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Sample records for n-6 fatty acids

  1. Echium oil: A valuable source of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids

    MIR Miquel

    2008-01-01

    Echium oil is a vegetable oil of non-GMO plant origin extracted from the seeds of Echium plantagineum containing significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acid Stearidonic Acid (SDA) and omega-6 acid γ-linolenic acid (GLA). Typical fatty acid composition of Echium oil is: Oleic acid (18:1 n-9) 16%, Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) 19%, γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 n-6)10%, α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) 30% and Stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3) 13%. This natural ratio of fatty acids, trough their meta...

  2. Echium oil: A valuable source of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids

    MIR Miquel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Echium oil is a vegetable oil of non-GMO plant origin extracted from the seeds of Echium plantagineum containing significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acid Stearidonic Acid (SDA and omega-6 acid γ-linolenic acid (GLA. Typical fatty acid composition of Echium oil is: Oleic acid (18:1 n-9 16%, Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6 19%, γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 n-610%, α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3 30% and Stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3 13%. This natural ratio of fatty acids, trough their metabolism, deliver enhanced plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3, docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5 n-3 and dihomo-γ-linolenic (DGLA, 20:3 n-6 acids without increasing the concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6. GLA is commonly associated with the anti-inflammatory effects of oils such as evening primrose oil and borage oil. Supplementation with GLA can markedly increase serum AA with subsequent pro-inflammatory effects. The presence of stearidonic acid in echium oil prevents the accumulation of serum AA and AA-derived eicosanoids without preventing the accumulation of DGLA which is the real n-6 precursor of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. SDA is an intermediate in the biosynthetic conversion of ALA to EPA. As SDA is the product of the rate-limiting ∆6-desaturase step and due the efficiency of the elongase and ∆5-desaturase steps, SDA is readily converted to EPA. SDA has the physiologic benefits of EPA, for instance, lowering the serum triglycerides in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Therefore echium oil is a true alternative for vegetarians or those who do not eat fish, to benefit from the anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 and omega-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  3. The (n-3) fatty acid dose, independent of the (n-6) to (n-3) fatty acid ratio, affects the plasma fatty acid profile of normal dogs.

    Hall, Jean A; Picton, Rebecca A; Skinner, Monica M; Jewell, Dennis E; Wander, Rosemary C

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the dose of (n-3) fatty acids (FA) administered, independent of the relative ratio of (n-6) to (n-3) FA in the food, influences plasma FA composition in dogs. Healthy female, geriatric beagles (7-10 y old) were fed foods containing (n-6) to (n-3) FA ratios of either 40.0:1 or 1.4:1 for 12 wk (study 1) or 36 wk (study 2). In study 3, beagles were fed food with the same 1:1 ratio of (n-6) to (n-3) FA, but with increasing concentrations of (n-6) and (n-3) FA. Plasma FA concentrations were measured after completing the feeding studies. In studies 1 and 2, dogs fed fish oil-enriched food with a high (n-3) FA concentration had higher plasma total (n-3) FA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations and lower plasma total (n-6) FA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid concentrations than dogs fed corn oil-enriched food with a low (n-3) FA concentration (P < 0.001). Both inclusion of fish oil (P < 0.001) and increased food intake independent of treatment effects increased the plasma DHA (P = 0.05) concentration. Furthermore, constancy of the dose of (n-3) FA administered over long periods of time was necessary to maintain plasma levels of total (n-3) FA, EPA, and DHA. In study 3, up to certain dietary concentrations (6.3 g total (n-3) FA/kg food for DHA and 9.8 g total (n-3) FA/kg food for EPA), the dose of (n-3) FA administered, independent of the (n-6) to (n-3) FA ratio, determined the plasma (n-3) FA composition. Results from our studies indicate that approximately 175 mg DHA/(kg body weight . d) is required to attain maximum plasma levels of DHA. PMID:16920851

  4. Association of Plasma n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with synovitis in the knee: the MOST Study

    Baker, Kristin R.; Matthan, NR; Lichtenstein, Alice; Niu, Jingbo; Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank; Grainger, Andrew; Nevitt, Michael; Clancy, Margaret; Lewis, C. E.; TORNER, JAMES; Felson, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In osteoarthritis (OA) the synovium is often inflamed and inflammatory cytokines contribute to cartilage damage. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory effects whereas omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) have, on balance, proinflammatory effects. The goal of our study was to assess the association of fasting plasma phospholipid n-6 and n-3 PUFAs with synovitis as measured by synovial thickening on contrast enhanced (CE) knee MRI and cartilage damage...

  5. Association of plasma n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with synovitis in the knee: the MOST study

    In osteoarthritis (OA) the synovium is often inflamed and inflammatory cytokines contribute to cartilage damage. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory effects whereas omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) have, on balance, proinflammatory effects. The goal ...

  6. Kinetics of chronic inflammation in Nile tilapia fed n?3 and n?6 essential fatty acids

    Rberson Sakabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on the kinetics of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The supplementation sources were soybean oil (SO, source of omega 6, n?6 and linseed oil (LO, source of omega 3, n?3, in the following proportions: 100% SO; 75% SO + 25% LO; 50% SO + 50% LO; 25% SO + 75% LO; and 100% LO (four replicates per treatment. After a feeding period of three months, growth performance was evaluated, and glass coverslips were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of fish, being removed for examination at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after implantation. Growth performance did not differ between treatments. Fish fed 100% linseed oil diet had the greatest macrophage accumulation and the fastest Langhans cell formation on the sixth day. On the eighth day, Langhans cells were predominant on the coverslips implanted in the fish feed 75 and 100% linseed oil. n?3 fatty acids may contribute to macrophage recruitment and giant cell formation in fish chronic inflammatory response to foreign body.

  7. Fluorescent n-3 and n-6 Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: THREE-PHOTON IMAGING IN LIVING CELLS EXPRESSING LIVER FATTY ACID-BINDING PROTEIN*

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Wellberg, Elizabeth; Kuklev, Dmitry V.; Smith, William L.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    Despite the considerable beneficial effects of n-3 and n-6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs), very little is known about the factors that regulate their uptake and intracellular distribution in living cells. This issue was addressed in cells expressing liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) by real time multiphoton laser scanning microscopy of novel fluorescent VLC-PUFAs containing a conjugated tetraene fluorophore near the carboxyl group and natural methylene-in...

  8. Interaction of (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids in desaturation and chain elongation of essential fatty acids in cultured glioma cells

    Cook, H.W.; Spence, M.W.

    1987-09-01

    Recent research in various biological systems has revived interest in interactions between the (n-6) and (n-3) essential fatty acids. We have utilized cultured glioma cells to show that linolenic acid, 18:3(n-3), is rapidly desaturated and chain elongated; 20:5(n-3) is the major product and accumulates almost exclusively in phospholipids. We examined effects of various (n-6), (n-3), (n-9) and (n-7) fatty acids at 40 microM concentration on desaturation and chain elongation processes using (1-/sup 14/C)18:3(n-3) as substrate. In general, monoenoic fatty acids were without effect. The (n-6) fatty acids (18:2, 18:3, 20:3, 20:4 and 22:4) had little effect on total product formed. There was a shift of labeled product to triacylglycerol, and in phospholipids, slightly enhanced conversion of 20:5 to 22:5 was evident. In contrast, 22:6(n-3) was inhibitory, whereas 20:3(n-3) and 20:5(n-3) had much less effect. At concentrations less than 75 microM, all acids were inhibitory. Most products were esterified to phosphatidylcholine, but phosphatidylethanolamine also contained a major portion of 20:5 and 22:5. We provide a condensed overview of how the (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids interact to modify relative rates of desaturation and chain elongation, depending on the essential fatty acid precursor. Thus, the balance between these dietary acids can markedly influence enzymes providing crucial membrane components and substrates for biologically active oxygenated derivatives.

  9. Effect of Different Dietary n-6 to n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios on the Performance and Fatty Acid Composition in Muscles of Broiler Chickens

    Mandal, G. P.; Ghosh, T. K.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the different dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 (n-6/n-3) fatty acid (FA) on performance and n-6/n-3 FA in muscles of broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 10 replicates in each (10 birds/replicate). Birds were fed on a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 1% oil during starter (day 1 to 21) and 2% oil during finisher (day 22 to 39) phases, respectively. Treatments of high, medium and low...

  10. Association of plasma n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with synovitis in the knee: the MOST study.

    Baker, K R; Matthan, N R; Lichtenstein, A H; Niu, J; Guermazi, A; Roemer, F; Grainger, A; Nevitt, M C; Clancy, M; Lewis, C E; Torner, J C; Felson, D T

    2012-05-01

    In osteoarthritis (OA) the synovium is often inflamed and inflammatory cytokines contribute to cartilage damage. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory effects whereas omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) have, on balance, proinflammatory effects. The goal of our study was to assess the association of fasting plasma phospholipid n-6 and n-3 PUFAs with synovitis as measured by synovial thickening on contrast enhanced (CE) knee MRI and cartilage damage among subjects in the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST). MOST is a cohort study of individuals who have or are at high risk of knee OA. An unselected subset of participants who volunteered obtained CE 1.5T MRI of one knee. Synovitis was scored in six compartments and a summary score was created. This subset also had fasting plasma, analyzed by gas chromatography for phospholipid fatty acid content, and non-CE MRI, read for cartilage morphology according to the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) method. The association between synovitis and cartilage morphology and plasma PUFAs was assessed using logistic regression after controlling for the effects of age, sex, and BMI. 472 out of 535 subjects with CE MRI had complete data on synovitis, cartilage morphology and plasma phospholipids. Mean age was 60 years, mean BMI 30, and 50% were women. We found an inverse relation between total n-3 PUFAs and the specific n-3, docosahexaenoic acid with patellofemoral cartilage loss, but not tibiofemoral cartilage loss or synovitis. A positive association was observed between the n-6 PUFA, arachidonic acid, and synovitis. In conclusion, systemic levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs which are influenced by diet, may be related to selected structural findings in knees with or at risk of OA. Future studies manipulating the systemic levels of these fatty acids may be warranted to determine the effects on structural damage in knee OA. PMID:22353693

  11. Exchanging saturated fatty acids for (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids in a mixed meal may decrease postprandial lipemia and markers of inflammation and endothelial activity in overweight men.

    Masson, Christiaan J; Mensink, Ronald P

    2011-05-01

    Postprandial lipemia, low-grade systemic inflammation, and endothelial activity are related to metabolic disorders. It is well known that dietary fatty acid composition modulates postprandial lipemia, but information on the other metabolic risk markers is limited. We therefore studied the acute effects of a meal rich in SFA compared with those of a meal rich in (n-6) PUFA on postprandial responses in overweight men who are at an increased risk to develop the metabolic syndrome and its comorbidities. In a crossover design, the effects of 50 g butter (rich in SFA) on lipemia and markers for inflammation and endothelial activity were compared with those of 50 g sunflower oil [rich in (n-6) PUFA] during an 8-h postprandial mixed meal tolerance test in 13 overweight men. Postprandial changes in serum TG were comparable between the meals (P = 0.38), except for a reduction in the incremental area under the curve (P = 0.046) in the late postprandial phase after (n-6) PUFA (125 96 mmol?min?L(-1)) compared with SFA (148 98 mmol?min?L(-1)). Compared with the SFA meal, the (n-6) PUFA meal decreased plasma IL-6 (P = 0.003), TNF? (P = 0.005), soluble TNF receptors I and II (sTNFr; P = 0.024 and P molecule-1 (sVCAM-1; P = 0.030) concentrations. These results indicate that exchanging SFA from butterfat for (n-6) PUFA in a mixed meal may decrease postprandial lipemia and concentrations of IL-6, TNF?, sTNFr-I and -II, and sVCAM-1 in overweight men. PMID:21430255

  12. Seasonal Variations of n-6: n-3 Ratios and Fatty Acid Compositions in Foot and Tissue of Chiton lamyi in a High Primary Productivity Area

    Nooshin Sajjadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Fatty acid content and composition in mollusks is a function of their feeding diversity. Chabahar bay located in the northern part of Oman sea in Indian ocean provides high rates of primary productivity and a diverse food source for mollusks in this area. Identification of fatty acid compositions of Chiton lamyi and study their seasonal changes in the intertidal zone of Chabahar bay. Study the meat quality by n-6: n-3 ratios calculation throughout the year. Approach: Chiton lamyi species analyzed seasonally for its fatty acid compositions in foot and internal tissue separately by GC/MS chromatography. Temperature and nutrients measured monthly for evaluating their effects on investigated seasonal variations of fatty acids. Pearson analysis showed effects of measured environmental factors on studied fatty acids composition. n-6: n-3 ratio calculated seasonally in order to study meat quality. Results: Thirteen fatty acids identified in foot and internal tissue of Chiton lamyi. The major Saturated Fatty Acids (SFAs were myristic, palmitic and stearic acids. The major Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs were palmitoleic, oleic and 11-eicosenoic acids and Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs were linoleic, eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids. Palmitic acid was the most abundant in this species. Fatty acid contents of foot and internal tissue of Chiton lamyi were similar but their seasonal variations were different. Pearson analysis showed correlation among palmitic and oleic acids with silicate; oleic acid with phosphate; Linoleic and arachidonic acids with nitrate in Chiton lamyi internal tissues, but no correlation observed in foot. Although temperature showed correlation with heptadecanoic and methyl-heptadecanoic acids in Chiton lamyi foot, no correlation found in internal tissues. Also, n-6: n-3 ratio calculations showed domination of n-3 fatty acid over n-6 only in spring. Conclusion: Fatty acid variations were not same at different organs and environmental factors could have opposite effects on them in this species. Also, n-6: n-3 ratio showed the lack of food loads throughout the year except in spring for this species. These findings can lead the best exploitation periods for such marine mollusks.

  13. Effects of trans n-6 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of tissues and liver microsomal desaturation in the rat

    Berdeaux, Olivier

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available 18:2Δ 9c,12t and 18:2 Δ9t,12c are present in our diet, as result of heat treatment of vegetable oils. A nutritional study was carried out in order to obtain more precise information on the conversion of these two isomers into long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA by rat tissues. This in vivo study performed using rat fed with small quantities of mono trans linoleic acid isomers (0.6% of total energy showed that 18:2 Δ9c,12t was converted into 20:4 Δ5c,8c,11c,14t while 18:2 Δ9t,12c was only slightly converted into 20:4 Δ5c,8c,11t,14c. Furthermore 18:2 Δ9t,12c was preferentially elongated into 20:2 Δ11t,14c. Each C20 metabolite of these mono trans 18:2 isomers was isolated as methyl ester by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC followed by silver nitrate thin layer chromatography (AgNO3-TLC.The structure of the components was identified using partial hydrazine reduction, AgNO3-TLC of the resulting monoenes and gas-liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS of the 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX derivatives. Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (GC-FTIR confirmed the frans geometry. Gas-liquid chromatography (GC analyses showed that 18:2 Δ9c,12t and 18:2 Δ9t,12c were present in different tissue lipids (liver, heart, testes, brain and adipose tissue, and without any modification in the amount of 20:4n-6. 20:4 Δ5c, 8c,11c,14t was incorporated in different rat tissues except in brain. Furthermore, its incorporation followed that of its structural analogue, 20:3n-9 in liver phospholipid classes (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. Finally, an in vitro study carried out with rat liver microsomes showed that dietary trans 18:2 isomers could inhibit the Δ6- desaturation of 18:2n-6 to 18:3n-6 and the Δ5-desaturation of 20:3n-6 to 20:4n-6.

  14. cAMP-dependent signaling regulates the adipogenic effect of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Madsen, Lise; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Liaset, Bjørn; Ma, Tao; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Pan, Jie; Müller-Decker, Karin; Dülsner, Erik D; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Døskeland, Stein Ove; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    -adipogenic action of n-6 PUFAs was dependent on a cAMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase expression and activity. We show that n-6 PUFAs were pro-adipogenic when combined with a high carbohydrate diet, but non-adipogenic when combined with a high protein diet in mice. The high protein...... diet increased the glucagon/insulin ratio, leading to elevated cAMP-dependent signaling and induction of cyclooxygenase-mediated prostaglandin synthesis. Mice fed the high protein diet had a markedly lower feed efficiency than mice fed the high carbohydrate diet. Yet, oxygen consumption and apparent...... heat production were similar. Mice on a high protein diet had increased hepatic expression of PGC-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha) and genes involved in energy-demanding processes like urea synthesis and gluconeogenesis. We conclude that cAMP signaling is...

  15. Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids

    Somoza Veronika

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conversion of linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. Design and methods In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, human hepatoma cells were incubated with varying ratios of [13C] labeled linoleic acid ([13C]LA- and alpha-linolenic acid ([13C]ALA-methylesters. Regulative cellular signal transduction pathways involved were studied by determinations of transcript levels of the genes encoding delta-5 desaturase (D5D and delta-6 desaturase (D6D, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1 were also examined. Results Maximum conversion was observed in cells incubated with the mixture of [13C]LA/[13C]ALA at a ratio of 1:1, where 0.7% and 17% of the recovered [13C]ALA was converted to DHA and EPA, respectively. Furthermore, differential regulation of enzymes involved in the conversion at the transcript level, dependent on the ratio of administered n6 to n3 fatty acids in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Conclusion Formation of EPA and DHA was highest at an administered LA/ALA ratio of 1:1, although gene expression of PPARα, SREBP-1c and D5D involved in ALA elongation were higher in the presence of ALA solely. Also, our findings suggest that a diet-induced enhancement of the cell membrane content of highly unsaturated fatty acids is only possible up to a certain level.

  16. The dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio during pregnancy is inversely associated with child neurodevelopment in the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Bernard, Jonathan Y; De Agostini, Maria; Forhan, Anne; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) of the n6 (ω6) and n3 series are essential for the development of a child's brain. Fetal LC-PUFA exposure as well as infant exposure via breast milk depend on the maternal intake of these LC-PUFAs and of their respective dietary precursors (PUFAs). We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal LC-PUFA and PUFA [(LC)PUFA] dietary intake during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment at ages 2 and 3 y. In 1335 mother-child pairs from the EDEN cohort, we evaluated associations between daily maternal (LC)PUFA intake during the last 3 months of pregnancy with the child's language at age 2 y and with different assessments of development at age 3 y. Associations were investigated separately in breastfed and never-breastfed children. We examined interactions between the ratios of n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intakes (n6:n3 fatty acid ratio) and duration of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding mothers had a lower n6:n3 fatty acid ratio (8.4 vs. 8.8; P = 0.02). Among never-breastfed children (n = 338), we found negative associations between maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratios and neurodevelopment, as reflected by the child's language at age 2 y (β ± SE = -2.1 ± 0.7; P = 0.001) and development assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 3 y (-1.5 ± 0.8; P = 0.05). Among mothers with a high n6:n3 fatty acid ratio only, breastfeeding duration was positively associated with language at age 2 y (P-interaction brain development during fetal life but not during or by breastfeeding. However, breastfeeding might compensate for prenatal imbalance in maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio. PMID:23902952

  17. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues.

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tomčala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different heat treatments (pan-frying, oven-baking, and grilling) on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish tissue. Four fish species were examined: pike, carp, cod, and herring. High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI/MS), was employed for determination of intact lipid molecules containing n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. Although mostly non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols, TGs) were present in the fish tissue, the PUFAs were present preferentially in the phospholipid fraction. Omnivorous fish species (carp, herring) contained more TGs than did predatory ones (pike, cod). Higher amounts of PUFAs were detected in the marine species than in the freshwater ones. The impact of heat treatments on the lipid composition in the fish tissue seems to be species-specific, as indicated by multivariate data analysis. Herring tissue is most heat-stable, and the mildest heat treatment for PUFA preservation was oven-baking. PMID:25624225

  18. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  19. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    Highlights: ► Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. ► fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. ► fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  20. Effects of ELOVL4 gene overexpress on the synthesis efficiency of n3 and n6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Man Yu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the synthesis efficiency of n3 and n6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid(VLC-PUFAby overexpressing ELOVL4 protein, providing guidance for treating Stargardt-like macular dystrophy(STGD3.METHODS:To establish recombinant adenovirus with the ELOVL4 protein and green fluorescent protein, transferred into cultured PC12 cells. The cells were divided into 3 groups: PC12, PC12+Ad-GFP and PC12+Ad- ELOVL4, former two groups serve as controls. ELOVL4 gene expression was quantified by qRT-PCRs. ELOVL4 protein was analyzed by Western-Blot(WB. The transduced cells were treated with both EPA and AA(1:1. After 48h of incubation, cells were collected, total lipids extracted and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS. RESULTS: When supplemented together, 20:5n3(EPAand 20:4n6(AAwere efficiently taken up at almost the same amounts in the PC12 cells regardless of ELOVL4 expression. The ELOVL4-expressing cells elongated both EPA and AA to a series of n3 and n6 VLC-PUFAs. From 20:5n3/EPA, 34:5n3 and 36:5n3 account for 0.71% and 1.6%, respectively. From 20:4n6/DHA, 34:4n6 and 36:4n6 were only 0.46% and 0.61%, respectively. The total relative mol% of n3 VLC-PUFAs synthesized from EPA was almost two times that of n6 VLC-PUFAs synthesized from AA.CONCLUSION: ELOVL4 protein preferentially elongates n3 PUFA to VLC-PUFAs over n6 PUFA. Dietary supplementation of appropriate n3/n6 PUFAs may provide STGD3 patients with some therapeutic benefits.

  1. Alterations in levels and ratios of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the temporal cortex and liver of vervet monkeys from birth to early adulthood.

    Miller, Leslie R; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R; Seeds, Michael C; Rahbar, Elaheh; Morgan, Timothy M; Welborn, Andrea; Chilton, Sarah M; Gillis, Julianne; Hester, Austin; Rukstalis, Mae; Sergeant, Susan; Chilton, Floyd H

    2016-03-15

    Deficiencies in omega-3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and increases in the ratio of omega-6 (n-6) to n-3 LC-PUFAs in brain tissues and blood components have been associated with psychiatric and developmental disorders. Most studies have focused on n-3 LC-PUFA accumulation in the brain from birth until 2years of age, well before the symptomatic onset of such disorders. The current study addresses changes that occur in childhood and adolescence. Postmortem brain (cortical gray matter, inferior temporal lobe; n=50) and liver (n=60) from vervet monkeys fed a uniform diet from birth through young adulthood were collected from archived tissues. Lipids were extracted and fatty acid levels determined. There was a marked reduction in the ratio of n-6 LC-PUFAs, arachidonic acid (ARA) and adrenic acid (ADR), relative to the n-3 LC-PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in temporal cortex lipids from birth to puberty and then a more gradual decrease though adulthood. This decrease in ratio resulted from a 3-fold accumulation of DHA levels while concentrations of ARA remained constant. Early childhood through adolescence appears to be a critical period for DHA accretion in the cortex of vervet monkeys and may represent a vulnerable stage where lack of dietary n-3 LC-PUFAs impacts development in humans. PMID:26705667

  2. Association of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membrane and plasma with severity of normal tension glaucoma

    Man Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine whether red blood cell (RBC membrane and plasma lipids, particularly long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, arachidonic acid (AA are significantly correlated with severity of normal tension glaucoma (NTG.METHODS:This study included 35 patients with NTG and 12 healthy normal control subjects, matched for age and sex with the study group. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification. Lipids were extracted from RBC membranes and plasma, and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.RESULTS:When RBC lipids were analyzed, the levels of EPA, the levels of DHA and the ratio of n3 to n6 were positively associated with the Humphrey Perimetry mean deviation (MD score (r=0.617, P<0.001; r=0.727, P<0.001 and r=0.720, P<0.001, respectively, while the level of AA was negatively associated with the MD score (r=-0.427, P=0.001. When plasma lipids were analyzed, there was a significant positive relationship between the levels of EPA and the MD score (r=0.648, P<0.001, and the levels of AA were inversely correlated with the MD score (r=-0.638, P<0.001.CONCLUSION:The levels of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in RBC membrane and plasma lipids were associated with severity of NTG.

  3. n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulate prostaglandin E secretion but not markers of lipogenesis in adipocytes

    Saxton Arnold M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A dramatic rise in the incidence of obesity in the U.S. has accelerated the search for interventions that may impact this epidemic. One recently recognized target for such intervention is adipose tissue, which secretes a variety of bioactive substances including prostaglandins. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 has been shown to decrease lipolysis in adipocytes, but limited studies have explored alternative mechanisms by which PGE2 might impact obesity, such as adipogenesis or lipogenesis. Studies conducted on ApcMin/+ mice indicated that selective inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX-2 enzyme led to significant reductions in fatty acid synthase (FAS activity in adipose tissue suggesting lipogenic effects of PGE2. To further investigate whether these lipid mediators directly regulate lipogenesis, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes to determine the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and celecoxib on PGE2 formation and FAS used as a lipogenic marker. Both arachidonic acid (AA and EPA dose-dependently increased PGE secretion from adipocytes. AA was expectedly more potent and exhibiting at 150 uM dose a 5-fold increase in PGE2 secretion over EPA. Despite higher secretion of PGE by EPA and AA compared to control, neither PUFA significantly altered FAS activity. By contrast both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA levels. Addition of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, significantly decreased PGE2 secretion (p 2 and celecoxib further decreased the FAS activity compared to PGE2 alone or untreated controls. In conclusion, EPA-mediated inhibition of AA metabolism did not significantly alter FAS activity while both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA expression. COX-2 inhibition significantly decreased PGE2 production resulting in a decrease in FAS activity and expression that was not reversed with the addition of exogenous PGE2, suggesting an additional mechanism that is independent of COX-2.

  4. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify novel loci associated with n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in Chinese and European-ancestry populations.

    Hu, Yao; Li, Huaixing; Lu, Ling; Manichaikul, Ani; Zhu, Jingwen; Chen, Yii-Der I; Sun, Liang; Liang, Shuang; Siscovick, David S; Steffen, Lyn M; Tsai, Michael Y; Rich, Stephen S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Lin, Xu

    2016-03-15

    Epidemiological studies suggest that levels of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with risk of cardio-metabolic outcomes across different ethnic groups. Recent genome-wide association studies in populations of European ancestry have identified several loci associated with plasma and/or erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acids. To identify additional novel loci, we carried out a genome-wide association study in two population-based cohorts consisting of 3521 Chinese participants, followed by a trans-ethnic meta-analysis with meta-analysis results from 8962 participants of European ancestry. Four novel loci (MYB, AGPAT4, DGAT2 and PPT2) reached genome-wide significance in the trans-ethnic meta-analysis (log10(Bayes Factor) ? 6). Of them, associations of MYB and AGPAT4 with docosatetraenoic acid (log10(Bayes Factor) = 11.5 and 8.69, respectively) also reached genome-wide significance in the Chinese-specific genome-wide association analyses (P = 4.15 10(-14) and 4.30 10(-12), respectively), while associations of DGAT2 with gamma-linolenic acid (log10(Bayes Factor) = 6.16) and of PPT2 with docosapentaenoic acid (log10(Bayes Factor) = 6.24) were nominally significant in both Chinese- and European-specific genome-wide association analyses (P ? 0.003). We also confirmed previously reported loci including FADS1, NTAN1, NRBF2, ELOVL2 and GCKR. Different effect sizes in FADS1 and independent association signals in ELOVL2 were observed. These results provide novel insight into the genetic background of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their differences between Chinese and European populations. PMID:26744325

  5. Dietary n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratios differentially influence hormonal signature in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome relative to healthy controls

    Koch Lauren G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary ratios of omega-3 (n-3 to omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been implicated in controlling markers of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profiles and adiposity. However, the role of dietary PUFAs in regulating energy systems in healthy relative to metabolic diseased backgrounds has not been systematically addressed. We used dietary manipulation of n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios in an animal model of metabolic syndrome and a related healthy line to assay feeding behavior and endocrine markers of feeding drive and energy regulation. Two related lines of rodents with a healthy and a metabolic syndrome phenotype were fed one of two isocaloric diets, comprised of either a 1:1 or a 1:30 n-3 to n-6 ratio, for 30 days. Food intake and weight gain were monitored; and leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and a suite of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in energy regulation were assayed following the dietary manipulation period. There was no difference in caloric intake or weight gain between diet groups, however there was a significant interaction between diet and phenotypic line on central and peripheral markers of energy homeostasis. Thus serum levels of leptin, acylated-ghrelin and adiponectin, and mRNA levels of the anorexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, cocaine-amphetamine related transcript (CART, showed differential, dietary responses with HCR rats showing an increase in anorexigenic signals in response to unbalanced n-3:6 ratios, while LCR did not. These data are the first to demonstrate that a rodent line with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype responds differentially to dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids relative to a related healthy line with regard to endocrine markers of energy homeostasis. The dietary n-3:n-6 ratios used in this experiment represent extreme points of natural human diets, however the data suggest that optimal recommendations regarding omega-3 and omega-6 intake may have differing effects in healthy subjects relative to metabolic syndrome patients. Further research is necessary to establish these responses in human populations.

  6. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tomčala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 176, JUN 1 2015 (2015), s. 205-211. ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : n-3 PUFA * n-6 PUFA * Heat treatment * Fish tissue * HPLC/MS * GC/MS Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 3.391, year: 2014

  7. Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on clinical outcome in a porcine model on postoperative infection

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Jensen, Karin Hjelholt; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Halekoh, Ulrich; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) on clinical outcome in a porcine model on early aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI). A total of eighty-four pigs were randomised to a 35 d dietary treatment with 10 % (w/w) fish...

  8. Kinetics of chronic inflammation in Nile tilapia fed n?3 and n?6 essential fatty acids Cintica da inflamao crnica em tilpia?do?nilo alimentada com cidos graxos essenciais n?3 e n?6

    Rberson Sakabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on the kinetics of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The supplementation sources were soybean oil (SO, source of omega 6, n?6 and linseed oil (LO, source of omega 3, n?3, in the following proportions: 100% SO; 75% SO + 25% LO; 50% SO + 50% LO; 25% SO + 75% LO; and 100% LO (four replicates per treatment. After a feeding period of three months, growth performance was evaluated, and glass coverslips were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of fish, being removed for examination at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after implantation. Growth performance did not differ between treatments. Fish fed 100% linseed oil diet had the greatest macrophage accumulation and the fastest Langhans cell formation on the sixth day. On the eighth day, Langhans cells were predominant on the coverslips implanted in the fish feed 75 and 100% linseed oil. n?3 fatty acids may contribute to macrophage recruitment and giant cell formation in fish chronic inflammatory response to foreign body.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da suplementao alimentar com cidos graxos essenciais sobre a cintica do acmulo de macrfagos e a formao de clulas gigantes em tilpia?do?nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. As fontes de suplementao foram leo de soja (OS, fonte de mega 6, n?6 e leo de linhaa (OL, fonte de mega 3, n?3, nas seguintes propores: 100% OS; 75% OS + 25% OL; 50% OS + 50% OL; 25% OS + 75% OL; e 100% OL (quatro repeties por tratamento. Aps perodo de alimentao de trs meses, foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo, e lamnulas de vidro foram implantadas no tecido subcutneo dos peixes, as quais foram removidas para exame aos 2, 4, 6 e 8 dias aps o implante. O desempenho produtivo no diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os peixes alimentados com 100% de leo de linhaa tiveram maior acmulo de macrfagos e formao mais rpida de clulas de Langhans, no sexto dia. No oitavo dia, as clulas de Langhans foram predominantes nas lamnulas implantadas nos peixes alimentados com 75 e 100% de leo de linhaa. Os cidos graxos n?3 podem contribuir para o recrutamento de macrfagos e a formao de clulas gigantes, na resposta inflamatria crnica a corpo estranho em peixes.

  9. n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio and vitamin E in porcine maternal diet influence the antioxidant status and immune cell eicosanoid response in the progeny.

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Stagsted, Jan; Jensen, Sren Krogh

    2007-08-01

    Five groups of lactating sows were fed diets containing 8% of either added rapeseed oil, fish oil or sunflower oil and 60 mg vitamin E/kg feed, or the diets with sunflower oil and fish oil, respectively, supplemented with 500 mg vitamin E/kg. Supplementation of vitamin E to the sows increased the concentration of alpha-tocopherol of the muscle, and addition of sunflower oil decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase in liver cytosol compared to fish oil and rapeseed oil. The composition of fatty acids of alveolar macrophages (AM) of piglets was influenced by the dietary fat sources provided the sows, i.e., the ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids was highest in AM of piglets suckling sows of the sunflower oil treatments, and lowest in AM of piglets suckling sows fed fish oil with the rapeseed oil treatment in between. The ex vivo synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) and thromboxane B(2) in AM of piglets suckling sows fed sunflower oil was elevated compared to piglets suckling sows fed fish oil. Vitamin E supplementation to sows enhanced the synthesis of these eicosanoids, and also the concentration of alpha-tocopherol in the AM of the piglets. PMID:17643889

  10. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Rader Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA (both 10% [w/w] and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w] or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]. Results Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P Conclusion These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  11. Expression of E-FABP in PC12 cells increases neurite extension during differentiation: involvement of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids

    Liu, Jo-Wen; Almaguel, Frankis G.; Bu, Liming; De Leon, Daisy D.; De Leon, Marino

    2009-01-01

    Epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP), a member of the family of FABPs, exhibits a robust expression in neurons during axonal growth in development and in nerve regeneration following nerve injury. This study examines the impact of E-FABP expression in normal neurite extension in differentiating pheochromocytoma cell (PC12) cultures supplemented with selected long chain free fatty acids (LCFFA). We found that E-FABP binds to a broad range of saturated and unsaturated LCFFAs, including those with potential interest for neuronal differentiation and axonal growth such as C22:6n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), C20:5n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and C20:4n-6 arachidonic acid (ARA). PC12 cells exposed to nerve growth factor (NGFDPC12) exhibit high E-FABP expression that is blocked by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126. Nerve growth factor-differentiated pheochromocytoma cells (NGFDPC12) antisense clones (NGFDPC12-AS) which exhibit low E-FABP expression have fewer/shorter neurites than cells transfected with vector only or NGFDPC12 sense cells (NGFDPC12-S). Replenishing NGFDPC12-AS cells with biotinylated recombinant E-FABP (biotin-E-FABP) protein restores normal neurite outgrowth. Cellular localization of biotin-E-FABP in NGFDPC12 was detected mostly in the cytoplasm and in the nuclear region. Treatment of NGFDPC12 with DHA, EPA, or ARA further enhances neurite length but it does not trigger further induction of TrkA or MEK phosphorylation or E-FABP mRNA observed in differentiating PC12 cells without LCFFA supplementation. Significantly, DHA and EPA neurite stimulating effects are higher in NGFDPC12-S than in NGFDPC12-AS cells. These findings are consistent with the scenario that neurite extension of differentiating PC12 cells, including further stimulation by DHA and EPA, requires sufficient cellular levels of E-FABP. PMID:18513372

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Fish Oil and Multivitamin Supplementation on the Incorporation of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids into Red Blood Cells

    Andrew Pipingas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160 were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  13. Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers

    Kawabata Terue

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

  14. Antimalarial properties of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: in vitro effects on Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo effects on P. berghei.

    Kumaratilake, L M; Robinson, B S; Ferrante, A; Poulos, A

    1992-01-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6,n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, and linoleic acid caused marked in vitro growth inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum, assessed by a radiometric assay. In contrast, negligible parasite killing was seen with oleic acid or docosanoic acid. Parasite killing was significantly increased when oxidized forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids were used. Antioxidants greatly reduced the fatty acid-induced killing. Mice infected with P. berghei and treated for 4 d with C22:6,n-3 showed marked reduction in parasitemia. The anemia associated with the infection was also alleviated by treatment with C22:6,n-3. The data provide new information that could be explored in order to develop new strategies in malaria treatment. Images PMID:1541684

  15. Association of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membrane and plasma with severity of normal tension glaucoma

    Man Yu,; Bo Chen; Bo Gong; Ping Shuai; Zheng-Zheng Wu; Wei Lin

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To determine whether red blood cell (RBC) membrane and plasma lipids, particularly long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA) are significantly correlated with severity of normal tension glaucoma (NTG).METHODS:This study included 35 patients with NTG and 12 healthy normal control subjects, matched for age and sex with the study group. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp-Parrish-Ande...

  16. Production response of multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed diets enriched with n-3 or n-6 fatty acids.

    Carriquiry, M; Weber, W J; Dahlen, C R; Lamb, G C; Baumgard, L H; Crooker, B A

    2009-10-01

    Multiparous cows (n = 59) were blocked by expected calving date and previous milk yield and assigned randomly to treatments to determine the effects of bovine somatotropin (bST; Posilac, Monsanto Animal Agricultural Group, St. Louis, MO) and source of dietary fat on production responses. Diets were provided from calving and included whole, high-oil sunflower seeds [SS; 10% of dietary dry matter (DM); n-6:n-3 ratio of 4.6] as a source of linoleic acid (18:2) or a mixture of Alifet-High Energy and Alifet-Repro (AF; Alifet USA, Cincinnati, OH; 3.5 and 1.5% of dietary DM, respectively; n-6/n-3 ratio of 2.6) as a source of protected n-3 fatty acids. Diets contained 181 versus 188 g of crude protein and 183 versus 186 g of acid detergent fiber/kg of DM and 1.54 versus 1.66 Mcal of net energy for lactation at the actual DM intake for SS versus AF, respectively. Cows received 0 or 500 mg of bST every 10 d from 12 to 70 d in milk (DIM) and at 14-d intervals through 280 DIM. The 2 x 2 factorial combination of diet (SS or AF) with or without bST administration resulted in treatments designated as SSY, SSN, AFY, and AFN, respectively. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using mixed model procedures to determine the effects of diet, bST, and their interactions. Yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was not altered by diet, but was increased by 4.0 +/- 1.9 kg/d from 12 to 70 DIM and by 5.1 +/- 1.2 kg/d from 12 to 280 DIM by bST. Treatment did not affect DM intake or energy balance (EB) nadir. There was an interaction of bST and diet on EB because AF decreased the impact of bST on overall EB and allowed AFY cows to reach a positive EB earlier than SSY cows. Gross feed efficiency adjusted for body weight change was greater for bST-treated cows (1.03 vs. 1.15 +/- 0.03 kg of fat-corrected milk/Mcal of net energy for lactation). Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations were increased by bST (85 vs. 125 +/- 8 ng/mL). Body weight, body condition score, and backfat thickness were reduced by bST, but differences between treated and nontreated cows did not differ by 280 DIM. Results indicate cows responded to bST administration in early lactation, but the magnitude of the response was greater after 70 DIM. Source of dietary fat had a minimal effect on most production measurements, but relative to SS, AF decreased the impact of bST on overall EB. Results support the premise that bST administration prolongs the delay in postpartum tissue replenishment. PMID:19762801

  17. Effect of n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Microsomal P450 Steroidogenic Enzyme Activities and In Vitro Cortisol Production in Adrenal Tissue From Yorkshire Boars.

    Xie, Xuemei; Wang, Xudong; Mick, Gail J; Kabarowski, Janusz H; Wilson, Landon Shay; Barnes, Stephen; Walcott, Gregory P; Luo, Xiaoping; McCormick, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of adrenal glucocorticoid production is increasingly recognized to play a supportive role in the metabolic syndrome although the mechanism is ill defined. The adrenal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP17 and CYP21, are essential for glucocorticoid synthesis. The omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may ameliorate metabolic syndrome, but it is unknown whether they have direct actions on adrenal CYP steroidogenic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine whether PUFA modify adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis using isolated porcine microsomes. The enzyme activities of CYP17, CYP21, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH), and CYP2E1 were measured in intact microsomes treated with fatty acids of disparate saturated bonds. Cortisol production was measured in a cell-free in vitro model. Microsomal lipid composition after arachidonic acid (AA) exposure was determined by sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra-mass spectrometry. Results showed that adrenal microsomal CYP21 activity was decreased by docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid, α-linolenic acid, AA, and linoleic acid, and CYP17 activity was inhibited by DPA, DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and AA. Inhibition was associated with the number of the PUFA double bonds. Similarly, cortisol production in vitro was decreased by DPA, DHA, and AA. Endoplasmic enzymes with intraluminal activity were unaffected by PUFA. In microsomes exposed to AA, the level of AA or oxidative metabolites of AA in the membrane was not altered. In conclusion, these observations suggest that omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA, especially those with 2 or more double bonds (DPA, DHA, and AA), impede adrenal glucocorticoid production. PMID:26889941

  18. The dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio during pregnancy is inversely associated with child neurodevelopment in the EDEN mother-child cohort. : Dietary PUFA in pregnancy and infant development

    Bernard, Jonathan; De Agostini, Maria; Forhan, Anne; De Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) of the n6 (ω6) and n3 series are essential for the development of a child's brain. Fetal LC-PUFA exposure as well as infant exposure via breast milk depend on the maternal intake of these LC-PUFAs and of their respective dietary precursors (PUFAs). We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal LC-PUFA and PUFA [(LC)PUFA] dietary intake during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment at ages 2 and 3 y. In 1335 mother-child pairs from th...

  19. The effects of dietary verbascoside on blood and liver oxidative stress status induced by a high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids diet in piglets.

    Di Giancamillo, A; Rossi, R; Pastorelli, G; Deponti, D; Carollo, V; Casamassima, D; Domeneghini, C; Corino, C

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-four weaned female Hypor piglets (10.9 ± 0.1 kg mean BW) were used to evaluate the antioxidant effect of a natural extract, titrated in verbascoside, on blood and liver oxidative status in relation to a high intake of n-6 PUFA, inducing oxidative stress. Piglets were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental groups; the first group was fed a diet with 9% sunflower oil (T1) and the second received the sunflower oil diet supplemented with 5 mg of verbascoside/kg feed from Verbenaceae extract (Lippia spp.; T2). The third group was fed a control diet (CTR), in which an isoenergetic replacement of oil by starch was done. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and the end of the trial (30 d). At the end of the trial, the animals were slaughtered and the liver specimens were collected. Oxidative stress markers, including total antiradical activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) activities, were determined in blood samples. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) plasma levels were also evaluated. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses were performed in liver to evaluate heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, Hsp90, and Kupffer and Ito cell activation. Liver activities of SOD, GPX, and CAT were also determined. Total antiradical activity in blood and red blood cells were affected (P < 0.01) by dietary treatments. The n-6 PUFA supplementation at a high dosage for 30 d induced oxidative stress, decreasing total antiradical activity in blood and red blood cells (CTR vs. T1 + T2; P < 0.01) and plasma CAT activity (CTR vs. T1 + T2; P = 0.088) and increasing ALT value (CTR vs. T1 + T2; P < 0.01). Also, in liver, the CAT and GPX activities tended to be lower in pigs fed n-6 PUFA diets than pigs fed a control diet (CTR vs. T1 + T2; = 0.090 and = 0.085, respectively). The liver samples presented a normal architecture and no Ito and Kupffer cell activations were observed. In liver, the SOD activity tended to be lower in the T1 group (P = 0.064) than in the CTR and T2 groups. Moreover, the level of Hsp70 was higher (P < 0.01) in the T1 group than the CTR and T2 groups. These data suggest that the dose of dietary verbascoside partially restores the antioxidant status of the liver without affecting the systemic responses to oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. PMID:26115272

  20. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  1. Efeito dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 na expressão de genes do metabolismo de lipídeos e risco de aterosclerose Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in the lipid metabolism and risk of atherosclerosis

    Helena Fonseca Raposo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A aterosclerose, principal responsável pela patogênese do infarto miocárdico e cerebral, bem como pela gangrena e por outras doenças vasculares periféricas, permanece como principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade nas populações "ocidentalizadas". Estima-se que 17,5 milhões de pessoas morreram por doenças cardiovasculares em 2005, o que representou 30% das causas de morte nesse ano, e que, em 2015, 20 milhões de pessoas morrerão por doenças cardiovasculares no mundo. Os ácidos graxos n-3, principalmente os de cadeia longa, encontrados nos peixes, têm-se mostrado particularmente úteis na prevenção e tratamento de doenças como dislipidemias, diabetes mellitus e obesidade, apresentando importante efeito cardioprotetor. Nesse contexto, pesquisas têm evidenciado que ao menos parte dos benefícios dos ácidos graxos eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico sobre o risco de doenças cardiovasculares é decorrente da modulação de genes responsivos aos receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomos e envolvidos no metabolismo lipídico. Nesta revisão, pretende-se expor alguns mecanismos de ação dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 sobre o metabolismo de lipídeos e de lipoproteínas. Conclui-se que muitos aspectos que contribuem para o risco de doenças cardiovasculares são afetados pela ingestão de n-3. Além da redução de triglicérides, fatores como o aumento de adiponectina, a redução da concentração de colesterol plasmático e a melhora do transporte reverso de colesterol também são responsáveis pela redução do risco de aterosclerose promovida pelos ácidos graxos n-3. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos adicionais para definir mais claramente os mecanismos celulares e moleculares responsáveis pelo efeito cardioprotetor dos ácidos graxos n-3.Atherosclerosis, the main cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, gangrene and other peripheral vascular diseases, also persists as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Western populations. Roughly 17.5 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2005, representing 30% of the causes of death in that year, and in 2015, another 20 million people will die of cardiovascular diseases around the world. The n-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain n-3 found in fish, have been shown to be particularly effective in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus and obesity, presenting an important cardioprotective effect. In this context, studies have found that at least some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids regard the modulation of genes that respond to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors involved in lipid metabolism. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of some n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In conclusion, many aspects that contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases are affected by n-3 intake. N-3 fatty acids not only reduce triglycerides, but also promote factors that increase adiponectin, reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the reverse cholesterol transport, and all of these contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. However, additional studies are still necessary to elucidate all the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the cardioprotective effect of n-3 fatty acids.

  2. Effects of dietary fats differing in n-6:n-3 ratio fed to high-yielding dairy cows on fatty acid composition of ovarian compartments, follicular status, and oocyte quality.

    Zachut, M; Dekel, I; Lehrer, H; Arieli, A; Arav, A; Livshitz, L; Yakoby, S; Moallem, U

    2010-02-01

    The objectives were to determine the incorporation of dietary encapsulated fats differing in n-6:n-3 ratio into milk fat, plasma, and various ovarian compartments and to examine the effects on ovarian follicular status, preovulatory follicle characteristics, and oocyte quality. Twenty-four multiparous Israeli Holstein cows, averaging 114 d in milk, were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 1) control (n=7), in which cows were fed a lactating cow diet; 2) E-FLAX (n=8), in which cows were fed a lactating cow diet that consisted of 1kg/d of encapsulated fat (3.8% of dry matter) containing 40.8% flaxseed oil, providing 242.2g of C18:3n-3 (low n-6:n-3 ratio); or 3) E-SUN (n=9), in which cows were fed a lactating cow diet that consisted of 1kg/d of encapsulated fat (3.8% of dry matter) containing 40.8% sunflower oil, providing 260.0g of C18:2n-6 (high n-6:n-3 ratio). Ovaries were monitored by ultrasonography for follicular status, and after synchronization, follicles >7mm were aspirated and evaluated. Ovum pickup was performed (19 sessions for the control and E-FLAX groups and 11 for the E-SUN group), and in vitro maturation and oocyte fertilization were conducted. The E-FLAX treatment increased the proportions of C18:3n-3 (5.8 fold), C20:5n-3, and C22:5n-3 (approximately 4-fold) in milk fat as compared with the other 2 treatments. The proportion of C18:3n-3 fatty acid in plasma increased dramatically with the E-FLAX treatment, from 1.43 and 1.49% in the control and E-SUN groups, respectively, to 7.98% in the E-FLAX group. Consequently, the n-6:n-3 ratio in plasma was reduced from approximately 42 in the control and E-SUN groups to 6.74 in the E-FLAX group. Proportions of C18:3n-3 in follicular fluid and granulosa cells were approximately 5-fold higher in the E-FLAX group than in the other 2 groups. The percentage of C18:2n-6 in cumulus-oocyte complexes of cows in the E-SUN group was 54% higher than that in the E-FLAX group and was 2.4-fold higher than that in the control group; the proportion of C18:3n-3 in the E-FLAX group was 4.73% and was not detected in the other groups. The average numbers of 2- to 5-mm follicles on d 5 and 9 of the cycle were higher in the E-FLAX group than in the E-SUN group, whereas the average numbers of follicles > or =10mm on d 5, 9, and 13 were higher in the E-SUN group than in the other 2 groups. The estrous cycles of the cows were synchronized and PGF(2alpha) was injected on d 16 to 17 of the cycle. The interval from PGF(2alpha) injection to behavioral estrus was longer in the E-FLAX group than in the E-SUN group, and the beginning of the luteal phase of the subsequent cycle was delayed. Concentrations of estradiol in follicular fluid of the preovulatory follicles were higher in the E-SUN group than in the E-FLAX group. The number of follicles aspirated by ovum pickup was higher in the E-FLAX group than in the control group, and the cleavage rate in the E-FLAX group was higher than in the control group, but not the E-SUN group. In conclusion, dietary n-3 fatty acids influenced the follicular status and increased the cleavage rate of oocytes as compared with those of control cows. These findings could be related to modifications of the fatty acid composition in plasma and ovarian compartments in response to dietary supplementation. PMID:20105525

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  4. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  5. Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids

    Bill Lands

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential fatty acids (EFA are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy.

  6. New bioactive fatty acids

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  7. Halogenated fatty acids

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    . However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their...

  8. Halogenated fatty acids

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also......, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their...

  9. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Je Min Lee; Hyungjae Lee; SeokBeom Kang; Woo Jung Park

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human phys...

  10. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles of...

  11. Generation of novel metabolites of dietary linoleic acid (18:2n6) by guinea pig epidermis

    Chapkin, R.S.; Ziboh, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    Although the authors have demonstrated the inability of rat and guinea pig (GP) skin enzyme preparations to desaturate 18:2n6 into gammalinolenic acid (18:3n6) using an in vitro microsomal system, the fate of this dietary essential fatty acid in the GP epidermis is unknown. To explore the fate of 18:2n6, intact tissue slices from GP epidermis were incubated with (1-/sup 14/C)18:2n6. After incubation, the extracted lipids were transesterified using methanolic-HCL. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed using a combination of (i) argentation TLC, scanned using a proportional TLC radioscanner, and (ii) reverse phase HPLC, equipped with a flow through radioscanner. The results indicate that the intact epidermis metabolized /sup 14/C-18:2n6 to a group of novel products more polar than 18:2n6. In subsequent experiments, /sup 14/C-18:2n6 was either incubated with the 800 xg supernatant, the 105,000 xg pellet or supernatant from GP epidermis. Metabolism of 18:2n6 by the high speed supernatant resulted in the generation of polar products with chromatographic properties of not greater than 2 double bonds. These results indicate that although the GP epidermis lacks the capacity to desaturate 18:2n6 to 18:3n6, it can convert dietary 18:2n6 into a group of novel polar metabolites via a cytosolic mediated process. The function of these metabolites in the GP integumentary system remains to be determined.

  12. Generation of novel metabolites of dietary linoleic acid (18:2n6) by guinea pig epidermis

    Although the authors have demonstrated the inability of rat and guinea pig (GP) skin enzyme preparations to desaturate 18:2n6 into gammalinolenic acid (18:3n6) using an in vitro microsomal system, the fate of this dietary essential fatty acid in the GP epidermis is unknown. To explore the fate of 18:2n6, intact tissue slices from GP epidermis were incubated with [1-14C]18:2n6. After incubation, the extracted lipids were transesterified using methanolic-HCL. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed using a combination of (i) argentation TLC, scanned using a proportional TLC radioscanner, and (ii) reverse phase HPLC, equipped with a flow through radioscanner. The results indicate that the intact epidermis metabolized 14C-18:2n6 to a group of novel products more polar than 18:2n6. In subsequent experiments, 14C-18:2n6 was either incubated with the 800 xg supernatant, the 105,000 xg pellet or supernatant from GP epidermis. Metabolism of 18:2n6 by the high speed supernatant resulted in the generation of polar products with chromatographic properties of not greater than 2 double bonds. These results indicate that although the GP epidermis lacks the capacity to desaturate 18:2n6 to 18:3n6, it can convert dietary 18:2n6 into a group of novel polar metabolites via a cytosolic mediated process. The function of these metabolites in the GP integumentary system remains to be determined

  13. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF Capsicum GENUS PEPPERS

    Gisele Teixeira de Souza Sora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have a great metabolic and structural importance. Evaluation of fatty acid composition of peppers is still incomplete. Pulps and seeds from six varieties of the genus Capsicum were evaluated in this work with respect to their contents in fatty acids. A total of 25 different fatty acids, including some with odd number of carbons were identified in the samples. The most abundant fatty acids were palmitic (16:0, oleic (18:1n-9 and linoleic (18:2n-6 acids. The polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA ratios for all peppers were high due to the elevated amounts of polyunsaturated acids, particularly linoleic acid. In the pulps, the omega-6/omega-3 ratios ranging from 1.28 to 4.33, were relatively adequate if one considers that ratios between 0.25 and 1.0 in the human diet are regarded as highly appropriate. In the seeds, the levels of omega-3 were very low whereas the levels of omega-6 were high, leading to very inadequate omega-6/omega-3 ratios ranging from 74.2 to 279.6. Principal component analysis (PCA explained 93.49% of the total variance of the data. Considering the PUFA/SFA ratio and omega-6/omega-3 ratio, our data suggest that, among the peppers of the genus Capsicum evaluated in this work, the bell pepper and orange habanero pepper present the best nutritional characteristics concerning fatty acid composition.

  14. Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi

    de Lema, M.G.; Aeberhard, E.E.

    1986-11-01

    Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated (18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)) fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of (1-/sup 14/C)labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism.

  15. Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi

    Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated [18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)] fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of [1-14C]labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism

  16. Halogenated fatty acids

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation and...... separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD...

  17. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Overvad, Kim

    Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in...... associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and...... women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women...

  18. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    ... not seem to prevent the progression of MS. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early research suggests that taking a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids twice daily for 3-6 months does not improve symptoms of ADHD in most children. Eyelid swelling due ...

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  20. Origin of fatty acids

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be studied. (author). Abstract only

  1. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  2. Halogenated fatty acids

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation and...... separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained by...

  3. Increase of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Thraustochytrids through Thraustochytrid Ubiquitin Promoter-Driven Expression of a Fatty Acid ?5 Desaturase Gene?

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Matsuda, Takanori; Abe, Eriko; Hama, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Masahiro; Honda, Daiske; Okita, Yuji; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Thraustochytrids, marine protists known to accumulate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in lipid droplets, are considered an alternative to fish oils as a source of PUFAs. The major fatty acids produced in thraustochytrids are palmitic acid (C16:0), n ? 6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (C22:5n ? 6), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6n ? 3), with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5n ? 3) and arachidonic acid (AA) (C20:4n ? 6) as minor constituents. We attempted here to alter the fatty acid co...

  4. Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Endometriosis.

    Hopeman, Margaret M; Riley, Joan K; Frolova, Antonina I; Jiang, Hui; Jungheim, Emily S

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids containing 2 or more double bonds, and they are classified by the location of the last double bond. Omega 3 (n-3) and omega 6 (n-6) PUFAs are obtained through food sources including fatty fish and seed/vegetable oils, respectively, and they are important to a number of physiologic processes including inflammation. Previous work demonstrates suppressive effects of n-3 PUFAs on endometriotic lesions in animal models and decreased risk of endometriosis among women with high n-3 PUFA intake. Thus, we sought to determine the relationship between circulating levels of PUFAs and endometriosis in women. To do this, we performed a cross-sectional study of serum PUFAs and clinical data from 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Serum PUFAs were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy and included n-3 PUFAs such as α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 PUFAs such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine relationships between specific and total serum PUFAs and patient history of endometriosis. Women with high serum EPA levels were 82% less likely to have endometriosis compared to women with low EPA levels (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.78). PMID:25539770

  5. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. PMID:25577101

  6. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Overvad, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue...

  7. Fatty acids profiles of some Spanish wild vegetables

    Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Sánchez Mata, María de Cortés; Cámara Hurtado, Montaña; Tardío, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in human nutrition, being associated with several health benefits. The analyzed vegetables, in spite of his low fat content, lower than 2 %, presents a high proportion of PUFA of n-3, n-6 and n-9 series, such as α-linolenic, linoleic, and oleic acids, respectively. Wild edible plants contain in general a good balance of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The present study tries to contribute to the preservation and valorization of tradit...

  8. Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Stanton, C.; Ross, R.P.; Fitzgerald, G.F; Patterson, E; Wall, R

    2012-01-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed eicosanoids, which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show str...

  9. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  10. Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species

    Thidarat Noiraksar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp. five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synechocystis sp..Medium for culture diatoms and green microalgae was F/2, and BG-11 media was used for Cyanophyceae. The microalgae were cultured beneath light intensity 143 μEm-2s-1, light: dark illustration 12:12 hrs., temperature 28ºC, and salinities 8-30 psu. The microalgae were harvested for analyzing fatty acid by centrivugal machine at 3500 rpm. for 5 min. at temperature 20ºC and stored at -80ºC prior to analysis.Fatty acids composition of microalgae differed from species to species. The majority fatty acids composition of diatoms at the exponential phase and the stationary phase were C16:1n-7 (17.12-31.47% and 28.22-42.02%, C16:0 (13.25-19.61% and 18.83-20.67%, C20:5 n-3 (16.65-26.67% and 11.32-23.68% respectively. The principle fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae, Tetraselmis sp. were C18:3n-3 (16.17-16.67%, C16:0 (15.33-17.45%, C18:1n-9 (12.25-15.43%, C18:2n-6 (9.66-19.97%. The fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Chlorophyceae, were C18:3 n-3 (20.02-26.49% and 15.35- 30.63%, C16:0 (5.76-17.61% and 11.41-20.03%, C18:2n-6 (4.67-17.54% and 7.48-20.61% respectively. The major amounts of fatty acids content of blue green microalgae were C16:1n-7 (9.28-34.91% and 34.48- 35.04%, C14:0 (13.34-25.96% and 26.69-28.24%, C16:0 (5.89-29.15% and 5.70-16.81% except for Anacystis sp.which had a high amount of C18:3 n-3 (23.18-27.98% but low amount of C14:0 (3.66-4.98%.Bacillariophyceae contained the highest amount of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs at both growth phases. Prasinophyceae had a small amount while in Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae they were not detected. Nitzschia cf. ovalis and Thalassiosira sp. had amount of C20:4n-6 (0.08-4.40%,C20:5 n-3 (11.32- 26.67% and C22:6 n-3 (0.80-4.20% respectively. Tetraselmis sp. had amounts of C20:4n-6 and C20:5 n-3 ranging from 0.99-1.13% and 4.18-4.70% respectively. In conclusion, Nitzschia cf. ovalis and Thalassiosira sp. would serve as good nutritional sources of HUFAs for aquaculture animals.

  11. Heterogeneity in limb fatty acid kinetics in type 2 diabetes

    Sacchetti, M; Olsen, D B; Saltin, B; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In order to test the hypothesis that disturbances in skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism with type 2 diabetes are not equally present in the upper and lower limbs, we studied fatty acid kinetics simultaneously across the arm and leg of type 2 diabetic patients (n=6) and matched...... control subjects (n=7) for 5 h under baseline conditions and during a 4-h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. METHODS: Limb fatty acid kinetics was determined by means of continuous [U-(13)C]palmitate infusion and measurement of arteriovenous differences. RESULTS: The systemic palmitate rate of...

  12. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Meilan Xue; Yinlin Ge; Jinyu Zhang; Qing Wang; Lin Hou

    2012-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to constr...

  13. Antioxidants based on fatty acids

    Kalk Christian; Schaefer Hans J.

    2001-01-01

    Autoxidation is the cause for deterioration of organic materials. Many commercial products react with atmospheric oxygen under loss of quality. To retard unwanted oxidative damage and to prolong the useful life of the substrates, antioxidants are used to protect the organic matter. We linked phenolic compounds with fatty acids to obtain fatty acid conjugates with antioxidative action. The conjugates have a similar constitution like hindered phenols e.g. tert.-butyl-hydroxy-anisole (BHA) and s...

  14. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources:...

  15. Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk

    Daniela Pittau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

  16. Antioxidants based on fatty acids

    Kalk Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoxidation is the cause for deterioration of organic materials. Many commercial products react with atmospheric oxygen under loss of quality. To retard unwanted oxidative damage and to prolong the useful life of the substrates, antioxidants are used to protect the organic matter. We linked phenolic compounds with fatty acids to obtain fatty acid conjugates with antioxidative action. The conjugates have a similar constitution like hindered phenols e.g. tert.-butyl-hydroxy-anisole (BHA and show good antioxidative action in the Rancimat-test. Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant and a strong reducing agent. Its action is based on a ketoene-diol structure. We were able to insert an analogous structure into a fatty acid chain. The products we obtained have similar oxidation potentials as ascorbic acid

  17. Sex Differences in the Relationship of Dietary Fatty Acids to Cognitive Measures in American Children

    Will Lassek; Steven Gaulin

    2011-01-01

    Because the first neurons evolved in an environment high in the n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), this fatty acid became a major component of neural structure and function and makes up 10% of the dry weight of the human brain. Since n-3 fatty acids must come from the diet, this suggests a possible positive role for dietary n-3 fatty acids in cognition and a possible negative role for n-6 fatty acids, which compete with n-3 for access to critical enzymes. Because human fem...

  18. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed. The...

  19. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes.

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-05-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multienzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review, we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with antimycobacterial properties. PMID:21204864

  20. Long-chain dietary fatty acids affect the capacity of Drosophila melanogaster to tolerate ethanol.

    McKechnie, S W; Geer, B W

    1993-01-01

    Four-day post-hatch larvae (mid-third instar) of Drosophila melanogaster were fed an intermediate diet with or without supplement of an individual fatty acid for 2 d and then transferred to a diet with a growth-limiting level of 0.94 mol/L ethanol (5.5%, v/v) or an ethanol-free diet. The ethanol stress decreased survival and larval development rate but increased the weight of surviving adult males. Dietary long-chain fatty acids altered the fatty acid composition of tissue lipids of larvae. When an unsaturated fatty acid was fed, except for 18:2(n-6), the tissue level of total unsaturated fatty acids was markedly increased. Both saturated and unsaturated 18-carbon fatty acids shortened larval development time. Linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)] and linolenic acid [18:3(n-3)] enhanced survival overall and, together with stearic acid (18:0), gave marked protection from ethanol stress in terms of survival. Correlation analysis across the different fatty acid diets indicated a strong positive association between tissue 18-carbon fatty acid levels and ethanol tolerance and between 18-carbon fatty acid levels and development rate. No major differences were observed in the effects of the fatty acids on the Canton-S and OD4 (Tahbilk) wild-type strains. Thus, the fatty acid content of D. melanogaster larvae is important for growth and survival in ethanol-rich habitats. PMID:8421221

  1. Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of some traditional Argentinean meat sausages

    Mara Cristina Romero; Ana María Romero; Mirtha Marina Doval; Maria Alicia Judis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and total fat) of some meat products produced in the northeastern Argentina, analyzing fatty acids composition, polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio PUFA/SFA ratio (polyunsaturated/ saturated fatty acids), n-6/n-3 ratio, and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) content. Thirty traditional meat products produced by different processes were used. The samples were classified into 4 different cat...

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin; Buhl, Thora; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the rela...... relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children....

  3. Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Patterns and Changes in Anthropometry: A Cohort Study

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Overvad, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study....

  4. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  5. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Meilan Xue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  6. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Meilan, Xue; Yinlin, Ge; Jinyu, Zhang; Qing, Wang; Lin, Hou.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficie [...] ntly expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  7. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Wang, Qing [Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Hou, Lin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China)

    2012-09-14

    Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  8. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings

  9. Urinary excretion of arginine-vasopressin and prostaglandin E in essential fatty acid-deficient rats after oral supplementation with unsaturated fatty acid esters

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1986-01-01

    on urine output. Fatty acid analysis of total kidney lipids revealed a low percentage of 20:3(n-9) in the rats supplemented with (n-6) fatty acid. (L, A and C). The triene-tetraene ratio was 1.8 ± 0.6 (n = 6) in the kidneys of the oleate-supplemented rats. No relationship was found between urinary......Essential fatty-acid-deficient rats were supplemented with 300 mg/d of pure fatty acid esters: oleate (O), linoleate (L), arachidonate (A), and columbinate (C) for 10 d. The 24-h urine collections from each animal, collected 3 d before supplementations and again the last 3 d of the 10-d...... columbinate supplementation on urinary AVP excretion. Urinary PGE excretion was increased ca. twofold by both linoleate and oleate supplements, increased ca. fivefold by arachidonate supplementation but was unaffected by columbinate supplementation. There was no effect of any of the supplemented fatty acids...

  10. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    the (n-3) rats, even though large differences were found in the percentage of arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]), icosapentaenoic acid (20:5[n-3]), and icosatrienoic acid (20:3[n-9]) of total kidney fatty acids as well as of kidney phosphatidylinositol fatty acids. Fractionation of urine extracts on high...... arachidonic acid pool, which is rather resistant to restriction in dietary linoleate. © 1983 American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS)....

  11. Dietary lipids and forages interactions on cow and goat milk fatty acid composition and sensory properties

    Chilliard, Yves; Ferlay, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This review summarises the known effects of dietary factors on bovine and caprine milk fatty acid composition, as well as the regulation of cow and goat mammary lipid secretion. Special attention is given to fatty acids that could play a role for human health, such as saturated fatty acids, oleic acid, n-6- or n-3-C18 to C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans isomers of C18:1 and C18:2, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The main dietary factors taken into account are the nature o...

  12. Fatty acid and energy metabolism in broiler chickens fed diets containing either beef tallow or an oil blend.

    Wongsuthavas, S; Yuangklang, C; Vasupen, K; Mitchaothai, J; Alhaidary, A; Mohamed, H E; Beynen, A C

    2011-04-01

    The hypothesis tested was that the feeding of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) results in more whole-body fatty acid oxidation than the feeding of saturated fatty acids (SFA). It was reasoned that the increased fatty acid oxidation would be associated with enhanced whole-body energy expenditure and stimulated de novo fatty acid synthesis. To put the hypothesis to the test, broiler chickens were fed diets containing either beef tallow as source of SFA or an oil blend as source of n-6 PUFA. The broilers either had free access to their diet or were fed a restricted amount. Seven-day-old, male broiler chickens were used; they were kept individually in cages from 1 to 4 weeks of age. In the birds fed ad libitum, the n-6 PUFA diet reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI), but did not significantly affect average daily weight gain (ADG) and the feed:conversion ratio (FCR). The lower ADFI on the n-6 PUFA diet was associated with a higher apparent digestibility of total fatty acids. The ratio of deposition in the body to intake of digestible total PUFA, which reflected n-6 PUFA, was significantly decreased by the n-6 PUFA diet, pointing at preferentially increased n-6 PUFA oxidation on the n-6 PUFA diet. The ratio for n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was higher than 1.0, which agrees with net de novo synthesis, but the n-6 PUFA diet induced a lower value than did the SFA diet. Feeding either the n-6 PUFA or SFA diet did not influence energy expenditure expressed as percentage of energy intake. This study supports the idea that dietary n-6 PUFA instead of SFA are preferentially oxidized, but no proof was obtained for enhanced energy expenditure and contrary to the hypothesis put forward, the n-6 PUFA diet depressed de-novo fatty acid synthesis. PMID:20796077

  13. The essential fatty acid requirement of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal).

    Borlongan, I G

    1992-02-01

    The essential fatty acid (EFA) requirement of milkfish was examined by a 12-week feeding trial using defined, purified diets at water temperature of 28-29C and salinity of 32. The test diets contained varying levels of 18:0 (triglyceride form, TG), 18:3(n-3), 18:2(n-6) and (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA). Milkfish juveniles were starved for 7 days and were than fed lipid-free diet for 30 days before the initiation of feeding trials. Low growth and feed efficiency together with high mortalities were observed in fish fed the lipid-free diet as well as in the EFA-deficient diet. Supplementation of 2% 18:2(n-6) to the tristearin based diet did not improve growth rate of milkfish as effectively as feeding with (n-3) fatty acids. The highest weight gain was obtained in milkfish fed a combination of 5% 18:0 + 1.0% 18:3(n-3) + 0.5% 20:5(n-3) + 0.5% 22:6(n-3) although the supplementation of 2% 18:3(n-3) alone or combination of 0.5% 20:5(n-3) + 0.5% 22:6(n-3) to the tristearin based diets were also effective for improvement of growth. Thus, (n-3) fatty acids, such as 18:3(n-3) and (n-3)HUFA were nutritionally more important than 18:2(n-6) for milkfish. The fatty acid composition of the polar lipids from whole body of milkfish juveniles fed the various test diets were influenced by the composition of the dietary fatty acids. PMID:24213817

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your baby ... the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important family ...

  15. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18% of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20:3n-9):arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated. PMID:25772191

  16. Analysis of Fatty Acids from Gentiana olivieri

    Arsala Mansoor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The plants of Gentiana olivieri collected from Hazar Ganji, Quetta, were analysed for their fatty acid composition. The acids were converted into methyl esters and identified by Gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which revealed the presence of pentadecanoic, hexadecanoic, heptadecanoic, octadecenoic and nonadecanoic acid. The only unsaturated fatty acid found was heptadecatrienoic acid.

  17. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells

  18. Heterologous Reconstitution of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Arabidopsis.

    Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Park, Jong-Sug; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kang, Han-Chul; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Reconstitution of nonnative, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA) biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana was undertaken. The introduction of three primary biosynthetic activities to cells requires the stable coexpression of multiple proteins within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 VLC-PUFAs were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by ?(6)-desaturase, an ELOVL5-like enzyme involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and ?(5)-desaturase. Coexpression of the corresponding genes (McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES) under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter resulted in production of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4 n-6) as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) in Arabidopsis seeds. The contributions of the transgenic enzymes and endogenous fatty acid metabolism were determined. Specifically, the reasonable synthesis of omega-3 stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3) could be a useful tool to obtain a sustainable system for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in seeds of a transgenic T3 line 63-1. The results indicated that coexpression of the three proteins was stable. Therefore, this study suggests that metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce VLC-PUFAs is feasible. PMID:26339641

  19. Seasonal and sexual variations of fatty acid composition in fillet of Capoeta erhani

    Y?lmaz Emre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lowest lipid levels of Capoeta erhani observed in winter and vice versa in summer. The fatty acid composition of the fillets was significantly different among seasons (P0.05. The ratios of the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs were higher than half of the total fatty acids among all seasons. The level of PUFA was highest in autumn (25.91%, and lowest in summer (22.11%. Among seasons and sexes, the levels of total n3 PUFAs in total fatty acids changed from 15.43% to 21.89% and n6 PUFAs from 3.8% to 7.97%, respectively. The level of n3 PUFAs was present in excess that of the n6 PUFAs. The ratios of the n3 PUFAs to n6 PUFAs in the fillets of C. erhani were highest in autumn for both sexes and remarkably influenced by seasons.

  20. Acute Lung Injury Is Reduced in fat-1 Mice Endogenously Synthesizing n-3 Fatty Acids

    Mayer, Konstantin; Kiessling, Almuth; Ott, Juliane; Schaefer, Martina Barbara; Hecker, Matthias; Henneke, Ingrid; SCHULZ, RICHARD; Günther, Andreas; Wang, Jingdong; Wu, Lijun; Roth, Joachim; Seeger, Werner; Kang, Jing X.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) remains an important cause of mortality in intensive care units. Inflammation is controlled by cytokines and eicosanoids derived from the n-6 fatty acid (FA) arachidonic acid (AA). The n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and mediators derived from EPA and DHA possess reduced inflammatory potency.

  1. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    Helena Frančáková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest content of saturated fatty acids was observed in pumpkinseed oil (19.07%, the lowest content was found in rapeseed oil (7.03%, with low level of palmitic and stearic acids and high level of behenic acid (0.32% among the evaluated oils. The highest content of linoleic acid was determined in pumpkinseed (46.40% and sesame oil (40.49%; in these samples was also found lowest content of α-linolenic acid. These oils have important antioxidant properties and are not subject to oxidation. The richest source of linolenic acid was flaxseed oil which, which is therefore more difficult to preserve and process in food industry. In olive oil was confirmed that belongs to the group of oils with a predominantly monosaturated oleic acid (more than 70% and a small amount of polysaturated fatty acid. The most commonly used rapeseed oil belongs to the group of oils with the medium content of linolenic acid (8.76%; this oil also showed a high content of linoleic acid (20.24%. The group of these essentially fatty acids showed a suitable ratio ∑n3/n6 in the rapessed oil (0.44.

  2. Multi-targeted Therapy of Cancer by Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Berquin, Isabelle M.; Iris J. Edwards; Chen, Yong Q.

    2008-01-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids necessary for human health. Currently, the Western diet contains a disproportionally high amount of n-6 PUFAs and low amount of n-3 PUFAs, and the resulting high n-6/n-3 ratio is thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. Studies in human populations have linked high consumption of fish or fish oil to reduced risk of colon, prostate and breast cancer, although other st...

  3. Effect of Linseed Supplementation on Carcass, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition in Pigs

    Matjaž Červek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of linseed supplementation on carcass, meat quality and fatty acid profile of fat tissue was studied. No differences in carcass and meat quality traits were observed, the exception being drip loss that was lower in pigs supplemented with linseed. As regards fatty acids, linseed supplementation led to the increased content of unsaturated, polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids and decreased content of saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3 ratio in the subcutaneous and intramuscular fat of pigs.

  4. Lipid content and fatty acid composition in foods commonly consumed by nursing Congolese women: incidences on their essential fatty acid intakes and breast milk fatty acids.

    Rocquelin, G; Tapsoba, S; Mbemba, F; Gallon, G; Picq, C

    1998-09-01

    The fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition of nearly 40 foods, currently consumed by 102 nursing Congolese mothers living in Brazzaville, were determined to assess their impact on mothers' essential fatty acid (EFA) intakes and breast milk FA. Data on mothers' milk FA and dietary habits which allowed food selection were recently published (Rocquelin et al., 1998). Most foods were locally produced. Food samples were collected at local markets, bleached if necessary to avoid microbial degradation, and stored at +4 degrees C or -20 degrees C. They were lyophilized upon their arrival in the laboratory before lipid analyses. FA composition of food lipids was determined by capillary gas chromatography. Staple diets included low-fat, high-carbohydrate foods (processed cassava roots, wheat bread) and high-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) foods: soybean oil (high in 18 : 2 n-6 and alpha-18 : 3 n-3), bushbutter (dacryodes edulis), peanuts, avocado (high in fat and 18 : 2 n-6), freshwater and salt-water fish (high in LC n-3 and/or n-6 PUFA), and leafy green vegetables (low in fat but very high in alpha-18 : 3 n-3). Their frequent consumption by nursing mothers provided enough EFA to meet requirements due to lactation. It also explains why mothers' breast milk was rich in C8-C14 saturated FA (26% of total FA) and in n-6, n-3 PUFA (respectively 15.0% and 2.4% of total FA) highly profitable for breastfed infants' development. From this point of view, dietary habits of Congolese mothers have to be sustained for they are more adequate than most Western-type diets. PMID:10367004

  5. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3 Fatty Acids

    Michael E.R. Dugan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6 to omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices. A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  6. Propylenated fatty acids as emulsifiers

    El-Shattory, Y.; Aly, Saadia M.; Megahed, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    Hydroxy propylenyl stéarate, palmitate, laurate, oléate and linoleate were prepared by reaction of propylene oxide with fatty acid at 160 °C for five hours stirring in presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. Physico-chemical properties of the five products, regarding their use as emulsifiers, were determined.

    Se prepararon estearato, palmitato, laurato, oleato y linoleato de hidroxipropilenilos mediante reacción de oxido de propileno con ácido graso a 160 °C durante ...

  7. Selective incorporation of various C-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    Three 14C-labeled 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, 7,10,13,16-[14C]docosatetraenoic acid (22:4(n-6)), 7,10,13,16,19-[14C]docosapentaenoic acid (22:5(n-3)), and 4,7,10,13,16,19-[14C]docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)), were compared with [3H]arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6] and [14C]linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)) to characterize their incorporation into the lipids of Ehrlich ascites cells. The relatively rapid incorporation of the labeled 22-carbon acids into phosphatidic acid indicated that substantial amounts of these acids may be incorporated through the de novo pathway of phospholipid synthesis. In marked contrast to 20:4(n-6), the 22-carbon acids were incorporated much less into choline glycerophospholipids (CGP) and inositol glycerophospholipids (IGP). No selective preference was apparent for the (n-3) or (n-6) type of fatty acids. The amounts of the acids incorporated into diacylglycerophosphoethanolamine were in the order of: 22:6(n-3) greater than 20:4(n-6) much greater than 22:5(n-3) greater than or equal to 22:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6), whereas for alkylacylglycerophosphoethanolamine they were in the order of: 22:4(n-6) greater than 22:6(n-3) greater than 22:5(n-3) much greater than 20:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6). Of the mechanisms possibly responsible for the selective entry of 22-carbon acids into ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, the most reasonable explanation was that the cytidine-mediated ethanolamine phosphotransferase may have a unique double selectivity: for hexaenoic species of diacylglycerol and for 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing species of alkylacylglycerol. The relative distribution of fatty acids between newly incorporated and already maintained lipid classes suggested that IGP may function in Ehrlich cells as an intermediate pool for the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acids in glycerolipids

  8. Selective incorporation of various C-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    Masuzawa, Y.; Okano, S.; Waku, K.; Sprecher, H.; Lands, W.E.

    1986-11-01

    Three /sup 14/C-labeled 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, 7,10,13,16-(/sup 14/C)docosatetraenoic acid (22:4(n-6)), 7,10,13,16,19-(/sup 14/C)docosapentaenoic acid (22:5(n-3)), and 4,7,10,13,16,19-(/sup 14/C)docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)), were compared with (/sup 3/H)arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6) and (14C)linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)) to characterize their incorporation into the lipids of Ehrlich ascites cells. The relatively rapid incorporation of the labeled 22-carbon acids into phosphatidic acid indicated that substantial amounts of these acids may be incorporated through the de novo pathway of phospholipid synthesis. In marked contrast to 20:4(n-6), the 22-carbon acids were incorporated much less into choline glycerophospholipids (CGP) and inositol glycerophospholipids (IGP). No selective preference was apparent for the (n-3) or (n-6) type of fatty acids. The amounts of the acids incorporated into diacylglycerophosphoethanolamine were in the order of: 22:6(n-3) greater than 20:4(n-6) much greater than 22:5(n-3) greater than or equal to 22:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6), whereas for alkylacylglycerophosphoethanolamine they were in the order of: 22:4(n-6) greater than 22:6(n-3) greater than 22:5(n-3) much greater than 20:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6). Of the mechanisms possibly responsible for the selective entry of 22-carbon acids into ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, the most reasonable explanation was that the cytidine-mediated ethanolamine phosphotransferase may have a unique double selectivity: for hexaenoic species of diacylglycerol and for 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing species of alkylacylglycerol. The relative distribution of fatty acids between newly incorporated and already maintained lipid classes suggested that IGP may function in Ehrlich cells as an intermediate pool for the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acids in glycerolipids.

  9. Plasma Fatty Acid Profile of Gestating Ewes Supplemented with Fishmeal

    Mamun M. Or-Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (>18C cannot be adequately synthesized by ruminant tissues to meet their requirements; therefore, their concentration in body depends on the supply through feed. It may be possible to improve the essential fatty acid status of ruminant animals, during gestation by manipulating the maternal diet with Fishmeal (FM. The objectives of this research were to (1 determine the effect of fishmeal supplementation on the plasma fatty acid profile of ewes during late gestation and (2 determine the status of the plasma docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 of lambs born to these ewes. Approach: Eight gestating ewes [Rideau-Arcott, 97±5 kg initial body weight, 100 days of gestation] were used in a completely randomized design. Ewes were individually-housed and fed either a control diet (supplemented with soybean meal or a fishmeal supplemented diet. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture for plasma fatty acids analysis on 100, 114, 128 and 142 days of “gestation”. Blood samples from the lambs were also collected via jugular venipuncture immediately after birth and before receiving their mothers’ colostrum. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The ewes from both groups, i.e., control and fishmeal supplemented, had a similar fatty acid profile prior to supplementation (at 100 days, p>0.05. Thereafter, there was an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid, total n3-PUFA and total very long chain n3-PUFA (>C18 contents in plasma for the fishmeal supplemented ewes compared to the control (p0.05 in total saturated fatty acids, total monounsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid, total trans-18:1, total cis-18:1, or total n6-PUFA contents in ewe plasma between control and fishmeal supplemented groups. Lambs born to ewes fed the fishmeal supplemented diet had greater (pConclusion: The ewes supplemented with fishmeal supplementation showed a positive response with the enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and total very long chain n3-PUFA in plasma during gestation and these fatty acids were transferred to the fetus as well.

  10. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  11. Simulation of Palm based Fatty Acids Distillation

    Chin Peng Jiun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have long been recognized for their commercial value in the absence of glycerol. Chemicals derived from fatty acids are widely used in the formulation of detergents, lubricant, surfactants and in pharmaceutical industries. In addition, fatty acids also play a vital role in human metabolism and are widely used as catalyst in some chemical reactions. Commercially produced fatty acids are derived from naturally occurring fats and oils through the process of hydrolysis. Most of these raw materials result in nature as complex mixtures of triglycerides, alcohols and other esters. Alternatively, common edible oils used are sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, palm and palm kernel oil. Crude fatty acids can be obtained from the process of hydrolysis and will be purified through total distillation. Due to fatty acid market demand, the purity requirement of distillated fatty acid products is increasing greatly. Since desired purity of fatty acid is achievable through the most common and most efficient means of fractionation distillation process, study on simulation of fatty acids distillation has a significant contribution to the oleo chemical industry. In this simulation study, the optimization of the tray specification, feed stream pressure and temperature on the purity performance of the fatty acid composition are investigated. In South East Asia, palm tree fruit ripen continuously and can be harvested all year round. Therefore, palm based fatty acids are selected to be used as the feed components. In the present study, binary and multi-component distillations of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are studied. This simulation model is developed by using HYSYS simulator with suitable thermodynamic package chosen. A shortcut simulation method is built in advanced for preliminary estimations and for determining rigorous operating limits. Eventually, parametric optimization is performed to obtain the optimum operating conditions of the rigorous distillation column.

  12. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content. PMID:15277087

  13. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Obesity

    Atshaves, B.P.; Martin, G G; Hostetler, H.A.; McIntosh, A.L.; Kier, A.B.; SCHROEDER, F

    2010-01-01

    While low levels of unesterified long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are normal metabolic intermediates of dietary and endogenous fat, LCFAs are also potent regulators of key receptors/enzymes, and at high levels become toxic detergents within the cell. Elevated levels of LCFAs are associated with diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mammals evolved fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that bind/sequester these potentially toxic free fatty acids in the cytosol and present them f...

  14. Sex differences in the relationship of dietary fatty acids to cognitive measures in American children

    Will Lassek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Because the first neurons evolved in an environment high in the n-3 (omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, this fatty acid became a major component of neural structure and function and makes up 10% of the dry weight of the human brain. Since n-3 fatty acids must come from the diet, this suggests a possible positive role for dietary n-3 fatty acids in cognition and a possible negative role for n-6 fatty acids, which compete with n-3 for access to critical enzymes. Because human females must provide DHA for the growth of the unusually large brains of their offspring from maternal fat stored during childhood, their need for DHA is especially great. We used stepwise regression to determine whether particular dietary fatty acids and other nutrients were related to cognitive performance in over 4000 American children aged 6 to 16 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; a variety of possible biological, social and environmental risk factors were statistically controlled. In this context the only dietary factors related to cognitive performance were n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Dietary n-3 fatty acids were positively related to cognitive test scores in male and female children, while n-6 showed the reverse relationship, significantly so in females. In female children the positive effects of n-3 intake were twice as strong as in males and exceeded the negative effects of lead exposure. This suggests that increasing dietary intake of n-3 and decreasing n-6 fatty acids may have cognitive benefits in children, especially in females.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    Stewart Jeromson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  16. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome

    Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They...

  17. Trans fatty acids may impair biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturates and growth in man.

    Koletzko, B

    1992-04-01

    Human diet contains large amounts of trans fatty acids originating primarily from hydrogenated fats. Consumption of trans fatty acids is considered safe for man, but side effects, including impaired biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with 20 and 22 carbon atoms and reduced growth have been observed in animals. We studied whether or not there are indications of untoward effects of trans fatty acids in 29 premature infants (birth weight 1700 +/- 127 g, gestational age 33.6 +/- 1.4 weeks, mean +/- SD). Plasma samples obtained on day 4 of life were analysed for fatty acid composition. Trans octadecenoic acid and total trans fatty acids in plasma lipid fractions (% wt/wt) were not related to the precursor essential fatty acids linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids but correlated inversely to n - 3 and n - 6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and to the product/substrate ratios of long-chain polyunsaturate biosynthesis. Trans fatty acids were also inversely correlated to birth weight but not to gestational age. These data indicate a potential impairment of essential fatty acid metabolism and early growth by trans isomers in man, and question the safety of high dietary trans isomer intakes during pregnancy and the perinatal period. PMID:1606388

  18. Intramuscular fatty acid composition in beef from Aosta cattle breeds

    M. T. Barge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare fat quality of three categories of the Aosta cattle breeds by fatty acid composition. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum from 12 calves, 11 young bulls and 11 cows of Aosta Red Pied and Black Pied were bought at retail. Fatty acids content showed in most cases, except for C18:1, significant differences between the three categories. Veal calves had the lowest proportion of SFA and highest of PUFA, therefore they had the best PUFA/SFA ratio but the worst n-6/n-3 ratio due to the highest proportion of C18:2n-6. Besides veal calves was healthier by having best atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Black Pied young bulls, in comparison to Red Pied young bulls, showed a significant lower proportion of C10:0, C18:1, and a significant higher proportion of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6. Consequently they had a significant lower MUFA content but a higher PUFA content therefore a significant better PUFA/SFA ratio.

  19. Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly

    Bates, Philip D.; Johnson, Sean R.; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G.; Ohlrogge, John B; Browse, John

    2014-01-01

    Many plants produce valuable fatty acids in seed oils that provide renewable alternatives to petrochemicals for production of lubricants, coatings, or polymers. However, most plants producing these unusual fatty acids are unsuitable as crops. Metabolic engineering of oilseed crops, or model species, to produce the high-value unusual fatty acids has produced only low yields of the desired products, and previous research has indicated fatty acid degradation as a potential major factor hindering...

  20. Study of Thiosemicarbazone Derivative of Essential Fatty Acid

    Borhade, Shobha

    2014-01-01

    Essential fatty acids results in numerous health benefits. Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for human alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid).The importance of omega-3 fatty acids for physical well-being has been recognised for several decades . Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic and hypolipidaemic effects. Cannabis sativa (Hemp) is an angiosperm belonging to the cannabaceae family and cannabi...

  1. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  2. Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function

    C. Pompéia

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

  3. Fatty Acid Composition of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    Aktümsek, Abdurrahman; ÖZTÜRK, Celâleddin; KAŞIK, Giyasettin

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of fruit body, stem, lamellae and total of Agaricus bisporus were seperately analysed by GLC. In the all fatty acid compositions of A. bisporus, linoleic acid were predominant. Percentages of linoleic acid were varied between 53.45 - 68.78%. It was showed that the other major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and stearic acid in the fatty acid compositions.

  4. Diet, fatty acids, and regulation of genes important for heart disease.

    Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2004-11-01

    Diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), such as alpha-linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, are associated with decreased incidence and severity of coronary heart disease. Similarly, conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), which are found in meat and dairy products, have beneficial effects against atherosclerosis, diabetes, and obesity. The effects of n3-PUFAs and CLAs are in contrast to fatty acids with virtually identical structures, such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid (ie, n-6 PUFAs). This article discusses the possibility that cognate receptors exist for fatty acids or their metabolites that are able to regulate gene expression and coordinately affect metabolic or signaling pathways associated with coronary heart disease. Three nuclear receptors are emphasized as fatty acid receptors that respond to dietary and endogenous ligands: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, retinoid X receptors, and liver X receptors. PMID:15485588

  5. Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Fatty Acid Binding Revisited

    Jun CAI; Lücke, Christian; Chen, Zhongjing; Qiao, Ye; Klimtchuk, Elena; Hamilton, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a cytosolic protein most abundant in liver, is associated with intracellular transport of fatty acids, nuclear signaling, and regulation of intracellular lipolysis. Among the members of the intracellular lipid binding protein family, L-FABP is of particular interest as it can i), bind two fatty acid molecules simultaneously and ii), accommodate a variety of bulkier physiological ligands such as bilirubin and fatty acyl CoA. To better understand the p...

  6. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M; Heitmann, Berit L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Jess, Tine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related...... in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures...

  7. Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets

    Kessler AM; DS Lubisco; MM Vieira; AML Ribeiro; Penz Jr AM

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO), acid corn oil (ACO), linseed oil (LO) or coconut fat (CoF). Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA ) x (2 n6:n3 ratios) x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC). Performance responses and...

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders

    Young, Genevieve; Conquer, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary consumption of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), commonly found in fish or fish oil, may modify the risk for certain neuropsychiatric disorders. As evidence, decreased blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with several neuropsychiatric conditions, including Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder, Alzheimer's Disease, Schizophrenia and Depression. Supplementation s...

  9. Proximate composition and quantification of fatty acids in five major Brazilian chocolate brands

    Rúbia Michele Suzuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the centesimal composition and quantify fatty acids in regular and diet chocolate brands with emphasis on trans fatty acids. Regular and diet dark chocolate samples from the major brands analyzed were purchased from different local supermarkets in the city of Maringá. The brands were labeled with letters and five lots of each brand with three chocolate units per lot were analyzed in triplicate. We observed that the diet chocolates from the same brands presented larger lipid contents. The main fatty acids observed were saturated fatty acids (SFA, myristic acid (14:0, palmitic acid (16:0, and estearic acid (18:0. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and trans fatty acids, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, and elaidic acid (18:1-9t predominated. The trans fatty acid contents found in the analyzed samples were lower than and/or in accordance with the limits proposed by the Brazilian regulation.

  10. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S. M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, Torben; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A. H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J. M. M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A. G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of...... fatty acids and total fat in adults and/or the total population using the best available national food consumption data set. Results: A wide variation was observed in the intake of total fat and (clusters) of fatty acids in absolute amounts. The variation in proportion of energy derived from total fat...... and from clusters of fatty acids was less. Only in Finland, Italy, Norway and Portugal total fat did provide on average less than 35% of energy intake. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) provided on average between 10% and 19% of total energy intake, with the lowest contribution in most Mediterranean...

  11. Centesimal composition and fatty acids of meat from lambs fed diets containing soybean hulls

    Lvia Santos, Costa; Robrio Rodrigues, Silva; Fabiano Ferreira da, Silva; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Julliana Izabelle, Simionato; Jair de Arajo, Marques; Vincius Lopes da, Silva; Cludia Batista, Sampaio.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and fatty acids in meat from animals fed diets containing levels of soybean hulls. The experiment was conducted at UESB in Itapetinga-BA, Brazil. Twenty-five confined Santa Ins rams were used. Treatments consisted of different l [...] evels of substitution of corn by soybean hulls (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) and elephant grass silage as forage. The design was completely randomized. Samples of concentrate and silage were collected to evaluate the fatty acid composition. The experimental period lasted 110 days. After this period, the animals were slaughtered and samples of the longissimus muscle were collected and vacuum-packed for further analysis. The levels of total lipid and protein showed quadratic effect with the increase of soybean hulls in the diet, as the moisture increased linearly with inclusion. There was no effect of treatments on the percentage of ash. The composition of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA/SFA and omega 6 (n-6) did not change, but increases in n-3 and reduction in the n-6:n-3 ratio were observed when the the amount of soybean hulls in the diet increased. The content of fatty acid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ranged from 3.0 to 4.0 g/kg at levels of substitution. The inclusion of soybean hulls in the diet increased CLA, the n-3 and decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio.

  12. Effect of Fat-Mineral Preparation From Fish Oil on Fatty Acid Content on Cow Milk

    Witold Janeczek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 8-week-lasting investigation aimed at the assessment of the effect of fish oil application in the form of fat-mineral preparation (F-M on fatty acid content in milk fat. The subject of this investigation were highly efficient dairy cows (primiparous and multiparous. The cows were administered F-M containing fish oil (1% in dry mass of ration which resulted in decreased level of shortchain fatty acids in milk fat and increased level of longchain fatty acids. There was recorded significant increase in isomer cis-9,trans-11 CLA content, as well as the one of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 - EPA and DHA group. The number of n-3 group acid did considerably increase. The fatty acids n-6/n-3 ratio showed significant decrease in both experimental groups.

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin; Buhl, Thora; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the rela...... relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children.......The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the...

  14. Fatty acids in bovine milk fat

    Lindmark Månsson, Helena

    2008-01-01

    Milk fat contains approximately 400 different fatty acid, which make it the most complex of all natural fats. The milk fatty acids are derived almost equally from two sources, the feed and the microbial activity in the rumen of the cow and the lipids in bovine milk are mainly present in globules as an oil-in-water emulsion. Almost 70% of the fat in Swedish milk is saturated of which around 11% comprises short-chain fatty acids, almost half of which is butyric acid. Approximately 25% of the fa...

  15. Fatty acid composition of hemp seed oils from different locations in Turkey

    Kiralan, M.; Gul, V.; Metin Kara, S.

    2010-07-01

    Recent interest in hemp seed as a source of food has largely focused on its oil content and fatty acid profile. The oil content and fatty acid composition (15 fatty acids) of twenty one different hemp seed samples of domestic origin from north-western Turkey were monitored. The samples were obtained from seed wholesalers and local spice shops and are of unknown genetic origin. The oil content of the hemp seeds ranged between 29.6 to 36.5%. Out of the 15 detected fatty acids, the omega-6 linoleic acid (18:2n-6) was predominant and fluctuated from 55.4 to 56.9%, while the omega-3 a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid ranged from 16.5 to 20.4% and the omega-9 oleic acid (18:1n-9) ranged from 11.4 to 15.9%. Of the minor fatty acids, the highest concentrations were found for {gamma}-linolenic acid (18:3n-6), range 0.6-1.1%, followed by stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), range 0.3-0.5%. These results show that hemp seed grown in north-western Turkey provides a well balanced and rich source of dietary omega-6 and -3 essential fatty acids and appears to be a potentially valuable source of food. (Author) 31 refs.

  16. Influence of goats feeding on the fatty acids content in milk

    Željka Klir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of modeling the content of fatty acids of milk fat, in order to increase the contents of desirable n-3 unsaturated fatty acids and decrease saturated fatty acid with adequate nutrition of goats. Previous studies showed that the milk of goats on pasture increased content of caproic (C6:0, caprylic (C8:0, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, linolenic (C18:3, eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. In the same group of goats lower content of palmitoleic (C16:1, linoleic (C18:2 and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was found, as well as lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared with group of goats kept indoors and fed with alfalfa hay. In milk of goats fed with diets supplemented with safflower oil, content of CLA significantly increased, while goats fed with diets supplement with linseed oil had significantly higher content of C18:3 in milk, compared with group of goats fed without addition of these oils. Goats fed with addition of protected fish oil had significant transfer of eicosapentaenoic-EPA and docosahexaenoic-DHA fatty acids in milk. Protected fish oil reduced the negative impact of long chain fatty acids on the activity of ruminal microorganisms, consumption and digestibility of fiber, as well as inhibition of synthesis of fatty acids in milk gland. When adding unprotected fish oil, increase of stearic (C18:0 and oleic (C18:1 fatty acids occurred, because of the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen.

  17. Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids

    Caramia, G

    2012-01-01

    In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as precursors of lipid mediator molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound inf...

  18. Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function

    Pompéia C.; Lopes L. R.; Miyasaka C.K.; Procópio J; Sannomiya P.; Curi R.

    2000-01-01

    Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be ox...

  19. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer. PMID:26595162

  20. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl......, respectively). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids were 49.2 +/- 3.1, 44.9 +/- 1.8, and 37.7 +/- 1.7, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 3.3 +/- 0.7, 5.8 +/- 2.0, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Beef contained 2.1 +/- 0.8 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids, about half...... that found in veal (4.0 +/- 1.2 g/100 g fatty acids) and lamb (4.5 +/- 0.6 g/100 g fatty acids). Trans C-16:1 was 0.24 +/- 0.01, 0.14 +/- 0.02, and 0.79 +/- 0.02 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Only small variations in trans and other fatty acids could be demonstrated between...

  1. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  2. Very long-chain fatty acids change the ethanol tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Swanson, R L; Baumgardner, C A; Geer, B W

    1995-03-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that long-chain saturated fatty acids increase the order of cell membranes of an organism and minimize the detrimental fluidizing effects of ethanol. Unsaturated fatty acids increase membrane fluidity and are unlikely to increase the ethanol tolerance of the organism. Both a fatty acid-free medium and media supplemented with very long-chain fatty acids (20 or more carbons) were fed to wild-type larvae of Drosophila melanogaster; larvae were then transferred to media with or without ethanol to test for effects of the fatty acids on ethanol tolerance. Ethanol decreased the percent of larvae to pupate, and lengthened larval development time. However, the percentage of pupae to reach the adult stage and the weight of adult males increased when the larvae were fed ethanol. The very long-chain, unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)] and docosatetraenoic acid [22:4(n-6)], were associated with increased larval mortality when administered in a medium supplemented with ethanol. Arachidic acid (20:0) increased the percentage of larvae to pupate under ethanol stress, decreased the development time and increased the adult weight in the presence and absence of ethanol. Behenic acid (22:0) was not effectively incorporated into phospholipids and had little effect on growth traits. Thus, the experimental results were consistent with the hypothesis. PMID:7876931

  3. Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat

    SG Rondelli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn; T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fat. The lipids from the diets had significantly statistical effects (p<0,05 on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat. Multivariate techniques also showed differences in fatty acid composition within treatments due to sex. The studied dietary lipids affected the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S but had only small effects on the n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio.

  4. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty...

  5. X-ray crystal structure of N-6 adenine deoxyribose nucleic acid methyltransferase from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Tran, Phidung Hong

    X-ray diffraction by using resonant anomalous scattering has become a popular tool for solving crystal structures in the last ten years with the expanded availability of tunable synchrotron radiation for protein crystallography. Mercury atoms were used for phasing. The crystal structure of N-6 deoxyribose nucleic acid methyltransferase from Streptoccocus pneumoniae (DpnM) was solved by using the Multiple Anomalous Diffraction technique. The crystal structure reveals the formation of mercaptide between the mercury ion and the thiol group on the cysteine amino acid in a hydrophobic environment. The crystal structure contains the bound ligand, S- adenosyl-l-methionine on the surface of the concave opening. The direction of the ?-strands on the beta sheets are identical to other solved methyltransferases. The highly conserved motifs, DPPY and the FxGxG, are found to be important in ligand binding and possibly in methyl group transfer. The structure has a concave cleft with an opening on the order of 30 that can accommodate a DNA duplex. By molecular modelling coupled to sequence alignment, two other highly conserved residues Arg21 and Gly19 are found to be important in catalysis.

  6. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  7. Fatty acyl specificity of the receptor-mediated release of polyunsaturated fatty acids from vascular endothelial cells

    Histamine and bradykinin appear to exhibit the same fatty acid specificity as thrombin. Incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with 10 ?M histamine for 10 min in buffered saline containing 50 ?M fat-free albumin stimulates the release of previously incorporated [14C]arachidonate but not [14C]22:4(n-6) or [14C]20:3(n-6). Similarly calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells release [14C]arachidonate but not [14C]22:4(n-6) in response to either bradykinin (1 +g/ml) or histamine (10?M). In both types of endothelial cells, the calcium ionophore A23187 (10 ?M) exhibits the same pattern of fatty acyl specificity as the receptor-mediated agonists. By contrast, mellitin (2-4 ?g/ml) stimulates the release of free 22:4(n-6) and oleate in addition to arachidonate; release of 22:4(n-6) is 30-70% that of arachidonate. These results suggest that histamine, bradykinin and thrombin stimulate a common calcium-dependent fatty acyl-specific phospholipase activity

  8. Involvement of N6 and N3 polyunsaturated faty acids on the lipidic profile in central nervous system of the animals of experience

    G. Iamandei1, Veronica Mocanu1, T. Oboroceanu2, Veronica Luca1

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: N-3 and N-6polyunsaturated fatty acids has manyinvolvements in activities within orentering in regulating various physiologicalprocesses and in certain pathologies.Among systemic physiological effects inwhich they are involved we mention thecentral nervous system development andrecall of the retina, regulating plasma lipidlevels, cardiovascular and immune systemfunctions, regulating the activity of insulin.Material and methods: The experimentthere were used 60 male Wistar rats , weight180 ± 20 grams, procured from the animalfarm of the Department ofPathophysiology, University of Medicineand Pharmacy “Gr.T. Popa”, Iaşi.Male Wistar rats were divided into twostudy groups: normal control animals (Mand test animals.Test group was further divided intothree groups - each group being composedof 15 animals.Administration of the substances wasmade for 36 weeks (nine months, afterwhich the animals were evaluated andsubsequently sacrificed.Results: Following statistical analysis, wedetermined the following:• Averages of AGP n3 were significantlyhigher in groups 2 (p <0.001 and 3 (p<0.001 compared with group 4• Averages ratio n6: n3 in nerve cellmembrane were significantly lower ingroups 2 (p <0.001 and 3 (p <0.001compared with group 4Discussions: Our experimentdemonstrates that increased amounts ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids in themembranes of nerve cells which can justifythe positive evolution of animals inassessing the performance of concomitantbehavioral tests.Conclusions: This study brings new lighton the importance of the existence of abalance between PUFA intake and dailydiet.

  9. Tradifional caffle feeding stuffs: fatty acid profile

    Peres, António M.; Dias, L. G.; Morais, Jorge Sá; Sousa, Fernando Ruivo de; Pires, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    Dietary pollunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are perceived to be healthier ïhan sat$ated fatfy acids. Therefore, in order ïo be able to manipulate the faÍty acid prolìle ofmeat and/or miik, to respond to the consumer demands. knorvledge of the fatty acid profile of feeding sfuffs for cattle is of major imponance (LeDoux et al., 20A2', Petit, 2002). In this *'ork a preliminary study viâs made of the fat4" acid profile of the corv's diet in a traditional farm production system"

  10. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress. PMID:26358696

  11. Fatty acid analysis of triacylglycerols: Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas chromatography.

    Ichihara, Ken'ichi; Kohsaka, Chihiro; Tomari, Naohiro; Kiyono, Tamami; Wada, Jun; Hirooka, Kiyoo; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-15

    A method to prepare fatty acid methyl esters was developed for fatty acid analysis of triacylglycerols by gas chromatography (GC). Triacylglycerols were mixed with methanolic CH3ONa in hexane containing a mid-polar solvent for 10s at room temperature. Under these conditions, trioleoylglycerol was converted to methyl oleate with an average yield of 99.3%. This procedure gave reliable and reproducible data on fatty acid compositions determined by GC. PMID:26656926

  12. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals

    FOWLER, MA; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Christophe; CROCKER; Costa, Dp

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity...

  13. Milk in human nutrition: Comparison of fatty acid profiles

    Arsić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk and milk products are very important in human nutrition. Fatty acids (FA, which are the major component of milk lipids, have different effects on human health. The aim of this study was to determine and compare fatty acid composition of human milk, infant formula and cow's milk most often consumed in Serbian population. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Our results showed that saturated FA were predominant in all types of milk, particularly in cow's milk with more than 70%. Monounsaturated oleic acid was significantly higher in human milk (36% than in infants formula (30% and cow's milk (26%. Although polyunsaturated FA content of cow's milk was very low (3.6% compared with infant formula (15% and human milk (19%, cow's milk had the most desirable n6/n3 ratio, and content of n-3 precursor α-linolenic acid. Low content of n-3 FA may be due to a relatively low consumption of marine foods in Serbian population. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are important in infant development and maintenance of overall human health, were detected only in human milk. These results suggest that human milk is the most desirable food in infants' nutrition, but low content of n-3 FA indicates that supplementation of lactating women with n-3 FA is highly recommendable.

  14. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette; Daugaard, J R; Storlien, L H; Kiens, B

    2001-01-01

    Training improves insulin sensitivity, which in turn may affect performance by modulation of fuel availability. Insulin action, in turn, has been linked to specific patterns of muscle structural lipids in skeletal muscle. This study investigated whether regular exercise training exerts an effect on...... the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk......, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P <0.05). The ratio between n-6 and n-3...

  15. Plasma fatty acids of neonates born to mothers with and without gestational diabetes.

    Thomas, B A; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Lowy, Clara; Offley-Shore, Brigid; Crawford, Michael A

    2005-05-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their neonates have lower levels of arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in red cell membranes. It is not clear if this abnormality is restricted to red cells or is a generalised problem. We have investigated plasma fatty acids of neonates (venous cord) of GDM (n=37), and non-diabetic (n=31) women. The GDMs had lower levels of dihomogamma-linolenic (20:3n-6, DHGLA) acid, summation operator n-6 metabolites, DHA and summation operator n-3 metabolites (p<0.05) in choline phosphoglycerides (CPG). They also had lower levels of AA (-4.5%), adrenic acid (22:4n-6, -13%), osbond acid (22:5n-6, -7%) and summation operator n-6 (-2.5%). There was a similar pattern in triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol esters (CE). Mead acid, a marker of generalised shortage of derived and parent essential fatty acids, was higher in CPG and TG of the GDM group by 73% and 76%. The adrenic/osbond acid (22:4n-6/22:5n-6) ratio, a biochemical marker of DHA insufficiency, was reduced in CPG (-4.5%), TG (-63%) and CE (-75%) of the GDM group. These findings, which are consistent with the previous red cell data, suggest that the neuro-visual and vascular development and function of the offspring of GDM women may be adversely affected if the levels of AA and DHA are compromised further by other factors, pre- or post-natally. Studies are required to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the reduction of the two fatty acids and to evaluate the developmental and health implications. PMID:15850714

  16. Interaction of Fatty Acid with Myoglobin

    Sriram, Renuka; Kreutzer, Ulrike; Shih, Lifan; Jue, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Upon titration with palmitate, the 1H NMR spectra of metmyoglobin cyanide (MbCN) reveal a selective perturbation of the 8 heme methyl, consistent with a specific interaction of myoglobin (Mb) with fatty acid. Other detectable hyperfine shifted resonances of the heme group remain unchanged. Mb also enhances fatty acid solubility, as reflected in a more intense methylene peak of palmitate in Mb than in Tris buffer. Ligand binding analysis indicates an apparent palmitate dissociation constant (K...

  17. Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

  18. Polyhydroxy Fatty Acids Derived from Sophorolipids

    Starting from 17-hydroxyoleic acid, which is readily available from acid alcoholysis of sophorolipids, several new polyhydroxy fatty acids have been synthesized. These compounds contain from 2 to 5 hydroxy groups, in some instances combined with other functional groups. The added hydroxy groups ca...

  19. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Takeuchi, Michiki; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Shima, Jun; Takahashi, Satomi; Yokozeki, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract interact with their host in many ways. Lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes generates multiple fatty acid species that can affect host health. In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we revealed a fatty acid metabolism, saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acid, that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore,...

  20. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO2 in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO2 and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and ω-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by β-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the ω-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the β-ketothiolase step of the β-oxidation pathway. The [14C]acetoacetate formed from the [1-14C]labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the [14C]acetoacetate formed from the (ω-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1

  1. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  2. Effect of Dietary Fatty Acids on Human Lipoprotein Metabolism: A Comprehensive Update

    Esther M.M. Ooi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Dietary fatty-acid composition regulates lipids and lipoprotein metabolism and may confer CVD benefit. This review updates understanding of the effect of dietary fatty-acids on human lipoprotein metabolism. In elderly participants with hyperlipidemia, high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty-acids (PUFA consumption diminished hepatic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL secretion and enhanced TRL to low-density lipoprotein (LDL conversion. n-3 PUFA also decreased TRL-apoB-48 concentration by decreasing TRL-apoB-48 secretion. High n-6 PUFA intake decreased very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations by up-regulating VLDL lipolysis and uptake. In a study of healthy subjects, the intake of saturated fatty-acids with increased palmitic acid at the sn-2 position was associated with decreased postprandial lipemia. Low medium-chain triglyceride may not appreciably alter TRL metabolism. Replacing carbohydrate with monounsaturated fatty-acids increased TRL catabolism. Trans-fatty-acid decreased LDL and enhanced high-density lipoprotein catabolism. Interactions between APOE genotype and n-3 PUFA in regulating lipid responses were also described. The major advances in understanding the effect of dietary fatty-acids on lipoprotein metabolism has centered on n-3 PUFA. This knowledge emphasizes the importance of regulating lipoprotein metabolism as a mode to improve plasma lipids and potentially CVD risk. Additional studies are required to better characterize the cardiometabolic effects of other dietary fatty-acids.

  3. Effect of dietary Fatty acids on human lipoprotein metabolism: a comprehensive update.

    Ooi, Esther M M; Watts, Gerald F; Ng, Theodore W K; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2015-06-01

    Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dietary fatty-acid composition regulates lipids and lipoprotein metabolism and may confer CVD benefit. This review updates understanding of the effect of dietary fatty-acids on human lipoprotein metabolism. In elderly participants with hyperlipidemia, high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty-acids (PUFA) consumption diminished hepatic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) secretion and enhanced TRL to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) conversion. n-3 PUFA also decreased TRL-apoB-48 concentration by decreasing TRL-apoB-48 secretion. High n-6 PUFA intake decreased very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations by up-regulating VLDL lipolysis and uptake. In a study of healthy subjects, the intake of saturated fatty-acids with increased palmitic acid at the sn-2 position was associated with decreased postprandial lipemia. Low medium-chain triglyceride may not appreciably alter TRL metabolism. Replacing carbohydrate with monounsaturated fatty-acids increased TRL catabolism. Trans-fatty-acid decreased LDL and enhanced high-density lipoprotein catabolism. Interactions between APOE genotype and n-3 PUFA in regulating lipid responses were also described. The major advances in understanding the effect of dietary fatty-acids on lipoprotein metabolism has centered on n-3 PUFA. This knowledge emphasizes the importance of regulating lipoprotein metabolism as a mode to improve plasma lipids and potentially CVD risk. Additional studies are required to better characterize the cardiometabolic effects of other dietary fatty-acids. PMID:26043038

  4. Fractionation of the stable carbon isotope ratio of essential fatty acids in zebrafish Danio rerio and mud snails Bellamya chinensis.

    Fujibayashi, Megumu; Ogino, Masahiro; Nishimura, Osamu

    2016-02-01

    Fractionation of stable carbon (C) isotopes in the essential fatty acids 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 was investigated in the zebrafish Danio rerio and the mud snail Bellamya chinensis fed the same two diets. These diets differed in essential fatty acid compositions: (1) TetraMin contained all five fatty acids, and (2) Chlorella contained only two, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. On average, the isotopic fractionation was -0.5 ± 0.9 ‰ for 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 for all experiments, indicating that the fractionation of these essential fatty acids was negligible. However, the isotopic fractionation of 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 varied greatly between species and between diets. The isotopic fractionation of the Chlorella diet was -0.2 and -6.9 ‰ for zebrafish and mud snail, but 4.2 and -1.3 ‰, respectively, when these consumers were fed TetraMin. This variation could be explained by the different amount of assimilation and the biosynthesis of these fatty acids from their precursors (i.e., 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3). These results indicate that the isotopic composition of C20 and C22 essential fatty acids was strongly influenced by the fatty acid composition in the diets. Thus the stable C isotope ratios of C18 essential fatty acids in consumers are more useful as dietary tracers in food web studies. PMID:26537876

  5. Production of unusual fatty acids in rapeseed

    Roscoe Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable-derived oils are of interest for industrial applications partly because of the chemical similarity of plant oils to mineral oils but also because of the economic need to reduce overproduction of seed oils for nutritional use. Complex oils can be produced in seeds as a low cost agricultural product based on renewable solar energy that requires less refining and is biodegradable and thus produces less adverse effects on the environment. In addition, biotechnologies have accelerated selection programmes and increased the genetic diversity available for the development of new varieties of oilseeds with specific fatty acid compositions. In the developing oilseed, energy and carbon are stored as lipid under the form of triacylglycerol, that is, a glycerol molecule to which three fatty acids are esterified. Fatty acids comprise a linear chain of carbon atoms, the first of which carries an organic acid group. The chain length and the presence of double bonds determine the properties of the fatty acid which in turn determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil of storage lipids and hence their economic value. In addition to the common C16- and C18-saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of membrane lipids, the seed storage lipids of many plant species contain unusual fatty acids (UFAs which can vary in chain length, in the degree of unsaturation, possess double bonds in unusual positions, or can contain additional functional groups such as hydroxy, epoxy, cyclic and acetylenic groups [1]. These unusual fatty acids are of value as industrial feedstocks and their uses include the production of fuels and lubricants, soap and detergents, paints and varnishes, adhesives and plastics (Figure 1.

  6. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[14C]palmitate to 14CO2 and total [14C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 μM). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 μM and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine

  7. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  8. Unique odd-chain polyenoic phospholipid fatty acids present in chytrid fungi.

    Akinwole, Philips O; Lefevre, Emilie; Powell, Martha J; Findlay, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Chytrid fungi are ubiquitous components of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems yet they remain understudied. To investigate the use of phospholipid fatty acids as phenotypic characteristics in taxonomic studies and biomarkers for ecological studies, 18 chytrid fungi isolated from soil to freshwater samples were grown in defined media and their phospholipid fatty acid profile determined. Gas chromatographic/mass spectral analysis indicated the presence of fatty acids typically associated with fungi, such as 16:1(n-7), 16:0, 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3) 18:1(n-9), and 18:0, as well as, a number of odd-chain length fatty acids, including two polyunsaturated C-17 fatty acids. Conversion to their 3-pyridylcarbinol ester facilitated GC-MS determination of double-bond positions and these fatty acid were identified as 6,9-17:2 [17:2(n-8)] and 6,9,12-17:3 [17:3(n-5)]. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of polyunsaturated C-17 fatty acids isolated from the phospholipids of chytrid fungi. Cluster analysis of PLFA profiles showed sufficient correlation with chytrid phylogeny to warrant inclusion of lipid analysis in species descriptions and the presence of several phospholipid fatty acids of restricted phylogenetic distributions suggests their usefulness as biomarkers for ecological studies. PMID:25119485

  9. Role and significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in nutrition in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis

    Ristić Vanja I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hyperlipoproteinemia is a key factor in development of atherosclerosis, whereas regression of atherosclerosis mostly depends on decreasing the plasma level of total and LDL-cholesterol. Many studies have reported the hypocholesterolemic effect of linolenic acid. Types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA Linoleic and α-linolenic acids are essential fatty acids. The main sources of linoleic acid are vegetable seeds and of α-linolenic acid - green parts of plants. α-linolenic acid is converted to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid is converted into arachidonic acid competing with eicosapentaenoic acid in the starting point for synthesis of eicosanoids, which are strong regulators of cell functions and as such, very important in physiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular system. Eicosanoids derived from eicosapentaenoic acid have different biological properties in regard to those derived from arachidonic acid, i.e. their global effects result in decreased vasoconstriction platelet aggregation and leukocyte toxicity. Role and significant of PUFA The n-6 to n-3 ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food is very important, and an optimal ratio 4 to 1 in diet is a major issue. Traditional western diets present absolute or relative deficiency of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a ratio 15-20 to 1. In our diet fish and fish oil are sources of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Refined and processed vegetable oils change the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids and obtained derivates have atherogenic properties.

  10. [Composition and stability of fatty acids from deboned cachama and sardine meat during freezer storage].

    Ortíz, H; Bello, R

    1992-12-01

    Free fatty acids from total lipids and phospholipids in minced fish flesh from three sizes of Cachama (Colossoma macropomum) and Sardine (Sardinella anchovia) were evaluated. Cachama's most abundant unsaturated fatty acids from the total lipid fraction were: C18:1 (31-38%); C18:2, n-6 (13-15%); and C20:4, n-6 (3-5%), while in sardine were the follows: C18:1; C20:5 n-3 (12-24%) and C22: 6,n-3 (7-24%). C20:5, n-3 increased with the size and C22:6,n-3 decreased. The variance analysis indicated that percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-6 series in the total lipids of cachama and n-3 series in sardine were affected by the storage temperature from -10C to -20 degrees C (p < 0.01). Storage time had effect on the stability of sardine fatty acids (p-0.01) and cachama (p < 0.05). Sardine minced flesh presented the highest value of free fatty acids at-10 degrees C during the second month of storage (620 mg%) while cachama at the fourth month (230 mg%). TBA- value in sardine increased at -10 degrees C from 5.5 to 23 mg of malonaldehyde in fourth months while in cachama these value were almost the same (2-6 mg-kg) during the storage period at -10 degrees C and -20 degrees C. PMID:1342185

  11. Fatty acids in mountain gorilla diets: implications for primate nutrition and health.

    Reiner, Whitney B; Petzinger, Christina; Power, Michael L; Hyeroba, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the fatty acid composition of foods eaten by wild primates. A total of 18 staple foods that comprise 97% of the annual dietary intake of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) were analyzed for fatty acid concentrations. Fruits and herbaceous leaves comprise the majority of the diet, with fruits generally having a higher mean percentage of fat (of dry matter; DM), as measured by ether extract (EE), than herbaceous leaves (13.0% ± SD 13.0% vs. 2.3 ± SD 0.8%). The mean daily EE intake by gorillas was 3.1% (DM). Fat provided ≈14% of the total dietary energy intake, and ≈22% of the dietary non-protein energy intake. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 32.4% of the total fatty acids in the diet, while monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for 12.5% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) accounted for 54.6%. Both of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA, n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3), were found in all of the 17 staple foods containing crude fat and were among the three most predominant fatty acids in the diet: LA (C18:2n-6) (30.3%), palmitic acid (C16:0) (23.9%), and ALA (C18:3n-3) (21.2%). Herbaceous leaves had higher concentrations of ALA, while fruit was higher in LA. Fruits provided high amounts of fatty acids, especially LA, in proportion to their intake due to the higher fat concentrations; despite being low in fat, herbaceous leaves provided sufficient ALA due to the high intake of these foods. As expected, we found that wild mountain gorillas consume a diet lower in EE, than modern humans. The ratio of LA:ALA was 1.44, closer to agricultural paleolithic diets than to modern human diets. PMID:24243235

  12. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the central nervous system: evolution of concepts and nutritional implications throughout life

    Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Guesnet, Philippe; Vancassel, Sylvie; Astorg, Pierre; Denis, Isabelle; Langelier, Bénédicte; Aïd, Sabah; Poumès-Ballihaut, Carine; Champeil-Potokar, Gaëlle; Lavialle, Monique

    2004-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are the major polyunsaturated fatty acids in the membranes of brain and retinal cells. Animals specifically deficient in dietary n-3 fatty acids have low DHA content in their membranes, reduced visual acuity and impaired learning ability. Studies on bottle-fed human infants have shown that adding DHA and AA to milk replacer-formulas can bring their concentrations in the infant blood lipids to values as high as those produc...

  13. Study of fatty acid-bacteria interactions

    Complete text of publication follows. During our work we investigated fatty acid-bacteria interactions. The antibacterial property of fatty acids was reported by several authors. Despite of them there is not reassuring explanation about the mechanism of the antibacterial activity of these compounds. An effect can considerably change in case of different structured fatty acids. Our earlier studies conduct that small changes in the structures can modify changes in their behavior towards bacteria. The stearic acid does not cause any antibacterial effects during the first few hours of the investigation, may even help the bacterial growth. However, linolic acid (C18:2) shows a strong antibacterial effect during the first hours. After 24 hours this effect wears out and the bacteria have adapted to the stress. We studied the antibacterial activity using direct bioautography. This method has the advantage to allow examining lipophilic compounds. The linoleic acid decomposes in time under different physiological conditions creating numerous oxidized molecules. This may be the reason of its antimicrobial effect. For studying this phenomenon we used infrared and mass spectroscopic methods. We applied infrared spectroscopy for indicating any changes in the spectra of the fatty acids after the interaction of fatty acids with bacteria. So we are able to deduct on what could happen during these process. We paid great attention towards the changes of double bonds, on methylation and demethylation processes. Using mass spectroscopy we searched for oxidized products that may play important role in this process. These studies are only part of our more widespreading investigations, dealing with the antimicrobial properties of fatty acids.

  14. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    Rawat Richa; Yu Xiao-Hong; Shanklin John

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also ...

  15. 7 Things to Know about Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    ... X Y Z 7 Things To Know About Omega-3 Fatty Acids Share: Omega-3 fatty acids are a group of polyunsaturated fatty ... a number of functions in the body. The omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in ...

  16. Chlorogenic acid from honeysuckle improves hepatic lipid dysregulation and modulates hepatic fatty acid composition in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Wen, Yanmei; Yang, Yuhui; Mi, Shumei; Zhou, Lili; Wu, Xin; Ding, Sheng; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid as a natural hydroxycinnamic acid has protective effect for liver. Endotoxin induced metabolic disorder, such as lipid dysregulation and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of chlorogenic acid in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion. The Sprague-Dawley rats with lipid metabolic disorder (LD group) were intraperitoneally injected endotoxin. And the rats of chlorogenic acid-LD group were daily received chlorogenic acid by intragastric administration. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, the area of visceral adipocyte was decreased and liver injury was ameliorated, as compared to LD group. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, serum triglycerides, free fatty acids, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol were decreased, the proportion of C20:1, C24:1 and C18:3n-6, Δ9-18 and Δ6-desaturase activity index in the liver were decreased, and the proportion of C18:3n-3 acid was increased, compared to the LD group. Moreover, levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I, and fatty acid β-oxidation were increased in chlorogenic acid-LD group compared to LD rats, whereas levels of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were decreased. These findings demonstrate that chlorogenic acid effectively improves hepatic lipid dysregulation in rats by regulating fatty acid metabolism enzymes, stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase activation, and modulating levels of hepatic fatty acids.

  17. Imaging with 123I labelled fatty acids

    This report describes the clinical results obtained with radioiodinated aromatic and aliphatic fatty acids. The radiopharmaceuticals were 123I labelled p-phenylpentadecanoic (p-IPPA) and 123I labelled heptadecanoic acid (HDA). The possibility to evaluate the myocardial metabolic function in man noninvasively add a complementary diagnostic tool in the clinical follow-up of patients with heart disease. (Auth.)

  18. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients

    Calder P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6. Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

  19. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  20. Increase of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Thraustochytrids through Thraustochytrid Ubiquitin Promoter-Driven Expression of a Fatty Acid ?5 Desaturase Gene?

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Matsuda, Takanori; Abe, Eriko; Hama, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Masahiro; Honda, Daiske; Okita, Yuji; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Thraustochytrids, marine protists known to accumulate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in lipid droplets, are considered an alternative to fish oils as a source of PUFAs. The major fatty acids produced in thraustochytrids are palmitic acid (C16:0), n ? 6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (C22:5n ? 6), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6n ? 3), with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5n ? 3) and arachidonic acid (AA) (C20:4n ? 6) as minor constituents. We attempted here to alter the fatty acid composition of thraustochytrids through the expression of a fatty acid ?5 desaturase gene driven by the thraustochytrid ubiquitin promoter. The gene was functionally expressed in Aurantiochytrium limacinum mh0186, increasing the amount of EPA converted from eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) (C20:4n ? 3) by the ?5 desaturase. The levels of EPA and AA were also increased by 4.6- and 13.2-fold in the transgenic thraustochytrids compared to levels in the mock transfectants when ETA and dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA) (C20:3n ? 6) were added to the culture at 0.1 mM. Interestingly, the amount of EPA in the transgenic thraustochytrids increased in proportion to the amount of ETA added to the culture up to 0.4 mM. The rates of conversion and accumulation of EPA were much higher in the thraustochytrids than in baker's yeasts when the desaturase gene was expressed with the respective promoters. This report describes for the first time the finding that an increase of EPA could be accomplished by introducing the ?5 desaturase gene into thraustochytrids and indicates that molecular breeding of thraustochytrids is a promising strategy for generating beneficial PUFAs. PMID:21478316

  1. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory

  2. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.

    G. Geis; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S.; Opferkuch, W.

    1990-01-01

    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  3. Features of fatty acid synthesis in higher plants

    In the biosynthesis of fatty acid in the presence of 3H2O, 3H is incorporated into the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acid. The features in the fatty acid synthesis of higher plants were investigated by applying 3H2O method to the measurement of the ability of spinach leaves synthesizing fatty acid. Sucrose, acetate, pyruvate, PGA, PEP, OAA, citrate, etc. were employed as the substrates of fatty acid synthesis to trace the process of synthesis of each fatty acid. The demand of various cofactors related to the ability of spinach chloroplast fatty acid synthesizing was also examined. Light dependence of the fatty acid synthesis of chloroplast as well as the influences of N,N'-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide, carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy phenyl hydrazone and NH4Cl were discussed. The results were compared with the reports on the fatty acid synthesis of avocado pear, castor bean, etc. (Kobatake, H.)

  4. Variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions in Thai Perilla seeds grown at different locations

    Maitree Suttajit

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Perilla or Nga-Kee-Mon (Perilla frutescens seed has long been known as a rich source of ?-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3. It is widely cultivated throughout Thailand. However, there are no data on the variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions among crops from different regions. The aim of this study was to examine the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seed grown at different locations. Two different perilla seeds were harvested from Maehongsorn and Chiang Mai districts, and one commercial perilla was purchased from local market. Seeds were ground, lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v and its composition determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed with GLC using standard methods. Lipid content was between 34-36% (w/w. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in perilla seed (97% of total lipids, and a minor component was phytosterol (3% of total lipids. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates was approximately 1: 1: 8. Most predominant fatty acid was ?-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3 (55-60% of total fatty acid. Seeds from Maehongsorn district had the highest concentration of ?-linolenic acid, and commercial perilla had the lowest (P<0.05. Other two predominant fatty acids were linoleic acid (18:2, n-6 (18-22% of total fatty acid and oleic acid (18:1 (11-13% of total fatty acid. The results showed that the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seeds varied significantly among samples from different locations.

  5. Genetic dissection of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    WATTS, JENNIFER L.; Browse, John

    2002-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important membrane components and precursors of signaling molecules. To investigate the roles of these fatty acids in growth, development, and neurological function in an animal system, we isolated Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deficient in PUFA synthesis by direct analysis of fatty acid composition. C. elegans possesses all the desaturase and elongase activities to synthesize arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid from saturated fatty acid precurs...

  6. Therapeutic Benefits Of ?-3 Fatty Acids from Fish

    Khora, Samanta S.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids play important roles in human nutrition and disease management. Fish are rich in Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LC- PUFAs). Marine fish are the best source of these fatty acids. They typically include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The major health maintenance and prevention of diseases recognized in EPA and DHA. These forms of fatty acids have excellent body usability com...

  7. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-22

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short precursors now gives us easy access to these extended molecules. PMID:26886879

  8. Fatty acid compositions of six wild edible mushroom species.

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  9. Bioluminescent determination of free fatty acids.

    Kather, H; Wieland, E

    1984-08-01

    A simple, highly specific, and sensitive bioluminescent method for determination of free fatty acids in unextracted plasma or serum has been developed. The method is based on the activation of free fatty acids by acyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.3). The pyrophosphate formed is used to phosphorylate fructose 6-phosphate in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme pyrophosphate-fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase (EC 4.1.2.13). The triosephosphates produced from fructose 1,6-bisphosphate by aldolase are oxidized by NAD in the presence of arsenate to 3-phosphoglycerate. The NADH is detected via the bacterial NADH-linked luciferase system. Excellent agreement has been obtained by comparison with accepted methods. In addition, for the determination of serum free fatty acids, the method is particularly applicable for following lipolysis of isolated adipocytes. PMID:6486422

  10. Fatty acid profiles in tissues of mice fed conjugated linoleic acid

    Gøttsche, Jesper; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of vaccenic acid (VA, 0.5 and 1.2%), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, mixture of primarily c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA, 1.2%), linoleic acid (LA, 1.2%) and oleic acid (OA, 1.2%) into different tissues of mice was examined. The effects on the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols...... (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) in kidney, spleen, liver and adipose tissue were investigated. VA and CLA (c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA) were primarily found in TAG, especially in kidney and adipose tissue, respectively. Conversion of VA to c9,t11-CLA was indicated by our results, as both fatty acids were...... fatty acids (PUFA) in PL from kidney and spleen and lowered the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in these tissues. Furthermore, CLA increased C-22 PUFA in the PL fraction of kidney, spleen and liver, but reduced the level of arachiclonic acid in PL of liver and spleen and lowered the Delta(9)-desaturation indexes...

  11. Biological study of some labeled C16 fatty acids

    The evolution of myocardial, blood, liver and kidney activity is studied in mice after I.V. injection of some labelled C16 fatty acids. With ? iodo fatty acids, the presence or absence of a double bond and the character Z or E have no influence on the tissue activity. The presence of a triple bond decreases the fixation, modifies the intramyocardial metabolism of the fatty acid and accelerates the rate of decrease of myocardial activity. ? bromo fatty acid have the same maximal fixation as ? iodo fatty acid but a more rapid decrease of myocardial activity. ? iodo fatty acid has a very low myocardial fixation

  12. A method for measuring fatty acid oxidation in C. elegans

    Elle, Ida Coordt; Rødkær, Steven Vestergaard; Fredens, Julius; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2012-01-01

    recent studies have recognized the central role of fatty acid degradation in cellular lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we show how complete oxidation of fatty acids can be determined in live C. elegans by examining oxidation of tritium-labeled fatty acids to tritiated H2O that can be measured by...... different fatty acid oxidation rates. We show that starvation results in increased fatty acid oxidation, which is independent of the transcription factor NHR-49. On the contrary, fatty acid oxidation is reduced to approximately 70% in animals lacking the worm homolog of the insulin receptor, DAF-2. Hence...

  13. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem

    Nabeel M Alikunhi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus, camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii y peces (Mugil cephalus, que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar.Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus, prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii and finfish (Mugil cephalus, that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2: 577-587. Epub 2010 June 02.

  14. / Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem

    Nabeel M, Alikunhi; Rajendran, Narayanasamy; Kathiresan, Kandasamy.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cidos grasos se han utilizado con xito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgnica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones trficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de cidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lacto [...] bacillus xylosus), camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii) y peces (Mugil cephalus), que estn asociadas con la descomposicin de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los cidos grasos, con excepcin de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposicin de las hojas de mangle, con una reduccin de los cidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los cidos grasos ramificados estn ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biolgicos de los cidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificacin de las interacciones trficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar. Abstract in english Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus), prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macr [...] obrachium rosenbergii) and finfish (Mugil cephalus), that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2): 577-587. Epub 2010 June 02.

  15. Fatty Acid Composition of Flax Sprouts

    Narina, Satya S.; Hamama, Anwar A.; Harbans L. Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    The oil and fatty acid profile of flax (Linum usitatissimum) sprouts and seed were compared to determine nutrition potential of sprouts. Equal quantities of seed from three flax cultivars (Rahab-94, Pembina and Linott) were sprouted twice in three replications and were analysed for oil and fatty acid contents during summer 2011. Three flax cultivars were observed with high oil content on dry weight basis in sprouts (15.9%) and seeds (33.99%). Significant variations (P0.05) variation among thr...

  16. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.; Elgersma, A.

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  17. Wheat aleurone fractions and plasma n-3 fatty acids in rats.

    Ounnas, Fayçal; Salen, Patricia; Demeilliers, Christine; Calani, Luca; Scazzina, Francesca; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Laporte, Francois; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the effects of two wheat aleurone (WA) fractions on circulating n-3 fatty acids in rats. We demonstrated that only the fraction able to induce the highest urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites (>1µmol) resulted in a significant increase in plasma level of Eicosapentanoic acid (+22%, p wheat can be involved in this response, our data suggest that cereals containing high levels of phenolic compounds can increase blood n-3 without affecting n-6 fatty acids. Further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis and explore the underlying biological mechanisms. PMID:25812156

  18. Fatty acid induced remodeling within the human liver fatty acid-binding protein.

    Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Amit

    2011-09-01

    We crystallized human liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) in apo, holo, and intermediate states of palmitic acid engagement. Structural snapshots of fatty acid recognition, entry, and docking within LFABP support a heads-in mechanism for ligand entry. Apo-LFABP undergoes structural remodeling, where the first palmitate ingress creates the atomic environment for placement of the second palmitate. These new mechanistic insights will facilitate development of pharmacological agents against LFABP. PMID:21757748

  19. Fatty acid composition and squalene content of the marine microalga Schizochytrium mangrovei.

    Jiang, Yue; Fan, King-Wai; Wong, Raymond Tsz-Yeung; Chen, Feng

    2004-03-10

    Certain species of thraustochytrids are being explored as potential producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids for nutritional enrichment of food products and use as feed additives in aquaculture. The fatty acid composition and squalene content were determined in the thraustochytrid, Schizochytrium mangrovei that was newly isolated from decaying Kandelia candel leaves in Hong Kong mangrove habitat. The major fatty acid constituents identified in all three S. mangrovei strains were tetradeanoic acid (C14:0), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-6, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). DHA was the most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the percentage of DHA (of total fatty acids) in all these strains varied from 32.29 to 39.14%. Only slight changes were observed in fatty acid composition of the S. mangrovei strains harvested at their early (day 3) and late stationary (day 5) phases. In contrast, the cellular squalene content was affected significantly by the culture time; the largest decrease of squalene content from 0.162 mg/g to 0.035 mg/g was found in S. mangrovei FB1 as the culture aged. PMID:14995120

  20. [The importance of essential fatty acids and the effect of trans fatty acids in human milk on fetal and neonatal development].

    Tinoco, Sandra Manzato Barboza; Sichieri, Rosely; Moura, Anibal Sanchez; Santos, Flávia da Silva; Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares do

    2007-03-01

    Breastfeeding has a major impact on public health, since human breast milk is the best food for infants up to six months of age. The lipid fraction in human milk is the main source of energy for the infant and supplies essential nutrients such as fat-soluble vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Essential fatty acids (EFA), specifically linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), are precursors of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), including docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic (ARA) acids. Quality of lipids in secreted milk is precisely related to maternal ingestion. LC-PUFAs protect against allergy and infection and are important for visual and cognitive development in infancy. Industrial food processing has introduced the trans fatty acids (TFA) among the nutrients available to the population. TFA can interfere with the metabolism of essential fatty acids by decreasing LC-PUFA synthesis. It is thus important to raise population awareness on the importance of adequate PUFA consumption and reduced TFA intake during prenatal and postnatal development. PMID:17334567

  1. Development of fatty acid biomarkers for the identification of wild and aquacultured sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Zadorozhnyj, P. A.; Pivnenko, T. N.; Kovalev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the fatty acids (FAs) of the organs and tissues of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were profiled in order to compare the FA composition of sea cucumber collected from natural habitat (wild) and cages (cultured). The differences in FA contents in dermomuscular tube, peripharyngeal annulus, gonad and intestine (with or without content) between the wild and the cultured were determined. The main fatty acids in all organs and tissues were 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, 18:0, and 18:1n-7. The basically different FAs of body wall and digestive tube were 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11. The ratio of saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in digestive tube was independent on inside content while there was a redistribution of the total amount of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The comparison of FA composition of the wild and the cultured sea cucumber showed that 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7 predominated the wild while 20:4n-6 predominated the cultured. The content of branched-chain fatty acids in the wild was 3%-4% and about 9% in the cultured. The possible FAs for identifying the wild and the cultured sea cucumbers were selected. It was suggested that the indexes such as the ratio of either (n-3:n-6) to (n-7:n-6) or (n-3) + (n-7) to (n-6) may serve as the biomarkers distinguishing the wild and the cultured sea cucumber.

  2. Postmortem brain fatty acid profile of levodopa-treated Parkinson disease patients and parkinsonian monkeys.

    Julien, Carl; Berthiaume, Line; Hadj-Tahar, Abdallah; Rajput, Ali H; Bdard, Paul J; Di Paolo, Thrse; Julien, Pierre; Calon, Frdric

    2006-04-01

    Fatty acids play a critical role in brain function but their specific role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson disease (PD) and levodopa-induced motor complications is still unknown. From a therapeutic standpoint, it is important to determine the relation between brain fatty acids and PD because the brain fatty acid content depends on nutritional intake, a readily manipulable environmental factor. Here, we report a postmortem analysis of fatty acid profile by gas chromatography in the brain cortex of human patients (12 PD patients and nine Controls) as well as in the brain cortex of monkeys (four controls, five drug-naive MPTP monkeys and seven levodopa-treated MPTP monkeys). Brain fatty acid profile of cerebral cortex tissue was similar between PD patients and Controls and was not correlated with age of death, delay to autopsy or brain pH. Levodopa administration in MPTP monkeys increased arachidonic acid content (+7%; P < 0 .05) but decreased docosahexaenoic acid concentration (-15%; P < 0.05) and total n-3:n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (-27%; P < 0.01) compared to drug-naive MPTP animals. Interestingly, PD patients who experienced motor complications to levodopa had higher arachidonic acid concentrations in the cortex compared to Controls (+13.6%; P < 0.05) and to levodopa-treated PD patients devoid of motor complications (+14.4%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, PD patients who took an above-median cumulative dose of levodopa had a higher relative amount of saturated fatty acids but lower monounsaturated fatty acids in their brain cortex (P < 0.01). These results suggest that changes in brain fatty acid relative concentrations are associated with levodopa treatment in PD patients and in a non-human primate model of parkinsonism. PMID:16442670

  3. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Pelin Günç Ergönül; Ilgaz Akata; Fatih Kalyoncu; Bülent Ergönül

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2...

  4. Frictional response of fatty acids on steel.

    Sahoo, Rashmi R; Biswas, S K

    2009-05-15

    Self-assembled monolayers of fatty acids were formed on stainless steel by room-temperature solution deposition. The acids are covalently bound to the surface as carboxylate in a bidentate manner. To explore the effect of saturation in the carbon backbone on friction in sliding tribology, we study the response of saturated stearic acid (SA) and unsaturated linoleic acid (LA) as self-assembled monolayers using lateral force microscopy and nanotribometry and when the molecules are dispersed in hexadecane, using pin-on-disc tribometry. Over a very wide range (10 MPa-2.5 GPa) of contact pressures it is consistently demonstrated that the unsaturated linoleic acid molecules yield friction which is significantly lower than that of the saturated stearic acid. It is argued, using density functional theory predictions and XPS of slid track, that when the molecular backbone of unsaturated fatty acids are tilted and pressed strongly by a probe, in tribological contact, the high charge density of the double bond region of the backbone allows coupling with the steel substrate. The interaction yields a low friction carboxylate soap film on the substrate. The saturated fatty acid does not show this effect. PMID:19232636

  5. The science of fatty acids and inflammation.

    Fritsche, Kevin L

    2015-05-01

    Inflammation is believed to play a central role in many of the chronic diseases that characterize modern society. In the past decade, our understanding of how dietary fats affect our immune system and subsequently our inflammatory status has grown considerably. There are compelling data showing that high-fat meals promote endotoxin [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] translocation into the bloodstream, stimulating innate immune cells and leading to a transient postprandial inflammatory response. The nature of this effect is influenced by the amount and type of fat consumed. The role of various dietary constituents, including fats, on gut microflora and subsequent health outcomes in the host is another exciting and novel area of inquiry. The impact of specific fatty acids on inflammation may be central to how dietary fats affect health. Three key fatty acid-inflammation interactions are briefly described. First, the evidence suggests that saturated fatty acids induce inflammation in part by mimicking the actions of LPS. Second, the often-repeated claim that dietary linoleic acid promotes inflammation was not supported in a recent systematic review of the evidence. Third, an explanation is offered for why omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are so much less anti-inflammatory in humans than in mice. The article closes with a cautionary tale from the genomic literature that illustrates why extrapolating the results from inflammation studies in mice to humans is problematic. PMID:25979502

  6. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review

    Eugeniusz Milchert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained.

  7. Hepatic steatosis in n-3 fatty acid depleted mice: focus on metabolic alterations related to tissue fatty acid composition

    Malaisse WJ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only few data relating the metabolic consequences of feeding diets very low in n-3 fatty acids. This experiment carried out in mice aims at studying the impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA depletion on hepatic metabolism. Results n-3 PUFA depletion leads to a significant decrease in body weight despite a similar caloric intake or adipose tissue weight. n-3 PUFA depleted mice exhibit hypercholesterolemia (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol as well as an increase in hepatic cholesteryl ester and triglycerides content. Fatty acid pattern is profoundly modified in hepatic phospholipids and triglycerides. The decrease in tissue n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio correlates with steatosis. Hepatic mRNA content of key factors involved in lipid metabolism suggest a decreased lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, PPARγ, and an increased β-oxidation (CPT1, PPARα and PGC1α without modification of fatty acid esterification (DGAT2, GPAT1, secretion (MTTP or intracellular transport (L-FABP. Histological analysis reveals alterations of liver morphology, which can not be explained by inflammatory or oxidative stress. However, several proteins involved in the unfolded protein response are decreased in depleted mice. Conclusion n-3 PUFA depletion leads to important metabolic alterations in murine liver. Steatosis occurs through a mechanism independent of the shift between β-oxidation and lipogenesis. Moreover, long term n-3 PUFA depletion decreases the expression of factors involved in the unfolded protein response, suggesting a lower protection against endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatocytes upon n-3 PUFA deficiency.

  8. Fatty Acids as Surfactants on Aerosol Particles

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Niemi, J.

    2003-12-01

    Fatty acids (n-alcanoic acids) are common compounds in numerous anthropogenic and natural emissions. According to Rogge et al. (1993), catalyst-equipped automobiles emitted more than 600 μg km-1 of fatty acids which was over 50% of all identified organics in fine aerosol emissions. Coal burning produces fatty acids ranging from about 1700 mg kg-1 for bituminous coal to over 10000 mg kg-1 for lignite (Oros and Simoneit, 2000). Similarly, biomass burning is an important source for aerosol fatty acids. They are the major identified compound group in deciduous tree smoke, their total emission factor being measured as 1589 mg kg-1 which was 56% of all identified organic compounds (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a). Large amounts of fatty acid are also emitted from burning of conifer trees and grass (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a; Simoneit, 2002). Fatty acids have been reported to be major constituents of marine aerosols in many investigations (Barger and Garrett, 1976; Gagosian et. al, 1981; Sicre et al., 1990; Stephanou, 1992). It has been suggested that as the marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants (Blanchard, 1964; Gill et al., 1983; Middlebrook et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999). Amphiphilic molecules, including lipids, can be assembled as monomolecular layers at air/water interfaces as well as transported to a solid support. Recently, we could show by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the sea-salt aerosol particles (Tervahattu et al., 2002). In their TOF-SIMS studies on the surface composition of atmospheric aerosols, Peterson and Tyler (2002) found fatty acids on the surface of Montana forest fire particles. In this work we have studied by TOF-SIMS the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles emitted from field fires in the Baltic and other East European countries and transported to Finland as well as aerosol particles transported from Russian forest and peat fires. Fatty acids were commonly observed on the surface layer of these particles. The chain length composition was characteristic to each emission source. In our previous work (Tervahattu et al., 2002), fatty acids on sea-salt particles were originated from dead sea plankton organisms with major peaks ranging from C14 to C18 and maximum at C16 (palmitic acid). Major peaks on the surface of forest fire particles ranged from C16 to C30 with the maximum at C24. This composition indicates the involvement of the smoke from both conifer trees and peat (Oros and Simoneit, 2000; 2001b). On the other hand, TOF-SIMS analysis of the surface of field fire particles showed major peaks from C14 to C30 with two maximums at C16 (highest intensity) and C22. It was concluded that the results indicate emissions from both grass burning and fossil fuels (Simoneit, 2002; Oros and Simoneit, 2000). The presence of surface film on aerosol particles may have an impact on their chemical, physical and optical properties and change their role in light scattering and as cloud condensation nuclei as well as interactions with human tissue.

  9. Fatty Acid Transduction of Nitric Oxide Signaling

    Baker, Paul R. S.; Lin, Yiming; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Woodcock, Steven R.; Groeger, Alison L.; Batthyany, Carlos; Sweeney, Scott; Long, Marshall H.; Iles, Karen E.; Baker, Laura M. S.; Branchaud, Bruce P.; Chen, Yuqing E.; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of human plasma and urine revealed abundant nitrated derivatives of all principal unsaturated fatty acids. Nitrated palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids were detected in concert with their nitrohydroxy derivatives. Two nitroalkene derivatives of the most prevalent fatty acid, oleic acid, were synthesized (9- and 10-nitro-9-cis-octadecenoic acid; OA-NO2), structurally characterized and determined to be identical to OA-NO2 found in plasma, red cells, and urine of healthy humans. These regioisomers of OA-NO2 were quantified in clinical samples using 13C isotope dilution. Plasma free and esterified OA-NO2 concentrations were 619 52 and 302 369 nM, respectively, and packed red blood cell free and esterified OA-NO2 was 59 11 and 155 65 nM. The OA-NO2 concentration of blood is ~50% greater than that of nitrated linoleic acid, with the combined free and esterified blood levels of these two fatty acid derivatives exceeding 1 ?M. OA-NO2 is a potent ligand for peroxisome proliferator activated receptors at physiological concentrations. CV-1 cells co-transfected with the luciferase gene under peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element regulation, in concert with PPAR?, PPAR?, or PPAR? expression plasmids, showed dose-dependent activation of all PPARs by OA-NO2. PPAR? showed the greatest response, with significant activation at 100 nM, while PPAR? and PPAR? were activated at ~300 nM OA-NO2. OA-NO2 also induced PPAR?-dependent adipogenesis and deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at a potency exceeding nitrolinoleic acid and rivaling synthetic thiazo-lidinediones. These data reveal that nitrated fatty acids comprise a class of nitric oxide-derived, receptor-dependent, cell signaling mediators that act within physiological concentration ranges. PMID:16227625

  10. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    Martemucci Giovanni; D’Alessandro Angela Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference...

  11. Adding value to plant oils and fatty acids: Biological transformation of fatty acids into ?-hydroxycarboxylic, ?,?-dicarboxylic, and ?-aminocarboxylic acids.

    Seo, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Mee; Lee, Jinwon; Park, Jin-Byung

    2015-12-20

    Not only short chain ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids, ?,?-dicarboxylic acids, and ?-aminocarboxylic acids but also medium to long chain carboxylic acids are widely used as building blocks and intermediates in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Thereby, recent achievements in biological production of medium to long chain carboxylic acids are addressed here. ?-Hydroxycarboxylic and ?,?-dicarboxylic acids were synthesized via terminal CH bond oxygenation of fatty acids and/or internal oxidative cleavage of the fatty acid carbon skeletons. ?-Aminocarboxylic acids were enzymatically produced from ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids via ?-oxocarboxylic acids. Productivities and product yields of some of the products are getting close to the industrial requirements for large scale production. PMID:26546054

  12. Effects of n3 Intake on Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Sex Hormone Profiles in Postmenopausal Women: Potential for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

    Breast cancer risk is associated with dietary fat intake. Omega-6 fatty acids (n6) promote while omega-3 fatty acids (n3) inhibit tumorigenesis. Increased sex hormone (SH) concentrations are associated with risk of breast cancer. The effects of total fat and n3 on SH and PLFA were assessed in a f...

  13. Prevalent mutations in fatty acid oxidation disorders

    Gregersen, N; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    UNLABELLED: The mutational spectrum in a given disease-associated gene is often comprised of a large number of different mutations, of which a single or a few are present in a large proportion of diseased individuals. Such prevalent mutations are known in four genes of the fatty acid oxidation: t...

  14. Extraction of Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    Rousková, M. (Milena); Kohoutková, J.; V. Veselý; Kaštánek, F. (František); Šolcová, O. (Olga)

    2013-01-01

    Algae are the most often processed as a fast growing biomass with a high proportion of lipids. Their composition is suitable as nutraceuticals owing to the high content of proteins, vitamins, enzymes, fatty acids, pigments with antioxidant effect (especially carotenoids) and other valuable substances.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Tanja Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  16. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  17. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from [1-14C]acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 μM acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl2, 1 mM each of the MnCl2 and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO3, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 μg/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO3, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg2+ and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor

  18. Genetics Home Reference: fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration

    ... fatty acid 2-hydroxylase adds a single oxygen atom to a hydrogen atom at a particular point on a fatty acid ... C, Alshehhi AA, Proukakis C, Sibtain NA, Maier H, Sharifi R, Patton MA, Bashir W, Koul R, ...

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Play Role in Bipolar Disorder

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156057.html Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Play Role in Bipolar ... there may be a link between levels of omega-3 fatty acids and bipolar disorder. Researchers compared ...

  20. Cellular fatty acid composition of marine-derived fungi

    PrabhaDevi; Shridhar, M.P.D.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.

    Sinquerim, Goa, India. Mangrove sediment PRABHA DEVI et al.: CELLULAR FATTY ACIDS IN FUNGI 361 of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were identified by comparing the value with authentic standards run similarly. Results The four fungal cultures...

  1. Dietary Fatty Acids and the Aging Brain

    Cole, Greg M; Ma, Qiu-Lan; Frautschy, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    Aging contributes to physiological decline and vulnerability to disease. In the brain, even with minimal neuron loss, aging increases oxidative damage, inflammation, demyelination, impaired processing and metabolic deficits, particularly during pathological brain aging. We discuss the possible role of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in prevention of age related disruption of brain function. High-fat diabetogenic diets, cholesterol and the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonate and its prostaglandin metab...

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids and dementia

    Cole, Greg M; Ma, Qiu-Lan; Frautschy, Sally A

    2009-01-01

    More than a dozen epidemiological studies have reported that reduced levels or intake of omega-3 fatty acids or fish consumption is associated with increased risk for age-related cognitive decline or dementia such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased dietary consumption or blood levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) appear protective for AD and other dementia in multiple epidemiological studies; however, three studies suggest that the ApoE4 genotype limits protection. DHA is broadly neuropro...

  3. Biocatalytic acylation of carbohydrates with fatty acids from palm fatty acid distillates.

    Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; H-Kittikun, Aran; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2006-05-01

    Palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) are by-products of the palm oil refining process. Their use as the source of fatty acids, mainly palmitate, for the biocatalytic synthesis of carbohydrate fatty acid esters was investigated. Esters could be prepared in high yields from unmodified acyl donors and non-activated free fatty acids obtained from PFAD with an immobilized Candida antarctica lipase preparation. Acetone was found as a compatible non-toxic solvent, which gave the highest conversion yields in a heterogeneous reaction system without the complete solubilization of the sugars. Glucose, fructose, and other acyl acceptors could be employed for an ester synthesis with PFAD. The synthesis of glucose palmitate was optimized with regard to the water activity of the reaction mixture, the reaction temperature, and the enzyme concentration. The ester was obtained with 76% yield from glucose and PFAD after reaction for 74 h with 150 U ml(-1) immobilized lipase at 40 degrees C in acetone. PMID:16402249

  4. Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was European eel.

  5. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit

    Xue, Shan; Xiao, Xia; He, Zhifei; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. PMID:27194925

  6. Effect of Feeding with Algae on Fatty Acid Profile of GoatS Milk

    Kou?imsk L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine whether the inclusion of algae Chlorella vulgaris in dairy goats diets would change the fatty acid profile and increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in goats milk. White short-haired dairy goats on 2nd and 3rd lactations were fed 5 and 10 g of dried algae supplementation for six weeks. The fatty acids profile of milk was analyzed using gass chromatography (flame ionization detector (FID. The addition of dried algae caused changes of the profile of fatty acids in the milk. The more algae were added to the diet, the greater the changes in the fatty acids profile of milk were found. A statistically significant effect (P = 0.0390 was found between the control group and the group supplemented with 10 g of Chlorella vulgaris per goat per day. The greatest effect of dietary treatment was seen in the relative reduction of palmitic acid content and increased oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids content. Results suggested that the addition of algae also increased the nutritional quality of goats milk. There was a positive change in the ratio of SFA:MUFA:PUFA in terms of reducing the proportion of saturated fatty acids, as well as a change in the ratio of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs

  7. Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of Three Phytomonas Species

    Celso Vataru Nakamura; Luciana Waldow; Sandra Regina Pelegrinello; Tânia Ueda-Nakamura; Benício Alves de Abreu Filho; Benedito Prado Dias Filho

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free...

  8. Why do polyunsaturated fatty acids lower serum cholesterol?

    A.C. Beynen; Katan, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Replacement of saturated by polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet may lower serum very low-density and low-density lipoprotein concentrations because the liver preferentially converts polyunsaturated fatty acids into ketone bodies instead of into very low-density lipoprotein triglycerides. Thus unlike saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids are transported to the tissues for oxidation without leaving a trail of lipoprotein remnants in the form of low-density lipoproteins.

  9. Composition of fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes and eicosanoids level in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Antonyuk Marina V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances of the fatty acids composition in plasma and red blood cells and eicosanoid synthesis play an important role in the metabolic syndrome (MS formation. Methods The observation group included 61 people with metabolic syndrome (30 patients with MS and normal levels of insulin, 31 people with MS and insulin resistance - IR. The parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in blood serum were examined. The composition of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, fatty acid (FA of red blood cells lipids was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Eicosanoids level in MS patients blood serum was studied by enzyme immunoassay. Results In MS patients in the absence of glucose-insulin homeostasis disturbances and in patients with IR the accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2 n6, 18:3 n3, 22:4 n6 and lower pool of saturated FA (12:0, 14:0, 16: 0, 17:0 in plasma were discovered. A deficit of polyunsaturated FA (18:3 n3, 20:4 n6 with a predominance of on-saturated FA (14:0, 18:0 in erythrocyte membranes was revealed. In MS patients regardless of the carbohydrate metabolism status high levels of leukotriene B4 and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1α in serum were found. The development of IR in MS patients leads to increased synthesis of thromboxane A2. Conclusion The results revealed a disturbance in nonesterified fatty acids of plasma lipids and red blood cells, eicosanoid synthesis in MS patients. The breach of the plasma and cell membranes fatty acids compositions, synthesis of vasoactive and proinflammatory eicosanoids is an important pathogenetic part of the MS development.

  10. Tailored fatty acid synthesis via dynamic control of fatty acid elongation

    Torella, Joseph P.; Tyler J. Ford; Kim, Scott N.; Chen, Amanda M.; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A

    2013-01-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 4–12 carbons) are valuable as precursors to industrial chemicals and biofuels, but are not canonical products of microbial fatty acid synthesis. We engineered microbial production of the full range of even- and odd-chain–length MCFAs and found that MCFA production is limited by rapid, irreversible elongation of their acyl-ACP precursors. To address this limitation, we programmed an essential ketoacyl synthase to degrade in response to a chemical inducer, there...

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas

    van Keulen Herman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods The fatty acid (FA composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum and two from tropical seas (Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum natans was determined using GCMS. Four independent replicates were taken from each seaweed species. Results Omega-3 (n-3 and omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, were in the concentration range of 2-14 mg/g dry matter (DM, while total lipid content ranged from 7-45 mg/g DM. The n-9 FAs of the selected seaweeds accounted for 3%-56% of total FAs, n-6 FAs for 3%-32% and n-3 FAs for 8%-63%. Red and brown seaweeds contain arachidonic (C20:4, n-6 and/or eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA, C20:5, n-3, the latter being an important "fish" FA, as major PUFAs while in green seaweeds these values are low and mainly C16 FAs were found. A unique observation is the presence of another typical "fish" fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 at ≈ 1 mg/g DM in S. natans. The n-6: n-3 ratio is in the range of 0.05-2.75 and in most cases below 1.0. Environmental effects on lipid-bound FA composition in seaweed species are discussed. Conclusion Marine macroalgae form a good, durable and virtually inexhaustible source for polyunsaturated fatty acids with an (n-6 FA: (n-3 FA ratio of about 1.0. This ratio is recommended by the World Health Organization to be less than 10 in order to prevent inflammatory, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. Some marine macroalgal species, like P. palmata, contain high proportions of the "fish fatty acid" eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3, while in S. natans also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 was detected.

  12. A Review of the Metabolic Origins of Milk Fatty Acids

    Anamaria COZMA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat and its fatty acid profile are important determinants of the technological, sensorial, and nutritional properties of milk and dairy products. The two major processes contributing to the presence of fatty acids in ruminant milk are the mammary lipogenesis and the lipid metabolism in the rumen. Among fatty acids, 4:0 to 12:0, almost all 14:0 and about a half of 16:0 in milk fat derive from de novo synthesis within the mammary gland. De novo synthesis utilizes as precursors acetate and butyrate produced through carbohydrates ruminal fermentation and involves acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase as key enzymes. The rest of 16:0 and all of the long-chain fatty acids derive from mammary uptake of circulating lipoproteins and nonesterified fatty acids that originate from digestive absorption of lipids and body fat mobilization. Further, long-chain fatty acids as well as medium-chain fatty acids entering the mammary gland can be desaturated via Δ-9 desaturase, an enzyme that acts by adding a cis-9-double bond on the fatty acid chain. Moreover, ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids results in the formation of numerous fatty acids available for incorporation into milk fat. Ruminal biohydrogenation is performed by rumen microbial population as a means of protection against the toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Within the rumen microorganisms, bacteria are principally responsible for ruminal biohydrogenation when compared to protozoa and anaerobic fungi.

  13. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt

    O. O. Santos Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

  15. Fatty acid composition of leaves of forced chicory (Cichorium intybus L.

    Sinkovič Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the composition of fatty acids in leaves of nine chicory cultivars (Cichorium intybus L.. The growing practice followed the traditional forcing method of developed roots in a peat to obtain new etiolated vegetative apical buds, known as chicons. The fatty acid content was determined by the extraction of fatty acid methyl esters and analysis by means of gas chromatography. The analysis revealed the following ratios of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 of individual fatty acids. The total fatty acid content in forced chicory leaves ranged from 104 to 644 mg/100 g fresh weight. The highest relative content (64% is presented by α-linolenic acid, followed by linoleic (44% and palmitic (21%. An n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio of studied forced chicory is below 1.4 and thus, in accordance with the recommended dietary ratio that is close to 1.

  16. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

  17. NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLD COOKING ON FISH FATTY ACIDS PROFILE USING ATHEROGENICITY AND THROMBOGENICITY INDICES

    El-Reffaei W.H. Moussa; Abbas N. Shereen; Atwa Manal; Abul-Hamd E. Mehanni; Alaa E. Rasha

    2014-01-01

    Different cooking methods were effects on the fatty acids and food nutritional qualities. Fish is the most nourished food containing a higher ratio of essential fatty acids. This study is contacted to determine the effect of different cooking methods (microwaving, boiling and grilling) for preparing salmon, mackerel, sardine and tuna had on the fatty acid profiles, in particular the ?-3 fatty acid. Depending on estimated polyunsaturated/saturated ratio and ?-6/ ?-3 ratio as a measure of the ...

  18. Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition in Premenopausal Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    Aktas, Mehmet; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Ozcicek, Fatih; Yilmaz, Necmettin

    2016-03-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. In the present study, we evaluated erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in premenopausal patients with IDA. Blood samples of 102 premenopausal women and 88 healthy control subjects were collected. After the erythrocytes were separated from the blood samples, the membrane lipids were carefully extracted, and the various membrane fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography (GC). Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software program. We used blood ferritin concentration acids obtained were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1, n-9c), linoleic acid (18:2, n-6c), stearic acid (18:0), and erucic acid (C22:1, n-9c). These compounds constituted about 87% of the total membrane fatty acids in patients with IDA, and 79% of the total membrane fatty acids in the control group. Compared with control subjects, case patients had higher percentages of palmitic acid (29.9% case versus 25.3% control), oleic acid (16.8% case versus 15.1% control), and stearic acid (13.5% case versus 10.5% control), and lower percentages of erucic acid (11.5% case versus 13.6% control) and linoleic acid (15.2% case versus 15.4% control) in their erythrocyte membranes. In conclusion, the total-erythrocyte-membrane saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be higher than that in the control group; however, the total-erythrocyte-membrane unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be lower than that in the control group. The differences in these values were statistically significant. PMID:26876679

  19. Chemical composition and fatty acid contents in farmed freshwater prawns

    Carolina de Gasperi Portella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid contents of Amazonian and giant river prawns. After four-month farming, with the same diet for both species, palmitic and stearic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. Oleic acid was the main monounsatured fatty acid, and the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the most abundant polyunsaturated acids. Amazonian prawn has higher levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids than those of the giant river prawn, which shows its potential for aquaculture.

  20. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid amide (erucamide) using fatty acid and urea.

    Awasthi, Neeraj Praphulla; Singh, R P

    2007-01-01

    Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were established. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60 degrees C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %. PMID:17898456

  1. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    Karla A. Bascuñán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  2. Changes in tissue polyunsaturated fatty acids with age, in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Delachambre, M C; Narce, M; Asdrubal, P; Poisson, J P

    1998-08-01

    The relationship between the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids and their distribution in the key organs of hypertension is of considerable interest because of their role in the production of vasoactive eicosanoids and their effects on membrane properties. The present study analyzed the fatty acid compositions of the total lipids in the kidney, aorta, heart, and hepatocytes of 1-, 3-, and 6-mon-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their normotensive controls, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) by capillary gas chromatography . The major changes concerned the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The percentage of arachidonic acid (AA) was significantly greater in the 1-mon-old SHR kidney than in the WKY kidney, but it was lower at 3 and 6 mon. The percentage of eicosapentaenoic acid was very low in the SHR kidney. The results for the aorta were similar, with marked decreases in 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 in SHR aged 1 and 6 mon. Despite a higher proportion of 18:2n-6 and AA at 6 mon, there was no major change in the SHR heart lipids. The fatty acid spectrum in the liver provides additional evidence for the previously reported inhibition of desaturase activities in SHR. Thus, this study shows that the PUFA composition is modified differently in different tissues in SHR, and this may be related to the pathogenesis of hypertension in these animals. PMID:9727610

  3. Effect of low temperature on highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in activated sludge.

    He, Su; Ding, Li-Li; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jin-Ju; Ren, Hong-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Low temperature is a limiting factor for the microbial activity of activated sludge for sewage treatment plant in winter. Highly unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) constituents and microbial structure in activated sludge at low temperature were investigated. Over 12 gigabases of metagenomic sequence data were generated with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The result showed 43.11% of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in the activated sludge participated in UFA biosynthesis, and γ-Linolenic could be converted to Arachidonic acid at low temperature. The highly UFA biosynthesis in activated sludge was n-6 highly UFA biosynthesis, rather than n-3 highly UFA biosynthesis. The microbial community structures of activated sludge were analyzed by PLFA and high-throughput sequencing (HiSeq) simultaneously. Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Polaromonas occupied higher percentage at 5°C, and genetic changes of highly UFA biosynthesis derived from microbial community structures change. PMID:27035483

  4. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic and alpha linolenic fatty acids into Pimedolus maculatus fillets

    Ana Beatriz Zanqui

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the fatty acid composition of Pimedolus maculatus fillets of fish fed with different diets. The fish were submitted to an adaptation period (over 30 days and fed only a control diet (diet I. After this period, the fish were divided into two groups: one group received a diet enriched with flaxseed oil (diet II, and the other received a diet enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA (diet III. Subsequent collections were undertaken after 25 and 50 days. Compared to the control samples, fish fed diet II showed an increase in concentrations of total fatty acid omega-3 (n-3 in the fillets, with an improvement ratio of n-6/n-3. The incorporation of CLA into fish fed diet III was successful. Supplementing the diet of Pimedolus maculatus with CLA and flaxseed oil led to improvements in nutritional quality and fatty acid profile of the fish fillets.

  5. A Difference in Fatty Acid Composition of Isocaloric High-Fat Diets Alters Metabolic Flexibility in Male C57BL/6JOlaHsd Mice

    2015-01-01

    Poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be healthier than saturated fatty acids (SFAs), but others postulate that especially the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 PUFAs (n6/n3 ratio) determines health. Health can be determined with biomarkers, but functional health status is likely better reflected by challenge tests that assess metabolic flexibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions, but similar n6/n3 ratio, o...

  6. A difference in Fatty Acid Composition of Isocaloric High-Fat Diets Alters Metabolic Flexibility in Male C57BL/6JOlaHsd Mice

    Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.; Schothorst, van, H.J.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Kuda, O.; Steenbergh, E.; Termeulen, S.; Kopecky, J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be healthier than saturated fatty acids (SFAs), but others postulate that especially the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 PUFAs (n6/n3 ratio) determines health. Health can be determined with biomarkers, but functional health status is likely better reflected by challenge tests that assess metabolic flexibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions, but similar n6/n3 ratio, o...

  7. Properties and biosynthesis of cyclopropane fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    Cronan, J E; Reed, R; Taylor, F R; Jackson, M B

    1979-01-01

    The lipid phase transition of Escherichia coli phospholipids containing cyclopropane fatty acids was compared with the otherwise homologous phospholipids lacking cyclopropane fatty acids. The phase transitions (determined by scanning calorimetry) of the two preparations were essentially identical. Infection of E. coli with phage T3 inhibited cyclopropane fatty acid formation over 98%, whereas infection with mutants which lack the phage coded S-adenosylmethionine cleavage enzyme had no effect on cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis. These data indicate that S-adenosylmethionine is the methylene in cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis. PMID:374358

  8. Identification of fatty acids in canine seminal plasma.

    Díaz, R; Inostroza, K; Risopatrón, J; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2014-03-01

    Seminal plasma contains various biochemical components associated with sperm function. However, there is limited information regarding the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm. The aim of this study was to identify the fatty acid content in canine seminal plasma using gas chromatography. Twelve ejaculates were studied, the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation and then the lipids were extracted, methylated and analysed by chromatography. The total lipids in the seminal plasma were 2.5 ± 0.3%, corresponding to 85% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 15% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The greatest proportions of SFA were palmitic acid (30.4%), stearic acid (23.4%) and myristic acid (5.3%) and of UFA oleic acid (9.0%). Therefore, the protocols and techniques used enabled the identification of 18 different fatty acids in canine seminal plasma, which constitutes a good method to evaluate and quantify the fatty acid profile in this species. PMID:23398451

  9. Fatty acid profile of fish following a change in dietary fatty acid source: model of fatty acid composition with a dilution hypothesis

    Robin, Jean; Regost, Christelle; Arzel, Jacqueline; Kaushik, Sadasivam

    2003-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) content of fish is generally said to reflect fatty acid composition of the diet. In fact, incorporation of FA into tissues is modulated by various metabolic factors, and final composition will depend upon the initial FA content, cumulative intake of dietary fatty acids, growth rate and duration. Analysis of time course of changes in FA composition should be easier with animals having different initial FA profiles, which are subsequently fed a diet with the same FA composit...

  10. Fatty acids intake in the Mexican population. Results of the National Nutrition Survey 2006

    Bernal-Medina Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006, collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ≈ 25%E fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA among all age-groups (45-60% and of trans fatty acids (TrFA in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk.

  11. Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids

    Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd3+ glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations

  12. Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids

    Ghelmez-Dumitru, M; Piscureanu, M; Sterian, A

    2003-01-01

    Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd sup 3 sup + glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations.

  13. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    Martemucci Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

  14. Synthesis and structural analysis of 13C-fatty acids

    The 13C-labelled fatty acids octanoic-1-13C acid and palmitic-1-13C acid were synthetically prepared from Ba 13CO3. The yield of the former was more than 90% and that of the latter was above 85%. MS, IR, 1H-NMR and 13NMR were performed to analyze the structures of the two 13C-fatty acids, compared with their unlabelled fatty acids

  15. Determination of Fatty Acid in Asparagus by Gas Chromatography

    HAJRULAI-MUSLIU, Zehra; UZUNOV, Risto; STOJANOVSKA-DIMZOSKA, Biljana; DIMITRIEVSKA-STOJKOVIC, Elizabeta; ANGELEVSKA, Aleksandra; STOJKOVSKI, Velimir

    2015-01-01

    Asparagus contain a lot of macronutrients and micronutrients including folate, dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble) and phenolic compounds. Also asparagus is a good source of unsaturated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids which are precursors for Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA). Unsaturated fatty acids have important biological effects and they have important role in human health. The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition of asparagus as a pot...

  16. Trans fatty acids and coronary artery disease

    Jocelyne R Benatar

    2010-01-01

    Jocelyne R BenatarGreen Lane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: There has been a significant increased consumption of trans fats in the developed world as we have embraced processed and take away foods in our diet in the last 40 years. These fatty acids are not essential for human nutrition and are hazardous to health. They increase the risk of cardiovascular disease more than any other macronutrient including saturated fat, through multiple mechani...

  17. Complementation analysis of fatty acid oxidation disorders.

    Moon, A; Rhead, W J

    1987-01-01

    We assayed [9,10(n)-3H]palmitate oxidation by fibroblast monolayers from patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. Activities in the different disorders were (percent control): short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase deficiency (115%), medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (18%), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (28%), multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation disorder, mild and severe variants (49% and 7%), and palmityl-carnitine transferase deficiency (4%). Multiple...

  18. Energetics of syntrophic fatty acid oxidation

    Schink, Bernhard; Friedrich, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Fatty acids are key intermediates in methanogenic degradation of organic matter in sediments as well as in anaerobic reactors. Conversion of butyrate or propionate to acetate, (CO2), and hydrogen is endergonic under standard conditions, and becomes possible only at low hydrogen concentrations (10 4--10-5 bar). A model of energy sharing between fermenting and methanogenic bacteria attributes a maximum amount of about 20 kJ per mol reaction to each partner in this syntrophic cooperation system....

  19. Extraction of Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    Rousková, Milena; Kohoutková, J.; Veselý, Václav; Kaštánek, František; Šolcová, Olga

    Praha : Orgit, 2013 - (Kalenda, P.; Lubojacký, J.), s. 123-128 ISBN 978-80-86238-55-5. [International Conference on Chemical Technology (ICCT 2013) /1./. Mikulov (CZ), 08.04.2013-10.04.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : extraction * chlorella vulgaris * fatty acids Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  20. Improved Fatty Acid Profile Soybean MON 87705

    Directorate, Issued by Health Canada's Food

    2014-01-01

    Health Canada has notified Monsanto Canada Inc. that it has no objection to the food use of Improved Fatty Acid Profile Soybean MON 87705. The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of this variety according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. These Guidelines are based upon internationally accepted principles for establishing the safety of foods with novel traits. The following provides a summary of the notification from Monsanto Ca...

  1. Regional myocardial free fatty acid metabolism

    Experimental evidence to date has confirmed the potential value of radioactive labelled free fatty acid (FFA) and their analogs for the assessment of regional myocardial FFA metabolism despite a number of current limitations. It is emphasized that with these agents only one specific aspect of myocardial metabolism, that of FFA, can be tested and that with these compounds information on the overall metabolic state cannot always be obtained. (WU)

  2. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  3. Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids

    G. Caramia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as precursors of “lipid mediator” molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body’s inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EETR and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE, whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE. For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as hashish and marijuana (--Delta9- tetrahydrocannabinol. They act as true ‘endogenous cannabinoids’ by binding and functionally activating one or both cannabinoid receptor present on nervous and peripheral cell membranes. Enzymes that carry out anandamide oxidation are the same fatty acid oxygenases that are known to act on endogenous arachidonic acid namely, the members of the COX, LOX, and P450 families of enzymes. Recent advances in the biochemistry and pharmacology of the endocannabinoid system, also for its central and peripheral roles in regulating food intake, will offer the development of novel therapeutic agents.

  4. Fatty acids of Thespesia populnea: Mass spectrometry of picolinyl esters of cyclopropene fatty acids

    Thespesia populnea belongs to the plant family of Malvaceae which contain cyclopropane and cyclopropene fatty acids. However, previous literature reports vary regarding the content of these compounds in Thespesia populnea seed oil. In this work, the content of malvalic acid (8,9-methylene-9-heptade...

  5. Effect of production system on fatty acid composition of meat from Simmental bulls

    Marko Cepon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to asses the effect of the production system on fatty acids (FA composition of intramuscular fat of three muscles (longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, diaphragmae from Simmental bulls. Bulls (n=8 were fattened either with maize silage and concentrates or on pasture. Grazing bulls showed a significant lower percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, but had higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and conjugated linoleic acid. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was significantly lower (P<0.001 and the PUFA/SFA ratio was significantly higher (P<0.001 in muscles of grazing bulls. The lowest SFA percentage was found in semitendinosus (36.5±0.8 followed by longissimus dorsi (44.4±0.8 and diaphragmae (48.2±0.8 muscle. The percentage of PUFA and n-3 PUFA was the highest in semitendinosus muscle, while the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was similar in all three analysed muscles.

  6. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  7. N-(6-Methylpyridin-2-yl)mesitylenesulfonamide and acetic acid--a salt, a cocrystal or both?

    Pan, Fangfang; Kalf, Irmgard; Englert, Ulli

    2015-08-01

    In the solid obtained from N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)mesitylenesulfonamide and acetic acid, the constituents interact via two N-H···O hydrogen bonds. The H atom situated in one of these short contacts is disordered over two positions: one of these positions is formally associated with an adduct of the neutral sulfonamide molecule and the neutral acetic acid molecule, and corresponds to a cocrystal, while the alternative site is associated with salt formation between a protonated sulfonamide molecule and deprotonated acetic acid molecule. Site-occupancy refinements and electron densities from difference Fourier maps suggest a trend with temperature, albeit of limited significance; the cocrystal is more relevant at 100 K, whereas the intensity data collected at room temperature match the description as cocrystal and salt equally well. PMID:26243409

  8. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of wild and farmed tilapias in Thailand: effect of aquaculture practices and implications for human nutrition.

    Karapanagiotidis, Ioannis T; Bell, Michael V; Little, David C; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne; Rakshit, Sudip K

    2006-06-14

    The total lipid content and fatty acid composition of the muscle tissue of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and of hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) from different culture systems and from the natural and artificial environment of Thailand were compared. Wild fish and fish reared under the most extensive conditions had a more favorable fatty acid profile for human consumption as they contained higher proportions of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, higher n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios, and lower proportions of 18:2n-6. The muscle tissue of intensively cultured fish was characterized by increased fat deposition that was mainly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and 18:2n-6. It is undesirable for the consumer to reduce 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in farmed tilapia and replace them with elevated 18:2n-6. It is recommended that the amount of 18:2n-6 in the feed of the intensively reared tilapia should be reduced by substituting vegetable oils rich in 18:2n-6 with oils rich in 18:1n-9 and/or 18:3n-3. PMID:16756360

  9. Effects of Pyrazinamide on Fatty Acid Synthesis by Whole Mycobacterial Cells and Purified Fatty Acid Synthase I

    Boshoff, Helena I; Mizrahi, Valerie; Barry, Clifton E

    2002-01-01

    The effects of low extracellular pH and intracellular accumulation of weak organic acids were compared with respect to fatty acid synthesis by whole cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The profile of fatty acids synthesized during exposure to benzoic, nicotinic, or pyrazinoic acids, as well as that observed during intracellular hydrolysis of the corresponding amides, was not a direct consequence of modulation of fatty acid synthesis by these compounds but reflecte...

  10. Fatty acid composition of milk from multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed n-3 fatty acids in early lactation.

    Carriquiry, M; Weber, W J; Dahlen, C R; Lamb, G C; Baumgard, L H; Crooker, B A

    2009-10-01

    Multiparous cows (n = 59) were blocked by expected calving date and previous milk yield and assigned randomly to treatments to determine effects of bovine somatotropin (bST; Posilac, Monsanto Animal Agricultural Group, St. Louis, MO) and source of dietary fat on milk fatty acid composition during the first 140 d in milk. Diets were provided from calving and included whole, high-oil sunflower seeds (SS; 10% of dietary dry matter; n-6/n-3 ratio of 4.6) as a source of linoleic acid or a mixture of Alifet-High Energy and Alifet-Repro (AF; Alifet USA, Cincinnati, OH; 3.5 and 1.5% of dietary dry matter, respectively; n-6/n-3 ratio of 2.6) as a source of protected n-3 fatty acids (15.7% 18:3, 1.3% 20:5, and 1.3% 22:6). Treatments were derived from a 2 x 2 combination of supplemental fat source (SS, AF) and with 0 (SSN, AFN) or 500 (SSY, AFY) mg of bST administered every 10 d from 12 to 70 d in milk and at 14-d intervals thereafter. Milk fatty acid composition was determined in samples collected from 32 cows (8 complete blocks) during wk 2, 8, and 20 of lactation. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using mixed model procedures to determine the effects of diet, bST, week of lactation, and their interactions. Proportions of 18:3 (4.02 vs. 3.59 +/- 0.16%), 20:5 (0.52 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.02%), and 22:6 (0.11 vs. 0.02 +/- 0.02%) were greater and the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio (7.40 vs. 8.80 +/- 0.30) was reduced in milk from cows fed AF compared with SS. Proportions of de novo-synthesized fatty acids increased and preformed fatty acids decreased as lactation progressed, but bST administration delayed this shift in origin of milk fatty acids. Transfer efficiency of 18:3, 20:5, and 22:6 from AF to milk fat averaged 36.2, 4.9, and 5.2%, respectively. These efficiencies increased as lactation progressed, but were delayed by bST. Apparent mammary Delta(9)-desaturase activity and milk conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid) content increased through the first 8 wk of lactation. Based on the product-to-substrate ratio of 14:1/14:0 fatty acids in milk, there was an interaction of diet and bST because bST decreased apparent Delta(9)-desaturase activity in SSY cows but increased it in AFY cows (0.10, 0.09, 0.08, and 0.09 +/- 0.01 for SSN, SSY, AFN, and AFY, respectively). Feeding Alifet-Repro increased n-3 fatty acids in milk and bST prolonged the partitioning of dietary fatty acids into milk fat. PMID:19762802

  11. Fatty acid correlates of temperament in adolescent boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Sumich, Alex L; Matsudaira, Toshiko; Heasman, Bryony; Gow, Rachel V; Ibrahimovic, Almira; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Crawford, Michael A; Taylor, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Atypical fatty acid metabolism has been reported in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however, its relationship with temperament in this population is unclear. The current study investigated the association between blood levels of fatty acids implicated in brain structure and function (omega-3, omega-6, omega-9) and personality traits of stability (neuroticism, conscientiousness and agreeableness) and plasticity (extraversion and openness). Twenty right-handed adolescent boys with ADHD completed a self-report NEO-FFI personality questionnaire, and had fatty acid content assessed from red blood using gas chromatography. Pearson's correlations showed no significant associations between omega-3 levels and personality. After correction for multiple comparisons, Adrenic Acid (C22:4n6) was inversely associated with stability. Oleic acid (C18:1n9) was positively associated with plasticity. Results are in line with a role of fatty acids in brain function. They suggest that those fatty acids that are involved in myelination (Adrenic, Oleic) have the strongest associations with temperament in adolescents with ADHD. PMID:23566869

  12. Seasonal comparison of wild and farmed brown trout (Salmo trutta forma fario L., 1758): crude lipid, gonadosomatic index and fatty acids.

    Kaya, Yalçin; Erdem, Mehmet Emіn

    2009-08-01

    Brown trout is one of the most preferred wild freshwater fish species in the east Black Sea region (Turkey) due to its nutritional value and palatable aroma as well as being popular for sport fishing. In this research, seasonal variations in the crude lipid, gonadosomatic index and fatty acid composition of wild and farmed brown trout were investigated. The spawning period of wild and farmed brown trout appears to be from August to October and from October to January, respectively. The mean crude lipid content in farmed brown trout (3.62%) was significantly higher (P≤0.05) than that of wild brown trout (2.80%). Significant seasonal differences (P≤0.05) in crude lipid content were observed in both fish. The percentage of total saturated fatty acids was similar (P≥0.05) in both fish. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids were higher (P≤0.05) in the wild brown trout compared with the farmed brown trout, while its total monounsaturated fatty acids content was lower (P≤0.05). The muscle lipids of wild fish contained significantly (P≤0.05) higher percentages of C16:1n-7, C17:1n-7, C18:3n-3, C20:2n-6, C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:2n-6 fatty acids and contained lower percentages of C14:0, C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6, C20:1n-9, C24:1n-9 and C22:6n-3 fatty acids than farmed fish. The total amounts of n-3 fatty acids in wild fish were higher than in farmed fish, but total amounts of n-6 fatty acids in farmed fish were higher than in wild fish. The n3/n6 proportion in wild fish was higher than that of farmed fish. PMID:18651298

  13. ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MIANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MILK

    Juraj ?ubo?

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work was analysedquality of raw cows milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of the favourable effect on cholesterol, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat was 36.76 % of which 32.77 % were monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 4.0 %. A high proportion of milk fat formed monounsaturated oleic acid 30.92 %. The proportion of linoleic acid in milk fat was 3.48 % and 0.31 % linoleic acid.

  14. Fatty acid utilisation and metabolism in caecal enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed dietary fish or copepod oil.

    Oxley, Anthony; Tocher, Douglas R; Torstensen, Bente E; Olsen, Rolf E

    2005-12-15

    A combined fatty acid metabolism assay was employed to determine fatty acid uptake and relative utilisation in enterocytes isolated from the pyloric caeca of rainbow trout. In addition, the effect of a diet high in long-chain monoenoic fatty alcohols present as wax esters in oil derived from Calanus finmarchicus, compared to a standard fish oil diet, on caecal enterocyte fatty acid metabolism was investigated. The diets were fed for 8 weeks before caecal enterocytes from each dietary group were isolated and incubated with [1-14C]fatty acids: 16:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:1n-9, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3. Uptake was measured over 2 h with relative utilisation of different [1-14C]fatty acids calculated as a percentage of uptake. Differences in uptake were observed, with 18:1n-9 and 18:2n-6 showing the highest rates. Esterification into cellular lipids was highest with 16:0 and C18 fatty acids, accounting for over one-third of total uptake, through predominant incorporation in triacylglycerol (TAG). The overall utilisation of fatty acids in phospholipid synthesis was low, but highest with 16:0, the most prevalent fatty acid recovered in intracellular phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), although exported PC exhibited higher proportions of C20/C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Other than 16:0, incorporation into PC and PI was highest with C20/C22 PUFA and 20:4n-6 respectively. Recovery of labelled 18:1n-9 in exported TAG was 3-fold greater than any other fatty acid which could be due to multiple esterification on the glycerol 'backbone' and/or increased export. Approximately 20-40% of fatty acids taken up were beta-oxidised, and was highest with 20:4n-6. Oxidation of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was also surprisingly high, although 22:6n-3 oxidation was mainly attributed to retroconversion to 20:5n-3. Metabolic modification of fatty acids by elongation-desaturation was generally low at fatty acid uptake. Dietary copepod oil had generally little effect on fatty acid metabolism in enterocytes, although it stimulated the elongation and desaturation of 16:0 and elongation of 18:1n-9, with radioactivity recovered in longer n-9 monoenes. The monoenoic fatty acid, 20:1n-9, abundant in copepod oil as the homologous alcohol, was poorly utilised with 80% of uptake remaining unesterified in the enterocyte. However, the fatty acid composition of pyloric caeca was not influenced by dietary copepod oil. PMID:16257262

  15. Alteration of polyunsaturated fatty acid status and metabolism in health and disease

    Zamaria, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) cannot be synthesised in the body and must be ingested by food. A balanced intake of both n-6 and n-3 PUFA is essential for good health. PUFA are the basic constituents of phospholipid membranes and determine cellular membrane fluidity and modulate enzyme activities, carriers and membrane receptors. They are also precursors of active metabolites known collectively as eicosanoids (prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes) which r...

  16. Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Guinea Pigs12

    McFarland, Christine T.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Chapkin, Robert S.; Weeks, Bradley R.; David N. McMurray

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that the nutritional status of the host affects resistance to disease. The impact of dietary lipids on experimental pulmonary infection with mycobacteria has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the role of dietary (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids on immunity and resistance to aerosol infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in guinea pigs. Weanling guinea pigs were fed purified, isocaloric diets differing only in lipid sourc...

  17. Interplay Between Different Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Men

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ascherio, Alberto; HU, FRANK B.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C; Siscovick, David S; Rimm, Eric B.

    2005-01-01

    Background—Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but n-6 PUFAs may compete with n-3 PUFA metabolism and attenuate benefits. Additionally, seafood-based, long-chain n-3 PUFAs may modify the effects of plant-based, intermediate-chain n-3 PUFAs. However, the interactions of these PUFAs in relation to CHD risk are not well established.

  18. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    K. Leshukov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  19. Nitro-fatty acids: novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators

    Rubbo, H.

    2013-01-01

    Nitro-fatty acids are formed and detected in human plasma, cell membranes, and tissue, modulating metabolic as well as inflammatory signaling pathways. Here we discuss the mechanisms of nitro-fatty acid formation as well as their key chemical and biochemical properties. The electrophilic properties of nitro-fatty acids to activate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways are discussed in detail. A critical issue is the influence of nitroarachidonic acid on prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases, ...

  20. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    2010-04-01

    ..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid... common or usual name of the fatty acid salt or salts contained therein. (2) The words “food grade,” in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863...

  1. Enrichment of decanoic acid in cuphea fatty acids via distillation

    The introduction of a new crop often requires the development of new products and purification techniques of either the oil or fatty acids. Most new crops enter the cosmetic market first due to their high rates of returns. However, the cosmetic market often demands high purity and colorless materi...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to...

  3. Effects of fatty acids on lysis of Streptococcus faecalis.

    Carson, D D; Daneo-Moore, L.

    1980-01-01

    Palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids at concentrations of 200 nmol/ml all inhibited autolysin activity 80% or more in whole cells or cell-free extracts. This concentration of the saturated fatty acids palmitic acid and stearic acid had little or no effect on the growth of whole cells or protoplasts. However, the unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid induced lysis in both situations. This lytic effect is apparently not related to any uncoupling activity or inhibition of ...

  4. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake

    Ronaldo Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg. Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001 fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016. However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045. There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05. The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065 quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%. Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12 and tridecanoic (C13 acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index.

  5. Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adolescents: A case-control study

    Meckling Kelly

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies of Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have focused on either young children or older adults. The current study compared 11 ADHD adolescents with 12 age-matched controls. The purpose was to examine differences in dietary intake, particularly of essential fatty acids, and determine whether this could explain the typical abnormalities in red blood cell fatty acids observed in previous studies of young children. A secondary purpose was to determine if there were relationships between circulating concentrations of essential fatty acids and specific ADHD behaviours as measured by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-L. Methods Eleven ADHD adolescents and twelve age-matched controls were recruited through newspaper ads, posters and a university website. ADHD diagnosis was confirmed by medical practitioners according to DSM-IV criteria. Blood, dietary intake information as well as behavioural assessments were completed. Results Results showed that ADHD adolescents consumed more energy and fat than controls but had similar anthropometry. ADHD children consumed equivalent amounts of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids to controls, however they had significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 and total omega-3 fatty acids, higher omega-6 fatty acids and a lower ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids than control subjects. In addition, low omega-3 status correlated with higher scores on several Conners' behavioural scales. Conclusion These data suggest that adolescents with ADHD continue to display abnormal essential fatty acid profiles that are often observed in younger children and distinctly different from normal controls of similar age. Further these red blood cell fatty acid differences are not explained by differences in intake. This suggests that there are metabolic differences in fatty acid handling between ADHD adolescents and normal controls. The value of omega-3 supplements to improve fatty acid profiles and possibly behaviours associated with ADHD, need to be examined.

  6. [Dynamics of fatty acid composition of total lipids during embryonic development of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L].

    Murzina, S A; Nefedova, Z A; Ripatti, P O; Nemova, N N; Markova, L V

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of fatty acid composition of total lipids was studied for freshwater salmon Salmo salar L. during its embryonic development from blastula (3 hours) up to hatching (108 days) as well as in unfertilized eggs. Stable amount of total and some saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of total lipids was observed during embryonic development. Considerable changes in fatty acid composition were observed at the stage of prelarvae hatching, i.e., significant decrease of (n-6) PUFA (18:2(n-6) and 20:4(n-6)) and (n-3) PUFA and increase of total and some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was registered. Change in saturation ratio of membrane lipids justifies the presence of the biochemical mechanism forwarded on regulation of cell membrane enzymes in accordance with the changes of internal physiological processes taking place in the organism and fluctuations of external environmental conditions or the preparation period (as reproduction). Data on peculiarities of transformation and utilization of fatty acids during salmon embryonic development may be used for understanding of their functional role in the developing organism as well as for assessing the quality of the caviar. PMID:22650081

  7. Isoproterenol stimulates 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and fatty acid oxidation in neonatal hearts.

    Jaswal, Jagdip S; Lund, Chad R; Keung, Wendy; Beker, Donna L; Rebeyka, Ivan M; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2010-10-01

    Isoproterenol increases phosphorylation of LKB, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), enzymes involved in regulating fatty acid oxidation. However, inotropic stimulation selectively increases glucose oxidation in adult hearts. In the neonatal heart, fatty acid oxidation becomes a major energy source, while glucose oxidation remains low. This study tested the hypothesis that increased energy demand imposed by isoproterenol originates from fatty acid oxidation, secondary to increased LKB, AMPK, and ACC phosphorylation. Isolated working hearts from 7-day-old rabbits were perfused with Krebs solution (0.4 mM palmitate, 11 mM glucose, 0.5 mM lactate, and 100 mU/l insulin) with or without isoproterenol (300 nM). Isoproterenol increased myocardial O(2) consumption (in J·g dry wt(-1)·min(-1); 11.0 ± 1.4, n = 8 vs. 7.5 ± 0.8, n = 6, P < 0.05), and the phosphorylation of LKB (in arbitrary density units; 0.87 ± 0.09, n = 6 vs. 0.59 ± 0.08, n = 6, P < 0.05), AMPK (0.82 ± 0.08, n = 6 vs. 0.51 ± 0.06, n = 6, P < 0.05), and ACC-β (1.47 ± 0.14, n = 6 vs. 0.97 ± 0.07, n = 6, P < 0.05), with a concomitant decrease in malonyl-CoA levels (in nmol/g dry wt; 0.9 ± 0.9, n = 8 vs. 7.5 ± 1.3, n = 8, P < 0.05) and increase in palmitate oxidation (in nmol·g dry wt(-1)·min(-1); 272 ± 45, n = 8 vs. 114 ± 9, n = 6, P < 0.05). Glucose and lactate oxidation were increased (in nmol·g dry wt(-1)·min(-1); 253 ± 75, n = 8 vs. 63 ± 15, n = 9, P < 0.05 and 246 ± 43, n = 8 vs. 82 ± 11, n = 6, P < 0.05, respectively), independent of alterations in pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphorylation, but occurred secondary to a decrease in acetyl-CoA content and acetyl-CoA-to-free CoA ratio. As acetyl-CoA levels decrease in response to isoproterenol, despite an acceleration of the rates of palmitate and carbohydrate oxidation, these data suggest net rates of acetyl-CoA utilization exceed the net rates of acetyl-CoA generation. PMID:20656883

  8. Polyunsaturated fatty acids production by Schizochytrium sp. isolated from mangrove

    K.W. Fan

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Schizochytrium strains (N-1, N-2, N-5, N-6, and N-9 were isolated from fallen, senescent leaves of mangrove tree (Kandelia candel in Hong Kong. The fungi were cultivated in glucose yeast extract medium containing 60 g of glucose, 10 g of yeast extract and 1 L of 15‰ artificial seawater, initial pH 6.0, with shaking for 52 hr at 25ºC. Biomass yields of 5 isolates ranged from 10.8 to 13.2 g/l. Isolate N-2 yielding the highest dried cell mass at 13.2 g/l and isolate N-9 grew poorly with 10.8 g/l of biomass. EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3 yield was low in most strains, while DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3 was high on the same medium. The contents of DHA in biomass varied: 174.9, 203.6, 186.1, 171.3 and 157.9 mg/g of dried-biomass for Schizochytrium isolate N-1, N-2, N-5, N-6, and N-9, respectively. Isolate N-2 had the highest proportion of DHA in fatty acid profile with 15:0, 28.7%; 16:0, 21.3%; 18:0, 0.9%; 18:3, 0.2%; 20:4, 0.3%; 20:5, 0.9%; 22:4, 6.7%; 22:6, 36.1%; and others, 9.3%. The salinity range for growth of Schizochytrium isolates was from 0-30‰ with optimum salinity for growth between 20-30‰.

  9. Fatty acids, alcohol and fatty acid ethyl esters: toxic Ca2+ signal generation and pancreatitis.

    Petersen, O H; Tepikin, A V; Gerasimenko, Julia V; Gerasimenko, O V; Sutton, R; Criddle, D N

    2009-06-01

    Pancreatitis, a potentially fatal disease in which the pancreas digests itself as well as its surroundings, is a well recognized complication of hyperlipidemia. Fatty acids have toxic effects on pancreatic acinar cells and these are mediated by large sustained elevations of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. An important component of the effect of fatty acids is due to inhibition of mitochondrial function and subsequent ATP depletion, which reduces the operation of Ca(2+)-activated ATPases in both the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. One of the main causes of pancreatitis is alcohol abuse. Whereas the effects of even high alcohol concentrations on isolated pancreatic acinar cells are variable and often small, fatty acid ethyl esters--synthesized by combination of alcohol and fatty acids--consistently evoke major Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, subsequently opening Ca(2+) entry channels in the plasma membrane. The crucial trigger for pancreatic autodigestion is intracellular trypsin activation. Although there is still uncertainty about the exact molecular mechanism by which this Ca(2+)-dependent process occurs, progress has been made in identifying a subcellular compartment--namely acid post-exocytotic endocytic vacuoles--in which this activation takes place. PMID:19327825

  10. Desaturation and esterification of fatty acids in kidney cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Hagve, T A; Narce, M; Tjønneland, S E; Odden, N; Liabø, J; Poisson, J P

    2001-04-01

    In previous studies, several alterations in lipid metabolism have been related to hypertension, but the mechanisms explaining this relationship have not been elucidated. None of the previous works has focused on the lipid metabolism in kidney, which is a key organ in the overall regulation of blood pressure. The aim of the present work was to study the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the possible compositional changes in kidney from hypertensive rats. Radiolabelled linoleic acid (18:2,n-6) and dihomogammalinolenic acid (20:3, n-6) were incubated with isolated kidney cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) or the parent normotensive strain (Wistar Kyoto, WKY). The rats were divided into groups of age 9 (young) and 17 (adult) weeks. Cellular uptake, desaturation, chain-elongation, oxidation and distribution into phospholipids and triacylglycerols were measured. Additionally, the lipid composition of kidney was characterized. With each of the labelled fatty acid substrates the uptake in cells from the SHR rats, compared to the WKY rats, was numerically lower in the young group and higher in the adult group. The incorporation of labelled fatty acids into phospholipids was increased and concomitantly decreased in triacylglycerols in cells from adult SHR rats. The delta6-desaturation, measured as the conversion of labelled 18:2(n-6) to 18:3(n-6) was between two and three times increased in cells from the adult rats compared to the young ones, while no difference was found in hypertensives compared to normotensives. Concomitantly, no difference in conversion of labelled 20:3(n-6) to 20:4(n-6) was observed in relation to blood pressure, but, different from delta6-desaturation, the delta5-desaturation was significantly decreased by age. Taken together, this study demonstrates for the first time desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in isolated kidney cells in suspension and that, contrary to what has been observed in liver, the desaturase activity is unaffected by hypertension. Also different from what has been observed in liver, no blood-pressure-related changes in lipid composition of kidney were found. PMID:11347982

  11. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and gastric mucosa: is there a relation with gastric ulceration?

    Kafatos Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both in vitro and epidemiological studies indicate that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may play a protective role against peptic ulcer in humans. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition is thought to reflect dietary fatty acid intake. The aim of the present study is to investigate adipose and gastric mucosa fatty acid levels in relation to gastric ulceration status. Methods Fifty two adult outpatients undergoing upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy participated in the study. Adipose tissue samples were taken from the abdomen and buttock during the endoscopy procedure and samples from gastric tissue were taken from a subsample of 30 subjects. The presence of Helicobacter pylori was determined using the CLO test. Capillary gas chromatography was used for the extraction of 36 and 42 adipose tissue and gastric mucosa lipids respectively. Results The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs C18:1n-12c, C16:1n-5, C16:4n-1 and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs C16:3n-4, C20:3n-3, C20:4n-6, C21:5n-3 and C18:2n-9c,12t of the gastric mucosa were present in higher proportions in ulcer negative patients. These unsaturated fatty acids, however, each contributed less than 1% on average to total fatty acid content. In addition, higher average levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA C22:6n-3 were detected in abdominal and buttock samples in CLO negative controls, compared to CLO positive controls. Adipose tissue and gastric mucosa n-6 and trans fatty acid levels were positively linearly correlated (r = 0.37 and 0.41 for n-6 and trans fatty acids respectively. Conclusion Certain minor MUFAs and PUFAs of the gastric mucosa appear to be present in higher proportions in ulcer negative patients. Overall, the findings provide only weak evidence of an association between the gastric mucosal fatty acids and the presence of gastric ulceration. The higher average levels of EPA and DHA in abdominal and buttock adipose tissue in CLO negative controls could be an indicator that dietary FAs inhibit Helicobacter pylori growth. Larger studies are necessary to provide evidence of a biologically relevant effect.

  12. Identification of Characteristic Fatty Acids to Quantify Triacylglycerols in Microalgae.

    Shen, Pei-Li; Wang, Hai-Tao; Pan, Yan-Fei; Meng, Ying-Ying; Wu, Pei-Chun; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG). Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content, and thus, the correlation coefficient presenting r (2) were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r (2) of C16:0 and EPA were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, and in Chlorella pyrenoidosa r (2)-values for C18:1 and C18:3 with TAG content were 0.91 and 0.99, repectively. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods. PMID:26941747

  13. Identification of Characteristic Fatty Acids to Quantify Triacylglycerols in Microalgae

    Shen, Pei-Li; Wang, Hai-Tao; Pan, Yan-Fei; Meng, Ying-Ying; Wu, Pei-Chun; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG). Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content, and thus, the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0 and EPA were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, and in Chlorella pyrenoidosa r2-values for C18:1 and C18:3 with TAG content were 0.91 and 0.99, repectively. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods. PMID:26941747

  14. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking.

    Kanaley, Jill A; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

    2013-08-15

    We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-C]palmitate (0400-0900 h) and [U-C]oleate (0800-1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mUkg fat-free mass?min?) clamp (0800-1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-C]palmitate incorporation into imTG-palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine were similar to those we reported in overnight postabsorptive adults (saline control); the intramyocellular palmitoylcarnitine enrichment was not different from and correlated with imTG-palmitate enrichment for both the morning (r = 0.38, P = 0.02) and afternoon (r = 0.44, P = 0.006) biopsy samples. Plasma FFA concentrations, flux, and the incorporation of plasma oleate into imTG-oleate during hyperinsulinemia were ~1/10th of that observed in the previous saline control studies (P sex differences in intramyocellular palmitate trafficking may occur under hyperinsulinemic conditions. We conclude that plasma FFA trafficking into imTG during hyperinsulinemia is markedly suppressed, and these newly incorporated FFA fatty acids do not readily enter the LCAC preoxidative pools. Hyperinsulinemia does not seem to inhibit the entry of fatty acids from imTG pools that were labeled under fasting conditions, possibly reflecting the presence of two distinct imTG pools that are differentially regulated by insulin. PMID:23820622

  15. Fatty acids and terpenoids from Trigonia fasciculata

    Mafezoli Jair

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty portion of the hexane extract from roots of Trigonia fasciculata has been determined by GC/MS analysis of the methyl ester mixture. Seventeen fatty acids were identified and oleic acid (38.8% was the major component. The GC/MS analysis of the less polar fraction of the non-saponifiable part of the root hexane extract allowed the identification of fifteen sesquiterpenes and alpha-santalene (28.4% was the major component. Chromatography over silica gel of the more polar fraction allowed the isolation of two known compounds: betulinic acid and friedelin, and a novel diterpene 7-(2-hydroxy-acetyl-10-hydroxy-tetradecahydro-1-methylene-4b,7,10a-trimethyl -phenantrene (6alpha-hydroxy-15-oxo-allodevadarool, all unknown for the species. Structure determination was accomplished by chemical derivatization, comparison to literature data and spectral analysis, including 2D NMR (COSY, HETCOR, COLOC and X-ray crystallography.

  16. Radioiodinated PHIPA's; metabolically trapped fatty acids

    Radioiodinated PHIPA 3-10 [13-(4'-iodophenyl)-3-(p-phenylene)tridecanoic acid] has been developed for nuclear-cardiological investigation of coronary artery disease or cardiomyopathies of various origin. The compound features a phenylene group located within the backbone of a long-chain fatty acid. In spite of its bulky structure [123I]PHIPA 3-10 is extracted by the myocardium in a manner similar to that for the unmodified fatty acid analogue, [123I]IPPA. The retention of PHIPA 3-10 in heart muscle results from the presence of the p-phenylene group which prevents more than one β-oxidation cycle. Only one single, rapidly formed metabolite was found in rat-heart extracts. According to comparative HPLC with synthetic metabolites and mass spectrometric analysis this metabolite was identified as [123I]PHIPA 1-10, a by two methylene groups shortened PHIPA derivative. Formation of this metabolite could be suppressed by Etomoxir, a carnitine palmitoyl fransferase I inhibitor, indicating β-oxidation of [123I]PHIPA 3-10 in mitochondria. Final evidence for the involvement of mitochondria in the degradation of [123I]PHIPA 3-10 was obtained performing density-gradient centrifugation with homogenized rat heart tissue. Labeled free PHIPA 3-10 and free metabolite peaked with the fraction containing mitochondria. With respect to its biochemical characteristics, [123I]PHIPA 3-10 may be considered as a useful tool for nuclear cardiological investigations. (orig.)

  17. Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes

    Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool

  18. Feedlot lamb meat fatty acids profile characterization employing gas chromatography

    M.I. Cruz-Gonzalez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an important constituent in diet, not only as an energy source, but for its essential fatty acids associated to fats in foods, considering that some polyunsaturated fatty acids like linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic cannot be synthesized by superior animals like humans. Scientific evidence show that the fatty acids ingest can affect the thrombotic tendency, cardiac rhythm, endothelial function systematic inflammation, insulin sensibility and oxidative stress. Samples from 21 ovine crossbreds from Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper and Katahadin (40 kg average weight feed with corn based balanced diets were taken from loin area 18 h after refrigeration. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results in this work showed that the healthy fatty acids levels are higher as compared to saturated fatty acids levels, indicating that this meat can influence consumer’s buying choice decision regarded to their health.

  19. Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of Three Phytomonas Species

    Celso Vataru Nakamura

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine.

  20. Fatty acid and sterol composition of three phytomonas species.

    Nakamura, C V; Waldow, L; Pelegrinello, S R; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Filho, B A; Filho, B P

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine. PMID:10446013

  1. NORMAL FATTY ACID CONCENTRATIONS IN YOUNG CHILDREN WITH PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU).

    Lavoie, Stacey M; Harding, Cary O; Gillingham, Melanie B

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if children with phenylketonuria (PKU) have lower fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid due to the phenylalanine restricted diet therapy compared to healthy control subjects. Dietary intake and fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid were measured in twenty-one subjects (fatty acids. Concentrations of fatty acids among subjects with PKU were lower than control subjects but no subject with PKU exhibited any signs or symptoms suggestive of essential fatty acid deficiency, thereby suggesting that subjects with PKU in this cohort have normal and adequate essential fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid. PMID:20011454

  2. Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae

    TRI PRARTONO; MUJIZAT KAWAROE; DAHLIA WULAN SARI; DINA AUGUSTINE

    2010-01-01

    High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this resea...

  3. Proximate composition and quantification of fatty acids in breaded chicken steak

    Ailey Aparecida Coelho Tanamati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the fatty acid and proximate composition of five brands of breaded chicken steak (A, B, C, D, and E by accurate chromatographic quantification and to compare the experimental results with food label nutrition facts. The protein values of all brands were in agreement with the Brazilian regulation values, except for that of sample E, which presented the highest lipid content. Thirteen fatty acids were identified in the studied brands and the major ones were oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. The polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios were within the values considered appropriate for human health; however, the high n-6/n-3 ratios found can result in an unbalanced intake of these fat acids. Only samples D and E can be considered trans free according to the regulations. The comparison of the analyses' results and the food label nutrition facts showed little variation in protein values. Nevertheless, most brands underestimated their lipid and energy levels. Brand B and C labels declared "free of trans", but the obteined results showed levels excedding those especified by regulation to be considered trans free values.

  4. Fe-Catalyzed Oxidative Cleavage of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    Spannring, P.

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids into aldehydes or carboxylic acids gives access to valuable products. The products can be used as chemical building blocks, as emulsifiers or in the paint or polymer industry. Ozonolysis is applied industrially to cleave the fatty acid oleic acid into the aldehydes nonanal and 9-oxo-nonanoic acid or into pelargonic and azelaic acid. Considerable hazards, including explosion risks, are associated with the use of ozone, and alternative processes...

  5. The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression

    Abdi Khosro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. Methods GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA, DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (7477% linoleic acid. Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 812 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR-? and retinoid receptor-? (RXR-? were determined in a set of 18 animals per group. Results DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-? or RXR-? expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression.

  6. Dietary trans-fatty acids and metabolic syndrome

    Zdzisław Kochan; Joanna Karbowska; Ewa Babicz-Zielińska

    2010-01-01

    Trans-fatty acids (TFAs), products of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, have become more prevalent in our diet since the 1960s, when they replaced animal fats. TFAs also occur naturally in meat and dairy products from ruminants. There is growing evidence that dietary trans-fatty acids may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated adverse effects of TFAs on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. In dietary trials, trans-fatty acids have been shown to raise the ...

  7. Long-chain fatty acid assimilation By rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.

    Campbell, T B; Lueking, D R

    1983-01-01

    Exogenously supplied long-chain fatty acids have been shown to markedly alleviate the inhibition of phototrophic growth of cultures of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides caused by the antibiotic cerulenin. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated C18 fatty acids were most effective in relieving growth inhibition mediated by cerulenin. Medium supplementation with saturated fatty acids (C14 to C18) failed to influence the inhibitory effect of cerulenin. The addition of mixtures of unsaturated and saturate...

  8. Fatty acid variability in three medicinal herbs of Panax species

    Zhang Xiao-Jing; Huang Li-Li; Cai Xiu-Jiang; Li Peng; Wang Yi-Tao; Wan Jian-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Fatty acid profiling has been widely used in the bacteria species identification, we hypothesized that fatty acid characteristics might discriminate the Panax herbs according to species. To test the hypothesis, fatty acids of Panax species, including Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius, were characterized and compared using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Results The content of investigated 11...

  9. Dietary Supplementation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Deline, Marshall L.; VRABLIK, TRACY L.; WATTS, JENNIFER L.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways...

  10. Important bioactive properties of omega-3 fatty acids

    Rui Xu

    2015-01-01

    Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of ...

  11. Emerging roles for specific fatty acids in developmental processes

    VRABLIK, TRACY L.; WATTS, JENNIFER L.

    2012-01-01

    Animals synthesize a vast range of fatty acids serving diverse cellular functions. The roles of specific fatty acids in early development are just beginning to be characterized. In this Perspective, a study by Kniazeva et al. (in the March 15, 2012, issue) that describes the particular combination of a branched chain fatty acid and an acyl-CoA synthetase required for critical cellular processes during early embryogenesis in C. elegans is discussed.

  12. Stabilized epoxygenated fatty acids regulate inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and cancer

    ZHANG, GUODONG; Kodani, Sean; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Epoxygenated fatty acids (EpFAs), which are lipid mediators produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases from polyunsaturated fatty acids, are important signaling molecules known to regulate various biological processes including inflammation, pain and angiogenesis. The EpFAs are further metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form fatty acid diols which are usually less-active. Pharmacological inhibitors of sEH that stabilize endogenous EpFAs are being considered for human clinical use...

  13. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  14. Inhibition of fatty acid mobilization by arterial free fatty acid concentration

    Madsen, J; Bülow, J; Nielsen, N E

    1986-01-01

    Subcutaneous, inguinal adipose tissue from dogs was perfused with blood in which the free fatty acid (FFA) concentration was varied corresponding to FFA/albumin molar ratios between 1 and 6. Otherwise the composition of the perfusate was kept constant. In order to stimulate lipolysis, isoprenaline...

  15. Evolution of fatty acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L. mesocarp at different stages of ripening

    Strnad, M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of medlar (Mespilus germanica L. varied significantly among the ripening stages sampled at 157, 172 and 187 DAFs (days after full bloom. Twenty-one different fatty acids were detected in preclimacteric fruit and 17 when the climacteric began. Principal fatty acids, determined in medlar fruit harvested from October (157 and 172 DAFs to November (187 DAF were mainly palmitic acid (16:0, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, and a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. While the content of saturated fatty acids [palmitic acid (16:0 and stearic acid (18:0] increased, the content of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and linolenic acid (18:3n-3] decreased through ripening, in parallel with pulp darkening. The percentage of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in ripe, hard fruits was 60.0 and 13.5 % of dry wt at 157 DAF which decreased throughout ripening, remaining at 28.7 and 5.6 % of dry wt, respectively, in the fully softened and darkened pulp. A marked decreases in the double bond index, percentage of unsaturation and the ratio of unsaturation/saturation were also seen throughout the medlar ripening. The contribution of unsaturated fatty acid to the total fatty acid content decreased markedly as the medlar fruit became progressively softer and darkened.La composición en ácidos grasos del níspero (Mespilus germanica L. varió significativamente entre los estados de maduración muestreados a los 157, 172 y 187 DAFs (días después de la floración. Veinte y un ácidos grasos diferentes fueron detectados en el fruto preclimatérico y 17 cuando comenzó el climaterio. Los ácidos grasos principales encontrados en nísperos, recolectados desde Octubre (157 y 172 DAFs hasta Noviembre (187 DAF, fueron principalmente ácido palmítico (16:0, ácido linoléico (18:2n-6, y ácido a-linolénico (18:3n-3. En tanto que el contenido en ácidos grasos saturados (ácido palmítico (16:0 y ácido esteárico (18:0 aumentó, el contenido en ácidos grasos esenciales (ácido linoleico (18:2n-6 y ácido linolénico (18:3n-6 disminuyó durante la maduración, en paralelo con el oscurecimiento de la pulpa. El porcentaje de ácido linoleico y de ácido a-linolénico en frutos maduros sin reblandecer fue de 60.0 y 13.5 % del peso seco a 157 DAF, disminuyendo durante la maduración, y permaneciendo a 28.7 y 56 % del peso seco, respectivamente, en la pulpa completamente blanda y oscura. También se observó durante la maduración del níspero una marcada disminución en el número de dobles enlaces, en el tanto por ciento de instauración y en la relación instauración / saturación. La contribución de los ácidos grasos insaturados al contenido de ácidos grasos totales disminuyó marcadamente cuando el níspero comenzó progresivamente a reblandecerse y oscurecerse.

  16. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia; Sandstrom, B.; Tholstrup, T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five...... interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  17. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25989998

  18. Foraging at wastewater treatment works affects brown adipose tissue fatty acid profiles in banana bats.

    Hill, Kate; van Aswegen, Sunet; Schoeman, M Corrie; Claassens, Sarina; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet; Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene

    2016-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that the decrease in habitat quality at wastewater treatment works (WWTW), such as limited prey diversity and exposure to the toxic cocktail of pollutants, affect fatty acid profiles of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBrAT) in bats. Further, the antioxidant capacity of oxidative tissues such as pectoral and cardiac muscle may not be adequate to protect those tissues against reactive molecules resulting from polyunsaturated fatty acid auto-oxidation in the WWTW bats. Bats were sampled at two urban WWTW, and two unpolluted reference sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Brown adipose tissue (BrAT) mass was lower in WWTW bats than in reference site bats. We found lower levels of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and higher levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in WWTW bats than in reference site bats, while C18 desaturation and n-6 to n-3 ratios were higher in the WWTW bats. This was not associated with high lipid peroxidation levels in pectoral and cardiac muscle. Combined, these results indicate that WWTW bats rely on iBrAT as an energy source, and opportunistic foraging on abundant, pollutant-tolerant prey may change fatty acid profiles in their tissue, with possible effects on mitochondrial functioning, torpor and energy usage. PMID:26740572

  19. Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of some traditional Argentinean meat sausages Composição nutricional e perfil de ácidos graxos de embutidos tradicionais da Argentina

    Mara Cristina Romero; Ana María Romero; Mirtha Marina Doval; Maria Alicia Judis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and total fat) of some meat products produced in the northeastern Argentina, analyzing fatty acids composition, polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio PUFA/SFA ratio (polyunsaturated/ saturated fatty acids), n-6/n-3 ratio, and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) content. Thirty traditional meat products produced by different processes were used. The samples were classified into 4 different cat...

  20. Consumption vs. deposition of essential fatty acids in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae fed semi-purified diets

    Robin, Jean; Peron, Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    Semi-purified diets were used to feed gilthead sea bream larvae as first food from mouth opening until day 17. Four diets were formulated on the basis of a previous one used as control (D1). Three experimental diets differed only by the lipids added. One diet contained n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) plus arachidonic acid (D2), one diet n-3 HUFA without arachidonic acid (D3) and one diet without n-3 and n-6 HUFA (D4). The three experimental diets contained 18:3n-6 in order to fo...

  1. The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations

    Koletzko, Berthold; Lien, Eric; Agostoni, Carlo; Böhles, Hansjosef; Campoy, Cristina; Cetin, Irene; Decsi, Tamas; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Dupont, Cristophe; Forsyth, Stewart; Hoesli, Irene; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Putet, Guy; Secher, Niels J; Symonds, Mike; Szajewska, Hania; Willatts, Peter; Uauy, Ricardo; NN, NN

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), in maternal and term infant nutrition as well as infant development. Consensus recommendations and practice guidelines...

  2. Fatty acid binding receptors in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology

    Elke Kaemmerer, Patrick Plum, Christina Klaus, Ralf Weiskirchen, Christian Liedtke, Maximilian Adolf, Angela Schippers, Norbert Wagner, Andrea Reinartz, Nikolaus Gassler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Free fatty acids are essential dietary components and recognized as important molecules in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In the last decade, the molecular pathways for free fatty acid sensing in the gastrointestinal tract have been further elucidated by molecular identification and functional characterization of fatty acid binding receptors. These sensing molecules belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. In the intestine, four important receptors have been described so far. They differ in molecular structure, ligand specificity, expression pattern, and functional properties. In this review, an overview of intestinal fatty acid binding receptors and their role in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology is given.

  3. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes. PMID:26873273

  4. Bioavailability of marine n-3 fatty acid formulatioins

    Dyerberg, Jørn; Madsen, P.; Møller, J.M.; Aardestrup, Inge Valbak; Schmidt, E.B.

    2010-01-01

    The use of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as supplements has prompted the development of concentrated formulations to overcome compliance problems. The present study compares three concentrated preparations - ethyl esters, free fatty acids and re-esterified triglycerides - with...... triglycerides, cholesterol esters and phospholipids were examined. Bioavailability of EPA+DHA from re-esterified triglycerides was superior (124%) compared with natural fish oil, whereas the bioavailability from ethyl esters was inferior (73%). Free fatty acid bioavailability (91%) did not differ significantly...... from natural triglycerides. The stereochemistry of fatty acid in acylglycerols did not influence the bioavailability of EPA and DHA....

  5. Effect of sex, dietary glycerol or dietary fat during late fattening, on fatty acid composition and positional distribution of fatty acids within the triglyceride in pigs.

    Segura, J; Cambero, M I; Cmara, L; Loriente, C; Mateos, G G; Lpez-Bote, C J

    2015-11-01

    The effect of sex, source of saturated fat (lard v. palm oil) and glycerol inclusion in the fattening diet on composition and fatty acid positional distribution in the triglyceride molecule was studied in pigs from 78 to 110 kg BW. Average daily gain and carcass characteristics, including ham and loin weight, were not affected by dietary treatment but sex affected backfat depth (P palm oil. Dietary glycerol increased total MUFA and C18:1n-9 concentration in the IMF and increased total MUFA and decreased C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and total PUFA concentrations in the SF. The data indicate that altering the fatty acid composition of the triglyceride molecule at the 2-position, by dietary intervention during the fattening phase, is very limited. PMID:26272512

  6. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    Jana Orsavova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC. Saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%, oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1% and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%, respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI, PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI, n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI, expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g. The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD and cardiovascular diseases (CVD in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations.

  7. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Gao Qianqian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS, have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

  8. Acetylenes and fatty acids from Codonopsis pilosula

    Yueping Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Four new acetylenes (1–4 and one new unsaturated ω-hydroxy fatty acid (5, together with 5 known analogues, were isolated from an aqueous extract of Codonopsis pilosula roots. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The new acetylenes are categorized as an unusual cyclotetradecatrienynone (1, tetradecenynetriol (2, and rare octenynoic acids (3 and 4, respectively, and 3 and 4 are possibly derived from oxidative metabolic degradation of 1 and/or 2. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by comparison of the experimental circular dichroism (CD spectrum with the calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra of stereoisomers based on the quantum-mechanical time-dependent density functional theory, while the configuration of 2 was assigned by using modified Mosher׳s method based on the MPA determination rule of ΔδRS values for diols.

  9. Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures, a suitable system for polyunsaturated fatty acid studies and production

    Ravelo Ángel G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic and health promoting role of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs from fish, i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 are well known. These same benefits may however be shared by some of their precursors, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3. In order to obtain alternative sources for the large-scale production of PUFAs, new searches are being conducted focusing on higher plants oils which can contain these n-3 and n-6 C18 precursors, i.e. SDA and GLA (18:3n-6, γ-linolenic acid. Results The establishment of the novel Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures represents a powerful tool in order to research the accumulation and metabolism of fatty acids (FAs in a plant particularly rich in GLA and SDA. Furthermore, this study constitutes the first example of a Boraginaceae species hairy root induction and establishment for FA studies and production. The dominant PUFAs, 18:2n-6 (LA, linoleic acid and 18:3n-6 (GLA, accounted for about 50% of total FAs obtained, while the n-3 PUFAs, 18:3n-3 (ALA, α-linolenic acid and 18:4n-3 (SDA, represented approximately 5% of the total. Production of FAs did not parallel hairy root growth, and the optimal productivity was always associated with the highest biomass density during the culture period. Assuming a compromise between FA production and hairy root biomass, it was determined that sampling times 4 and 5 gave the most useful FA yields. Total lipid amounts were in general comparable between the different hairy root lines (29.75 and 60.95 mg/g DW, with the major lipid classes being triacylglycerols. The FAs were chiefly stored in the hairy roots with very minute amounts being released into the liquid nutrient medium. Conclusions The novel results presented here show the utility and high potential of E. acanthocarpum hairy roots. They are capable of biosynthesizing and accumulating a large range of polyunsaturated FAs, including the target GLA and SDA fatty acids in appreciable quantities.

  10. Influence of specific fatty acids on the asymmetric distribution of saturated fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) triacylglycerols.

    Martnez-Force, Enrique; Ruiz-Lpez, Noemi; Garcs, Rafael

    2009-02-25

    The 1,3-random-2-random theory was proposed several years ago to explain the fatty acid distribution in vegetable oil triacylglycerols. However, by demonstrating an asymmetry between positions sn-1 and sn-3 in olive oil, cocoa butter, sunflower oil, etc., a number of studies have shown that this theory does not hold true for some oils and fatty acids. Accordingly, the distribution of fatty acids in sunflower triacylglycerols has been studied, calculating the alpha coefficient of asymmetry in several combinations of standard linoleic, high-oleic, and high-stearic sunflower oils. The results obtained from the oils of these lines and from single seed oil samples indicate that the asymmetry for saturated fatty acids is greater in high-oleic than in standard linoleic backgrounds. Hence, the distribution of the fatty acids within the triacylglycerol molecule appears to depend not only on the fatty acid under study but also on the other fatty acids in the oil. Thus, it is demonstrated for the first time that certain fatty acids can influence the distribution of other fatty acids within triacylglycerols. PMID:19166295

  11. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of “Sahiwal” cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified “Sahiwal” cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatment...

  12. Differential regulation of placental amino acid transport by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

    Lager, Susanne; Jansson, Thomas; Theresa L. Powell

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are critical for normal fetal development but may also influence placental function. We have previously reported that oleic acid (OA) stimulates amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs). In other tissues, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have distinct effects on cellular signaling, for instance, palmitic acid (PA) but not OA reduces IκBα expression. We hypothesized that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differentially affect trophoblast amino acid transpo...

  13. Elongation of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids by human skin fibroblasts

    Banerjee, N.; Rosenthal, M.D.

    1986-05-01

    Human skin fibroblasts readily incorporate exogenous arachidonate (20:4(n-6)) and eicosapentaenoate (20:5(n-3)) into cellular phospholipids and triacylglycerol. The extent of incorporation of 1.25 ..mu..M (/sup 14/C)20:4(n-6) and (/sup 14/C)20:5(n-3) from culture medium with delipidized serum protein is similar, 20% in 1 hr increasing to 60-70% within 8 hr. Elongation of incorporated (/sup 14/C)20:5(n-3) to (/sup 14/C)22:5(n-3) is extensive, 40% by 8 hr and 85% by 48 hr. Elongation of (/sup 14/C)20:4(n-6) to (/sup 14/C)22:4(n-6) is <1/2 that of (/sup 1/$C)20:5(n-3) and plateaus at approx.20% of incorporated /sup 14/C-fatty acid. Although incorporated, exogenous 22:4(n-6) is not an effective inhibitor of the elongation of (/sup 14/C)arachidonate; however, exogenous 20:5(n-3) is inhibitory, with an ID/sub 50/ of 5 ..mu..M. With exogenous concentrations of (/sup 14/C)arachidonate from 0.4 - 10 ..mu..M, the percentage incorporated in 24 hr remains relatively constant. By contrast, the extent of elongation of incorporated (/sup 14/C)arachidonate increases from 12% at 0.4 ..mu..M to 43% at 10 ..mu..M. Under these conditions, elongation of incorporated (/sup 14/C)20:5(n-3) is approx.75%. Thus, in these cells, selectivity of the elongation system results in differential metabolism of 20-carbon n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. Furthermore, arachidonate appears to act as a positive modulator of its own elongation.

  14. Fatty acids composition in fruits of wild rose species

    Renata Nowak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The oil content and fatty acids profile of a number of Polish wild species of rose fruits were examined by GC. The total fatty acid contents ranged from 6.5% to 12.9% of dry mass in fruits. The composition of oils was similar in the investigated species. 17 components were identified. An average composition was estimated as follows: linoleic acid (44.4-55.7%, a-linolenic acid (18.6-31.4%, oleic acid (13.5-20.3%, palmitic acid (2.3-3.3%, stearic acid (1-2.5%, octadecenoic acid (0.38-0.72%, eicosenoic acid (0.3-0.7%, eicosadienoic acid (0-0.16%, erucic acid (0.03-0.17% and minor fatty acids. The results indicate that rose fruits are a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially in R. rubiginosa, R. rugosa and R. dumalis. There were statistically significant (p<0.05 differences in fatty acid compositions of some species. Fatty acids were suggested to have a potential chemotaxonomic value in this genus.

  15. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat and blood plasma in pruritic dogs and dogs without skin problems.

    Taugbøl, O; Baddaky-Taugbøl, B; Saarem, K.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in subcutaneous fat and the relative amounts of PUFAs in plasma in two groups of dogs. Group 1 included dogs with a good skin and coat condition. Group 2 was comprised of dogs with pruritus and compatible clinical signs of atopy. The fatty acid composition of the total lipid fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography. In subcutaneous fat, the concentration of adrenic acid (22:4n-6) was lower...

  16. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase. PMID:16631439

  17. Total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed catla catla fish

    Hassan, M.; Shaihid chatha, S. A.; Tahira, I.; Hussain, B.

    2010-07-01

    This experimental work was aimed to study the moisture content, total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed freshwater major carp Catla catla of three different weight categories designated as W{sub 1} (601-900g), W{sub 2} (901- 1200)g and W{sub 3} (1201-1500g). Seven fish specimens of each of the three weight categories of wild and farmed Catla catla were obtained from Trimu Head, Jhang and Fish Hatchery, Satiana Road and Faisalabad, respectively. The fish were dissected to remove the liver and after weighing, liver samples were prepared and subjected to chemical analysis. Wild Catla catla liver had a significantly (p <0.05) higher moisture content as compared to the farmed species. Farmed Catla catla deposited significantly (p < 0.05) higher lipid contents in liver. Proportions of saturated fatty acids varied irregularly in the lipids of the liver from both wild and farmed Catla catla. Saturated fatty acids C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:0 and C22:0 were identified with considerable percentages in the liver of Catla catla from both habitats and monounsaturated fatty acid C18:1 was found in considerable amounts in the liver of both major carp. Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as C18:3 (n-6) and C20: 2 (n-6) were detected in the liver of the wild fish of W{sub 2} and W{sub 3} and was similar in the W{sub 3} weight category of the farmed species. (Author) 22 refs.

  18. Fatty Acid Status and Its Relationship to Cognitive Decline and Homocysteine Levels in the Elderly

    Marília Baierle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially the n-3 series, are known for their protective effects. Considering that cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, which is common at aging, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fatty acid status in the elderly was associated with cognitive function and cardiovascular risk. Forty-five elderly persons (age ≥60 years were included and divided into two groups based on their Mini-Mental Status Examination score adjusted for educational level: the case group (n = 12 and the control group (n = 33. Serum fatty acid composition, homocysteine (Hcy, hs-CRP, lipid profile and different cognitive domains were evaluated. The case group, characterized by reduced cognitive performance, showed higher levels of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7 fatty acids and lower levels of 22:0, 24:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (DHA and total PUFAs compared to the control group (p < 0.05. The n-6/n-3 ratio was elevated in both study groups, whereas alterations in Hcy, hs-CRP and lipid profile were observed in the case group. Cognitive function was positively associated with the 24:1n-9, DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while 14:0, 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio and Hcy were inversely associated. In addition, n-3 PUFAs, particularly DHA, were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, assessed by Hcy levels in the elderly.

  19. Increase of eicosapentaenoic acid in thraustochytrids through thraustochytrid ubiquitin promoter-driven expression of a fatty acid {delta}5 desaturase gene.

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Matsuda, Takanori; Abe, Eriko; Hama, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Masahiro; Honda, Daiske; Okita, Yuji; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    Thraustochytrids, marine protists known to accumulate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in lipid droplets, are considered an alternative to fish oils as a source of PUFAs. The major fatty acids produced in thraustochytrids are palmitic acid (C(16:0)), n - 6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (C(22:5)(n) (- 6)), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C(22:6)(n) (- 3)), with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C(20:5)(n) (- 3)) and arachidonic acid (AA) (C(20:4)(n) (- 6)) as minor constituents. We attempted here to alter the fatty acid composition of thraustochytrids through the expression of a fatty acid ?5 desaturase gene driven by the thraustochytrid ubiquitin promoter. The gene was functionally expressed in Aurantiochytrium limacinum mh0186, increasing the amount of EPA converted from eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) (C(20:4)(n) (- 3)) by the ?5 desaturase. The levels of EPA and AA were also increased by 4.6- and 13.2-fold in the transgenic thraustochytrids compared to levels in the mock transfectants when ETA and dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA) (C(20:3)(n) (- 6)) were added to the culture at 0.1 mM. Interestingly, the amount of EPA in the transgenic thraustochytrids increased in proportion to the amount of ETA added to the culture up to 0.4 mM. The rates of conversion and accumulation of EPA were much higher in the thraustochytrids than in baker's yeasts when the desaturase gene was expressed with the respective promoters. This report describes for the first time the finding that an increase of EPA could be accomplished by introducing the ?5 desaturase gene into thraustochytrids and indicates that molecular breeding of thraustochytrids is a promising strategy for generating beneficial PUFAs. PMID:21478316

  20. Genetic variability of fatty acids in bovine milk

    Soyeurt H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of bovine milk influences the technological properties of butterfat and also presents some potential benefits for human health. Impact of feeding on fat composition is well described in the literature; less information is available about the impact of genetics. Based on few studies, essentially conducted to isolate some feeding effect, the breed seemed to influence the fatty acids composition. The variation in the activity of δ-9 desaturase, key enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk, could explain these differences. Very few studies have been focussing on the estimation of genetic parameters of fatty acids composition. However, the moderate heritability estimates observed by these studies for the major fatty acids could suggest a potential genetic effect.

  1. Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of some traditional Argentinean meat sausages

    Mara Cristina Romero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and total fat of some meat products produced in the northeastern Argentina, analyzing fatty acids composition, polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio PUFA/SFA ratio (polyunsaturated/ saturated fatty acids, n-6/n-3 ratio, and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid content. Thirty traditional meat products produced by different processes were used. The samples were classified into 4 different categories as follows: salamín (dry cured and fermented sausage, chorizos (raw sausage, chorizo ahumado (cooked and smoked sausage, and morcilla (cooked sausage. From the results obtained it can be said that the total carbohydrate contents of the salamín studied were slightly lower; fat content of raw chorizo was significantly lower, and protein content of chorizo ahumado was significantly higher than those comparison from databases from other regions of Argentina, USA, and Spain. Except for chorizo, which has a value lower than 0.4, the PUFA/SFA-stearic ratio of the other products were a little higher than those reported by other researchers. CLA (Conjugated linoleic acid contents between 0.03% and 0.19% were detected. The results obtained indicate that salamín produced in northeastern Argentina, Chaco state, shows high protein and PUFA (Polyunsaturated fatty acids contents, and low atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes, which makes it a more healthful product than those of similar composition produced in other countries.

  2. Thiamine and fatty acid content of walleye tissue from three southern U.S. reservoirs

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Vandergoot, C.S.; Bettoli, P.W.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Zajicek, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    We determined the thiamine concentration in egg, muscle, and liver tissues of walleyes Sander vitreus and the fatty acid content of walleye eggs from three southern U.S. reservoirs. In two Tennessee reservoirs (Dale Hollow and Center Hill), in which there were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the forage base, natural recruitment of walleyes was not occurring; by contrast in Lake James Reservoir, North Carolina, where there were no alewives, the walleye population was sustained via natural recruitment. Female walleye tissues were collected and assayed for thiamine (vitamin B1) and fatty acid content. Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be the predominant form of thiamine in walleye eggs. In 2000, mean total egg thiamine concentrations were similar among Center Hill, Dale Hollow, and Lake James reservoirs (2.13, 3.14, and 2.77 nmol thiamine/g, respectively). Egg thiamine concentration increased as maternal muscle (r 2 = 0.73) and liver (r2 = 0.68) thiamine concentration increased. Walleye egg thiamine does not appear to be connected to poor natural reproduction in Tennessee walleyes. Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, which are found in all three reservoirs, had higher thiaminase activity than alewives. Six fatty acids differed among the walleye eggs for the three reservoirs. Two were physiologically important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6[n-3]), which are important eicosanoid precursors involved in the regulation of biological functions, such as immune response and reproduction. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  3. Cellular distribution and linkage of D-(-)-3-hydroxy fatty acids in Bacteroides species.

    Mayberry, W R

    1980-01-01

    Two strains of Bacteroides asaccharolyticus and two strains of Bacteroides fragilis were analyzed for total fatty acid, total lipid fatty acid, and total bound fatty acid profiles. Extracted lipids and defatted cell residues were subjected to sequential alkaline and acid methanolyses to distinguish ester- and amide-linked fatty acids in each fraction. In the lipid fractions, all the ester-linked fatty acids were nonhydroxylated, whereas all of the amide-linked fatty acids were hydroxylated. I...

  4. Males and females gonad fatty acids of the sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula (Echinodermata)

    Martínez-Pita, Inés; García, Francisco J.; Pita, María-Luisa

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze male and female gonad fatty acids of two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, from the south coast of Spain. Additionally, we investigated possible differences between two locations. The ovaries of both species showed higher percentages of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and 18:4n-3 than testes and lower levels of 18:0, 22:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-3. In P. lividus but not in A. lixula, the level of 20:5n-3 was higher in testes than in ovaries. These differences between sexes probably indicate different requirements of males and females during gametogenesis although the presence of a large number of gametes in the mature gonad may also have influences on fatty acid composition. Significant differences in gonad fatty acid profiles where also found when individuals of P. lividus collected at a location of the Mediterranean region were compared with specimens collected at the Atlantic coast. The most remarkable changes were the lower levels of 14:0, 18:1n-7, 20:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 and the higher values of 20:1n-11, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 found in males and females of the Mediterranean specimens compared to those of the Atlantic coast. These differences probably reflect the differences in potential food sources at each location.

  5. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    HesterMDen Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  6. 20 Years of Fatty Acid Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Marcone Augusto Leal de Oliveira; Brenda Lee Simas Porto; Isaura Daniele Leite Faria; Patricia Lopes de Oliveira; Patricia Mendonça de Castro Barra; Renata de Jesus Coelho Castro; Renata Takabayashi Sato

    2014-01-01

    A review taking into account the literature reports covering 20 years of fatty acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis is presented. This paper describes the evolution of fatty acid analysis using different CE modes such as capillary zone electrophoresis, non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography employing different detection systems, such as ultraviolet-visible, capacitively coupled contactless...

  7. Capillary Electrophoresis in the Analysis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Gabriel Hancu; Amelia Tero-Vescan; Cristina Filip; Aura Rusu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study to inventory the main electrophoretic methods for identification and quantitative determination of fatty acids from different biological matrices. Critical analysis of electrophoretic methods reported in the literature show that the determination of polyunsaturated fatty acids can be made by: capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography using different detection systems such as ultraviolet diode ar...

  8. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders in a Chinese Population in Taiwan

    Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Lee, Ni-Chung; Chao, Mei-Chyn; Chen, Li-Chu; Chen, Li-Hsin; Chien, Chun-Ching; Ho, Hui-Chen; Suen, Jeng-Hung; Hwu, Wuh-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) disorders are a heterogeneous group of inborn errors in the transportation and oxidation of fatty acids. FAO disorders were thought to be very rare in the Chinese population. Newborn screening for FAO disorders beginning in 2002 in Taiwan may have increased the diagnosis of this group of diseases.

  9. Distillation of natural fatty acids and their chemical derivatives

    Well over 1,000 different fatty acids are known which are natural components of fats, oils (triacylglycerols), and other related compounds. These fatty acids can have different alkyl chain lengths, 0-6 carbon-carbon double bonds possessing cis- or trans-geometry, and can contain a variety of functio...

  10. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are prepared from corn oil, cottonseed oil, lard, palm oil from fruit, peanut oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and tallow and the fatty....860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862....

  11. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jussi; Fielding, Barbara A; Virtanen, Kirsi; Oikonen, Vesa; Kemppainen, Jukka; Viljanen, Tapio; Guiducci, Letizia; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Någren, Kjell; Solin, Olof; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  12. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  13. AMPK-independent pathways regulate skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation

    Dzamko, Nicolas; Schertzer, Jonathan D.; Ryall, James G.; Steel, Rohan; Macaulay, S. Lance; Wee, Sheena; Chen, Zhi-Ping; Michell, Belinda J.; Oakhill, Jonathan S.; Watt, Matthew J.; Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Lynch, Gordon S.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    rates of fatty acid oxidation. To address this issue we have investigated the requirement for skeletal muscle AMPK in controlling aminoimidazole-4-carboxymide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and contraction-stimulated fatty acid oxidation utilizing transgenic mice expressing a muscle-specific kinase...

  14. Fatty Acid Incubation of Myotubues from Humans with Type 2 Diabetes Leads to Enhanced Release of Beta Oxidation Products Due to Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation

    Wensaas, Andreas J; Rustan, Arild C; Just, Marlene; Berge, Rolf K; Drevon, Christian A; Gaster, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased availability of fatty acids is important for accumulation of intracellular lipids and development of insulin resistance in human myotubes. It is unknown whether different types of fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) influence these ...

  15. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  16. Tagging fatty acids with 99m tecnetium

    In a search for a fatty acid analogue suitable for labelling with sup(99m)Tc for myocardial imaging, analogues of the general formula X-Y-COOH where the ligand groups X, Y were NH2, SH or COOH, capable of forming complexes with metal ions, were synthesized. Among many such, one compound (CH2(SH).CH2(SH).(CH2)8.COOH) was selected for further study. Injected intravenously together with a reducing agent into mice, rats and one dog, the compound proved unsatisfactory for the purpose because of its toxicity and its failure to localize in the myocardium. The search for alternative analogues and alternative labelling procedures must continue

  17. Urinary prostaglandin E2 and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats: effect of linolenic acid supplementation.

    Hansen, H S; Jensen, B

    1983-10-01

    Three groups of weanling male rats were fed on a fat-free diet for 13 weeks. One group received only the fat-free diet (FF rats), the other 2 groups received the fat-free diet and a daily supplement of 2 energy% ethyl linoleate ([n-6] rats), or 2 energy% ethyl linolenate ([n-3] rats). Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iAVP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE2 was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E3 (PGE3). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased significantly in the FF rats and the (n-3) rats compared with the (n-6) rats. Urinary PGE2 excretion was the same for all 3 groups during the first 10 weeks; thereafter it decreased in FF rats and (n-3) rats compared with the (n-6) rats. There was no difference in urinary PGE2 excretion between the FF rats and the (n-3) rats, even though large differences were found in the percentage of arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]), icosapentaenoic acid (20:5[n-3]), and icosatrienoic acid (20:3[n-9]) of total kidney fatty acids as well as of kidney phosphatidylinositol fatty acids. Fractionation of urine extracts on high performance liquid chromatography with radioimmunoassay detection indicated that (n-3) rats excreted very little PGE3, if any. Urine output followed the same pattern, as did urinary PGE2 excretion. Urinary kallikrein was estimated at week 12 only. It was found to be significantly lower in FF rats and (n-3) rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6318006

  18. Important bioactive properties of omega-3 fatty acids

    Rui Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acids to various tissues is of major importance to health and depends on dietary intake for both normal development and in the prevention and management of chronic diseases.In this review we will summarize the biological properties of omega-3 fatty acids.

  19. Threonine 286 of fatty acid desaturase 7 is essential for ω-3 fatty acid desaturation in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Lim, Jong-Min; Vikramathithan, Jayaraman; Hwangbo, Kwon; Ahn, Joon-Woo; Park, Youn-Il; Choi, Dong-Woog; Jeong, Won-Joong

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid desaturases catalyze the conversion of dienoic fatty acids (C18:2 and C16:2) into trienoic fatty acids (C18:3 and C16:3), accounting for more than 50% of the total fatty acids in higher plants and the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Here, we describe a Thr residue located in the fourth transmembrane domain of fatty acid desaturase 7 (FAD7) that is essential for the biosynthesis of ω-3 fatty acids in C. reinhardtii. The ω-3 fatty acid deficiency in strain CC-620, ...

  20. Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    P.C. Calder

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6, the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production

    The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production

    Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); da Silva, Camila [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); Department of Technology, Maringa State University (UEM), Umuarama, PR, 87506-370 (Brazil); Rossi, Carla C.R.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); College of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, 13083-970 (Brazil); Guirardello, Reginaldo [College of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, 13083-970 (Brazil); de Castilhos, Fernanda [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR, 81531-990 (Brazil); Oliveira, J. Vladimir [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, Erechim, RS, 99700-000 (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis. (author)

  3. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  4. Lipid content and fatty acid composition in foods commonly consumed by nursing Congolese women : incidences on their essential fatty acid intakes and breast milk fatty acids

    Rocquelin, Grard; Tapsoba, S.; Mbemba, F.; Gallon, Georges; Picq, Christian

    1998-01-01

    The fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition of nearly 40 foods, currently consumed by 102 nursing Congolese mothers living in Brazzaville, were determined to assess their impact on mothers' essential fatty acid (EFA) intakes and breast milk FA. Data on mothers' milk FA and dietary habits which allowed food selection were recently published (Rocquelin et al., 1998). Most foods were locally produced. Food samples were collected at local markets, bleached if necessary to avoid microbial degr...

  5. Fatty acid chemistry of Atrichum undulatum and Hypnum andoi

    Pejin Boris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of the moss species Atrichum undulatum (Hedw. P. Beauv. (Polytrichaceae and Hypnum andoi A.J.E. Sm. (Hypnaceae collected in winter time were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS as a contribution to their chemistry. Eight fatty acids were identified in the chloroform/methanol extract 1:1 of A. undulatum (linoleic acid 26.80%, palmitic acid 22.17%, α-linolenic acid 20.50%, oleic acid 18.49%, arachidonic acid 6.21%, stearic acid 3.34%, cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid 1.52% and behenic acid 1.01%, while six fatty acids were found in the same type of extract of H. andoi (palmitic acid 63.48%, erucic acid 12.38%, stearic acid 8.08%, behenic acid 6.26%, lignoceric acid 5.16% and arachidic acid 4.64%. According to this study, the moss A. undulatum can be considered as a good source of both essential fatty acids for humans (linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid during the winter.

  6. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF BLACK SEA CYSTOSEIRA BARBATA

    Veselina Panayotova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Cystoseira barbata is the most widely distributed seaweed in the Black Sea. There is limited information about fat soluble vitamins content and fatty acids composition of this specie from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The aim of this study was to determine fat soluble vitamins, pigments, total lipid and fatty acid composition of Cystoseira barbata. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin E and D, pigments (β-carotene and astaxanthin and total cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously using HPLC/UV/FL system equipped with RP analytical column. Sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Brown seaweed Cystoseira barbata contained high amounts of α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Lipids were extracted by following the method of Bligh and Dyer. The residual lipid fraction was methylated using base-catalyzed transmethylation with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Cystoseira barbata was rich in linoleic (C18:2n6 and eicosopentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 although total lipid content was generally low. High levels of α-tocopherol correlate with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. As an antioxidant α-tocopherol preserves tissue PUFA from oxidation.

  7. Mechanisms increasing n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the heart.

    Glück, Tobias; Rupp, Heinz; Alter, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Due to ambiguous findings on cardiovascular benefits of systemic omega-3 fatty acid therapy, endogenous mechanisms contributing to local organ-specific concentrations of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) were examined. Using gas chromatography, 43 fatty acids were analyzed in atrial and ventricular myocardium and in pericardial fluid of male Wistar rats. To examine the endogenous fatty acid metabolism, precursors were administered into the pericardial sac. Pro- and anti-inflammatory actions were induced by talc or fenofibrate, respectively. Physical exercise and a sedentary obese state were used for increased beta-oxidation. DHA (22:6n-3) was increased in ventricular when compared with atrial myocardium (9.0 ± 2.1% vs. 4.7 ± 1.0%, p acid (24:5n-3) in atrial myocardium, which is a key precursor of DHA. In contrast, proinflammatory stimulation of the n-6 HUFA pathway did not influence the n-3 metabolism. Exercise- and obesity-induced increased beta-oxidation, the finalizing step of DHA synthesis, was associated with increased ventricular DHA concentrations (6.7 ± 1.0% vs. 8.4 ± 1.2%, p < 0.01). It is concluded that the endogenous metabolism contributes markedly to myocardial HUFA concentrations. The findings are supposed to influence the efficacy of oral HUFA treatment and provide a rationale for divergent findings of previous trials on omega-3 therapy. PMID:26780261

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    Sieswerda Lee E; Seguin Jennifer; Ross Brian M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determi...

  9. Therapeutic Benefits Of ?-3 Fatty Acids from Fish

    Samanta S Khora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids play important roles in human nutrition and disease management. Fish are rich in Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LC- PUFAs. Marine fish are the best source of these fatty acids. They typically include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The major health maintenance and prevention of diseases recognized in EPA and DHA. These forms of fatty acids have excellent body usability component: Reduces heart attack risks, Reduce stroke risks, Brings down blood pressure, Manages heart rhythms and hence reducing possible heart failures. Further, Omega-3 fatty acids from fish supplements could also be useful in preventing a number of diseases including: Diabetes, Arthritis, Heart disease, Cancer, Depression, Hyperactivity. Factors underlying the popularity of ω-3 fatty acids, their recommended daily indices, clinical trials showing their benefits on cardiovascular health, and prevention of arthritis, inflammation, and allergy, child development, mental alertness, cognitive function and mood have been pointed out in this review Diseases that may be prevented or ameliorated with Omega-3 fatty acids, in descending order of the strength of the available evidence

  10. Effects of Fatty Acid Inclusion in a DMPC Bilayer Membrane

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Møller, Martin S.; Westh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    packing and structure of oleic acid (HOA) and stearic acid (HSA) in fluid bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The experimental data show a small but consistent positive excess volume for fatty acid concentrations below 10 mol %. At higher concentrations the fatty acids mix ideally with......Free fatty acids in biomembranes have been proposed to be a central component in several cellular control and regulatory mechanisms. To elucidate some fundamental elements underlying this, we have applied molecular dynamics simulations and experimental density measurements to study the molecular...... fluid DMPC. The simulations, which were benchmarked against the densitometric data, revealed interesting differences in the structure and location of the fatty acids depending on their protonation status. Thus, the protonated (uncharged) acid is located rather deeply in the membrane with an average...

  11. Fatty Acids Composition in Germinating Cotton Seedlings Affected by High Temperature Stress

    Saghir Ahmed Sheikh; Muhammad Ibrahim Keerio; Maqsood Anwar Rustamani; Noor-u-Nisa Memon

    2002-01-01

    The results of fatty acids analysis suggested that greater unsaturation occurred with increasing germination time. High temperature had a marked effect on fatty acid composition and caused significant changes especially in neutral lipid and glycollpid fatty acids. Small changes were also observed in phophollpid fatty acids. A large increase in free fatty acid was also found, since free fatty acids are known to be damaging to cells.

  12. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus by gas chromatographic whole-cell fatty acid analysis.

    Lawrence, D.; Heitefuss, S; Seifert, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    Three strains of Bacillus anthracis and seven strains of Bacillus cereus were grown on complex medium and on synthetic medium. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole-cell fatty acids of strains grown on complex medium gave nearly identical fatty acid patterns. Fatty acid patterns of strains grown on synthetic medium showed a high content of branched-chain fatty acids. Significant differences between the fatty acid patterns of the two species were found. Odd iso/anteiso fatty acid ratios were a...

  13. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    2010-04-01

    ... esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in..., and fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids....

  14. Effects of cold shock treatment on total lipid content and fatty acid composition of Aurantiochytrium limacinum strain mh0186.

    Taoka, Yousuke; Nagano, Naoki; Okita, Yuji; Izumida, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effect of cold shock treatment on the fatty acid composition of Aurantiochytrium limacinum strain mh0186, a marine thraustochytrid, we cultivated this strain at 28C for 72 h with shaking and stored the obtained biomass at 10C for 72 h. A growth experiment was carried out for comparison, wherein strain mh0186 was grown at 10 and 15C for 72 h with shaking, and it was found that the unsaturation of fatty acids was accelerated relative to that at 28C. In the cold shock experiment, the total lipid content significantly increased during storage at 10C for 72 h. Overall, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid was almost stable while that of n-6 docosapentaenoic acid decreased slightly, but significantly, relative to that in the growth experiment. PMID:21502721

  15. Fatty acids labeled with a radionuclide ? emitting at the ?-position

    The synthesis of many saturated, acetylenic, olefinic (Z or E) fatty acids labeled with 123I or 131I at the ?-position has been achieved. The radioactive iodine atom is introduced by a I-, *I- exchange reaction; the influence on the yield of several parameters -presence of iodine carrier, fatty acid and water concentrations, solution acidity- has been studied. Experimental conditions which produce labeling yields higher than 95% have been defined; these results have lead to a very easy labeling method used in several hospitals in the external study of myocardial metabolism of fatty acids

  16. Deficiencies of polyunsaturated fatty acids and replacement by nonessential fatty acids in plasma lipids in multiple sclerosis.

    Holman, R T; Johnson, S.B.; Kokmen, E

    1989-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of plasma phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, and nonesterified fatty acids of 14 clinically proven and graded cases of multiple sclerosis were determined by capillary gas chromatography and compared with the values obtained for 100 normal, healthy subjects. In phospholipids, linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6; 18 carbon atoms, 2 double bonds, 6 carbon atoms beyond last double bond) was normal and 18:3 omega 6 was increased, but all subsequent omega 6 acids w...

  17. Fatty acid profiles in marine and freshwater fish from fish markets in northeastern Poland

    ?uczy?ska Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid compositions were studied in eight commercially important fish from fish markets: salmon, Salmo salar L.; cod, Gadus morhua L.; common sole, Solea solea (L.; European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.; catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walb.; Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.; and pangasius, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage. The freshwater fish contained 25.69-42.18% saturated, 34.90-43.79% monounsaturated, 8.46-16.32% n-6 polyunsaturated, and 5.01-20.43% n-3 polyunsaturated acid, while marine fish contained 18.53-32.77% saturated, 17.95-49.89% monounsaturated, 3.40-11.51% n-6 polyunsaturated, and 18.74-45.42% n-3 polyunsaturated acid. Marine fish contained significantly more ?n-3 PUFA (29.79%, EPA (12.26%, DHA (13.20%, and a higher n-3/n-6 (6.95 ratio than freshwater fish (13.13, 2.47, 7.14, 1.29% (P? 0.05. There were statistically significant differences in the n-3/n-6 ratio among fish species (cod (13.40 > sole (8.47 > flounder (4.30 > rainbow trout (2.41 > catfish (1.83 ? salmon (1.63 > tilapia (0.57 ? pangasius (0.36 (P ?0.05.

  18. Fatty acid chemistry of Atrichum undulatum and Hypnum andoi

    Pejin Boris; Vujisić Ljubodrag; Sabovljević Marko; Tešević Vele; Vajs Vlatka

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the moss species Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P. Beauv. (Polytrichaceae) and Hypnum andoi A.J.E. Sm. (Hypnaceae) collected in winter time were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a contribution to their chemistry. Eight fatty acids were identified in the chloroform/methanol extract 1:1 of A. undulatum (linoleic acid 26.80%, palmitic acid 22.17%, α-linolenic acid 20.50%, oleic acid 18.49%, arachidonic acid 6....

  19. Lipid composition of lactational diets influences the fatty acid profile of the progeny before and after suckling.

    Lauridsen, C; Jensen, S K

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of adding no or 8% fat of varying sources (coconut oil, fish oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil) to diets for sows 1 week prior to farrowing and during lactation on the composition of fatty acids in plasma and tissues of the progeny while sucking and 3 weeks after weaning from the sow. A control diet without supplemental fat and four diets supplemented with 8% of coconut oil, rapeseed oil, fish oil or sunflower oil were provided to lactating sows (n = 15), and during the post-weaning period the same weaner diet was provided to all piglets (n = 15 litters), which were housed litterwise. The dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids of the maternal diets largely influenced the progeny, as the ratio varying from 1.2 (fish oil) to 12.2 (sunflower oil) in the sow milk was reflected in plasma and adipose tissues of the sucking progeny. The liver showed similar variations according to dietary treatments, but a lower n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio. From day 4 to later on during the suckling period, the concentration of C14:0, C16:0 and C18:1 in the liver of the piglets decreased, irrespective of the dietary treatments of sows. In plasma and liver, the total concentration of saturated fatty acids (SAFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) did not differ markedly in piglets sucking sows fed different dietary fatty acids, whereas the adipose tissue of piglets sucking sows fed sunflower oil and coconut oil showed the highest proportion of PUFA and SAFA, respectively. Weaning lowered the concentration of lipid-soluble extracts in plasma and the concentration of fatty acids in the liver of the piglets. Within the post-weaning period, dietary treatments of sows, rather than age of piglets, influenced the fatty acid composition of plasma and adipose tissue of the piglets, whereas the hepatic fatty acid profile was more affected by the age of the piglets during the post-weaning period. This study shows that the fatty acid profile of plasma and tissues of the progeny is highly dependent on the maternal dietary composition, and that the dietary impact persists for up to 3 weeks after the suckling period. PMID:22444797

  20. Plasma concentrations of trans fatty acids in persons with type 2 diabetes between September 2002 and April 200412345

    Schwenke, Dawn C.; Foreyt, John P; Miller, Edgar R.; Reeves, Rebecca S.; Mara Z Vitolins

    2013-01-01

    Background: transFatty acids (TFAs) increase cardiovascular disease risk. TFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the food supply may be declining with reciprocal increases in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs).

  1. Differential Effects of Antipsychotic Medications on Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Rats: Relationship with Liver Delta6-Desaturase Expression

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Lipton, Jack W.

    2011-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), a lipid family comprised of omega-3 (n-3) and n-6 fatty acids, are a critical component of cellular membranes, and recent in vitro studies have found that antipsychotic medications up-regulate genes responsible for PUFA biosynthesis. To evaluate this effect in vivo, rats were treated with risperidone (1.5, 3, 6 mg/kg/d), paliperidone (1.5, 3, 6 mg/kg/d), olanzapine (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg/d), quetiapine (5, 10, 20 mg/kg/d), haloperidol (1, 3 mg/kg/d) or vehicle t...

  2. Activity of Bradykinin B2 Receptor Is Regulated by Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Candelario, Jose; Chachisvilis, Mirianas

    2013-01-01

    The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) exert their beneficial effects on cardiovascular health remain obscure. While both LCPUFA and bradykinin (BK) signaling pathway play a role in the cardiovascular system, any direct link between the two is yet to be established. Using picosecond time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and a genetically engineered bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) sensor (B2K-CC), we detected LCPUFA-induced conformational responses in the B2R similar to those caused by its cognate ligand, BK. The selective B2R antagonist (HOE-140) blocked the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20∶5, n-3) induced conformational response of the B2K-CC. Further analysis suggests that LCPUFA are capable of direct, B2R-dependent activation of extracellular ligand-regulated kinases (ERK). From a wide range of fatty acids studied, varying in chain length, saturation, and position of double bonds, EPA, docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22∶6, n-3), docosadienoic (DDA, C22∶2, n-6), and dihomo-gamma linoleic (DGLA, C20∶3, n-6) fatty acids caused the highest ERK phosphorylation. EPA or DHA dependent ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the selective B2R antagonist. We show that LCPUFA stimulates downstream signaling by B2R such as B2R-dependent phosphorylation and expression regulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS). Further analysis indicated that LCPUFA also alters levels of the eNOS transcription factor, kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Moreover we show that EPA increases membrane fluidity on the same time scale as B2R conformational response, suggesting that partitioning of LCPUFA into bilayer is a primary step required for receptor activation. In summary our data show that LCPUFA activate B2R receptor at nanomolar concentrations suggesting a novel molecular mechanism by which fatty acids may affect the cardiovascular system. PMID:23826374

  3. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

    Cruz-Hernandez Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%. At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

  4. Fatty acid composition of milk from cows fed low purity glycerin

    Murilo de Almeida Meneses

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of inclusion of low purity glycerin in the diet on the fatty acid composition of milk of crossbred cows. We used 15 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows distributed in three Latin squares 5 x 5, the following treatments: control (no addition of glycerin in the diet; inclusion of 5% glycerin in the diet dry matter; inclusion of 10% glycerol in the diet dry matter; inclusion of 15% glycerol in the diet dry matter, and the inclusion of 20% glycerol in the diet dry matter. The inclusion of glycerin in the diet had no effect (P<0.05 the concentration of butyric acid (C4:0. In contrast, we observed a quadratic effect (P<0.05 on the concentrations of fatty acids caproic C6:0 (= 11.33 the point of maximum, caprylic C8:0 (= 9.50 the point of maximum and capric C10:0 (= 6.66 the point of maximum also short chain fatty acids, following the same trend of milk production. Decreased linearly (P<0.05 concentrations of medium chain fatty acids, fatty acids Lauric C12:0, Myristic C14:0, myristoleic C14:1, pentadecanoic C15:0, Pentadecenoico: C15:1, Palmitic C16:0 and palmitoleic C16:1. Was observed increased linearly (P<0.05 on concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated. In contrast, the concentration of saturated fatty acids decreased linearly (P<0.05. The concentration of fatty acids Omega 6 series showed decreasing linear effect (P<0.05. As for the concentration of Omega 3, there was no effect of adding glycerin. The PUFA SFA-1 ratio showed linear growth (P<0.05 and the ratio n-6 n-3-1 showed a quadratic effect (P<0.05, with of 6.66 the point of maximum. The concentration of conjugated linoleic acid total had increased linearly (P<0.05. It is recommended the inclusion of glycerin in the diet of dairy cows to the level of 20% based on dry matter.

  5. Tissue fatty acid composition and estimated ∆ desaturase activity after castration in chicken broilers fed with linseed or sunflower oil.

    Mašek, T; Starčević, K; Filipović, N; Stojević, Z; Brozić, D; Gottstein, Z; Severin, K

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of the short-term addition of sunflower and linseed oil and castration on fatty acid composition and desaturation indexes in chicken broilers. Forty-eight male Ross 308 chicken broilers were supplemented with 5% of sunflower or linseed oil. The four experimental groups were linseed oil supplementation and castration (LC), linseed oil without castration (LN), sunflower oil and castration (SC) and sunflower oil without castration (SN). There was no significant influence of castration or oil supplement on live weights, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Castration resulted in an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), total n3, n6, measured desaturation indexes and a decrease in the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content of abdominal fat. In breast muscle, castration increased PUFA and 18:3n3 values, while in the liver tissue, castration did not influence the parameters measured. Linseed oil supplementation significantly increased 18:3n3, n3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA), total n3 and decreased total n6, n6/n3 ratio, and 20:4n6 content. Values for 20:4n6 were the highest in SC and the lowest in the LC group. Linseed oil also significantly decreased ∆5 and ∆4 desaturation indexes in the thighs and ∆5 and ∆5, 6 in abdominal fat and the liver. These results suggest that short-term supplementation of basal diet with 5% of linseed oil could significantly increase n3 LC PUFA and decrease n6/n3 ratio content in the edible tissues of chicken broilers, without adverse effects on growth performance. Meanwhile, castration only improved fatty acid profile in abdominal fat, which is not nutritionally important. The interactions observed between basal diet, supplemented oil, sex hormones and other non-nutritional factors must be elucidated in future trials in order to correctly predict the nutritional value of linseed-fed poultry. PMID:23905627

  6. Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Metabolism Response of Growing Meat Rabbits to Dietary Linoleic Acid

    Li, R. G.; Wang, X. P.; Wang, C. Y.; Ma, M. W.; Li, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different amounts of dietary linoleic acid (LA) on growth performance, serum biochemical traits, meat quality, fatty acids composition of muscle and liver, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT 1) mRNA expression in the liver of 9 wks old to 13 wks old growing meat rabbits. One hundred and fifty 9 wks old meat rabbits were allocated to individual cages and randomly divided into five groups. Animals in each group were fed with a diet with the following LA addition concentrations: 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g/kg diet (as-fed basis) and LA concentrations were 0.84, 1.21, 1.34, 1.61 and 1.80% in the diet, respectively. The results showed as follows: the dietary LA levels significantly affected muscle color of LL included a* and b* of experimental rabbits (p<0.05). The linear effect of LA on serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was obtained (p = 0.0119). The saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) contents of LL decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content of LL increased with dietary LA increase (p<0.0001). The PUFA n-6 content and PUFA n-3 content in the LL was significantly affected by the dietary LA levels (p<0.01, p<0.05). The MUFAs content in the liver decreased and the PUFAs contents in the liver increased with dietary LA increase (p<0.0001). The PUFA n-6 content and the PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio in the liver increased and PUFA n-3 content in the liver decreased with dietary LA increase (p<0.01). The linear effect of LA on CPT 1 mRNA expression in the liver was obtained (p = 0.0081). In summary, dietary LA addition had significant effects on liver and muscle fatty acid composition (increased PUFAs) of 9 wks old to 13 wks old growing meat rabbits, but had little effects on growth performance, meat physical traits and mRNA expression of liver relative enzyme of experimental rabbits. PMID:25049677

  7. Fatty acids and their therapeutic potential in neurological disorders.

    Lei, Enie; Vacy, Kristina; Boon, Wah Chin

    2016-05-01

    There is little doubt that we are what we eat. Fatty acid supplementation and diets rich in fatty acids are being promoted as ways to a healthier brain. Short chain fatty acids are a product of intestinal microbiota metabolism of dietary fibre; and their derivatives are used as an anti-convulstant. They demonstrated therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions as HDAC inhibitors; and while the mechanism is not well understood, have been shown to lower amyloid β in Alzheimer's Disease in preclinical studies. Medium chain fatty acids consumed as a mixture in dietary oils can induce ketogenesis without the need for a ketogentic diet. Hence, this has the potential to provide an alternative energy source to prevent neuronal cell death due to lack of glucose. Long chain fatty acids are commonly found in the diet as omega fatty acids. They act as an anti-oxidant protecting neuronal cell membranes from oxidative damage and as an anti-inflammatory mediator in the brain. We review which agents, from each fatty acid class, have the most therapeutic potential for neurological disorders (primarily Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Autism Spectrum Disorder as well as possible applications to traumatic brain injury), by discussing what is known about their biological mechanisms from preclinical studies. PMID:26939763

  8. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  9. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  10. Influence of fatty acid oxidation rate on glycerol release from cardiac myocytes

    Quiescent cardiac myocytes are characterized by low rates of fatty acid oxidation due to the reduced energy demand compared with beating hearts. The accumulation of intracellular fatty acid metabolites may, therefore, result in feed-back inhibition of the cardiac lipase responsible for the mobilization of triacylglycerols (lipolysis). The objective of this study was to examine if interventions that increase fatty acid oxidation rates in myocytes have an effect on lipolysis. Addition of 100 μM dinitrophenol (DNP) to calcium-tolerant rat ventricular myocytes caused an increase in the rate of 14C-oleic acid oxidation from 1.11 +/- 0.06 to 2.38 +/- 0.17 nmol 14CO2/106 cells/min (115% stimulation; mean +/- S.D., n = 3). In parallel incubations, DNP increased the rate of lipolysis from 4.4 +/- 1.7 to 13.6 +/- 3.2 nmol glycerol/106 cells/30 min (215% stimulation). The addition of 1 mM barium to a modified Ringer's incubation medium produced an increase in the contractile activity of the myocytes, and increased the rates of oleic acid oxidation from 0.62 +/- 0.16 to 0.88 +/- 0.23 nmol/106 cells/min (42% stimulation; n = 6) and lipolysis from 13.1 +/- 6.5 to 22.2 +/- 6.4 nmol/106 cells/30 min (70% stimulation). These data show that stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in myocardial myocytes is accompanied by increased lipolytic rates, the latter probably due to release of feed-back inhibition of cardiac lipases by accumulated fatty acid metabolites

  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mood disorders

    Astorg Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of a role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the pathophysiology of depression has emerged from the observation that depressed patients had decreased levels of n-3 long-chain PUFA (especially eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA in plasma, erythrocytes, or adipose tissue, as compared to healthy controls, a decrease which was not observed with n-6 PUFA. Suicide attempters have much lower levels of EPA and DHA in red blood cells than hospital controls. Recently, a decreased level of DHA has also been observed in the post-mortem brain cortex of patients with major depression. The fact that these changes were specific of the n-3 family suggests that a low n-3 PUFA status or intake predisposes to depression. International ecological studies show a strong negative correlation between apparent fish consumption and the prevalence of depression or of bipolar disorder, as well as between DHA content of maternal milk and the prevalence of postpartum depression. In cross-sectional studies in several countries, a higher risk of depression or of depressive symptoms has been found in subjects with a lower fish consumption. In a French cohort of adults, habitual fatty fish consumption or a higher n-3 PUFA intake were associated with a lower risk of depression, especially of recurrent depression. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have been conducted to test the effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA in depressive or bipolar patients. EPA as an adjunct to a standard treatment appears to improve depressive patients or bipolar patients in depressive phase when given at the dose of 1-2 g/day, and fish oil prevents depressive recurrences in bipolar patients. Recently, a mixture of EPA plus DHA has proven efficiency in untreated depressive children. In summary, many epidemiological and clinical works in the last ten years have abundantly documented the existence of an association between a low n-3 PUFA intake or status and a greater risk of mood disorder, as well as a therapeutic potential of n-3 PUFA in depressed or bipolar patients. Other works are necessary in order to establish a causal relation between n-3 PUFA deficiency and depression, and to further explore their preventive or therapeutic use.

  12. Inhibition of experimental colorectal carcinogenesis by dietary N-6 polyunsaturated fats.

    Nicholson, M L; Neoptolemos, J P; Clayton, H A; Talbot, I C; Bell, P R

    1990-12-01

    The influence of dietary fats on azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis and erythrocyte, adipose, colon mucosa and tumour tissue fatty acids was investigated in 228 Wistar rats. The two main diets compared were beef suet rich in saturated fatty acids and corn oil rich in a linoleic acid, an N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. The animals were placed in one of four dietary groups: A = 5% saturated fat, B = 20% saturated fat, C = 5% N-6 fat and D = 20% N-6 fat. There was no difference in the number of adenomas between any of the dietary groups. The mean (+/- SEM) carcinoma yield per rat was A = 0.93 +/- 0.28, B = 1.93 +/- 0.50, C = 0.70 +/- 0.07, D = 0.13 +/- 0.04; the tumour yields in rats fed the saturated fat diets were significantly different from each other and from those fed the N-6 fat diets. The fatty acid profiles in all tissues were dependent upon the type and level of dietary fat and the tissue type. Arachidonate was higher in tumours compared to normal mucosa. Significant correlations were found between adipose linoleate (reflecting dietary intake) and tumour oleate and tumour arachidonate but not with the colorectal mucosa of control animals. This is the first in vivo study to show reduced colorectal carcinogenesis by N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:2124952

  13. Capillary Electrophoresis in the Analysis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Gabriel Hancu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to inventory the main electrophoretic methods for identification and quantitative determination of fatty acids from different biological matrices. Critical analysis of electrophoretic methods reported in the literature show that the determination of polyunsaturated fatty acids can be made by: capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography using different detection systems such as ultraviolet diode array detection, laser induced fluorescence or mass – spectrometry. Capillary electrophoresis is a fast, low-cost technique used for polyunsaturated fatty acids analysis although their determination is mostly based on gas chromatography.

  14. A Review of the Metabolic Origins of Milk Fatty Acids

    Cozma, Anamaria; Doina MIERE; Lorena FILIP; Andrei, Sanda; Roxana BANC; Loghin, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    Milk fat and its fatty acid profile are important determinants of the technological, sensorial, and nutritional properties of milk and dairy products. The two major processes contributing to the presence of fatty acids in ruminant milk are the mammary lipogenesis and the lipid metabolism in the rumen. Among fatty acids, 4:0 to 12:0, almost all 14:0 and about a half of 16:0 in milk fat derive from de novo synthesis within the mammary gland. De novo synthesis utilizes as precursors acetate and ...

  15. A more desirable balanced polyunsaturated fatty acid composition achieved by heterologous expression of ?15/?4 desaturases in mammalian cells.

    Zhu, Guiming; Ou, Qin; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Xudong; Sun, Guozhi; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Kunfu; Fang, Heng; Wang, Mingfu; Sun, Jie; Ge, Tangdong

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids, but their biosyntheses in mammals are very limited. The biosynthesis of DHA is the most difficult, because this undergoes the Sprecher pathway--a further elongation step from docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), a ?6-desaturase acting on a C24 fatty acid substrate followed by a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper reports the successful heterologous expression of two non-mammalian genes (with modification of codon usage), coding for Euglena gracilis ?4-desaturase and Siganus canaliculatus ?4-desaturase respectively, in mammalian cells (HEK293 cell line). Both of the ?4-desaturases can efficiently function, directly converting DPA into DHA. Moreover, the cooperation of the E. gracilis ?4-desaturase with C. elegans ?15-desaturase (able to convert a number of n-6 PUFAs to their corresponding n-3 PUFAs) in transgenic HEK293 cells made a more desirable fatty acid composition--a drastically reduced n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio and a high level of DHA as well as EPA and ARA. Our findings provide a basis for potential applications of the gene constructs for expression of ?15/?4-desaturases in transgenic livestock to produce such a fatty acid profile in the related products, which certainly will bring benefit to human health. PMID:24391980

  16. Increased prostaglandin response to oxytocin in ewes fed a diet high in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Gulliver, Catherine E; Friend, Michael A; King, Belinda J; Robertson, Susan M; Wilkins, John F; Clayton, Edward H

    2013-02-01

    Diets high in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6) are associated with increased prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) synthesis in cattle, however, the specific effects on the potential prostaglandin response to an oxytocin challenge in sheep have not been reported. The aim of the current study was to determine whether oxytocin-stimulated PGF(2α) was significantly increased when ewes were fed a diet high in n-6 compared with a control diet low in n-6. Merino x Border Leicester ewes (n = 30) received one of two dietary treatments, either high in n-6 (70 % oat grain) or low in n-6 (control diet, 100 % cereal/legume silage). Ewes consumed the diets for 44 days prior to two consecutive oxytocin challenges. Plasma n-6 and PGF(2α) metabolite (PGFM) concentrations following oxytocin challenge were greater (P < 0.05) when ewes were fed a diet high in n-6 compared with the control diet. A higher availability of n-6 may have lead to an increased in vivo synthesis of PGF(2α), however, further research is required to determine the exact mechanisms involved. PMID:23264044

  17. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis Induce PPAR ? -Regulated Fatty Acid ? -Oxidative Genes: Synergistic Roles of L-FABP and Glucose.

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Petrescu, Anca D; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    While TOFA (acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor) and C75 (fatty acid synthase inhibitor) prevent lipid accumulation by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, the mechanism of action is not simply accounted for by inhibition of the enzymes alone. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a mediator of long chain fatty acid signaling to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- ? (PPAR ? ) in the nucleus, was found to bind TOFA and its activated CoA thioester, TOFyl-CoA, with high affinity while binding C75 and C75-CoA with lower affinity. Binding of TOFA and C75-CoA significantly altered L-FABP secondary structure. High (20?mM) but not physiological (6?mM) glucose conferred on both TOFA and C75 the ability to induce PPAR ? transcription of the fatty acid ? -oxidative enzymes CPT1A, CPT2, and ACOX1 in cultured primary hepatocytes from wild-type (WT) mice. However, L-FABP gene ablation abolished the effects of TOFA and C75 in the context of high glucose. These effects were not associated with an increased cellular level of unesterified fatty acids but rather by increased intracellular glucose. These findings suggested that L-FABP may function as an intracellular fatty acid synthesis inhibitor binding protein facilitating TOFA and C75-mediated induction of PPAR ? in the context of high glucose at levels similar to those in uncontrolled diabetes. PMID:23533380

  18. Invited commentary: dietary polyunsaturated Fatty acids and chronic systemic inflammation--a potentially intriguing link.

    Chowdhury, Rajiv; Steur, Marinka

    2015-06-01

    It remains largely unclear whether consumption of total and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is associated with chronic systemic inflammation in healthy, free-living individuals. While available evidence (stemming principally from mechanistic studies) has indicated that greater intake of n-6 PUFAs may lead to increased levels of inflammation-for instance, by their acting as precursors to proinflammatory eicosanoids and increasing levels of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites-n-3 PUFAs are precursors to some antiinflammatory eicosanoids. New human data from a Dutch prospective study, the Rotterdam Study-as presented by Muka et al. ( Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(11):846-856) in this issue of the Journal-now make an important contribution to the relatively scarce literature on the association of dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFAs with serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a key marker of inflammation, in a general population. The study by Muka et al. benefitted from repeated CRP measurements, comprehensive correction for potential confounding, and wide-ranging sensitivity analyses. The findings show no significant trend regarding n-3 PUFAs but indicate an important inverse association between n-6 PUFAs and chronic systemic inflammation. This study provides support for existing dietary guidelines, which encourage consumption of a combination of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in the diet. PMID:25899093

  19. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Is a Preferential Substrate for Fatty Acid Nitration*

    Bonacci, Gustavo; Baker, Paul R S; Salvatore, Sonia R; Shores, Darla; Khoo, Nicholas K. H.; Koenitzer, Jeffrey R.; Vitturi, Dario A.; Woodcock, Steven R; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Cole, Marsha P; Watkins, Simon; St Croix, Claudette; Batthyany, Carlos I.; Freeman, Bruce A; Schopfer, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    The oxidation and nitration of unsaturated fatty acids by oxides of nitrogen yield electrophilic derivatives that can modulate protein function via post-translational protein modifications. The biological mechanisms accounting for fatty acid nitration and the specific structural characteristics of products remain to be defined. Herein, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is identified as the primary endogenous substrate for fatty acid nitration in vitro and in vivo, yielding up to 10(5) greater ex...

  20. Shifts in the Membrane Fatty Acid Profile of Streptococcus mutans Enhance Survival in Acidic Environments

    Fozo, Elizabeth M.; Quivey, Robert G

    2004-01-01

    Acid adaptation of Streptococcus mutans UA159 involves several different mechanisms, including the ability to alter its proportion of long-chain, monounsaturated membrane fatty acids (R. G. Quivey, Jr., R. Faustoferri, K. Monahan, and R. Marquis, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 189:89-92, 2000). In the present study, we examined the mechanism and timing of changes in fatty acid ratios and the potential benefit that an increased proportion of long-chained fatty acids has for the organism during growth a...

  1. Trans fatty acids and coronary artery disease

    Jocelyne R Benatar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Jocelyne R BenatarGreen Lane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: There has been a significant increased consumption of trans fats in the developed world as we have embraced processed and take away foods in our diet in the last 40 years. These fatty acids are not essential for human nutrition and are hazardous to health. They increase the risk of cardiovascular disease more than any other macronutrient including saturated fat, through multiple mechanisms including adverse effects on lipids, endothelial function and inflammation. They are readily incorporated into cell structures such as cell membranes and the Golgi apparatus, resulting in unintended effects on multiple biological pathways. The majority of trans fats in our diet are artificially manufactured by a process of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oil with little coming from natural sources. It should be possible to replace these harmful fats in the food chain at source with concerted efforts from food manufacturers and legislators.Keywords: trans fats, coronary artery disease, hydrogenated vegetable oils

  2. Tilted phases of fatty acid monolayers

    Kaganer, V.M. [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 59, 117333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Peterson, I.R.; Kenn, R.M. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Jakob-Welder-Weg 11, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Shih, M.C.; Durbin, M.; Dutta, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    1995-06-15

    X-ray diffraction data from water-supported monolayers of fatty acids with chain lengths from 19 to 22 is presented. The structures of the tilted mesophases {ital L}{sub 2}{sup {prime}}, {ital L}{sub 2}, and {ital Ov} are characterized in detail. The contributions to the unit cell distortion from the tilt and the ordering of the backbone planes of the molecules are separated. It is shown that at the swiveling transition {ital L}{sub 2}{sup {prime}}--{ital L}{sub 2}, not only the tilt azimuth but also the packing of the backbone planes change discontinuously. We demonstrate that the tilting transition {ital LS}--{ital L}{sub 2} is accompanied by the ordering of the backbone planes and may be discontinuous. Evidence is presented for a herringbone ordering transition within the {ital L}{sub 2} region. The distortions are related to symmetry of the phases and described by the order parameters responsible for tilt and herringbone ordering of the backbone planes of the molecules. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  3. Influence of trans fatty acids on health.

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    The contribution of dietary trans fatty acids (TFAs) on the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) has recently gained further support due to the results from large, prospective, population-based studies. Compared to saturated fat, TFAs are, gram to gram, associated with a considerably (2.5- to >10-fold) higher risk increment for IHD. A negative effect on the human fetus and on newborns and an increase in colon cancer risk in adults are possible but, however, still equivocal. Recent findings justify further studies concerning the effect of TFAs on allergic diseases in children and on the risk of type-2 diabetes in adults. The intake of industrially produced TFAs in European countries is decreasing. However, determination of the TFA content in various popular food items collected in Danish shops showed that it is likely that persons with a frequent intake of, e.g., French fries, microwave oven popcorn, chocolate bars, fast food, etc., consume industrially produced TFAs in amounts far exceeding the average intake, and are thereby exposed to an unnecessary health risk. The Danish government has decided that oils and fats containing more than 2% industrially produced TFAs will not be sold in Denmark after the January 1, 2004. PMID:14679314

  4. Fat intake and composition of fatty acids in serum phospholipids in a randomized, controlled, Mediterranean dietary intervention study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Sköldstam Lars

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that rheumatoid arthritis patients, who adopted a modified Cretan Mediterranean diet, obtained a reduction in disease activity and an improvement in physical function and vitality. This shift in diet is likely to result in an altered intake of fatty acids. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the dietary intake of fatty acids, as well as the fatty acid profile in serum phospholipids, during the dietary intervention study presented earlier. Results From baseline to the end of the study, changes in the reported consumption of various food groups were observed in the Mediterranean diet group. The change in diet resulted in a number of differences between the Mediterranean diet group and the control diet group regarding the fatty acid intake. For instance, a lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids was observed in the Mediterranean diet group, both assessed by diet history interviews (dietary intake and measured in serum phospholipids. Moreover, the patients in the Mediterranean diet group that showed a moderate or better clinical improvement during the study (diet responders, had a higher reported intake of n-3 fatty acids and a lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids compared to the patients with minor or no improvement. Also the fatty acid profile in serum phospholipids differed in part between the diet responders and the diet non-responders. Conclusion The changes in the fatty acid profile, indicated both by dietary assessments and through fatty acids in s-phospholipids may, at least in part, explain the beneficial effects of the Cretan Mediterranean diet that we have presented earlier.

  5. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    João Varela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented.

  6. The Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on the Fatty Acid Composition in the Phospholipid Fraction of Gambusia affinis

    CENG?Z, Elif ?pek; nl, Erhan; Mehmet BA?HAN

    2003-01-01

    The present study represents an investigation into the effect of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of the phospholipid fraction of Gambusia affinis, a small freshwater fish living in a source located on the campus of Dicle University. The fatty acid composition of the phospholipid fraction was analysed by gas chromatography for fish collected from the freshwater source, which were naturally fed, and also fish fed an artificial diet with a w6/w3 ratio of 5.5:1 for 30 days. The...

  7. Oxidation of fatty aldehydes to fatty acids by Escherichia coli cells expressing the Vibrio harveyi fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH).

    Buchhaupt, Markus; Guder, Jan; Sporleder, Fenja; Paetzold, Melanie; Schrader, Jens

    2013-03-01

    Fatty acids represent an important renewable feedstock for the chemical industry. To enable biotechnological one carbon truncations of fatty acids, the enzymes α-dioxygenase and fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) have to be combined in a two-step process. We expressed an FALDH from V. harveyi in E. coli and characterized its substrate spectrum with a focus on the number and position of double bonds in the fatty aldehyde molecules. Synthesis of the expected fatty acid products was proven by analysis of whole cell biotransformation products. Coexpression of a H(2)O-forming NADPH oxidase (NOX) from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis led to the implementation of a cofactor regeneration cycle in in vitro oxidation experiments. The presence of NOX in whole cell biotransformations improved reaction velocity but did not result in higher product yields. We could further demonstrate that at least part of the endogenous NAD(P)(+) regeneration capacity in the resting cells results from the respiratory chain. The whole cell catalyst with the high broad range FALDH activity described here is an important biotechnological module for lipid biotransformation processes, especially the shortening of fatty acids. PMID:23180547

  8. Effect of dietary fat type on the fatty acids composition of irradiated and frozen storage japanese quails meat

    The effect of substitution of dietary cotton seed oil (CSO) by used restaurant oil (URO) with different percentages 25% group 2 (G2), 50% group 3 (G3) and 100% group 4 (G4) in Japanese quail diets on the fatty acids composition of their meat especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The effect of gamma irradiation doses (1.5, 3 and 5 kGy) at frozen storage -18 C (degree) for 2 and 4 months in comparison with unirradiated and un storage were studied. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in quail meat fed G4 diet (100% URO) increased significantly in comparison with SFA in G2 (25% URO) and G3 (50% URO) but there is no significant effect with G2 and G3 in comparison with G1 (100% CSO).The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were not affected by G2 and G3 diet. Also, linoleic acid (C 18:2, n-6) had the same trend in those groups with range (32.75% to 33.35%). It is concluded that feeding a diet with URO 25% and 50% conserve the content of linoleic acid and the content of PUFA in quail meat. The irradiation doses and storage periods had no significant effect on the linoleic acid, MUFA and PUFA content.

  9. A rapid GC-MS method for quantification of positional and geometric isomers of fatty acid methyl esters.

    Ecker, Josef; Scherer, Max; Schmitz, Gerd; Liebisch, Gerhard

    2012-05-15

    So far the most frequently used method for fatty acid (FA) analysis is GC coupled to flame ionization detector (FID). However, GC-FID does not allow profiling of FA synthesis and metabolism using stable isotopes. Here we present a rapid and sensitive GC-MS method for determination of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Fatty acid methylation was carried out by transesterification with acetyl-chloride and methanol. FAME separation applies a short and polar cyano-column resulting in an analysis time of 17.2min. Separation was achieved for positional and geometrical (cis/trans) isomers with chain lengths between C8 and C28. Partial overlap of FAMEs (e.g. for C20:2 (n-6) and C21:0) could be resolved using selected ion monitoring (SIM). The precisions for human plasma samples were better than 10% coefficient of variation (CV) except for very low abundant FAs and LODs were in the low femtomol range on column. The developed GC-MS method also allows quantification of conjugated FAs such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers because lowering the derivatization temperature from 95 °C to room temperature prevented cis to trans double bond isomerization. Finally, profiling of fatty acid synthesis and metabolism was exemplified with stable isotope labeling of macrophages using fatty acid precursors or deuterated fatty acids. In summary, we present a fast and robust GC-MS method for fatty acid profiling of positional and geometrical isomers including CLAs as well as very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). The method is suitable for both clinical studies and basic research including application of stable isotope compounds. PMID:22542399

  10. Trienoic fatty acids and plant tolerance of temperature

    Routaboul Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The biophysical reactions of light harvesting and electron transport during photosynthesis take place in a uniquely constructed bilayer, the thylakoid. In all photosynthetic eukaryotes, the complement of atypical glycerolipid molecules that form the foundation of this membrane are characterised by sugar head-groups and a very high level of unsaturation in the fatty acids that occupy the central portion of the thylakoid bilayer. alpha-linolenic (18:3 or a combination of 18:3 and hexadecatrienoic (16:3 acids typically account for approximately two-thirds of all thylakoid membrane fatty acids and over 90% of the fatty acids of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, the major thylakoid lipid [1, 2]. The occurrence of trienoic fatty acids as a major component of the thylakoid membrane is especially remarkable since these fatty acids form highly reactive targets for active oxygen species and free radicals, which are often the by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is one of the most temperature-sensitive functions of plant [3, 4]. There remains a widespread belief that these trienoic fatty acids might have some crucial role in plants to be of such universal occurrence, especially in photosynthesis tolerance of temperature [5].

  11. Friction properties of C/sub 18/-Fatty Acids

    Hironaka, Seiichiro

    1988-05-01

    The friction properties of C/sub 18/-fatty acids (stearic acid, oleic acid and isostearic acid) were investigated for their friction properties using a pendulum type friction tester. The friction properties were studied from the behavior of the monolayer at the air/water interface. These fatty acids gave different antifriction properties because of the difference in their molecular structures. The antifriction properties of these C/sub 18/-fatty acids were in the order of stearic acid > oleic acid > isostearic acid. This suggests the difference of the state of the adsorbed films formed on the frictional surfaces. As regards temperature dependency, stearic acid gave lower friction coefficient in a wide oil temperature range at higher concentration, but the antifriction property lowered at lower concentration. Oleic acid did not give frinction property of the degree of that of stearic acid. The result seemed to well coincide with the explanation on friction properties of these fatty acids made by the conventional adsorption method. (7 figs, 1 tab, 7 refs)

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to...

  13. Metabolically engineered cells for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to the construction and engineering of cells, more particularly microorganisms for producing PUFAs with four or more double bonds from non-fatty acid substrates through heterologous expression of an oxygen requiring pathway. The invention especially involves improvem......The present invention relates to the construction and engineering of cells, more particularly microorganisms for producing PUFAs with four or more double bonds from non-fatty acid substrates through heterologous expression of an oxygen requiring pathway. The invention especially involves...... improvement of the PUFA content in the host organism through fermentation optimization, e.g. decreasing the temperature and/or designing an optimal medium, or through improving the flux towards fatty acids by metabolic engineering, e.g. through over-expression of fatty acid synthases, over-expression of other...

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders: an overview

    Young Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders, from the biochemical rationale for their use to the growing body of data supporting their clinical efficacy.

  15. Metabolically engineered cells for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    The present invention relates to the construction and engineering of cells, more particularly microorganisms for producing PUFAs with four or more double bonds from non-fatty acid substrates through heterologous expression of an oxygen requiring pathway. The invention especially involves improvem......The present invention relates to the construction and engineering of cells, more particularly microorganisms for producing PUFAs with four or more double bonds from non-fatty acid substrates through heterologous expression of an oxygen requiring pathway. The invention especially involves...... improvement of the PUFA content in the host organism through fermentation optimization, e.g. decreasing the temperature and/or designing an optimal medium, or through improving the flux towards fatty acids by metabolic engineering, e.g. through over-expression of fatty acid synthases, over-expression of other...

  16. Fatty acid methyl esters production: chemical process variables

    Paulo César Narváez Rincón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of fatty acid methyl esters as basic oleochemicals over fatty acids, the seventies world energy crisis and the use of those oleochemicals as fuels, have increased research interest on fats and oils trans-esterification. In this document, a review about basic aspects, uses, process variables and problems associated to the production process of fatty acid methyl esters is presented. A global view of recent researches, most of them focused in finding a new catalyst with same activity as the alcohol-soluble hydroxides (NaOH, KOH, and suitable to be used in transforming fats and oils with high levels of free fatty acids and water avoiding separation problems and reducing process costs, is also discussed.

  17. Study indicates irradiation does not harm fatty acids

    Studies have linked a low rate of coronary heart disease to an increased dietary intake of highly unsaturated fatty acids found in seafood. International Food Institute of Queensland researchers have looked at how preservative processes might affect such fatty acids. One of the processes currently being used for extending the shelf-life of products such as herbs, spices, potatoes and onion and which is now receiving consideration for use with seafood is irradiation. Within the limits of this study no alterations to the fatty acid components of the seafood studied were observed and no radiolytically induced fatty acids were detected. These preliminary findings indicate that irradiation has considerable potential for extending the shelf life of seafood, enabling it to be marketed to a wider community. 2 refs., 3 tab

  18. Incorporation and fatty acid composition in liver of Nile tilapia fed with flaxseed oil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i2.7970 Incorporation and fatty acid composition in liver of Nile tilapia fed with flaxseed oil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i2.7970

    Nilson Evelzio de Souza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most consumed freshwater fish in South America is Nile tilapia. The present study examined the effects of flaxseed oil (FO, source of alfa-linolenic acid (LNA, on the total lipid composition and polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-3 PUFA, contents on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus liver. Tilapias were given diets with increasing levels 0.00, 1.2, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00% (w w-1 of FO as a replacement of sunflower oil for five months. Fatty acids analysis of methyl esters revealed 45 fatty acids common to all treatments. The increase of flaxseed oil resulted in a decrease in total n-6 PUFA (35.1 to 21.1% and an increase in n-3 PUFA (3.3 to 18.5%. The diet with LNA underwent sequential desaturation and elongation in liver, leading to an increase in all n-3 PUFA and a decrease in n-6/n-3 ratios (10.7 to 1.1. The manipulation of fatty acids with FO may be used to increase n-3 PUFA and to help balance n-6/n-3 PUFA in dietary supplements, thus, the liver tilapia becomes one product with major nutritional value.One of the most consumed freshwater fish in South America is Nile tilapia. The present study examined the effects of flaxseed oil (FO, source of alfa-linolenic acid (LNA, on the total lipid composition and polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-3 PUFA, contents on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus liver. Tilapias were given diets with increasing levels 0.00, 1.2, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00% (w w-1 of FO as a replacement of sunflower oil for five months. Fatty acids analysis of methyl esters revealed 45 fatty acids common to all treatments. The increase of flaxseed oil resulted in a decrease in total n-6 PUFA (35.1 to 21.1% and an increase in n-3 PUFA (3.3 to 18.5%. The diet with LNA underwent sequential desaturation and elongation in liver, leading to an increase in all n-3 PUFA and a decrease in n-6/n-3 ratios (10.7 to 1.1. The manipulation of fatty acids with FO may be used to increase n-3 PUFA and to help balance n-6/n-3 PUFA in dietary supplements, thus, the liver tilapia becomes one product with major nutritional value.

  19. Eccentric contractions affect muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Therkildsen, K J; Jørgensen, T B; Wu, B J; Storlien, L H; Asp, Stefan Erik

    2001-01-01

    three groups who received chow with added fish oil (n = 8), vitamin C (n = 8) or no supplement (n = 7). After 3 weeks of feeding, calf muscles on one side were stimulated electrically during anaesthesia causing eccentric contractions. Two days later the white gastrocnemius, a part of the stimulated calf...... muscle, was excised from both legs. In the muscles stimulated to contract eccentrically, compared to the control muscles, the proportion of arachidonic acid, C20:4,n-6 (17.7 +/- 0.6; 16.4 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) and docosapentanoeic acid, C22:5,n-3 (2.9 +/- 0.1 and 2.7 +/- 0.1% of...... total fatty acids, respectively) was uniformly higher across groups (P <0.02) with no differences between diet groups. The proportion of long chain polyunsaturates was also significantly higher in the eccentrically contracted (39.9 +/- 0.6% of total fatty acids) compared to the control leg (38.2 +/- 0...

  20. AWARD LECTURES Trans and conjugated fatty acids in food contents and analytical aspects

    Steinhart Hans

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The current investigations on fatty acids are focused on long chain fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFA and conjugated fatty acids (CFA, especially isomers of linoleic acid (CLA. This paper deals with the origins of TFA and CLA and their physiological significance. Furthermore an overview is given of analytical procedures of both TFA and CLA. In addition the contents and isomeric distribution of these groups of fatty acids in foods are presented.

  1. Differential Roles of Unsaturated and Saturated Fatty Acids on Autophagy and Apoptosis in HepatocytesS⃞

    Mei, Shuang; Ni, Hong-Min; Manley, Sharon; Bockus, Abigail; Kassel, Karen M.; Luyendyk, James P.; Copple, Bryan L.; Ding, Wen-Xing

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic liver disease. Saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids have differential effects on cell death and steatosis, but the mechanisms responsible for these differences are not known. Using cultured HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes, we found that unsaturated and saturated fatty acids differentially regulate autophagy and apoptosis. The unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, promoted the formati...

  2. Dysregulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism in chronic kidney disease

    Jin, Kyubok; Norris, Keith; Vaziri, Nosratola D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in hypertriglyceridemia which is largely due to impaired clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins occasioned by downregulation of lipoprotein lipase and very low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and of hepatic lipase and LDL receptor-related protein in the liver. However, data on the effect of CKD on fatty acid metabolism in the liver is limited and was investigated here. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to undergo 5/6 nephrectomy (CRF) or sham operation (control) and observed for 12 weeks. The animals were then euthanized and their liver tissue tested for nuclear translocation (activation) of carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) and sterol-responsive element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) which independently regulate the expression of key enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, i.e. fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) as well as nuclear Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) which regulates the expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and transport, i.e. L-FABP and CPT1A. In addition, the expression of ATP synthase ?, ATP synthase ?, glycogen synthase and diglyceride acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) and DGAT2 were determined. Results Compared with controls, the CKD rats exhibited hypertriglyceridemia, elevated plasma and liver tissue free fatty acids, increased nuclear ChREBP and reduced nuclear SREBP-1 and PPAR?, upregulation of ACC and FAS and downregulation of L-FABP, CPT1A, ATP synthase ?, glycogen synthase and DGAT in the liver tissue. Conclusion Liver in animals with advanced CKD exhibits ChREBP-mediated upregulation of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis, downregulation of PPAR?-regulated fatty acid oxidation system and reduction of DGAT resulting in reduced fatty acid incorporation in triglyceride. PMID:23045433

  3. Essential fatty acids in extruded and raw dog foods

    Karlsen, Juni S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two sections: section 1 explaining the theory about fat and fatty acids functions, health effects and sources, section 2 includes a study of commercial extruded and raw dog foods. Fat is the most energy dens nutrient and functions as energy, structural components in cell membranes, source of essential fatty acids (EFA), precursor to biological active substrates and carrier of fat-soluble vitamins. EFA cannot be synthesized by the animal, and needs to be added ...

  4. Fatty acid synthase: a novel target for antiglioma therapy

    zhao, w; Kridel, S; Thorburn, A; Kooshki, M; Little, J; Hebbar, S; Robbins, M.

    2006-01-01

    High levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression have been observed in several cancers, including breast, prostate, colon and lung carcinoma, compared with their respective normal tissue. We present data that show high levels of FAS protein in human and rat glioma cell lines and human glioma tissue samples, as compared to normal rat astrocytes and normal human brain. Incubating glioma cells with the FAS inhibitor cerulenin decreased endogenous fatty acid synthesis by approximately 50%. Cel...

  5. Fatty acid metabolism: Implications for diet, genetic variation, and disease

    Suburu, Janel; Gu, Zhennan; Chen, Haiqin; CHEN, WEI; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.

    2013-01-01

    Cultures across the globe, especially Western societies, are burdened by chronic diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Several factors, including diet, genetics, and sedentary lifestyle, are suspected culprits to the development and progression of these health maladies. Fatty acids are primary constituents of cellular physiology. Humans can acquire fatty acids by de novo synthesis from carbohydrate or protein sources or by dietary consumption. Impor...

  6. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-01-01

    Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3...

  7. A simplified method for analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Wang Jingdong; Kang Jing X

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Analysis of fatty acid composition of biological materials is a common task in lipid research. Conventionally, preparation of samples for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography involves two separate procedures: lipid extraction and methylation. This conventional method is complicated, tedious and time consuming. Development of a rapid and simple method for lipid analysis is warranted. Results We simplified the conventional method by combining the extraction and methylat...

  8. Caveolar Fatty Acids and Acylation of Caveolin-1

    Cai, Qian; Guo, Ling; GAO, HAIQING; Li, Xiang-An

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a pivotal role in subcellular location including targeting to caveolae. However, the fatty acid compositions of caveolae and the ty...

  9. Genetic variability of fatty acids in bovine milk

    Soyeurt H.; Gengler N

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids composition of bovine milk influences the technological properties of butterfat and also presents some potential benefits for human health. Impact of feeding on fat composition is well described in the literature; less information is available about the impact of genetics. Based on few studies, essentially conducted to isolate some feeding effect, the breed seemed to influence the fatty acids composition. The variation in the activity of δ-9 desaturase, key enzyme in the productio...

  10. Genetic variability of fatty acids in bovine milk

    Soyeurt, Hélène; Gengler, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids composition of bovine milk influences the technological properties of butterfat and also presents some potential benefits for human health. Impact of feeding on fat composition is well described in the literature; less information is available about the impact of genetics. Based on few studies, essentially conducted to isolate some feeding effect, the breed seemed to influence the fatty acids composition. The variation in the activity of δ-9 desaturase, key enzyme in the ...

  11. NORMAL FATTY ACID CONCENTRATIONS IN YOUNG CHILDREN WITH PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU)

    LaVoie, Stacey M; Harding, Cary O.; Gillingham, Melanie B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if children with phenylketonuria (PKU) have lower fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid due to the phenylalanine restricted diet therapy compared to healthy control subjects. Dietary intake and fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid were measured in twenty-one subjects (≤6 years of age) with PKU and twenty-three control children. Subjects with PKU had significantly lower protein and significantly higher polyunsaturated ...

  12. Nanotechnology Formulations for Antibacterial Free Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides

    Joshua A. Jackman; Bo Kyeong Yoon; Danlin Li; Nam-Joon Cho

    2016-01-01

    Free fatty acids and monoglycerides have long been known to possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity that is based on lytic behavior against bacterial cell membranes. Considering the growing challenges of drug-resistant bacteria and the need for new classes of antibiotics, the wide prevalence, affordable cost, and broad spectrum of fatty acids and monoglycerides make them attractive agents to develop for healthcare and biotechnology applications. The aim of this review is to provide a br...

  13. Chemotherapeutic Properties of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids - Old Concepts and New Insights

    Kim, Wooki; McMurray, David N.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several decades, data from both experimental animal studies and human clinical trials have shown that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exhibit anti-inflammatory bioactive properties, compared to n-6 PUFA. Collectively, these studies have identified multiple mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA affect immune cell responses. In this review, we discuss the putative targets of anti-inflammatory n-3 PUFA, specifically, cytokine production, antagonism of n-6 PUFA metabolism, binding to nuclear receptors as ligands, and the alteration of signaling protein acylation. In addition, we investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA on the coalescence of lipid rafts, specialized signaling platforms in the plasma membrane. PMID:19823600

  14. Males and females gonad fatty acids of the sea urchins and (Echinodermata)

    Martínez-Pita, Inés; García, Francisco J.; Pita, María-Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze male and female gonad fatty acids of two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, from the south coast of Spain. Additionally, we investigated possible differences between two locations. The ovaries of both species showed higher percentages of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and 18:4n-3 than testes and lower levels of 18:0, 22:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-3. In P. lividus but not in A. lixula, the level of 20:5n-3 ...

  15. Altering the fatty acids in milk fat by including canola seed in dairy cattle diets.

    Chichlowski, M W; Schroeder, J W; Park, C S; Keller, W L; Schimek, D E

    2005-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding ground canola seed on the fatty acid profile, yield, and composition of milk from dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows (548.3 +/- 11.9 kg body weight and 28 +/- 9 d in lactation) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: Control (CON) or ground canola seed treatment (GCS) with 14% [of diet dry matter (DM)] of the total ration as ground canola seed containing 34% lipid. Diets contained 20% crude protein, but varied in net energy as a result of fat content differences of 2.5% and 6.4% (DM) for CON and GCS, respectively. Diets were composed of corn, corn silage, alfalfa (50:50 ground hay and haylage, DM basis), soybean and blood meal, and vitamins and minerals. Mechanically extruded canola meal was used in the CON diet to adjust for the protein from canola seed in the GCS diet. Cows were housed in tie-stalls and fed and milked twice daily for 10 wk. The inclusion of ground canola seed did not alter DM intake, weight gain, or body condition score of cows. Milk fat from GCS cows had greater proportions of long-chain fatty acids (> or = 18 carbons) and a lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids. Feeding GCS reduced the proportion of short- and medium-chain fatty acids. Milk fat from cows fed GCS had a greater proportion of vaccenic acid and tended to have a higher proportion of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yields were similar between treatments. The milk fat and protein percentages were lower for GCS cows, but total yield of these components was similar between treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was lower and serum urea nitrogen tended to be lower in cows fed canola seed. Serum glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids were not altered, but serum triglycerides were higher in GCS cows. Ammonia and total volatile fatty acids tended to be lower in ruminal fluid from GCS cows; rumen pH was unchanged. Feeding canola seed to lactating dairy cows resulted in milk fat with higher proportions of healthful fatty acids without affecting milk yield or composition of milk. PMID:16107397

  16. Lamb meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition as affected by concentrates including different legume seeds

    Pietro Pennisi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of concentrates including legume seeds (Vicia faba var. minor or Pisum sativum on lamb performances and on meat quality, with an emphasis on intramuscular fatty acid composition. Thirty lambs (14.5 ± 3.45 kg live weight were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: PEA group (concentrate including 400 g/kg of peas; FB group (concentrate including 380 g/kg of faba bean; SBM group (concentrate including 180 g/kg of soybean meal. Growth and slaughter performances were not affected by treatments as well as physical and proximate chemical meat characteristics. FB and SBM meat showed higher (P<0.001 vaccenic acid levels compared to PEA meat. Oleic acid was higher (P<0.05 in PEA meat compared to SBM meat while its level in FB meat was similar to counterparts. Linoleic acid levels tended to increase (P<0.10 in SBM lambs compared to PEA animals. PEA group showed higher (P<0.001 α-linolenic acid proportions compared to FB and SBM groups and a tendentially higher (P<0.10 eicosapentaenoic acid content compared to SBM meat. As a result, total n-3 fatty acids were higher (P<0.05 in PEA meat compared to SBM one while the proportions in FB meat were at intermediate level. These findings accounted for a lower and more favourable (P<0.001 n-6/n-3 ratio in PEA group compared to counterparts. Peas based-concentrate seemed to be more effective than faba bean- or soybean meal-included concentrates to improve the acidic profile of meat leading to higher α-linolenic acid levels and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio.

  17. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Because of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their metabolic pathways, blood levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are determined by both endogenous metabolism and dietary intake making the need of balanced dietary intake essential for health and disease prevention. Whether an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3:1 to 4:1 could prevent the pathogenesis of many diseases induced by today’s Western diets (AFSSA, 2010, a target of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment, and genetics. A target of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment and genetics. A balanced ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is important for health and in the prevention of CHD and possibly other chronic diseases.

  18. Fatty acid analysis of Erwinia amylovora from Serbia and Montenegro

    Milan Ivanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated method of fatty acid analysis was used to identify and study heterogeneity of 41 Erwinia amylovora strains, originating from 8 plant species grown in 13 locations in Serbia and one in Montenegro. All strains contained 14:0 3OH fatty acid,characteristic for the “amylovora” group. According to fatty acid composition 39 strains were identified as E. amylovora as the first choice from the database. Due to their specific fatty acid composition, two strains were identified as E. amylovora, but as a second choice. Fatty acid analysis also showed that E. amylovora population from Serbia could be differentiated in three groups, designated in this study as α, β and γ. All strains originating from central or south Serbia, as well as four strains from north Serbia clustered into group α. Group β and γ contained only strains isolated in northern Serbia (Vojvodina. The results show that E. amylovora population in this area is heterogeneous and indicate pathogen introduction from different directions. Fatty acid analysis enabled identificationat species level, as well as new insights of heterogeneity of E. amylovora population.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Fatty Acid Desaturases in Cyanobacterial Genomes

    Hanzhi Lin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid desaturases are enzymes that introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids. The fatty acid desaturases from 37 cyanobacterial genomes were identified and classified based upon their conserved histidine-rich motifs and phylogenetic analysis, which help to determine the amounts and distributions of desaturases in cyanobacterial species. The filamentous or N2-fixing cyanobacteria usually possess more types of fatty acid desaturases than that of unicellular species. The pathway of acyl-lipid desaturation for unicellular marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus differs from that of other cyanobacteria, indicating different phylogenetic histories of the two genera from other cyanobacteria isolated from freshwater, soil, or symbiont. Strain Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 was isolated from calcareous rock and lacks thylakoid membranes. The types and amounts of desaturases of this strain are distinct to those of other cyanobacteria, reflecting the earliest divergence of it from the cyanobacterial line. Three thermophilic unicellular strains, Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 and two Synechococcus Yellowstone species, lack highly unsaturated fatty acids in lipids and contain only one Δ9 desaturase in contrast with mesophilic strains, which is probably due to their thermic habitats. Thus, the amounts and types of fatty acid desaturases are various among different cyanobacterial species, which may result from the adaption to environments in evolution.

  20. Cytosolic fatty acid-binding proteins: subjects and tools in metabolic research

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are major targets for specific binding of fatty acids in vivo. They constitute a widely expressed family of genetically related, small cytosolic proteins which very likely mediate intracellular transport of free long chain fatty acids. Genetic inhibition of FABP expression in vivo should therefore provide a useful tool to investigate and engineer fatty acid metabolism. (orig.)

  1. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey; Ezhov, Marat; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Machielse, Ben N; Kling, Douglas; Davidson, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  2. Intra-thallus differentiation of fatty acid and pigment profiles in some temperate Fucales and Laminariales.

    Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-02-01

    Intra-thallus variation in fatty acid and pigment contents and profiles was investigated in five species of Laminariales (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Saccharina latissima, and Saccorhiza polyschides), and three Fucales (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, and Himanthalia elongata). Significant variation occurred across all species and compounds examined. Total fatty acids were generally higher in the fronds, with highest levels and largest variability observed in A. nodosum (1.5% of dry weight (DW) in the base, 6.3% of DW in frond tips). Percentages of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:4 n-3 and 20:5 n-3 were generally higher in more distal parts, while 20:4 n-6 exhibited a contrasting pattern, with higher levels in basal structures and holdfasts. Trends for pigments were similar to those for fatty acids in Laminariales. In the Fucales, highest levels were detected in the mid-fronds, with lower concentrations in meristematic areas. Highest levels and greatest variability in pigments (e.g., chl a) was observed in F. serratus (1.07 mg · g(-1) DW in the base, 3.04 mg · g(-1) DW in the mid frond). Intra-thallus variability was attributed to physiological functions of the respective thallus sections, e.g., photosynthetic activity, meristematic tissue, and to variations in physical attributes of the structures investigated. Regarding potential commercial nutritional applications, fronds appeared to represent most suitable source materials, due to higher levels of pigments, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and more preferable omega-3/omega-6 ratios. PMID:26986256

  3. Lipid and fatty acid composition of parasitic caligid copepods belonging to the genus Lepeophtheirus.

    Tocher, J A; Dick, J R; Bron, J E; Shinn, A P; Tocher, D R

    2010-06-01

    Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites that constitute a major barrier to the sustainability and economic viability of marine finfish aquaculture operations worldwide. In particular, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, poses a considerable problem for salmoniculture in the northern hemisphere. The free-swimming nauplii and infective copepodids of L. salmonis are lecithotrophic, subsisting principally on maternally-derived lipid reserves. However, the lipids and fatty acids of sea lice have been sparsely studied and therefore the present project aimed to investigate the lipid and fatty acid composition of sea lice of the genus Lepeophtheirus obtained from a variety of fish hosts. Total lipid was extracted from eggs and adult female L. salmonis obtained from both wild and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) sampled at two time points, in the mid 1990s and in 2009. In addition, L. salmonis from wild sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) and L. hippoglossi from wild Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) were sampled and analyzed. The lipids of both females and egg strings of Lepeophtheirus were characterized by triacylglycerol (TAG) as the major neutral (storage) lipid with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar (membrane) lipids. The major fatty acids were 22:6n-3 (DHA), 18:1n-9 and 16:0, with lesser amounts of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 18:0. L. salmonis sourced from farmed salmon was characterized by higher levels of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 than lice from wild salmon. Egg strings had higher levels of TAG and lower DHA compared to females, whereas L. hippoglossi had lower levels of TAG and higher DHA than L. salmonis. The results demonstrate that the fatty acid compositions of lice obtained from wild and farmed salmon differ and that changes to the lipid and fatty acid composition of feeds for farmed salmon influence the louse compositions. PMID:20206710

  4. Tailored fatty acid synthesis via dynamic control of fatty acid elongation

    Torella, JP; Ford, TJ; Kim, SN; Chen, AM; Way, JC; Silver, PA

    2013-07-09

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 4-12 carbons) are valuable as precursors to industrial chemicals and biofuels, but are not canonical products of microbial fatty acid synthesis. We engineered microbial production of the full range of even-and odd-chain-length MCFAs and found that MCFA production is limited by rapid, irreversible elongation of their acyl-ACP precursors. To address this limitation, we programmed an essential ketoacyl synthase to degrade in response to a chemical inducer, thereby slowing acyl-ACP elongation and redirecting flux from phospholipid synthesis to MCFA production. Our results show that induced protein degradation can be used to dynamically alter metabolic flux, and thereby increase the yield of a desired compound. The strategy reported herein should be widely useful in a range of metabolic engineering applications in which essential enzymes divert flux away from a desired product, as well as in the production of polyketides, bioplastics, and other recursively synthesized hydrocarbons for which chain-length control is desired.

  5. Tailored fatty acid synthesis via dynamic control of fatty acid elongation.

    Torella, Joseph P; Ford, Tyler J; Kim, Scott N; Chen, Amanda M; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A

    2013-07-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 4-12 carbons) are valuable as precursors to industrial chemicals and biofuels, but are not canonical products of microbial fatty acid synthesis. We engineered microbial production of the full range of even- and odd-chain-length MCFAs and found that MCFA production is limited by rapid, irreversible elongation of their acyl-ACP precursors. To address this limitation, we programmed an essential ketoacyl synthase to degrade in response to a chemical inducer, thereby slowing acyl-ACP elongation and redirecting flux from phospholipid synthesis to MCFA production. Our results show that induced protein degradation can be used to dynamically alter metabolic flux, and thereby increase the yield of a desired compound. The strategy reported herein should be widely useful in a range of metabolic engineering applications in which essential enzymes divert flux away from a desired product, as well as in the production of polyketides, bioplastics, and other recursively synthesized hydrocarbons for which chain-length control is desired. PMID:23798438

  6. Identification of a ?6 fatty acid elongase gene for arachidonic acid biosynthesis localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in the green microalga Myrmecia incisa Reisigl.

    Yu, S Y; Li, H; Tong, M; Ouyang, L L; Zhou, Z G

    2012-02-10

    Myrmecia incisa Reisigl H4301 is a green coccoid freshwater microalga that is rich in arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ArA) especially grown under a nitrogen starvation stress. A fatty acid elongase gene, MiFAE, was cloned based on a selected expressed sequence tag (EST) from a M. incisa cDNA library. To examine the function, the MiFAE gene was heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fatty acid profile of the transgenic yeast was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the results illustrated that the enzyme encoded by MiFAE was able to elongate ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-6, GLA) and stearidonic acid (18:4n-3, SDA) to di-homo-?-linolenic acid (20:3n-6, DGLA) and eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3, ETA), respectively, suggesting that the cloned MiFAE gene seemed to encode a ?6 fatty acid elongase. Expression of a MiFAE-GFP fusion encoded by a pYES2 vector showed that this ?6 fatty acid elongase localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of yeast for fatty acid elongation. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that the relative transcription level of MiFAE in M. incisa grown under a nitrogen starvation stress was increased, but it rapidly declined under conditions of nitrogen replenishment. GC-MS analysis revealed that the contents of DGLA, a direct product catalyzed by ?6 fatty acid elongase, and ArA, the terminal product of fatty acid biosynthesis in this microalga, increased and decreased accompanying the shift from nitrogen starvation to replenishment, although there was a 40h lag time for ArA increment. The correlation between the up-regulated and down-regulated transcription of MiFAE and ArA content in response to a nitrogen starvation/replenishment shift showed that nitrogen could regulate the transcription of the MiFAE gene and that this gene is critical and responsible for the biosynthesis and accumulation of ArA in the cytoplasm of M. incisa. PMID:22155705

  7. Relationship between sperm quality parameters and the fatty acid composition of the muscle, liver and testis of European eel.

    Baeza, R; Mazzeo, I; Vílchez, M C; Gallego, V; Peñaranda, D S; Pérez, L; Asturiano, J F

    2015-03-01

    This study looks at the correlations that fatty acids have with different tissues in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) during hormonally-induced sexual maturation, with different sperm quality parameters. In order to evaluate the different dynamics of the use of fatty acids, a categorization of the results from each sperm quality parameter (volume, concentration, motility and velocity) was performed. Low and moderate correlations were observed between muscle tissue and some sperm quality parameters but no high correlations were found. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, EPA) in the liver seems to have a role in determining the volume of sperm produced. This can be explained by the fact that EPA is a major requirement in the early phases of sperm production (probably as a component of the spermatozoal membrane). In addition, the levels of α-linolenic acid (18:3-n3, ALA) and linoleic acid (18:2-n6, LA) in the liver decreased when sperm motility increased. In all the tissues, a negative correlation was observed between arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) and the different sperm velocity parameters. The fact that an increase in the consumption of ARA coincides with an increase in the speed of spermatozoa, highlights the important role that this fatty acid plays not only in sperm production, but also in sperm velocity. All this information could prove useful in the development of suitable broodstock diets to improve sperm quality and subsequently, the larval development of this species. PMID:25483240

  8. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric...

  9. Detection and Quantification of Protein Adduction by Electrophilic Fatty Acids: Mitochondrial Generation of Fatty Acid Nitroalkene Derivatives

    Schopfer, F.J.; Batthyany, C.; Baker, P.R.S.; Bonacci, G.; Cole, M. P.; Rudolph, V.; Groeger, A; Rudolph, T.K.; Nadtochiy, S.; Brookes, P. S.; Freeman, B A

    2009-01-01

    Nitroalkene fatty acid derivatives manifest a strong electrophilic nature, are clinically detectable and induce multiple transcriptionally-regulated anti-inflammatory responses. At present, the characterization and quantification of endogenous electrophilic lipids is compromised by their Michael addition with protein and small molecule nucleophilic targets. Herein, we report a trans-nitroalkylation reaction of nitro-fatty acids with ?-mercaptoethanol (BME) and apply this reaction to the unbia...

  10. High Physiological Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Affects Muscle Fatty Acid Composition and Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis in Obese Adolescents

    Frida Dangardt; Yun Chen; Eva Gronowitz; Jovanna Dahlgren; Peter Friberg; Birgitta Strandvik

    2012-01-01

    Obese adolescents have high concentrations of saturated fatty acids and low omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCUFAs) in plasma phospholipids. We aimed to investigate effects of omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation to obese adolescents on skeletal muscle lipids and glucose and insulin homeostasis. Twenty-five obese adolescents (14–17 years old, 14 females) completed a randomized double-blind crossover study supplying capsules containing either 1.2 g omega-3 LCPUFAs or placebo, for 3 m...

  11. Fatty acid biosynthesis VII. Substrate control of chain-length of products synthesised by rat liver fatty acid synthetase

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Carey, E.M.; Dils, R.

    1970-01-01

    - 1. Gas-liquid and paper chromatography have been used to determine the chain-lengths of fatty acids synthesised by purified rat liver fatty acid synthetase from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA, [1,3-14C2]malonyl-CoA and from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA plus partially purified rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase. - 2. A...

  12. Hydrolysis of Degummed and Undegummed palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD)

    Ritonga, Muhammad Yusuf.

    2015-01-01

    Energy crisi in Indonesia on 2007, couse fatty acid and glycerin production cost be higher and at the same time glycerin price was'nt to profit. These causes were the back ground of the using PFAD as raw material to produce double pressed fatty acid (FL-1802). Hydrolysis of Degummed PFAD (DPFAD) could effort to produce spilitted DPFAD with the higher spilitting degree (SD) of hydrolysis (99,32%) and acid value (201,72), compared to hydrolysis of undegummed PFAD (splitting degree 97,9% ; acid ...

  13. Effect of maturation degree on fatty acid profile of different tissues in wild and farmed rohu (Labeo rohita

    Nadeem, Shahid

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the breeding season, lots of physiological changes occur in the bodies of fish which lead to other phenotypical, anatomical and behavioral changes. To evaluate the impact of breeding on the bodily composition of fish, tests were conducted to determine the fatty acid profile of the brooder and Non-brooder wild and farmed fish. Samples were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography using a flame ionization detector.There are non significant differences in the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in wild and farmed nonbrooder fish whereas in case of brooder there are significant differences. Brooder farmed fish contained more saturates in gonads approximately twice that of wild fish with C16:0 as the dominating fatty acid. C18:2n-6 and C20:5n-6 were the dominating unsaturated fatty acids in the gonads. Non-brooder fish contained more unsaturated fatty acids in the meat as compared to the brooder fish and farmed fish contained higher amounts of saturated fatty acids as compared to wild fish. C18:1n-9 and C20:4n-6 fatty acids were found in higher quantities and among the saturated acids, C16:0 is the dominating one. More or less similar results were found in the case of the liver fatty acid profile of breeding and nonbreeding fish. Fish of lower weight categories contained more unsaturated fatty acids and so better for consumption to leave the brooders of higher weight categories for the breeding of future generation.Durante la época de reproducción numerosos cambios fisiológicos ocurren en el cuerpo de los peces que guían a cambios anatómicos y de comportamiento. Para evaluar el impacto de la etapa de reproducción en la composición de los peces, ensayos para determinar el perfil de ácidos grasos fueron conducidos en peces salvajes y criados, en dos categorías de peso, maduro (booder o inmaduro (non-brooder. Las muestras fueron analizadas por cromatografía de gases usando un detector de ionización de llama. No hubo diferencias significativas en la cantidad de ácidos grasos saturados e insaturados en peces salvajes o criados non-brooder mientras que en el caso de los brooder sí hubo diferencias significativas. Los peces brooder criados contienen más ácidos grasos saturados; en gónadas aproximadamente el doble que los salvajes con el C16:0 como el ácido graso dominante. C18:2n-6 y C20:5n-6 fueron los ácidos grasos insaturados dominantes en las gónadas. Los peces non-brooder contienen más ácidos grasos insaturados en la carne que los peces brooder y los peces criados contienen mayores cantidades de ácidos grasos saturados en comparación con los peces salvajes. Los ácidos grasos C18:1n-9 y C20:4n-6 fueron encontrados en cantidades más altas y entres los saturados el C16:0 fue uno de los principales. Resultados más o menos similares fueron encontrados en el caso del perfil de ácidos grasos de hígados de peces en etapas de reproducción y no reproducción. Los peces de la categoría de pesos más bajos contienen más ácidos grasos insaturados y son mejores para el consumo y permite la cría de peces de peso más alto.

  14. Sheep erythrocyte membrane binding and transfer of long-chain fatty acids

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    Palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, sheep erythrocyte ghosts, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport, transport rate constants......Palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, sheep erythrocyte ghosts, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport, transport rate constants...

  15. Study of UltraHigh Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to measure free fatty acids with out fatty acid ester preparation.

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Isaac, G; Rainville, P; Fountain, K; Taylor, L T

    2015-08-01

    Most lipids are best characterized by their fatty acids which may differ in (a) chain length, (b) degree of unsaturation, (c) configuration and position of the double bonds, and (d) the presence of other functionalities. Thus, a fast, simple, and quantitative analytical technique to determine naturally occurring free fatty acids (FFA) in different samples is very important. Just as for saponified acylglycerols, the determination of FFA's has generally been carried out by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The use of an open tubular capillary column coupled with a flame ionization or mass spectrometric detector provides for both high resolution and quantification of FFA's but only after conversion of all free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or pentafluorobenzyl esters. Unfortunately, volatilization of labile ester derivatives of mono- and poly-unsaturated FFA's can cause both thermal degradation and isomerization of the fatty acid during HRGC. The employment of a second generation instrument (here referred to as UltraHigh Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatograph, UHPSFC) with high precision for modified flow and repeated back pressure adjustment in conjunction with sub-2?m various bonded silica particles (coupled with evaporative light scattering, ELSD, and mass spectrometric, MS, detection) for separation and detection of the following mixtures is described: (a) 31 free fatty acids, (b) isomeric FFA's, and (c) lipophilic materials in two real world fish oil samples. Limits of detection for FFA's via UHPSFC/MS and UHPSFC/ELSD versus detection of FAME's via HRGC/MS are quantitatively compared. PMID:26093119

  16. The impact of dietary fatty acids on macrophage cholesterol homeostasis.

    Afonso, Milessa da Silva; Castilho, Gabriela; Lavrador, Maria Silvia Ferrari; Passarelli, Marisa; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Lottenberg, Simão Augusto; Lottenberg, Ana Maria

    2014-02-01

    The impact of dietary fatty acids in atherosclerosis development may be partially attributed to their effect on macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. This process is the result of interplay between cholesterol uptake and efflux, which are permeated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Although saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) do not influence cholesterol efflux, they trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress, which culminates in increased lectin-like oxidized LDL (oxLDL) receptor (LOX1) expression and, consequently, oxLDL uptake, leading to apoptosis. Unsaturated fatty acids prevent most SAFAs-mediated deleterious effects and are generally associated with reduced cholesterol efflux, although α-linolenic acid increases cholesterol export. Trans fatty acids increase macrophage cholesterol content by reducing ABCA-1 expression, leading to strong atherosclerotic plaque formation. As isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs) are strong PPAR gamma ligands, they induce cluster of differentiation (CD36) expression, increasing intracellular cholesterol content. Considering the multiple effects of fatty acids on intracellular signaling pathways, the purpose of this review is to address the role of dietary fat in several mechanisms that control macrophage lipid content, which can determine the fate of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24445035

  17. Fatty acid composition of lipid classes of basella rubra linn

    The seed oil of Basella rubra Linn was classified by thin layer chromatography into neutral lipids (96.1%) and polar lipids (3.9%). The neutral lipids identified were hydrocarbons (2.7%), sterol esters (3.9%), triacylglycerols (59.6%), free fatty acids (4.5%), I,3-diacylglycerols (8.7%), 1,2-diacylglycerols (6.8%), sterols (2.5%) and mono acylglycerols (7.4%). The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamines (1.3%), phosphatidylcholines (1.4%) and lysophosphatidylethanolamines (1.2%). The fatty acid range was from C/sub 16:0/ - C/sub 18:3/ showing higher percentage of unsaturated acids. The major fatty acids were palimtic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. (author)

  18. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature

    Dooremalen, C., van; Pel, R.; Ellers, J.

    2009-01-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid compos...

  19. Novel Nuclear Localization of Fatty Acid Synthase Correlates with Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    Madigan, Allison A.; Rycyna, Kevin J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Datiri, Yeipyeng J.; Basudan, Ahmed M.; Sobek, Kathryn M; Cummings, Jessica L; Basse, Per H.; Bacich, Dean J.; O'Keefe, Denise S.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase is up-regulated in a variety of cancers, including prostate cancer. Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase not only increases production of fatty acids in tumors but also contributes to the transformed phenotype by conferring growth and survival advantages. In addition, increased fatty acid synthase expression in prostate cancer correlates with poor prognosis, although the mechanism(s) by which this occurs are not completely understood. Because fatty acid synthase is express...

  20. Nonoxidative ethanol metabolism: formation of fatty acid ethyl esters by cholesterol esterase.

    Lange, L G

    1982-01-01

    The recent identification of myocardial metabolites of ethanol--fatty acid ethyl esters--suggests that some of the pathophysiological derangements associated with alcohol-induced heart muscle disease may be a consequence of products of myocardial ethanol metabolism. The donor of the fatty acid moiety in the formation of fatty acid ethyl esters has been identified as nonesterified fatty acid. Fatty acid esterification with ethanol is shown to be mediated by cholesterol esterase (sterol-ester a...

  1. Role of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular disease prevention

    Lee AH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Andy H Lee1, Naoko Hiramatsu21School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Laboratory of Nutritional Science, School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its prevention through a healthy lifestyle and appropriate diet is important. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA therapy has shown promise in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This commentary discusses the nutritional role of n-3 PUFA, including its metabolism and physiological role, comparison with n-6 series PUFA, as well as complications due to deficiency. Clinical use of n-3 PUFA for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, recommended intake, and potential adverse effects will also be examined. The available scientific evidence suggests that its supplementation and clinical use ranging from 0.4 to 1 g/day can provide tangible benefits. However, further studies are required to determine optimal dosing and the relative ratio of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid that provides maximal cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular disease.Keywords: alpha-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, cardiovascular disease, fish oil, polyunsaturated fatty acids

  2. Profiling of esterified fatty acids as biomarkers in the blood of dengue fever patients using a microliter-scale extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Khedr, Alaa; Hegazy, Maha; Kamal, Ahmed; Shehata, Mostafa A

    2015-01-01

    An improved gas chromatography with mass spectrometry procedure was developed to highlight the esterified fatty acids in 100 μL blood of dengue fever patients in the early febrile phase versus healthy volunteers. 24 adult patients and 24 healthy volunteers were included in this study. The recoveries of targeted esterified fatty acids content were in the range of 92.10-101.00% using methanol/dichloromethane (2:1, v/v) as the extraction solvent. An efficient chromatographic separation of targeted 17 esterified fatty acid methyl esters was obtained. The limits of detection and quantification were within the range of 16-131 and 53-430 ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation of intraday and interday precision values ranged from 0.4 to 5.0%. The statistical data treatment showed a significant decrease of the content of four saturated fatty acids, C14:0, C15:0, C16:0, and C18:0 (P value dengue fever patients. Moreover, the amount of three omega-6 fatty acids including C18:3n6, C18:2n6, and C20:4n6 was dramatically decreased in the blood of dengue fever patients to a limit of 50 ± 10%. PMID:25380415

  3. Identification of a ?5-like fatty acyl desaturase from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier 1797) involved in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids.

    Monroig, Oscar; Navarro, Juan C; Dick, James R; Alemany, Frederic; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-08-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) have been identified as essential compounds for common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), but precise dietary requirements have not been determined due, in part, to the inherent difficulties of performing feeding trials on paralarvae. Our objective is to establish the essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements for paralarval stages of the common octopus through characterisation of the enzymes of endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways. In this study, we isolated a cDNA with high homology to fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Functional characterisation in recombinant yeast showed that the octopus Fad exhibited ?5-desaturation activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acyl substrates. Thus, it efficiently converted the yeast's endogenous 16:0 and 18:0 to 16:1n-11 and 18:1n-13, respectively, and desaturated exogenously added PUFA substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6 to 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 20:4n-6 (ARA), respectively. Although the ?5 Fad enables common octopus to produce EPA and ARA, the low availability of its adequate substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6, either in the diet or by limited endogenous synthesis from C(18) PUFA, might indicate that EPA and ARA are indeed EFA for this species. Interestingly, the octopus ?5 Fad can also participate in the biosynthesis of non-methylene-interrupted FA, PUFA that are generally uncommon in vertebrates but have been found previously in marine invertebrates, including molluscs, and now also confirmed to be present in specific tissues of common octopus. PMID:22160425

  4. Arachidonic acid has a dominant effect to regulate lipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared to omega-3 fatty acids

    Hitesh Vaidya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of long-chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on the regulation of adipocytes metabolism are well known. These fatty acids are generally consumed together in our diets; however, the metabolic regulation of adipocytes in the presence of these fatty acids when given together is not known. Objective: To investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA and arachidonic acid (AA, an n-6 PUFA, on the regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated in the presence or absence of 100 µM of eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA; docosahexaenoic acid, DHA; docosapentaenoic acid, DPA and AA, either alone or AA+n-3 PUFA; control cells received bovine serum albumin alone. The mRNA expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes was measured. The fatty acid composition of adipocytes was analyzed using gas chromatography. Results: Individual n-3 PUFA or AA had no effect on the mRNA expression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ; however, AA+EPA and AA+DPA significantly increased (P<0.05 the expression compared to control cells (38 and 42%, respectively. AA and AA+EPA increased the mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (P<0.05. AA treatment decreased the mRNA expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 (P<0.01, while n-3 PUFA, except EPA, had no effect compared to control cells. AA+DHA and AA+DPA inhibited SCD1 gene expression (P<0.05 suggesting a dominant effect of AA. Fatty acids analysis of adipocytes revealed a higher accretion of AA compared to n-3 PUFA. Conclusions: Our findings reveal that AA has a dominant effect on the regulation of lipogenic genes in adipocytes.

  5. Effect of glutamic acid on the fatty acid and lipid composition of Choanephora cucurbitarum.

    Deven, J M; Manocha, M S

    1975-11-01

    The fatty acid composition of the total, neutral, sterol, free fatty acid, and polar-lipid fractions in the mycelium of Choanephora curcurbitarum was determined. The major fatty acids in all lipid fractions were palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and gamma-linolenic acid. Different lipid fractions did not show any particular preference for any individual fatty acid; however, the degree of unsaturation was different in different lipid fractions. Free fatty acid and polar lipid fractions contained a higher proportion of gamma-linolenic acid than did triglyceride and sterol fractions. Addition of glutamic acid to the malt-yeast extract and medium resulted in the biosynthesis of a number of long-chain fatty acids beyond the gamma-linolenic acid. These fatty acids, e.g., C22:1, C24:0, and C26:0, were never observed to be present in the fungus when grown on a malt-yeast extract medium without glutamic acid. Furthermore, thin-layer chromatographic analysis showed a larger and denser spot of diphosphatidyl glycerol from the mycelium grown on glutamic acid medium than from the control mycelium. The possible significance of this finding is discussed. PMID:1201519

  6. Fatty acid content and composition of UK beef and lamb muscle in relation to production system and implications for human nutrition.

    Enser, M; Hallett, K G; Hewett, B; Fursey, G A; Wood, J D; Harrington, G

    1998-07-01

    Although ruminant meats normally have a low ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids (P:S ratio), the muscle contains a range of C(20) and C(22) PUFA of both the n-6 and n-3 series of potential significance in human nutrition. However, information on the amounts of these fatty acids in muscle and how they are modified by production system is limited In this study, the content and composition of fatty acids was determined in several muscles from beef steers fed grass (grazed) and bulls fed cereal concentrates. These are the two main types of beef production in the UK and Europe. Muscle fatty acids were also determined in lambs fed grass (grazed on pasture). The total fatty acid content of all muscles studied was less than 35 g kg(-1). The percentages in total fatty acids of all n-3 PUFA were higher in muscles from steers fed grass than from bulls fed concentrates whereas all n-6 PUFA were higher in the latter. The gluteobiceps muscle contained the largest amounts of fatty acids including PUFA and the m. longissimus dorsi the least amounts of PUFA in beef and lamb, and m. longissimus contained the lowest percentages of PUFA. Arachidonic acid was the major fatty acid in the C(20) + C(22) PUFA in beef from both production systems with twice as much in muscles from bulls fed concentrates. The P:S ratios were higher in the latter animals, range 0.21-0.34 compared with 0.08-0.13 in the steers fed grass. However, the n6:n-3 ratio was much less desirable in the bulls, 15.6-20.1 compared with 2.0-2.3 in the steers fed grass. These effects of production system in ruminants are larger than previously reported. Lamb muscle P:S ratios resembled those in grass-fed beef but the n-6:n-3 ratios were lower. The percentage of trans unsaturated 18:1 fatty acids was similar in both cattle production systems but lamb muscles contained twice as much as beef. Although the concentrations of the C(20) and C(22) PUFA are much lower than in fish, maintaining high n-3 levels in ruminant meats through grass feeding may be advantageous in human nutrition since meat is more widely consumed. PMID:22060583

  7. Raised hepatic free fatty acids in a patient with acute fatty liver after gastric surgery for morbid obesity.

    Cairns, S. R.; Kark, A E.; Peters, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    A patient died after gastric surgery for morbid obesity. Necropsy showed severe fatty liver, and biochemical analysis of hepatic lipids showed unusually high free fatty acid concentrations, which may have contributed to the hepatic failure.

  8. Effect of randomized supplementation with high dose olive, flax or fish oil on serum phospholipid fatty acid levels in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Young, Genevieve; Conquer, Julie; Thomas, René

    2005-01-01

    Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has been positively correlated with cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric health in several studies. The high seafood intake by the Japanese and Greenland Inuit has resulted in low ratios of the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), with the Japanese showing AA:EPA ratios of approximately 1.7 and the Greenland Eskimos showing ratios of approximately 0.14. It was the objective of this study to determine th...

  9. High levels of fatty acids increase contractile function of neonatal rabbit hearts during reperfusion following ischemia.

    Ito, Masayoshi; Jaswal, Jagdip S; Lam, Victoria H; Oka, Tatsujiro; Zhang, Liyan; Beker, Donna L; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Rebeyka, Ivan M

    2010-05-01

    In the neonatal heart the transition from using carbohydrates to using fatty acids has not fully matured and oxidative metabolism/ATP generation may be limiting contractile function after ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that increasing fatty acid availability increases recovery of left ventricular (LV) work by increasing palmitate oxidation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, and ATP generation. Isolated working hearts from 7-day-old rabbits were perfused with Krebs solution containing low (0.4 mM) or high (2.4 mM) palmitate and 5.5 mM glucose. Hearts were subjected to 35-min global ischemia before 40-min reperfusion, and rates of glycolysis, glucose oxidation, and palmitate oxidation were assessed. LV work was similar before ischemia but was greater during reperfusion in hearts perfused with 2.4 mM palmitate compared with hearts perfused with 0.4 mM palmitate [6.98 +/- 0.14 (n = 15) vs. 3.01 +/- 0.23 (n = 16) mJ.beat(-1).g dry wt(-1); P < 0.05]. This was accompanied by increased LV energy expenditure during reperfusion [35.98 +/- 0.16 (n = 8) vs. 19.92 +/- 0.18 (n = 6) mJ.beat(-1).g dry wt(-1); P < 0.05]. During reperfusion the rates of palmitate oxidation [237.5 +/- 28.10 (n = 7) vs. 86.0 +/- 9.7 (n = 6) nmol.g dry wt(-1).min(-1); P < 0.05], total TCA cycle activity [2.65 +/- 0.39 (n = 7) vs. 1.36 +/- 0.14 (n = 6) micromol acetyl-CoA.g dry wt(-1).min(-1); P < 0.05], and ATP generation attributable to palmitate oxidation [26.6 +/- 3.1 (n = 7) vs. 12.6 +/- 1.7 (n = 6) micromol.g dry wt(-1).min(-1); P < 0.05] were greater in hearts perfused with 2.4 mM palmitate. These data indicate that the neonatal heart has decreased energy reserve, and, in contrast to the mature heart, increasing availability of fatty acid substrate increases energy production and improves recovery of function after ischemia. PMID:20154256

  10. Development of Escherichia coli MG1655 strains to produce long chain fatty acids by engineering fatty acid synthesis (FAS) metabolism.

    Jeon, Eunyoung; Lee, Sunhee; Won, Jong-In; Han, Sung Ok; Kim, Jihyeon; Lee, Jinwon

    2011-06-10

    The goal of this research was to develop recombinant Escherichia coli to improve fatty acid synthesis (FAS). Genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase (accA, accB, accC), malonyl-CoA-[acyl-carrier-protein] transacylase (fabD), and acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase (EC 3.1.2.14 gene), which are all enzymes that catalyze key steps in the synthesis of fatty acids, were cloned and over-expressed in E. coli MG1655. The acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) enzyme catalyzes the addition of CO(2) to acetyl-CoA to generate malonyl-CoA. The enzyme encoded by the fabD gene converts malonyl-CoA to malonyl-[acp], and the EC 3.1.2.14 gene converts fatty acyl-ACP chains to long chain fatty acids. All the genes except for the EC 3.1.2.14 gene were homologous to E. coli genes and were used to improve the enzymatic activities to over-express components of the FAS pathway through metabolic engineering. All recombinant E. coli MG1655 strains containing various gene combinations were developed using the pTrc99A expression vector. To observe changes in metabolism, the in vitro metabolites and fatty acids produced by the recombinants were analyzed. The fatty acids (C16) from recombinant strains were produced 1.23-2.41 times higher than that from the wild type. PMID:22112270

  11. Biodiesel development from high free fatty acid Punnakka oil

    Ramaraju A.; Ashok Kumar T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Punnakka oil, non-edible oil available in India, was esterified to produce biodiesel. The procedure involves a two stage process, acid esterification and alkaline esterification. The oil contains high free fatty acid (FFA) content of 19.8%. The acid value of the oil was reduced by acid esterification. The product from this stage was subjected to alkaline esterification to produce biodiesel. The effects of important parameters like methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst concentr...

  12. Absence of unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in murine T lymphocytes.

    Buttke, T M; Cleave, S. Van; Steelman, L; McCubrey, J A

    1989-01-01

    Stearic acid is toxic for T lymphocytes in vitro but has little effect on B lymphocytes. To investigate the molecular basis for this difference, purified murine T and B lymphocytes were compared for their abilities to incorporate and metabolize stearic acid. Unstimulated T and B cells incorporated identical amounts of stearic acid into six different phospholipids and four neutral lipids. After mitogen stimulation, fatty acid uptake was increased in both lymphocyte types, but cell-specific dif...

  13. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L. and flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed

    Soňa Nitrayová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.. The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter. Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05, except that for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality, was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry matter. The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α- linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all tested samples. The α-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio. Results of our study confirmed the excellent quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA α-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do not.

  14. Hepatocytes respond differently to major dietary trans fatty acid isomers, elaidic acid and trans-vaccenic acid

    Krogager, Toke P.; Nielsen, Lone Vendel; Kahveci, Derya; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Scavenius, Carsten; Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Enghild, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been discussed if the adverse health effect associated with the ingestion of trans fatty acids correlates with the food source, as the composition of the isomers varies in different foods. We have investigated the hepatocellular responses to the predominant trans fatty acid isomers in industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (elaidic acid) and products of ruminant origin (trans-vaccenic acid). Results The responses of HepG2-SF cells exposed to 100 μM fatty...

  15. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid but not arachidonic acid influences central nervous system fatty acid status in baboon neonates.

    Hsieh, Andrea T; Brenna, J Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on infant central nervous system (CNS) composition has implications for neural development, including vision, cognition, and motor function. We consider here combined results of three published studies of DHA/AA-containing formulas and breastfeeding to evaluate the CNS tissue response of baboon neonates with varied concentration and duration of DHA/AA consumption [G.Y. Diau, A.T. Hsieh, E.A. Sarkadi-Nagy, V. Wijendran, P.W. Nathanielsz, J.T. Brenna, The influence of long chain polyunsaturate supplementation on docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in baboon neonate central nervous system, BMC Med. 3 (2005) 11; A.T. Hsieh, J.C. Anthony, D.A. Diersen-Schade, et al., The influence of moderate and high dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on baboon neonate tissue fatty acids, Pediatr. Res. 61 (2007) 537-45; E. Sarkadi-Nagy, V. Wijendran, G.Y. Diau, et al., The influence of prematurity and long chain polyunsaturate supplementation in 4-week adjusted age baboon neonate brain and related tissues, Pediatr. Res. 54 (2003) 244-252]. A total of 43 neonates born spontaneously at term, or preterm by Cesarean section, consumed diets with DHA-AA (%w/w) at several levels: none (0,0), moderate (0.3, 0.6), or high (>0.6, 0.67 or 1.2). CNS fatty acids were analyzed at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum for term baboons and 7.5 weeks for preterm neonates. CNS DHA was consistently greater by 5-30% in neonates consuming DHA and nearer 30% for cortex. In contrast, CNS AA was unaffected by dietary AA and decreased in all structures with age. Dietary DHA consistently supports greater CNS DHA and maintenance of cortex DHA concentration with feeding duration, while CNS AA is not related to dietary supply. These data on structure-specific LCPUFA accretion may provide insight into neural mechanisms responsible for suboptimal functional outcomes in infants consuming diets that do not support the highest tissue DHA levels. PMID:19524425

  16. Identification of trihydroxy fatty acids and the regiospecific quantification of the triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid in castor oil, has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. We report here the identification of diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil. The Ci8 HPLC fractions of casto...

  17. Effect of exogenous fatty acids on biotin deprived death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    The effect of exogeneous fatty acids on cell growth and death of the biotin-requiring yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BA-1 was examined with respect to the mechanism of synthetic pathway of fatty acid under biotin starvation. At a growth temperature of 300C, exogeneous unsaturated fatty acids, such as palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids which promote the cell growth and suppress death effectively, were incorporated intactly into the cellular fatty acids, whereas the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, which supports growth but some what inhibits death, was once incorporated, and about 60% of incorporated palmitic acid was found to be desaturated. However, at an elevated temperature of 360C, even palmitic acid showed similar effects to unsaturated fatty acids in cell growth and death; following by an increased desaturation of palmitic acid. Thus the data indicate that palmitic aicd, as well as unsaturated fatty acids directly compensate for the deficiency of endogenously synthesized fatty acids caused by biotin starvation. (auth.)

  18. Fatty Acids in Six Small Pelagic Fish Species and Their Crustacean Prey from the Mindanao Sea, Southern Philippines

    Metillo, Ephrime Bicoy; Aspiras-Eya, Anna Arlene

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are important in human health and useful in the analysis of the marine food web, however information on tropical pelagic organisms is scarce. Six zooplanktivorous small pelagic fish species (Decapterus kurroides, Decapterus macarellus, Selar crumenophthalmus, Sardinella lemuru, Spratilloides gracilis and Stolephorus insularis) and four of their zooplanktonic crustacean prey [three sergestoid species (Acetes erythraeus, Acetes intermedius and Lucifer penicillifer) and one calanoid copepod (Acartia erythraea)] were collected from the Mindanao Sea, and their fatty acids were profiled. The resulting profiles revealed 17 fatty acids that were specific to certain species and 9 {myristic acid [C14:0], palmitic acid [C16:0], stearic acid [C18:0]; palmitoleic acid [C16:1], oleic acid [C18:1n9c], linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], linolenic acid [C18:3n3], eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [C20:5n3] and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [C22:6n3]} that were common to all species. Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of fatty acids indicate a high similarity in profiles in all species, but separate fish and zooplankton clusters were obtained. Mackerel species (D. macarellus, D. kurroides and S. crumenophthalmus) had concentrations of total n-3 fatty acids that match those of their Acetes prey. The copepod A. erythraea and the sergestoid L. penicillifer exhibited the lowest values of the EPA:DHA ratio, which was most likely due to their phytoplanktivorous feeding habits, but the occurrence of the highest values of the ratio in Acetes suggests the inclusion of plant detritus in their diet. DHA values appear to affirm the trophic link among copepod, Lucifer, Acetes and mackerel species. PMID:25210591

  19. Radioiodinated free fatty acids; can we measure myocardial metabolism

    Visser, F.C.; Eenige, M.J. van; Duwel, C.M.B.; Roos, J.P.

    1986-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of radioiodinated free fatty acids for ''metabolic imaging'', the kinetics and distribution pattern of metabolites of heptadecanoic acid I 131 (HDA I 131) were studied in canine myocardium throughout metabolic interventions. In control dogs and in dogs during glucose/insulin and sodium lactate infusion, biopsy specimens were taken during a go-min period after HDA I 131 administration and analyzed. Clearly distinct patterns of distribution and elimination were seen during the metabolic interventions, indicating the usefulness of iodinated fatty acids for metabolic studies.

  20. Fatty Acid 2-Hydroxylation in Mammalian Sphingolipid Biology

    Hama, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    2-Hydroxy fatty acids (hFA) are important components of a subset of mammalian sphingolipids. The presence of hFA in sphingolipids is best described in the nervous system, epidermis, and kidney. However, the literature also indicates that various hFA-sphingolipids are present in additional tissues and cell types, as well as in tumors. Biosynthesis of hFA-sphingolipids requires fatty acid 2-hydroyxlase, and degradation of hFA-sphingolipids depends, at least in part, on lysosomal acid ceramidase...

  1. Fatty acids, cholesterol, oxidative rancidity, and color of irradiated shrimp

    Virgnia Kelly Gonalves Abreu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 4, and 6 kGy doses applied to frozen and packed headed shrimp on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content, and lipid and color stability was evaluated. Myristic acid was higher in shrimp irradiated with 4 and 6 kGy and palmitic acid was higher in samples irradiated with 2 and 6 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. Stearic and behenic acids were lower in shrimp irradiated with 6 kGy compared to non-irradiated shrimp. With regard to non-irradiated shrimp, palmitoleic, oleic, and linoleic acids and total monounsaturated fatty acids were higher in shrimp irradiated with 6 kGy. Saturated fatty acid and cholesterol contents in irradiated samples were not different from those in non-irradiated shrimp. Lipid oxidation was higher in samples irradiated with 2, 4, and 6 kGy. Redness and yellowness of cooked shrimp were higher in samples irradiated with 6 kGy than in those in non-irradiated samples. The application of irradiation in doses up to 6 kGy on frozen and packed headed shrimp does not affect negatively the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content, and lipid and color stability.

  2. Radioiodination of fats and fatty acids by the iodomonochloride method

    Experiments have been done in the preparation of radioiodinated fats and fatty acids by using triolein and oleic acid. The radioiodination (131I) had been carried out by the iodomonochloride method and the radiochemical purity was determined by paper chromatography. It has been found that the final products are stable after a fiew days under ordinary storage condition. (author)

  3. FATTY ACIDS PATTERN OF OLIVE OIL UNDER ORGANIC FARMING

    Nasab Al-Rawashdeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming is considered as a mitigation strategy to face adverse effect of climate change and Consumers’ increasing their need for safe and quality food has motivated this research study. The olive oil of the Roman olive trees (Landrace Olea Europea belong to the Oleaceae family growing under organic farming (in the transition period conditions in Jordan Ajlun area was extracted by traditional method; warming water to the about 60°C and grounded the seeds make as paste then pour in the warmed water then take the oil layer floated at the surface. The oil was analyzed for fatty acids pattern and compared with Romans trees olive oil grown at Burma Agriculture Station which has organic Certificate according to the Japanese Agriculture Standard (JAS since 2007. The separation patterns of fatty acids were done by Gas Chromatography (GC. Results showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly oleic acid (up to 67.49%, linoleic acid (13.31% and linolenic acid (0.74% in the oil of Romans trees growing in Ajlun area, while the organic olive oil from the Romans olive trees growing at Burma Station showed 68.88% of oleic acid, 11.73% of linoleic acid and 0.67% of Linolenic acid. The analysis also showed that the palmatic saturated fatty acid was 12.54% at Burma Station compared to 11.82% in Ajlun area. The medicinal value of unsaturated fatty acids play great role for reducing cholesterol rate that was found in high level of Romans olive trees (landrace.

  4. Surface investigation of chitosan film with fatty acid monolayers

    Esam A. El-hefian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface pressure- molecular area (?-A isotherm curves of two fatty acids of different chain lengths, i.e. stearic (C18 and arachidic (C20 acids, were obtained by using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB technique. Results showed clear isotherm plots with limiting mean molecular area around 21 2 for both acids. However, the monolayer was found to collapse at higher than 33 mN m-1 and 21 mN m-1 for stearic acid and arachidic acid respectively. The effect of Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of the acids was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM. Chitosan film, before and after dipping in water, was also studied by means of AFM so that it could be used for comparison. It was found that the surface of chitosan was more homogeneous and smoother after dipping in water. In addition, more homogeneous surfaces were achieved after transferring a layer of the fatty acid onto the substrate.

  5. NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLD COOKING ON FISH FATTY ACIDS PROFILE USING ATHEROGENICITY AND THROMBOGENICITY INDICES

    El-Reffaei W.H. Moussa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Different cooking methods were effects on the fatty acids and food nutritional qualities. Fish is the most nourished food containing a higher ratio of essential fatty acids. This study is contacted to determine the effect of different cooking methods (microwaving, boiling and grilling for preparing salmon, mackerel, sardine and tuna had on the fatty acid profiles, in particular the ?-3 fatty acid. Depending on estimated polyunsaturated/saturated ratio and ?-6/ ?-3 ratio as a measure of the propensity of the fish and cooked fish to influence the incidence of coronary heart disease indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity which were identified nutritional benefit from fish lipid. Also determine the level of minerals and toxic contaminant in fish meat according different cooking methods. Study was carried on salmon, sardine, mackerel and tuna fishes. The samples were cooking by different methods. These were microwaving, grilling and boiling. By lipid extraction, fatty acids profile was determined in all fresh and processed fish. From the fatty acid profile, the atherogenicity index (AI and thrombogenicity (TI indices were calculated. Mineral and toxic hazardous mineral were also identified in the cooked fish. It could be concluded that the use of heating process of fish especially microwave is advantageous over conventional cooking like grilled and blanched fish especially with salmon and mackerel. It also, the ?3 fatty acids retarded the decline in cognition over time. So, then ?-3 also produces a potent anti-thrombotic effect by decreasing production of thromboxane. There is evidence that the type of fat is more important than the total amount of fat in the quantification of cardiovascular disease risk; therefore, the Atherogenicity Index (AI and the thrombogenicity Index (TI were also evaluated. Using grilling and boiling process in the most of the fishes were able to decrease the level of cadmium in all studied fish.

  6. [Research on the mechanism of the fatty acid composition on the tumorigenic danger induced by chemical tumorigenic material].

    Zhou, S; Chen, B; Wang, P; Wang, G

    1999-03-30

    Rats were given 5 kinds of diets which contained 15% (w/w) fat and different fatty acids composition. The rats were given methyl-nitrosurea (MNU) to induce colonic tumor. Proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cell kinetics, membrane fluidity, the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the content of prostaglandin E2(PGE2) in colonic mucosa were determined in order to assess the fatty acids composition on the colonic cell tumorigenesis. The results indicated that the cells of PCNA, cells of PI labeled in S period and the activity of ALP were the highest in the 3rd group which contained lowest saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and highest n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Whereas, these indexes and PGE2 were lowest and membrane fluidity was the best in the 4th group which contained the highest 1-3 PUFA. It is considered that the inhibition tumorigenesis of n-3 PUFA may be related to its effects of decreaing PCNA, PGE2, cells in S period and increasing membrane fluidity. PMID:11938997

  7. Effect of weight, sex and hunting period on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from wild boar

    Artūras Šiukščius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of weight, sex and month of hunting on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from 49 free ranging wild boars hunted in Lithuania during the winter season. A total number of 27 and 25 fatty acids were identified in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous tissue of wild boars, respectively. The weight of the wild boar had mainly affected only the levels of separate fatty acids both in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA were found in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of males compared with females. The effect of both weight and sex on the levels of fatty acids was higher in the subcutaneous fat than in the intramuscular fat. Weight, sex and hunting month had no effect on PUFA/SFA and n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio in subcutaneous fat were more favorable in females compared with males and in the January hunting season than in November and December.

  8. Effect of Cattle Breed on Meat Quality, Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Lipid Oxidation and Fatty Acids in China

    Xie, Xiangxue; Meng, Qingxiang; Cui, Zhenliang; Ren, Liping

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to compare meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, lipid oxidation and fatty acids of Limousin (LIM), Simmtental (SIM), Luxi (LX), Qinchuan (QC) and Jinnan (JN) offered the same diet in China. After finishing, eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughter at 18.5 months old. Longissimus dorsi (ld) muscle was taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. Breed had little effect on most of meat and fat color parameters except for Hue and b* in which QC had lower values. LIM showed higher pH (24 h) and better water holding capacity than other breeds. LIM showed the lowest dry matter content but the highest crude protein. LX and LIM had higher percentage and density of red muscle fiber than other breeds. Lipid oxidations were significantly lower in LIM than in QC, with the LX, SIM and JN having the intermediate values. Compared to other four breeds, QC provided the highest values of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-6 fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids. In conclusion, LIM scored better on most of meat quality characteristics; however, local breeds such as LX and QC also had better muscle fiber characteristics and better fatty acids composition. PMID:25049633

  9. The multiple roles of Fatty Acid Handling Proteins in brain

    ClineCruciani-Guglielmacci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are essential components of a living organism as energy source but also as constituent of the membrane lipid bilayer. In addition fatty acid (FA derivatives interact with many signaling pathways. FAs have amphipathic properties and therefore require being associated to protein for both transport and intracellular trafficking. Here we will focus on several fatty acid handling proteins, among which the fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36, members of fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs, and lipid chaperones fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs. A decade of extensive studies has helped decipher the mechanism of action of these proteins in peripheral tissue with high lipid metabolism. However, considerably less information is available regarding their role in the brain, despite the high lipid content of this tissue. This review will primarily focus on the recent studies that have highlighted the crucial role of lipid handling proteins in brain FA transport, neuronal differentiation and development, cognitive processes and brain diseases. Finally a special focus will be made on the recent studies that have revealed the role of FAT/CD36 in brain lipid sensing and nervous control of energy balance.

  10. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (pmilk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (pMilk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (pMilk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (pmilk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (pmilk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or MIX-O. PMID:25925057

  11. Potential Approach of Microbial Conversion to Develop New Antifungal Products of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Omega-3/('-3) or n-3 fatty acids are a family of unsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the n-3 position. n-3 Fatty acids which are important in human nutrition are: a-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3; ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3; EPA), and docosahexaen...

  12. Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and α-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05 the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05 decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05 upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

  13. Correlation of animal diet and fatty acid content in young goat meat by gas chromatography and chemometrics.

    Coltro, Wendell K T; Ferreira, Mrcia M C; Macedo, Francisco A F; Oliveira, Claudio C; Visentainer, Jesui V; Souza, Nilson E; Matsushita, Makoto

    2005-10-01

    The meat fatty acids (FA) profiles of caprines submitted to different dietary treatments were determined by gas chromatography. The data were treated by Chemometrics to consider all variables together. The contents of saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), omega-3 (n-3) FA, and omega-6 (n-6) FA in 32 samples were analyzed. PUFA:SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios were also considered. The multivariate methods of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to analyze the experimental results. HCA can group samples according to their basic composition, and PCA can explain the relationship among the dietary treatments according to the meat fatty acid composition. Treatment 1 presented the highest n-6 FA concentration, PUFA:SFA, and n-6:n-3 ratios, and the lowest MUFA and n-3 concentrations. Opposite results were observed for treatment 4. Treatments 2 and 3 were highly similar with differences mainly in SFA and MUFA concentrations. PMID:22064237

  14. Fatty acid trophic markers in the pelagic marine environment.

    Dalsgaard, Johanne; St John, Michael; Kattner, Gerhard; Mller-Navarra, Drthe; Hagen, Wilhelm

    2003-01-01

    Fatty acids have been used as qualitative markers to trace or confirm predator-prey relationships in the marine environment for more than thirty years. More recently, they have also been used to identify key processes impacting the dynamics of some of the world's major ecosystems. The fatty acid trophic marker (FATM) concept is based on the observation that marine primary producers lay down certain fatty acid patterns that may be transferred conservatively to, and hence can be recognized in, primary consumers. To identify these fatty acid patterns the literature was surveyed and a partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis of the data was performed, validating the specificity of particular microalgal FATM. Microalgal group specific FATM have been traced in various primary consumers, particularly in herbivorous calanoid copepods, which accumulate large lipid reserves, and which dominate the zooplankton biomass in high latitude ecosystems. At higher trophic levels these markers of herbivory are obscured as the degree of carnivory increases, and as the fatty acids originate from a variety of dietary sources. Such differences are highlighted in a PLS regression analysis of fatty acid and fatty alcohol compositional data (the components of wax esters accumulated by many marine organisms) of key Arctic and Antarctic herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous copepod species. The analysis emphasizes how calanoid copepods separate from other copepods not only by their content of microalgal group specific FATM, but also by their large content of long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids and alcohols. These monounsaturates have been used to trace and resolve food web relationships in, for example, hyperiid amphipods, euphausiids and fish, which may consume large numbers of calanoid copepods. Results like these are extremely valuable for enabling the discrimination of specific prey species utilized by higher trophic level omnivores and carnivores without the employment of invasive techniques, and thereby for identifying the sources of energetic reserves. A conceptual model of the spatial and temporal dominance of group-specific primary producers, and hence the basic fatty acid patterns available to higher trophic levels is presented. The model is based on stratification, which acts on phytoplankton group dominance through the availability of light and nutrients. It predicts the seasonal and ecosystem specific contribution of diatom and flagellate/microbial loop FATM to food webs as a function of water column stability. Future prospects for the application of FATM in resolving dynamic ecosystem processes are assessed. PMID:14601414

  15. Enhanced production of polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid by thraustochytrid protists

    Jain, R.; Raghukumar, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important requirement in the human diet. It is also essential in the nutrition of crustaceans and aquaculture animals. Of the sources available for commercial production of DHA...

  16. Use of Fatty Acid Analysis to Determine Dispersal of Caspian Terns in the Columbia River Basin, U.S.A.

    Maranto, C.J.; Parrish, J.K.; Herman, D.P.; Punt, A.E.; Olden, J.D.; Brett, M.T.; Roby, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lethal control, which has been used to reduce local abundances of animals in conflict with humans or with endangered species, may not achieve management goals if animal movement is not considered. In populations with emigration and immigration, lethal control may induce compensatory immigration, if the source of attraction remains unchanged. Within the Columbia River Basin (Washington, U.S.A.), avian predators forage at dams because dams tend to reduce rates of emigration of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), artificially concentrating these prey. We used differences in fatty acid profiles between Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia) at coastal and inland breeding colonies and terns culled by a lethal control program at a mid-Columbia River dam to infer dispersal patterns. We modeled the rate of loss of fatty acid biomarkers, which are fatty acids that can be traced to a single prey species or groups of species, to infer whether and when terns foraging at dams had emigrated from the coast. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that coastal terns had high levels of C20 and C22 monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas fatty acids of inland breeders were high in C18:3n3, C20:4n6, and C22:5n3. Models of the rate of loss of fatty acid showed that approximately 60% of the terns collected at Rock Island Dam were unlikely to have bred successfully at local (inland) sites, suggesting that terns foraging at dams come from an extensive area. Fatty acid biomarkers may provide accurate information about patterns of dispersal in animal populations and may be extremely valuable in cases where populations differ demonstrably in prey base. ??2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Effect of crossbreeding with Limousine, Rubia Gallega and Belgium Blue on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves.

    Domingo, Gonzalo; Iglesias, Antonio; Monserrat, Lorenzo; Sanchez, Luciano; Cantalapiedra, Jesus; Lorenzo, Jose Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The object of this work was to study the effects of crossbreeding on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves. Samples were taken from Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of 36 calves of three different groups (Holstein crossed with Rubia Gallega (HF×RG), Holstein crossed with Limousine (HF×LI) and Holstein crossed with Belgian Blue (HF×BB)). Significant differences were observed in carcass weight and killing out percentage (P < 0.001) among, groups reaching the highest values in the HF×BB group (228 kg and 59.4%, respectively), while the cross with Limousine presented the lowest values for carcass weight (191 kg) and the cross with Rubia Gallega showed the lowest killing out percentages (54.9%). Meat from HF×RG animals was redder (a* 13.31) and lightest (L* 39.55) than meat from HF×LI and HF×BB groups. With regard to fatty acid profile, the saturated fatty acids were the most abundant fatty acid, followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the three groups. Crossbreeding did not affect the proportion of fatty acid. Finally, live weight, cold carcass weight, killing out, shear force, L* from LT, b*from LT, a* from fat, b* from fat, C14:0, C15:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:3n-6, MUFA and price-to-sales ratio were the selected variables from discriminant analysis to classify the types of crossbreeding. PMID:25706373

  18. Fatty acid profiles of fin fish in Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Osman, Farida; Jaswir, Irwandi; Khaza'ai, Huzwah; Hashim, Ridzwan

    2007-01-01

    Total lipid contents and fatty acid composition of 13 marine fish species namely, "jenahak" (Lutianus agentimaculatus), "kebasi" (Anadontostoma chacunda), "duri" (Arius cumatranus), "tenggiri batang" (Scomberomorus commersoni), "kembong" (Rastrelliger kanagurta), "kintan" or "sebalah" (Psettodes crumei), "kerisi" (Pristipomodes typus), "kerapu" (Epinephelus sexfasciatus), "gelama kling" (Sciaena dussumieri), "malong" (Congresax talabon), "laban" (Cynoglossus lingua), "yu 9" (Scolidon sorrakowah) and "bagi" (Aacnthurs nigrosis) commonly found in Pulau Tuba, one of the islands surrounding the popular tourist destination Langkawi in Malaysia were determined. All fish showed a considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids particularly those with 4, 5 and 6 double bonds. Two physiologically important n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docasahaexaenoic acid (DHA), made up of more than 50% of the total PUFAs. For saturated fatty acids, palmitic was found to be the major one in all types of fish studied. Based on DHA, EPA and arachidonic acid (AA) contents, "gelama kling" was found to be the best source (23, 11 and 7%, respectively) followed by "kerapu" (21, 10, 9%) and "sebalah" (19, 14, 4%). PMID:17898471

  19. Expression of lipases and lipid receptors in sperm storage tubules and possible role of fatty acids in sperm survival in the hen oviduct.

    Huang, A; Isobe, N; Obitsu, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of fatty acids for sperm survival in the sperm storage tubules (SSTs) of the hen oviduct. The mucosa tissues of uterovaginal junction (UVJ) of White Leghorn laying hens with or without artificial insemination using semen from Barred Plymouth Rock roosters were collected. The lipid density in the epithelium of UVJ and SST was analyzed by Sudan black B staining. The expressions of genes encoding lipid receptors and lipases were assayed by polymerase chain reaction in UVJ mucosa and SST cells isolated by laser microdissection. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and sperm were cultured with or without the identified predominant fatty acids for 24 hours to examine their effect on sperm viability. The lipid droplets were localized in the epithelium of UVJ mucosa and SSTs. The expression of genes encoding very low-density lipoprotein receptor(VLDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) were found in SST cells. Expression of genes encoding endothelial lipase (EL), lipase H (LIPH), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were found in UVJ. In contrast, only ATGL was found in SST cells, and its expression was significantly upregulated after artificial insemination. In UVJ mucosal tissues, five fatty acids, namely myristic acid (C14), palmitic acid (C16), stearic acid (C18), oleic acid (C18:1n9), and linoleic acid (C18:2n6), were identified as predominant fatty acids. The viability of sperm cultured with 1 mM oleic acid or linoleic acid was significantly higher than the sperm in the control culture without fatty acids. These results suggest that lipids in the SST cells may be degraded by ATGL, and fatty acids including oleic acid and linoleic acid may be released into the SST lumen to support sperm survival. PMID:26777559

  20. Biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lower eukaryotes.

    Uttaro, Antonio D

    2006-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids have important structural roles in cell membranes. They are also intermediates in the synthesis of biologically active molecules such as eicosanoids, which mediate fever, inflammation, blood pressure and neurotransmission. Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are essential components of brain tissues and, through their involvement in the development of neural and retinal functions, important dietary nutrients for neonatal babies. Lower eukaryotes are particularly rich in C20-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fungi and marine microalgae are currently used to produce nutraceutic oils. Other protists and algae are being studied because of the variability in their enzymes involved in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Such enzymes could be used as source for the production of transgenic organisms able to synthesize designed oils for human diet or, in the case of parasitic protozoa, they might be identified as putative chemotherapeutic targets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids can be synthesized by two different pathways: an anaerobic one, by using polyketide synthase related enzymes, and an aerobic one, which involves the action of elongases and oxygen dependent desaturases. Desaturases can be classified into three main types, depending on which of the consecutive steps of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis they are involved with. The enzymes may be specialized to act on: saturated substrates (type I); mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acids by introducing additional double bonds at the methyl-end site of the existing double bonds (type II); or the carboxy half ('front-end') of polyunsaturated ones (type III). Type III desaturases require the alternating action of elongases. A description of the enzymes that have been isolated and functionally characterized is provided, in order to highlight the different pathways found in lower eukaryotes. PMID:17028087