of the liver, muscle, eye and brain of wild and cultured rohu (Labeo rohita) were analyzed. The cultured species was found to have significantly (P < 0.05) higher lipid contents than its wild counterpart. The saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acid contents were significantly higher in the cultured species, whereas the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels were higher in the wild species. Fatty acids C16:0 and C18:1 n-9 were the principal fatty acids of the SFAs and MUFAs, respectively, identified in the analyses. Docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were the predominant PUFAs in both groups, and all three were found to be present at significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels in the wild species. Erucic acid (C22:1 n-9), which was the predominant fatty acid (30.76%) in the feed, was detected only at low levels in muscle (0.30%), liver (1.04%) and eye (1.28%) of cultured fish tissue. PMID:19288256

Sharma, Prakash; Kumar, Vikas; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Ranjan, Jayant; Kithsiri, H M P; Venkateshwarlu, Gudipati

2010-09-01

147

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic... § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic...substance identified as a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

2010-07-01

148

The fatty acid composition of muscles and fat depots of ostriches as influenced by genotype  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Three genotypes of ostrich (South African Black, Zimbabwean Blue Necks and crosses between Zimbabwean Blue Neck males x South African Black females) were used to investigate the influence of genotype on the fatty acid composition of the musculus gastrocnemius and musculus iliofibularis, and abdomina [...] l and breast fat depots. Total saturated fatty acids in both the m. gastrocnemius and m. iliofibularis were higher in crosses (36.4% and 35.9%) than in South African Black ostriches (32.9% and 30.4%), whereas mono-unsaturated fatty acids were highest in South African Black ostriches. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids in the m. gastrocnemius were lowest in South African Black ostriches (26.5%) compared with the Zimbabwean Blue Necks (33.2%). Neither the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated (0.73 to 0.99) nor n-6 to n-3 (1.6 to 2.2) fatty acids were influenced by genotype, although the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in Zimbabwean Blue Necks was higher in the m. gastrocnemius (0.99) than in the m. iliofibularis (0.73). Differences in individual fatty acids were prominent in the breast fat, and total saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids differed between genotypes in both breast and abdominal fat. Only the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in the fat depots differed between South African Black (0.48) and Zimbabwean Blue Neck ostriches (0.42). The latter ratio was higher in the breast (0.50) than abdominal (0.42) fat in Zimbabwean Blue Necks. These results indicate that crossbreeding of different genotypes of ostriches reared under similar conditions does influence the overall fatty acid profiles of meat and fat.

L.C., Hoffman; M.M., Brand; S.W.P., Cloete; M., Muller.

149

Fatty Acid Composition of Flax Sprouts  

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Full Text Available The oil and fatty acid profile of flax (Linum usitatissimum sprouts and seed were compared to determine nutrition potential of sprouts. Equal quantities of seed from three flax cultivars (Rahab-94, Pembina and Linott were sprouted twice in three replications and were analysed for oil and fatty acid contents during summer 2011. Three flax cultivars were observed with high oil content on dry weight basis in sprouts (15.9% and seeds (33.99%. Significant variations (P0.05 variation among three cultivars was observed. The percentage of PUFAs in cultivars Pembina and Linott was 68.7 and in Rahab-94 was 67.7. The percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2 was significantly high in sprouts (19.51% compared to seed (17.7%. The percentage of linolenic acid (18:3 was high in seed (52.8% compared to sprouts (48.8%. The ratio of PUFA/SFA in sprouts was high in Pembina (6.97% and Linott (6.82% compared to Rahab-94 (6.38%. The fatty acid profile was similar in all the three cultivars with significant (P<0.0001 reduction (<1% in PUFA/SFA ratio of sprouts compared to seed (7.4%. Flax sprouts are equally potential to seed for viable natural resources of essential fatty acids (18:2 and 18:3.

Satya S. Narina

2013-03-01

150

[Use of free fatty acids in animal nutrition].  

Science.gov (United States)

The description of the processes of absorption of free fatty acids in monogastric animals and in ruminants is the first part of the review. The feeding problems of free fatty acids are discussed in the second part. In pig diets is a level up 6% free fatty acids in the dry matter of the ration not disadvantageous. In the feeding of ruminants additionally free fatty acids reduce the fermentation processes in the rumen. Only protected free fatty acids (Ca-fatty acids) are favourable in feeding systems for high yielding cows. PMID:7618997

Bergner, H; Sommer, A

1994-01-01

151

Fatty acid composition of forage herb species  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive value and FA concentrations. FA concentrations were generally lower in June after a heavy cut than in May and August.

Warner, D.; Jensen, SØren Krogh

2010-01-01

152

/ Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lacto [...] bacillus xylosus), camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii) y peces (Mugil cephalus), que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar. Abstract in english Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus), prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macr [...] obrachium rosenbergii) and finfish (Mugil cephalus), that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2): 577-587. Epub 2010 June 02.

Nabeel M, Alikunhi; Rajendran, Narayanasamy; Kathiresan, Kandasamy.

2010-06-01

153

Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus, camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii y peces (Mugil cephalus, que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar.Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus, prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii and finfish (Mugil cephalus, that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2: 577-587. Epub 2010 June 02.

Nabeel M Alikunhi

2010-06-01

154

Urinary excretion of arginine-vasopressin and prostaglandin E in essential fatty acid-deficient rats after oral supplementation with unsaturated fatty acid esters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Essential fatty-acid-deficient rats were supplemented with 300 mg/d of pure fatty acid esters: oleate (O), linoleate (L), arachidonate (A), and columbinate (C) for 10 d. The 24-h urine collections from each animal, collected 3 d before supplementations and again the last 3 d of the 10-d supplementation period, were analyzed for volume, and by radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and prostaglandin E (PGE). Linoleate and arachidonate supplements both decreased the initial high urinary AVP excretion, whereas it was further increased by the oleate supplement. There was no effect of columbinate supplementation on urinary AVP excretion. Urinary PGE excretion was increased ca. twofold by both linoleate and oleate supplements, increased ca. fivefold by arachidonate supplementation but was unaffected by columbinate supplementation. There was no effect of any of the supplemented fatty acids on urine output. Fatty acid analysis of total kidney lipids revealed a low percentage of 20:3(n-9) in the rats supplemented with (n-6) fatty acid. (L, A and C). The triene-tetraene ratio was 1.8 ± 0.6 (n = 6) in the kidneys of the oleate-supplemented rats. No relationship was found between urinary PGE excretion and the percentage of arachidonate or the ratio of 20:3 (n=9)/20:4(n-6) in total kidney lipids. It is suggested that increased urinary AVP excretion in EFA-deficient rats is mainly caused by a change in the renal excretatory mechanism of AVP rather than reflecting an increased plasma AVP concentration. Furthermore it is suggested that renal PGE synthesis in vivo is unaffected by high levels of 20:3(n-9) in kidney lipids.

Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

1986-01-01

155

Centesimal composition and fatty acids of meat from lambs fed diets containing soybean hulls  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and fatty acids in meat from animals fed diets containing levels of soybean hulls. The experiment was conducted at UESB in Itapetinga-BA, Brazil. Twenty-five confined Santa Inês rams were used. Treatments consisted of different l [...] evels of substitution of corn by soybean hulls (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) and elephant grass silage as forage. The design was completely randomized. Samples of concentrate and silage were collected to evaluate the fatty acid composition. The experimental period lasted 110 days. After this period, the animals were slaughtered and samples of the longissimus muscle were collected and vacuum-packed for further analysis. The levels of total lipid and protein showed quadratic effect with the increase of soybean hulls in the diet, as the moisture increased linearly with inclusion. There was no effect of treatments on the percentage of ash. The composition of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA/SFA and omega 6 (n-6) did not change, but increases in n-3 and reduction in the n-6:n-3 ratio were observed when the the amount of soybean hulls in the diet increased. The content of fatty acid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ranged from 3.0 to 4.0 g/kg at levels of substitution. The inclusion of soybean hulls in the diet increased CLA, the n-3 and decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio.

Lívia Santos, Costa; Robério Rodrigues, Silva; Fabiano Ferreira da, Silva; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Julliana Izabelle, Simionato; Jair de Araújo, Marques; Vinícius Lopes da, Silva; Cláudia Batista, Sampaio.

1720-17-01

156

Centesimal composition and fatty acids of meat from lambs fed diets containing soybean hulls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and fatty acids in meat from animals fed diets containing levels of soybean hulls. The experiment was conducted at UESB in Itapetinga-BA, Brazil. Twenty-five confined Santa Inês rams were used. Treatments consisted of different l [...] evels of substitution of corn by soybean hulls (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) and elephant grass silage as forage. The design was completely randomized. Samples of concentrate and silage were collected to evaluate the fatty acid composition. The experimental period lasted 110 days. After this period, the animals were slaughtered and samples of the longissimus muscle were collected and vacuum-packed for further analysis. The levels of total lipid and protein showed quadratic effect with the increase of soybean hulls in the diet, as the moisture increased linearly with inclusion. There was no effect of treatments on the percentage of ash. The composition of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA/SFA and omega 6 (n-6) did not change, but increases in n-3 and reduction in the n-6:n-3 ratio were observed when the the amount of soybean hulls in the diet increased. The content of fatty acid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ranged from 3.0 to 4.0 g/kg at levels of substitution. The inclusion of soybean hulls in the diet increased CLA, the n-3 and decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio.

Lívia Santos, Costa; Robério Rodrigues, Silva; Fabiano Ferreira da, Silva; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Julliana Izabelle, Simionato; Jair de Araújo, Marques; Vinícius Lopes da, Silva; Cláudia Batista, Sampaio.

157

A diet high in ?-linolenic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids attenuates hepatic steatosis and alters hepatic phospholipid fatty acid profile in diet-induced obese rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the efficacy of the plant-based n-3 fatty acid, ?-linolenic acid (ALA), a dietary precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for modulating hepatic steatosis. Rats were fed high fat (55% energy) diets containing high oleic canola oil, canola oil, a canola/flax oil blend (C/F, 3:1), safflower oil, soybean oil, or lard. After 12 weeks, C/F and weight-matched (WM) groups had 20% less liver lipid. Body mass, liver weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and molecular markers of fatty acid oxidation, synthesis, desaturation and elongation did not account for this effect. The C/F group had the highest total n-3 and EPA in hepatic phospholipids (PL), as well as one of the highest DHA and lowest arachidonic acid (n-6) concentrations. In conclusion, the C/F diet with the highest content of the plant-based n-3 ALA attenuated hepatic steatosis and altered the hepatic PL fatty acid profile. PMID:24140006

Hanke, Danielle; Zahradka, Peter; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Clark, Jaime L; Taylor, Carla G

2013-01-01

158

Plasma fatty acid lipidomics in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 series have been linked to brain physiology and cognitive decline, but little is known about the other components of the complex fatty acids category. Here, we compared 30 molecular species pertaining to saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fatty acids, measured in plasma by gas chromatography, in 14 patients with a diagnosis of amnestic single domain mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 30 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 30 healthy controls (HC). As no participants showed neuroimaging evidence of cerebrovascular disease, patients could be considered as purely neurodegenerative. We found differences in specific components of almost all fatty acid classes except n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids. Compared with HC, aMCI and AD patients had higher levels of arachidic (C20:0), erucic (C22:1, n-9), and vaccenic acid (C18:1, n-9) and lower levels of cerotic (C26:0) and linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6). In particular, level of linoleic acid decreased and level of mead acid increased progressively from HC to aMCI to AD patients, and they were also inversely correlated in AD and aMCI patients. In conclusion, we found a previously unrecognized linoleic acid deficiency in the early phase of neurodegeneration that was strongly supported by an increased, compensatory mead acid level. These findings suggest the importance of creating new dietary manipulation strategies to counteract disease progression. PMID:23635405

Iuliano, Luigi; Pacelli, Antonio; Ciacciarelli, Marco; Zerbinati, Chiara; Fagioli, Sabrina; Piras, Fabrizio; Orfei, Maria Donata; Bossù, Paola; Pazzelli, Floriana; Serviddio, Gaetano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

2013-01-01

159

Inverse association between 18-carbon trans fatty acids and intelligence quotients in smoking schizophrenia patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate polyunsaturated (PUFA) and trans isomeric fatty acid status in schizophrenia patients. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids (PL) and triacylglycerols (TG) was analyzed by gas chromatography in 29 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy controls. We found no difference in PL n-3 fatty acid status between the two groups, while the values of 22:5n-6 were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls. In TG, values of docosatrienoic acid (20:3n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in controls. We found no difference in the trans fatty acid status between patients and controls. In smoking schizophrenia patients significant negative correlations were detected between Wechsler adult full-scale intelligence quotients and values of total trans fatty acids in PL lipids, whereas no such correlation was seen either in non-smoking schizophrenia patients, or in healthy controls. While data obtained in the present study fail to furnish evidence for n-3 PUFA supplementation to the diet of patients with schizophrenia, they indicate that in smoking schizophrenia patients high dietary exposure to trans fatty acids is associated with lower intelligence quotients. PMID:24210662

Lohner, Szimonetta; Vágási, Judit; Marosvölgyi, Tamás; Tényi, Tamás; Decsi, Tamás

2014-01-30

160

Dietary linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid differentially affect renal oxylipins and phospholipid fatty acids in diet-induced obese rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of oxylipins derived from fatty acids may provide insight into the biological effects of dietary lipids beyond their effects on tissue fatty acid profiles. We have previously observed that diets with higher amounts of ?-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n3) are associated with reduced obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG). Therefore, to examine the renal oxylipin profile, the effects of dietary linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) and ALA on oxylipins and renal phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the relationship between oxylipins and ORG, diet-induced obese rats displaying ORG were fed 8 different diets for 8 wk as follows (oil/oil = combination of two oils) [shown as ALA/LA (in g) per 100 g oil]: canola/flax (20/18), canola (8/18), soy (9/53), high-oleic canola/canola (5/16), high-oleic canola (2/15), lard/soy (1/8), and safflower (0.2/73). Targeted lipidomic analysis by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry revealed that LA and ALA oxylipins comprised 60% of the total renal oxylipin profile examined. Of the >60 oxylipins screened, only those derived either directly or indirectly from ALA were associated with less glomerulomegaly, indicative of reduced ORG progression. Both the amount and ratio of dietary LA and ALA influenced renal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs); in contrast, only fatty acid amount altered oxylipins derived from these fatty acids, but there was no apparent competition by LA or ALA on their formation. Dietary LA incorporation into renal phospholipids was higher than for ALA, but ALA oxylipin:ALA ratios were higher than the analogous LA ratios for select lipoxygenase reactions. This indicates that the effect of dietary ALA on renal oxylipins exceeded what was reflected in renal PUFA composition. In conclusion, dietary LA and ALA have differential effects on renal oxylipins and PUFAs, and ALA-derived oxylipins are associated with renoprotection in this model of ORG. PMID:23902961

Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Love, Karin; Winter, Tanja; Gauthier, Joy; Taylor, Carla G; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Zahradka, Peter; Aukema, Harold M

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Study of fatty acid-bacteria interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

anges of double bonds, on methylation and demethylation processes. Using mass spectroscopy we searched for oxidized products that may play important role in this process. These studies are only part of our more widespreading investigations, dealing with the antimicrobial properties of fatty acids.

162

Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

TRI PRARTONO

2010-12-01

163

Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods The fatty acid (FA composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum and two from tropical seas (Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum natans was determined using GCMS. Four independent replicates were taken from each seaweed species. Results Omega-3 (n-3 and omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, were in the concentration range of 2-14 mg/g dry matter (DM, while total lipid content ranged from 7-45 mg/g DM. The n-9 FAs of the selected seaweeds accounted for 3%-56% of total FAs, n-6 FAs for 3%-32% and n-3 FAs for 8%-63%. Red and brown seaweeds contain arachidonic (C20:4, n-6 and/or eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA, C20:5, n-3, the latter being an important "fish" FA, as major PUFAs while in green seaweeds these values are low and mainly C16 FAs were found. A unique observation is the presence of another typical "fish" fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 at ? 1 mg/g DM in S. natans. The n-6: n-3 ratio is in the range of 0.05-2.75 and in most cases below 1.0. Environmental effects on lipid-bound FA composition in seaweed species are discussed. Conclusion Marine macroalgae form a good, durable and virtually inexhaustible source for polyunsaturated fatty acids with an (n-6 FA: (n-3 FA ratio of about 1.0. This ratio is recommended by the World Health Organization to be less than 10 in order to prevent inflammatory, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. Some marine macroalgal species, like P. palmata, contain high proportions of the "fish fatty acid" eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3, while in S. natans also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 was detected.

van Keulen Herman

2011-06-01

164

Conversion of ?-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of ?-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (?-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert ?-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time. PMID:23600588

Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

2014-04-01

165

Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil Fatty Acids  

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Full Text Available Epoxidation of palm kernel oil fatty acids using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out effectively using a homogeneous reaction. It was found that epoxidation reaction occurred optimally at a temperature of 40oC and reaction time of 120 minits. The oxirane conversion was the highest at 1.46mol and 0.85mol of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid respectively. It was found that a maximum of 99% relative conversion of ethylenic oxirane was obtained, similar to the conversion of iodine value. The formation of epoxide adduct of palm kernel oil fatty acids (FAPKO was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral analysis showed the disappearance of double bonds and replaced by epoxy group in the EFAPKO.

Michelle Ni Fong Fong

2013-02-01

166

Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

y acids than acetylCoA, it is unlikely that pyruvate decarboxylation to acetylCoA is due to mitochondria contaminating the chloroplast preparation. On the basis of measurements of 3H2O incorporation in the light and dark, the activity of fatty acid synthesis in spincah leaves appears to be shared by the activities in chloroplasts (87%) and other organelles (13%). (author)

167

Fatty acid profile of lamb semitendinous muscle and perirenal adipose tissue from two different genotypes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition of semitendinous muscle and perirenal adipose tissue of Sarda and crossbred Mouflon x Sarda lambs. Lambs were slaughtered at 40 clays of age. Fatty acid composition was similar for S x S and crossbred SxM lambs. n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was 2.30 in pure lambs and 2.90 in crossbred. In ST muscle of SxS lamb, index of atherogenicity was 0.95 and index of thrombogenicity was 1.01; in crossbred IA was 0.87 and IT was 1.01. Both gen...

Dettori, Maria Luisa; Carcangiu, Vincenzo; Cengarle, Lina; Tilloca, Gloria Rosaria; Manca, Rossana; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

2004-01-01

168

Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.  

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Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on...

Mu?tze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

2012-01-01

169

Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

O. O. Santos Junior

2012-01-01

170

A Review of the Metabolic Origins of Milk Fatty Acids  

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Full Text Available Milk fat and its fatty acid profile are important determinants of the technological, sensorial, and nutritional properties of milk and dairy products. The two major processes contributing to the presence of fatty acids in ruminant milk are the mammary lipogenesis and the lipid metabolism in the rumen. Among fatty acids, 4:0 to 12:0, almost all 14:0 and about a half of 16:0 in milk fat derive from de novo synthesis within the mammary gland. De novo synthesis utilizes as precursors acetate and butyrate produced through carbohydrates ruminal fermentation and involves acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase as key enzymes. The rest of 16:0 and all of the long-chain fatty acids derive from mammary uptake of circulating lipoproteins and nonesterified fatty acids that originate from digestive absorption of lipids and body fat mobilization. Further, long-chain fatty acids as well as medium-chain fatty acids entering the mammary gland can be desaturated via ?-9 desaturase, an enzyme that acts by adding a cis-9-double bond on the fatty acid chain. Moreover, ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids results in the formation of numerous fatty acids available for incorporation into milk fat. Ruminal biohydrogenation is performed by rumen microbial population as a means of protection against the toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Within the rumen microorganisms, bacteria are principally responsible for ruminal biohydrogenation when compared to protozoa and anaerobic fungi.

Roxana BANC

2013-08-01

171

21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be...

2010-04-01

172

21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573...Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity...contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to...

2010-04-01

173

Total lipid and fatty acid composition of eight strains of marine diatoms  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid composition and total lipid content of 8 strains of marine diatoms ( Nitzschia frustrula, Nitzschia closterium, Nitzschia incerta, Navicula pelliculosa, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Synedra fragilaroides) were examined. The microalgae were grown under defined conditions and harvested at the late exponential phase. The major fatty acids in most strains were 14?0 (1.0% 6.3%), 16?0 (13.5 26.4%), 16?1n-7 (21.1% 46.3%) and 20?5n-3 (6.5% 19.5%). The polyunsaturated fatty acids 16?2n-4, 16?3n-4, 16?4n-1 and 20?4n-6 also comprised a significant proportion of the total fatty acids in some strains. The characteristic fatty acid composition of diatoms is readily distinguishable from those of other microalgal groups. Significant concentration of the polyunsaturated fatty acid 20?5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) was present in each strain, with the highest proportion in B222 (19.5%).

Liang, Ying; Mai, Kang-Sen; Sun, Shi-Chun

2000-12-01

174

Fatty acids composition in South African freshwater fish as indicators of food quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Lipid classes and fatty acid composition of three commercially important freshwater fish species Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia), Clarias gariepinus (African catfish) and Cyprinus carpio (carp) obtained from an aquaculture, different river systems and fish markets from different provinc [...] es in South Africa were investigated. Fatty acids were extracted from the fish fillets through the Folch extraction method (using chloroform: methanol at the ratio of 2:1). Generally, tilapia fish species was found to be the richest in fatty acid composition. In all fish species analysed, palmitic acid (16:0) was found to be the most abundant fatty acid ranging from 18.24 to 21.84%. Appreciable quantities of essential polyunsaturated fatty acid such as docosahexaenoic (DHA) (22:6 n-3, 3.92 to 6.16%), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5 n-3, 1.91 to 2.92%) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6, 7.19 to 8.50%) were also found. Observations show that fish species obtained from Gauteng Province are richer in fatty acids compared to those in Limpopo Province. The study points out that all fish species investigated contain appreciable levels of Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and are therefore suitable for an unsaturated low-fat diet. This is important especially for poor communities who cannot afford to get a balanced diet, rich in some essential fatty acids.Therefore, it is important to determine the nutritional value of local fish, since it significantly contribute to a healthy diet in rural communities.

Erasmus, Chauke; Ewa, Cukrowska; Mary-Jane, Thaela-Chimuka; Luke, Chimuka; Hermogene, Nsengimana; Hlanganani, Tutu.

175

Postprandial decrease in plasma unesterified fatty acids during n-3 fatty acid feeding is not caused by accumulation of fatty acids in adipose tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary supplementation of very long-chain n-3 fatty acids to rats reduces postprandial plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, unesterified fatty acids and glycerol after long-term feeding by unknown mechanisms [Rustan et al., J. Lipid Res. 34 (1993) 1299-1309]. In the present study we examine the role of adipose tissues in metabolism of fatty acids. Postprandial plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, unesterified fatty acids and glycerol were reduced by 75%, 50% and 30%, respectively, during 49 days of feeding high-fat diets containing n-3 fatty acids (6.5% n-3 fatty acid concentrate, 13% lard) as compared to lard (19.5% lard). These differences were observed already after two days of feeding. Plasma concentration of unesterified very long-chain n-3 fatty acids increased to 50 microM in n-3 fatty acid-supplemented rats, whereas these fatty acids were undetectable in lard-fed animals. The n-3 fatty acid-enriched diet limited cell volumes of perirenal and epididymal adipocytes by 40% and 30%, respectively, after 49 days, as compared to lard feeding. This reduction in cell volume was not due to reduced synthesis of glycerolipids in epididymal adipocytes. Acute incubation of perirenal and epididymal adipocytes with oleic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid, caused similar increase in synthesis of triacylglycerol. Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids decreased basal and total lipolysis (isoprenalin-stimulated) in perirenal adipocytes. Basal lipolysis in epididymal adipocytes was reduced by n-3 fatty acids only after 49 days. n-3 fatty acids increased total lipolysis in mesenteric and subcutaneous fat cells compared to adipocytes derived from lard-fed animals, whereas basal lipolysis was unchanged. These results suggest that the reduced postprandial plasma concentration of unesterified fatty acids after n-3 fatty acid-supplementation is not caused by accumulation of fatty acids in adipose tissue. The reduced trophic growth of adipocytes might be due to decreased supply of unesterified fatty acids for triacylglycerol storage. (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. PMID:9487146

Rustan, A C; Hustvedt, B E; Drevon, C A

1998-02-23

176

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures. No significant interactions with the dietary macronutrient composition were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokineswere not associated with absolute PUFA intake, but the macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) was associated with the n-3/n-6 ratio. CONCLUSION: In humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs, in particular ALA, is beneficially associated with body fatness. The favourable association is, however, not reflected in systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nor is it influenced by macronutrients in the diet.

Heitmann, Berit L; Kyvik, Kirsten O

2013-01-01

177

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women  

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Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

Karla A. Bascuñán

2014-11-01

178

Fatty acid profile of hind leg muscle in female and male nutria (Myocastor coypus Mol.), fed green forage diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study describes the profile of fatty acids in hind leg muscle of 18 female and 12 male nutria reared on an extensive system farm in eastern Poland with a diet based on fresh forage. When compared to results from nutrias from an intensive production system from the literature, the forage-fed animals had lower proportions of saturated fatty acids, and higher proportions of n3-fatty acids in their muscle tissue; in particular, n6:n3-fatty acid ratios were lower (2.6-3.0) in forage-fed animals compared to intensively reared animals (16.8-28.9). These findings underline that using forage-based diets is feasible in nutrias, and an economic way to improve the fatty acid composition of their meat. PMID:20416834

G?ogowski, Robert; Czauderna, Marian; Rozbicka, Agnieszka; Krajewska, Katarzyna A; Clauss, Marcus

2010-07-01

179

Fatty acid composition of Mediterranean buffalo milk fat  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the variation in fatty acid composition of milk fat from four buffalo (Bubalus bubalis herds under different feeding management and ration composition. Changes in milk fatty acid composition were monitored on a weekly basis. Saturated fatty acids (65.5% predominated in buffalo milk fat; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 27.0% and 4.5%, respectively. Of saturated fatty acids, the content of palmitic acid was the highest (30.6% followed by stearic acid (12.0% and myristic acid (10.7%. Of the unsaturated fatty acids the content of oleic acid was the highest (26.6%. The average content of conjugated linoleic acid (0.76±0.33 was higher than the maximal values generally reported for dairy cow.

V. Proto

2010-04-01

180

Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fatty acids and total fat in adults and/or the total population using the best available national food consumption data set. Results: A wide variation was observed in the intake of total fat and (clusters) of fatty acids in absolute amounts. The variation in proportion of energy derived from total fat and from clusters of fatty acids was less. Only in Finland, Italy, Norway and Portugal total fat did provide on average less than 35% of energy intake. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) provided on average between 10% and 19% of total energy intake, with the lowest contribution in most Mediterranean countries. TFA intake ranged from 0.5% (Greece, Italy) to 2.1% (Iceland) of energy intake among men and from 0.8% (Greece) to 1.9% among women (Iceland) (1.2-6.7 g/d and 1.7-4.1 g/d, respectively). The TFA intake was lowest in Mediterranean countries (0.5-0.8 en%) but was also below 1% of energy in Finland and Germany. Moderate intakes were seen in Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway and UK and highest intake in Iceland. Trans isomers of C-18:1 were the most TFA in the diet. Monounsaturated fatty acids contributed 9-12% of mean daily energy intake (except for Greece, nearly 18%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids 3-7%. Conclusion: The current intake of TFA in most Western European countries does not appear to be a reason for major concern. In several countries a considerable proportion of energy was derived from SFA. It would therefore be prudent to reduce intake of all cholesterol-raising fatty acids, TFA included. Sponsorship: Commission of the European Communities (AIR 2421); National Funds; European Industries supported the chemical analyses.

Leth, Torben

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Dietary inclusion of tea catechins changes fatty acid composition of muscle in goats.  

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This study was conducted to examine dietary tea catechins (TC) supplementation on the fatty acid composition of muscle and ruminal bacteria in goats fed a maize stover-based diet. Forty goats, 8 months old (16.2 ± 1.2 kg), were randomly divided into four equal groups (10 animals in each group) and assigned to four experiment diets with TC supplementation at four levels (0, 2,000, 3,000 and 4,000 mg TC/kg feed, namely TC0, TC2000, TC3000 and TC4000, respectively). After a 60-day feeding period, all the goats were slaughtered and sampled. The results showed that dietary TC inclusion increased the average daily gain (ADG), protein content in the semimembranosus muscle and dry matter in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LD). Dietary TC supplementation increased the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acid, the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was higher in TC3000 and TC4000 than in TC0 and TC2000 for LD. The current results implied that dietary inclusion of a suitable TC dose could improve the growth performance and increase the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids in muscle, and the biohydrogenation of ruminal microorganisms might change the profiles of fatty acids in the muscle of growing goats. PMID:20938752

Tan, C Y; Zhong, R Z; Tan, Z L; Han, X F; Tang, S X; Xiao, W J; Sun, Z H; Wang, M

2011-03-01

182

Effects of Planktonic Food Organisms on Fatty Acid Composition of Penaeus monodon Fabricius Larvae  

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Full Text Available Penaeus monodon larvae at the first mysis stage were reared to the first post larval stage (PL-1 in 1-L lmhoff cones on three different diets: rotifers enriched with Pavlova lutheri (Rp, rotifers enriched with a commercial micro-encapsulated diet (Re, and a mixture of P. lutheri and Artemia salina nauplii (PA. The 14 essential fatty acids in the larvae that received the three different diets were measured and compared. Profiles of the fatty acids in the larvae and diets were also described. Fatty acid composition of the larvae resembled that of the diets. The total fatty acid per dry weight of larvae was higher in larvae fed PA than that of larvae fed Rp or Re (p<0.01. The highest levels of the four major essential fatty acids – 18:2(n-6, 18:3(n-3, 20:5(n-3, and 22:6(n-3 – were found in the larvae that received Re, PA, and Rp respectively. There was no significant difference in survival rates (86.7 - 92.5% of the larvae receiving different diets (p>0.05. The fatty acid composition of the larvae fed a mixture of Pavlova and Artemia resembled that found in Artemia but not in Pavlova.

Piyapong CHOTIPUNTU

2004-01-01

183

Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid amide (erucamide) using fatty acid and urea.  

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Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were established. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60 degrees C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %. PMID:17898456

Awasthi, Neeraj Praphulla; Singh, R P

2007-01-01

184

Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly ?-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

Martemucci Giovanni

2012-09-01

185

Omega-3 Fatty Acid biochemistry: perspectives from human nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility that western diets poor in omega-3 and rich in omega-6 fatty acids contribute to the increasing burden of chronic diseases including neurological problems is becoming recognized. Modern, westernized diets provide 80 to 90% of polyunsaturated fatty acids as omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) and are depleted in omega-3 fatty acids, giving a distorted balance of LA to ?-linoleic acid, and to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). LA intakes exceed ?-6 desaturase needs for maximal activity. LA accumulates in blood and tissue lipids with increasing intake, and this exacerbates competition between LA and limited omega-3 fatty acids for metabolism and acylation into tissue lipids. Increasing EPA and DHA intake decreases tissue omega-6 fatty acids while also providing EPA and DHA. However, strategies for EPA and DHA supplementation do not address potential underlying problems of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid imbalance in the food supply. PMID:25373090

Innis, Sheila M

2014-11-01

186

Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of wild and farmed tilapias in Thailand: effect of aquaculture practices and implications for human nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The total lipid content and fatty acid composition of the muscle tissue of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and of hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) from different culture systems and from the natural and artificial environment of Thailand were compared. Wild fish and fish reared under the most extensive conditions had a more favorable fatty acid profile for human consumption as they contained higher proportions of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, higher n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios, and lower proportions of 18:2n-6. The muscle tissue of intensively cultured fish was characterized by increased fat deposition that was mainly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and 18:2n-6. It is undesirable for the consumer to reduce 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in farmed tilapia and replace them with elevated 18:2n-6. It is recommended that the amount of 18:2n-6 in the feed of the intensively reared tilapia should be reduced by substituting vegetable oils rich in 18:2n-6 with oils rich in 18:1n-9 and/or 18:3n-3. PMID:16756360

Karapanagiotidis, Ioannis T; Bell, Michael V; Little, David C; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne; Rakshit, Sudip K

2006-06-14

187

Inhibition of MEK/ERK1/2 Signaling Affects the Fatty Acid Composition of HepG2 Human Hepatic Cell Line  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, also known as the MEK/ERK1/2 kinase cascade, has recently been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty liver disease. However, its functional effect on cellular fatty acid composition is unknown. Herein, we examined the effect of a pharmacological inhibitor of MEK, the upstream kinase activator of ERK1/2, on fatty acid composition of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Methods: HepG2 cells cultured in RPMI-1640 were exposed to the commonly used ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor PD98059 and were investigated with respect to fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: Exposure of cells to the ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor induced an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids and the fatty acid desaturation index and a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Specifically, we showed a significant increase of oleic acid (18:1n?9; +29%, P=0.003 and arachidonic acid (20:4n?6/linoleic acid (18:2n?6 ratio (3.5-fold; P<0.001 in HepG2 cells. Conclusion: Cellular fatty acid composition of HepG2 cells appeared to be differentially regulated by ERK1/2 pathway, thus suggesting related metabolic pathways as potential mediators of the effects of ERK1/2 signaling on hepatic fatty acid composition.

Bahman Yousefi

2012-06-01

188

Fat Depots, Free Fatty Acids, and Dyslipidemia  

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Full Text Available Body fat deposition and excess free fatty acid (FFA metabolism contribute to dyslipidemia and the adverse health consequences of obesity. Individuals with upper body obesity have impaired functioning of adipocytes, the primary fatty acid storage site. Excess visceral fat is strongly associated with impaired suppression of FFA release in response to insulin, as well as with hypertriglyceridemia and low concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol. High FFA concentrations can induce insulin resistance in muscle and liver. Furthermore, failure of hyperinsulinemia to normally suppress FFA is associated with impaired carbohydrate oxidation and muscle glucose storage, reduced hepatic insulin clearance and elevated triglycerides. Understanding the impact of body fat distribution on FFA metabolism and dyslipidemia is critical for determining the link between overweight and obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. In the current review, we will explore the relationship between adipose tissue, body fat depots, and FFA metabolism.

Jon O. Ebbert

2013-02-01

189

Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd3+ glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations

190

Synthesis and structural analysis of 13C-fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 13C-labelled fatty acids octanoic-1-13C acid and palmitic-1-13C acid were synthetically prepared from Ba 13CO3. The yield of the former was more than 90% and that of the latter was above 85%. MS, IR, 1H-NMR and 13NMR were performed to analyze the structures of the two 13C-fatty acids, compared with their unlabelled fatty acids

191

Effect of dietary replacement of sunflower oil with perilla oil on the absolute fatty acid composition in Nile tilapia (GIFT).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the effect of the dietary replacement of sunflower oil with perilla oil in Nile tilapia (GIFT strain) at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days. There was an increase in total omega 3 fatty acids (n-3) in muscle tissue (from 63.6 to 181.5 mg g(-1)) and a decrease in total concentration of omega 6 fatty acids (n-6) ranging between 255.6 and 196.1 mgg(-1). Amongst the n-3 fatty acids, the concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (20:6n-3) increased by 9.4 and 1.9 times, respectively, after 30 days for the perilla oil-enriched diet. The n-6/n-3, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA), and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (PUFA/MUFA) ratios tended to stabilize after 20 days under the perilla oil-enriched diet. Incorporation of perilla oil as a lipid source in the diet of tilapia for 20 or 30 days resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid composition of the fish muscle tissue, contributing to increase its nutritional value. PMID:24262550

Carbonera, Fabiana; Bonafe, Elton Guntendorfer; Martin, Clayton Antunes; Montanher, Paula Fernandes; Ribeiro, Ricardo Pereira; Figueiredo, Luana Caroline; Almeida, Vitor Cinque; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio

2014-04-01

192

Effect of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) oil administered by gavage on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stress of mouse liver  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of daily intragastric administration of bullfrog oil (oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic acid-rich oil), corresponding to 0.4% of body weight for four weeks, on fatty acid composition and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and catalase activ [...] ity) in mouse liver. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), biomarkers of tissue injury, were determined in liver homogenates and serum. The proportions of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids, from 37 to 60%) in the total fatty acid content were increased in the liver of the bullfrog oil-treated group (P

L.P., Silva; C.K., Miyasaka; E.F., Martins; J.R.S.A., Leite; Z.G.M., Lacava; R., Curi; R.B., Azevedo.

1491-14-01

193

Effect of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) oil administered by gavage on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stress of mouse liver  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of daily intragastric administration of bullfrog oil (oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic acid-rich oil), corresponding to 0.4% of body weight for four weeks, on fatty acid composition and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and catalase activ [...] ity) in mouse liver. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), biomarkers of tissue injury, were determined in liver homogenates and serum. The proportions of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids, from 37 to 60%) in the total fatty acid content were increased in the liver of the bullfrog oil-treated group (P

L.P., Silva; C.K., Miyasaka; E.F., Martins; J.R.S.A., Leite; Z.G.M., Lacava; R., Curi; R.B., Azevedo.

194

Unsaturated fatty acids, desaturases, and human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in a diet is important since they are associated with major diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) requires the expression of dietary fat-associated genes, such as SCD, FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3, which encode a variety of desaturases, to catalyze the addition of a double bond in a fatty acid chain. Recent studies using new molecular techniques and genomics, as well as clinical trials have shown that these genes and UFA are closely related to physiological conditions and chronic diseases; it was found that the existence of alternative transcripts of the desaturase genes and desaturase isoforms might affect human health and lipid metabolism in different ways. In this review, we provide an overview of UFA and desaturases associated with human health and nutrition. Moreover, recent findings of UFA, desaturases, and their associated genes in human systems are discussed. Consequently, this review may help elucidate the complicated physiology of UFA in human health and diseases. PMID:24460221

Lee, Hyungjae; Park, Woo Jung

2014-02-01

195

21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section...172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely...

2010-04-01

196

Temperature Affects Fatty Acids In Methylococcus Capsulatus  

Science.gov (United States)

According to report, temperature of growth of thermotolerant, methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) affects both proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and cis/trans ratio of these acids in cell membrane. Because suboptimum growth temperature is potential stress factor, it may be possible to use such cis/trans ratios as indices of stresses upon methane-oxidizing microbial communities. Research in microbiology of methanotrophs increasing because of possible commercial exploitation of these organisms as biocatalysts or as sources of useful polymers; knowledge of effect of temperature on ability of methanotrophs to utilize methane useful in optimization of conditions of growth.

Jahnke, Linda L.

1993-01-01

197

Separation of cis-fatty acids from saturated and trans-fatty acids by nanoporous polydicyclopentadiene membranes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the separation of mixtures of fatty acid salts using a new organic solvent nanofiltration membrane based on polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD). Mixtures of free fatty acids could not be separated by the membranes because they permeated at similar rates. When triisobutylamine was added to the fatty acids, the cis-fatty acid salts (oleic, petroselinic, vaccenic, linoleic, and linolenic acid) had slower permeation though the membranes than saturated (stearic acid) and trans-fatty acid (elaidic acid) salts. The reason for the difference in permeation was due to the formation of stable salt pairs between the amine and fatty acids that increased their cross-sectional areas. The fatty acid salts derived from saturated and trans-fatty acids were smaller than the critical area cutoff for the PDCPD membranes, so they readily permeated. In contrast, the fatty acid salts derived from the cis-fatty acids had critical areas larger than critical area cutoff of the PDPCD membranes and had slowed permeation. The partitioning coefficients of fatty acids and fatty acid salts were investigated to demonstrate that they were not responsible for the difference in permeation. The use of pressure was investigated to greatly accelerate the permeation through the membranes. For a solvent mixture of 35/65 (v/v) toluene/hexanes, the permeation of solvent was approximately 39 L m(-2) h(-1). This value is similar to values reported for permeation through membranes used in industry. The separation of a mixture of fatty acids based on the composition of soybean oil was investigated using pressure. The saturated fatty acid salts were almost completely removed from the cis-fatty acid salts when iBu(3)N was used as the amine to form the salt pairs. The separation of the cis-fatty acids found in soybean oil was investigated with Pr(3)N as the amine. The oleic acid salt (oleic acid has one cis double bond) preferentially permeated the membrane while the linoleic (two cis double bonds) and linolenic (three cis double bonds) salts were partly retained. The separation of fatty acids using membranes may have real applications in industry to purify fatty acids on a large scale. PMID:23281782

Gupta, Abhinaba; Bowden, Ned B

2013-02-01

198

Fatty Acid Synthesis by Indonesian Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis  

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Full Text Available Since the primary storage nutrients in diatoms consist of lipid, they are potential for the industrial fatty acid production. High value fatty acids include arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This study aimed to analyze fatty acid synthesis by Chaetoceros gracilis diatom during growth. There was a large increase in lipid yield from 4pg cell-1 mass of lipid per cell at the exponential phase to 283pg cell-1 at stationary phase. The lipid concentrations also increased significantly from the stationary phase to the death phase, but not significantly from the end exponential phase to the stationary phase. The relative percentage of saturated fatty acid (SAFA of the total fatty acid was higher than that of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at all of growth phase. The highest PUFA was found at stationary phase at the same time when SAFA was being the lowest. The majority of SAFA was palmitic acid (24.03-40.35%. MUFA contained significant proportion of oleic acid (19.6-20.9%. Oleic acid, linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid were found at every stage growth. These fatty acids are considered as precursor for production of long chain PUFA-Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA/22:6?3 through series of desaturation and elongation step with all of desaturase enzyme (?8-D, ?9-D, ?12-D, ?15-D, ?17-D, ?6-D, ?5-D, and ?4-D and elongase enzyme (E.

ALBERTA RIKA PRATIWI

2009-12-01

199

Nitro-fatty acids: novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Nitro-fatty acids are formed and detected in human plasma, cell membranes, and tissue, modulating metabolic as well as inflammatory signaling pathways. Here we discuss the mechanisms of nitro-fatty acid formation as well as their key chemical and biochemical properties. The electrophilic properties [...] of nitro-fatty acids to activate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways are discussed in detail. A critical issue is the influence of nitroarachidonic acid on prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases, redirecting arachidonic acid metabolism and signaling. We also analyze in vivo data supporting nitro-fatty acids as promising pharmacological tools to prevent inflammatory diseases.

H., Rubbo.

2013-09-06

200

Dietary fatty acid modulation of mucosally-induced tolerogenic immune responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunological unresponsiveness or hyporesponsiveness (tolerance) can be induced by feeding protein antigens to naive animals. Using a classical oral ovalbumin gut-induced tolerance protocol in BALB/c mice we investigated the effects of dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on high-and low-dose oral tolerance (and in non-tolerised animals, i.e. effects of antigen challenge alone) in relation to lymphoproliferative, cytokine and antibody responses. Fish oil rich in long-chain n-3 fatty acids decreased both T-helper (Th) 1- and Th2-like responses. In contrast, borage (Borago officinalis) oil rich in n-6 PUFA, of which gamma-linolenic acid is rapidly metabolised to longer-chain n-6 PUFA, increased Thl-like responses and decreased Th2-like responses, and possibly enhanced suppressor cell or Th3-like activity. These findings are in general agreement with other studies on the effects of long chain n-3 PUFA on immune system functions, and characterise important differences between long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFA, defining more precisely and broadly the immunological regulatory mechanisms involved. They are also discussed in relation to autoimmune disease. PMID:12069397

Harbige, L S; Fisher, B A

2001-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Isoproterenol stimulates 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and fatty acid oxidation in neonatal hearts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isoproterenol increases phosphorylation of LKB, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), enzymes involved in regulating fatty acid oxidation. However, inotropic stimulation selectively increases glucose oxidation in adult hearts. In the neonatal heart, fatty acid oxidation becomes a major energy source, while glucose oxidation remains low. This study tested the hypothesis that increased energy demand imposed by isoproterenol originates from fatty acid oxidation, secondary to increased LKB, AMPK, and ACC phosphorylation. Isolated working hearts from 7-day-old rabbits were perfused with Krebs solution (0.4 mM palmitate, 11 mM glucose, 0.5 mM lactate, and 100 mU/l insulin) with or without isoproterenol (300 nM). Isoproterenol increased myocardial O(2) consumption (in J·g dry wt(-1)·min(-1); 11.0 ± 1.4, n = 8 vs. 7.5 ± 0.8, n = 6, P LKB (in arbitrary density units; 0.87 ± 0.09, n = 6 vs. 0.59 ± 0.08, n = 6, P < 0.05), AMPK (0.82 ± 0.08, n = 6 vs. 0.51 ± 0.06, n = 6, P < 0.05), and ACC-? (1.47 ± 0.14, n = 6 vs. 0.97 ± 0.07, n = 6, P < 0.05), with a concomitant decrease in malonyl-CoA levels (in nmol/g dry wt; 0.9 ± 0.9, n = 8 vs. 7.5 ± 1.3, n = 8, P < 0.05) and increase in palmitate oxidation (in nmol·g dry wt(-1)·min(-1); 272 ± 45, n = 8 vs. 114 ± 9, n = 6, P < 0.05). Glucose and lactate oxidation were increased (in nmol·g dry wt(-1)·min(-1); 253 ± 75, n = 8 vs. 63 ± 15, n = 9, P < 0.05 and 246 ± 43, n = 8 vs. 82 ± 11, n = 6, P < 0.05, respectively), independent of alterations in pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphorylation, but occurred secondary to a decrease in acetyl-CoA content and acetyl-CoA-to-free CoA ratio. As acetyl-CoA levels decrease in response to isoproterenol, despite an acceleration of the rates of palmitate and carbohydrate oxidation, these data suggest net rates of acetyl-CoA utilization exceed the net rates of acetyl-CoA generation. PMID:20656883

Jaswal, Jagdip S; Lund, Chad R; Keung, Wendy; Beker, Donna L; Rebeyka, Ivan M; Lopaschuk, Gary D

2010-10-01

202

21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862...its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with § 172.862 may be used...

2010-04-01

203

21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b) They are used as emulsifiers, plasticizers, or...

2010-04-01

204

Fatty acid composition of individual polar lipid classes from marine macrophytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Major glycolipids [monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG)) and phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG)] as well as betaine lipid 1,2-diacylglycero-O-4'-(N,N,N-tri-methyl)-homoserine (DGTS) were isolated from Anfeltia tobuchiensis (Rhodophyta), Laminaria japonica, Sargassum pallidum (Phaeophyta), Ulva fenestrata (Chlorophyta) and Zostera marina (Embriophyta), harvested in the Sea of Japan. GC analysis of their fatty acid (FA) composition revealed that the n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) shared the most part of the sum of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs in PC and PE compared with glycolipids and PG. In algae, it was related to the prevalence of 20:4n-6 over 20:5n-3 in non-photosynthetic lipids. Percentage of n-6 PUFAs as well as the sum of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs decreased in the following sequence: PC-->PE-->PG. The saturation increased in the lines of MGDG-->DGDG-->SQDG and PC-->PE-->PG. PG was close to SQDG by the level of saturation. Distribution of C(18) and C(20) PUFAs in polar lipids depended on taxonomic position of macrophytes. Balance between C(18) and C(20) PUFAs was preferably shifted to the side of C(20) PUFAs in PC and PE that was observed in contrast to glycolipids and PG from L. japonica containing both series of FAs. The set of major FAs of polar lipid classes can essentially differ from each other and from total lipids of macrophytes. For example, MGDG was found to accumulate characteristic fatty acids 16:4n-3, 16:3n-3, 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3, 20:3n-6 in U. fenestrata, Z. marina, L. japonica and S. pallidum, respectively. PMID:15016568

Sanina, Nina M; Goncharova, Svetlana N; Kostetsky, Eduard Y

2004-03-01

205

ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MIANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MILK  

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Full Text Available In this work was analysedquality of raw cow’s milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of the favourable effect on cholesterol, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat was 36.76 % of which 32.77 % were monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 4.0 %. A high proportion of milk fat formed monounsaturated oleic acid 30.92 %. The proportion of linoleic acid in milk fat was 3.48 % and 0.31 % linoleic acid.

Juraj ?ubo?

2013-02-01

206

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases  

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The article presents some general facts about omega-3 fatty acids and their role in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the human body. Their beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been known for decades. Since then, several epidemiological and interventional trials showed the value of omega-3 acids in the treatment of certain diseases. Most of them revealed the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids on he...

Vesa, S?tefan C.; Sorin Cri?an; Magdalena Teodorescu

2008-01-01

207

TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS  

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Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

K. Leshukov

2012-03-01

208

Fatty acid composition of lamb meat from the autochthonous Jezersko-Sol?ava breed reared in different production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty two autochthonous Jezersko-Sol?ava lambs were used to investigate the effect of production (pasture vs. stable) and weaning system (suckling vs. weaned) on fatty acid composition of Longissimus dorsi intramuscular fat in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Pasture lambs had lower intramuscular fat concentration (Pnutritive point of view, due to their low n-6/n-3 ratio. PMID:24769147

Cividini, Angela; Levart, Alenka; Žgur, Silvester; Kompan, Drago

2014-08-01

209

Eccentric contractions affect muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated if prior eccentric contractions, and thus mechanical strain and muscle damage, exert an effect on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats, and whether a possible effect could be attenuated by dietary supplements. Twenty-three rats were randomised to three groups who received chow with added fish oil (n = 8), vitamin C (n = 8) or no supplement (n = 7). After 3 weeks of feeding, calf muscles on one side were stimulated electrically during anaesthesia causing eccentric contractions. Two days later the white gastrocnemius, a part of the stimulated calf muscle, was excised from both legs. In the muscles stimulated to contract eccentrically, compared to the control muscles, the proportion of arachidonic acid, C20:4,n-6 (17.7 +/- 0.6; 16.4 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) and docosapentanoeic acid, C22:5,n-3 (2.9 +/- 0.1 and 2.7 +/- 0.1% of total fatty acids, respectively) was uniformly higher across groups (P <0.02) with no differences between diet groups.The proportion of long chain polyunsaturates was also significantly higher in the eccentrically contracted (39.9 +/- 0.6% of total fatty acids) compared to the control leg (38.2 +/- 0.6% of total fatty acids; P <0.01). In contrast no differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols stored within the muscle. Thus one severe bout of eccentric contractions modulates the fatty acid composition of the muscle membrane phospholipids when compared to a control leg, and supplemental intake of fish oil or vitamin C did not attenuate this effect.

Helge, JØrn Wulff; Therkildsen, K J

2001-01-01

210

Fatty acid variability in three medicinal herbs of Panax species  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid profiling has been widely used in the bacteria species identification, we hypothesized that fatty acid characteristics might discriminate the Panax herbs according to species. To test the hypothesis, fatty acids of Panax species, including Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius, were characterized and compared using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Results The content of investigated 11 fatty acids, including myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, heptadecanoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid, obviously varied among three species, suggesting each species has its own fatty acid pattern. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis according to the absolute and relative contents of fatty acids, showed that 30 tested samples could be clearly differentiated according to the species. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that GC-MS-based fatty acid profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis provides reliable platform to classify these three Panax species, which is helpful for ensuring their safety and efficacy.

Zhang Xiao-Jing

2013-01-01

211

Fatty acid composition of cream fermented by probiotic bacteria  

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Full Text Available The production of fatty acids in cream containing one of the three probiotic microorganisms (Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was evaluated at 4±1 °C for up to 15 days. Gas chromatographic analysis of the fatty acid content showed that during storage the amount of linoleic and ?-linolenic acids increased in the probiotic cream fermented with B. lactis compared to the control cream. Probiotic bacteria were all associated with increases in medium chain and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in fermented cream. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids were found in cream fermented with L. acidophilus, while the highest amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in cream fermented with B. lactis. The results of this study demonstrate that probiotic bacteria could improve the fatty acid profile of fermented creams and provide high value-added dairy products.

Lutfiye Yilmaz-Ersan

2013-08-01

212

Radiolytic products of irradiated authentic fatty acids and triacylglycerides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiolytic products of authentic fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and triacylglycerides (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) were determined. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from the saturated fatty acids were higher than the unsaturated fatty acids. Authentic fatty acids were mainly decomposed in the ?-carbon position and Cn-1 hydrocarbons occurred in higher than Cn-2 hydrocarbons. Concentrations of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from the saturated fatty acids were lower than the unsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from tripalmitin and tristearin were not a significant change compared with triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin. For all triacylglycerides except triolein, Cn-1 hydrocarbons were higher than Cn-2 hydrocarbons. Radioproduction rates of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from tripalmitin and tristearin were higher than triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin

213

Opposite Regulation of CD36 Ubiquitination by Fatty Acids and Insulin: EFFECTS ON FATTY ACID UPTAKE*  

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FAT/CD36 is a membrane scavenger receptor that facilitates long chain fatty acid uptake by muscle. Acute increases in membrane CD36 and fatty acid uptake have been reported in response to insulin and contraction. In this study we have explored protein ubiquitination as one potential mechanism for the regulation of CD36 level. CD36 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) or HEK 293 cells was found to be polyubiquitinated via a process involving both lysines 48 and 63 of ubiquitin. Using CHO c...

Smith, Jill; Su, Xiong; El-maghrabi, Raafat; Stahl, Philip D.; Abumrad, Nada A.

2008-01-01

214

Fatty Acid Profiles of Western Canadian Bison (Bison bison Meat  

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Full Text Available Western Canadian bison meat is renowned for its natural healthfulness; however, studies on the dietary effects on the fatty acid (FA profile are limited. Herein, we evaluated the FA profiles of retail bison (longissimus dorsi representing grain-fed (Grain, grass-fed (Grass and grass-fed plus oat and pea screening supplement from early (Early-con or late (Late-con season harvested finishing regimes. Bison meat contained less than 30 mg fat/g meat, and was lowest for Early-con bison. Proportions of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA were greatest in Early-con and lowest for Late-con bison. Early-con bison had the greatest proportion of omega-6 (n-6 FA and Late-con bison the lowest, yet as mg/g meat, total n-6 content did not differ. In contrast, Grass and Early-con bison had greater proportions of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3 and total omega-3 (n-3 FA. The n-3 content for Grain, Grass, Early-con and Late-con bison were 38, 90, 69 and 69 mg/100 g meat, respectively. The 3:1 n-6/n-3 ratios of Grass, Early-con and Late-con bison were superior to the 7:1 ratio of Grain bison. Proportions of potentially beneficial biohydrogenation intermediates (BI, including t11-18:1 and c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid, were greater for Early-con and Late-con bison. Proportions of cis-monounsaturated FA were similar for both Grain and Grass bison; however, Late-con was greater than Early-con bison. Cumulatively, Grass, Early-con and Late-con bison were more desirable compared to Grain on account of greater proportions of n-3 FA and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio. Furthermore, seasonal supplementation enhanced the BI proportions with potential beneficial bioactivity in Early-con and Late-con bison.

Tyler D. Turner

2014-07-01

215

Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and ?-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat  

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Full Text Available Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA and ?-linolenic acid (LNA for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05 the ?-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in ?-linolenic acid (p < 0.05 decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05 upregulation of PPAR? and PPAR? gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene in the ST muscle for the high ?-linolenic acid group compared with the low ?-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of ?-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPAR? and PPAR?, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

Mahdi Ebrahimi

2014-09-01

216

Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption. PMID:19648503

Coates, W; Ayerza, R

2009-11-01

217

Incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine or vegetable origin into rat enterocyte phospholipids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We examined time related effects of an intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the fatty acid profiles of rat enterocyte phospholipids. Three diets containing 20 wt% fat with similar levels of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6), approximately 11 wt% of the fatty acids, were prepared. The diets were: Palm oil diet (PD), 0.6 wt% n-3 PUFA; fish oil diet (FD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C20-C22); and linseed oil diet (LD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C18:3n-3). Forty weanling male Wistar rats were fed PD for 34 days and then divided into three groups. Two groups of sixteen rats each were then fed FD or LD, respectively, and eight rats remained on PD as a control group. At 6, 12, 18, 24, 72, 144, and 288 hours following the change of diets rats were killed, the enterocytes were isolated and the fatty acid profiles of the intestinal phospholipids were examined. During the first 12 hours following the change from PD to FD, the content of n-3 PUFA in the intestinal phospholipids increased from less than 1 mol% to approximately 20 mol%,whereas the contents of n-6 PUFA and of monoenes were reduced from 40 mol% to 28 mol% and from 19 mol% to 12 mol%, respectively. The fatty acid profiles were then largely constant during the remaining experimental period. In the LD group, the n-3 PUFA contents rose from less than 1 mol% to 10 mol% during the first 144 hours, and the content of n-6 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acids were reduced from 40 mol% to 36 mol% and from 19 mol% to 14 mol%, respectively. Desaturation and elongation products of C18:3n-3, such as C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3, were observed following intake of LD. All three groups contained approximately 40 mol% of saturated fatty acids in the intestinal phospholipids. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Inc.

HØy, Carl-Erik

1997-01-01

218

Cholesterol changes the fatty acid composition of rat enterocytes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of free cholesterol on the fatty acid composition and growth of rat fetal enterocytes was investigated in the absence and presence of 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum. Cholesterol caused a significant reduction of cell number after 6 and 12 h in culture. The fatty acid composition of enterocyte [...] s cultured in the presence of serum was also changed by the presence of 20 µM cholesterol. The fatty acid profile was determined by HPLC using fluorescence detection (325 nm excitation and 395 nm emission). Cholesterol (20 µM) increased the proportion (given in percentage of the total fatty acids) of the following fatty acids in cultured cells: lauric (by 42%), oleic (by 34%), linoleic (by 44%) and gamma-linolenic (by 20%) acids and reduced the proportion of palmitic (by 12%), stearic (by 20%), arachidonic (by 21%) and docosahexaenoic (by 44%) acids. In addition to modifying the content of individual fatty acids, cholesterol increased the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio from 0.48 to 0.67 and the unsaturation index from 67.12 to 75.30. This is the first evidence that cholesterol modifies fatty acid composition possibly via de novo fatty acid synthesis and desaturation.

J., Gazzola; E.F., Martins; C.K., Miyasaka; A.C., Palanch; M.G., Vecchia; R., Curi.

219

Potential Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae  

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Full Text Available Currently, public awareness of healthcare importance increase. Polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential nutrition for us, such arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The need of Polyunsaturated fatty acid generally derived from fish oil, but fish oil has a high risk chemical contamination. Microalgae are single cell microorganism, one of Phaeodactylum tricornutum which have relatively high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (29,8%. Biotechnology market of Polyunsaturated fatty acid is very promising for both foods and feeds, because the availability of abundant raw materials and suitable to develop in the tropics. This literature review discusses about the content of Polyunsaturated fatty acid in microalgae, omega-3, omega-6, Polyunsaturated fatty acid production processes, and applications in public health

Hady Hadiyanto

2011-07-01

220

The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. Methods GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA), DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA) were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day) starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (74–77% linoleic acid). Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 8–12 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) and retinoid × receptor-? (RXR-?) were determined in a set of 18 animals per group. Results DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA) concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-? or RXR-? expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression. PMID:19014610

Nasrollahzadeh, Javad; Siassi, Fereydoun; Doosti, Mahmood; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Shokri, Fazel; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Mohammadi-Asl, Javad; Abdi, Khosro; Nikmanesh, Arash; Karimian, Seyed Morteza

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Feedlot lamb meat fatty acids profile characterization employing gas chromatography  

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Full Text Available Fat is an important constituent in diet, not only as an energy source, but for its essential fatty acids associated to fats in foods, considering that some polyunsaturated fatty acids like linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic cannot be synthesized by superior animals like humans. Scientific evidence show that the fatty acids ingest can affect the thrombotic tendency, cardiac rhythm, endothelial function systematic inflammation, insulin sensibility and oxidative stress. Samples from 21 ovine crossbreds from Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper and Katahadin (40 kg average weight feed with corn based balanced diets were taken from loin area 18 h after refrigeration. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results in this work showed that the healthy fatty acids levels are higher as compared to saturated fatty acids levels, indicating that this meat can influence consumer’s buying choice decision regarded to their health.

M.I. Cruz-Gonzalez

2014-06-01

222

Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool

223

Fatty acid ethanolamides modulate CD36-mRNA through dietary fatty acid manipulation in Syrian Golden hamsters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids convert to fatty acid ethanolamides which associate with lipid signalling, fat oxidation, and energy balance; however, the extent to which dietary fatty acids manipulation can impact such control processes through fatty acid ethanolamides-related mechanisms remains understudied. The objective was to examine the impact of diets containing 6% corn oil, high oleic canola oil, docosahexaenoic acid + high oleic canola oil, and fish oil on plasma and organ levels of fatty acid ethanolamides, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? regulatory targets, and lipid metabolism in Syrian Golden hamsters. After 29 days, in plasma, animals that were fed fish oil showed greater (p palmitoylethanolamide levels compared with other groups, while animals fed canola oil showed higher (p palmitoylethanolamid, which were accompanied by changes in gene expression, lipogenesis, and energy expenditure, suggesting mechanisms through which dietary fatty acids influence disease risk. PMID:23855275

Lin, Lin; Rideout, Todd; Yurkova, Natalia; Yang, Haifeng; Eck, Peter; Jones, Peter J H

2013-08-01

224

Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking.  

Science.gov (United States)

We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-¹³C]palmitate (0400-0900 h) and [U-¹³C]oleate (0800-1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass?¹·min?¹) clamp (0800-1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-¹³C]palmitate incorporation into imTG-palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine were similar to those we reported in overnight postabsorptive adults (saline control); the intramyocellular palmitoylcarnitine enrichment was not different from and correlated with imTG-palmitate enrichment for both the morning (r = 0.38, P = 0.02) and afternoon (r = 0.44, P = 0.006) biopsy samples. Plasma FFA concentrations, flux, and the incorporation of plasma oleate into imTG-oleate during hyperinsulinemia were ~1/10th of that observed in the previous saline control studies (P sex differences in intramyocellular palmitate trafficking may occur under hyperinsulinemic conditions. We conclude that plasma FFA trafficking into imTG during hyperinsulinemia is markedly suppressed, and these newly incorporated FFA fatty acids do not readily enter the LCAC preoxidative pools. Hyperinsulinemia does not seem to inhibit the entry of fatty acids from imTG pools that were labeled under fasting conditions, possibly reflecting the presence of two distinct imTG pools that are differentially regulated by insulin. PMID:23820622

Kanaley, Jill A; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

2013-08-15

225

[Control of adipogenesis by fatty acids].  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is one of the major Public Health problems. Obese individuals are more susceptible to develop cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The obesity results from the increase in size and number of the adipocytes. The balance between adipogenesis and adiposity determines the degree of obesity. Mature adipocytes secrete adipokines, such as TNFalpha, IL-6, leptine and adiponectin, and lipokine, the palmitoleic acid omega-7. The production of adipokines is increased in obesity, contributing to the onset of peripheral insulin resistance. The knowledge about the molecular events that regulate the differentiation of pre-adipocytes and mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes (adipogenesis) is important for the comprehension of the genesis of obesity. Activation of transcription factor PPARgamma plays an essential role in the adipogenesis. Certain fatty acids are PPARgamma ligands and can control adipogenesis. Moreover, some fatty acids act as signaling molecules regulating their differentiation into adipocytes or death. Accordingly, the lipid composition of the diet and PPARgamma agonists can regulate the balance between adipogenesis and death of adipocytes and, therefore, the obesity. PMID:19768249

Queiroz, Jean César Farias de; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel Cardoso; Curi, Rui; Lima, Fabio Bessa

2009-07-01

226

Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this res...

TRI PRARTONO; MUJIZAT KAWAROE; DAHLIA WULAN SARI; DINA AUGUSTINE

2010-01-01

227

Fractionation of Trans from Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Fatty Acids  

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A multi-stage, low temperature solvent fractional crystallization process was developed in this work for the removal of trans fatty acids (TFA) and saturated fatty acids in free fatty acids (FFAs) obtained from hydrolysis of partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO). The effects of host solvents, concentration of FAs, crystallization temperature and time on separation of TFA and SFA were studied. Among all the three solvents examined namely acetone, hexane and ethanol, acetone proved...

Xuebing Xu; Ram Chandra Reddy Jala; Zheng Guo

2012-01-01

228

Fatty acid synthesis: a potential selective target for antineoplastic therapy.  

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OA-519 is a prognostic molecule found in tumor cells from breast cancer patients with markedly worsened prognosis. We purified OA-519 from human breast carcinoma cells, obtained its peptide sequence, and unambiguously identified it as fatty acid synthase through sequence homology and enzymology. Tumor fatty acid synthase is an approximately 270-kDa polypeptide which specifically abolished immunostaining of human breast cancers by anti-OA-519 antibodies. Tumor fatty acid synthase oxidized NADP...

Kuhajda, F. P.; Jenner, K.; Wood, F. D.; Hennigar, R. A.; Jacobs, L. B.; Dick, J. D.; Pasternack, G. R.

1994-01-01

229

Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of fatty acids against phytopathogenic fungi. Two pot experiments were conducted by mixing palmitic and oleic acids in the soil in which poor plant growth was observed. In addition, the antifungal activities of nine fatty acids (butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid) against four phytopathogenic fungi: Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, were assessed by measuring mycelial growth and spore germination via Petri dish assay. The results of the pot experiments showed that the mixture of palmitic and oleic acids enhanced the growth of the seedlings of continuous-tomato and continuous-cucumber. Except for oleic acid, in the Petri dish assay, the fatty acids tested were observed to inhibit the mycelial growth of one or more tested fungi. In addition to the suppression of mycelial growth, butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, and palmitic acid showed an inhibitory effect against spore germination and the extent of inhibition varied with both the type of fatty acids, and the fungi. In particular, capric acid displayed strong inhibitory effect against C. lagenarium on the mycelial growth and spore germination. The saturated fatty acids, i.e. palmitic acids, showed stronger antifungal activity than the unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. oleic acid. It suggests that fatty acids might be applicable to exploring for alternative approaches to integrated control of phytopathogens. PMID:18443921

Liu, Siyun; Ruan, Weibin; Li, Jing; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jingan; Gao, Yubao; Wang, Jingguo

2008-08-01

230

Fatty acid composition of lymphocyte membrane phospholipids in children with acute leukemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) of separated mononuclear blood cells (MNC) from patients with leukemia was established by high-resolution gas chromatography. Abnormal fatty acid concentrations are detected in the MNC membrane phospholipids in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) without a deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFA). Significantly reduced relative levels of linoleic acid (4.35 vs. 7.82%; P<0.001) are found in the MNC-PL in patients with ALL as compared to a healthy control group. Moreover, the Delta6-desaturated fatty acids are increased: gamma-linoleic acid (3.56 vs. 0.17%; P<0.001), arachidonic acid (21.82 vs. 16.27%; P<0.05), docosatetraenoic acid (3.52 vs. 1.56%; P<0.001), docosapentaenoic acid (0.34 vs. 0.04%; P<0.001), octadecatetraenoic acid (0.53 vs. 0.23%; P<0.05), eicosatetraenoic acid (1.83 vs. 0.08%; P<0.001) and docosahexaenoic acid (2.77 vs. 1.54%; P<0.001). A increased Delta(6)-desaturase activity is postulated as the cause for the increased level of desaturate products or the increased Delta6-activity index (Ratio of gamma-linoleic acid+dihomogamma-linolenic acid to linoleic acid) (1.21 vs. 0.27; P<0.001). The Delta6-enzyme activities measured using linoleic acid and alpha-linoleic acid as substrate underscore these findings (Delta6(n-6); 2.49 vs. 0.65 and Delta6(n-3); 2.75 vs. 1.12 nmol x h(-1)/10(8) MNC). In contrast, patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) do not show any significant differences in the lymphocyte membrane PLFA and no Delta6-desaturase abnormalities. PMID:11597788

Agatha, G; Häfer, R; Zintl, F

2001-11-28

231

21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with § 172.862. (b) The food additive is used or intended for use as a binder,...

2010-04-01

232

21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862...Polyglycerol esters of a mixture of stearic, oleic, and coconut fatty acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in...

2010-04-01

233

Fatty acid profiles, antioxidant status, and growth of preterm infants fed diets without or with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. A randomized clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) are considered conditionally essential nutrients for the infant born prematurely, and attempts are being made to match fatty acid profiles of formula and breast fed infants. In this double-blind, randomized study we investigated the effects of a formula enriched with both n-6 and n-3 LCP on plasma fatty acid profiles, antioxidant status and growth of premature infants. 29 infants received either a formula devoid of LCP or a LCP supplemented formula (0.5 g/100 g fat linoleic acid metabolites, 0.8 g/100 g fat alpha-linolenic acid metabolites). 17 breast fed infants served as a control group. At study entry as well as two and four weeks later, plasma and urine samples were collected, growth data obtained and food tolerance was documented. At the end of the four week study period, plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels of supplemented infants were significantly higher than those of unsupplemented infants and similar to those of infants fed human milk. Plasma n-6 LCP concentrations including arachidonic acid (AA) were similar between groups. The plasma alpha-tocopherol levels of breast fed and supplemented infants were similar and tended to be lower than in infants fed the formula devoid of LCP. Urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) excretion of formula fed infants was significantly higher compared to infants fed human milk, but did not differ between the two formula groups. Parameters of growth and milk tolerance did not differ between groups. Our results demonstrate that plasma LCP levels similar to those of breast fed infants can be achieved with the LCP supplemented formula used in this trial, without evidence of adverse effects of the LCP enrichment. PMID:14569405

Koletzko, Berthold; Sauerwald, Ulrike; Keicher, Ursula; Saule, Helmut; Wawatschek, Susanne; Böhles, Hansjosef; Bervoets, Karin; Fleith, Mathilde; Crozier-Willi, Gayle

2003-10-01

234

Fatty Acid Composition of Adipose Tissues in Obese Mice and SD Rats Fed with Isaria sinclairii Powder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isaria sinclairii (Cicada Dongchunghacho) was studied as a potential crude natural food in powdered form. The role of tissue fatty acids in relation to the anti-obesity effects of I. sinclairii (IS) was examined by feeding the powder to SD rats ad libitum at 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% (calculated about 8 g/kg) of the feed for a period of 3 months and 6 months. The fatty acid composition profile as indicated GC-MS, showed significantly slight dose-dependent increases in the levels of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly, arachidonic acid (C20: 4n6) , oleic acid, linoleic acid, eicosadienoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20: 5) concentration in the the ad libitum IS-fed groups compared to the control group in SD abdominal fat over 6 month period. Over viewing of the SD and Ob mice treated Isaria sinclairii powder; there were increases in the single (mono) unsaturated fatty acids ratio but decreases in polyunsaturated fatty acid. In IS-fed groups in proportion to the treatment period, this Dongchunghacho also induced an increase in the level of same result of unsaturated fatty acid in C57BL/6 obese (ob/ob) mice over a 6-month period treatment compared to those given 10% dry mulberry leaf powder (ML) or silkworm powder mixed with the standard diet. PMID:24278523

Ahn, Mi Young; Seo, Yun Jung; Ji, Sang Deok; Han, Jea Woong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Yun, Eun Young

2010-09-01

235

Nutritional and hormonal regulation of fatty acid synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fasting causes a decrease in the rate of synthesis of fatty acid synthase, the central enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, while refeeding carbohydrate increases synthesis. Insulin also increases the synthesis of fatty acid synthase, while glucagon causes a decline. The mechanism was shown to be transcriptional activation-mediated through a 2.1-kb stretch of the 5'-flanking sequence of the fatty acid synthase gene promoter that contains an insulin response element. These effects were confirmed by in vivo experiments with transgenic mice. PMID:8710241

Wolf, G

1996-04-01

236

The Two Carboxylases of Corynebacterium glutamicum Essential for Fatty Acid and Mycolic Acid Synthesis? †  

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The suborder Corynebacterianeae comprises bacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium glutamicum, and these bacteria contain in addition to the linear fatty acids, unique ?-branched ?-hydroxy fatty acids, called mycolic acids. Whereas acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase activity is required to provide malonyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis, a new type of carboxylase is apparently additionally present in these bacteria. It activates the ?-carbon of a linear fatty acid by carb...

2007-01-01

237

Cholesterol and triglyceride reduction in rats fed Matthiola incana seed oil rich in (n-3) fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds of Matthiola incana contain oil rich (55-65%) in (n-3) linolenic acid. Selected lines were developed and evaluated for their agronomic and chemical parameters. Extracted oil was fed for 6 weeks to rats, which were compared with rats fed a diet containing coconut oil or sunflower oil. Cholesterol levels were significantly lowest in rats fed diets rich in M. incana oil (27% reduction), and triglycerides were significantly lower in rats receiving either M. incana or sunflower oil (36% reduction). The contents of arachidonic acid and other (n-6) fatty acids were significantly the lowest in the liver and plasma of rats that had received M. incana oil. The levels of (n-3) fatty acids were significantly greater in both the liver and plasma of rats fed M. incana oil. The ratio of (n-3)/(n-6) long-chain fatty acids in the plasma was 7 times higher in rats fed with M. incana oil than in those fed with sunflower oil and 6 times higher than in those fed coconut oil. The results demonstrate for the first time a beneficial effect of dietary M. incana oil in reducing cholesterol levels and increasing (n-3) fatty acid levels in the plasma. This new, terrestrial plant source of (n-3) fatty acids could replace marine oils and thereby contribute beneficially to the human diet. PMID:10563945

Yaniv, Z; Schafferman, D; Shamir, I; Madar, Z

1999-02-01

238

Acylation of cellular proteins with endogenously synthesized fatty acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of cellular proteins contain covalently bound fatty acids. Previous studies have identified myristic acid and palmitic acid covalently linked to protein, the former usually attached to proteins by an amide linkage and the latter by ester or thio ester linkages. While in a few instances specific proteins have been isolated from cells and their fatty acid composition has been determined, the most frequent approach to the identification of protein-linked fatty acids is to biosynthetically label proteins with fatty acids added to intact cells. This procedure introduces possible bias in that only a selected fraction of proteins may be labeled, and it is not known whether the radioactive fatty acid linked to the protein is identical with that which is attached to the protein when the fatty acid is derived from endogenous sources. We have examined the distribution of protein-bound fatty acid following labeling with (/sup 3/H)acetate, a general precursor of all fatty acids, using BC/sup 3/H1 cells (a mouse muscle cell line) and A431 cells (a human epidermoid carcinoma). Myristate, palmitate, and stearate account for essentially all of the fatty acids linked to protein following labeling with (/sup 3/H)acetate, but at least 30% of the protein-bound palmitate in these cells was present in amide linkage. In BC3H1 cells, exogenous palmitate becomes covalently bound to protein such that less than 10% of the fatty acid is present in amide linkage. These data are compatible with multiple protein acylating activities specific for acceptor protein fatty acid chain length and linkage.

Towler, D.; Glaser, L.

1986-02-25

239

Acylation of cellular proteins with endogenously synthesized fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of cellular proteins contain covalently bound fatty acids. Previous studies have identified myristic acid and palmitic acid covalently linked to protein, the former usually attached to proteins by an amide linkage and the latter by ester or thio ester linkages. While in a few instances specific proteins have been isolated from cells and their fatty acid composition has been determined, the most frequent approach to the identification of protein-linked fatty acids is to biosynthetically label proteins with fatty acids added to intact cells. This procedure introduces possible bias in that only a selected fraction of proteins may be labeled, and it is not known whether the radioactive fatty acid linked to the protein is identical with that which is attached to the protein when the fatty acid is derived from endogenous sources. We have examined the distribution of protein-bound fatty acid following labeling with [3H]acetate, a general precursor of all fatty acids, using BC3H1 cells (a mouse muscle cell line) and A431 cells (a human epidermoid carcinoma). Myristate, palmitate, and stearate account for essentially all of the fatty acids linked to protein following labeling with [3H]acetate, but at least 30% of the protein-bound palmitate in these cells was present in amide linkage. In BC3H1 cells, exogenous palmitate becomes covalently bound to protein such that less than 10% of the fatty acid is present in amide linkage. These data are compatible with multiple protein acylating activities specific for acceptor protein fatty acid chain length and linkage

240

Elongation of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids by human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human skin fibroblasts readily incorporate exogenous arachidonate (20:4(n-6)) and eicosapentaenoate (20:5(n-3)) into cellular phospholipids and triacylglycerol. The extent of incorporation of 1.25 ?M [14C]20:4(n-6) and [14C]20:5(n-3) from culture medium with delipidized serum protein is similar, 20% in 1 hr increasing to 60-70% within 8 hr. Elongation of incorporated [14C]20:5(n-3) to [14C]22:5(n-3) is extensive, 40% by 8 hr and 85% by 48 hr. Elongation of [14C]20:4(n-6) to [14C]22:4(n-6) is 1$C]20:5(n-3) and plateaus at ?20% of incorporated 14C-fatty acid. Although incorporated, exogenous 22:4(n-6) is not an effective inhibitor of the elongation of [14C]arachidonate; however, exogenous 20:5(n-3) is inhibitory, with an ID50 of 5 ?M. With exogenous concentrations of [14C]arachidonate from 0.4 - 10 ?M, the percentage incorporated in 24 hr remains relatively constant. By contrast, the extent of elongation of incorporated [14C]arachidonate increases from 12% at 0.4 ?M to 43% at 10 ?M. Under these conditions, elongation of incorporated [14C]20:5(n-3) is ?75%. Thus, in these cells, selectivity of the elongation system results in differential metabolism of 20-carbon n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. Furthermore, arachidonate appears to act as a positive modulator of its own elongation

 
 
 
 
241

Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS, have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

Gao Qianqian

2012-03-01

242

Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures, a suitable system for polyunsaturated fatty acid studies and production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic and health promoting role of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs from fish, i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 are well known. These same benefits may however be shared by some of their precursors, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3. In order to obtain alternative sources for the large-scale production of PUFAs, new searches are being conducted focusing on higher plants oils which can contain these n-3 and n-6 C18 precursors, i.e. SDA and GLA (18:3n-6, ?-linolenic acid. Results The establishment of the novel Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures represents a powerful tool in order to research the accumulation and metabolism of fatty acids (FAs in a plant particularly rich in GLA and SDA. Furthermore, this study constitutes the first example of a Boraginaceae species hairy root induction and establishment for FA studies and production. The dominant PUFAs, 18:2n-6 (LA, linoleic acid and 18:3n-6 (GLA, accounted for about 50% of total FAs obtained, while the n-3 PUFAs, 18:3n-3 (ALA, ?-linolenic acid and 18:4n-3 (SDA, represented approximately 5% of the total. Production of FAs did not parallel hairy root growth, and the optimal productivity was always associated with the highest biomass density during the culture period. Assuming a compromise between FA production and hairy root biomass, it was determined that sampling times 4 and 5 gave the most useful FA yields. Total lipid amounts were in general comparable between the different hairy root lines (29.75 and 60.95 mg/g DW, with the major lipid classes being triacylglycerols. The FAs were chiefly stored in the hairy roots with very minute amounts being released into the liquid nutrient medium. Conclusions The novel results presented here show the utility and high potential of E. acanthocarpum hairy roots. They are capable of biosynthesizing and accumulating a large range of polyunsaturated FAs, including the target GLA and SDA fatty acids in appreciable quantities.

Ravelo Ángel G

2011-04-01

243

Fatty acid and stable carbon isotope characterization of Camelina sativa oil: implications for authentication.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of authenticity characterization is an increasing and pressing requirement for all foods. Vegetable oil is one of the most studied foods because of its nutritional and medicinal properties in a correct diet. In this study, a total of 53 Camelina sativa samples, from all known growing areas, were chemically and isotopically characterized. The fatty acid content of camelina oil was determined by gas chromatography (GC), and the ratios of stable carbon isotopes ((13)C/(12)C) of individual fatty acids and seed/bulk oil were determined by gas chromatography-combustion-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) and elemental analysis-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). A total of 17 different fatty acids were detected by GC, with omega3 R-linolenic acid (C(18:3n3)) being the most abundant (29.7-40.0 wt %). Oleic acid (C(18:1n9)), linoleic acid (C(18:2n6)) and eicosenoic acid (C(20:1n9)) all belong to the second group of major fatty acids. The stable carbon isotopic values (delta(13)C) fell into a range typical for C(3) plants. The use of delta(13)C(18:2n6) vs delta(13)C(18:3n3) correlation could show cases where impurity or adulteration is suspected, whereas principal component analysis clearly separates oil samples from different continents. Preliminary results on the camelina oil authentication procedure provide a basis for the investigation of geographical origin and the further distinction between camelina and camelina refined or other, less expensive oils. PMID:19123821

Hrastar, Robert; Petrisic, Marinka G; Ogrinc, Nives; Kosir, Iztok Joze

2009-01-28

244

Liquid biofuel production from volatile fatty acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of renewable fuels and chemicals reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and limits the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere only if a sustainable feedstock and an energy efficient process are used. The thesis assesses the possibility to use municipal and industrial waste as biomass feedstock to have little of no competition with food production, and to save greenhouse gasses emissions. Waste is a complex substrate with a diverse composition and high water content. It can be homogenized without losing its initial energy value by anaerobic conversion to volatile fatty acids (VFA). Using VFA gives the opportunity to process cheap and abundantly present biomass residues to a fuel and chemical instead of sugar containing crops or vegetable oil. This thesis describes the feasibility to convert VFA to compounds with a higher energy content using mixed culture fermentations by eliminating of oxygen and/or increasing the carbon and hydrogen content. At high hydrogen pressure, protons and electrons release via the reduction of organic products such as VFA becomes thermodynamically more attractive. Three VFA reduction reactions were studied: hydrogenation to an alcohol with (1) hydrogen and (2) an electrode as electron donor, and (3) by chain elongation with hydrogen and ethanol. Based on concentration, production rate and efficiency, elongation of acetate with hydrogen and/or ethanol was the best technique to convert VFA into a fuel. In a CSTR (Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor), 10.5 g L{sup -1} caproic acid and 0.48 g L{sup -1} caprylic acid were produced with ethanol and/or hydrogen at a specific MCFA (medium-chain fatty acids) production activity of 2.9 g caproate and 0.09 g caprylate per gram VSS d{sup -1} (volatile suspended solids). The products were selectively removed by calcium precipitation and solvent extraction with ethyl hexanoate and petroleum ether. Microbial characterization revealed that the microbial populations were stable and dominated by relatives of Clostridium kluyveri. VFA could also be reduced to alcohols. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids were biohydrogenated with hydrogen and acetic acid also with an electrode. Observed alcohol concentrations were 0.62 g L{sup -1} ethanol, 0.49 g L{sup -1} propanol and 0.27 g L{sup -1} n-butanol. Methanogenesis was successfully inhibited after thermal pre-treatment incubated at pH 6, while acetate reduction was enhanced. In the second study, ethanol (0.084 g L{sup -1}) was produced at the cathodic compartment of a bioelectrochemical system, in which the electron transport was mediated by methyl viologen. The ethanol production activity at the cathode was only of very short term, since the mediator irreversibly reacted at the surface of the cathode. Of the two VFA conversion processes, biohydrogenation and chain elongation, the latter was a more dominant process that consumes ethanol with acetate to medium chain fatty acids. With this technology, wet organic waste can be converted to biofuels carbon and energy efficient. The technology is promising due to the good fuel and separation properties of medium chain fatty acids, and the possibility to produce them at high concentrations and specific production rates comparable to other anaerobic conversions.

Steinbusch, K.J.J.

2010-03-19

245

The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat and blood plasma in pruritic dogs and dogs without skin problems.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in subcutaneous fat and the relative amounts of PUFAs in plasma in two groups of dogs. Group 1 included dogs with a good skin and coat condition. Group 2 was comprised of dogs with pruritus and compatible clinical signs of atopy. The fatty acid composition of the total lipid fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography. In subcutaneous fat, the concentration of adrenic acid (22:4n-6) was lower...

Taugbøl, O.; Baddaky-taugbøl, B.; Saarem, K.

1998-01-01

246

Total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed catla catla fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This experimental work was aimed to study the moisture content, total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed freshwater major carp Catla catla of three different weight categories designated as W{sub 1} (601-900g), W{sub 2} (901- 1200)g and W{sub 3} (1201-1500g). Seven fish specimens of each of the three weight categories of wild and farmed Catla catla were obtained from Trimu Head, Jhang and Fish Hatchery, Satiana Road and Faisalabad, respectively. The fish were dissected to remove the liver and after weighing, liver samples were prepared and subjected to chemical analysis. Wild Catla catla liver had a significantly (p <0.05) higher moisture content as compared to the farmed species. Farmed Catla catla deposited significantly (p < 0.05) higher lipid contents in liver. Proportions of saturated fatty acids varied irregularly in the lipids of the liver from both wild and farmed Catla catla. Saturated fatty acids C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:0 and C22:0 were identified with considerable percentages in the liver of Catla catla from both habitats and monounsaturated fatty acid C18:1 was found in considerable amounts in the liver of both major carp. Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as C18:3 (n-6) and C20: 2 (n-6) were detected in the liver of the wild fish of W{sub 2} and W{sub 3} and was similar in the W{sub 3} weight category of the farmed species. (Author) 22 refs.

Hassan, M.; Shaihid chatha, S. A.; Tahira, I.; Hussain, B.

2010-07-01

247

Fatty Acid Status and Its Relationship to Cognitive Decline and Homocysteine Levels in the Elderly  

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Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially the n-3 series, are known for their protective effects. Considering that cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, which is common at aging, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fatty acid status in the elderly was associated with cognitive function and cardiovascular risk. Forty-five elderly persons (age ?60 years were included and divided into two groups based on their Mini-Mental Status Examination score adjusted for educational level: the case group (n = 12 and the control group (n = 33. Serum fatty acid composition, homocysteine (Hcy, hs-CRP, lipid profile and different cognitive domains were evaluated. The case group, characterized by reduced cognitive performance, showed higher levels of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7 fatty acids and lower levels of 22:0, 24:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (DHA and total PUFAs compared to the control group (p < 0.05. The n-6/n-3 ratio was elevated in both study groups, whereas alterations in Hcy, hs-CRP and lipid profile were observed in the case group. Cognitive function was positively associated with the 24:1n-9, DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while 14:0, 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio and Hcy were inversely associated. In addition, n-3 PUFAs, particularly DHA, were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, assessed by Hcy levels in the elderly.

Marília Baierle

2014-09-01

248

Antineoplastic unsaturated fatty acids from Fijian macroalgae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytochemical analysis of Fijian populations of the green alga Tydemania expeditionis led to the isolation of two unsaturated fatty acids, 3(zeta)-hydroxy-octadeca-4(E),6(Z),15(Z)-trienoic acid (1) and 3(zeta)-hydroxy-hexadeca-4(E),6(Z)-dienoic acid (2), along with the known 3(zeta)-hydroxy-octadeca-4(E),6(Z)-dienoic acid (4). Investigations of the red alga Hydrolithon reinboldii led to identification of a glycolipid, lithonoside (3), and five known compounds, 15-tricosenoic acid, hexacosa-5,9-dienoic methyl ester, beta-sitosterol, 10(S)-hydroxypheophytin A, and 10(R)-hydroxypheophytin A. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS). Compounds 1, 2, and 4, containing conjugated double bonds, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against a panel of tumor cell lines (including breast, colon, lung, prostate and ovarian cells) with IC(50) values ranging from 1.3 to 14.4 microM. The similar cell selectivity patterns of these three compounds suggest that they might act by a common, but unknown, mechanism of action. PMID:18757069

Jiang, Ren-Wang; Hay, Mark E; Fairchild, Craig R; Prudhomme, Jacques; Roch, Karine Le; Aalbersberg, William; Kubanek, Julia

2008-10-01

249

Polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce Fatty Acid Synthase and Hydroxy-Methyl-Glutaryl CoA-Reductase gene expression and promote apoptosis in HepG2 cell line  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are the two major classes of PUFAs encountered in the diet, and both classes of fatty acids are required for normal human health. Moreover, PUFAs have effects on diverse pathological processes impacting chronic disease, such as cardiovascular and immune disease, neurological disease, and cancer. Aim To investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and arachidonic acid (ARA on the proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma cell line HepG2 after exposure to increasing concentrations of EPA or ARA for 48 h. Moreover, in the same cells the gene expression of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS and 3-Hydroxy-3-Methyl-Glutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (HMG-CoAR was also investigated. Method Cell growth and apoptosis were assayed by MTT and ELISA test, respectively after cell exposure to increasing concentrations of EPA and ARA. Reverse-transcription and real-time PCR was used to detect FAS and HMG-CoAR mRNA levels in treated cells. Results Our findings show that EPA inhibits HepG2 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, starting from 25 ?M (P Conclusion Our results demonstrate that EPA and ARA inhibit HepG2 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. The down-regulation of FAS and HMG-CoAR gene expression by EPA and ARA might be one of the mechanisms for the anti-proliferative properties of PUFAs in an in vitro model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Miccolis Angelica

2011-01-01

250

Fatty Acid Profiles and Cholesterol Composition of Venison from Farmed Deer  

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Full Text Available It is important to evaluate venison characteristics as a new high quality red meat in the meat marketing system. This information is vital to ensure their commercial success and dietary benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the venison quality from farmed deer according to cuts or muscles based on fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content and to do comparative study on venison quality between species of farmed deer (rusa, sambar, fallow and imported red deer and feeding regimens, i.e., grass-fed vs concentrate-fed venison. The samples of venison were derived from javan rusa (Cervus timorensis russa, moluccan rusa (Cervus timorensis moluccensis, sambar (Cervus unicolor brookei, fallow (Dama dama and imported red deer (Cervus elaphus. Moluccan rusa and red deer were grass-fed deer. Javan rusa, sambar and fallow deer were concentrate-fed deer. Cholesterol content in Longissimus Dorsi (LD muscles of sambar, fallow and rusa deer were 75.36, 76.61 and 77.58 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Cholesterol content in Biceps Femoris (BF muscles of moluccan rusa, sambar, fallow and red deer were 56.61, 59.26, 86.37 and 98.44 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Concentrate-fed deer LD and Psoas Major (PM muscles show higher C18:2 (n-6 than grass-fed deer. Grass-fed rusa deer shows the highest C18:3 (n- 3 percentages in PM muscle. Grass-fed rusa and red deer gave an ideal n-6:n-3 ratio of less than 5. Species of deer did not influence n-6:n-3 ratio and fatty acid composition in venison. Feeding regimens (grass-fed vs concentrate-fed significantly (p< 0.05 influence n-6:n-3 ratio, fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content in the venison of farmed deer in this study.

N.A. Norfarizan-Hanoon

2007-01-01

251

Polyunsaturated Fatty acids modify the gating of kv channels.  

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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to exhibit antiarrhythmic properties, which are attributed to their capability to modulate ion channels. This PUFAs ability has been reported to be due to their effects on the gating properties of ion channels. In the present review, we will focus on the role of PUFAs on the gating of two Kv channels, Kv1.5 and Kv11.1. Kv1.5 channels are blocked by n-3 PUFAs of marine [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid] and plant origin (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) at physiological concentrations. The blockade of Kv1.5 channels by PUFAs steeply increased in the range of membrane potentials coinciding with those of Kv1.5 channel activation, suggesting that PUFAs-channel binding may derive a significant fraction of its voltage sensitivity through the coupling to channel gating. A similar shift in the activation voltage was noted for the effects of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA on Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv11.1 channels. PUFAs-Kv1.5 channel interaction is time-dependent, producing a fast decay of the current upon depolarization. Thus, Kv1.5 channel opening is a prerequisite for the PUFA-channel interaction. Similar to the Kv1.5 channels, the blockade of Kv11.1 channels by AA and DHA steeply increased in the range of membrane potentials that coincided with the range of Kv11.1 channel activation, suggesting that the PUFAs-Kv channel interactions are also coupled to channel gating. Furthermore, AA regulates the inactivation process in other Kv channels, introducing a fast voltage-dependent inactivation in non-inactivating Kv channels. These results have been explained within the framework that AA closes voltage-dependent potassium channels by inducing conformational changes in the selectivity filter, suggesting that Kv channel gating is lipid dependent. PMID:22973228

Moreno, Cristina; Macias, Alvaro; Prieto, Angela; De La Cruz, Alicia; Valenzuela, Carmen

2012-01-01

252

Fatty acids composition in fruits of wild rose species  

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Full Text Available The oil content and fatty acids profile of a number of Polish wild species of rose fruits were examined by GC. The total fatty acid contents ranged from 6.5% to 12.9% of dry mass in fruits. The composition of oils was similar in the investigated species. 17 components were identified. An average composition was estimated as follows: linoleic acid (44.4-55.7%, a-linolenic acid (18.6-31.4%, oleic acid (13.5-20.3%, palmitic acid (2.3-3.3%, stearic acid (1-2.5%, octadecenoic acid (0.38-0.72%, eicosenoic acid (0.3-0.7%, eicosadienoic acid (0-0.16%, erucic acid (0.03-0.17% and minor fatty acids. The results indicate that rose fruits are a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially in R. rubiginosa, R. rugosa and R. dumalis. There were statistically significant (p<0.05 differences in fatty acid compositions of some species. Fatty acids were suggested to have a potential chemotaxonomic value in this genus.

Renata Nowak

2005-09-01

253

Fatty acid composition of the edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis.  

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The edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis is a fishery resource of high commercial value in Chile, but no information on its lipid and fatty acid composition has been previously reported. Phospholipids were the major lipid contents of the ethanolic extracts of tubules, internal organs and body wall of A. chilensis. Saturated fatty acids predominated in tubule phospholipids (40.69%), while in internal organs and body wall phospholipids, the monounsaturated fatty acids were in higher amounts (41.99% and 37.94%, respectively). The main polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids were C20?:?2?-6, arachidonic (C20?:?4?-6) and eicosapentaenoic (C20?:?5?-3) acids. These results demonstrate for the first time that A. chilensis is a valuable food for human consumption in terms of fatty acids. PMID:22583008

Careaga, Valeria P; Muniain, Claudia; Maier, Martas S

2013-04-01

254

Cell proliferation and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in a cell line from southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii).  

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Southern bluefin tuna (SBT, Thunnus maccoyii) aquaculture is a highly valuable industry, but research on these fish is hampered by strict catch quotas and the limited success of captive breeding. To address these limitations, we have developed a SBT cell line (SBT-E1) and here we report on fatty acid metabolism in this cell line. The SBT-E1 cells proliferated well in standard Leibovitz's L-15 cell culture medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) as the source of fatty acids. Decreasing the FBS concentration decreased the cell proliferation. Addition of the C(18) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) or linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6) to the cell culture medium had little effect on the proliferation of the cells, whereas addition of the long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) significantly reduced the proliferation of the cells, especially at higher concentrations and especially for DHA. Addition of vitamin E to the culture medium overcame this effect, suggesting that it was due to oxidative stress. The fatty acid profiles of the total lipid from the cells reflected those of the respective culture media with little evidence for desaturation or elongation of any of the fatty acids. The only exceptions were EPA and ARA, which showed substantial elongation to 22:5n-3 and 22:4n-6, respectively, and DHA, which was significantly enriched in the cells compared with the culture medium. The results are discussed in light of the dietary PUFA requirements of SBT in the wild and in aquaculture. PMID:24825740

Scholefield, Andrew M; Schuller, Kathryn A

2014-07-01

255

Omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and allergic diseases in infancy and childhood.  

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There may be a causal relationship between intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and childhood allergic diseases. This can be explained by plausible biological mechanisms involving eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Long chain n-3 PUFAs are found in fish and fish oils. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs. Thus, it is considered that n-3 PUFAs will lower the risk of developing allergic diseases. In support of this, protective associations have been reported between maternal fish intake during pregnancy and allergic outcomes in infants and children from those pregnancies. However, studies of fish intake during infancy and childhood and allergic outcomes in those infants or children are inconsistent, although some reported a protective association. Supplementing pregnant women with fish oil can induce immunologic changes in cord blood. This supplementation has been reported in some studies to decrease sensitisation to common food allergens and to lower the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life. The protective effect of maternal n-3 PUFAs may last until adolescence of the offspring. Fish oil supplementation in infancy may decrease the risk of developing some manifestations of allergic disease, although this benefit may not persist. Whether fish oil is a useful therapy in children with asthma receiving standard therapy is not clear from studies performed to date and this requires further exploration. PMID:23701554

Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C

2014-01-01

256

Influence of omega-3 fatty acids from the flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) on the brain development of newborn rats Influencia de los ácidos grasos omega-3 de la linaza (Linum usitatissimum) en el desarrollo del cerebro de ratas recién nacidas  

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Objectives: The importance of essential fatty acids, in particular the omega-3 family, in the central nervous system development of newborns is well documented. The flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is considered one of the best vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The influence of omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed on the brain development of newborn rats was evaluated. Material and methods: Pups of the F1 generation were obtained from 18 female Wistar rats divided in 3 groups (n = 6), FG: ...

Lenzi Almeida, K. C.; Teles Boaventura, G.; Guzma?n Silva, Mª A.

2011-01-01

257

Increased fatty acid unsaturation and production of arachidonic acid by homologous over-expression of the mitochondrial malic enzyme in Mortierella alpina.  

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Malic enzyme (ME) catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate to pyruvate and provides NADPH for intracellular metabolism, such as fatty acid synthesis. Here, the mitochondrial ME (mME) gene from Mortierella alpina was homologously over-expressed. Compared with controls, fungal arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4 n-6) content increased by 60 % without affecting the total fatty acid content. Our results suggest that enhancing mME activity may be an effective mean to increase industrial production of ARA in M. alpina. PMID:24863290

Hao, Guangfei; Chen, Haiqin; Du, Kai; Huang, Xiaoyun; Song, Yuanda; Gu, Zhennan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

2014-09-01

258

Identification of sulfoglycolipid bioactivities and characteristic fatty acids of marine macroalgae.  

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The fatty acid compositions of 21 species of marine macroalgae, including 5 species of Chlorophyta (green algae), 13 of Rhodophyta (red algae), and 3 of Heterokontophyta (brown algae), were collected from northeastern Taiwan to survey their functional lipids. The lipid contents of green algae ranged from 15.36 to 20.15 mg/g, dry basis (db), and were characterized by a high content of C18:2 and C18:3, red algae (18.57-28.34 mg/g db) were high in C20:4 and C20:5, and brown algae (13.11-19.56 mg/g db) were high in C18:4, C20:4, and C:20:5. All algal lipids contained fatty acids of odd-number carbons, C17:0, and C17:1. Red algae had relatively higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and were richer in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) than green and brown algae. A red alga, Porphyra crispata , was extracted with ethanol and separated on a hydrophobic column (Diaion HP-20 column) to obtain sulfoglycolipids (sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols, SQDGs). The main fatty acids in SQDGs were palmitic acid (C16:0), 33.3%; EPA (C20:5), 30.0%; arachidonic acid (C20:4), 12.7%; oleic acid (C18:1), 7.52%; and stearic acid (C18:0), 6.83%. The n-3/n-6 ratio was 1.9, whereas the authentic standard, spinach SQDG, did not contain n-3 fatty acids. Sulfoglycolipids inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). The IC50 was 126 ?g/mL, which is lower than that of the spinach SQDG (255 ?g/mL). PMID:22827609

Tsai, Cheng-Jung; Sun Pan, Bonnie

2012-08-29

259

Seasonal Effects on the Levels of Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Swordfish (Xiphias Gladius Muscles According to Body Parts  

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Full Text Available Contents and total levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were determined for swordfish samples collected during the four seasons and at seven body parts of swordfish. Variability in the levels of total fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in n-3 and n-6 was observed during the seasons and between samples taken at different locations. Seasonal variability is greater than the variability between body parts of swordfish. A content of 33.7g/100g FW was observed in spring in white muscle (D1 and an amount of 26.7g/100g FW at the red muscle (RM of the caudal part in summer. For the n-3, percentages of 44.5% (of TFA at V2 was observed in the spring, at 37% D2 and D3 was 34% at V1 and D3 fall to 40% level of D1 and D2 in the winter. For red muscle, the percentages ranged from 30.2% in summer and 36.6% in winter. For n-6, the highest percentages were obtained at D1 (spring and at V2 (summer with respectively 12% and 10.6% (of TFA. During the four seasons, concentrations vary between EPA + DHA 267 mg and 8865mg / 100g (FW. Arguably, whatever the season, each body part of the swordfish is a good source of EPA + DHA.

Mohamed Ali Ben Smida

2014-08-01

260

Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

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Full Text Available 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6, the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

P.C. Calder

1998-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Most vegetable oils are ri [...] ch in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6), the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor) and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

P.C., Calder.

262

Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%). PMID:11014298

Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

2000-08-01

263

EFFECTS OF ETHYLENE CHLOROHYDRIN ON FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS  

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Male chicks weighing 700 to 900 g. received an acute or eight doses IG of 60 or 40 mg/kg ethylene chlorohydrin (ECH) respectively and were sacrificed eighteen hours after the last dose. Mitochondrial elongation of fatty acids was decreased significantly while fatty acid synthetas...

264

Effects of dietary lipids on tissue fatty acids profile, growth and reproductive performance of female rice field eel (Monopterus albus).  

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The effects of different lipids on tissue fatty acid profile and reproductive performance in female rice field eel were investigated in this study. Virgin female eels were fed with six diets containing different lipids (diets FO, LO, SO, PO and PL with fish oil, linseed oil, soybean oil, peanut oil and pork lard, respectively; diet APO with arachidonic acid and peanut oil). The results showed that there were positive correlations between the contents of 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the tissues of eels and those of the corresponding fatty acids in their diets. The specific growth rate of eels fed with diet PO was the lowest and significantly lower than that of FO and SO. Gonad of eels fed with diets PO and PL showed hypogonadism. The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) can be synthesized by eels, but the quantity was not enough to meet their reproduction requirement completely. The fatty acid desaturation, rather than elongation probably was one of the limiting factors. Addition of proper amount of ARA in diet was favorable to the increase of the hatching rate of fertilized eggs, while EPA and DHA in diet were beneficial to the increase of the survival rate of larva. Both n-3PUFA and a suitable n-6/n-3PUFA ratio were necessary for growth and reproduction of eels. PMID:21046236

Zhou, Qiu-Bai; Wu, Hua-Dong; Zhu, Chang-Sheng; Yan, Xing-Hong

2011-09-01

265

Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes by exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids is caused by lipid peroxidation  

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Rat hepatocyte long-term cultures were utilized to investigate the impact of different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the insulin-induced de novo fatty acid synthesis in vitro. The addition of 0.5 mM albumin-complexed oleic, linoleic, columbinic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid resulted in a marked suppression of fatty acid synthesis. By evaluation of cell viability (determined as the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) it turned our, that the antioxidant used (50 µM a-tocopherol phosphate) had a low antioxidant activity, resulting in cytotoxic effects by the peroxidized PUFA. Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid showed a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Two other antioxidants: 50 µM a-tocopherol acid succinate and 1 µM N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, both proved more efficient than a-tocopherol phosphate. There was a significant correlation between LDH-leakage and inhibition of fatty acid synthesis. Lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, also showed a significant correlation with the degree of inhibition of fatty acid synthesis. Furthermore, PUFA had no inhibitory effect on fatty acid synthesis when peroxidation was minimized by the use of proper antioxidants. These data indicate that PUFA in vitro inhibit the insulin-induced de novo fatty acid synthesis in hepatocytes from starved rats, due to cytotoxic effects caused by lipid peroxidation.

Mikkelsen, L.; Hansen, Harald S.

1993-01-01

266

Highly specific methyl-end fatty-acid desaturases of trypanosomatids.  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed analysis of the trypanosomatids' genome projects revealed the presence of genes predicted to encode fatty-acid desaturases of the methyl-end type (MED). After cloning and functional characterization of all identified genes, it can be concluded that Trypanosoma cruzi contains two MEDs with oleate desaturase (OD) activities whereas Leishmania major contains one OD and two active linoleate desaturases (LD). All characterized ODs are highly specific for oleate (18:1?9) as substrate, presenting a ?+3 regioselectivity, although palmitoleate (16:1?9) can be desaturated as well, but to a lesser extent. L. major LD appears to use exclusively linoleate (18:2n-6), converting it into ?-linolenate (18:3n-3). This strong specificity assures no further conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the n-6 series into the n-3 series, downstream in the PUFA biosynthesis pathway. This characterization completes the identification of all enzymes involved in PUFA biosynthesis in a parasitic protist. Differently from their Trypanosoma brucei orthologue, T. cruzi and L. major ODs were more active when expressed either, in the presence of trienoic fatty acids or at higher temperatures. This could be evidence for a differential post-translational regulation of these enzymes as a result of direct sensing of environmentally dependent parameters such as membrane fluidity. PMID:20974196

Alloatti, Andrés; Uttaro, Antonio D

2011-02-01

267

Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. Results In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing ‘TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3 improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn’t strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-‘tesA-?fadL produced 4.8 g?L?1 extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g?h?1 g?1dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-‘tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired product. The strain pACY-‘tesA could also be chosen as the original strain for the next genetic manipulations. Conclusions The general strategy of metabolic engineering for the extracellular fatty acid production should be the cyclic optimization between cultivation performance and strain improvements. On the basis of our cultivation process optimization, strain improvements should be further carried out for the effective and cost-effective production process.

Liu Hui

2012-04-01

268

Halogenated fatty acids : I. Formation and occurrence in lipids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids. However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their determination.

Mu, Huiling

1997-01-01

269

Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the recent decades, awareness towards the role of essential fatty acids in human health and disease prevention has been unremittingly increasing among people. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of essential fatty acids. Many studies have positively correlated essential fatty acids with reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, infant development, cancer prevention, optimal brain and vision functioning, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. Beneficial effects may be mediated through several different mechanisms, including alteration in cell membrane composition, gene expression or eicosanoid production. However, the mechanisms whereby essential fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. Further understanding of the molecular aspects of essential fatty acids will be the key to devising novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of many diseases. PMID:25328170

Kaur, Narinder; Chugh, Vishal; Gupta, Anil K

2014-10-01

270

Fatty acids trigger mitochondrion-dependent necrosis.  

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Obesity is characterised by lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues, leading to organ degeneration and a wide range of diseases, including diabetes, heart attack and liver cirrhosis. Free fatty acids (FFA) are believed to be the principal toxic triggers mediating the adverse cellular effects of lipids. Here, we show that various cooking oils used in human nutrition cause cell death in yeast in the presence of a triacylglycerol lipase, mimicking the physiological microenvironment of the small intestine. Combining genetic and cell death assays, we demonstrate that elevated FFA concentrations lead to necrotic cell death, as evidenced by loss of membrane integrity and release of nuclear HMGB1. FFA-mediated necrosis depends on functional mitochondria and leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. We conclude that lipotoxicity is executed via a mitochondrial necrotic pathway, challenging the dogma that the adverse effects of lipid stress are exclusively apoptotic. PMID:20647757

Rockenfeller, Patrick; Ring, Julia; Muschett, Vera; Beranek, Andreas; Buettner, Sabrina; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Eisenberg, Tobias; Khoury, Chamel; Rechberger, Gerald; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Kroemer, Guido; Madeo, Frank

2010-07-15

271

Tagging fatty acids with 99m tecnetium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a search for a fatty acid analogue suitable for labelling with sup(99m)Tc for myocardial imaging, analogues of the general formula X-Y-COOH where the ligand groups X, Y were NH2, SH or COOH, capable of forming complexes with metal ions, were synthesized. Among many such, one compound (CH2(SH).CH2(SH).(CH2)8.COOH) was selected for further study. Injected intravenously together with a reducing agent into mice, rats and one dog, the compound proved unsatisfactory for the purpose because of its toxicity and its failure to localize in the myocardium. The search for alternative analogues and alternative labelling procedures must continue

272

Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiac arrhythmias  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are suggestions of effects of marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in relation to ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death and, more recently, also of possible effects related to atrial fibrillation. RECENT FINDINGS: On the basis of the recently published human studies, this article not only focusses primarily on recent developments and current knowledge on the effect of marine omega-3 PUFAs on atrial fibrillation, but also provides a status for their effects on ventricular arrhythmias. SUMMARY: Marine omega-3 PUFAs may protect against ventricular arrhythmias, and there is growing evidence for an effect of marine omega-3 PUFAs in the prevention and treatment of atrial fibrillation. Further studies are needed to establish which patients are more likely to benefit from omega-3 PUFAs, the timing of treatment, and the dosages.

Rix, Thomas A; Christensen, Jeppe H

2012-01-01

273

21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. 172...Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. ...lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol may...effect as an emulsifier, plasticizer, or surface-active...

2010-04-01

274

40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction...

2010-07-01

275

40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700...3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical...generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct...

2010-07-01

276

40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...  

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...polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800...polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical...polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct (PMN...

2010-07-01

277

40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...splitting of fats to fatty acids by hydrolysis and the subsequent processing of the fatty acids (e.g., refining and hydrogenation) to produce a suitable feed...for manufacture of soap by fatty acid...

2010-07-01

278

40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). 721... § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). ...identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN P-88-1889...q). (iii) Release to water. Requirements as...

2010-07-01

279

21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. 172.850... Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food...additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol may be...

2010-04-01

280

40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory. 417.20 Section...SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.20 Applicability...description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis.

282

Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis. (author)

Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); da Silva, Camila [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); Department of Technology, Maringa State University (UEM), Umuarama, PR, 87506-370 (Brazil); Rossi, Carla C.R.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); College of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, 13083-970 (Brazil); Guirardello, Reginaldo [College of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, 13083-970 (Brazil); de Castilhos, Fernanda [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR, 81531-990 (Brazil); Oliveira, J. Vladimir [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, Erechim, RS, 99700-000 (Brazil)

2011-02-15

283

Fatty acid composition of meat and estimated indices of lipid metabolism in different poultry genotypes reared under organic system.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to EC regulation 889/08, different European countries should draw up a list of slow-growing strains adapted to an organic system, and in the meantime, provide this information to operators and the European Union commission. Thus, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of poultry genotype on fatty acid composition and lipid indices of poultry meat. Six poultry genotypes (100 birds each), each with a different growth rate (slow-growing: Leghorn, Ancona, Cornish×Leghorn; medium-growing: Kabir, Naked neck; fast-growing: Ross), were reared under an organic system. Breast meat fatness, fatty acid composition, and indices were largely related to genotype, as slow-growing strains had higher elongase, thioesterase, and ?5/?6 desaturase indices accompanied by a lower ?9. Differences in the fatty acid profiles were observed by varying contents of total saturated fatty acids, with a higher value seen in Leghorn chickens and a lower value seen in commercial lines. On the contrary, Leghorn and Ancona chickens exhibited higher amounts of stearic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with commercial genotypes, both in the total content and in the different fractions (total n-3 and total n-6). Despite the increased consumption of fresh forage, the lower linolenic acid in meat of the slow-growing strain could be explained by the higher conversion of this fatty acid to its long-chain derivatives. PMID:22802202

Dal Bosco, A; Mugnai, C; Ruggeri, S; Mattioli, S; Castellini, C

2012-08-01

284

Fatty Acids, Lipid Mediators, and T-Cell Function  

Science.gov (United States)

Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5?years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research. PMID:25352844

de Jong, Anja J.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E. M.; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

2014-01-01

285

Fatty acid chemistry of Atrichum undulatum and Hypnum andoi  

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Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of the moss species Atrichum undulatum (Hedw. P. Beauv. (Polytrichaceae and Hypnum andoi A.J.E. Sm. (Hypnaceae collected in winter time were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS as a contribution to their chemistry. Eight fatty acids were identified in the chloroform/methanol extract 1:1 of A. undulatum (linoleic acid 26.80%, palmitic acid 22.17%, ?-linolenic acid 20.50%, oleic acid 18.49%, arachidonic acid 6.21%, stearic acid 3.34%, cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid 1.52% and behenic acid 1.01%, while six fatty acids were found in the same type of extract of H. andoi (palmitic acid 63.48%, erucic acid 12.38%, stearic acid 8.08%, behenic acid 6.26%, lignoceric acid 5.16% and arachidic acid 4.64%. According to this study, the moss A. undulatum can be considered as a good source of both essential fatty acids for humans (linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid during the winter.

Pejin Boris

2012-01-01

286

Liquid crystalline state of some fatty acids and mixtures  

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The role of the fatty acids in the biological membrane structure and properties is partially known. They can exhibit a mesogenic feature and behavior in terms of the temperature, the presence of many acids of cholesterol, or other important substances for the metabolism, of external stimuli etc. We studied the arachidic, lauric, elaidic, arachidonic and butiric acids. The most important seems to be the arachidonic acid, a forerunner of phospholipids. This is an unsaturated fatty acid,with four double bounds. We found that it displayed liquid crystalline properties between 4-20 grades centrigrades; in mixture with other fatty acids or cholesterol, these properties change. The paper present considerations on the biological role of the fatty acids and mixtures, in interactions with some physical fields experimental results and some theoretical considerations.

Ghelmez, Mihaela A.; Honciuc, Maria; Piscureanu, Mihai C.

1998-09-01

287

Fatty acid profiles indicate the habitat of mud snails Hydrobia ulvae within the same estuary: Mudflats vs. seagrass meadows  

Science.gov (United States)

Mud snails Hydrobia ulvae occupy different habitats in complex estuarine ecosystems. In order to determine if fatty acid profiles displayed by mud snails can be used to identify the habitat that they occupy within the same estuary, fatty acids of H. ulvae from one mudflat and one seagrass meadow in the Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) were analyzed and compared to those displayed by microphytobenthos (MPB), the green leaves (epiphyte-free) of Zostera noltii, as well as those exhibited by the epiphytic community colonizing this seagrass. MPB and epiphytic diatom-dominated samples displayed characteristic fatty acids, such as 16:1 n-7 and 20:5 n-3, while 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3 were the dominant fatty acids in the green leaves of Z. noltii. Significant differences between the fatty acid profiles of H. ulvae specimens sampled in the mudflat and the seagrass meadow could be identified, with those from the mudflat displaying higher levels of fatty acids known to be characteristic of MPB. This result points towards the well known existence of grazing activity on MPB by mud snails. The fatty acid profiles displayed by H. ulvae inhabiting the seagrass meadows show no evidence of direct bioaccumulation of the two most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids of Z. noltii (18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3) in the mud snails, which probably indicates that either these compounds can be metabolized to produce energy, used as precursors for the synthesis of essential fatty acids, or that the snails do not consume seagrass leaves at all. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles of mud snails inhabiting the seagrass meadows revealed the existence of substantial inputs from microalgae, suggesting that the epiphytic community colonizing the leaves of Z. noltii displays an important role on the diet of these organisms. This assumption is supported by the high levels of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 recorded in mud snails sampled from seagrass meadows. In conclusion, fatty acid analyses of H. ulvae can be successfully used to identify the habitat occupied by these organisms within the same estuary (e.g. mudflats and seagrass meadows) and reveal the existence of contrasting dietary regimes.

Coelho, Helena; Lopes da Silva, Teresa; Reis, Alberto; Queiroga, Henrique; Serôdio, João; Calado, Ricardo

2011-03-01

288

Umbilical cord PUFA are determined by maternal and child fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genetic variants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal supply with long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy is important for brain growth and visual and cognitive development and is provided by materno–fetal placental transfer. We recently showed that maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotypes modulate the amounts of LC-PUFA in maternal blood. Whether FADS genotypes influence the amounts of umbilical cord fatty acids has not been investigated until now. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maternal and child FADS genotypes on the amounts of LC-PUFA in umbilical cord venous plasma as an indicator of fetal fatty acid supply during pregnancy. A total of eleven cord plasma n-6 and n-3 fatty acids were analysed for association with seventeen FADS gene cluster SNP in over 2000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In a multivariable analysis, the maternal genotype effect was adjusted for the child genotype and vice versa to estimate which of the two has the stronger influence on cord plasma fatty acids. Both maternal and child FADS genotypes and haplotypes influenced amounts of cord plasma LC-PUFA and fatty acid ratios. Specifically, most analysed maternal SNP were associated with cord plasma levels of the precursor n-6 PUFA, whereas the child genotypes were mainly associated with more highly desaturated n-6 LC-PUFA. This first study on FADS genotypes and cord fatty acids suggests that fetal LC-PUFA status is determined to some extent by fetal fatty acid conversion. Associations of particular haplotypes suggest specific effects of SNP rs498793 and rs968567 on fatty acid metabolism. PMID:22877655

Lattka, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold; Zeilinger, Sonja; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Klopp, Norman; Ring, Susan M.; Steer, Colin D.

2012-01-01

289

Influence of diet transition on serum calcium and phosphorus and fatty acids in zoo giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to new recommendations for feeding giraffe in zoos, giraffe (n = 6) were transitioned from a typical hoofstock diet to diets containing reduced starch, protein, Ca and P and added n3 fatty acids. This diet was fed as a 50:50 mix with alfalfa and grass hay. Over the next 4 years, serum Ca, P, and fatty acids were measured every 6 months (summer and winter). Serum Ca was not affected by season (P = 0.67) or by diet (P = 0.12). Serum P was not affected season (P = 0.14), but was reduced by diet (Pgiraffe. PMID:20954252

Koutsos, E A; Armstrong, D; Ball, R; Dikeman, C; Hetherington, J; Simmons, L; Valdes, E V; Griffin, M

2011-01-01

290

Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Profile in Mexican Adolescents: A Trans Fatty Acid Approach  

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Full Text Available The type of fat consumed in the Mexican diet could predispose to the development of Metabolic Syndrome (MS which has been associated with an increased risk to develop cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study included adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age, divided in two groups: Control Group (n = 31 and MS Group (n = 44. Waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol were determined. Erythrocytes’ fatty acids methyl esthers were quantified using gas chromatography with ionized flame detector. We identified 16 fatty acids (FA with chain lengths from C12 to C24, with emphasis in four trans FA (TFA isomers: vaccenic (C18:1n7t, elaidic (C18:1n9t, linoelaidic (C18:2n6t, and conjugated linoelaidic acids (C18:2n7t. MS Group had a less proportion of: myristic (C14, palmitoleic (C16:1, C18:1n7t, and linoleic acids (C18:2; and a higher one of C18:1n9t, C18:2n7t, and nervonic acids (C24:1 when compared to the control group. C24:1 and C18:1n9t had a significant positive association with MS (OR = 14.17 and OR = 12.94, respectively; whereas C14 (OR = 0.14, C18:1n7t (OR = 0.14, and C18:2 (OR = 0.22 appear to have a protective effect against the disease. The proportion of specific FAs in erythrocytes’ membranes differs between adolescents with MS and healthy controls; these FA not only showed a strong association with MS, but also correlated with most of its individual components. Interestingly, TFA displayed an antagonic behavior; while C18:1n9t had a strong association with MS, apparently C18:1n7t confers a protective effect; these results suggest that analyzing each TFA separately will constitute a more accurate approach to determine the role of TFAs in the pathogenesis of MS or other related metabolic disorders.

Maldonado-Hernández Jorge

2013-08-01

291

Effects of feeding modified distillers grains plus solubles on marbling attributes, proximate composition, and fatty acid profile of beef.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wet distillers grains contain approximately 65% moisture. A partially dried product [modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS)] contains about 50% moisture. However, both have similar nutrient composition on a dry matter basis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of finishing diets varying in concentration of MDGS on marbling attributes, proximate composition, and fatty acid profile of beef. Yearling steers (n = 268) were randomly allotted to 36 pens, which were assigned randomly to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% MDGS (DM basis) and fed for 176 d before harvest. The 48-h postmortem marbling score, marbling texture, and marbling distribution were assessed by a USDA grader and 1 ribeye slice (longissimus thoracis) 7 mm thick was collected from each carcass for proximate and fatty acid analyses. Treatments did not significantly alter marbling score or marbling distribution (P ? 0.05). United States Department of Agriculture Choice slices had coarser marbling texture when compared with USDA Select. Although dietary treatment affected marbling texture, no consistent pattern was evident. Diets did not influence fat content, moisture, or ash of the ribeye (P ? 0.05). For treatments 0, 10, 30, 40 and 50%, there were positive linear relationships between marbling score and fat percentage in the ribeye (P ? 0.05), and all slopes were similar (P = 0.45). Feeding MDGS linearly increased stearic, linoelaidic, linoleic, linolenic, PUFA, and n-6 fatty acids. As dietary MDGS increased, linear decreases were observed in all n-7 fatty acids and cubic relationships were detected for the 18:1 trans isomers [trans-6-8-octadecenoic acid (6-8t), elaidic acid (9t), trans-10-octadecenoic acid (10t), and trans vaccenic acid (11t)]. No effects were observed for saturated fatty acids containing 6 to 14 carbons. Feeding MDGS resulted in increased PUFA, trans, and n-6 fatty acids, minimal effects on marbling texture, and no effects on the relationship of marbling to intramuscular fat content relationship. PMID:22859752

Mello, A S; Jenschke, B E; Senaratne, L S; Carr, T P; Erickson, G E; Calkins, C R

2012-12-01

292

Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of new fatty acid amides.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports the synthesis of new fatty acid amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:1 (OH), and 18:2 fatty acids families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time the activity of these compounds as antituberculosis agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv, M. tuberculosis rifampicin resistance (ATCC 35338), and M. tuberculosis isoniazid resistance (ATCC 35822). The fatty acid amides derivate from ricinoleic acid were the most potent one among a series of tested compounds, with a MIC 6.25 microg/mL for resistance strains. PMID:20667727

D'Oca, Caroline Da Ros Montes; Coelho, Tatiane; Marinho, Tamara Germani; Hack, Carolina Rosa Lopes; Duarte, Rodrigo da Costa; da Silva, Pedro Almeida; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes

2010-09-01

293

Effect of dietary alfalfa on the fatty acid composition and indexes of lipid metabolism of rabbit meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to analyse and increase the quality of rabbit meat by increasing the levels of natural bioactive compounds through providing fresh alfalfa to rabbits as complementary feed. At 50 days of age, forty rabbits were divided into two homogeneous groups and fed pelleted feed (control group) or pelleted feed plus fresh alfalfa (alfalfa group). The lipid content of meat was significantly higher in the control group likely due to the higher feed consumption observed in this group. The same trend was observed in the contents of myristic, palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic acid. On the contrary, the supplementation of fresh alfalfa increased the stearic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and total polyunsaturated fatty acid contents; also the total monounsaturated fatty acids and the ?- and ?-tocopherol content was significantly lower. Moreover, alfalfa ingestion decreased the n-6 content, n-6/n-3 ratio and thrombogenicity index. PMID:24036258

Dal Bosco, A; Mugnai, C; Roscini, V; Mattioli, S; Ruggeri, S; Castellini, C

2014-01-01

294

Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with ?-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids or ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%. At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

Cruz-Hernandez Cristina

2010-01-01

295

Dispelling the myths about omega-3 fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is an enormous amount of information available on omega-3 fatty acids, it is sometimes misleading, contradictory, and unsupported by scientific fact. Consumers and medical professionals may be confused regarding the potential value of omega-3 fatty acid supplements, despite having either read or heard about fi sh oil consumption and/or omega-3 fatty acid benefits and risks. The availability of a prescription formulation of omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) has provided important new information that helps to dispel the myths and alleviate concerns surrounding the use of omega-3 fatty acids in clinical practice. The safety and efficacy of P-OM3, but not dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids, are documented in placebo-controlled trials. In general, studies using Food and Drug Administration-approved dosages of P-OM3 have not substantiated various myths surrounding the negative effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Thus, there are now evidence-based clinical guidelines for the use of omega-3 fatty acids in clinical practice. PMID:18654074

Sadovsky, Richard; Collins, Nancy; Tighe, Ann P; Safeer, Richard S; Morris, Charlene M; Brunton, Stephen A

2008-07-01

296

Fatty acids and terpenoids from Trigonia fasciculata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A fração lipídica do extrato hexânico das raízes de Trigonia fasciculata foi analisada por CG/EM sob a forma de seus ésteres metílicos, identificando-se dezessete ácidos graxos, sendo o ácido oléico (38,8%) o principal componente. A análise por CG/EM da fração menos polar da parte insaponificável do [...] extrato hexânico das raízes permitiu identificar quinze sesquiterpenos não oxigenados, sendo o alfa-santaleno (28,4%) o componente majoritário. Cromatografia em gel de sílica da fração mais polar permitiu o isolamento de dois triterpenos conhecidos, ácido betulínico e friedelina, e o diterpeno inédito 7-(2-hidroxiacetil)-10-hidroxitetradecaidro-1-metileno-4b,7,10a-trimetilfenantreno (6alfa-hidroxi-15-oxo-allodevadarool). Todas as substâncias isoladas e identificadas são inéditas para a espécie. A determinação estrutural foi realizada por derivatização química, comparação com dados da literatura, análise espectral, incluíndo RMN 2D (COSY, HETCOR e COLOC), e cristalografia de raios X. Abstract in english The fatty portion of the hexane extract from roots of Trigonia fasciculata has been determined by GC/MS analysis of the methyl ester mixture. Seventeen fatty acids were identified and oleic acid (38.8%) was the major component. The GC/MS analysis of the less polar fraction of the non-saponifiable pa [...] rt of the root hexane extract allowed the identification of fifteen sesquiterpenes and alpha-santalene (28.4%) was the major component. Chromatography over silica gel of the more polar fraction allowed the isolation of two known compounds: betulinic acid and friedelin, and a novel diterpene 7-(2-hydroxy-acetyl)-10-hydroxy-tetradecahydro-1-methylene-4b,7,10a-trimethyl -phenantrene (6alpha-hydroxy-15-oxo-allodevadarool), all unknown for the species. Structure determination was accomplished by chemical derivatization, comparison to literature data and spectral analysis, including 2D NMR (COSY, HETCOR, COLOC) and X-ray crystallography.

Jair, Mafezoli; Regina Helena A., Santos; Maria Teresa P., Gambardela; Edilberto R., Silveira.

2003-05-01

297

Efeito sazonal sobre os ácidos graxos e colesterol do polvo Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797 / Seasonal effects on fatty acids and cholesterol contents in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi realizado um estudo sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos e colesterol na manta de polvo comum, Octopus vulgaris, capturado na praia de Camocim - CE, no decorrer dos meses de abril a outubro em coletas bimensais. Apesar do ácido oleico (C18: 1n9) apresentar comportamento uniforme ao longo do tempo de [...] coleta, a maioria dos demais ácidos graxos foi afetada (p = 1%) pela época de coleta. Os níveis dos ácidos araquidônico (C20:4n6), oleico (C18:1n9), esteárico (C18:0) e linoleico (C18:2n6) foram superiores àqueles reportados na literatura. O somatório de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados e monoinsaturados revelou que o óleo de polvo apresenta um teor significativo de ácidos graxos insaturados. Foi observado um aumento gradativo de colesterol ao longo do tempo estudado e um comportamento inverso para a relação de ácidos graxos n3/n6. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the fatty acids and cholesterol profile in the mantle of common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, collected twice a month in in coastal waters of Camocim/CE beach over the period from April to October. Although the Oleic acid (C18:n9) did not show significant change [...] s over the months, the majority of fatty acids varied during this period of time. The Arachidonic (C20:4n6), oleic (C18:n9), stearic (C18:0), and linoleic (C18:2n6) acids were found in higher levels than those reported in the literature. Polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids accounted for most of the octopus fatty acids. During the time of analysis, it was observed a gradual increase in the cholesterol and the fatty acids n3/ n6 ratio presented the opposite result, i.e., a gradual decrease.

Margarida Maria Monteiro, Vasconcelos; Jorge Fernando Fuentes, Zapata.

298

Fatty Acid Composition of Raw and Roasted Kulthi Seeds  

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Full Text Available Raw and roasted kulthi (Dolichos biflorus seeds of drought prone area of Maharashtra were studied for their fatty acid composition using gas chromatographic analysis. Kulthi is under cultivation in remote areas of India. It is used as food and fodder. Legumes are in general good source of unsaturated fatty acids, which are beneficial for health. Therefore study was performed for analysis and characterization of fatty acids of raw and roasted kulthi seeds and to obtain reliable data on their suitability for both human nutrition and pharmaceutical purposes. Test results indicate that raw and roasted seeds also contain higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids ie.72.49and 71.99%, respectively. Both the samples contain good percentage of linoleic acid i.e., 42.78 and 40.83%, respectively. Linoleic acid is useful for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Harsha Mishra

2011-12-01

299

Fatty Acids and Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Rett Syndrome Conundrum  

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Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are epidemically explosive clinical entities, but their pathogenesis is still unclear and a definitive cure does not yet exist. Rett syndrome (RTT is a rare genetically determined cause of autism linked to mutations in the X-linked MeCP2 gene or, more rarely, in CDKL5 or FOXG1. A wide phenotypical heterogeneity is a known feature of the disease. Although several studies have focused on the molecular genetics and possible protein changes at different levels, to date very little attention has been paid to fatty acids in this disease, which could be considered as a natural paradigm for the ASDs. To this regard, a quite enigmatic feature of the disease is the evidence in the affected patients of an extensive peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (arachidonic acid, AA, docosaexahenoic acid, DHA, adrenic acid, AdA and, to a lesser extent, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, in contrast with amelioration of the redox changes and phenotypical severity following the supplementation of some of those same fatty acids (DHA + EPA. Therefore, fatty acids may represent a kind of Janus Bifrons in the particular context of RTT. Here, we propose a rational explanation for this apparent “fatty acid paradox” in RTT. A better understanding of this paradox could also be of help to get a better insight into the complex mechanism of action for polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease.

Joussef Hayek

2013-08-01

300

Absolute quantification of fatty acid and proximate composition of cow and goat powdered milks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho investigou a qualidade lipídica de leites processados por quantificação de ácidos graxos. Dez amostras de leite em pó integral de vaca e duas de cabra foram submetidas à extração de lipídios totais e à preparação dos ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos. Estes foram separados em cromatóg [...] rafo a gás. A variação da quantidade de ácidos graxos por gramas de lipídios para compostos poliinsaturados, ômega 6, ômega 3 e ácido linoléico conjugado, foi respectivamente: 25,20-46,67, 12,82-31,45, 1,77-7,65 e 7,77-11,60 mg g-1. A razão n-6/n-3 foi menor para os leites em pó de vaca (2,85-6,07) em relação aos de cabra (11,31-12,75) e a quantidade de ácidos graxos trans variou de 0,09 a 0,17 g por porção de 26 g. As amostras apresentaram ácidos graxos essenciais ômega 6 e ômega 3, isômeros do ácido linoléico conjugado e quantidade de ácidos graxos trans em conformidade com a legislação brasileira. Abstract in english This work investigated of the lipid quality of processed milks by fatty acid quantification. Ten samples of dry whole milk from cow and two from goat were submitted to total lipid extraction and to fatty acid methyl ester synthesis. Then, the synthesized products were separated in a gas chromatograp [...] h. The variation of the fatty acid per total lipid gram for polyunsaturated compounds, omega-6, omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid, was 25.20-46.67, 12.82-31.45, 1.77-7.65 and 7.77-11.60, respectively. The n-6/n-3 ratio for the cow powdered milk samples (2.85-6.07) was lesser reagarding goat milk samples (11.31-12.75) and the trans fatty acid amount varied from 0.09 to 0.17 g per 26 g portion. Essential fatty acids from the omega-3 and omega-6 groups were present in every sample, besides conjugated linoleic acid isomers. The trans fatty acid contents of the samples is in accordance with the Brazilian legislation.

Weliton P., Batiston; Swami A., Maruyama; Sandra T. M., Gomes; Jesuí V., Visentainer; Nilson E. de, Souza; Makoto, Matsushita.

1907-19-01

 
 
 
 
301

Absolute quantification of fatty acid and proximate composition of cow and goat powdered milks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho investigou a qualidade lipídica de leites processados por quantificação de ácidos graxos. Dez amostras de leite em pó integral de vaca e duas de cabra foram submetidas à extração de lipídios totais e à preparação dos ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos. Estes foram separados em cromatóg [...] rafo a gás. A variação da quantidade de ácidos graxos por gramas de lipídios para compostos poliinsaturados, ômega 6, ômega 3 e ácido linoléico conjugado, foi respectivamente: 25,20-46,67, 12,82-31,45, 1,77-7,65 e 7,77-11,60 mg g-1. A razão n-6/n-3 foi menor para os leites em pó de vaca (2,85-6,07) em relação aos de cabra (11,31-12,75) e a quantidade de ácidos graxos trans variou de 0,09 a 0,17 g por porção de 26 g. As amostras apresentaram ácidos graxos essenciais ômega 6 e ômega 3, isômeros do ácido linoléico conjugado e quantidade de ácidos graxos trans em conformidade com a legislação brasileira. Abstract in english This work investigated of the lipid quality of processed milks by fatty acid quantification. Ten samples of dry whole milk from cow and two from goat were submitted to total lipid extraction and to fatty acid methyl ester synthesis. Then, the synthesized products were separated in a gas chromatograp [...] h. The variation of the fatty acid per total lipid gram for polyunsaturated compounds, omega-6, omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid, was 25.20-46.67, 12.82-31.45, 1.77-7.65 and 7.77-11.60, respectively. The n-6/n-3 ratio for the cow powdered milk samples (2.85-6.07) was lesser reagarding goat milk samples (11.31-12.75) and the trans fatty acid amount varied from 0.09 to 0.17 g per 26 g portion. Essential fatty acids from the omega-3 and omega-6 groups were present in every sample, besides conjugated linoleic acid isomers. The trans fatty acid contents of the samples is in accordance with the Brazilian legislation.

Weliton P., Batiston; Swami A., Maruyama; Sandra T. M., Gomes; Jesuí V., Visentainer; Nilson E. de, Souza; Makoto, Matsushita.

302

A more desirable balanced polyunsaturated fatty acid composition achieved by heterologous expression of ?15/?4 desaturases in mammalian cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids, but their biosyntheses in mammals are very limited. The biosynthesis of DHA is the most difficult, because this undergoes the Sprecher pathway--a further elongation step from docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), a ?6-desaturase acting on a C24 fatty acid substrate followed by a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper reports the successful heterologous expression of two non-mammalian genes (with modification of codon usage), coding for Euglena gracilis ?4-desaturase and Siganus canaliculatus ?4-desaturase respectively, in mammalian cells (HEK293 cell line). Both of the ?4-desaturases can efficiently function, directly converting DPA into DHA. Moreover, the cooperation of the E. gracilis ?4-desaturase with C. elegans ?15-desaturase (able to convert a number of n-6 PUFAs to their corresponding n-3 PUFAs) in transgenic HEK293 cells made a more desirable fatty acid composition--a drastically reduced n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio and a high level of DHA as well as EPA and ARA. Our findings provide a basis for potential applications of the gene constructs for expression of ?15/?4-desaturases in transgenic livestock to produce such a fatty acid profile in the related products, which certainly will bring benefit to human health. PMID:24391980

Zhu, Guiming; Ou, Qin; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Xudong; Sun, Guozhi; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Kunfu; Fang, Heng; Wang, Mingfu; Sun, Jie; Ge, Tangdong

2013-01-01

303

Fatty Acid Composition of Tissue Cultured Breast Carcinoma and the Effect of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 Inhibition  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a novel therapeutic target in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the pharmacologic inhibition of SCD1 on fatty acid composition in tissue explant cultures of human breast cancer and to compare these effects with those in adjacent nonneoplastic breast tissue. Methods Paired samples of tumor and adjacent noncancerous tissue were isolated from 12 patients with infiltrating ductal breast cancer. Samples were explant cultured in vitro, exposed to the highly selective SCD1 inhibitor CAY10566, and examined for fatty acid composition by gas liquid chromatography. The cytotoxic and antigrowth effects were evaluated by quantification of lactate dehydrogenase release and by sulforhodamine B (SRB) measurement, respectively. Results Breast cancer tissue samples were found to have higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p<0.001) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, p<0.001) and a lower level of linoleic acid (18:2n-6, p=0.02) than the normal-appearing breast tissues. While exhibiting no evident cytotoxicity, treatment with the SCD1 inhibitor, CAY10566 (0.1-1 µM), for 48 hours significantly increased 18:2n-6 levels in both the tumor and adjacent normal-appearing tissue (approximately 1.2 fold, p<0.05). However, the breast cancer tissue samples showed significant increases in the levels of MUFA and 20:4n-6 compared to the normal-appearing breast tissues (p<0.05). The SRB growth assay revealed a higher rate of inhibition with the SCD1 inhibitor in breast cancer tissues than in normal-appearing tissues (p<0.01, 41% vs. 29%). The SCD1 inhibitor also elevated saturated fatty acid (1.46-fold, p=0.001) levels only in the tumor tissue explant. Conclusion The fatty acid composition and response to SCD1 inhibition differed between the explant cultures from breast cancer and the adjacent normal-appearing tissue. Altered fatty acid composition induced by SCD1 inhibition may also, in addition to ?9 desaturation, modulate other reactions in de novo fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis, and subsequently affect the overall survival and progression of breast cancer. PMID:25013434

Mohammadzadeh, Fatemeh; Mosayebi, Gholamali; Montazeri, Vahid; Darabi, Maryam; Fayezi, Shabnam; Shaaker, Maghsod; Rahmati, Mohammad; Baradaran, Behzad; Mehdizadeh, Amir

2014-01-01

304

Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric (Pitt); (Michigan); (Van Andel); (Morehouse-MED)

2010-03-08

305

Temperature adaptation in yeasts: the role of fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on the yeasts Candida oleophila, Candida utilis, Lipomyces starkeyi, Rhodosporidium toruloides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed the existence of three different temperature adaptation responses involving changes in fatty acid composition. These conclusions were drawn by determining the growth rates, total cellular fatty acid content, fatty acid composition, degree of unsaturation, and the mean chain length of fatty acids over a range of growth temperatures. Within temperatures permitting growth, there were no changes in the major fatty acids of any of the yeasts, but the absolute amounts and relative compositions of the fatty acids did alter. In S. cerevisiae there were temperature-induced changes in the mean fatty acid chain length, whereas in R. toruloides there were changes in the degree of unsaturation. C. oleophila, C. utilis and L. starkeyi showed both responses, depending on whether the growth temperature was above or below 20-26 degrees C. Below 20-26 degrees C temperature-dependent changes were observed in the mean chain length whereas above 20-26 degrees C there were changes in the degree of unsaturation. PMID:2262787

Suutari, M; Liukkonen, K; Laakso, S

1990-08-01

306

Plasma fatty acids and the risk of metabolic syndrome in ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence of predictive power of various fatty acids on the risk of metabolic syndrome was scanty. We evaluated the role of various fatty acids, including saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, transfat, n-6 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, for the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. Results A nested case-control study based on 1000 cases of metabolic syndrome and 1:1 matched control subjects. For saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and transfat, the higher the concentration the higher the risk for metabolic syndrome: participants in the highest quintile had a 2.22-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 2.97 higher risk of metabolic syndrome. In addition, the participants in higher EPA quintiles were less likely to have the risk of metabolic syndrome (adjusted risk, 0.46 [0.34 to 0.61] for the fifth quintile. Participants in the highest risk group (low EPA and high transfat had a 2.36-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome (95% CI, 1.38 to 4.03, compared with those in the lowest risk group (high EPA and low transfat. For prediction power, the area under ROC curves increased from 0.926 in the baseline model to 0.928 after adding fatty acids. The net reclassification improvement for metabolic syndrome risk was substantial for saturated fat (2.1%, P = 0.05. Conclusions Plasma fatty acid components improved the prediction of the metabolic syndrome risk in Taiwan.

Hsu Hsiu-Ching

2011-02-01

307

Influence of fatty acid oxidation rate on glycerol release from cardiac myocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quiescent cardiac myocytes are characterized by low rates of fatty acid oxidation due to the reduced energy demand compared with beating hearts. The accumulation of intracellular fatty acid metabolites may, therefore, result in feed-back inhibition of the cardiac lipase responsible for the mobilization of triacylglycerols (lipolysis). The objective of this study was to examine if interventions that increase fatty acid oxidation rates in myocytes have an effect on lipolysis. Addition of 100 ?M dinitrophenol (DNP) to calcium-tolerant rat ventricular myocytes caused an increase in the rate of 14C-oleic acid oxidation from 1.11 +/- 0.06 to 2.38 +/- 0.17 nmol 14CO2/106 cells/min (115% stimulation; mean +/- S.D., n = 3). In parallel incubations, DNP increased the rate of lipolysis from 4.4 +/- 1.7 to 13.6 +/- 3.2 nmol glycerol/106 cells/30 min (215% stimulation). The addition of 1 mM barium to a modified Ringer's incubation medium produced an increase in the contractile activity of the myocytes, and increased the rates of oleic acid oxidation from 0.62 +/- 0.16 to 0.88 +/- 0.23 nmol/106 cells/min (42% stimulation; n = 6) and lipolysis from 13.1 +/- 6.5 to 22.2 +/- 6.4 nmol/106 cells/30 min (70% stimulation). These data show that stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in myocardial myocytes is accompanied by increased lipolytic rates, the latter probably due to release of feed-back inhibition of cardiac lipases by accumulated fatty acid metabolites

308

Effects of Fatty Acid Inclusion in a DMPC Bilayer Membrane  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Free fatty acids in biomembranes have been proposed to be a central component in several cellular control and regulatory mechanisms. To elucidate some fundamental elements underlying this, we have applied molecular dynamics simulations and experimental density measurements to study the molecular packing and structure of oleic acid (HOA) and stearic acid (HSA) in fluid bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The experimental data show a small but consistent positive excess volume for fatty acid concentrations below 10 mol %. At higher concentrations the fatty acids mix ideally with fluid DMPC. The simulations, which were benchmarked against the densitometric data, revealed interesting differences in the structure and location of the fatty acids depending on their protonation status. Thus, the protonated (uncharged) acid is located rather deeply in the membrane with an average position of the carboxy group near the second carbon segment of the lipid chains with a typical end-to-end distance of 16?18 Å. This structure of the fatty acid brings about a rather tight lateral packing in the mixed membrane and a moderate ordering and hence stretching of the lipid chains. Deprotonation of the fatty acids is associated with a pronounced movement of their carboxy group to a more hydrated position at the membrane interface and a lateral expansion driven by the mutual repulsion of the anions. These changes increase both the disorder and the degree of interdigitation of the lipid chains, and they make the membrane thinner by 2?3 Å.

Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

2009-01-01

309

Neuroprotective Properties of the Marine Carotenoid Astaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Perspectives for the Natural Combination of Both in Krill Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The consumption of marine fishes and general seafood has long been recommended by several medical authorities as a long-term nutritional intervention to preserve mental health, hinder neurodegenerative processes, and sustain cognitive capacities in humans. Most of the neurological benefits provided by frequent seafood consumption comes from adequate uptake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3/n-6 PUFAs, and antioxidants. Optimal n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratios allow efficient inflamma...

Barros, Marcelo P.; Poppe, Sandra C.; Bondan, Eduardo F.

2014-01-01

310

Home use of margarine is an important determinant of plasma trans fatty acid status: a biomarker study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contribution of the home use of margarines, made with partially hydrogenated vegetables oils, to total trans fatty acid intake is difficult to determine using dietary assessment because food composition databases are incomplete for trans fatty acids; moreover, hidden fats in manufactured foods may be the predominant sources of trans fatty acids. The objective of our study was to determine, using plasma phospholipid trans fatty acid composition as a surrogate measure of exposure, whether the home use of margarine or butter is an important determinant of trans fatty acid status. We conducted a community-based (Dunedin, New Zealand), cross-sectional survey of people who consumed either margarine (n 65) or butter (n 64) but not both for home use. The levels of the 18:1 trans isomers commonly found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils were all significantly higher in the plasma phospholipids of margarine compared with butter consumers, with the exception of 18:1n-7t, which did not differ. Among margarine consumers, the percentage of total fat from margarine was significantly correlated with levels of phospholipid 18:1n-6t, 18:1n-8t and 18:1n-12/9t isomers (r 0.57-0.63, Pvegetable oils, is an important determinant of trans fatty acid exposure in New Zealand. PMID:16923234

Skeaff, C Murray; Gowans, Sonya

2006-08-01

311

Fat intake and composition of fatty acids in serum phospholipids in a randomized, controlled, Mediterranean dietary intervention study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that rheumatoid arthritis patients, who adopted a modified Cretan Mediterranean diet, obtained a reduction in disease activity and an improvement in physical function and vitality. This shift in diet is likely to result in an altered intake of fatty acids. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the dietary intake of fatty acids, as well as the fatty acid profile in serum phospholipids, during the dietary intervention study presented earlier. Results From baseline to the end of the study, changes in the reported consumption of various food groups were observed in the Mediterranean diet group. The change in diet resulted in a number of differences between the Mediterranean diet group and the control diet group regarding the fatty acid intake. For instance, a lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids was observed in the Mediterranean diet group, both assessed by diet history interviews (dietary intake and measured in serum phospholipids. Moreover, the patients in the Mediterranean diet group that showed a moderate or better clinical improvement during the study (diet responders, had a higher reported intake of n-3 fatty acids and a lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids compared to the patients with minor or no improvement. Also the fatty acid profile in serum phospholipids differed in part between the diet responders and the diet non-responders. Conclusion The changes in the fatty acid profile, indicated both by dietary assessments and through fatty acids in s-phospholipids may, at least in part, explain the beneficial effects of the Cretan Mediterranean diet that we have presented earlier.

Sköldstam Lars

2005-10-01

312

Transgenic Mice Convert Carbohydrates to Essential Fatty Acids  

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Transgenic mice (named “Omega mice”) were engineered to carry both optimized fat-1 and fat-2 genes from the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and are capable of producing essential omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids from saturated fats or carbohydrates. When maintained on a high-saturated fat diet lacking essential fatty acids or a high-carbohydrate, no-fat diet, the Omega mice exhibit high tissue levels of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, with a ratio of ?1?1. This study thus presen...

Pai, Victor J.; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiangyong; Wu, Lin; Kang, Jing X.

2014-01-01

313

Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients with severe fat malabsorption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Essential fatty acid deficiency is commonly described in patients receiving parenteral nutrition, but the occurrence in patients with severe fat malabsorption not receiving parenteral nutrition is uncertain. One hundred twelve patients were grouped according to their degree of fat malabsorption: group 1, 50% (n = 15). Fecal fat was measured by the method of Van de Kamer the last 2 of 5 d of a 75-g fat diet. Serum fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were measured by gas-liquid chromatography after separation by thin-layer chromatography and expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids. The concentration of linoleic acid in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 21.7%, 19.4%, 16.4%, and 13.4% respectively (P 25-50% of dietary fat intake and not treated with parenteral nutrition have biochemical signs of essential fatty acid deficiency. The clinical effect of these changes are yet to be elucidated.

HØy, Carl-Erik

1997-01-01

314

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases  

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Full Text Available The article presents some general facts about omega-3 fatty acids and their role in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the human body. Their beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been known for decades. Since then, several epidemiological and interventional trials showed the value of omega-3 acids in the treatment of certain diseases. Most of them revealed the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids on heart and cardiac functions. However, some of these studies couldn?t demonstrate a positive association between fish oils and preventing cardiac events. The major cardiologic societies from European Union and United States of America recommend omega-3 fatty acids as supplements for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases.

?tefan C. Vesa

2008-12-01

315

Incorporation and fatty acid composition in liver of Nile tilapia fed with flaxseed oil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i2.7970 Incorporation and fatty acid composition in liver of Nile tilapia fed with flaxseed oil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i2.7970  

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Full Text Available One of the most consumed freshwater fish in South America is Nile tilapia. The present study examined the effects of flaxseed oil (FO, source of alfa-linolenic acid (LNA, on the total lipid composition and polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-3 PUFA, contents on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus liver. Tilapias were given diets with increasing levels 0.00, 1.2, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00% (w w-1 of FO as a replacement of sunflower oil for five months. Fatty acids analysis of methyl esters revealed 45 fatty acids common to all treatments. The increase of flaxseed oil resulted in a decrease in total n-6 PUFA (35.1 to 21.1% and an increase in n-3 PUFA (3.3 to 18.5%. The diet with LNA underwent sequential desaturation and elongation in liver, leading to an increase in all n-3 PUFA and a decrease in n-6/n-3 ratios (10.7 to 1.1. The manipulation of fatty acids with FO may be used to increase n-3 PUFA and to help balance n-6/n-3 PUFA in dietary supplements, thus, the liver tilapia becomes one product with major nutritional value.One of the most consumed freshwater fish in South America is Nile tilapia. The present study examined the effects of flaxseed oil (FO, source of alfa-linolenic acid (LNA, on the total lipid composition and polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-3 PUFA, contents on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus liver. Tilapias were given diets with increasing levels 0.00, 1.2, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00% (w w-1 of FO as a replacement of sunflower oil for five months. Fatty acids analysis of methyl esters revealed 45 fatty acids common to all treatments. The increase of flaxseed oil resulted in a decrease in total n-6 PUFA (35.1 to 21.1% and an increase in n-3 PUFA (3.3 to 18.5%. The diet with LNA underwent sequential desaturation and elongation in liver, leading to an increase in all n-3 PUFA and a decrease in n-6/n-3 ratios (10.7 to 1.1. The manipulation of fatty acids with FO may be used to increase n-3 PUFA and to help balance n-6/n-3 PUFA in dietary supplements, thus, the liver tilapia becomes one product with major nutritional value.

Nilson Evelázio de Souza

2011-04-01

316

Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae  

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Full Text Available The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented.

João Varela

2013-06-01

317

Alternative sources of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine microalgae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented. PMID:23807546

Martins, Dulce Alves; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Pereira, Hugo; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Varela, João; Abu-Salah, Khalid M

2013-01-01

318

Fatty Acids Inhibit Apical Membrane Chloride Channels in Airway Epithelia  

Science.gov (United States)

Apical membrane Cl^- channels control the rate of transepithelial Cl^- secretion in airway epithelia. cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C regulate Cl^- channels by phosphorylation; in cystic fibrosis cells, phosphorylation-dependent activation of Cl^- channels is defective. Another important signaling system involves arachidonic acid, which is released from cell membranes during receptor-mediated stimulation. Here we report that arachidonic acid reversibly inhibited apical membrane Cl^- channels in cell-free patches of membrane. Arachidonic acid itself inhibited the channel and not a cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase metabolite because (i) inhibitors of these enzymes did not block the response, (ii) fatty acids that are not substrates for the enzymes had the same effect as arachidonic acid, and (iii) metabolites of arachidonic acid did not inhibit the channel. Inhibition occurred only when fatty acids were added to the cytosolic surface of the membrane patch. Unsaturated fatty acids were more potent than saturated fatty acids. Arachidonic acid inhibited Cl^- channels from both normal and cystic fibrosis cells. These results suggest that fatty acids directly inhibit apical membrane Cl^- channels in airway epithelial cells.

Anderson, Matthew P.; Welsh, Michael J.

1990-09-01

319

Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three positions in accordance with the distributions in test fats. Calculations of postprandial TAG concentrations from fatty acid data revealed increasing amounts up to 4 h but lower response curves (IAUC) for the two saturated fats in accordance with previous published data. The T fat gave results comparable to the O and L fats. The test fatty acids were much less reflected in VLDL TAG and there was no dietary influence on the response curves. Conclusions: The fatty acid composition in the test fats as well as the positional distributions of these were maintained in the chylomicrons. No specific clearing of chylomicron TAG was observed in relation to time. Sponsorship: Danish Research Development Program for Food Technology.

Bysted, Anette; Lund, Pia

2005-01-01

320

Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products  

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The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB), tea sausage spread (TSS), scalded sausage (SS)). Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%...

Dirk Dannenberger; Karin Nuernberg; Andrea Herdmann; Gerd Nuernberg; Elke Hagemann; Walter Kienast

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis Induce PPAR ? -Regulated Fatty Acid ? -Oxidative Genes: Synergistic Roles of L-FABP and Glucose.  

Science.gov (United States)

While TOFA (acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor) and C75 (fatty acid synthase inhibitor) prevent lipid accumulation by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, the mechanism of action is not simply accounted for by inhibition of the enzymes alone. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a mediator of long chain fatty acid signaling to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- ? (PPAR ? ) in the nucleus, was found to bind TOFA and its activated CoA thioester, TOFyl-CoA, with high affinity while binding C75 and C75-CoA with lower affinity. Binding of TOFA and C75-CoA significantly altered L-FABP secondary structure. High (20?mM) but not physiological (6?mM) glucose conferred on both TOFA and C75 the ability to induce PPAR ? transcription of the fatty acid ? -oxidative enzymes CPT1A, CPT2, and ACOX1 in cultured primary hepatocytes from wild-type (WT) mice. However, L-FABP gene ablation abolished the effects of TOFA and C75 in the context of high glucose. These effects were not associated with an increased cellular level of unesterified fatty acids but rather by increased intracellular glucose. These findings suggested that L-FABP may function as an intracellular fatty acid synthesis inhibitor binding protein facilitating TOFA and C75-mediated induction of PPAR ? in the context of high glucose at levels similar to those in uncontrolled diabetes. PMID:23533380

Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Petrescu, Anca D; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

2013-01-01

322

Backfat fatty acid composition of calves from limousin and tudanca x charolais genotypes produced in Nansa Valley (Cantabria)  

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This study was designed to compare the fatty acid composition of backfat from veal produced from ‘Tudanca x Charolais’ cross (n=6) and Limousin (n=6) breeds when allowed to feed freely on mountain pastures and suckled naturally their mothers from birth to 7 months of age. After 80 days of age calves also had access to concentrate (maximum of 3 Kg/day), while cows did not. In general, very few differences were observed between backfat profiles of both genotypes except for sl...

Aldai, Noelia; Lavi?n, Paz; Jaroso, R.; Sa?nchez Brin?as, B.; Manteco?n, A?ngel R.

2013-01-01

323

Project DyAdd: Fatty acids in adult dyslexia, ADHD, and their comorbid combination.  

Science.gov (United States)

In project DyAdd, we compared the fatty acid (FA) profiles of serum phospholipids in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=26), dyslexia (n=36), their comorbid combination (n=9), and healthy controls (n=36). FA proportions were analyzed in a 2x2 design with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons. A questionnaire was used to assess dietary fat quality and use of supplements. Results showed that ADHD and dyslexia were not associated with total saturated FAs, monounsaturated FAs, or n-3 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs). However, those with ADHD had elevated proportions of total n-6 PUFAs (including gamma-linolenic and adrenic acids) as compared to those without ADHD. Dyslexia was related to a higher proportion of monounsaturated nervonic acid and a higher ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs. Among females none of the associations were significant. However in males, all the original associations observed in all subjects remained and ADHD was associated with elevated nervonic acid and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio like dyslexia. Controlling for poorly diagnosed reading difficulties, education, dietary fat quality, or use of FA supplements did not generally remove the originally observed associations. PMID:19523794

Laasonen, Marja; Hokkanen, Laura; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Erkkilä, Arja T

2009-07-01

324

Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vit [...] ro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

J.A.A., Pires; R.R., Grummer.

325

Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow  

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Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

J.A.A. Pires

2008-07-01

326

Bioavailability of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supplements have reached a prominent role in improving the supply of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3). Similar to other nutrients, the availability of omega-3 fatty acids is highly variable and determined by numerous factors. However, the question of omega-3 fatty acids bioavailability has long been disregarded, which may have contributed to the neutral or negative results concerning their effects in several studies. This review provides an overview of the influence of chemical binding form (free fatty acids bound in ethylesters, triacylglycerides or phospholipids), matrix effects (capsule ingestion with concomitant intake of food, fat content in food) or galenic form (i.e. microencapsulation, emulsification) on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids. There is a need to systematically investigate the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids formulations, which might be a key to designing more effective studies in the future. PMID:23676322

Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

2013-07-01

327

21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and oils derived from edible sources: Capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food additive meets the following specifications: (1) Unsaponifiable matter does...

2010-04-01

328

Free fatty acid (FFA) and hydroxy carboxylic acid (HCA) receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs), as well as hydroxy carboxylic acids (HCAs) such as lactate and ketone bodies, are carriers of metabolic energy, precursors of biological mediators, and components of biological structures. However, they are also able to exert cellular effects through G protein-coupled receptors named FFA1-FFA4 and HCA1-HCA3. Work during the past decade has shown that these receptors are widely expressed in the human body and regulate the metabolic, endocrine, immune and other systems to maintain homeostasis under changing dietary conditions. The development of genetic mouse models and the generation of synthetic ligands of individual FFA and HCA receptors have been instrumental in identifying cellular and biological functions of these receptors. These studies have produced strong evidence that several FFA and HCA receptors can be targets for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and inflammation. PMID:24160702

Offermanns, Stefan

2014-01-01

329

Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intact chloroplasts (about 70% Class I chloroplasts) isolated from spinach leaves incorporated 150 nmoles of [1-14C] acetate into fatty acids per mg chlorophyll in 1 hr at pH 8.3, 250C and 25,000 lux. On electron and phase-contrast microscopies combined with hypotonic treatment of chloroplasts, this synthetic activity was shown to be proportional to the percentage of Class I chloroplasts in the preparation. Light was necessary for the synthesis, the activity in the complete reaction mixture in the dark being only 2% of that in the light. The synthetic activity increased with increasing intensities of light to reach saturation at 6000 lux. CoA and ATP were most effective as cofactors, HCO3-, HPO42-, Mg2+ and Mn2+ were less effective. ATP could be replaced by ADP in the presence of Pi, suggesting possible supply of ATP by photophosphorylation. Omission of the NADPH-generation system and NADH did not affect the synthesis, indicating sufficient provision of endogenous NADPH and NADH in intact chloroplasts under light. Addition of DTE did not cause recovery of the synthetic activity of intact chloroplasts in the dark. (author)

330

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and FFAR4  

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Full Text Available The beneficial roles of omega-3 fatty acids (?3-FAs on obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic diseases are well known. Most of these effects can be explained by their anti-inflammatory effects, triggered through their receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120 activation. Although the whole mechanism of action is not fully described yet, it has been shown that stimulation of ?3-FA to GPR120 is followed by receptor phosphorylation. This makes GPR120 be capable of interacting to beta-arrestin-2, which in turn results in association, of beta-arrestin-2 to TAB1. This stealing of an important partaker of the inflammatory cascade, leads to interruption of the pathway, resulting in reduced inflammation. Besides this regulation of the anti-inflammatory response, GPR120 signaling also has been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis, adiposity, gastrointestinal peptide secretion, and taste preference. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about the interaction of ?3-FAs with GPR120 and the consequent opportunities for the application of ?3-FAs and possible GPR120 targets.

Da YoungOh

2014-07-01

331

Correlation of omega-3 levels in serum phospholipid from 2053 human blood samples with key fatty acid ratios  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was conducted to explore the relationships between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and key fatty acid ratios including potential cut-offs for risk factor assessment with respect to coronary heart disease and fatal ischemic heart disease. Methods Blood samples (n = 2053 were obtained from free-living subjects in North America and processed for determining the levels of total fatty acids in serum phospholipid as omega-3 fatty acids including EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5 n-3 and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6 n-3 by combined thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatographic analyses. The omega-3 levels were correlated with selected omega-6: omega-3 ratios including AA (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6: EPA and AA:(EPA+DHA. Based on previously-published levels of omega-3 fatty acids considered to be in a 'lower risk' category for heart disease and related fatality, 'lower risk' categories for selected fatty acid ratios were estimated. Results Strong inverse correlations between the summed total of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and all four ratios (omega-6:omega-3 (n-6:n-3, AA:EPA, AA:DHA, and AA:(EPA+DHA were found with the most potent correlation being with the omega-6:omega-3 ratio (R2 = 0.96. The strongest inverse relation for the EPA+DHA levels in serum phospholipid was found with the omega-6: omega-3 ratio (R2 = 0.94 followed closely by the AA:(EPA+DHA ratio at R2 = 0.88. It was estimated that 95% of the subjects would be in the 'lower risk' category for coronary heart disease (based on total omega-3 ? 7.2% with omega-6:omega-3 ratios Conclusions Strong inverse correlations between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum (or plasma phospholipid and omega-6: omega-3 ratios are apparent based on this large database of 2053 samples. Certain fatty acid ratios may aid in cardiovascular disease-related risk assessment if/when complete profiles are not available.

Rowe William

2009-12-01

332

Comparison of fatty acid content of fresh and frozen fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Walbaum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the percentage content of fatty acids (FA) of 54 rainbow trout fresh and frozen fillets. Frozen fillets were stored at -15ºC for 45 and 90 days. Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty ac [...] ids were determined by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometry. The results indicated that during frozen storage, SFA and MUFA content increased by 32.63 and 9.25%, respectively, while PUFA content decreased by 25.3%, n-6 by 12.4% and n-3 by 32.55%. These changes were more significant (P ? 0.05) during the first 45 d of storage. It was concluded that the frozen storage had a negative impact on meat quality of rainbow trout due to the reduction of PUFA, n-3/n-6, polyene index and PUFA/ SFA and the increase of the SFA, and atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes, which meant a substantial loss of nutritional value in the fillets of rainbow trout.

Celia, Chávez-Mendoza; José Arturo, García-Macías; Alma Delia, Alarcón-Rojo; Juan Ángel, Ortega-Gutiérrez; Celia, Holguín-Licón; Gabriela, Corral-Flores.

2014-02-01

333

13C-labeled 18 : 2n-6 recovered in brush border membrane phospholipids short time after administration.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of the present study was to examine the short-term effect of dietary specific structured triacylglycerols (MLM, M = 8:0, L = 18:2n-6), LLL and MMM on the fatty acid composition of brush border membrane (BBM) phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Rats were administered intragastrically a bolus of ML*M, M*LM*, L*L*L* or M*M*M* (* = C-13- labeled fatty acid). Rats were decapitated 2 hours and 6 hours later, and the fatty acid composition and C-13-enrichment of BBM-PC and -PE were determined. C-13-enriched 18:2n-6 was observed in BBM-PC after intragastric administration of L*L*L* and ML*M, whereas no C-13-labeled fatty acids were recovered after administration of M*LM* or M*M*M*. Interestingly, no C-13-labeled fatty acids were detected in the BBM-PE fraction. This could be due to a lower turnover of PE than PC and to a different ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the two phospholipid pools. Minor effects on BBM-PC and BBM-PE fatty acid profiles (mole-%) were observed. The present study demonstrated for the first time incorporation of C-13-labeled 18:2n-6 into BBM-PC 2 hours and 6 hours after intragastric administration of L*L*L* or ML*M. This emphasizes the influence of the dietary fatty acid on BBM fatty acid composition and the rapid incorporation of dietary long-chain fatty acids into intestinal enterocyte phospholipids. Medium-chain fatty acids in a single meal exert only a minor influence on the BBM phospholipid fatty acid profile.

Vistisen, Bodil; HØy, Carl-Erik

2004-01-01

334

Chemical composition and fatty acids quantification in commercial meat products processed in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to determine and compare the proximate composition and the content of fatty acids in different meat products processed in Brazil. To this end, meat products (formed ham, hamburger, mortadella, ham, salami, sausage from three different brands for each derivative and from five different lots for each brand have been examined. The total lipids ranged from 1.84% for the ham brand C to 31.61% for the salami brand F; hamburguers presented values in the range of 14% of total lipids, with no significant difference (P<0.05 between brands analyzed. The major fatty acid found for meat derivatives was the oleic acid (18:1n-9, whit values between 0.79% for the ham brand A to 12.18% for the salami brand C. Hamburguers showed the lowest variation in oleic acid content, with values around 5.2%. The mean values of n-6/n-3 and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA rations were 26.28 and 0.68, respectively, for the sausage, 14.41 and 0.30 for the hamburger; respectively. The Salami was the meat derivative with the highest content of fat and the ham was with the lowest content of fat between examined products, becoming the healthiest option among all products.

Fabio Machry Sanches

2013-09-01

335

Association between Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acids Species and Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Composition  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue (AT) is an established long-term biomarker for fatty acid (FA) intake and status, but AT samples are not easily available. Nonesterified FA composition in plasma (pNEFA) may be a good indicator of AT FA composition, because pNEFA are mainly generated by AT lipolysis. We investigated the correlation of 42 pNEFA and subcutaneous as well as visceral AT FA in 27 non-diabetic women with a median BMI of 36 kg/m2 (Q0.25: 25 kg/m2; Q0.75: 49 kg/m2). Close correlations of pNEFA and AT FA were found for odd-chain FA (15?0 r?=?0.838 and 0.862 for subcutaneous and visceral AT, respectively) and omega-3 FA (22?6 r?=?0.719/0.535), while no significant or low correlations were found for other FA including 18?1 (r?=?0.384/0.325) and 20?4 (r?=?0.386/0.266). Close correlations of pNEFA and AT FA were found for essential fatty acids, like 18?2 (r?=?0.541/0.610) and 20?5 (r?=?0.561/0.543). The lower correlation for some pNEFA species with AT FA indicates that the variation of most pNEFA is significantly affected by other FA sources and flux of FA to tissue, in addition to release from AT. A relevant influence of BMI on the level of correlation was shown for saturated FA. NEFA analysis in fasted plasma can serve as a virtual AT biopsy for some FA, and as a biomarker for intake of dairy products and sea fish. PMID:24098359

Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Schmitt, Isabel; Peissner, Wolfgang; Bluher, Matthias; Koletzko, Berthold

2013-01-01

336

Fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle in crossbred steers fed different sources of fatty acids  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle in carcasses of ¾ Bos taurus taurus ¼ Bos taurus indicus steers fed different sources of fatty acids. Thirty-six steers aged 14 months, with a mean live weight of 320 kg, were fed the following diets for 96 days: 1) control diet, containing no supplemental fat source; 2) CaSFA, diet containing 50 g calcium salts of fatty acids per kg total dry matter; 3) CS diet, containing 210 g cottonsee...

Gabriela Aferri; Paulo Roberto Leme; Angélica Simone Cravo Pereira; Silva, Saulo Da Luz E.; Soraia Marques Putrino; José Esler de Freitas Júnior; Francisco Palma Rennó

2012-01-01