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Docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid supplementation alter rat skeletal muscle fatty acid composition  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6, DPAn-6 are highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, ? 20 carbons, ? 3 double bonds that differ by a single carbon-carbon double bond at the ?19 position. Membrane 22:6n-3 may support skeletal muscle function through optimal ion pump activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and electron transport in the mitochondria. Typically n-3 fatty acid deficient feeding trials utilize linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA as a comparison group, possibly introducing a lower level of HUFA in addition to n-3 fatty acid deficiency. The use of 22:5n-6 as a dietary control is ideal for determining specific requirements for 22:6n-3 in various physiological processes. The incorporation of dietary 22:5n-6 into rat skeletal muscles has not been demonstrated previously. A one generation, artificial rearing model was utilized to supply 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 to rats from d2 after birth to adulthood. An n-3 fatty acid deficient, artificial milk with 18:2n-6 was supplemented with 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 resulting in four artificially reared (AR dietary groups; AR-LA, AR-DHA, AR-DPAn-6, AR-DHA+DPAn-6. A dam reared group (DAM was included as an additional control. Animals were sacrificed at 15 wks and soleus, white gastrocnemius and red gastrocnemius muscles were collected for fatty acid analyses. Results In all muscles of the DAM group, the concentration of 22:5n-6 was significantly lower than 22:6n-3 concentrations. While 22:5n-6 was elevated in the AR-LA group and the AR-DPAn-6 group, 20:4n-6 tended to be higher in the AR-LA muscles and not in the AR-DPAn-6 muscles. The AR-DHA+DPAn-6 had a slight, but non-significant increase in 22:5n-6 content. In the red gastrocnemius of the AR-DPAn-6 group, 22:5n-6 levels (8.1 ± 2.8 wt. % did not reciprocally replace the 22:6n-3 levels observed in AR-DHA reared rats (12.2 ± 2.3 wt. % suggesting a specific preference/requirement for 22:6n-3 in red gastrocnemius. Conclusion Dietary 22:5n-6 is incorporated into skeletal muscles and appears to largely compete with 22:6n-3 for incorporation into lipids. In contrast, 18:2n-6 feeding tends to result in elevations of 20:4n-6 and restrained increases of 22:5n-6. As such, 22:5n-6 dietary comparison groups may be useful in elucidating specific requirements for 22:6n-3 to support optimal health and disease prevention.

Lim Sun-Young

2007-04-01

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The transfer of radiolabelled n-6 essential fatty acids by the mammary system of the tree-shrew (Tupia tana).  

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The fatty acid content of tree-shrew milk has been determined from analysis of the stomach content of infants immediately after suckling. Comparison of the n-6 fatty acid composition of the stomach contents, liver and brain demonstrate a striking increment in the ratio of arachidonic to linoleic acid. Feeding radioactively labelled linoleic acid to the mother 24 hr prior to suckling showed that 12-20% was transferred to the milk. Evidence from the appearance of the radioactivity administered as linoleic acid into arachidonic acid indicates that this species is able to desaturate linoleic acid. PMID:3595091

Williams, G; Crawford, M A

1987-01-01

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Fluorescent n-3 and n-6 Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: THREE-PHOTON IMAGING IN LIVING CELLS EXPRESSING LIVER FATTY ACID-BINDING PROTEIN*  

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Despite the considerable beneficial effects of n-3 and n-6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs), very little is known about the factors that regulate their uptake and intracellular distribution in living cells. This issue was addressed in cells expressing liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) by real time multiphoton laser scanning microscopy of novel fluorescent VLC-PUFAs containing a conjugated tetraene fluorophore near the carboxyl group and natural methylene-in...

Mcintosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Wellberg, Elizabeth; Kuklev, Dmitry V.; Smith, William L.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

2010-01-01

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Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids  

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Abstract Background Conversion of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. Design and methods In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), human hepatoma cells were incubated with varying ratios of [13C] labeled linoleic acid ([13C]LA...

Harnack Kerstin; Andersen Gaby; Somoza Veronika

2009-01-01

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Dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio reduce adverse effects of infectious bursal disease in broilers.  

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This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio on immune response and performance of infectious bursal disease (IBD)-challenged broiler chickens. In total, 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 1 of the 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were 3 n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (45, 5.5, and 1.5) and 2 levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that birds fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 had higher BW, lower feed intake, and superior FCR than other groups. However, the highest antibody response was observed in birds with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 1.5. Lowering n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio reduced bursa lesion score equally in birds fed with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 and 1.5. Supplementation of methionine by twice the recommendation also improved FCR and reduced feed intake and bursa lesion score. However, in this study, the optimum performance (as measured by BW, feed intake, and FCR) did not coincide with the optimum immune response (as measured by antibody titer). It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner. Therefore, it can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (5.5) and methionine level (twice recommendation) might enhance immune response together with performance in IBD-challenged broiler chickens. PMID:22912451

Maroufyan, E; Kasim, A; Ebrahimi, M; Loh, T C; Hair-Bejo, M; Soleimani, A F

2012-09-01

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Effect of diet, sex and age on fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens: n-3 and n-6 PUFA  

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The PUFA metabolism in broiler chicken was studied through the whole body fatty acid balance method. Four dietary lipid sources (palm fat, Palm; soyabean oil, Soya; linseed oil, Lin; fish oil, Fish) were added at 3 % to a basal diet containing 5 % palm fat. Diets were fed to female and male birds from day 1 to either day 21 or day 42 of age. Birds fed the Lin diet showed a significantly higher 18 :2n-6 accumulation compared with the other diets (85-2 v. 73.6% of net intake), whereas diet did ...

Poureslami, Reza; Raes, Katleen; Turchini, Gm; Huyghebaert, G.; Smet, Stefaan

2010-01-01

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Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA. The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123. Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Results Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply. Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %, however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4 but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Conclusions Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower n-3 PUFA portion in farmed fish can be offset by the higher fat content, however, with an unfavourable FA distribution compared to wild fellows.

Strobel Claudia

2012-10-01

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Oxygen induces fatty acid (n-6)-desaturation independently of temperature in Acanthamoeba castellanii.  

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Induction of a microsomal oleate delta12 (n-6) desaturase which is mainly responsible for an increase in membrane lipid unsaturation at low temperature has been observed in the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. In this study we show that the enzyme can also be regulated by oxygen independently of temperature in batch cultures grown to O2-limitation. Raising the oxygen concentration from below the lower limit of detection (< 0.1 microM) to approximately air-saturation (230 microM), whilst maintaining the growth temperature constant (30 degrees C), increased lipid unsaturation and elevated n-6-desaturase activity 2.3-fold. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin, showed that increased desaturase activity was due to new protein synthesis rather than activation of pre-existing enzyme. These observations are important for future studies of the mechanism of temperature adaptation in poikilotherms. PMID:9541030

Thomas, K; Rutter, A; Suller, M; Harwood, J; Lloyd, D

1998-03-20

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Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on clinical outcome in a porcine model on postoperative infection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) on clinical outcome in a porcine model on early aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI). A total of eighty-four pigs were randomised to a 35 d dietary treatment with 10 % (w/w) fish oil (rich in n-3 LC-PUFA), sunflower oil (rich in n-6 LC-PUFA) or animal fat. After 3 weeks of dietary treatment, the pigs had an aortic vascular prosthetic graft inserted, and it was inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (106 colony-forming units). Changes in selected plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations and in plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration were determined in the 3-week preoperative period. Clinical signs of infection, i.e. rectal temperature, hindquarter function, general appearance and feed intake, were monitored daily in the 14 d post-operative period, and, finally, daily body-weight gain was determined in both periods. The preoperative changes in plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations reflected the fatty acid compositions of the dietary treatments given, and plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration decreased in the fish oil treatment (P < 0·001). In the post-operative period, feed intake (P = 0·004) and body-weight gain (P = 0·038) were higher in the fish oil treatment compared with the sunflower oil treatment. The dietary treatments did not affect the number of days pigs were showing fever, weakness in the hindquarters or impaired general appearance. In conclusion, preoperative treatment with dietary fish oil compared with sunflower oil improved clinical outcome in pigs with AVPGI by improving feed intake and body-weight gain post-operatively.

Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

2012-01-01

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Seasonal Variations of n-6: n-3 Ratios and Fatty Acid Compositions in Foot and Tissue of Chiton lamyi in a High Primary Productivity Area  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Fatty acid content and composition in mollusks is a function of their feeding diversity. Chabahar bay located in the northern part of Oman sea in Indian ocean provides high rates of primary productivity and a diverse food source for mollusks in this area. Identification of fatty acid compositions of Chiton lamyi and study their seasonal changes in the intertidal zone of Chabahar bay. Study the meat quality by n-6: n-3 ratios calculation throughout the year. Approach: Chiton lamyi species analyzed seasonally for its fatty acid compositions in foot and internal tissue separately by GC/MS chromatography. Temperature and nutrients measured monthly for evaluating their effects on investigated seasonal variations of fatty acids. Pearson analysis showed effects of measured environmental factors on studied fatty acids composition. n-6: n-3 ratio calculated seasonally in order to study meat quality. Results: Thirteen fatty acids identified in foot and internal tissue of Chiton lamyi. The major Saturated Fatty Acids (SFAs were myristic, palmitic and stearic acids. The major Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs were palmitoleic, oleic and 11-eicosenoic acids and Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs were linoleic, eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids. Palmitic acid was the most abundant in this species. Fatty acid contents of foot and internal tissue of Chiton lamyi were similar but their seasonal variations were different. Pearson analysis showed correlation among palmitic and oleic acids with silicate; oleic acid with phosphate; Linoleic and arachidonic acids with nitrate in Chiton lamyi internal tissues, but no correlation observed in foot. Although temperature showed correlation with heptadecanoic and methyl-heptadecanoic acids in Chiton lamyi foot, no correlation found in internal tissues. Also, n-6: n-3 ratio calculations showed domination of n-3 fatty acid over n-6 only in spring. Conclusion: Fatty acid variations were not same at different organs and environmental factors could have opposite effects on them in this species. Also, n-6: n-3 ratio showed the lack of food loads throughout the year except in spring for this species. These findings can lead the best exploitation periods for such marine mollusks.

Nooshin Sajjadi

2009-01-01

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Effects of trans n-6 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of tissues and liver microsomal desaturation in the rat  

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Full Text Available 18:2? 9c,12t and 18:2 ?9t,12c are present in our diet, as result of heat treatment of vegetable oils. A nutritional study was carried out in order to obtain more precise information on the conversion of these two isomers into long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA by rat tissues. This in vivo study performed using rat fed with small quantities of mono trans linoleic acid isomers (0.6% of total energy showed that 18:2 ?9c,12t was converted into 20:4 ?5c,8c,11c,14t while 18:2 ?9t,12c was only slightly converted into 20:4 ?5c,8c,11t,14c. Furthermore 18:2 ?9t,12c was preferentially elongated into 20:2 ?11t,14c. Each C20 metabolite of these mono trans 18:2 isomers was isolated as methyl ester by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC followed by silver nitrate thin layer chromatography (AgNO3-TLC.The structure of the components was identified using partial hydrazine reduction, AgNO3-TLC of the resulting monoenes and gas-liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS of the 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX derivatives. Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (GC-FTIR confirmed the frans geometry. Gas-liquid chromatography (GC analyses showed that 18:2 ?9c,12t and 18:2 ?9t,12c were present in different tissue lipids (liver, heart, testes, brain and adipose tissue, and without any modification in the amount of 20:4n-6. 20:4 ?5c, 8c,11c,14t was incorporated in different rat tissues except in brain. Furthermore, its incorporation followed that of its structural analogue, 20:3n-9 in liver phospholipid classes (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. Finally, an in vitro study carried out with rat liver microsomes showed that dietary trans 18:2 isomers could inhibit the ?6- desaturation of 18:2n-6 to 18:3n-6 and the ?5-desaturation of 20:3n-6 to 20:4n-6.

Berdeaux, Olivier

1996-04-01

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Fatty acid metabolism in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): effects of n-6 PUFA and MUFA in fish oil replaced diets.  

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Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)-rich and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA)-rich vegetable oils are increasingly used as fish oil replacers for aquafeed formulation. The present study investigated the fatty acid metabolism in juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, 38.4 g) fed diets containing fish oil (FO, as the control treatment) or two different vegetable oils (the MUFA-rich canola/rapeseed oil, CO; and the n-6 PUFA-rich cottonseed oil, CSO) tested individually or as a 50/50 blend (CO/CSO). The whole-body fatty acid balance method was used to deduce the apparent in vivo fatty acid metabolism. No effect on growth performance and feed utilization was recorded. However, it should be noted that the fish meal content of the experimental diets was relatively high, and thus the requirement for n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) may have likely been fulfilled even if dietary fish oil was fully replaced by vegetable oils. Overall, relatively little apparent in vivo fatty acid bioconversion was recorded, whilst the apparent in vivo ?-oxidation of dietary fatty acid was largely affected by the dietary lipid source, with higher rate of ?-oxidation for those fatty acids which were provided in dietary surplus. The deposition of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, as % of the dietary intake, was greatest for the fish fed on the CSO diet. It has been shown that European sea bass seems to be able to efficiently use n-6 PUFA for energy substrate, and this may help in minimizing the ?-oxidation of the health benefiting n-3 LC-PUFA and thus increase their deposition into fish tissues. PMID:23212581

Eroldo?an, Tufan O; Y?lmaz, Asuman H; Turchini, Giovanni M; Arslan, Murat; Sirkecio?lu, Necdet A; Engin, Kenan; Öz?ahino?lu, Ilgin; Mumo?ullar?nda, P?nar

2013-08-01

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Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Conversion of linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. Design and methods In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, human hepatoma cells were incubated with varying ratios of [13C] labeled linoleic acid ([13C]LA- and alpha-linolenic acid ([13C]ALA-methylesters. Regulative cellular signal transduction pathways involved were studied by determinations of transcript levels of the genes encoding delta-5 desaturase (D5D and delta-6 desaturase (D6D, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR? and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1 were also examined. Results Maximum conversion was observed in cells incubated with the mixture of [13C]LA/[13C]ALA at a ratio of 1:1, where 0.7% and 17% of the recovered [13C]ALA was converted to DHA and EPA, respectively. Furthermore, differential regulation of enzymes involved in the conversion at the transcript level, dependent on the ratio of administered n6 to n3 fatty acids in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Conclusion Formation of EPA and DHA was highest at an administered LA/ALA ratio of 1:1, although gene expression of PPAR?, SREBP-1c and D5D involved in ALA elongation were higher in the presence of ALA solely. Also, our findings suggest that a diet-induced enhancement of the cell membrane content of highly unsaturated fatty acids is only possible up to a certain level.

Somoza Veronika

2009-02-01

14

[Essential fatty acids of the n-6 and n-3 series supplied to human diet by edible fish from the Paraná river].  

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The fatty acid composition of muscle lipids from eadible fish from Paraná river such as Dorado (Salminus maxillosus), Boga (Leporinus affinis), Patí (Luciopimelodus pati) and Surubí (Pseudoplatistoma coruscans) was studied in order to determine their food value in relation to essential fatty acid n-3 and n-6 supply. Flesh from these fishes is relatively lean and its lipids only contain 35% to 38% saturated fatty acids. Significant amounts of n-6 polyethylenic acids, mainly linoleic, arachidonic and the n-3 acids, docosahexaenoic, docosapentaenoic, eicosapentaenoic and alpha-linolenic are found in these fishes. Patí flesh is the most abundant in n-6 acids with a value of 306 mg/100 g muscle, followed by Boga, Dorado and Surubí. A large proportion of n-3 acids is supplied by muscles of Dorado, 183 mg/100g muscle, followed by Patí, Boga and Surubí. More than 90% of the lipids that supply these acids are present in triacylglycerols in Dorado, Boga and Patí. In Surubí, triacylglycerols constitute 60% and the remaining lipids are phospholipids. Cholesterol content in flesh of fresh water fish was analyzed, and it did not exceed 4.7 micrograms/g muscle for Patí, being lower for the other species studied. Fish considered in this work represent a good dietary source of polyunsaturated fatty acids either n-6 or n-3 series for the mediterranean population in our country. PMID:9640764

Brenner, R R; Bernasconi, A M

1997-01-01

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High serum n6 fatty acid proportion is associated with lowered LDL oxidation and inflammation: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.  

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The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is generally linked with a reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but an elevated n6PUFA intake, without simultaneous n3PUFA supply, may elevate the risk. PUFAs are suspected as being easily oxidized and have a potential role in lipoprotein oxidation and inflammation. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are resistant to oxidation. However, in a Western diet, their most important source is red meat, a food stuff rich in heme iron which can catalyze oxidative reactions. Therefore, different serum fatty acid (FA) proportions (free + esterified) were correlated with the status of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vivo (conjugated dienes = oxLDLlipids and antibody-based oxidized proteins = oxLDLprot) and inflammation (serum CRP) in 2196 Finnish subjects (age: 24-39 years) using CVD risk factor-adjusted linear regression models. High n6PUFA, PUFA/SFA and n6/n3 ratios, and low SFA and MUFA were all associated with reduced levels of oxLDLlipids, oxLDLprot, and CRP. These findings at the population level suggest that PUFAs are negatively and SFAs and MUFAs positively related with LDL oxidation and inflammation; these conclusions are in line with previous observations linking PUFAs, particularly n6PUFAs, with lower CVD risk, and SFAs with increased risk. PMID:24437974

Kaikkonen, J E; Kresanov, P; Ahotupa, M; Jula, A; Mikkilä, V; Viikari, J S A; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Raitakari, O T

2014-04-01

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n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enhance the Activities of Ceftazidime and Amikacin in Experimental Sepsis Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

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Recent in vitro and ex vivo studies disclosed an enhancement of the activity of antimicrobials on multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa by n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS); therefore their effect was evaluated in experimental sepsis in 60 rabbits. Solutions of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were administered intravenously with ceftazidime and amikacin in rabbits with sepsis caused by one multidrug-resistant isolate. Therapy was started after bacterial challen...

2004-01-01

17

Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells  

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Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

2012-11-23

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Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. ? fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. ? fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ? The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

2012-11-23

19

Hypercholesterolemia Increases Plasma Saturated and n-6 Fatty Acids Altering Prostaglandin Homeostasis and Promotes Endothelial Dysfunction in Rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated the plasma fatty acid levels and the vascular prostaglandin (PG) release in a rabbit model of early hypercholesterolemia with endothelial dysfunction. Rabbits were fed either a control diet (CD) or a diet containing 1 % cholesterol (HD) for 5-6 weeks. The level of fatty acids was measured in plasma. The levels of PG and nitric oxide (NO) released from the aorta were also determined. Vascular morphology of the aorta was characterized by intima and media thickness measurements. The rabbits fed with HD had higher levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and lower levels of oleic acid. The linoleic acid level was unchanged. PGI2 and NO were diminished and PGF2? levels, the PGI2/TXA2 ratio and the intima/media ratio were increased in rabbits fed with HD. In conclusion, feeding HD for a short period increased ARA plasma levels and unbalanced release of vasodilator/vasoconstrictor PG redirected the pathway to vasoconstrictor metabolite release. These lipid metabolism alterations in addition to the reduced NO levels and the moderate changes in the vascular morphology contributed to the endothelial dysfunction in this animal model. Therefore, the present findings support the importance of early correction or prevention of high cholesterol levels to disrupt the endothelial dysfunction process that leads to cardiovascular disease. PMID:24880668

Medina, M; Alberto, M R; Sierra, L; Van Nieuwenhove, C; Saad, S; Isla, M I; Jerez, S

2014-07-01

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Effect of Blend Probiotics on Rumen Fermentation and Plasma Fatty Acid Contents and Plasma n6:n3 Ratios of Growing Goats  

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Full Text Available This study was performed with the purpose of investigating effect of additional blend of probiotics Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus on plasma fatty acid profiles particularly Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA in growing goats fed corn silage and selected the optimal levels of the probiotics for further study. Twenty four growing crossbred (Thai native x Anglo-Nubian goats that weighed (14.2±2.3 kg, aged about 6 months were purchased and allocated to 4 treatments according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with 6 goats in each treatment. The blocks were made by weight into heavy, medium and light goats and each of the treatments contained two goats from each of the blocks. In the mean time, ruminal average pH unaffected but the NH3-N and also plasma urea nitrogen (p0.05 were raised but propionic proportion (p0.05 were reduced in concurrent with raise of acetic proportion and resultantly C2:C3 ratio (p>0.05. On plasma fatty acid profiles, total saturated fatty acids (p>0.05 was increased and contrasted with decrease of C15:0 (p0.05 and C18-C22 poly unsaturated fatty acids (p0.05 and for raising ratio of n6:n3 (p<0.05.

S. Traiyakun

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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n-3 and n-6 Fatty acids are independently associated with lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent risk factor for CVD and has been proposed as a marker of vascular inflammation. Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (FA) and several n-6 FA are known to suppress inflammation and may influence Lp-PLA2 mass and activity. The associations of n-3 and n-6 plasma FA with Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were analysed using linear regression analysis in 2246 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; statistical adjustments were made to control for body mass, inflammation, lipids, diabetes, and additional clinical and demographic factors. Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were significantly lower in participants with the higher n-3 FA EPA (? = - 4·72, PLp-PLA2 mass and 5·7 and 8·90 nmol/min per ml lower Lp-PLA2 activity than those in the first quintiles, respectively. In addition, lower Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were associated with higher levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (? = - 1·63, ? = - 1·30; both PLp-PLA2 mass was significantly higher in participants with greater plasma levels of n-6 linoleic (? = 0·828, P= 0·011) and dihomo-?-linolenic acids (? = 4·17, P= 0·002). Based on their independent associations with Lp-PLA2 mass and activity, certain n-3 and n-6 FA may have additional influences on CVD risk. Intervention studies are warranted to assess whether these macronutrients may directly influence Lp-PLA2 expression or activity. PMID:23551952

Steffen, Brian T; Steffen, Lyn M; Liang, Shuang; Tracy, Russell; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Tsai, Michael Y

2013-11-14

22

n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enhance the Activities of Ceftazidime and Amikacin in Experimental Sepsis Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

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Recent in vitro and ex vivo studies disclosed an enhancement of the activity of antimicrobials on multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa by n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS); therefore their effect was evaluated in experimental sepsis in 60 rabbits. Solutions of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were administered intravenously with ceftazidime and amikacin in rabbits with sepsis caused by one multidrug-resistant isolate. Therapy was started after bacterial challenge in five groups comprising 12 animals in each group: A, normal saline; B, antimicrobials; C, 99% ethanol and antimicrobials; D, GLA and antimicrobials; and E, AA and antimicrobials. Blood was sampled for the estimation of levels of endotoxins in serum (lipopolysaccharide), leukocytes, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and antimicrobials. Animals were sacrificed 210 min after bacterial challenge for tissue cultures. All animals had considerable endotoxemia and evolved leukopenia. The number of viable cells in blood, lung, and mesenteric lymph nodes was significantly reduced in groups D and E compared to that in other groups. Levels of antimicrobials in serum were inadequate to achieve bacterial killing due to the level of resistance. n-6 PUFAs did not influence TNF-?. It is concluded that intravenous coadministration of n-6 PUFAs and antimicrobials enhanced antimicrobial bacterial killing in experimental sepsis caused by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa.

Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J.; Mouktaroudi, Maria; Adamis, Theodoros; Koussoulas, Vassilios; Baziaka, Fotini; Perrea, Despina; Karayannacos, Panayotis E.; Giamarellou, Helen

2004-01-01

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Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalised n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

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Abstract Background A high dietary intake of n-6 compared to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) may promote the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. In two recent studies, short-term (10-day) duodenal administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich seal oil ameliorated joint pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Using unpublished data from these two studies we here investigated whether normalisation of the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood and tissu...

Bjørkkjær Tormod; Brun Johan G; Valen Merete; Arslan Gülen; Lind Ragna; Brunborg Linn A; Berstad Arnold; Frøyland Livar

2006-01-01

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Changes in rat n-3 and n-6 fatty acid composition during pregnancy are associated with progesterone concentrations and hepatic FADS2 expression.  

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The mechanisms responsible for changes to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC PUFA) status during pregnancy have not been fully elucidated. Tissue samples were collected from virgin and pregnant (day 12 and 20) female rats. LC PUFA status, sex hormone concentrations and hepatic mRNA expression of FADS1, FADS2 and elongase were assessed. Day 20 gestation females had higher plasma and liver docosahexaenoic acid and lower arachidonic acid content than virgin females (P<0.05). There was higher FADS2 mRNA expression during pregnancy (P=0.051). Progesterone and oestradiol concentrations positively correlated with hepatic FADS2 mRNA expression (P=0.043, P=0.004). Progesterone concentration positively correlated with hepatic n-6 docosapentaenoic acid content (P=0.006), and inversely correlated with intermediates in LC PUFA synthesis including n-3 docosapentaenoic acid, ?-linolenic acid and 20:2n-6 (P<0.05). Changes in progesterone and oestradiol during pregnancy may promote the synthesis of LC PUFA via increased FADS2 expression. PMID:22495065

Childs, C E; Hoile, S P; Burdge, G C; Calder, P C

2012-04-01

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Dietary n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratios differentially influence hormonal signature in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome relative to healthy controls  

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Full Text Available Abstract Dietary ratios of omega-3 (n-3 to omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been implicated in controlling markers of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profiles and adiposity. However, the role of dietary PUFAs in regulating energy systems in healthy relative to metabolic diseased backgrounds has not been systematically addressed. We used dietary manipulation of n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios in an animal model of metabolic syndrome and a related healthy line to assay feeding behavior and endocrine markers of feeding drive and energy regulation. Two related lines of rodents with a healthy and a metabolic syndrome phenotype were fed one of two isocaloric diets, comprised of either a 1:1 or a 1:30 n-3 to n-6 ratio, for 30 days. Food intake and weight gain were monitored; and leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and a suite of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in energy regulation were assayed following the dietary manipulation period. There was no difference in caloric intake or weight gain between diet groups, however there was a significant interaction between diet and phenotypic line on central and peripheral markers of energy homeostasis. Thus serum levels of leptin, acylated-ghrelin and adiponectin, and mRNA levels of the anorexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, cocaine-amphetamine related transcript (CART, showed differential, dietary responses with HCR rats showing an increase in anorexigenic signals in response to unbalanced n-3:6 ratios, while LCR did not. These data are the first to demonstrate that a rodent line with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype responds differentially to dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids relative to a related healthy line with regard to endocrine markers of energy homeostasis. The dietary n-3:n-6 ratios used in this experiment represent extreme points of natural human diets, however the data suggest that optimal recommendations regarding omega-3 and omega-6 intake may have differing effects in healthy subjects relative to metabolic syndrome patients. Further research is necessary to establish these responses in human populations.

Koch Lauren G

2010-06-01

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Kinetics of chronic inflammation in Nile tilapia fed n?3 and n?6 essential fatty acids Cinética da inflamação crônica em tilápia?do?nilo alimentada com ácidos graxos essenciais n?3 e n?6  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on the kinetics of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The supplementation sources were soybean oil (SO, source of omega 6, n?6 and linseed oil (LO, source of omega 3, n?3, in the following proportions: 100% SO; 75% SO + 25% LO; 50% SO + 50% LO; 25% SO + 75% LO; and 100% LO (four replicates per treatment. After a feeding period of three months, growth performance was evaluated, and glass coverslips were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of fish, being removed for examination at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after implantation. Growth performance did not differ between treatments. Fish fed 100% linseed oil diet had the greatest macrophage accumulation and the fastest Langhans cell formation on the sixth day. On the eighth day, Langhans cells were predominant on the coverslips implanted in the fish feed 75 and 100% linseed oil. n?3 fatty acids may contribute to macrophage recruitment and giant cell formation in fish chronic inflammatory response to foreign body.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da suplementação alimentar com ácidos graxos essenciais sobre a cinética do acúmulo de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes em tilápia?do?nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. As fontes de suplementação foram óleo de soja (OS, fonte de ômega 6, n?6 e óleo de linhaça (OL, fonte de ômega 3, n?3, nas seguintes proporções: 100% OS; 75% OS + 25% OL; 50% OS + 50% OL; 25% OS + 75% OL; e 100% OL (quatro repetições por tratamento. Após período de alimentação de três meses, foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo, e lamínulas de vidro foram implantadas no tecido subcutâneo dos peixes, as quais foram removidas para exame aos 2, 4, 6 e 8 dias após o implante. O desempenho produtivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os peixes alimentados com 100% de óleo de linhaça tiveram maior acúmulo de macrófagos e formação mais rápida de células de Langhans, no sexto dia. No oitavo dia, as células de Langhans foram predominantes nas lamínulas implantadas nos peixes alimentados com 75 e 100% de óleo de linhaça. Os ácidos graxos n?3 podem contribuir para o recrutamento de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes, na resposta inflamatória crônica a corpo estranho em peixes.

Róberson Sakabe

2013-03-01

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Kinetics of chronic inflammation in Nile tilapia fed n?3 and n?6 essential fatty acids / Cinética da inflamação crônica em tilápia?do?nilo alimentada com ácidos graxos essenciais n?3 e n?6  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da suplementação alimentar com ácidos graxos essenciais sobre a cinética do acúmulo de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes em tilápia?do?nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). As fontes de suplementação foram óleo de soja (OS, fonte de ômega 6, n?6) e [...] óleo de linhaça (OL, fonte de ômega 3, n?3), nas seguintes proporções: 100% OS; 75% OS + 25% OL; 50% OS + 50% OL; 25% OS + 75% OL; e 100% OL (quatro repetições por tratamento). Após período de alimentação de três meses, foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo, e lamínulas de vidro foram implantadas no tecido subcutâneo dos peixes, as quais foram removidas para exame aos 2, 4, 6 e 8 dias após o implante. O desempenho produtivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os peixes alimentados com 100% de óleo de linhaça tiveram maior acúmulo de macrófagos e formação mais rápida de células de Langhans, no sexto dia. No oitavo dia, as células de Langhans foram predominantes nas lamínulas implantadas nos peixes alimentados com 75 e 100% de óleo de linhaça. Os ácidos graxos n?3 podem contribuir para o recrutamento de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes, na resposta inflamatória crônica a corpo estranho em peixes. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on the kinetics of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The supplementation sources were soybean oil (SO, source of omega 6, n?6) and li [...] nseed oil (LO, source of omega 3, n?3), in the following proportions: 100% SO; 75% SO + 25% LO; 50% SO + 50% LO; 25% SO + 75% LO; and 100% LO (four replicates per treatment). After a feeding period of three months, growth performance was evaluated, and glass coverslips were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of fish, being removed for examination at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after implantation. Growth performance did not differ between treatments. Fish fed 100% linseed oil diet had the greatest macrophage accumulation and the fastest Langhans cell formation on the sixth day. On the eighth day, Langhans cells were predominant on the coverslips implanted in the fish feed 75 and 100% linseed oil. n?3 fatty acids may contribute to macrophage recruitment and giant cell formation in fish chronic inflammatory response to foreign body.

Róberson, Sakabe; Flávio Ruas de, Moraes; Marco Antonio de Andrade, Belo; Fabiana, Pilarski; Julieta Rodini Engrácia de, Moraes.

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The ratio of dietary (n-6) to (n-3) fatty acids influences immune system function, eicosanoid metabolism, lipid peroxidation and vitamin E status in aged dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effects of feeding experimental diets containing (n-6) to (n-3) fatty acid ratios of 31:1, 5.4:1, and 1.4:1 to 20 healthy female geriatric Beagles (9.5-11.5 y) for 8-12 wk on various indices of the immune response. Compared with the 31:1 diet, consumption of the 5.4:1 and 1.4:1 diets significantly increased (n-3) fatty acids in plasma (2.17 +/- 0.64, 9.05 +/- 0.64, 17.46 +/- 0.64 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively, P immune response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), it significantly suppressed the cell-mediated immune response based on results of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test. The DTH response after intradermal injection of KLH at 24 h was significantly lower in the group consuming the 1.4:1 diet compared with the group consuming the 5.4:1 (P = 0.02) or the 31:1 diets (P = 0.04), and remained significantly suppressed at 48 h in the group fed 1.4:1 relative to the group fed 31:1. After consumption of the 1.4:1 diet, stimulated mononuclear cells produced 52% less prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) than those from dogs fed the 31:1 diet (224 +/- 74 and 451 +/- 71 pmol/L, respectively, P = 0.04). Plasma concentration of alpha-tocopherol was 20% lower in dogs fed the 1.4:1 diet compared with those fed the 31:1 diet (P = 0.04), and lipid peroxidation was greater in both plasma (P = 0.03) and urine (P = 0.002). These data suggest that although a ratio of dietary (n-6) to (n-3) fatty acids of 1.4:1 depresses the cell-mediated immune response and PGE2 production, it increases lipid peroxidation and lowers vitamin E concentration. PMID:9187636

Wander, R C; Hall, J A; Gradin, J L; Du, S H; Jewell, D E

1997-06-01

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n-3 and n-6 Fatty acids are independently associated with lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent risk factor for CVD and has been proposed as a marker of vascular inflammation. Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (FA) and several n-6 FA are known to suppress inflammation and may influence Lp-PLA2 mass and activity. The associations of n-3 and n-6 plasma FA with Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were analysed using linear regression analysis in 2246 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; statistical adjustments were made to control for body mass, inflammation, lipids, diabetes, and additional clinical and demographic factors. Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were significantly lower in participants with the higher n-3 FA EPA (? = ?4·72, P<0·001; ? = ?1·53; P=0·023) and DHA levels (? = ?4·47, ? = ?1·87; both P<0·001). Those in the highest quintiles of plasma EPA and DHA showed 12·71 and 19·15 ng/ml lower Lp-PLA2 mass and 5·7 and 8·90 nmol/min per ml lower Lp-PLA2 activity than those in the first quintiles, respectively. In addition, lower Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were associated with higher levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (? = ?1·63, ? = ?1·30; both P<0·001), while ?-linolenic acid was negatively associated with activity (? = ?27·7, P=0·027). Lp-PLA2 mass was significantly higher in participants with greater plasma levels of n-6 linoleic (? = 0·828, P=0·011) and dihomo-?-linolenic acids (? = 4·17, P=0·002). Based on their independent associations with Lp-PLA2 mass and activity, certain n-3 and n-6 FA may have additional influences on CVD risk. Intervention studies are warranted to assess whether these macronutrients may directly influence Lp-PLA2 expression or activity.

Steffen, Brian T.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Liang, Shuang; Tracy, Russell; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Tsai, Michael Y.

2014-01-01

30

Plasma fatty acid changes following consumption of dietary oils containing n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids at different proportions: preliminary findings of the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT)  

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Background The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT) was a randomized controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the effects of five diets that provided different oils and/or oil blends on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with abdominal obesity. The present objective is to report preliminary findings on plasma fatty acid profiles in volunteers with abdominal obesity, following the consumption of diets enriched with n-3, n-6 and n-9 fatty acids. Methods COMIT was conducted at three clinical sites, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Québec City, Québec, Canada and University Park, Pennsylvania, United States. Inclusion criteria were at least one of the followings: waist circumference (?90 cm for males and ?84 cm for females), and at least one other criterion: triglycerides ?1.7 mmol/L, high density lipoprotein cholesterol acid (DHA), flax oil and safflower oil blend, and corn oil and safflower oil blend. A per protocol approach with a mixed model analysis was decided to be appropriate for data analysis. Results One hundred and seventy volunteers were randomized and 130 completed the study with a dropout rate of 23.5%. The mean plasma total DHA concentrations, which were analyzed among all participants as a measure of adherence, increased by more than 100% in the DHA-enriched phase, compared to other phases, demonstrating excellent dietary adherence. Conclusions Recruitment and retention strategies were effective in achieving a sufficient number of participants who completed the study protocol to enable sufficient statistical power to resolve small differences in outcome measures. It is expected that the study will generate important data thereby enhancing our understanding of the effects of n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acid-containing oils on CVD risks. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01351012.

2014-01-01

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Different sources of dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and their effects on antibody responses in chickens  

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1. Effects of linoleic and linolenic acid provided via different oil sources on total antibody (Ab) titres, Ab isotypes after primary and secondary immunisation, and cutaneous hypersensitivity (CH) responses to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and maleyl-BSA, respectively, were studied in pullets fed on one of 4 diets. The diets were the basal control diet enriched with either sunflower oil or safflower oil as sources of linoleic acid, and linseed oil as a source of linolenic acid, tested against a...

2002-01-01

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Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Fish Oil and Multivitamin Supplementation on the Incorporation of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids into Red Blood Cells  

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The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160) were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

Pipingas, Andrew; Cockerell, Robyn; Grima, Natalie; Sinclair, Andrew; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew; Myers, Stephen; Croft, Kevin; Sali, Avni; Pase, Matthew P.

2014-01-01

33

Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Fish Oil and Multivitamin Supplementation on the Incorporation of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids into Red Blood Cells  

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Full Text Available The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160 were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

Andrew Pipingas

2014-05-01

34

Seasonal Variations of n-6: n-3 Ratios and Fatty Acid Compositions in Foot and Tissue of Chiton lamyi in a High Primary Productivity Area  

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Problem statement: Fatty acid content and composition in mollusks is a function of their feeding diversity. Chabahar bay located in the northern part of Oman sea in Indian ocean provides high rates of primary productivity and a diverse food source for mollusks in this area. Identification of fatty acid compositions of Chiton lamyi and study their seasonal changes in the intertidal zone of Chabahar bay. Study the meat quality by n-6: n-3 ratios calculation throughout the year.

Nooshin Sajjadi; Peyman Eghtesadi-Araghi; Shahla Jamili; Mehri Hashtroodi; Sahar Farzadnia; Ali Mashinchian

2009-01-01

35

Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

Kawabata Terue

2011-08-01

36

Expression of E-FABP in PC12 cells increases neurite extension during differentiation: involvement of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids  

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Epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP), a member of the family of FABPs, exhibits a robust expression in neurons during axonal growth in development and in nerve regeneration following nerve injury. This study examines the impact of E-FABP expression in normal neurite extension in differentiating pheochromocytoma cell (PC12) cultures supplemented with selected long chain free fatty acids (LCFFA). We found that E-FABP binds to a broad range of saturated and unsaturated LCFFAs, including...

Liu, Jo-wen; Almaguel, Frankis G.; Bu, Liming; Leon, Daisy D.; Leon, Marino

2008-01-01

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High Levels of Both n-3 and n-6 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cord Serum Phospholipids Predict Allergy Development  

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Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) reduce T-cell activation and dampen inflammation. They might thereby counteract the neonatal immune activation and hamper normal tolerance development to harmless environmental antigens. We investigated whether fatty acid composition of cord serum phospholipids affects allergy development up to age 13 years. Methods: From a population-based birth-cohort born in 1996/7 and followed until 13 years of age (n = 794), we selected cases w...

2013-01-01

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Antioxidant status, lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet containing currant oil rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a prospective antiatherogenic potential. Currant oil from Ribes nigrum L. is one of the few plant oils containing PUFAn-3 (15.3 mol%) in addition to PUFAn-6 (60.5 mol%). This study was aimed at comparing the effects of currant oil with those of lard fat, rich in saturated (43.8 mol%) and monounsaturated (47.0 mol%) fatty acids, on antioxidant parameters, the lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on 1 % (w/w) cholesterol diets containing either 10 % of currant oil (COD) or lard fat (LFD). After 3 weeks of feeding, the COD induced a significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and an increase in Cu(2+) induced oxidizability of serum lipids, but did not affect liver GSH and t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of liver microsomes. Although the COD did not cause accumulation of liver triacylglycerols as LFD, the lipoprotein profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) was not significantly improved after COD. The consumption of PUFAn-3 was reflected in LDL as an increase in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that currant oil affects positively the lipid metabolism in the liver, above all it does not cause the development of a fatty liver. However, adverse effects of currant oil on the antioxidant status in the blood still remain of concern. PMID:12678660

Vecera, R; Skottová, N; Vána, P; Kazdová, L; Chmela, Z; Svagera, Z; Walterá, D; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

2003-01-01

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Ácidos graxos poli-insaturados n-3 e n-6: metabolismo em mamíferos e resposta imune / Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: metabolism in mammals and immune response  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A experimentação animal apresenta uma grande importância para o desenvolvimento da ciência. O uso de camundongos em experimentos ocorre devido à semelhança destes animais com os seres humanos, fácil criação e manutenção e resposta experimental bastante rápida. Esses animais possuem as mesmas enzimas [...] dessaturases e elongases que os humanos, por isso são usados em pesquisas envolvendo incorporação e síntese de ácidos graxos em tecidos. Os ácidos graxos da família ômega-3 e ômega-6 são de suma importância na dieta humana, pois estes não são sintetizados pela síntese de novo e são precursores dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados de cadeia muito longa, como os ácidos eicosapentaenóico, docosahexaenóico e araquidônico. Estes desempenham funções importantes no organismo, como a síntese de eicosanóides que estão envolvidos diretamente no sistema imune e nas respostas inflamatórias. A razão entre o consumo de ácidos graxos n-6 e n-3 na dieta é um importante fator para determinar a ingestão adequada de ácidos graxos bem como prevenir o aparecimento de doenças. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar a incorporação de ácidos graxos em tecidos de animais e discutir a importância dos ácidos da família n-3 e seus metabólitos no sistema imunológico. Abstract in english Experiments with animals are very important for the improvement of science. The use of mice in experiments is due to their similarity with humans, the easy of raising and maintaining them and their very fast response. These animals have the same desaturase and elongase enzymes as humans and so they [...] are used in research involving the incorporation and synthesis of fatty acids in tissues. The fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 are extremely important in the human diet because they are not synthesized de novo and are precursors of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as the eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids. These acids play important roles in animals, such as precursors of eicosanoids, which are directly involved in the immune system and inflammatory response. The dietary n-3:n-6 intake ratio is important for assessing proper fatty acid intake and for preventing the development of diseases. Thus, this article assessed the incorporation of fatty acids in animal tissues and discussed the importance of n-3 fatty acids and its metabolites for the immune system.

Perini, João Ângelo De Lima; Stevanato, Flávia Braidotti; Sargi, Sheisa Cyléia; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Dalalio, Márcia Machado De Oliveira; Matshushita, Makoto; Souza, Nilson Evelázio De; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio.

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Trabajos de Investigación Increase of plasma fatty acids without changes in n-6/n-3-PUFA ratio in asymptomatic obese subjects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La obesidad está asociada con una inflamación de bajo grado que contribuye al desarrollo de la insulino-resistencia y de la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos saturados (AGS), monoinsaturados (AGMI) y poliinsaturados (AGPI) en sujetos o [...] besos asintomáticos y determinar el ratio ácido araquidónico/ácido eicosapentanoico [ARA/EPA] como un posible marcador de inflamación, con su eventual asociación con los niveles de proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (PCRus). Se reclutaron 14 sujetos obesos (34,4 ± 11.1 años; índice de masa corporal: 36,0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) y 12 normopeso (30,6 ± 7.8 años; índice de masa corporal: 23,6 ± 2,4 kg/m2); las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos fueron determinados por cromatografía de gases. Los niveles de PCRus fueron más elevadas en los sujetos obesos (p=0,01) y correlacionaron con el contenido de grasa corporal. Los porcentajes relativos de AGS, AGMI, AGPI no se vieron afectados en los sujetos obesos, pero sus concentraciones plasmáticas se incrementaron en comparación con el grupo control. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias en las concentraciones de PUFAs de cadena larga (DHA, EPA y ARA) ni en el ratio ARA/EPA en los sujetos obesos. Estas observaciones no apoyan el uso del ratio ARA/EPA como un marcador de inflamación de bajo grado evaluada por PCRus en este grupo de sujetos obesos asintomáticos. Abstract in english Obesity is associated with a low grade inflammation which contributes to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the total saturated (SFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma from asymptomatic obese subjects and [...] to determine the arachidonic/eicosapentanoic acid ratio [ARA/EPA] as a marker of inflammation, and its eventual association with ultrasensitive CRP. Fourteen obese (34.4 ± 11.1y.; BMI: 36.0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) and 12 normal-weight (30.6 ± 7.8y.; BMI: 23,6± 2,4 kg/m2) subjects were recruited and their plasma fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. usCRP was higher in the obese subjects (p=0,01) and correlates with their body fat content. The percentages of SFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs were not affected in the obese subjects but their concentrations were increased, compared with the control group. However, no differences in the long chain PUFAs (DHA and EPA) concentrations or in the plasmatic ARA/EPA ratio were observed in these subjects. These observations do not support a relation between the ARA/EPA ratio and the presence of low grade inflammation evaluated by plasma usCRP in this group of asymptomatic obese subjects.

Jerusa, Brignardello; Pamela, Morales; Erik, Diaz; Oscar, Brunser; Martin, Gotteland.

 
 
 
 
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Comparative Effects of n-3, n-6 and n-9 Unsaturated Fatty Acid-Rich Diet Consumption on Lupus Nephritis, Autoantibody Production and CD4+ T Cell-Related Gene Responses in the Autoimmune NZBWF1 Mouse  

Science.gov (United States)

Mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypical autoimmune disease, correlates with the onset and severity of kidney glomerulonephritis. There are both preclinical and clinical evidence that SLE patients may benefit from consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in fish oil, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we employed the NZBWF1 SLE mouse model to compare the effects of dietary lipids on the onset and severity of autoimmune glomerulonephritis after consuming: 1) n-3 PUFA-rich diet containing docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil (DFO), 2) n-6 PUFA-rich Western-type diet containing corn oil (CRN) or 3) n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich Mediterranean-type diet containing high oleic safflower oil (HOS). Elevated plasma autoantibodies, proteinuria and glomerulonephritis were evident in mice fed either the n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets, however, all three endpoints were markedly attenuated in mice that consumed the n-3 PUFA diet until 34 wk of age. A focused PCR array was used to relate these findings to the expression of 84 genes associated with CD4+ T cell function in the spleen and kidney both prior to and after the onset of the autoimmune nephritis. n-3 PUFA suppression of autoimmunity in NZBWF1 mice was found to co-occur with a generalized downregulation of CD4+ T cell-related genes in kidney and/or spleen at wk 34. These genes were associated with the inflammatory response, antigen presentation, T cell activation, B cell activation/differentiation and leukocyte recruitment. Quantitative RT-PCR of representative affected genes confirmed that n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with reduced expression of CD80, CTLA-4, IL-10, IL-18, CCL-5, CXCR3, IL-6, TNF-? and osteopontin mRNAs in kidney and/or spleens as compared to mice fed n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets. Remarkably, many of the genes identified in this study are currently under consideration as biomarkers and/or biotherapeutic targets for SLE and other autoimmune diseases.

Pestka, James J.; Vines, Laura L.; Bates, Melissa A.; He, Kaiyu; Langohr, Ingeborg

2014-01-01

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Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor ? protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ? expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

Nuernberg Karin

2011-08-01

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Efeito dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 na expressão de genes do metabolismo de lipídeos e risco de aterosclerose / Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in the lipid metabolism and risk of atherosclerosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A aterosclerose, principal responsável pela patogênese do infarto miocárdico e cerebral, bem como pela gangrena e por outras doenças vasculares periféricas, permanece como principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade nas populações "ocidentalizadas". Estima-se que 17,5 milhões de pessoas morreram por [...] doenças cardiovasculares em 2005, o que representou 30% das causas de morte nesse ano, e que, em 2015, 20 milhões de pessoas morrerão por doenças cardiovasculares no mundo. Os ácidos graxos n-3, principalmente os de cadeia longa, encontrados nos peixes, têm-se mostrado particularmente úteis na prevenção e tratamento de doenças como dislipidemias, diabetes mellitus e obesidade, apresentando importante efeito cardioprotetor. Nesse contexto, pesquisas têm evidenciado que ao menos parte dos benefícios dos ácidos graxos eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico sobre o risco de doenças cardiovasculares é decorrente da modulação de genes responsivos aos receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomos e envolvidos no metabolismo lipídico. Nesta revisão, pretende-se expor alguns mecanismos de ação dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 sobre o metabolismo de lipídeos e de lipoproteínas. Conclui-se que muitos aspectos que contribuem para o risco de doenças cardiovasculares são afetados pela ingestão de n-3. Além da redução de triglicérides, fatores como o aumento de adiponectina, a redução da concentração de colesterol plasmático e a melhora do transporte reverso de colesterol também são responsáveis pela redução do risco de aterosclerose promovida pelos ácidos graxos n-3. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos adicionais para definir mais claramente os mecanismos celulares e moleculares responsáveis pelo efeito cardioprotetor dos ácidos graxos n-3. Abstract in english Atherosclerosis, the main cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, gangrene and other peripheral vascular diseases, also persists as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Western populations. Roughly 17.5 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2005, representing 30% of the causes [...] of death in that year, and in 2015, another 20 million people will die of cardiovascular diseases around the world. The n-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain n-3 found in fish, have been shown to be particularly effective in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus and obesity, presenting an important cardioprotective effect. In this context, studies have found that at least some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids regard the modulation of genes that respond to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors involved in lipid metabolism. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of some n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In conclusion, many aspects that contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases are affected by n-3 intake. N-3 fatty acids not only reduce triglycerides, but also promote factors that increase adiponectin, reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the reverse cholesterol transport, and all of these contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. However, additional studies are still necessary to elucidate all the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the cardioprotective effect of n-3 fatty acids.

Helena Fonseca, Raposo.

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Retroconversion of docosapentaenoic acid (n-6): an alternative pathway for biosynthesis of arachidonic acid in Daphnia magna.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess metabolic pathways for arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) biosynthesis in Daphnia magna. Neonates of D. magna were maintained on [(13)C] enriched Scenedesmus obliquus and supplemented with liposomes that contained separate treatments of unlabeled docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6), 20:4n-6, linoleic acid (18:2n-6) or oleic acid (18:1n-9). Daphnia in the control treatment, without any supplementary fatty acids (FA) containing only trace amounts of 20:4n-6 (~0.3% of all FA). As expected, the highest proportion of 20:4n-6 (~6.3%) was detected in Daphnia that received liposomes supplemented with this FA. Higher availability of 18:2n-6 in the diet increased the proportion of 18:2n-6 in Daphnia, but the proportion of 20:4n-6 was not affected. Daphnia supplemented with 22:5n-6 contained ~3.5% 20:4n-6 in the lipids and FA specific stable isotope analyses validated that the increase in the proportion of 20:4n-6 was due to retroconversion of unlabeled 22:5n-6. These results suggest that chain shortening of 22:5n-6 is a more efficient pathway to synthesize 20:4n-6 in D. magna than elongation and desaturation of 18:2n-6. These results may at least partially explain the discrepancies noticed between phytoplankton FA composition and the expected FA composition in freshwater cladocerans. Finally, retroconversion of dietary 22:5n-6 to 20:4n-6 indicates Daphnia efficiently retain long chain n-6 FA in lake food webs, which might be important for the nutritional ecology of fish. PMID:24715497

Strandberg, Ursula; Taipale, Sami J; Kainz, Martin J; Brett, Michael T

2014-06-01

45

Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein. Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P<0,05. The PUFA/SFA ratio was the highest in Simmental calves and the lowest in Holstein calves. Simmental calves also had the highest n-6/n-3 ratio while the crossbreed calves had the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio.

Ivica Kos

2010-01-01

46

Dietary n?3 and n?6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake interacts with FADS1 genetic variation to affect total and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in the Doetinchem Cohort Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The ?-5 and ?-6 desaturases, encoded by the FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are rate-limiting enzymes in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster region have been associated with both PUFA concentrations in plasma or erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and cholesterol concentrations in recent genome-wide association studies. Objective: We examined whether genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster region interact with diet...

Lu, Y.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Dolle?, M. E. T.; Imholz, S.; Verschuren, W. M. M.; Mu?ller, M. R.; Boer, J. M. A.

2010-01-01

47

Plant fatty acid hydroxylases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01

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Fatty acid analogs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

Elmaleh, David R. (Newton Center, MA); Livni, Eli (Brookline, MA)

1985-01-01

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Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Essential fatty acids (EFA are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy.

Bill Lands

2012-09-01

50

The combined effects of genetic variation in the SIRT1 gene and dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on serum LDL-C and HDL-C levels: a population based study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslipidemia due to high total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, or low HDL-cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD. Both SIRT1 and PUFAs can influence the expression of genes for nuclear receptors and transcription factors related to lipid metabolism such as LXR?, LXR?, PPAR?, SREBP-1c. Methods A total of 707 Japanese males and 723 females were randomly selected from the participants who visited a medical center for routine medical check-ups. We analyzed the combined effects of the genotype/haplotype of the SIRT1 gene and dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio on the determination of serum lipid levels. Results We found that the SIRT1 gene marked with haplotype 2 was associated with decreased serum LDL-cholesterol and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. In addition, the associations between the SIRT1 haplotype 2 and decreased LDL-C and increased HDL-C levels were only observed in the low n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio group, but not in the high n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio group. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the combination of genetic variation in the SIRT1 gene and dietary n-6 and/or n-3 PUFA intake influence the determination of inter-individual variations of serum levels of LDL-C and HDL-C.

Inamori Tomoko

2013-01-01

51

Antimicrobial Fatty Acid Derivatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acetylthio amides and esters were prepared by the free radical addition of thiolacetic acid to the terminal and nonterminal double bonds of N-substituted fatty amides and fatty esters. These new sulfur or halogen-containing compounds were found to have an...

R. R. Mod J. A. Harris F. C. Magne G. Sumrell A. F. Novak

1978-01-01

52

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

Philip C. Calder

2010-03-01

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Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry : a cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry.

Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders

2011-01-01

54

Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry.

Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders

2011-01-01

55

Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated [18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)] fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of [1-"1"4C]labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism

1986-01-01

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In vitro model of essential fatty acid deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

The polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic acid (18:2, n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6) are essential for normal skin function and structure, both as eicosanoid precursors and as components of lipids forming cell membranes. Adult human keratinocytes grow optimally in serum-free medium (MCDB 153) that contains no fatty acids. These keratinocytes expand rapidly and produce normal epidermis upon in vivo grafting. Analysis of lipid extracts of epidermis and of cultured keratinocytes was done to determine the fatty acid composition of cells grown in essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient medium. Gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses were done of the fatty acids in the entire cell and in a thin-layer chromatography separated fraction containing those lipids that form cellular membranes. Comparison of snap-frozen epidermis and epidermal basal cell suspensions to passage 1 to 4 cultures shows that the cells are in an extreme essential fatty acid-deficient state by the first passage. The amount of the saturated fatty acids 16:0, 18:0, and 14:0 is unchanged by culture. The polyunsaturated fatty acids are found to be significantly decreased, the cells balancing their lack with a significant increase in the relative abundance of the monounsaturated fatty acids, 18:1 and 16:1. Greater than 85-90% of the fatty acids was found in lipids associated with membranes and no unusual fatty acids were detected. Because the serum-free medium is fatty acid free and the cells cannot synthesize essential fatty acids, the rapid division of the cells results in the predominance of an extreme EFA-deficient cell type. The essential fatty acid-deficient keratinocyte is an excellent adult, normal epidermal cell model that can be used to study EFA deficiency and the effect of the eicosanoid and fatty acids on cell function and structure. PMID:1469285

Marcelo, C L; Duell, E A; Rhodes, L M; Dunham, W R

1992-12-01

57

Omega-3 fatty acids (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

58

Origin of fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be studied. (author). Abstract only

1995-08-01

59

Fatty acids profiles of some Spanish wild vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in human nutrition, being associated with several health benefits. The analyzed vegetables, in spite of its low fat content, lower than 2%, present a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3, n-6 and n-9 series, such as ?-linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids, respectively. Wild edible plants contain in general a good balance of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The present study tries to contribute to the preservation and valorization of traditional food resources, studying the fatty acids profile of 20 wild vegetables by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection. Results show that species in which leaves are predominant in their edible parts have in general the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios: Rumex pulcher (5.44), Cichorium intybus (5.14) and Papaver rhoeas (5.00). Due to the low n-6/n-3 ratios of the majority of the samples, they can be considered interesting sources of n-3 fatty acids, especially those with higher total fat amount, such as Bryonia dioica, Chondrilla juncea or Montia fontana, with the highest contents of ?-linolenic acid (67.78, 56.27 and 47.65%, respectively). The wild asparaguses of Asparagus acutifolius and Tamus communis stand out for their linoleic acid content (42.29 and 42.45%, respectively). All these features reinforce the interest of including wild plants in diet, as an alternative to the variety of vegetables normally used. PMID:22701061

Morales, P; Ferreira, I C F R; Carvalho, A M; Sánchez-Mata, M C; Cámara, M; Tardío, J

2012-06-01

60

(Radioiodinated free fatty acids)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

Knapp, Jr., F. F.

1987-12-11

 
 
 
 
61

Depression and long chain n-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue in adults from Crete  

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BACKGROUND: Only one study has investigated the relationship of essential fatty acids in the adipose tissue with depression in adults and suggested an inverse relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) (DHA) and depression. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between adipose tissue polyunsaturated fatty acids especially n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, an index of long-term or habitual fatty acid intake, and depression in adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of healthy adults from the islan...

Mamalakis, G.; Kalogeropoulos, N.; Andrikopoulos, N.; Hatzis, C.; Kromhout, D.; Moschandreas, J.; Kafatos, A.

2006-01-01

62

Influence of fatty acid diets on gene expression in rat mammary epithelial cells  

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Background: This study examines the impact of dietary fatty acids on regulation of gene expression in mammary epithelial cells before and during puberty. Methods: Diets primarily consisted of n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (olive oil), n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (safflower), saturated acids (butter), and the reference AIN-93G diet (soy oil). The dietary regimen mimics the repetitive nature of fatty acid exposure in Western diets. Diet-induced changes in gene expression were examined in ...

Medvedovic, M.; Gear, R.; Freudenberg, J. M.; Schneider, J.; Bornschein, R.; Yan, M.; Mistry, M. J.; Hendrix, H.; Karyala, S.; Halbleib, D.; Heffelfinger, S.; Clegg, D. J.; Anderson, M. W.

2009-01-01

63

Levels of Omega 3 fatty acids in Australian seafood.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the quantity of omega 3 (n-3) fatty acids in commonly consumed species of South Australian fish. Omega 3 fatty acids ranged from 17.7% to 53.7% of total fat with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) as the major omega 3 fatty acid in all 26 species tested (range 9.5 % to 47.1% of total fat). The levels of total omega 6 (n-6) fatty acids ranged from 2.3% to 20.2% of total lipids, chiefly as arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6). Fatty fish such as Gemfish, Atlantic Salmon and Swordfish were found to be good sources of omega-3 fatty acid (1360, 2252 and 2571 mg/100g fish respectively), while low fat fish such as Ling, Deep Sea Bream (Blue Warhou) and Blue Grenadier (0.5, 0.7 and 0.7% fat) had low levels of omega 3 fatty acid (222, 257 and 247 mg/100g). Because most white table fish consumed by Australians are so low in fat they are actually a limited source of omega 3 fats. The amount of fish required to be consumed to provide 1 g of omega 3 fatty acid per day ranged from 40 to 450 g. PMID:18818157

Soltan, Saharrobert S A M; Gibson, Robert A

2008-01-01

64

Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids  

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Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed “eicosanoids,” which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show...

Patterson, E.; Wall, R.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Ross, R. P.; Stanton, C.

2012-01-01

65

Fatty acid-producing hosts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

2013-12-31

66

Fatty acid composition of fertilization-failed human oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to assess the fatty acid composition of human fertilization-failed oocytes. A total of 150 unfertilized oocytes from 43 women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) were analysed using capillary gas chromatography. The majority of fatty acids were saturated (79.22%), of which stearic (38.65%) and palmitic (32.66%) acids were the most abundant. Of the monounsaturated fatty acids (14.27%) oleic acid was the most abundant (9.77%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids comprised 6.50% of fatty acids, the n-6:n-3 ratio being 7.73. The ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid:docosahexaenoic acid was approximately 5. It is concluded that the most common fatty acids in human unfertilized oocytes are either saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids, whose main function is to provide an energy source. A number of differences in fatty acid composition were observed, in comparison with other biological samples. In particular, stearic and eicosapentaenoic acids were more prominent, and oleic and linoleic acids were less prominent; this may reflect some specific peculiarity of oocyte metabolism. PMID:9756301

Matorras, R; Ruiz, J I; Mendoza, R; Ruiz, N; Sanjurjo, P; Rodriguez-Escudero, F J

1998-08-01

67

Estimation of essential fatty acid requirements of common carp larvae using semi-purified artificial diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two trials were conducted with duplicate groups of (first feeding) carp larvae fed artificial dry diets based on casein and dextrin over 21 or 25 days. One control diet based on yeast was also tested. Survival, growth and fatty acid profiles of larvae were studied. In trial 1, (n-3) fatty acid requirement was estimated using diets supplemented or not with methyl linolenate or cod liver oil. After 21 days, the best survival and growth were observed in larvae fed the unsupplemented diet [(n-3) fatty acid level: 0.05%]. Survival and growth were not improved by higher levels of (n-3) fatty acids. In trial 2, (n-6) fatty acid requirement was estimated using diets with graded levels of methyl linolenate or peanut oil. After 25 days, the best survival and growth were obtained with diets supplemented with 0.25% methyl linolenate (total (n-6) fatty acid level: 1%) or with 1.25% peanut oil (total (n-6) fatty acid level: 0.89%). Survival and growth were not improved by higher levels of (n-6) fatty acids. Fatty acid composition of carp reflected that of the diets and also showed that carp larvae are capable of elongating and desaturating linolenic acid and linoleic acid in longer chain fatty acids. PMID:8766972

Radunz-Neto, J; Corraze, G; Bergot, P; Kaushik, S J

1996-01-01

68

Interaction of fatty acid genotype and diet on changes in colonic fatty acids in a Mediterranean diet intervention study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Mediterranean diet increases intakes of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids and lowers intake of n-6 fatty acids. This can impact colon cancer risk as n-6 fatty acids are metabolized to proinflammatory eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interactions of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes, FADS1 and FADS2, and changes in diet on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. A total of 108 individuals at increased risk of colon cancer were randomized to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet. Fatty acids were measured in both serum and colonic mucosa at baseline and after six months. Each individual was genotyped for four single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster. Linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of diet, genotype, and the diet by genotype interaction on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. Genetic variation in the FADS genes was strongly associated with baseline serum arachidonic acid (n-6) but serum eicosapentaenoic acid (n-3) and colonic fatty acid concentrations were not significantly associated with genotype. After intervention, there was a significant diet by genotype interaction for arachidonic acid concentrations in colon. Subjects who had all major alleles for FADS1/2 and were following a Mediterranean diet had 16% lower arachidonic acid concentrations in the colon after six months of intervention than subjects following the Healthy Eating diet. These results indicate that FADS genotype could modify the effects of changes in dietary fat intakes on arachidonic acid concentrations in the colon. PMID:24022589

Porenta, Shannon R; Ko, Yi-An; Gruber, Stephen B; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Baylin, Ana; Ren, Jianwei; Djuric, Zora

2013-11-01

69

Increase of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Thraustochytrids through Thraustochytrid Ubiquitin Promoter-Driven Expression of a Fatty Acid ?5 Desaturase Gene?†  

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Thraustochytrids, marine protists known to accumulate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in lipid droplets, are considered an alternative to fish oils as a source of PUFAs. The major fatty acids produced in thraustochytrids are palmitic acid (C16:0), n ? 6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (C22:5n ? 6), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6n ? 3), with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5n ? 3) and arachidonic acid (AA) (C20:4n ? 6) as minor constituents. We attempted here to alter the fat...

Kobayashi, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Matsuda, Takanori; Abe, Eriko; Hama, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Masahiro; Honda, Daiske; Okita, Yuji; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

2011-01-01

70

Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

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1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6), the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate t...

1998-01-01

71

Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

Daniela Pittau

2013-10-01

72

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children

Tetens, Inge

2010-01-01

73

Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis and Elongation  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid elongation are two parts of a critically important pathway in plants. The endproducts are essential components of cell membranes, waxes, and suberin. Two chemical families of herbicide (groups that share similar chemical structures) inhibit fatty acid synthesis, while fatty acid elongation is inhibited by two other families. This lesson will provide an overview of fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and explain where herbicides inhibit the pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to these herbicides will be described.

74

Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an infant´s daily energy needs and provide a supply of fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. The characteristics of milk lipids are largely determined by their fatty acid composition. In this work the general characteristics of breast milk and milk lipids, as well as the influence of maternal diet on composition of fatty acids in breast milk, are discussed. Breast milk provides all dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n-6 and ?-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, as well as their longer-chain more-unsaturated metabolites, including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular importance in visual and neural development, and their content in milk is a reflection of the mother´s current and long-term dietary intake. A positive association has been established between the maternal intake of fish and seafood and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid in milk. Numerous researches have been shown that supplementation with docosahexaenoic acids during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation significantly increases the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk.

Mihela Dujmovi?

2013-08-01

75

Soraphen A, an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase activity, interferes with fatty acid elongation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC1 and ACC2) generates malonyl CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and an inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid ?-oxidation (FAO). Malonyl CoA is also a substrate for microsomal fatty acid elongation, an important pathway for saturated (SFA), mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis. Despite the interest in ACC as a target for obesity and cancer therapy, little attention has been given to the role ACC plays in long chain fatty acid synthesis. This report examines the effect of pharmacological inhibition of ACC on DNL and palmitate (16:0) and linoleate (18:2, n-6) metabolism in HepG2 and LnCap cells. The ACC inhibitor, soraphen A, lowers cellular malonyl CoA, attenuates DNL and the formation of fatty acid elongation products derived from exogenous fatty acids, i.e., 16:0 and 18:2, n-6; IC(50)?5nM. Elevated expression of fatty acid elongases (Elovl5, Elovl6) or desaturases (FADS1, FADS2) failed to override the soraphen A effect on SFA, MUFA or PUFA synthesis. Inhibition of fatty acid elongation leads to the accumulation of 16- and 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids derived from 16:0 and 18:2, n-6, respectively. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC activity will not only attenuate DNL and induce FAO, but will also attenuate the synthesis of very long chain saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21184748

Jump, Donald B; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises; Olson, L Karl

2011-03-01

76

Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu; Wang, Qing; Hou, Lin

2012-01-01

77

Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

Meilan Xue

2012-12-01

78

Polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce Fatty Acid Synthase and Hydroxy-Methyl-Glutaryl CoA-Reductase gene expression and promote apoptosis in HepG2 cell line  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the two major classes of PUFAs encountered in the diet, and both classes of fatty acids are required for normal human health. Moreover, PUFAs have effects on diverse pathological processes impacting chronic disease, such as cardiovascular and immune disease, neurological disease, and cancer. Aim To investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid ...

Notarnicola Maria; Messa Caterina; Refolo Maria G; Tutino Valeria; Miccolis Angelica; Caruso Maria G

2011-01-01

79

A simplified method for analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of fatty acid composition of biological materials is a common task in lipid research. Conventionally, preparation of samples for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography involves two separate procedures: lipid extraction and methylation. This conventional method is complicated, tedious and time consuming. Development of a rapid and simple method for lipid analysis is warranted. Results We simplified the conventional method by combining the extraction and methylation into a single step (omitting the procedure of prior extraction. Various biological samples including cultured cells, animal tissues and human specimens have been tested using the new method. Statistical analysis indicates that the recovery of long chain fatty acids from tissue samples by the simplified method is significantly higher than that by the traditional method, but there is no difference in relative fatty acid composition between the two methods. This simplified method can significantly save time and materials, and reduce the potentials of sample loss and contamination. Conclusion The lipid extraction procedure prior to methylation employed conventionally in lipid analysis can be omitted without affecting the recovery of long chain (? 18 C fatty acids and their composition. The simplified method is rapid, easy-to-use, suitable for analysis of total long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (e.g. n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in various biological samples, especially when the number of samples to be analyzed is large and/or the specimen size is small.

Wang Jingdong

2005-03-01

80

Lipid content and fatty acid composition of 11 species of Queensland (Australia) fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty acid composition of 11 species of fish caught of the northeast coast of Australia was determined. No fatty acid profiles have been previously published for fish from this area nor for nine of these species. Although the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was the same as the calculated average for Australian fish (42.3%), the percentage of n-3 fatty acids was lower (24.4 +/- 5.4% vs. 30.7 +/- 10.1%) and the n-6 fatty acids higher (16.5 +/- 4.5% vs. 11.2 +/- 5.9%), P < 0.001 in each case. The major n-3 PUFA were docosahexaenoic (15.6 +/- 6.3%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (4.3 +/- 1.1%) while the major n-6 PUFA were arachidonic (8.3 +/- 3.2%) and n-6 docosatetraenoic acid (3.1 +/- 1.3%). The second-most abundant class of fatty acid was the saturates (31.6 +/- 3.5%) while the monounsaturates accounted for 17.4 +/- 4.3% of the total fatty acids. The monounsaturate with the highest concentration was octadecenoic acid (11.8 +/- 2.6%). There was a positive correlation between the total lipid content and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (r = 0.675 and 0.567, respectively) and a negative correlation between the total lipid content and PUFA (r = 0.774). PMID:9208391

Belling, G B; Abbey, M; Campbell, J H; Campbell, G R

1997-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Thai jute seed oil: a potential polyunsaturated fatty acid source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined lipid and fatty acid compositions of different varieties of jute (Po-kra-jao, Corchorus olitorius L. seed grown in Thailand. Four different jute seeds (Nonn-Soong, Keaw-Yai, Cuba and Khonkaen harvested from northeastern Thailand were ground, their lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v, and lipid composition was determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed using GLC with standard methods. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in jute seed oil, ranging from 70% to 74%, and other two minor components were phytosterol (12% to 28% and diacylglycerol (0% to 9%. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates, was approximately 2: 3: 4. Most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was linoleic acid (18:2n-6, accounting for 40-67% of total fatty acid. Nonn-Soong had the highest amount of PUFA (67.7%, followed by Khonkaen (44.53%, Keaw-Yai (41.14%, and Cuba (40.19%. Another PUFA found was ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, accounting for about 1% of total fatty acid. The results indicated that jute seed oil was a potential edible PUFA source. The oils obtained from different kinds of jute seeds had significantly different lipid and fatty acid compositions.

Maitree Suttajit

2006-03-01

82

Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency selectively up-regulates delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices in rat liver: prevention by normalization of omega-3 fatty acid status.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would normalize this response. Adult rats fed the n-3-free diet during perinatal development exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte, liver, and frontal cortex LCn-3 fatty acid composition and reciprocal elevations in LC omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid composition compared with controls (CONs) and repleted rats. Liver Fads2, but not Fads1, Elovl2, or Elovl5, mRNA expression was significantly greater in n-3-deficient (DEF) rats compared with CONs and was partially normalized in repleted rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, an index of delta6-desturase activity, was significantly greater in DEF rats compared with CON and repleted rats and was positively correlated with Fads2 mRNA expression among all rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, but not Fads2 mRNA expression, was also positively correlated with erythrocyte and frontal cortex LCn-6 fatty acid compositions. Neither Fads1 or Fads2 mRNA expression was altered in brain cortex of DEF rats. These results confirm previous findings that liver, but not brain, delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices are negatively regulated by dietary n-3 fatty acids. PMID:22024496

Hofacer, Rylon; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Magrisso, I Jack; Benoit, Stephen C; McNamara, Robert K

2011-09-01

83

The role of essential fatty acids in the control of coronary heart disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Evidence from various research paradigms supports the cardiovascular benefits of a high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the long-chain, marine-derived n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids. The effect of the plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is, however, not clear. Concerns about a high n-6 PUFA intake has been raised, because n-6 PUFA may weaken the effects of n-3 PUFA.

Vedtofte, Mia S.; Jakobsen, Marianne U

2012-01-01

84

Influence of monochromatic light on quality traits, nutritional, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicken meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), and the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio (P < 0.001), but reduced the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-3 fatty acid, and n-6 fatty acid. The IBL increased the n-3 and sulfur-containing amino acids but reduced the n-6:n-3 nonessential amino acids. The WL improved the concentration of most of the essential amino acids (P < 0.01) and nonessential amino acids (P < 0.01) of breast meat. It can be extracted that the light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat. PMID:24135586

Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C

2013-11-01

85

Simulation of Palm based Fatty Acids Distillation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fatty acids have long been recognized for their commercial value in the absence of glycerol. Chemicals derived from fatty acids are widely used in the formulation of detergents, lubricant, surfactants and in pharmaceutical industries. In addition, fatty acids also play a vital role in human metabolism and are widely used as catalyst in some chemical reactions. Commercially produced fatty acids are derived from naturally occurring fats and oils through the process of hydrolysis. Most of these ...

Awang Bono; Oh Pin Pin; Chin Peng Jiun

2010-01-01

86

Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein). Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P<0,05). The PUFA/SFA ratio was the highest in Simmental calves and the lowest in Hols...

Nikolina Kelava; Miljenko Konja?i?; Ante Ivankovi?; Jelena Ramljak; Ivica Kos

2010-01-01

87

Multi-targeted Therapy of Cancer by Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids necessary for human health. Currently, the Western diet contains a disproportionally high amount of n-6 PUFAs and low amount of n-3 PUFAs, and the resulting high n-6/n-3 ratio is thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. Studies in human populations have linked high consumption of fish or fish oil to reduced risk of colon, prostate and breast cancer, although other st...

Berquin, Isabelle M.; Edwards, Iris J.; Chen, Yong Q.

2008-01-01

88

Fatty acid composition of wild anthropoid primate milks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids in milk reflect the interplay between species-specific physiological mechanisms and maternal diet. Anthropoid primates (apes, Old and New World monkeys) vary in patterns of growth and development and dietary strategies. Milk fatty acid profiles also are predicted to vary widely. This study investigates milk fatty acid composition of five wild anthropoids (Alouatta palliata, Callithrix jacchus, Gorilla beringei beringei, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca sinica) to test the null hypothesis of a generalized anthropoid milk fatty acid composition. Milk from New and Old World monkeys had significantly more 8:0 and 10:0 than milk from apes. The leaf eating species G. b. beringei and A. paliatta had a significantly higher proportion of milk 18:3n-3, a fatty acid found primarily in plant lipids. Mean percent composition of 22:6n-3 was significantly different among monkeys and apes, but was similar to the lowest reported values for human milk. Mountain gorillas were unique among anthropoids in the high proportion of milk 20:4n-6. This seems to be unrelated to requirements of a larger brain and may instead reflect species-specific metabolic processes or an unknown source of this fatty acid in the mountain gorilla diet. PMID:17916436

Milligan, Lauren A; Rapoport, Stanley I; Cranfield, Michael R; Dittus, Wolfgang; Glander, Kenneth E; Oftedal, Olav T; Power, Michael L; Whittier, Christopher A; Bazinet, Richard P

2008-01-01

89

Fatty Acid Composition of Human Colostrums of Burkinabe Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare/contrast the colostrum lipid composition of 53 Burkinabe women, collected in 2005 at the Maternity of Centre Medical Saint Camille in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso, with similar data obtained in breast milk, five years ago and then to show the evolution of this important aliment. The fatty acid composition of colostrum samples was determined by Gas-liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Saturated lipids (C8:0-C:14-0 showed a progressive increasing trend in the Burkinabe woman colostrum with respect those already measured five years ago. The C15:0-C24:0 fractions were found costantly higher, but their trends were in progressive decrement. The 18:2n-6 fraction (linoleic acid reached the highest value in the third day post partum. The 18:3n-3 was constantly higher in the second and third days. The 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid and LC n-6 PUFA were lower ever since the first day, but with a trend to increase. Also 22: 6n-3 and LC n-3 PUFA were costantly lower. The 18:2n-6/18:3n-3 and LC n-6/LC n-3 ratios were lower and higher, respectively, if compared with those already measured five years ago. These results suggest the need to improve alimentary habits of mothers in order to restore the balanced n-6/n3 PUFA ratio in their colostrums.

Carbone Virginia

2006-01-01

90

Long?chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the pathophysiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome)  

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Evidence is put forward to suggest that myalgic encephalomyelitis, also known as chronic fatigue syndrome, may be associated with persistent viral infection. In turn, such infections are likely to impair the ability of the body to biosynthesise n?3 and n?6 long?chain polyunsaturated fatty acids by inhibiting the ??6 desaturation of the precursor essential fatty acids—namely, ??linolenic acid and linoleic acid. This would, in turn, impair the proper functioning of cell membranes,...

Puri, B. K.

2007-01-01

91

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2000-01-01

92

Analysis of Fatty Acids from Gentiana olivieri  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The plants of Gentiana olivieri collected from Hazar Ganji, Quetta, were analysed for their fatty acid composition. The acids were converted into methyl esters and identified by Gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which revealed the presence of pentadecanoic, hexadecanoic, heptadecanoic, octadecenoic and nonadecanoic acid. The only unsaturated fatty acid found was heptadecatrienoic acid.

Arsala Mansoor

1999-01-01

93

Methods for investigating placental fatty acid transport.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids (FAs), especially essential fatty acids (EFAs) and their long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFAs) derivatives, are critical for proper fetal development. The fetus relies on the placental transfer of EFAs from the maternal circulation for development. In fact, fatty acid transfer is highly directional from the mother to the fetus. Significant changes in placental fatty acid transport and metabolism, the two primary processes that govern placental FA supply from mother to fetus, can subsequently result in aberrant fetal fatty acid/lipid homeostasis and dramatically increase the risk of abnormal fetal development. Besides passive diffusion, specific fatty acid transfer conferring proteins can actively mediate directional placental fatty acid uptake and transport. Enzymes for fatty acid beta-oxidation and synthesis and the ones participating PUFA metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (mainly CYP4A), cyclooxygenases (COXs), and lipooxygenases (LOXs), have also been identified in the placenta. Methods for studying functional placental fatty acid uptake/transport/metabolism are discussed, focusing on an in vitro placental trophoblast model and long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The relevant theory of FA transport pathways, kinetic data analysis (uptake rates, permeability, influx/efflux ratio, Km, and so on) and high-performance liquid chromatography identification are also discussed. PMID:16511987

Xu, Yan; Cook, Thomas J; Knipp, Gregory T

2006-01-01

94

New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

1987-08-24

95

New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

1987-01-01

96

Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 {plus minus} 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 {plus minus} 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells.

Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R. (University of Bochum (West Germany))

1991-09-01

97

Propylenated fatty acids as emulsifiers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydroxy propylenyl stéarate, palmitate, laurate, oléate and linoleate were prepared by reaction of propylene oxide with fatty acid at 160 °C for five hours stirring in presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. Physico-chemical properties of the five products, regarding their use as emulsifiers, were determined.

Se prepararon estearato, palmitato, laurato, oleato y linoleato de hidroxipropilenilos mediante reacción de oxido de propileno con ácido graso a 160 °C du...

1999-01-01

98

Effect of type of suckling and polyunsaturated fatty acid use on lamb production. 2. Chemical and fatty acid composition of raw and cooked meat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out in order to examine the chemical and fatty acid composition of raw and cooked meat obtained from
lambs raised under mothers or reared by artificial suckling with acidified milk replacers with or without polyunsaturated fatty
acid (PUFA) supplementation. Meat samples were taken from twenty Gentile di Puglia male lambs subjected to the following
feeding treatments: the control group received only maternal milk (MM, n.=6) while two grou...

Arcangelo Vicenti; Maria Antonietta Colonna; Marco Ragni; Francesco Toteda

2010-01-01

99

Sex differences in the relationship of dietary fatty acids to cognitive measures in American children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because the first neurons evolved in an environment high in the n-3 (omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, this fatty acid became a major component of neural structure and function and makes up 10% of the dry weight of the human brain. Since n-3 fatty acids must come from the diet, this suggests a possible positive role for dietary n-3 fatty acids in cognition and a possible negative role for n-6 fatty acids, which compete with n-3 for access to critical enzymes. Because human females must provide DHA for the growth of the unusually large brains of their offspring from maternal fat stored during childhood, their need for DHA is especially great. We used stepwise regression to determine whether particular dietary fatty acids and other nutrients were related to cognitive performance in over 4000 American children aged 6 to 16 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; a variety of possible biological, social and environmental risk factors were statistically controlled. In this context the only dietary factors related to cognitive performance were n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Dietary n-3 fatty acids were positively related to cognitive test scores in male and female children, while n-6 showed the reverse relationship, significantly so in females. In female children the positive effects of n-3 intake were twice as strong as in males and exceeded the negative effects of lead exposure. This suggests that increasing dietary intake of n-3 and decreasing n-6 fatty acids may have cognitive benefits in children, especially in females.

WillLassek

2011-11-01

100

?-tocopherol and Fatty acids of Spirulina platensis Biomass in Glass Panel Bioreactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature, at 26°C, on growth, ?-tocopherols and fatty acid composition of S. platensis, grown in laboratory batch cultures with glass panel bioreactor. ?-tocopherol among of S. platensis was 63.48±10.73 ?g g-1 in the dried samples. The cell density of S. platensis increased rapidly to 32.38±3.58x104 cells mL-1 and the maximum specific growth rate was 0.36 day-1. The percentage of total SFA, total MUFAs and total PUFAs of dry weight were 70.3, 1.9 and 18.6%, respectively. The predominant fatty acids were by order of abundance: palmitic acid (16:0, palmitoleic acid (16:1(n-7, oleic acid (18:1 (n-9, linoleic acid (18:2(n-6 and ?-linoleic acid (18:3(n-6. Among the PUFAs, 18:3 (n-6 was the major fatty acids reaching 18.5±0.7% of total fatty acids followed by 18:2 (n-6 (13.8±0.5%. The concentrations of ?-linolenic acid varied from 12-20% for S. platensis, at the optimum growth temperatures and it was concluded that the temperature did not affect ?-linolenic acid. Finally, the major goal of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the supplementation procedure together with low growth temperatures on improving the ?-linoleic acid level and ?-tocopherol in S. platensis.

Durmaz YaOar

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Dietary fatty acids and the stress response of fish : arachidonic acid in seabream and tilapia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A key factor in the production of fish in commercial aquaculture is the optimization of the artificial diets, not only to achieve optimal growth, but also to maximize fish health. Evidence is accumulating that dietary lipids, particularly the fatty acid composition, can have a direct effect on the fitness of the fish. This thesis aims to clarify the role played by the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ArA, 20:4n-6) in fish, particularly in relation to the stress response and osmore...

Anholt, Rogier Danie?l

2004-01-01

102

Intramuscular fatty acid composition in beef from Aosta cattle breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare fat quality of three categories of the Aosta cattle breeds by fatty acid composition. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum from 12 calves, 11 young bulls and 11 cows of Aosta Red Pied and Black Pied were bought at retail. Fatty acids content showed in most cases, except for C18:1, significant differences between the three categories. Veal calves had the lowest proportion of SFA and highest of PUFA, therefore they had the best PUFA/SFA ratio but the worst n-6/n-3 ratio due to the highest proportion of C18:2n-6. Besides veal calves was healthier by having best atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Black Pied young bulls, in comparison to Red Pied young bulls, showed a significant lower proportion of C10:0, C18:1, and a significant higher proportion of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6. Consequently they had a significant lower MUFA content but a higher PUFA content therefore a significant better PUFA/SFA ratio.

M. T. Barge

2010-04-01

103

PPARs : fatty acid sensors controlling metabolism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that play key roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism, inflammation, cellular growth, and differentiation. The receptors bind and are activated by a broad range of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives and they thereby serve as major transcriptional sensors of fatty acids. Here we review the function, regulation, and mechanism of the different PPAR subtypes with special emphasis on their role in the regulation of lipid metabolism.

Poulsen, Lars la Cour; Siersbæk, Majken

2012-01-01

104

Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By incorporation of 3H2O into the fatty acid chain in the presence of unlabelled precursor, we showed that fatty acids are synthesized from PGA, PEP and pyruvate by intact spinach chloroplasts in the light. 13C-tracer experiments confirmed that 1-C of pyruvate is decarboxylated and 2-C is incorporated into fatty acids by the chloroplasts. The patterns of fatty acids synthesized from PGA and pyruvate were the same as that from acetate. The highest rate of fatty acid synthesis was reached at the physiological concentration of PGA (3 mM) and pyruvate (1 mM). These results indicate the operation of the following path in the chloroplasts in light: PGA?PEP?pyruvate?acetylCoA?fatty acids. Since citrate and OAA were much less active and malate and glyoxylate were inert as precursors for fatty acid synthesis, PEP or pyruvate carboxylation, citrate lyase reaction and malate synthetase reaction are not involved in the formation of acetylCoA and fatty acids. Since pyruvate was much more effective as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis than lactate, acetaldehyde or acetate, direct decarboxylation path is considered to be the primary path from pyruvate to acetylCoA. The insignificant effect of chloroplast-washing on fatty acid synthesis from PGA and pyruvate indicates that the glycolytic path from PGA to pyruvate is associated with the chloroplasts. Since pyruvate was more effectively incorporated into fatty acids than acetylCoA, it is unlikely that pyruvate decarboxylation to acetylCoA is due to mitochondria contaminating the chloroplast preparation. On the basis of measurements of 3H2O incorporation in the light and dark, the activity of fatty acid synthesis in spincah leaves appears to be shared by the activities in chloroplasts (87%) and other organelles (13%). (author)

1975-01-01

105

Simulation of Palm based Fatty Acids Distillation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty acids have long been recognized for their commercial value in the absence of glycerol. Chemicals derived from fatty acids are widely used in the formulation of detergents, lubricant, surfactants and in pharmaceutical industries. In addition, fatty acids also play a vital role in human metabolism and are widely used as catalyst in some chemical reactions. Commercially produced fatty acids are derived from naturally occurring fats and oils through the process of hydrolysis. Most of these raw materials result in nature as complex mixtures of triglycerides, alcohols and other esters. Alternatively, common edible oils used are sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, palm and palm kernel oil. Crude fatty acids can be obtained from the process of hydrolysis and will be purified through total distillation. Due to fatty acid market demand, the purity requirement of distillated fatty acid products is increasing greatly. Since desired purity of fatty acid is achievable through the most common and most efficient means of fractionation distillation process, study on simulation of fatty acids distillation has a significant contribution to the oleo chemical industry. In this simulation study, the optimization of the tray specification, feed stream pressure and temperature on the purity performance of the fatty acid composition are investigated. In South East Asia, palm tree fruit ripen continuously and can be harvested all year round. Therefore, palm based fatty acids are selected to be used as the feed components. In the present study, binary and multi-component distillations of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are studied. This simulation model is developed by using HYSYS simulator with suitable thermodynamic package chosen. A shortcut simulation method is built in advanced for preliminary estimations and for determining rigorous operating limits. Eventually, parametric optimization is performed to obtain the optimum operating conditions of the rigorous distillation column.

Chin Peng Jiun

2010-01-01

106

Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While low levels of unesterified long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are normal metabolic intermediates of dietary and endogenous fat, LCFAs are also potent regulators of key receptors/enzymes, and at high levels become toxic detergents within the cell. Elevated levels of LCFAs are associated with diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mammals evolved fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that bind/sequester these potentially toxic free fatty acids in the cytosol and present them f...

Atshaves, B. P.; Martin, G. G.; Hostetler, H. A.; Mcintosh, A. L.; Kier, A. B.; Schroeder, F.

2010-01-01

107

Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

1973-01-01

108

Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content. PMID:15277087

Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

2002-01-01

109

Cellular fatty acid composition of Plesiomonas shigelloides.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cellular fatty acid compositions of 29 strains of Plesiomonas shigelloides and 5 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila were studied. The cellular fatty acid compositions of all the Plesiomonas strains were identical and characterized by the presence of hexadecanoate (16:0) (33%), hexadecenoate (16:1) (28%), octadecenoate (18:1) (9%), and octadecanoate (18:0) (6%). The cellular fatty acid composition of A. hydrophila was similar to that of the Plesiomonas strains, except that the former containe...

Chou, S.; Aldova, E.; Kasatiya, S.

1991-01-01

110

Propylenated fatty acids as emulsifiers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydroxy propylenyl stéarate, palmitate, laurate, oléate and linoleate were prepared by reaction of propylene oxide with fatty acid at 160 °C for five hours stirring in presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. Physico-chemical properties of the five products, regarding their use as emulsifiers, were determined.

Se prepararon estearato, palmitato, laurato, oleato y linoleato de hidroxipropilenilos mediante reacción de oxido de propileno con ácido graso a 160 °C durante cinco horas de agitación en presencia de hidróxido potásico como catalizador. Se determinaron las propiedades físico-químicas de los cinco productos, en cuanto a su uso como emulsionantes.

El-Shattory, Y.

1999-08-01

111

Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of beef at retail of Piemontese, Limousin and Friesian breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of longissimus thoracis muscle of young bulls belonging to Piemontese (n=10), Limousin (n=11) and Friesian (n=10) breeds were analysed in order to study the chemical composition, fatty acids and cholesterol content of beef purchased at retail. The breeds and their differences in intramuscular fat content strongly influenced the fatty acids profile. The Piemontese animals displayed the lowest intramuscular fat and SFA content, while Friesian animals showed the highest intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA content. In general, Limousin animals had intermediate characteristics. A higher PUFA proportion on total fatty acids was observed in Piemontese breed, but the PUFA absolute content (mg/100 g meat) did not differ among breeds. All the three breeds displayed a high content of n-6 fatty acids family and, consequently, a very unbalanced n-6/n-3 ratio. No differences were found for cholesterol content. PMID:24018276

Brugiapaglia, A; Lussiana, C; Destefanis, G

2014-01-01

112

Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO), acid corn oil (ACO), linseed oil (LO) or coconut fat (CoF). Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA ) x (2 n6:n3 ratios) x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC). Performance responses and...

Am, Kessler; Ds, Lubisco; Mm, Vieira; Aml, Ribeiro; Am, Penz Jr

2009-01-01

113

Exploring the Role of Fatty Acid on Transcription Factors Regulating Fatty Acid Metabolism with Emphasis on Trans Fatty Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty acids are unique macromolecules as they act as biological modulators of transcription factors and regulate their own metabolism by controlling the activity or abundance of transcription factors of fatty acid metabolism either by RNA processing and RNA stability. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR-? and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP-1c are transcription factors expressed primarily in adipose tissue. We have studied the relation of fatty acid including trans fatty acid assessed in adipose tissue with the transcription factors. Adipose tissue was collected from 50 healthy subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Fatty acid was assessed in the tissue by gas chromatography. The expressions of PPAR? and SREBP-1c were studied by real time RT-PCR. The expressions of PPAR? and SREBP1c were significantly correlated (r = 0.4 p

Varna Seenu

2013-08-01

114

Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency disturbs the fatty acid composition of mouse testis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a key enzyme in the mobilization of fatty acids from intracellular stores. In mice, HSL deficiency results in male sterility caused by a major defect in spermatogenesis. The testes contain high concentrations of PUFA and specific PUFA are essential for spermatogenesis. We investigated the fatty acid composition and the mRNA levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism in testis of HSL-knockout mice. HSL deficiency altered fatty acid composition in the testis but not in plasma. The most important changes were decreases in the essential n-6 PUFA LNA and the n-3 PUFA ALA, and an increase in the corresponding synthesis intermediates C22:4n-6 and C22:5n-3 without changes in DPAn-6 or DHA acids. Mead acid, which has been associated with an essential fatty acid deficit leading to male infertility, was increased in the testis from HSL-knockout mice. Moreover, the expression of SCD-1, FADS1, and FADS2 was increased while expression of ELOVL2, an essential enzyme for the formation of very-long PUFA in testis, was decreased. Given the indispensability of these fatty acids for spermatogenesis, the changes in fatty acid metabolism observed in testes from HSL-knockout male mice may underlie the infertility of these animals. PMID:23369366

Casado, M E; Pastor, O; Mariscal, P; Canfrán-Duque, A; Martínez-Botas, J; Kraemer, F B; Lasunción, M A; Martín-Hidalgo, A; Busto, R

2013-03-01

115

LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES.  

Science.gov (United States)

The very long chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids, octacosaheptaenoic [28:7(n-6)] and octacosaoctaenoic acid [28:8(n-3)], were found to be associated with phospholipids, obtained by fractionation of total lipid extracts into distinct lipid classes, in 4 and 6, respectively, ...

116

Effect of Fat-Mineral Preparation From Fish Oil on Fatty Acid Content on Cow Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 8-week-lasting investigation aimed at the assessment of the effect of fish oil application in the form of fat-mineral preparation (F-M on fatty acid content in milk fat. The subject of this investigation were highly efficient dairy cows (primiparous and multiparous. The cows were administered F-M containing fish oil (1% in dry mass of ration which resulted in decreased level of shortchain fatty acids in milk fat and increased level of longchain fatty acids. There was recorded significant increase in isomer cis-9,trans-11 CLA content, as well as the one of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 - EPA and DHA group. The number of n-3 group acid did considerably increase. The fatty acids n-6/n-3 ratio showed significant decrease in both experimental groups.

Witold Janeczek

2007-01-01

117

Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Fatty Acid Binding Revisited  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a cytosolic protein most abundant in liver, is associated with intracellular transport of fatty acids, nuclear signaling, and regulation of intracellular lipolysis. Among the members of the intracellular lipid binding protein family, L-FABP is of particular interest as it can i), bind two fatty acid molecules simultaneously and ii), accommodate a variety of bulkier physiological ligands such as bilirubin and fatty acyl CoA. To better understand the p...

Cai, Jun; Lu?cke, Christian; Chen, Zhongjing; Qiao, Ye; Klimtchuk, Elena; Hamilton, James a

2012-01-01

118

Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analysing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type ?-oxidation of fatty acids [acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase] with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three ?-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyse biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

Dibrova, Daria V; Galperin, Michael Y; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

2014-04-01

119

Dietary fatty acid profile: effects on caecal fermentation and performance of young and fattening rabbits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present work was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of different fatty acid combinations (saturated, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; PUFA) on caecal fermentation activity, feed intake, growth rate and feed efficiency of young rabbits around weaning (17 to 44 d) and fattening rabbits (28 to 63 d of age). Five diets were formulated using the same raw materials and including 3% of lard (A diet, rich in saturated fat), sunflower oil (S diet, rich in n-6 PUFA), linseed...

2013-01-01

120

Fatty acid composition of hemp seed oils from different locations in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent interest in hemp seed as a source of food has largely focused on its oil content and fatty acid profile. The oil content and fatty acid composition (15 fatty acids) of twenty one different hemp seed samples of domestic origin from north-western Turkey were monitored. The samples were obtained from seed wholesalers and local spice shops and are of unknown genetic origin. The oil content of the hemp seeds ranged between 29.6 to 36.5%. Out of the 15 detected fatty acids, the omega-6 linoleic acid (18:2n-6) was predominant and fluctuated from 55.4 to 56.9%, while the omega-3 a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid ranged from 16.5 to 20.4% and the omega-9 oleic acid (18:1n-9) ranged from 11.4 to 15.9%. Of the minor fatty acids, the highest concentrations were found for {gamma}-linolenic acid (18:3n-6), range 0.6-1.1%, followed by stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), range 0.3-0.5%. These results show that hemp seed grown in north-western Turkey provides a well balanced and rich source of dietary omega-6 and -3 essential fatty acids and appears to be a potentially valuable source of food. (Author) 31 refs.

Kiralan, M.; Gul, V.; Metin Kara, S.

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. 721.3629 Section 721...721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances...generically as triethanolamine salts of fatty acids (PMN Nos....

2010-07-01

122

21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this...

2010-01-01

123

Influence of goats feeding on the fatty acids content in milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of modeling the content of fatty acids of milk fat, in order to increase the contents of desirable n-3 unsaturated fatty acids and decrease saturated fatty acid with adequate nutrition of goats. Previous studies showed that the milk of goats on pasture increased content of caproic (C6:0, caprylic (C8:0, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, linolenic (C18:3, eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. In the same group of goats lower content of palmitoleic (C16:1, linoleic (C18:2 and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was found, as well as lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared with group of goats kept indoors and fed with alfalfa hay. In milk of goats fed with diets supplemented with safflower oil, content of CLA significantly increased, while goats fed with diets supplement with linseed oil had significantly higher content of C18:3 in milk, compared with group of goats fed without addition of these oils. Goats fed with addition of protected fish oil had significant transfer of eicosapentaenoic-EPA and docosahexaenoic-DHA fatty acids in milk. Protected fish oil reduced the negative impact of long chain fatty acids on the activity of ruminal microorganisms, consumption and digestibility of fiber, as well as inhibition of synthesis of fatty acids in milk gland. When adding unprotected fish oil, increase of stearic (C18:0 and oleic (C18:1 fatty acids occurred, because of the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen.

Željka Klir

2012-12-01

124

Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

2003-01-01

125

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potent neuroprotectors  

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Results reported in this work suggest a potential therapeutic value of polyunsaturated fatty acids for cerebral pathologies as previously proposed by others for cardiac diseases. We show that the polyunsaturated fatty acid linolenic acid prevents neuronal death in an animal model of transient global ischemia even when administered after the insult. Linolenic acid also protects animals treated with kainate against seizures and hippocampal lesions. The same effects have been observed in an in v...

Lauritzen, Inger; Blondeau, Nicolas; Heurteaux, Catherine; Widmann, Catherine; Romey, Georges; Lazdunski, Michel

2000-01-01

126

Fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in Spanish infants and children.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a relationship between the fatty acid profile in skeletal muscle phospholipids and peripheral resistance to insulin in adults, but similar data have not been reported in infancy and childhood. The objective of this study was to investigate the fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue across the paediatric age range. The fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle phospholipids and adipose tissue triacylglycerols was analysed in ninety-three healthy Spanish infants and children distributed into four groups: group 1 (0 to <2 years, n 10); group 2 (2 to <5 years, n 41); group 3 (5 to <10 years, n 24); group 4 (10 to 15 years, n 18). In skeletal muscle phospholipids, oleic acid (18: 1n-9cis) content decreased significantly whereas that of linoleic (18: 2n-6) acid increased significantly with age (P for trend <0.01). In adipose tissue, the contents of triacylglycerol and linoleic acid increased significantly across the paediatric age range (P for trend <0.01), whereas dihomo-gamma-linolenic (20: 3n-6) and arachidonic (20: 4n-6) showed significant differences between groups. The variations in fatty acid composition observed with age indicated an imbalance in dietary n-3/n-6 long-chain PUFA. PMID:16441930

Sanjurjo, Pablo; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Prado, Carmen; Azcona, Isabel; Elorz, Javier; Prieto, José A; Ruiz, José I; Rodríguez-Soriano, Juan

2006-01-01

127

Fatty acid profile, volatiles and antibacterial screening of lipids of the sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa (Schmidt collected from the Bay of Bengal (Orissa Coast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fatty acid composition as well as the volatiles of a lipophilic extract from the marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa (Schmidt was analysed. The fatty acids (FA were characterized by linear saturated fatty acids (33.05 %, branched saturated fatty acids (9.30 % and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (18.07 %. A significant amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA (30.79 % was found in the total lipid, which included linoleic acid (18:2 n6, 11.14 %, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid/?-linolenic acid (18:3 n–3, 1.99 %, dihomo-g-linolenic acid (20:3 n6, 2.03 % and arachidonic acid (20:4 n–3, 0.5 %. An antibacterial assay of the lipid extract of F. cavernosa showed broad-spectrum activity against different human and fish pathogens.

PRAVAT MANJARI MISHRA

2009-11-01

128

Fatty acid contents of Brazilian soybean oils with emphasis on trans fatty acids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As composições em ácidos graxos das principais marcas de óleo de soja consumidas pelos brasileiros foram determinadas. Em média os níveis de ácidos graxos trans (TFA) variaram entre 0,8 e 2,6% do total de ácidos graxos e compreendem os isômeros 18:1, 18:2, e 18:3. Os níveis de TFA 18:1 foram menores [...] que 0,1% em todas as marcas estudadas. Entre os TFA poliinsaturados, 18:3 foi o predominante, com níveis variando de 0,5 a 1,4%. Este grupo compreende ácidos graxos mono e di-trans e o principal foi o 18:3 9c, 12c, 15t. As quantidades de TFA 18:2 variaram de 0,3 a 1,1% com predominância do ácido 18:2 9c, 12t. Teores do ácido alfa-linolênico variaram de 3,5 a 5,4%, com um valor médio de 4,1%. O grau de isomerização dos ácidos linoléico e alfa-linolênico variaram de 0,5 a 2,1% e de 9,1 a 27,2%, respectivamente. Este estudo indica que provavelmente o tratamento térmico aplicado durante o passo de desodorização dos óleos nos últimos anos foi intenso, resultando em uma diminuição significativa do teor de ácido alfa-linolênico no óleo e, em um aumento na razão n-6/n-3 da dieta dos brasileiros. Abstract in english The fatty acid composition of the main soybean oil brands consumed by the Brazilian has been determined. The mean trans fatty acids (TFA) levels ranged between 0.8 and 2.6% of the total fatty acids and comprised 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3 isomers. 18:1 TFA levels were lower than 0.1% in all the studied br [...] ands. Among the polyunsaturated TFA, 18:3 predominated, with levels ranging from 0.5 to 1.4%. This group comprised mono and di-trans fatty acids and the main acid was 18:3 9c,12c,15t. The amounts of 18:2 TFA ranged from 0.3 to 1.1% with a predominance of acid 18:2 9c,12t . Alpha-linolenic acid contents ranged from 3.5 to 5.4%, with a mean value of 4.1%. The degree of isomerization of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids ranged from 0.5 to 2.1% and from 9.1 to 27.2%, respectively. This study probably indicates that the thermal treatment applied to soybean oil during the deodorization step in the last years is too intense and that it results in a significant decrease in oil alpha-linolenic acid content and an increase in the n-6/n-3 ratio in the Brazilian diet.

Clayton Antunes, Martin; Jesuí Vergílio, Visentainer; Adriana Nery de, Oliveira; Claudio Celestino de, Oliveira; Makoto, Matsushita; Nilson Evelázio de, Souza.

129

Radioiodinated fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fatty acids are the preferred substrate for the normoxic heart. About sixty percent of the energy required by the myocardium is provided by fatty acid [beta]-oxidation. Many scientists have focused on the alterations in fatty acid metabolism in the ischemic heart for the development of radiolabelled fatty acids for functional imaging of the heart. Three main categories of compounds were synthesized: tetrazoles (1 and 2), glycidic and [alpha]-methylene acids (3-5), and analogs of oleic acid (6,7 and 7A). The tetrazole group has a similar pKa and size to that of a carboxyl group; however, such fatty acid analogs cannot undergo normal fatty acid metabolism. Glycidic and [alpha]-methylene analogs are potential irreversible inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism. Oleic acid analogs were investigated to assess the affect of stereochemical consequences on biodistribution. The key intermediates in the synthesis of the target compounds were [omega]-nitrophenyl alkylcarboxylic acids and alcohols, which were made using a variety of cross-coupling reactions. The Wittig reaction, which was used in the synthesis of tetrazole 1 and glycidic acid 3, gave low yields of the cross-coupled products. The remaining target compounds were synthesized by condensation of appropriate RCu (CN) ZnI and substituted benzyl bromides or by Pd[sup II] catalyzed cross-coupling of substituted arylhalides with suitable alkynes. The latter two reactions produced much higher yields of the desired products. All of the target compounds were radiolabeled with [sup 125]I by various Cu(I) catalyzed radioiodine exchange procedures and were then subjected to tissue biodistribution (TD) studies in rats. Except for the 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene-pentadecanoic acid (5), all of the fatty acid analogs failed to surpass clinically-used 15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in their ability to be taken up and retained by the rat myocardium.

Ruyan, M.K.

1993-01-01

130

Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn; T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fat. The lipids from the diets had significantly statistical effects (p<0,05 on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat. Multivariate techniques also showed differences in fatty acid composition within treatments due to sex. The studied dietary lipids affected the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S but had only small effects on the n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio.

SG Rondelli

2004-09-01

131

Effects of different medium-chain fatty acids on intestinal absorption of structured triacylglycerols  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To study the effect of the chain length of medium-chain fatty acids on the intestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids, we examined the lymphatic transport of fat following administration of five purified structured triacylglycerols (STAG) containing different medium-chain fatty acids in the sn-1,3 positions and long-chain fatty acids in the sn-2 position in a rat model. Significant amounts of medium-chain fatty acids were found in lymph samples after intragastric administration of 1,3-dioctanoyl-2-linoleyl- sn-glycerol (8:0/18:2/8:0), 1,3-didecanoyl-2-linoleyl-sn-glycerol, and 1,3- didodecanoyl-2-linoleyl-sn-glycerol. The accumulated lymphatic transport of medium-chain fatty acids increased with increasing carbon chain length. The recoveries of caprylic acid (8:0), capric acid (10:0), and lauric acid (12:0) were 7.3 ± 0.9, 26.3 ± 2.4, and 81.7 ± 6.9%, respectively. No significant differences were observed for the maximal intestinal absorption of linoleic acid (18:2n-6) when the chain length of medium-chain fatty acids at the primary positions was varied, and the absorption of 18:2 and oleic acid (18:1) from 8:0/18:2/8:0 and 1,3-dioctanoyl-2-oleyl-sn-glycerol was similar. We conclude that the chain length of the medium-chain fatty acids in the primary positions of STAG does not affect the maximal intestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids in the sn-2 position in the applied rat model, whereas the distribution of fatty acids between the lymphatics and the portal vein reflects the chain length of the fatty acids.

Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

2000-01-01

132

Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry : a cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. Conclusions Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders

2011-01-01

133

[Omega-3 fatty acids and cognition].  

Science.gov (United States)

Docosahexaenoic acid, the most abundant omega3 fatty acid in the brain, plays a role in cognitive development, learning ability, neuronal membrane plasticity, synaptogenesis, and neurogenesis, all of which are involved in synaptic transmission and the well-being of normal brain functions, and search on the functionality is still in progress. Establishment of prevention and treatment of neuropsychiatric illnesses, such as dementia is not easy, but from numerous basic and epidemiological studies, increase of omega3 fatty acid dietary intake is reported likely to prevent the onset of dementia. This paper is outlined the relevance of cognitive function and omega3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid, and the possibility of preventive effect of the fatty acid on dementia. PMID:24796092

Hashimoto, Michio

2014-04-01

134

Radioiodinated fatty acids for cardiological diagnosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of fatty acids labelled with iodine-123 is reviewed. The variety of methods for producing /sup 123/I and introducing radioiodine into the molecule is discussed and the important points of the biochemical background are recalled with the aim of finding a broad application for /sup 123/I-labelled fatty acids. The results of the pharmacokinetic studies and biochemical analysis are presented as they prove that both 17-/sup 123/I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) and 15-(rho-/sup 123/I-phenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) exhibit analogous behaviour to that of the naturally occurring fatty acids. Clinical applications demonstrated two fields of importance: (i) applications solely for imaging the heart and (ii) assessment of myocardial turnover rates of fatty acids for functional diagnosis. Moreover, very recent studies show that the provision of information about prognosis of myocardial diseases and the applied cardiological therapy appear to be possible.

Machulla, H.-J.; Knust, E.J.; Vyska, K.

1986-01-01

135

Radioiodinated fatty acids for cardiological diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of fatty acids labelled with iodine-123 is reviewed. The variety of methods for producing "1"2"3I and introducing radioiodine into the molecule is discussed and the important points of the biochemical background are recalled with the aim of finding a broad application for "1"2"3I-labelled fatty acids. The results of the pharmacokinetic studies and biochemical analysis are presented as they prove that both 17-"1"2"3I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) and 15-(rho-"1"2"3I-phenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) exhibit analogous behaviour to that of the naturally occurring fatty acids. Clinical applications demonstrated two fields of importance: (i) applications solely for imaging the heart and (ii) assessment of myocardial turnover rates of fatty acids for functional diagnosis. Moreover, very recent studies show that the provision of information about prognosis of myocardial diseases and the applied cardiological therapy appear to be possible. (author)

1986-01-01

136

Hepatic steatosis in n-3 fatty acid depleted mice: focus on metabolic alterations related to tissue fatty acid composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only few data relating the metabolic consequences of feeding diets very low in n-3 fatty acids. This experiment carried out in mice aims at studying the impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA depletion on hepatic metabolism. Results n-3 PUFA depletion leads to a significant decrease in body weight despite a similar caloric intake or adipose tissue weight. n-3 PUFA depleted mice exhibit hypercholesterolemia (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol as well as an increase in hepatic cholesteryl ester and triglycerides content. Fatty acid pattern is profoundly modified in hepatic phospholipids and triglycerides. The decrease in tissue n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio correlates with steatosis. Hepatic mRNA content of key factors involved in lipid metabolism suggest a decreased lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, PPAR?, and an increased ?-oxidation (CPT1, PPAR? and PGC1? without modification of fatty acid esterification (DGAT2, GPAT1, secretion (MTTP or intracellular transport (L-FABP. Histological analysis reveals alterations of liver morphology, which can not be explained by inflammatory or oxidative stress. However, several proteins involved in the unfolded protein response are decreased in depleted mice. Conclusion n-3 PUFA depletion leads to important metabolic alterations in murine liver. Steatosis occurs through a mechanism independent of the shift between ?-oxidation and lipogenesis. Moreover, long term n-3 PUFA depletion decreases the expression of factors involved in the unfolded protein response, suggesting a lower protection against endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatocytes upon n-3 PUFA deficiency.

Malaisse WJ

2008-12-01

137

Cellular fatty acids of Capnocytophaga species.  

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The cellular fatty acid composition of 18 clinical isolates and 4 reference strains of Capnocytophaga species (Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, and Capnocytophaga sputigena) was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The fatty acid profiles of the 22 cultures were essentially identical and were characterized by major amounts (60% or greater) of a saturated, iso-branched-chain, 15-carbon acid (13-methyl-tetradecanoate) and the presence of two relatively uncommon saturated,...

1982-01-01

138

Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration. PMID:24126964

Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

2014-01-01

139

Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Degradation of unusual fatty acids through ?-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [(14)C]acetate and [(3)H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [(14)C]acetate and [(14)C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid. PMID:24398521

Bates, Philip D; Johnson, Sean R; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G; Ohlrogge, John B; Browse, John

2014-01-21

140

The Decrease of n-3 Fatty Acid Energy Percentage in an Equicaloric Diet Fed to B6C3Fe Mice for Three Generations Elicits Obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Feeding mice, over 3 generations, an equicaloric diet in which ?-linolenic acid, the dietary precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, was substituted by linoleic acid, the dietary precursor of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly increased body weight throughout life when compared with standard diet-fed mice. Adipogenesis observed in the low n-3 fatty acid mice was accompanied by a 6-fold upregulation of stearyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1), whose activity is correlated to p...

Hanbauer, Ingeborg; Rivero-covelo, Ignacio; Maloku, Ekrem; Baca, Adam; Hu, Qiaoyan; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Davis, John M.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Exploring the Role of Fatty Acid on Transcription Factors Regulating Fatty Acid Metabolism with Emphasis on Trans Fatty Acid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fatty acids are unique macromolecules as they act as biological modulators of transcription factors and regulate their own metabolism by controlling the activity or abundance of transcription factors of fatty acid metabolism either by RNA processing and RNA stability. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR-?) and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP-1c) are transcription factors expressed primarily in adipose tissue. We have studied the relation of f...

Ransi Ann Abraham; Lakshmy Ramakrishnan; Rajinder Parshad; Varna Seenu; Dorairaj Prabhakaran; Vinay Kumar Bahl

2013-01-01

142

Fatty acid profiles in tissues of mice fed conjugated linoleic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The incorporation of vaccenic acid (VA, 0.5 and 1.2%), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, mixture of primarily c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA, 1.2%), linoleic acid (LA, 1.2%) and oleic acid (OA, 1.2%) into different tissues of mice was examined. The effects on the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) in kidney, spleen, liver and adipose tissue were investigated. VA and CLA (c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA) were primarily found in TAG, especially in kidney and adipose tissue, respectively. Conversion of VA to c9,t11-CLA was indicated by our results, as both fatty acids were incorporated into all the analyzed tissues when a diet containing VA but not c9,t11-CLA was fed. Most of the observed effects on the fatty acid profiles were seen in the CLA group, whereas only minor effects were observed in the VA groups compared with the CA group. Thus, CLA increased n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PL from kidney and spleen and lowered the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in these tissues. Furthermore, CLA increased C-22 PUFA in the PL fraction of kidney, spleen and liver, but reduced the level of arachiclonic acid in PL of liver and spleen and lowered the Delta(9)-desaturation indexes in all analyzed tissue TAG.

Gøttsche, Jesper; Straarup, Ellen Marie

2006-01-01

143

Estimates of genetic parameters for fatty acids in brisket adipose tissue of Canadian commercial crossbred beef steers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heritability and genetic and phenotypic correlations between 15 individuals and 10 groups of fatty acids with a concentration greater than 0.5% in the brisket adipose tissue of 223 Angus and Charolais based crossbred commercial steers were estimated using univariate and bivariate animal models. Individual saturated fatty acids were low to moderately heritable, with heritability estimates ranging from 0.05 (C16:0) to 0.31 (C15:0). Individual monounsaturated fatty acids were low to moderately highly heritable ranging from 0.04 (9c C17:1 and 11c C18:1) to 0.51 (9c C14:1). Polyunsaturated fatty acid C18:2n-6 was moderately heritable (0.17). Among groups of fatty acids, heritability estimates ranged from 0.03 for branched chain fatty acid (BCFA) and n-6/n-3 to 0.16 for n-6 and Health Index. A range of low (0.00) to high (1.00) phenotypic and genetic correlations was observed among the 25 fatty acids considered in this study. In general, fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and 11t C18:1, with potential health benefits, showed significant antagonistic correlations with unhealthy fatty acids such as C14:0 and C16:0. The results from this study provide insight into the direct genetic control of host genes on fatty acid composition of beef tissues and will facilitate designs of genetic selection and/or genetic based diet management to improve fatty acid composition in beef cattle. PMID:24315800

Ekine-Dzivenu, C; Chen, L; Vinsky, M; Aldai, N; Dugan, M E R; McAllister, T A; Wang, Z; Okine, E; Li, C

2014-04-01

144

Effect of diet and plasma fatty acid composition on immune status in elderly men  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The relationship between fatty acids in plasma and basal (B), interleukin-2-(IL-2), and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha)-stimulated natural killer (NK) cell activity was studied in healthy elderly men aged on average 70.5 y (65-81 y). B-NK correlated significantly with the fraction of plasma fatty acids consisting of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), total n-6 fatty acids, and linoleic acid (r = -0.68, r = -0.62, and r = -0.52, respectively). Significant negative correlations were also found between IFN-alpha stimulated NK cells and the three groups of fatty acids and between IL-2-stimulated NK cells and PUFAs. Likewise, negative correlations between PUFAs in the diet and BNK, IL-2, and IFN-alpha stimulated NK cell activity were found. The number of NK cells increased significantly but NK cell activity did not change after 5 wk on a diet lower in fat but higher in PUFAs than the subjects' habitual diet. It is concluded that the amount and type of dietary fatty acids influence in vitro measures of immune function in elderly men. From an immunological point of view, a high intake of n-6 PUFAs may be inadvisable.

Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Kiens, B.

1994-01-01

145

[Composition and stability of fatty acids from deboned cachama and sardine meat during freezer storage].  

Science.gov (United States)

Free fatty acids from total lipids and phospholipids in minced fish flesh from three sizes of Cachama (Colossoma macropomum) and Sardine (Sardinella anchovia) were evaluated. Cachama's most abundant unsaturated fatty acids from the total lipid fraction were: C18:1 (31-38%); C18:2, n-6 (13-15%); and C20:4, n-6 (3-5%), while in sardine were the follows: C18:1; C20:5 n-3 (12-24%) and C22: 6,n-3 (7-24%). C20:5, n-3 increased with the size and C22:6,n-3 decreased. The variance analysis indicated that percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-6 series in the total lipids of cachama and n-3 series in sardine were affected by the storage temperature from -10C to -20 degrees C (p < 0.01). Storage time had effect on the stability of sardine fatty acids (p-0.01) and cachama (p < 0.05). Sardine minced flesh presented the highest value of free fatty acids at-10 degrees C during the second month of storage (620 mg%) while cachama at the fourth month (230 mg%). TBA- value in sardine increased at -10 degrees C from 5.5 to 23 mg of malonaldehyde in fourth months while in cachama these value were almost the same (2-6 mg-kg) during the storage period at -10 degrees C and -20 degrees C. PMID:1342185

Ortíz, H; Bello, R

1992-12-01

146

Lymphatic Fatty Acid Absorption Profile During 24 Hours After Administration of Triglycerides to Rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study we determined in rats the complete 24-h lymphatic fatty acid profile after administration of either rapeseedoil (RO) or rapeseed oil interesterified with 10:0 (RO/C10) with special emphasis on the transition from absorptive topostabsorptive phase. Rats were subjected to cannulation of the main mesenteric lymph duct and the next day oils wereadministered through a gastric feeding tube. Lymph was collected in 1-h fractions for the following 24 h. The time formaximum lymphatic transport of fatty acids was at 4 h with fast changes in fatty acid composition from the fatty acids ofendogenous origin to those of the administered oils. Seven to eight hours after administration the transport wassignificantly lower than maximum, indicating the change from absorptive to postabsorptive phase. At 24 h afteradministration of either oil the transport of total fatty acids, palmitic acid (16:0), and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) together witholeic acid (18:1 n-9) after RO had not returned to the transport at baseline. In contrast, the transport of decanoic acid(10:0) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) returned to baseline values between 12 and 15 h. This indicated that theabsorption of purely exogenous fatty acids (illustrated by 10:0 and 18:3n-3) was complete at 15 h and that the fatty acidstransported between 15 and 24 h were derived mostly from endogenous stores.

Porsgaard, Trine Charlotte; Straarup, Ellen Marie

1999-01-01

147

Evolution of fatty acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) mesocarp at different stages of ripening  

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The fatty acid composition of medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) varied significantly among the ripening stages sampled at 157, 172 and 187 DAFs (days after full bloom). Twenty-one different fatty acids were detected in preclimacteric fruit and 17 when the climacteric began. Principal fatty acids, determined in medlar fruit harvested from October (157 and 172 DAFs) to November (187 DAF) were mainly palmitic acid (16:0), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), and a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). While the con...

Ayaz, F. A.; Glew, R. H.; Huang, H. S.; Chuang, L. T.; Vanderjagt, D. J.; Strnad, M.

2002-01-01

148

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SOME LEAFY VEGETABLES OF BANGLADESH  

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Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of six different leafy vegetables of Bangladesh was investigated. The amount of bound fatty acids was found to be higher than the free fatty acids in all the leafy vegetables. Different fatty acids were identified and their relative proportions were determined by GLC from the leafy vegetables.

Kamal Karmakar, Tanvir Muslim* and Md. Azizur Rahman

2013-02-01

149

Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

2010-01-01

150

Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria  

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To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL...

2011-01-01

151

Interaction of Fatty Acid with Myoglobin  

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Upon titration with palmitate, the 1H NMR spectra of metmyoglobin cyanide (MbCN) reveal a selective perturbation of the 8 heme methyl, consistent with a specific interaction of myoglobin (Mb) with fatty acid. Other detectable hyperfine shifted resonances of the heme group remain unchanged. Mb also enhances fatty acid solubility, as reflected in a more intense methylene peak of palmitate in Mb than in Tris buffer. Ligand binding analysis indicates an apparent palmitate dissociation constant (K...

Sriram, Renuka; Kreutzer, Ulrike; Shih, Lifan; Jue, Thomas

2008-01-01

152

Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO2 in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO2 and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and ?-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by ?-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the ?-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the ?-ketothiolase step of the ?-oxidation pathway. The [14C]acetoacetate formed from the [1-14C]labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the [14C]acetoacetate formed from the (?-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1

1988-01-01

153

Functional characterization of polyunsaturated fatty acid delta 6-desaturase and elongase genes from the black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid delta 6-desaturase (D6DES) and elongases are key enzymes in the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from microorganisms to higher animals. To identify the genes encoding D6DES and elongases for PUFAs, we isolated each cDNA with a high similarity to the D6DES and ELOVL5-like elongases of mammals and fishes via degenerate PCR and RACE-PCR from Acanthopagrus schlegelii. A recombinant vector expressing AsD6DES was subsequently constructed and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to test the enzymatic activity toward n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in the PUFA biosynthesis. The heterologously expressed AsD6DES produced ?-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3 n-6) and stearidonic acid (STA, C18:4 n-3) at conversion rates of 26.3-35.6% from exogenous linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) and ?-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n-3) substrates, respectively. When AsELOVL5 was expressed in yeast, it conferred an ability to elongate GLA to di-homo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3 n-6). In addition, AsELOVL5 showed an ability to convert ARA (C20:4 n-6) and EPA (C20:5 n-3) to dodecylthioacetic acid (DTA, C22:4 n-6) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, C22:5 n-3), respectively. In these results, the AsD6DES encodes a delta 6-fatty acid desaturase and the AsELOVL5 encoding a long-chain fatty acid elongase shows activity to enlongate C18?6/C20?5, but not C22. PMID:24052399

Kim, Sun Hee; Park, Jong Sug; Kim, So Yun; Kim, Jung-Bong; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Jong Bum

2014-03-01

154

Role and significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in nutrition in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Hyperlipoproteinemia is a key factor in development of atherosclerosis, whereas regression of atherosclerosis mostly depends on decreasing the plasma level of total and LDL-cholesterol. Many studies have reported the hypocholesterolemic effect of linolenic acid. Types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA Linoleic and ?-linolenic acids are essential fatty acids. The main sources of linoleic acid are vegetable seeds and of ?-linolenic acid - green parts of plants. ?-linolenic acid is converted to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid is converted into arachidonic acid competing with eicosapentaenoic acid in the starting point for synthesis of eicosanoids, which are strong regulators of cell functions and as such, very important in physiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular system. Eicosanoids derived from eicosapentaenoic acid have different biological properties in regard to those derived from arachidonic acid, i.e. their global effects result in decreased vasoconstriction platelet aggregation and leukocyte toxicity. Role and significant of PUFA The n-6 to n-3 ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food is very important, and an optimal ratio 4 to 1 in diet is a major issue. Traditional western diets present absolute or relative deficiency of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a ratio 15-20 to 1. In our diet fish and fish oil are sources of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Refined and processed vegetable oils change the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids and obtained derivates have atherogenic properties.

Risti? Vanja I.

2003-01-01

155

Genetic variants of the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster predict amounts of red blood cell docosahexaenoic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnant women: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children  

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Background: Blood and tissue long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) amounts, which have been associated with early development and lifelong health, depend on dietary intake and endogenous conversion of precursor fatty acids (FAs) by the enzymes Delta(5)-desaturase and Delta(6)-desaturase. Polymorphisms in the desaturase encoding genes FADS1 and FADS2 have been associated with several n-6 (omega-6) and n-3 (omega-3) FAs and especially with arachidonic acid (AA) amounts. Associations w...

2011-01-01

156

Fatty acids in mountain gorilla diets: implications for primate nutrition and health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the fatty acid composition of foods eaten by wild primates. A total of 18 staple foods that comprise 97% of the annual dietary intake of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) were analyzed for fatty acid concentrations. Fruits and herbaceous leaves comprise the majority of the diet, with fruits generally having a higher mean percentage of fat (of dry matter; DM), as measured by ether extract (EE), than herbaceous leaves (13.0%?±?SD 13.0% vs. 2.3?±?SD 0.8%). The mean daily EE intake by gorillas was 3.1% (DM). Fat provided ?14% of the total dietary energy intake, and ?22% of the dietary non-protein energy intake. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 32.4% of the total fatty acids in the diet, while monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for 12.5% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) accounted for 54.6%. Both of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA, n-6) and ?-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3), were found in all of the 17 staple foods containing crude fat and were among the three most predominant fatty acids in the diet: LA (C18:2n-6) (30.3%), palmitic acid (C16:0) (23.9%), and ALA (C18:3n-3) (21.2%). Herbaceous leaves had higher concentrations of ALA, while fruit was higher in LA. Fruits provided high amounts of fatty acids, especially LA, in proportion to their intake due to the higher fat concentrations; despite being low in fat, herbaceous leaves provided sufficient ALA due to the high intake of these foods. As expected, we found that wild mountain gorillas consume a diet lower in EE, than modern humans. The ratio of LA:ALA was 1.44, closer to agricultural paleolithic diets than to modern human diets. PMID:24243235

Reiner, Whitney B; Petzinger, Christina; Power, Michael L; Hyeroba, David; Rothman, Jessica M

2014-03-01

157

Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of some traditional Argentinean meat sausages Composição nutricional e perfil de ácidos graxos de embutidos tradicionais da Argentina  

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The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and total fat) of some meat products produced in the northeastern Argentina, analyzing fatty acids composition, polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio PUFA/SFA ratio (polyunsaturated/ saturated fatty acids), n-6/n-3 ratio, and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) content. Thirty traditional meat products produced by different processes were used. The samples were classified into 4 different cat...

Mara Cristina Romero; Ana María Romero; Mirtha Marina Doval; Maria Alicia Judis

2013-01-01

158

The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Nutritional Landscape: Health Benefits and Sources123  

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Dietary fatty acids (FA) are increasingly recognized as major biologic regulators and have properties that relate to health outcomes and disease. The longer chain, more bioactive (n-6) (or omega-6) FA and (n-3) (or omega-3) FA share similar elongation and desaturation enzymes in their conversion from the essential (n-6) FA, linoleic acid, and (n-3) FA, ?-linolenic acid (ALA). Conversion from these essential FA is very inefficient. However, now for the (n-3) FA series, soy oil can be enriched...

Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Torrejon, Claudia

2012-01-01

159

Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids were 49.2 +/- 3.1, 44.9 +/- 1.8, and 37.7 +/- 1.7, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 3.3 +/- 0.7, 5.8 +/- 2.0, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Beef contained 2.1 +/- 0.8 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids, about half that found in veal (4.0 +/- 1.2 g/100 g fatty acids) and lamb (4.5 +/- 0.6 g/100 g fatty acids). Trans C-16:1 was 0.24 +/- 0.01, 0.14 +/- 0.02, and 0.79 +/- 0.02 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Only small variations in trans and other fatty acids could be demonstrated between cuts. The overlap between cis and trans C-18:1 by capillary GLC was verified by argentation-thin-layer chromatography followed by GLC, on three samples of veal and three samples of lamb. In veal 1.0 g, and in lamb 1.4 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids were hidden under the cis C-18:1 peak. The mean intake of trans fatty acids from ruminant meat is estimated at 0.2 g/d.

Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.

1998-01-01

160

Plasma Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Major Depression  

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Deficiencies in polyunsaturated essential fatty acids (PUFA) are implicated in mood disorders, although mechanisms of action and regional specificity in the brain are unknown. We hypothesized that plasma phospholipid PUFA levels are correlated with regionally specific relative cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (rCMRglu). 29 medication-free depressed subjects were studied using [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6...

Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Milak, Matthew S.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Freed, Peter J.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Malone, Kevin M.; Parsey, Ramin V.; Mann, J. John

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Relationship between Acute Phase Proteins and Serum Fatty Acid Composition in Morbidly Obese Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Obesity is considered a low-grade inflammatory state and has been associated with increased acute phase proteins as well as changes in serum fatty acids. Few studies have assessed associations between acute phase proteins and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Objective. To investigate the relationship between acute phase proteins (C-Reactive Protein, Orosomucoid, and Albumin) and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Methods. Twenty-two morbidly obese patients were enrolled in this study. Biochemical and clinical data were obtained before bariatric surgery, and fatty acids measured in preoperative serum. Results. Orosomucoid was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.027) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (P = 0.037) and positively with arachidonic acid (AA) (P = 0.035), AA/EPA ratio (P = 0.005), and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (P = 0.035). C-Reactive Protein (CRP) was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.048), and both CRP and CRP/Albumin ratio were negatively correlated with margaric acid (P = 0.010, P = 0.008, resp.). Albumin was positively correlated with EPA (P = 0.027) and margaric acid (P = 0.008). Other correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum fatty acids are linked to acute phase proteins in morbidly obese patients.

Fernandes, Ricardo; Beserra, Bruna Teles Soares; Cunha, Raphael Salles Granato; Hillesheim, Elaine; Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Pequito, Danielle Cristina Tonello; de Castro, Isabela Coelho; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio; Nunes, Everson Araujo; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes

2013-01-01

162

Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation  

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Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

1986-09-01

163

Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-["1"4C]palmitate to "1"4CO_2 and total ["1"4C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO"2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ?M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ?M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine

1986-01-01

164

The Essential Fatty Acids and the Diet of Polar Bears  

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Full Text Available Plasma lipids of polar bears are significant because these bears prefer to consume high quantities of fat; furthermore one population fasts each year for over four months. In this paper plasma lipids of fed polar bears were compared to fasted bears. Fasted bears were hyperlipidemic to fed bears; both were hyperlipidemic to normal human plasma, in respect to cholesterol and triglycerides. In lipoproteins, the HDL (High Density Lipoproteins triglyceride was very low as in human subjects in both fed and fasted animals. The other two, LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins and VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoproteins were consistently higher in fasted bears than in fed bears, and these fasted bears had much higher cholesterol and triglycerides than the fed bears. Since the fed bears seem to be protected against hyperlipidemia, the fatty acid composition of serum lipids was analyzed. The n-3 fatty acids not the n-6 type dominated in fed bears. These n-3 fatty acids (which were not available to fasted bears seem to protect against high serum lipids. These results seem to support the concept of using fish oil capsules in the human clinic.

Kaduce Terry L.

2002-01-01

165

Synthesis and utilization of fatty acids by wild-type and fatty acid auxotrophs of Caulobacter crescentus.  

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The fatty acid composition of the dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was found to consist primarily of 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids, both saturated and monounsaturated, in agreement with the findings of Chow and Schmidt (J. Gen. Microbiol. 83:359-373, 1974). In addition, two minor but as yet unidentified fatty acids were detected. Chromatographic mobilities suggested that these fatty acids may be a cyclopropane and a branched-chain fatty acid. In addition, we demonstrated that the fa...

Letts, V.; Shaw, P.; Shapiro, L.; Henry, S.

1982-01-01

166

Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis  

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Abstract Background Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in anima...

Yu Xiao-Hong; Rawat Richa; Shanklin John

2011-01-01

167

Modification of fatty acids composition in erythrocytes lipids in arterial hypertension associated with dyslipidemia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Modification of fatty acids (FA composition in erythrocytes lipids as an early indicator of the development of arterial hypertension (AH and lipid disorders. Methods We included 34 patients with arterial hypertension and 11 healthy individuals. Each patient was examined the lipid composition of serum. From erythrocytes by gas chromatography were identified fatty acids. The quantitative composition of the erythrocyte lipids FA in patients with AH presented with saturated and polyunsaturated monoenic acids with carbon chain lengths from C12 to C22. Results In all hypertensive patients is disturbed lipid FA composition of erythrocytes. The patients with a normal level of serum lipids revealed deficiency of polyunsaturated acids n6-linoleic (18:2 n6, arachidonic (20:4 n6, dokozatetraenic 14,4% (22:4 n6. The patients with dislipidemia installed more profound restructuring of the lipid matrix of the membrane of erythrocytes. A decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids family n3: dokozapentaenovoy (22:5 n3, docosahexaenoic PUFA (22:6 n3, the total value of n3 PUFA in 1,3 times was revealed. Conclusion Thus, modification of erythrocyte FA are fairly subtle indicator of pathology of lipid metabolism, which manifest themselves much earlier than changes in the lipoprotein of blood plasma.

Antonyuk Marina V

2011-01-01

168

Circulating fatty acids and prostate cancer risk in a nested case-control study: the Multiethnic Cohort  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Dietary fat, including specific fatty acids, has been proposed to contribute to prostate cancer pathogenesis, but findings from the studies based on biomarkers have been conflicting. Methods We examined the association between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition and prostate cancer risk in a nested case–control study within a multiethnic cohort of African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Whites. Analyses included 376 cases and 729 matched controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with adjustment for multiple covariates. Results No significant association was found for saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid, or for specific n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, even when the analysis was limited to advanced or high grade prostate cancer. In ethnic specific analyses, there was a positive association with palmitic acid in Japanese Americans that was significantly different from the null results in other groups. There was also an increased risk with n-3 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3/n-6 fatty acids in Whites. Conclusion Although there was a suggestion of ethnic specific associations with some fatty acids, our overall findings do not support a role for fatty acids in prostate carcinogenesis.

Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Henning, Susanne M.; Le Marchand, Loic; Gao, Kun; Goodman, Marc T.; Murphy, Suzanne P.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.

2009-01-01

169

Variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions in Thai Perilla seeds grown at different locations  

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Full Text Available Perilla or Nga-Kee-Mon (Perilla frutescens seed has long been known as a rich source of ?-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3. It is widely cultivated throughout Thailand. However, there are no data on the variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions among crops from different regions. The aim of this study was to examine the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seed grown at different locations. Two different perilla seeds were harvested from Maehongsorn and Chiang Mai districts, and one commercial perilla was purchased from local market. Seeds were ground, lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v and its composition determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed with GLC using standard methods. Lipid content was between 34-36% (w/w. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in perilla seed (97% of total lipids, and a minor component was phytosterol (3% of total lipids. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates was approximately 1: 1: 8. Most predominant fatty acid was ?-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3 (55-60% of total fatty acid. Seeds from Maehongsorn district had the highest concentration of ?-linolenic acid, and commercial perilla had the lowest (P<0.05. Other two predominant fatty acids were linoleic acid (18:2, n-6 (18-22% of total fatty acid and oleic acid (18:1 (11-13% of total fatty acid. The results showed that the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seeds varied significantly among samples from different locations.

Maitree Suttajit

2006-03-01

170

Metabolism of furan fatty acids in fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vivo experiments on interconversions of furan fatty acids in fish are described. Administration of 2- or 3-14C-labelled furan fatty acids showed that the heterocycle does not interfere with conversions at the carboxyl group, such as shortening and elongating the chain, or its reduction to alcohol. There was no indication for desaturation of proximal chains, methylation or demethylation of the ring, or changes in the terminal chains. According to these restricted metabolic correlations, the furan fatty acids can be classified in specific structural families of bis-homologs. Distinct parent furan compounds are likely for each of these families. [1-14C]Acetate was incorporated by fish into furan fatty acids. Their chemical oxidation showed that only the resulting dicarboxylic fragments were labelled. They represent the proximal chain including alpha-C of the ring. Label was not found in the monocarboxylic acids which represent terminal chains with alpha'-C, and ring-methyl substituents with beta- and beta'-C. Accordingly, fish do not synthesize from acetate the terminal alkyl chain including the carbons in the cyclic portion of the furan fatty acids. PMID:6712980

Sand, D M; Glass, R L; Olson, D L; Pike, H M; Schlenk, H

1984-05-11

171

Study of fatty acid-bacteria interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. During our work we investigated fatty acid-bacteria interactions. The antibacterial property of fatty acids was reported by several authors. Despite of them there is not reassuring explanation about the mechanism of the antibacterial activity of these compounds. An effect can considerably change in case of different structured fatty acids. Our earlier studies conduct that small changes in the structures can modify changes in their behavior towards bacteria. The stearic acid does not cause any antibacterial effects during the first few hours of the investigation, may even help the bacterial growth. However, linolic acid (C18:2) shows a strong antibacterial effect during the first hours. After 24 hours this effect wears out and the bacteria have adapted to the stress. We studied the antibacterial activity using direct bioautography. This method has the advantage to allow examining lipophilic compounds. The linoleic acid decomposes in time under different physiological conditions creating numerous oxidized molecules. This may be the reason of its antimicrobial effect. For studying this phenomenon we used infrared and mass spectroscopic methods. We applied infrared spectroscopy for indicating any changes in the spectra of the fatty acids after the interaction of fatty acids with bacteria. So we are able to deduct on what could happen during these process. We paid great attention towards the changes of double bonds, on methylation and demethylation processes. Using mass spectroscopy we searched for oxidized products that may play important role in this process. These studies are only part of our more widespreading investigations, dealing with the antimicrobial properties of fatty acids.

2009-09-03

172

Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Delay Progression of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ Mice12  

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Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1) transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogen...

Mohammed, Altaf; Janakiram, Naveena B.; Brewer, Misty; Duff, Ashley; Lightfoot, Stan; Brush, Richard S.; Anderson, Robert E.; Rao, Chinthalapally V.

2012-01-01

173

Membrane Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition Regulates Cardiac SERCA Activity in a Hibernator, the Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)  

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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (Tb) and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+?ATPase 2a (SERCA) in the heart of h...

Giroud, Sylvain; Frare, Carla; Strijkstra, Arjen; Boerema, Ate; Arnold, Walter; Ruf, Thomas

2013-01-01

174

Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

2011-08-23

175

Method of preparing fatty acid monoesters  

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The invention relates to a method of preparing monoesters of polyhydroxyl alcohols. The inventive method comprises a first step consisting in protecting the hydroxyl groups of a polyhydroxyl alcohol by means of acetalisation and a second step comprising the sterification of said acetalised polyhydroxyl alcohol with a fatty acid in the presence of one or more solid acid catalysts.

Corma, Avelino; Iborra Chornet, Sara; Velty, Alexandra Isabelle Lucienne; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifa

2007-01-01

176

Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.  

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Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

Geis, G.; Leying, H.; Suerbaum, S.; Opferkuch, W.

1990-01-01

177

Specific phospholipid fatty acid composition of brain regions in mice. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency and phospholipid supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid deficiency followed or not by supplementation with phospholipids rich in n;-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on the fatty acid composition of total phospholipids in 11 brain regions. Three weeks before mating, mice were fed a semisynthetic diet containing both linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid or deficient in alpha-linolenic acid. Pups were fed the same diet as their dams. At the age of 7 weeks, a part of the deficient group were supplemented with n;-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from either egg yolk or pig brain phospholipids for 2 months. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid levels varied among brain regions and were not significantly affected by the diet. In control mice, the level of 22:6 n-3 was significantly higher in the frontal cortex compared to all regions. alpha-Linolenic acid deficiency decreased the level of 22:6 n-3 and was compensated by an increase in 22:5 n-6 in all regions. However, the brain regions were affected differently. After the pituitary gland, the frontal cortex, and the striatum were the most markedly affected with 40% reduction of 22:6 n-3. Supplementation with egg yolk or cerebral phospholipids in deficient mice restored a normal fatty acid composition in brain regions except for the frontal cortex. There was a regional distribution of the fatty acids in the brain and the impact of deficiency in alpha-linolenic acid was region-specific. Dietary egg yolk or cerebral phospholipids are an effective source of n-3 PUFA for the recovery of altered fatty acid composition induced by a diet deficient in n-3 PUFA. PMID:10706594

Carrié, I; Clément, M; de Javel, D; Francès, H; Bourre, J M

2000-03-01

178

Trans Fatty Acids: Their Chemical Structures, Formation and Dietary Intake  

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Full Text Available Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least a double bond in trans configuration or geometry.The double-bond angle of the trans fatty acids is smaller than the cis isomeric configuration and the acylchain is more linear, resulting in a more rigid molecule with different physical properties such as a highermelting point and greater thermodynamic stability. These appear in dairy fat because of ruminal activity, andin hydrogenated oils. Trans unsaturated fatty acids are solid fats produced artificially by heating liquidvegetable oils in the presence of metal catalysts and hydrogen. Trans fatty acids are found in numerousfoods. Margarines, shortenings and baked goods contain relatively high levels of trans fatty acids. Similar tosaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids also increase LDL cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol thereforeincreasing the risk of heart diseases. Therefore, the possible increase in risk for those diseases caused by ahigh trans fatty acid consumption should be carefully considered.

O. Daglioglu

2005-01-01

179

The fatty acid composition of muscles and fat depots of ostriches as influenced by genotype  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Three genotypes of ostrich (South African Black, Zimbabwean Blue Necks and crosses between Zimbabwean Blue Neck males x South African Black females) were used to investigate the influence of genotype on the fatty acid composition of the musculus gastrocnemius and musculus iliofibularis, and abdomina [...] l and breast fat depots. Total saturated fatty acids in both the m. gastrocnemius and m. iliofibularis were higher in crosses (36.4% and 35.9%) than in South African Black ostriches (32.9% and 30.4%), whereas mono-unsaturated fatty acids were highest in South African Black ostriches. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids in the m. gastrocnemius were lowest in South African Black ostriches (26.5%) compared with the Zimbabwean Blue Necks (33.2%). Neither the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated (0.73 to 0.99) nor n-6 to n-3 (1.6 to 2.2) fatty acids were influenced by genotype, although the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in Zimbabwean Blue Necks was higher in the m. gastrocnemius (0.99) than in the m. iliofibularis (0.73). Differences in individual fatty acids were prominent in the breast fat, and total saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids differed between genotypes in both breast and abdominal fat. Only the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in the fat depots differed between South African Black (0.48) and Zimbabwean Blue Neck ostriches (0.42). The latter ratio was higher in the breast (0.50) than abdominal (0.42) fat in Zimbabwean Blue Necks. These results indicate that crossbreeding of different genotypes of ostriches reared under similar conditions does influence the overall fatty acid profiles of meat and fat.

L.C., Hoffman; M.M., Brand; S.W.P., Cloete; M., Muller.

180

Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition  

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Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey?...

Martemucci Giovanni; D’Alessandro Angela Gabriella

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory

2002-10-01

182

Hydroxy-Conjugated Fatty Acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to a method of producing hydroxy-conjugated octadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid contained in vegetable oils and soap stocks from alkali-refined vegetable oils. Linoleic acid soaps are dispersed in an aqueous medium containing di...

E. A. Emkeu

1973-01-01

183

Comparison of the fatty acid composition of the serum phospholipids of controls, prediabetics and adults with type 2 diabetes  

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Full Text Available Objective: Although abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of serum and red cell membrane phospholipids of patients with type 2 diabetes are well-documented, lacking are studies of this issue in prediabetic individuals. Materials/Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 180 subjects (30 - 80 years, 56 of whom were normal with regard to glucose control (HbA1c, <5.7%, 61 who had prediabetes (HbA1c, 5.7% - 6.4% and 59 who had type 2 diabetes (HbA1c, >6.5%. Serum phospholipids were isolated and analyzed for fatty acids. Results: Most importantly, the fatty acid compositions of the controls and prediabetic subjects were not different for 19 fatty acids. However, the fatty acid profile of the phospholipids of the patients with diabetes differed from the other two groups; the 14 to 18-carbon saturated fatty acids were decreased by 12% - 26% whereas the unsaturated fatty acids 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 20:3n-6 and 20:4n-6 were increased by 45% - 64%. Of note, the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA status of individuals in all three study groups was remarkably low compared with international values, as indicated by DHA proportions in the 1.62% - 2.07% range, and there were no differences between groups. The mean melting point of the phospholipid fatty acids of the diabetic patients (32.2? was significantly lower (p < 0.001 than that of the prediabetic subjects (38.1? and the controls (39.9? which were not different from each other. Conclusion: These observations indicate that the fatty acid changes associated with type 2 diabetes follow the onset of the disease as opposed to being a causative factor of poor glucose control and insulin insensitivity.

Lu-Te Chuang

2012-11-01

184

Fatty Acid Composition of Flax Sprouts  

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The oil and fatty acid profile of flax (Linum usitatissimum) sprouts and seed were compared to determine nutrition potential of sprouts. Equal quantities of seed from three flax cultivars (Rahab-94, Pembina and Linott) were sprouted twice in three replications and were analysed for oil and fatty acid contents during summer 2011. Three flax cultivars were observed with high oil content on dry weight basis in sprouts (15.9%) and seeds (33.99%). Significant variations (P<0.0001) between seed and...

Narina, Satya S.; Hamama, Anwar A.; Bhardwaj, Harbans L.

2013-01-01

185

Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods The fatty acid (FA composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum and two from tropical seas (Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum natans was determined using GCMS. Four independent replicates were taken from each seaweed species. Results Omega-3 (n-3 and omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, were in the concentration range of 2-14 mg/g dry matter (DM, while total lipid content ranged from 7-45 mg/g DM. The n-9 FAs of the selected seaweeds accounted for 3%-56% of total FAs, n-6 FAs for 3%-32% and n-3 FAs for 8%-63%. Red and brown seaweeds contain arachidonic (C20:4, n-6 and/or eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA, C20:5, n-3, the latter being an important "fish" FA, as major PUFAs while in green seaweeds these values are low and mainly C16 FAs were found. A unique observation is the presence of another typical "fish" fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 at ? 1 mg/g DM in S. natans. The n-6: n-3 ratio is in the range of 0.05-2.75 and in most cases below 1.0. Environmental effects on lipid-bound FA composition in seaweed species are discussed. Conclusion Marine macroalgae form a good, durable and virtually inexhaustible source for polyunsaturated fatty acids with an (n-6 FA: (n-3 FA ratio of about 1.0. This ratio is recommended by the World Health Organization to be less than 10 in order to prevent inflammatory, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. Some marine macroalgal species, like P. palmata, contain high proportions of the "fish fatty acid" eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3, while in S. natans also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 was detected.

van Keulen Herman

2011-06-01

186

Polyunsaturated fatty acid production by marine bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important in maintaining human health. Limitations associated with current sources of ?-3 fatty acids and ?-6 fatty acids, from animal and plant sources, have led to increased interest in microbial production. Marine bacteria may provide a suitable alternative, although the isolation of production strains and the identification of operating conditions must be addressed before manufacturing processes become economically viable. Marine isolate 560 was identified as an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) producer via GC/MS. The isolate was initially identified as Vibrio cyclitrophicus by 16S rRNA sequencing. Statistically based experimental designs were applied to the optimisation of medium components and environmental factors for the production of EPA. A Plackett-Burman design was used to screen for the effect of temperature, pH, and media components. Subsequently, the concentrations of NaCl, yeast extract, and peptone, identified as significant factors, were optimised using a central composite design. The predicted optimal combination of media components for maximum EPA production (4.8 mg/g dry weight) was determined as 7.9 g/l peptone, 16.2 g/l NaCl, and 6.2 g/l yeast extract. On transfer of this process to bioreactor cultivation, where a range of pH and DO values were tested, the maximum amount of EPA produced increased to 7.5 mg/g dry weight and 10 % of the total fatty acid. PMID:23525832

Abd Elrazak, Ahmed; Ward, Alan C; Glassey, Jarka

2013-11-01

187

Conversion of ?-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of ?-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (?-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert ?-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time. PMID:23600588

Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

2014-04-01

188

Frictional response of fatty acids on steel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-assembled monolayers of fatty acids were formed on stainless steel by room-temperature solution deposition. The acids are covalently bound to the surface as carboxylate in a bidentate manner. To explore the effect of saturation in the carbon backbone on friction in sliding tribology, we study the response of saturated stearic acid (SA) and unsaturated linoleic acid (LA) as self-assembled monolayers using lateral force microscopy and nanotribometry and when the molecules are dispersed in hexadecane, using pin-on-disc tribometry. Over a very wide range (10 MPa-2.5 GPa) of contact pressures it is consistently demonstrated that the unsaturated linoleic acid molecules yield friction which is significantly lower than that of the saturated stearic acid. It is argued, using density functional theory predictions and XPS of slid track, that when the molecular backbone of unsaturated fatty acids are tilted and pressed strongly by a probe, in tribological contact, the high charge density of the double bond region of the backbone allows coupling with the steel substrate. The interaction yields a low friction carboxylate soap film on the substrate. The saturated fatty acid does not show this effect. PMID:19232636

Sahoo, Rashmi R; Biswas, S K

2009-05-15

189

Antineoplastic unsaturated fatty acids from Fijian macroalgae  

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Phytochemical analysis of Fijian populations of the green alga Tydemania expeditionis led to the isolation of two new unsaturated fatty acids, 3(?)-hydroxy-octadeca-4(E),6(Z),15(Z)-trienoic acid (1) and 3(?)-hydroxy-hexadeca-4(E),6(Z)-dienoic acid (2), along with the known 3(?)-hydroxy-octadeca-4(E),6(Z)-dienoic acid (4). Investigations of the red alga Hydrolithon reinboldii led to identification of a new glycolipid, lithonoside (3), and five known compounds, 15-tricosenoic acid, hexaco...

2008-01-01

190

Vascular Dysfunction Induced in Offspring by Maternal Dietary Fat Involves Altered Arterial Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis  

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Nutrition during development affects risk of future cardiovascular disease. Relatively little is known about whether the amount and type of fat in the maternal diet affect vascular function in the offspring. To investigate this, pregnant and lactating rats were fed either 7%(w/w) or 21%(w/w) fat enriched in either18:2n-6, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, or fish oil. Their offspring were fed 4%(w/w) soybean oil from weaning until day 77. Type and amount of maternal dietary fat altere...

Kelsall, Christopher J.; Hoile, Samuel P.; Irvine, Nicola A.; Masoodi, Mojgan; Torrens, Christopher; Lillycrop, Karen A.; Calder, Philip C.; Clough, Geraldine F.; Hanson, Mark A.; Burdge, Graham C.

2012-01-01

191

Dietary linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid differentially affect renal oxylipins and phospholipid fatty acids in diet-induced obese rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of oxylipins derived from fatty acids may provide insight into the biological effects of dietary lipids beyond their effects on tissue fatty acid profiles. We have previously observed that diets with higher amounts of ?-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n3) are associated with reduced obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG). Therefore, to examine the renal oxylipin profile, the effects of dietary linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) and ALA on oxylipins and renal phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the relationship between oxylipins and ORG, diet-induced obese rats displaying ORG were fed 8 different diets for 8 wk as follows (oil/oil = combination of two oils) [shown as ALA/LA (in g) per 100 g oil]: canola/flax (20/18), canola (8/18), soy (9/53), high-oleic canola/canola (5/16), high-oleic canola (2/15), lard/soy (1/8), and safflower (0.2/73). Targeted lipidomic analysis by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry revealed that LA and ALA oxylipins comprised 60% of the total renal oxylipin profile examined. Of the >60 oxylipins screened, only those derived either directly or indirectly from ALA were associated with less glomerulomegaly, indicative of reduced ORG progression. Both the amount and ratio of dietary LA and ALA influenced renal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs); in contrast, only fatty acid amount altered oxylipins derived from these fatty acids, but there was no apparent competition by LA or ALA on their formation. Dietary LA incorporation into renal phospholipids was higher than for ALA, but ALA oxylipin:ALA ratios were higher than the analogous LA ratios for select lipoxygenase reactions. This indicates that the effect of dietary ALA on renal oxylipins exceeded what was reflected in renal PUFA composition. In conclusion, dietary LA and ALA have differential effects on renal oxylipins and PUFAs, and ALA-derived oxylipins are associated with renoprotection in this model of ORG. PMID:23902961

Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Love, Karin; Winter, Tanja; Gauthier, Joy; Taylor, Carla G; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Zahradka, Peter; Aukema, Harold M

2013-09-01

192

Long-chain fatty acid perturbations in Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

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The fatty acid content of Mycoplasma pneumoniae increased 2.5- to 9.6-fold when the growth medium was supplemented with a saturated, unsaturated, or beta-hydroxy fatty acid, the greatest increase occurring with palmitic acid. The amount of each supplemented fatty acid found within this organism was 2.8 to 5.5% of the total fatty acid content; the exception was palmitic acid. Up to 57% of the palmitic acid was utilized from the supplemented medium, whereas only 0.2 to 10% of the other fatty ac...

1981-01-01

193

21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

...preparation of sucrose fatty acid esters are those generally...part. Ethyl acetate or methyl ethyl ketone or dimethyl...isobutyl alcohol (2-methyl-1-propanol) may...preparation of sucrose fatty acid esters. (b) Sucrose...

2009-04-01

194

Production of Hydroxy Fatty Acids and Estolide Intermediates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention is a process for the production of hydroxy fatty acids and novel estolide compounds. Formation of these estolides is by catalytic reaction of unsaturated fatty acids. Following their formation, the estolides may be recovered for subsequent u...

D. A. Burg R. Kleiman S. M. Erhan

1991-01-01

195

Plasma cholesteryl ester fatty acid composition, insulin sensitivity, the menopause and hormone replacement therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine the effect of menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on plasma cholesteryl ester fatty acid (CEFA) composition and insulin sensitivity and the relationships between these variables in perimenopausal women (aged 40-55 years) including 49 who were premenopausal and 32 who were postmenopausal. Plasma cholesteryl ester proportions of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3 n-6) were correlated significantly with insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.319, P=0.005), fasting serum insulin levels (r=0.230, P=0.038), body mass index (r=0.242, P=0.03) and per cent body fat (r=0.329, P=0.003) in perimenopausal women (n=81). Similar associations were observed in premenopausal women. Regression analysis suggested the relationships between 20:3 n-6 proportions and indices of insulin action may be partly mediated by levels of adiposity. In postmenopausal women, 6 months of HRT significantly (P=0.008) increased the ratio of arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) to linoleic acid (18:2 n-6), which is an indicator of activity in the pathway of 20:4 n-6 synthesis, compared with placebo. These findings suggest that the type of fat in the diet indicated by plasma CEFA composition is linked to adiposity and insulin action. They also suggest that in postmenopausal women, HRT may increase the synthesis of 20:4 n-6, which is the precursor for eicosanoids with important cardiovascular functions. PMID:10828848

Lewis-Barned, N J; Sutherland, W H; Walker, R J; de Jong, S A; Walker, H L; Edwards, E A; Markham, V; Goulding, A

2000-06-01

196

Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

O. O. Santos Junior

2012-01-01

197

Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae  

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Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

TRI PRARTONO

2010-12-01

198

Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))

1989-04-01

199

Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Prostate Cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have shown that there is a distinct pattern of fatty acid binding protein (FAEP) expression in prostate cancer vs normal cells and that finding has be confirmed in patient samples of biopsy specimens. Of 6 different FABP studied, certain WABP were iden...

M. Jett F. Hawkins

2000-01-01

200

Total lipid and fatty acid composition of eight strains of marine diatoms  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid composition and total lipid content of 8 strains of marine diatoms ( Nitzschia frustrula, Nitzschia closterium, Nitzschia incerta, Navicula pelliculosa, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Synedra fragilaroides) were examined. The microalgae were grown under defined conditions and harvested at the late exponential phase. The major fatty acids in most strains were 14?0 (1.0% 6.3%), 16?0 (13.5 26.4%), 16?1n-7 (21.1% 46.3%) and 20?5n-3 (6.5% 19.5%). The polyunsaturated fatty acids 16?2n-4, 16?3n-4, 16?4n-1 and 20?4n-6 also comprised a significant proportion of the total fatty acids in some strains. The characteristic fatty acid composition of diatoms is readily distinguishable from those of other microalgal groups. Significant concentration of the polyunsaturated fatty acid 20?5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) was present in each strain, with the highest proportion in B222 (19.5%).

Liang, Ying; Mai, Kang-Sen; Sun, Shi-Chun

2000-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil Fatty Acids  

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Full Text Available Epoxidation of palm kernel oil fatty acids using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out effectively using a homogeneous reaction. It was found that epoxidation reaction occurred optimally at a temperature of 40oC and reaction time of 120 minits. The oxirane conversion was the highest at 1.46mol and 0.85mol of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid respectively. It was found that a maximum of 99% relative conversion of ethylenic oxirane was obtained, similar to the conversion of iodine value. The formation of epoxide adduct of palm kernel oil fatty acids (FAPKO was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral analysis showed the disappearance of double bonds and replaced by epoxy group in the EFAPKO.

Michelle Ni Fong Fong

2013-02-01

202

Fatty acid analysis of Erwinia amylovora from Serbia and Montenegro  

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Automated method of fatty acid analysis was used to identify and study heterogeneity of 41 Erwinia amylovora strains, originating from 8 plant species grown in 13 locations in Serbia and one in Montenegro. All strains contained 14:0 3OH fatty acid,characteristic for the “amylovora” group. According to fatty acid composition 39 strains were identified as E. amylovora as the first choice from the database. Due to their specific fatty acid composition, two strains were identified as E. amylo...

2011-01-01

203

Production of conjugated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conjugated fatty acids have attracted much attention as a novel type of biologically beneficial functional lipid. Some isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduce carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis, and body fat. Considering the use of CLA for medicinal and nutraceutical purposes, a safe isomer-selective process is required. The introduction of biological reactions for CLA production could be an answer. We screened microbial reactions useful for CLA production, and found several unique reactions in lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria produced CLA from linoleic acid. The produced CLA comprised a mixture of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) and trans-9,trans-11-18:2. Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a was selected as a potential CLA producer. Using washed cells of L. plantarum AKU 1009a as a catalyst, CLA production from linoleic acid reached 40 mg/ml under the optimized conditions. The CLA-producing reaction was found to consist of two successive reactions, i.e., hydration of linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid and dehydrating isomerization of the hydroxy fatty acid to CLA. On the basis of these results, the transformation of hydroxy fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria was investigated. Lactic acid bacteria transformed ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid) to CLA (a mixture of cis-9,trans-11-18:2 and trans-9,trans-11-18:2). Castor oil, which is rich in the triacylglycerol form of ricinoleic acid, was also found to act as a substrate for CLA production by lactic acid bacteria with the aid of lipase-catalyzed triacylglycerol hydrolysis. L. plantarum AKU 1009a produced conjugated trienoic fatty acids from alpha- and gamma-linolenic acid. The trienoic fatty acids produced from alpha-linolenic acid were identified as cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3) and trans-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3. Those produced from gamma-linolenic were cis-6,cis-9,trans-11-18:3 and cis-6,trans-9,trans-11-18:3. The conjugated trienoic fatty acids produced from alpha- and gamma-linolenic acid were further saturated by L. plantarum AKU 1009a to trans-10,cis-15-18:2 and cis-6,trans-10-18:2, respectively. PMID:16310724

Ogawa, Jun; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ando, Akinori; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Mihara, Kousuke; Shimizu, Sakayu

2005-10-01

204

Liver fatty acid composition in mice with or without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

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Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent causes of abnormal liver function. Because fatty acids can damage biological membranes, fatty acid accumulation in the liver may be partially responsible for the functional and morphological changes that are observed in nonalcoholic liver disease. The aim of this study was to use gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate the fatty acid composition of an experimental mouse model of ...

Wang Xin; Cao Yuzhen; Fu Yunwei; Guo Guifang; Zhang Xiuying

2011-01-01

205

Serum fatty acid binding protein 4, free fatty acids and metabolic risk markers  

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Fatty acid binding protein (FABP) 4 chaperones free fatty acids (FFA) in the adipocytes during lipolysis. Serum FFA relates to Metabolic Syndrome (METS) and serum FABP4 is emerging as a novel risk marker. In 36 overweight/obese women, serum FABP4 and FFA were measured hourly during 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin resistance was determined using frequently sampled intravenous GTT (FS-IVGTT). Serum lipids and inflammation markers were measured at fasting.

Karakas, Sidika E.; Almario, Rogelio U.; Kim, Kyoungmi

2009-01-01

206

Changes in tissue polyunsaturated fatty acids with age, in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

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The relationship between the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids and their distribution in the key organs of hypertension is of considerable interest because of their role in the production of vasoactive eicosanoids and their effects on membrane properties. The present study analyzed the fatty acid compositions of the total lipids in the kidney, aorta, heart, and hepatocytes of 1-, 3-, and 6-mon-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their normotensive controls, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) by capillary gas chromatography . The major changes concerned the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The percentage of arachidonic acid (AA) was significantly greater in the 1-mon-old SHR kidney than in the WKY kidney, but it was lower at 3 and 6 mon. The percentage of eicosapentaenoic acid was very low in the SHR kidney. The results for the aorta were similar, with marked decreases in 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 in SHR aged 1 and 6 mon. Despite a higher proportion of 18:2n-6 and AA at 6 mon, there was no major change in the SHR heart lipids. The fatty acid spectrum in the liver provides additional evidence for the previously reported inhibition of desaturase activities in SHR. Thus, this study shows that the PUFA composition is modified differently in different tissues in SHR, and this may be related to the pathogenesis of hypertension in these animals. PMID:9727610

Delachambre, M C; Narce, M; Asdrubal, P; Poisson, J P

1998-08-01

207

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures. No significant interactions with the dietary macronutrient composition were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokineswere not associated with absolute PUFA intake, but the macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) was associated with the n-3/n-6 ratio. CONCLUSION: In humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs, in particular ALA, is beneficially associated with body fatness. The favourable association is, however, not reflected in systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nor is it influenced by macronutrients in the diet.

Lund, Anne-Sofie Q; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

2013-01-01

208

A Review of the Metabolic Origins of Milk Fatty Acids  

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Full Text Available Milk fat and its fatty acid profile are important determinants of the technological, sensorial, and nutritional properties of milk and dairy products. The two major processes contributing to the presence of fatty acids in ruminant milk are the mammary lipogenesis and the lipid metabolism in the rumen. Among fatty acids, 4:0 to 12:0, almost all 14:0 and about a half of 16:0 in milk fat derive from de novo synthesis within the mammary gland. De novo synthesis utilizes as precursors acetate and butyrate produced through carbohydrates ruminal fermentation and involves acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase as key enzymes. The rest of 16:0 and all of the long-chain fatty acids derive from mammary uptake of circulating lipoproteins and nonesterified fatty acids that originate from digestive absorption of lipids and body fat mobilization. Further, long-chain fatty acids as well as medium-chain fatty acids entering the mammary gland can be desaturated via ?-9 desaturase, an enzyme that acts by adding a cis-9-double bond on the fatty acid chain. Moreover, ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids results in the formation of numerous fatty acids available for incorporation into milk fat. Ruminal biohydrogenation is performed by rumen microbial population as a means of protection against the toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Within the rumen microorganisms, bacteria are principally responsible for ruminal biohydrogenation when compared to protozoa and anaerobic fungi.

Anamaria COZMA

2013-08-01

209

21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be...

2010-01-01

210

Evaluation of the Quantitative and Qualitative Alterations in the Fatty Acid Contents of the Sebum of Patients with Inflammatory Acne during Treatment with Systemic Lymecycline and/or Oral Fatty Acid Supplementation  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Acne is a dermatosis that involves an altered sebum pattern. Objectives. (1) To evaluate if a treatment based on antibiotics (lymecycline) can alter fatty acids contents of the sebum of patients with acne; (2) to evaluate if oral supplementation of fatty acids can interfere with fatty acids contents of the sebum of patients with acne; (3) to evaluate if there is any interaction in fatty acids contents of the sebum of patients with acne when they use both antibiotics and oral supplementation of fatty acids. Methods. Forty-five male volunteers with inflammatory acne vulgaris were treated with 300?mg of lymecycline per day, with 540?mg of ?-linolenic acid, 1,200?mg of linoleic acid, and 510?mg of oleic acid per day, or with both regimens for 90 days. Every 30 days, a sample of sebum from the forehead was collected for fatty acids' chromatographic analysis. Results. Twelve fatty acids studied exhibited some kind of pattern changes during the study: C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1n9c+C18:1n9t, C18:2n6t, C18:3n6, C18:3n3, C20:1, C22:0, and C24:0. Conclusions. The daily administration of lymecycline and/or specific fatty acids may slightly influence some fatty acids levels present in the sebum of patients with inflammatory acne vulgaris.

Siqueira Talarico, Aline; Parra Duarte, Carla de Oliveira; Silva Pereira, Caroline; de Souza Weimann, Ellem Tatiani; Sabino de Matos, Lissa; Della Coletta, Livia Carolina; Fidelis, Maria Carolina; Vasconcellos, Cidia

2013-01-01

211

Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly ?-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

Martemucci Giovanni

2012-09-01

212

Fatty acids intake in the Mexican population. Results of the National Nutrition Survey 2006  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006, collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ? 25%E fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA among all age-groups (45-60% and of trans fatty acids (TrFA in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk.

Bernal-Medina Daniel

2011-06-01

213

Dietary inclusion of tea catechins changes fatty acid composition of muscle in goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to examine dietary tea catechins (TC) supplementation on the fatty acid composition of muscle and ruminal bacteria in goats fed a maize stover-based diet. Forty goats, 8 months old (16.2 ± 1.2 kg), were randomly divided into four equal groups (10 animals in each group) and assigned to four experiment diets with TC supplementation at four levels (0, 2,000, 3,000 and 4,000 mg TC/kg feed, namely TC0, TC2000, TC3000 and TC4000, respectively). After a 60-day feeding period, all the goats were slaughtered and sampled. The results showed that dietary TC inclusion increased the average daily gain (ADG), protein content in the semimembranosus muscle and dry matter in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LD). Dietary TC supplementation increased the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acid, the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was higher in TC3000 and TC4000 than in TC0 and TC2000 for LD. The current results implied that dietary inclusion of a suitable TC dose could improve the growth performance and increase the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids in muscle, and the biohydrogenation of ruminal microorganisms might change the profiles of fatty acids in the muscle of growing goats. PMID:20938752

Tan, C Y; Zhong, R Z; Tan, Z L; Han, X F; Tang, S X; Xiao, W J; Sun, Z H; Wang, M

2011-03-01

214

Dihydroxy and monohydroxy fatty acids in Legionella pneumophila.  

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Five strains of Legionella pneumophila were examined for the presence of hydroxy fatty acid. The cellular distribution of the fatty acids was also determined, as was the variation of hydroxy acid production on five growth media. The strains tested all produced approximately 5 mol% of hydroxy fatty acid, most of which was found in the nonextractable, alkali-stable, acid-labile (wall-associated, amide-linked) fraction. Three major hydroxy acids were found, along with several minor components. T...

1981-01-01

215

Inhibition of MEK/ERK1/2 Signaling Affects the Fatty Acid Composition of HepG2 Human Hepatic Cell Line  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, also known as the MEK/ERK1/2 kinase cascade, has recently been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty liver disease. However, its functional effect on cellular fatty acid composition is unknown. Herein, we examined the effect of a pharmacological inhibitor of MEK, the upstream kinase activator of ERK1/2, on fatty acid composition of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Methods: HepG2 cells cultured in RPMI-1640 were exposed to the commonly used ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor PD98059 and were investigated with respect to fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: Exposure of cells to the ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor induced an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids and the fatty acid desaturation index and a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Specifically, we showed a significant increase of oleic acid (18:1n?9; +29%, P=0.003 and arachidonic acid (20:4n?6/linoleic acid (18:2n?6 ratio (3.5-fold; P<0.001 in HepG2 cells. Conclusion: Cellular fatty acid composition of HepG2 cells appeared to be differentially regulated by ERK1/2 pathway, thus suggesting related metabolic pathways as potential mediators of the effects of ERK1/2 signaling on hepatic fatty acid composition.

Bahman Yousefi

2012-06-01

216

Fatty acid composition of Mediterranean buffalo milk fat  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the variation in fatty acid composition of milk fat from four buffalo (Bubalus bubalis herds under different feeding management and ration composition. Changes in milk fatty acid composition were monitored on a weekly basis. Saturated fatty acids (65.5% predominated in buffalo milk fat; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 27.0% and 4.5%, respectively. Of saturated fatty acids, the content of palmitic acid was the highest (30.6% followed by stearic acid (12.0% and myristic acid (10.7%. Of the unsaturated fatty acids the content of oleic acid was the highest (26.6%. The average content of conjugated linoleic acid (0.76±0.33 was higher than the maximal values generally reported for dairy cow.

V. Proto

2010-04-01

217

Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and ?-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

2013-06-01

218

Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fatty acids and total fat in adults and/or the total population using the best available national food consumption data set. Results: A wide variation was observed in the intake of total fat and (clusters) of fatty acids in absolute amounts. The variation in proportion of energy derived from total fat and from clusters of fatty acids was less. Only in Finland, Italy, Norway and Portugal total fat did provide on average less than 35% of energy intake. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) provided on average between 10% and 19% of total energy intake, with the lowest contribution in most Mediterranean countries. TFA intake ranged from 0.5% (Greece, Italy) to 2.1% (Iceland) of energy intake among men and from 0.8% (Greece) to 1.9% among women (Iceland) (1.2-6.7 g/d and 1.7-4.1 g/d, respectively). The TFA intake was lowest in Mediterranean countries (0.5-0.8 en%) but was also below 1% of energy in Finland and Germany. Moderate intakes were seen in Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway and UK and highest intake in Iceland. Trans isomers of C-18:1 were the most TFA in the diet. Monounsaturated fatty acids contributed 9-12% of mean daily energy intake (except for Greece, nearly 18%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids 3-7%. Conclusion: The current intake of TFA in most Western European countries does not appear to be a reason for major concern. In several countries a considerable proportion of energy was derived from SFA. It would therefore be prudent to reduce intake of all cholesterol-raising fatty acids, TFA included. Sponsorship: Commission of the European Communities (AIR 2421); National Funds; European Industries supported the chemical analyses.

Leth, Torben

1999-01-01

219

Effect of dietary replacement of sunflower oil with perilla oil on the absolute fatty acid composition in Nile tilapia (GIFT).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the effect of the dietary replacement of sunflower oil with perilla oil in Nile tilapia (GIFT strain) at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days. There was an increase in total omega 3 fatty acids (n-3) in muscle tissue (from 63.6 to 181.5 mg g(-1)) and a decrease in total concentration of omega 6 fatty acids (n-6) ranging between 255.6 and 196.1 mgg(-1). Amongst the n-3 fatty acids, the concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (20:6n-3) increased by 9.4 and 1.9 times, respectively, after 30 days for the perilla oil-enriched diet. The n-6/n-3, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA), and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (PUFA/MUFA) ratios tended to stabilize after 20 days under the perilla oil-enriched diet. Incorporation of perilla oil as a lipid source in the diet of tilapia for 20 or 30 days resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid composition of the fish muscle tissue, contributing to increase its nutritional value. PMID:24262550

Carbonera, Fabiana; Bonafe, Elton Guntendorfer; Martin, Clayton Antunes; Montanher, Paula Fernandes; Ribeiro, Ricardo Pereira; Figueiredo, Luana Caroline; Almeida, Vitor Cinque; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio

2014-04-01

220

Effect of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) oil administered by gavage on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stress of mouse liver  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of daily intragastric administration of bullfrog oil (oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic acid-rich oil), corresponding to 0.4% of body weight for four weeks, on fatty acid composition and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and catalase activ [...] ity) in mouse liver. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), biomarkers of tissue injury, were determined in liver homogenates and serum. The proportions of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids, from 37 to 60%) in the total fatty acid content were increased in the liver of the bullfrog oil-treated group (P

L.P., Silva; C.K., Miyasaka; E.F., Martins; J.R.S.A., Leite; Z.G.M., Lacava; R., Curi; R.B., Azevedo.

 
 
 
 
221

Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil Fatty Acids  

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Epoxidation of palm kernel oil fatty acids using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out effectively using a homogeneous reaction. It was found that epoxidation reaction occurred optimally at a temperature of 40oC and reaction time of 120 minits. The oxirane conversion was the highest at 1.46mol and 0.85mol of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid respectively. It was found that a maximum of 99% relative conversion of ethylenic oxirane was obtained, similar to the con...

Michelle Ni Fong Fong; Jumat Salimon

2013-01-01

222

Relation of Ethanol Inhibition of Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation to Ethanol-Induced Fatty Liver (32641).  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantitative importance of the inhibition of hepatic fatty acid oxidation for the pathogenesis of ethanol fatty liver has been investigated in perfused rat livers. Advantage has been taken of the fact that octanoate is poorly esterified in rat liver. ...

D. Zakim J. Green

1968-01-01

223

Identification of fatty acids in canine seminal plasma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seminal plasma contains various biochemical components associated with sperm function. However, there is limited information regarding the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm. The aim of this study was to identify the fatty acid content in canine seminal plasma using gas chromatography. Twelve ejaculates were studied, the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation and then the lipids were extracted, methylated and analysed by chromatography. The total lipids in the seminal plasma were 2.5 ± 0.3%, corresponding to 85% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 15% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The greatest proportions of SFA were palmitic acid (30.4%), stearic acid (23.4%) and myristic acid (5.3%) and of UFA oleic acid (9.0%). Therefore, the protocols and techniques used enabled the identification of 18 different fatty acids in canine seminal plasma, which constitutes a good method to evaluate and quantify the fatty acid profile in this species. PMID:23398451

Díaz, R; Inostroza, K; Risopatrón, J; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

2014-03-01

224

Dietary fatty acids modulate antigen presentation to hepatic NKT cells in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease[S  

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Dietary fatty acids are major contributors to the development and progression of insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Dietary fatty acids also alter hepatic NKT cells that are activated by antigens presented by CD1d. In the current study, we examine the mechanism of dietary fatty acid induced hepatic NKT cell deficiency and its causal relationship to insulin resistance and NAFLD. We discover that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) or monounsaturated fatty acids (M...

2010-01-01

225

Fatty acid profile of fish following a change in dietary fatty acid source: model of fatty acid composition with a dilution hypothesis  

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The fatty acid (FA) content of fish is generally said to reflect fatty acid composition of the diet. In fact, incorporation of FA into tissues is modulated by various metabolic factors, and final composition will depend upon the initial FA content, cumulative intake of dietary fatty acids, growth rate and duration. Analysis of time course of changes in FA composition should be easier with animals having different initial FA profiles, which are subsequently fed a diet with the same FA composit...

2003-01-01

226

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF POULTRY MEAT FROM FREE RANGE REARING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two provenances of broiler chickens (Ross and Prelux-bro were (50 males and 50 females were subjected to an extensive indoor rearing followed by a free-range rearing for a half of the population during the first 28 days. The age of chickens when slaughtered was 56 days. The fatty acid composition of breasts with skin (white meat and legs with skin (dark meat was analysed. Analyses of the fatty acid composition were performed with an in situ transesterification and a capilary column Gas -Liguid chromatography. Chickens reared outdoors have a more favourable fatty acid composition than those of the extensive indoor rearing: the share of essential fatty acids (the linoleic a., the a-linolenic a. as well as polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids is greater. The Prelux-bro provenance has a favourable ratio of fatty acids in both types of rearing. Breasts have a better fatty acid composition than legs.

Božidar Žlender

2000-06-01

227

Fatty acid ethanolamides modulate CD36-mRNA through dietary fatty acid manipulation in Syrian Golden hamsters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids convert to fatty acid ethanolamides which associate with lipid signalling, fat oxidation, and energy balance; however, the extent to which dietary fatty acids manipulation can impact such control processes through fatty acid ethanolamides-related mechanisms remains understudied. The objective was to examine the impact of diets containing 6% corn oil, high oleic canola oil, docosahexaenoic acid + high oleic canola oil, and fish oil on plasma and organ levels of fatty acid ethanolamides, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? regulatory targets, and lipid metabolism in Syrian Golden hamsters. After 29 days, in plasma, animals that were fed fish oil showed greater (p canola oil showed higher (p canola oil group showed elevated (p canola oil compared with the corn oil group. To conclude, dietary fatty acids produced shifts in plasma and organ levels of arachidonoylethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide, and palmitoylethanolamid, which were accompanied by changes in gene expression, lipogenesis, and energy expenditure, suggesting mechanisms through which dietary fatty acids influence disease risk. PMID:23855275

Lin, Lin; Rideout, Todd; Yurkova, Natalia; Yang, Haifeng; Eck, Peter; Jones, Peter J H

2013-08-01

228

Fatty acids accumulation in yeast  

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The oleaginous yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis and Yarrowia lipolytica are able to accumulate lipids into lipid bodies (LB) as triglycerides (TAG) and sterol ester (SE). To identify proteins involved in LB biogenesis and lipid accumulation in Y. lipolytica, LB protein set from glucose and oleic acid grown cell were analysed. By mass spectrometry, 21 major LB proteins were identified under both growth conditions, and additional 9 polypeptides were specific for growth on oleic a...

Nicaud, Jean-marc; Beopoulos, A.; Chardot, T.; Thevenieau, F.; Athenstaedt, K.; Cescut, J.; Fillaudeau, L.; Blanc, P.; Molina-jouve, C.; Uribelarrea, J-l

2007-01-01

229

Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids  

CERN Document Server

Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd sup 3 sup + glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations.

Ghelmez-Dumitru, M; Piscureanu, M; Sterian, A

2003-01-01

230

Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd3+ glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations

2003-07-01

231

Fat Depots, Free Fatty Acids, and Dyslipidemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Body fat deposition and excess free fatty acid (FFA metabolism contribute to dyslipidemia and the adverse health consequences of obesity. Individuals with upper body obesity have impaired functioning of adipocytes, the primary fatty acid storage site. Excess visceral fat is strongly associated with impaired suppression of FFA release in response to insulin, as well as with hypertriglyceridemia and low concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol. High FFA concentrations can induce insulin resistance in muscle and liver. Furthermore, failure of hyperinsulinemia to normally suppress FFA is associated with impaired carbohydrate oxidation and muscle glucose storage, reduced hepatic insulin clearance and elevated triglycerides. Understanding the impact of body fat distribution on FFA metabolism and dyslipidemia is critical for determining the link between overweight and obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. In the current review, we will explore the relationship between adipose tissue, body fat depots, and FFA metabolism.

Jon O. Ebbert

2013-02-01

232

Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01

233

Cellular fatty acid composition of Haemophilus equigenitalis.  

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The cellular fatty acid composition of eight Haemophilus equigenitalis strains was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. All strains showed a grossly similar pattern characterized by large amounts of 18:1 and 16:0. The amounts of 16:1, 18:2, 18:0, 3-OH 14:0, 3-OH 16:0, and 3-OH 18:1 were relatively small.

Sugimoto, C.; Miyagawa, E.; Mitani, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Isayama, Y.

1982-01-01

234

Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ?mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ?Ci [14C]acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest [14C]acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total 14C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1

1987-05-01

235

Trans fatty acids and coronary artery disease  

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Jocelyne R BenatarGreen Lane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: There has been a significant increased consumption of trans fats in the developed world as we have embraced processed and take away foods in our diet in the last 40 years. These fatty acids are not essential for human nutrition and are hazardous to health. They increase the risk of cardiovascular disease more than any other macronutrient including saturated fat, through multiple mechani...

Benatar, Jocelyne R.

2010-01-01

236

Complementation analysis of fatty acid oxidation disorders.  

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We assayed [9,10(n)-3H]palmitate oxidation by fibroblast monolayers from patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. Activities in the different disorders were (percent control): short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase deficiency (115%), medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (18%), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (28%), multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation disorder, mild and severe variants (49% and 7%), and palmityl-carnitine transferase deficiency (4%). Multiple...

Moon, A.; Rhead, W. J.

1987-01-01

237

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH{sub 2}O{sub 2}), acetic acid (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}), propionic acid (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}), butyric acid (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}O{sub 2}), n-hexanoic acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}O{sub 2}), n-caprylic acid (C{sub 8}H{sub 16}O{sub 2}), lauric acid (C{sub 12}H{sub 24}O{sub 2}), myristic acid (C{sub 14}H{sub 28}O{sub 2}), palmitic acid (C{sub 16}H{sub 32}O{sub 2}), oleic acid (C{sub 18}H{sub 34}O{sub 2}) and stearic acid (C{sub 18}H{sub 36}O{sub 2}), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Gerward, L. E-mail: gerward@fysik.dtu.dk

2002-10-01

238

Unsaturated fatty acids, desaturases, and human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in a diet is important since they are associated with major diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) requires the expression of dietary fat-associated genes, such as SCD, FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3, which encode a variety of desaturases, to catalyze the addition of a double bond in a fatty acid chain. Recent studies using new molecular techniques and genomics, as well as clinical trials have shown that these genes and UFA are closely related to physiological conditions and chronic diseases; it was found that the existence of alternative transcripts of the desaturase genes and desaturase isoforms might affect human health and lipid metabolism in different ways. In this review, we provide an overview of UFA and desaturases associated with human health and nutrition. Moreover, recent findings of UFA, desaturases, and their associated genes in human systems are discussed. Consequently, this review may help elucidate the complicated physiology of UFA in human health and diseases. PMID:24460221

Lee, Hyungjae; Park, Woo Jung

2014-02-01

239

The use of radioactive fatty acids for evaluation of fatty acid ?-oxidation in the animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pharmacokinetics and metabolic features of I-radionuclide labelled derivatives of aliphatic carboxylic acid were studied in experiment. The authors show the possibilities of nuclear medicine in deriving information on the activity of fatty acid ?-oxidation in the animal liver and body using compounds with C_4=C_11 aliphatic chain locus

1986-01-01

240

Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adolescents: A case-control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies of Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have focused on either young children or older adults. The current study compared 11 ADHD adolescents with 12 age-matched controls. The purpose was to examine differences in dietary intake, particularly of essential fatty acids, and determine whether this could explain the typical abnormalities in red blood cell fatty acids observed in previous studies of young children. A secondary purpose was to determine if there were relationships between circulating concentrations of essential fatty acids and specific ADHD behaviours as measured by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-L. Methods Eleven ADHD adolescents and twelve age-matched controls were recruited through newspaper ads, posters and a university website. ADHD diagnosis was confirmed by medical practitioners according to DSM-IV criteria. Blood, dietary intake information as well as behavioural assessments were completed. Results Results showed that ADHD adolescents consumed more energy and fat than controls but had similar anthropometry. ADHD children consumed equivalent amounts of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids to controls, however they had significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 and total omega-3 fatty acids, higher omega-6 fatty acids and a lower ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids than control subjects. In addition, low omega-3 status correlated with higher scores on several Conners' behavioural scales. Conclusion These data suggest that adolescents with ADHD continue to display abnormal essential fatty acid profiles that are often observed in younger children and distinctly different from normal controls of similar age. Further these red blood cell fatty acid differences are not explained by differences in intake. This suggests that there are metabolic differences in fatty acid handling between ADHD adolescents and normal controls. The value of omega-3 supplements to improve fatty acid profiles and possibly behaviours associated with ADHD, need to be examined.

Meckling Kelly

2008-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

Stereoselective oxidation of regioisomeric octadecenoic acids by fatty acid dioxygenases  

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Seven Z-octadecenoic acids having the double bond located in positions 6Z to 13Z were photooxidized. The resulting hydroperoxy-E-octadecenoic acids [HpOME(E)] were resolved by chiral phase-HPLC-MS, and the absolute configurations of the enantiomers were determined by gas chromatographic analysis of diastereoisomeric derivatives. The MS/MS/MS spectra showed characteristic fragments, which were influenced by the distance between the hydroperoxide and carboxyl groups. These fatty acids were then...

Oliw, Ernst H.; Wennman, Anneli; Hoffmann, Inga; Garscha, Ulrike; Hamberg, Mats; Jernere?n, Fredrik

2011-01-01

242

Fatty Acid Synthesis by Indonesian Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the primary storage nutrients in diatoms consist of lipid, they are potential for the industrial fatty acid production. High value fatty acids include arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This study aimed to analyze fatty acid synthesis by Chaetoceros gracilis diatom during growth. There was a large increase in lipid yield from 4pg cell-1 mass of lipid per cell at the exponential phase to 283pg cell-1 at stationary phase. The lipid concentrations also increased significantly from the stationary phase to the death phase, but not significantly from the end exponential phase to the stationary phase. The relative percentage of saturated fatty acid (SAFA of the total fatty acid was higher than that of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at all of growth phase. The highest PUFA was found at stationary phase at the same time when SAFA was being the lowest. The majority of SAFA was palmitic acid (24.03-40.35%. MUFA contained significant proportion of oleic acid (19.6-20.9%. Oleic acid, linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid were found at every stage growth. These fatty acids are considered as precursor for production of long chain PUFA-Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA/22:6?3 through series of desaturation and elongation step with all of desaturase enzyme (?8-D, ?9-D, ?12-D, ?15-D, ?17-D, ?6-D, ?5-D, and ?4-D and elongase enzyme (E.

ALBERTA RIKA PRATIWI

2009-12-01

243

Nitro-fatty acids: novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitro-fatty acids are formed and detected in human plasma, cell membranes, and tissue, modulating metabolic as well as inflammatory signaling pathways. Here we discuss the mechanisms of nitro-fatty acid formation as well as their key chemical and biochemical properties. The electrophilic properties of nitro-fatty acids to activate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways are discussed in detail. A critical issue is the influence of nitroarachidonic acid on prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases, redirecting arachidonic acid metabolism and signaling. We also analyze in vivo data supporting nitro-fatty acids as promising pharmacological tools to prevent inflammatory diseases. PMID:24068188

Rubbo, H

2013-09-01

244

Temperature Affects Fatty Acids In Methylococcus Capsulatus  

Science.gov (United States)

According to report, temperature of growth of thermotolerant, methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) affects both proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and cis/trans ratio of these acids in cell membrane. Because suboptimum growth temperature is potential stress factor, it may be possible to use such cis/trans ratios as indices of stresses upon methane-oxidizing microbial communities. Research in microbiology of methanotrophs increasing because of possible commercial exploitation of these organisms as biocatalysts or as sources of useful polymers; knowledge of effect of temperature on ability of methanotrophs to utilize methane useful in optimization of conditions of growth.

Jahnke, Linda L.

1993-01-01

245

Eccentric contractions affect muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated if prior eccentric contractions, and thus mechanical strain and muscle damage, exert an effect on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats, and whether a possible effect could be attenuated by dietary supplements. Twenty-three rats were randomised to three groups who received chow with added fish oil (n = 8), vitamin C (n = 8) or no supplement (n = 7). After 3 weeks of feeding, calf muscles on one side were stimulated electrically during anaesthesia causing eccentric contractions. Two days later the white gastrocnemius, a part of the stimulated calf muscle, was excised from both legs. In the muscles stimulated to contract eccentrically, compared to the control muscles, the proportion of arachidonic acid, C20:4,n-6 (17.7 +/- 0.6; 16.4 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) and docosapentanoeic acid, C22:5,n-3 (2.9 +/- 0.1 and 2.7 +/- 0.1% of total fatty acids, respectively) was uniformly higher across groups (P <0.02) with no differences between diet groups.The proportion of long chain polyunsaturates was also significantly higher in the eccentrically contracted (39.9 +/- 0.6% of total fatty acids) compared to the control leg (38.2 +/- 0.6% of total fatty acids; P <0.01). In contrast no differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols stored within the muscle. Thus one severe bout of eccentric contractions modulates the fatty acid composition of the muscle membrane phospholipids when compared to a control leg, and supplemental intake of fish oil or vitamin C did not attenuate this effect.

Helge, Jørn Wulff; Therkildsen, K J

2001-01-01

246

Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow  

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This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation....

2008-01-01

247

TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

K. Leshukov

2012-03-01

248

Occurrence of a furan fatty acid in marine bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fatty acid containing a furan ring was detected in the cellular lipids of marine bacteria, Shewanella putrefaciens, Marinomonas comunis, Enterobacter agglomerans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, etc., which were isolated from the intestinal liquor of fishes. Analytical data indicated that the fatty acid was 10,13-epoxy-11-methyloctadeca-10, 12-dienoic acid. Therefore, we propose that furan fatty acids detected in marine fish are derived not only from marine plants but also from intestinal bacteria of fishes. PMID:7548190

Shirasaka, N; Nishi, K; Shimizu, S

1995-10-01

249

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases  

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The article presents some general facts about omega-3 fatty acids and their role in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the human body. Their beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been known for decades. Since then, several epidemiological and interventional trials showed the value of omega-3 acids in the treatment of certain diseases. Most of them revealed the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids on he...

Vesa, S?tefan C.; Sorin Cri?an; Magdalena Teodorescu

2008-01-01

250

Incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine or vegetable origin into rat enterocyte phospholipids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We examined time related effects of an intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the fatty acid profiles of rat enterocyte phospholipids. Three diets containing 20 wt% fat with similar levels of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6), approximately 11 wt% of the fatty acids, were prepared. The diets were: Palm oil diet (PD), 0.6 wt% n-3 PUFA; fish oil diet (FD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C20-C22); and linseed oil diet (LD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C18:3n-3). Forty weanling male Wistar rats were fed PD for 34 days and then divided into three groups. Two groups of sixteen rats each were then fed FD or LD, respectively, and eight rats remained on PD as a control group. At 6, 12, 18, 24, 72, 144, and 288 hours following the change of diets rats were killed, the enterocytes were isolated and the fatty acid profiles of the intestinal phospholipids were examined. During the first 12 hours following the change from PD to FD, the content of n-3 PUFA in the intestinal phospholipids increased from less than 1 mol% to approximately 20 mol%,whereas the contents of n-6 PUFA and of monoenes were reduced from 40 mol% to 28 mol% and from 19 mol% to 12 mol%, respectively. The fatty acid profiles were then largely constant during the remaining experimental period. In the LD group, the n-3 PUFA contents rose from less than 1 mol% to 10 mol% during the first 144 hours, and the content of n-6 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acids were reduced from 40 mol% to 36 mol% and from 19 mol% to 14 mol%, respectively. Desaturation and elongation products of C18:3n-3, such as C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3, were observed following intake of LD. All three groups contained approximately 40 mol% of saturated fatty acids in the intestinal phospholipids. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Inc.

Poulsen, Christian; Christensen, Michael Søberg

1997-01-01

251

Movement of fatty acids, fatty acid analogues, and bile acids across phospholipid bilayers.  

Science.gov (United States)

How lipophilic acids move across membranes, either model or biological, is the subject of controversy. We describe experiments which better define the mechanism and rates in protein-free phospholipid bilayers. The transbilayer movement of lipophilic acids [fatty acids (FA), covalently-labeled FA, bile acids, and retinoic acid] was monitored by entrapping pyranin, a water-soluble, pH-sensitive fluorescent molecule to measure pH inside unilamellar vesicles [Kamp, F., & Hamilton, J.A. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 11367-11370]. Equations for the pseudo-unimolecular rate constants for transbilayer movement of un-ionized (kappa FAH) and ionized (kappa FA-) acids are derived. All FA studied (octanoic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, elaidic, linoleic, linolelaidic, and arachidonic) and retinoic acid exhibited rapid transbilayer movement (t 1/2 acid, 5-doxylstearic acid, and 1-pyrenenonanoic acid] moved across PC bilayers via the un-ionized form; except for the anthroyloxy FA (kappa FAH = 4.8 x 10(-3) s-1), the rates were too fast to measure (t 1/2 cholic acid (CA) transbilayer movement was slow (kappa CAH = 0.056 s-1) compared to that of the more hydrophobic bile acids, deoxy- and chenodeoxycholic acid (t 1/2 acids did not cross the bilayer (t 1/2 > 1 h). A further application of the pyranin method was to measure the partitioning of FA and bile acids among water, albumin, and PC vesicles. Our results show that the ability of lipophilic acids to permeate a PC bilayer rapidly is dependent on the presence of the un-ionized acid in the membrane interface. Considering the fast unfacilitated movement of FA across protein-free phospholipid bilayers, it is unlikely that there is a universal need for a transport protein to enhance movement of FA across membrane bilayers. Physiological implications of proton movement accompanying fast movement of un-ionized lipophilic acids (and the consequent generation of a pH gradient) are discussed. PMID:8218171

Kamp, F; Hamilton, J A; Kamp, F; Westerhoff, H V; Hamilton, J A

1993-10-19

252

Polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit melanoma cell growth in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive and incurable cancer due to intrinsic resistance to apoptosis and reprogramming proliferation and survival pathways during progression. Numerous studies, including our own, linked arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) supplementation to induction of apoptosis and decreased proliferation of various cancer cells. The cytotoxic effects result from lipid peroxidation and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which modify proteins and nucleic acids. DNA damage by ROS causes mutations and genomic instability, leading to uncontrolled proliferation or cell death. In the present work, four human melanoma cell lines differing in origin, doubling time, metastatic potential, and melanin content (A375, A2058, G361, and C32) were exposed to AA, EPA or DHA added into culture media in the concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 100 mM. After 24 h incubation cytotoxicity of the analyzed acids was determined with TOX-2 (In Vitro Toxicology Assay Kit XTT Based, TOX-2, Sigma) test. The oxidative protein modifications were measured using Aldehyde Site (DNA and Protein) Detection Kit (Cayman). All the acids tested showed marked inhibition of cell proliferation. The observed effects were statistically significant and depended on the concentration. Decrease of proliferation, associated by oxidative protein and DNA damage (measured as aldehyde sites in cells), was observed for EPA and DHA (50 mM and 100 mM) in A375, A2058, and G361 cells. In case of C32 cell line, which is amelanotic melanoma, EPA and DHA inhibited cell proliferation at 100 mM only. The effect of DHA was more pronounced. AA did not show its antiproliferative action in this cell line. The obtained results suggest that antiproliferative effects of the fatty acids in cultured human melanoma cells depend on the type of acid, its concentration and may be diverse when different melanoma cell lines are used. PMID:23614295

Zajdel, Alicja; Wilczok, Adam; Chodurek, Ewa; Gruchlik, Arkadiusz; Dzierzewicz, Zofia

2013-01-01

253

Radiolytic products of irradiated authentic fatty acids and triacylglycerides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiolytic products of authentic fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and triacylglycerides (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) were determined. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from the saturated fatty acids were higher than the unsaturated fatty acids. Authentic fatty acids were mainly decomposed in the {alpha}-carbon position and C{sub n-1} hydrocarbons occurred in higher than C{sub n-2} hydrocarbons. Concentrations of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from the saturated fatty acids were lower than the unsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from tripalmitin and tristearin were not a significant change compared with triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin. For all triacylglycerides except triolein, C{sub n-1} hydrocarbons were higher than C{sub n-2} hydrocarbons. Radioproduction rates of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from tripalmitin and tristearin were higher than triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin.

Kim, K.-S. E-mail: kskim@mail.chosun.ac.kr; Lee, Jeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

2004-10-01

254

Fatty acid variability in three medicinal herbs of Panax species  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid profiling has been widely used in the bacteria species identification, we hypothesized that fatty acid characteristics might discriminate the Panax herbs according to species. To test the hypothesis, fatty acids of Panax species, including Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius, were characterized and compared using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Results The content of investigated 11 fatty acids, including myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, heptadecanoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid, obviously varied among three species, suggesting each species has its own fatty acid pattern. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis according to the absolute and relative contents of fatty acids, showed that 30 tested samples could be clearly differentiated according to the species. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that GC-MS-based fatty acid profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis provides reliable platform to classify these three Panax species, which is helpful for ensuring their safety and efficacy.

Zhang Xiao-Jing

2013-01-01

255

Relationships Between the Intake of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids by Hens and the Fatty Acid Composition of Their Eggs  

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Full Text Available The objective of this literature survey was to establish the relationships between fatty acid intake of hens and the fatty acid composition of their eggs. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA of egg yolk was not clearly influenced by alpha-linolenic acid intake, but there was a linear relationship with EPA intake albeit that the efficiency of incorporation was very low. Maximum egg yolk contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA of about 1.5% of total fatty acids were attained at a dietary alpha-linolenic acid concentration higher than 7% of total fatty acids. Dietary DHA was found to be efficiently incorporated into egg yolk. There were linear relationships between dietary alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid and their contents in egg total lipids. The relationships presented, including the regression equations, may assist in the diet-mediated steering of the fatty acid composition of eggs.

F.J. Bavelaar

2004-01-01

256

Comparative effects of sandalwood seed oil on fatty acid profiles and inflammatory factors in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sandalwood seed oil on fatty acid (FA) profiles and inflammatory factors in rats. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five different dietary groups: 10 % soybean oil (SO), 10 % olive oil (OO), 10 % safflower oil (SFO), 10 % linseed oil (LSO) and 8 % sandalwood seed oil blended with 2 % SO (SWSO) for 8 weeks. The SWSO group had a higher total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels but lower n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios in both adipose tissue and liver than those in the SO, OO and SFO groups (p sandalwood seed oil, was found to be highly incorporated into adipose tissue (13.73 %), but relatively lower in liver (0.51 %) in the SWSO group. The levels of prostaglandin F(2?), prostaglandin E?, thromboxane B?, leukotriene B?, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? in both liver and plasma were positively correlated with the n-6:n-3 ratios, suggesting that increased n-6 PUFA appear to increase the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas n-3 PUFA exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. The present results suggest that sandalwood seed oil could increase tissue levels of n-3 PUFA, DHA and reduce the n-6:n-3 ratio, and may increase the anti-inflammatory activity in rats. PMID:23275078

Li, Guipu; Singh, Anish; Liu, Yandi; Sunderland, Bruce; Li, Duo

2013-02-01

257

Effects of fatty acids on lysis of Streptococcus faecalis.  

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Palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids at concentrations of 200 nmol/ml all inhibited autolysin activity 80% or more in whole cells or cell-free extracts. This concentration of the saturated fatty acids palmitic acid and stearic acid had little or no effect on the growth of whole cells or protoplasts. However, the unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid induced lysis in both situations. This lytic effect is apparently not related to any uncoupling activity or inhibition of ...

Carson, D. D.; Daneo-moore, L.

1980-01-01

258

Evolution of fatty acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L. mesocarp at different stages of ripening  

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Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of medlar (Mespilus germanica L. varied significantly among the ripening stages sampled at 157, 172 and 187 DAFs (days after full bloom. Twenty-one different fatty acids were detected in preclimacteric fruit and 17 when the climacteric began. Principal fatty acids, determined in medlar fruit harvested from October (157 and 172 DAFs to November (187 DAF were mainly palmitic acid (16:0, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, and a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. While the content of saturated fatty acids [palmitic acid (16:0 and stearic acid (18:0] increased, the content of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and linolenic acid (18:3n-3] decreased through ripening, in parallel with pulp darkening. The percentage of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in ripe, hard fruits was 60.0 and 13.5 % of dry wt at 157 DAF which decreased throughout ripening, remaining at 28.7 and 5.6 % of dry wt, respectively, in the fully softened and darkened pulp. A marked decreases in the double bond index, percentage of unsaturation and the ratio of unsaturation/saturation were also seen throughout the medlar ripening. The contribution of unsaturated fatty acid to the total fatty acid content decreased markedly as the medlar fruit became progressively softer and darkened.La composición en ácidos grasos del níspero (Mespilus germanica L. varió significativamente entre los estados de maduración muestreados a los 157, 172 y 187 DAFs (días después de la floración. Veinte y un ácidos grasos diferentes fueron detectados en el fruto preclimatérico y 17 cuando comenzó el climaterio. Los ácidos grasos principales encontrados en nísperos, recolectados desde Octubre (157 y 172 DAFs hasta Noviembre (187 DAF, fueron principalmente ácido palmítico (16:0, ácido linoléico (18:2n-6, y ácido a-linolénico (18:3n-3. En tanto que el contenido en ácidos grasos saturados (ácido palmítico (16:0 y ácido esteárico (18:0 aumentó, el contenido en ácidos grasos esenciales (ácido linoleico (18:2n-6 y ácido linolénico (18:3n-6 disminuyó durante la maduración, en paralelo con el oscurecimiento de la pulpa. El porcentaje de ácido linoleico y de ácido a-linolénico en frutos maduros sin reblandecer fue de 60.0 y 13.5 % del peso seco a 157 DAF, disminuyendo durante la maduración, y permaneciendo a 28.7 y 56 % del peso seco, respectivamente, en la pulpa completamente blanda y oscura. También se observó durante la maduración del níspero una marcada disminución en el número de dobles enlaces, en el tanto por ciento de instauración y en la relación instauración / saturación. La contribución de los ácidos grasos insaturados al contenido de ácidos grasos totales disminuyó marcadamente cuando el níspero comenzó progresivamente a reblandecerse y oscurecerse.

Strnad, M.

2002-09-01

259

The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. Methods GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA, DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (74–77% linoleic acid. Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 8–12 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR-? and retinoid × receptor-? (RXR-? were determined in a set of 18 animals per group. Results DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-? or RXR-? expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression.

Abdi Khosro

2008-11-01

260

Cholesterol changes the fatty acid composition of rat enterocytes  

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Full Text Available The effect of free cholesterol on the fatty acid composition and growth of rat fetal enterocytes was investigated in the absence and presence of 10% (v/v fetal calf serum. Cholesterol caused a significant reduction of cell number after 6 and 12 h in culture. The fatty acid composition of enterocytes cultured in the presence of serum was also changed by the presence of 20 µM cholesterol. The fatty acid profile was determined by HPLC using fluorescence detection (325 nm excitation and 395 nm emission. Cholesterol (20 µM increased the proportion (given in percentage of the total fatty acids of the following fatty acids in cultured cells: lauric (by 42%, oleic (by 34%, linoleic (by 44% and gamma-linolenic (by 20% acids and reduced the proportion of palmitic (by 12%, stearic (by 20%, arachidonic (by 21% and docosahexaenoic (by 44% acids. In addition to modifying the content of individual fatty acids, cholesterol increased the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio from 0.48 to 0.67 and the unsaturation index from 67.12 to 75.30. This is the first evidence that cholesterol modifies fatty acid composition possibly via de novo fatty acid synthesis and desaturation.

J. Gazzola

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Cholesterol changes the fatty acid composition of rat enterocytes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of free cholesterol on the fatty acid composition and growth of rat fetal enterocytes was investigated in the absence and presence of 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum. Cholesterol caused a significant reduction of cell number after 6 and 12 h in culture. The fatty acid composition of enterocyte [...] s cultured in the presence of serum was also changed by the presence of 20 µM cholesterol. The fatty acid profile was determined by HPLC using fluorescence detection (325 nm excitation and 395 nm emission). Cholesterol (20 µM) increased the proportion (given in percentage of the total fatty acids) of the following fatty acids in cultured cells: lauric (by 42%), oleic (by 34%), linoleic (by 44%) and gamma-linolenic (by 20%) acids and reduced the proportion of palmitic (by 12%), stearic (by 20%), arachidonic (by 21%) and docosahexaenoic (by 44%) acids. In addition to modifying the content of individual fatty acids, cholesterol increased the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio from 0.48 to 0.67 and the unsaturation index from 67.12 to 75.30. This is the first evidence that cholesterol modifies fatty acid composition possibly via de novo fatty acid synthesis and desaturation.

J., Gazzola; E.F., Martins; C.K., Miyasaka; A.C., Palanch; M.G., Vecchia; R., Curi.

262

Saturated Long Chain Fatty acids Activate Inflammatory Signaling in Astrocytes  

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This study describes the effects of long-chain fatty acids on inflammatory signaling in cultured astrocytes. Data show that the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid, as well as lauric acid and stearic acid, trigger the release of TNF? and IL-6 from astrocytes. Unsaturated fatty acids were unable to induce cytokine release from cultured astrocytes. Furthermore, the effects of palmitic acid on cytokine release require TLR4 rather than CD36 or TLR2, and do not depend on palmitic acid metabolism t...

Gupta, Sunita; Knight, Alecia G.; Gupta, Shruti; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Bruce-keller, Annadora J.

2012-01-01

263

Comparative Study on Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra Fatty Acids  

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Full Text Available The leaves of nine populations of Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra growing wild in Tunisia were investigated for their fatty acids composition. Although, their low yields, total fatty acids composition showed an appreciable amount of ?-linolenic acid (C18:3, linoleic acid (C18:2, oleic acid (C18:1 and palmitic acid (C16:0. Stearidonic acid (C18:4, an unusual plant fatty acid was also found. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed significant differences between studied populations. However, multivariate analysis showed that H. triquetrifolium samples were grouped according to their origin apart from three populations.

Karim Hosni

2007-01-01

264

Potential Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae  

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Full Text Available Currently, public awareness of healthcare importance increase. Polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential nutrition for us, such arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The need of Polyunsaturated fatty acid generally derived from fish oil, but fish oil has a high risk chemical contamination. Microalgae are single cell microorganism, one of Phaeodactylum tricornutum which have relatively high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (29,8%. Biotechnology market of Polyunsaturated fatty acid is very promising for both foods and feeds, because the availability of abundant raw materials and suitable to develop in the tropics. This literature review discusses about the content of Polyunsaturated fatty acid in microalgae, omega-3, omega-6, Polyunsaturated fatty acid production processes, and applications in public health

Hady Hadiyanto

2011-07-01

265

Feedlot lamb meat fatty acids profile characterization employing gas chromatography  

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Full Text Available Fat is an important constituent in diet, not only as an energy source, but for its essential fatty acids associated to fats in foods, considering that some polyunsaturated fatty acids like linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic cannot be synthesized by superior animals like humans. Scientific evidence show that the fatty acids ingest can affect the thrombotic tendency, cardiac rhythm, endothelial function systematic inflammation, insulin sensibility and oxidative stress. Samples from 21 ovine crossbreds from Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper and Katahadin (40 kg average weight feed with corn based balanced diets were taken from loin area 18 h after refrigeration. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results in this work showed that the healthy fatty acids levels are higher as compared to saturated fatty acids levels, indicating that this meat can influence consumer’s buying choice decision regarded to their health.

M.I. Cruz-Gonzalez

2014-06-01

266

Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool.

Aeberhard, E.E.; Gan-Elepano, M.; Mead, J.F.

1980-01-01

267

Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of Three Phytomonas Species  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linoleni [...] c were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine.

Celso Vataru, Nakamura; Luciana, Waldow; Sandra Regina, Pelegrinello; Tânia, Ueda-Nakamura; Benício Alves de, Abreu Filho; Benedito Prado, Dias Filho.

268

Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool

1980-01-01

269

Hazelnut variety organic acids, sugars and total lipid fatty acids  

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Several cultivars and selections of hazelnut kernels from Oregon and Italy were analyzed for organic acids, fatty acids, and sugars by GLC and HPCL. The major organic acid was malate which ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 mg per g kernel dry weight, with higher average values for samples grown in Italy. Oxalic, galacturonic, succinic, levulinic, acetic, and butyric acids were also found, but in small quantity. Total sugar content averaged around 4% dry weight and ranged from 2.8% to 5.6%. Sucrose...

Botta, Roberto

1994-01-01

270

Dietary alpha-linolenic acid enhances omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in chicken tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of enriching broiler chicken diets with a vegetable source of n-3 fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) on the accumulation of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in chicken meat were investigated. Sixty unsexed one-day-old broiler chickens (Cobb 500) were randomly allocated to one of six diets (n=10 birds/diet) for 4 weeks. The ALA levels varied from 1 to 8% energy (%en) while the level of the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) was held to less than 5%en in all diets. At harvest (day 28) the levels of n-3 LCPUFA including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in breast and thigh meat increased in a curvilinear manner as dietary ALA increased, reaching 4- to 9-fold above the levels seen in control birds. In contrast, arachidonic acid (AA) was reduced in response to increasing dietary ALA. PMID:22925778

Kartikasari, L R; Hughes, R J; Geier, M S; Makrides, M; Gibson, R A

2012-01-01

271

Fatty acids intake among diverse ethnic groups in Indonesia  

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The use of dietary pattern specifically fatty acids intake should prove to be an informative and powerful means to augment our understanding of the role of diet in chronic disease particularly CHD. Cross sectional study was implemented to describe the nutrients intake specifically fatty acids intake of 4 (four) ethnic groups in Indonesia, such as Minangkabau, Sundanese, Javanese and Buginese. The percentage of saturated fatty acid (SAFA) to total energy intakes were around 20%. The percent...

Hatma, Ratna D.; Widjaja Lukito; Rumawas, Yohanna S. P.

2005-01-01

272

Fractionation of Trans from Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Fatty Acids  

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A multi-stage, low temperature solvent fractional crystallization process was developed in this work for the removal of trans fatty acids (TFA) and saturated fatty acids in free fatty acids (FFAs) obtained from hydrolysis of partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO). The effects of host solvents, concentration of FAs, crystallization temperature and time on separation of TFA and SFA were studied. Among all the three solvents examined namely acetone, hexane and ethanol, acetone proved...

2012-01-01

273

TRPA1 Is a Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Sensor in Mammals  

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Fatty acids can act as important signaling molecules regulating diverse physiological processes. Our understanding, however, of fatty acid signaling mechanisms and receptor targets remains incomplete. Here we show that Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a cation channel expressed in sensory neurons and gut tissues, functions as a sensor of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in vitro and in vivo. PUFAs, containing at least 18 carbon atoms and three unsaturated bonds, activate TRP...

Motter, Arianne L.; Ahern, Gerard P.

2012-01-01

274

Effect of fatty acids on action of polyene antibiotics.  

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Fatty acids cause a decrease in the absorption spectra of the antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics nystatin, filipin, candicidin, and amphotericin B. For nystatin, filipin, and candicidin, this decrease in absorption could be correlated with the activity of the fatty acids in protecting the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against the action of these antibiotics. With amphotericin B a correlation was observed between the decrease in absorption caused by certain derivatives of fatty acids an...

Iannitelli, R. C.; Ikawa, M.

1980-01-01

275

Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: The epidemiological evidence  

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Epidemiological studies in the last 40 years suggest that omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish and fish oil decrease the risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke, and their complications. The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids include effects on lipids, blood pressure, cardiac and vascular function, eicosanoids, coagulation, and immunological responses. However, not all population studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids are associated with reduced rates of coronary ...

Simopoulos, Artemis P.

2002-01-01

276

Dietary Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Appear Not to Provide Cardioprotection  

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Dietary interventions have been consistently proposed as a part of a comprehensive strategy to lower the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD), in the process providing long-term cardioprotection. Replacement of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been reported to be inversely associated with risk of CHD. The observed lower incidence of CHD among populations consuming a Medite...

2010-01-01

277

Fatty acids and terpenoids from Trigonia fasciculata  

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Full Text Available The fatty portion of the hexane extract from roots of Trigonia fasciculata has been determined by GC/MS analysis of the methyl ester mixture. Seventeen fatty acids were identified and oleic acid (38.8% was the major component. The GC/MS analysis of the less polar fraction of the non-saponifiable part of the root hexane extract allowed the identification of fifteen sesquiterpenes and alpha-santalene (28.4% was the major component. Chromatography over silica gel of the more polar fraction allowed the isolation of two known compounds: betulinic acid and friedelin, and a novel diterpene 7-(2-hydroxy-acetyl-10-hydroxy-tetradecahydro-1-methylene-4b,7,10a-trimethyl -phenantrene (6alpha-hydroxy-15-oxo-allodevadarool, all unknown for the species. Structure determination was accomplished by chemical derivatization, comparison to literature data and spectral analysis, including 2D NMR (COSY, HETCOR, COLOC and X-ray crystallography.

Mafezoli Jair

2003-01-01

278

Radioiodinated PHIPA's; metabolically trapped fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioiodinated PHIPA 3-10 [13-(4'-iodophenyl)-3-(p-phenylene)tridecanoic acid] has been developed for nuclear-cardiological investigation of coronary artery disease or cardiomyopathies of various origin. The compound features a phenylene group located within the backbone of a long-chain fatty acid. In spite of its bulky structure [123I]PHIPA 3-10 is extracted by the myocardium in a manner similar to that for the unmodified fatty acid analogue, [123I]IPPA. The retention of PHIPA 3-10 in heart muscle results from the presence of the p-phenylene group which prevents more than one ?-oxidation cycle. Only one single, rapidly formed metabolite was found in rat-heart extracts. According to comparative HPLC with synthetic metabolites and mass spectrometric analysis this metabolite was identified as [123I]PHIPA 1-10, a by two methylene groups shortened PHIPA derivative. Formation of this metabolite could be suppressed by Etomoxir, a carnitine palmitoyl fransferase I inhibitor, indicating ?-oxidation of [123I]PHIPA 3-10 in mitochondria. Final evidence for the involvement of mitochondria in the degradation of [123I]PHIPA 3-10 was obtained performing density-gradient centrifugation with homogenized rat heart tissue. Labeled free PHIPA 3-10 and free metabolite peaked with the fraction containing mitochondria. With respect to its biochemical characteristics, [123I]PHIPA 3-10 may be considered as a useful tool for nuclear cardiological investigations. (orig.)

1998-01-01

279

Fatty acid metabolism in marine fish: low activity of fatty acyl delta5 desaturation in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine fish have an absolute dietary requirement for C20 and C22 highly unsaturated fatty acids. Previous studies using cultured cell lines indicated that underlying this requirement in marine fish was either a deficiency in fatty acyl delta5 desaturase or C18-20 elongase activity. Recent research in turbot cells found low C18-20 elongase but high delta5 desaturase activity. In the present study, the fatty acid desaturase/elongase pathway was investigated in a cell line (SAF-1) from another carnivorous marine fish, sea bream. The metabolic conversions of a range of radiolabeled polyunsaturated fatty acids that comprised the direct substrates for delta6 desaturase ([1-14C]18:2n-6 and [1-14C]18:3n-3), C18-20 elongase ([U-14C]18:4n-3), delta5 desaturase ([1-14C]20:3n-6 and [U-14C]20:4n-3), and C20-22 elongase ([1-14C]20:4n-6 and [1-14C]20:5n-3) were utilized. The results showed that fatty acyl delta6 desaturase in SAF-1 cells was highly active and that C18-20 elongase and C20-22 elongase activities were substantial. A deficiency in the desaturation/elongation pathway was clearly identified at the level of the fatty acyl delta5 desaturase, which was very low, particularly with 20:4n-3 as substrate. In comparison, the apparent activities of delta6 desaturase, C18-20 elongase, and C20-22 elongase were approximately 94-, 27-, and 16-fold greater than that for delta5 desaturase toward their respective n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates. The evidence obtained in the SAF-1 cell line is consistent with the dietary requirement for C20 and C22 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the marine fish the sea bream, being primarily due to a deficiency in fatty acid delta5 desaturase activity. PMID:10380114

Tocher, D R; Ghioni, C

1999-05-01

280

The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat and blood plasma in pruritic dogs and dogs without skin problems.  

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in subcutaneous fat and the relative amounts of PUFAs in plasma in two groups of dogs. Group 1 included dogs with a good skin and coat condition. Group 2 was comprised of dogs with pruritus and compatible clinical signs of atopy. The fatty acid composition of the total lipid fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography. In subcutaneous fat, the concentration of adrenic acid (22:4n-6) was lower...

Taugbøl, O.; Baddaky-taugbøl, B.; Saarem, K.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Changes in the fatty acid composition of wild harlequin shrimp, Hymenocera picta Dana, 1852 from eggs, newly hatched zoea and juvenile stages: an insight into the fatty acid requirements for aquaculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The colourful harlequin shrimp, Hymenocera picta, is a valuable marine ornamental species but low survival remains a bottleneck to successful commercial culture. Understanding the biochemical composition, notably through the determination of the fatty acid profiles in wild eggs, newly hatched and juvenile shrimp, can provide important information on the nutritional requirements of H. picta. Following analysis, the rank order of fatty acid composition was saturates > monoenes > polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Within the PUFA content, n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA was the major representative in all three stages; n-6 PUFA was found in lower amounts, and, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6 was not detectable. Observed increases in EPA and DHA from the eggs through to newly hatched zoea and juvenile shrimp indicate the importance of n-3 HUFA for growth and survival, i.e. as components in the formation of cell membranes. These findings should be given due consideration as a first approach to understanding the fatty acid requirements of harlequin shrimp.

Jarunan Pratoomyot

2014-02-01

282

Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of fatty acids against phytopathogenic fungi. Two pot experiments were conducted by mixing palmitic and oleic acids in the soil in which poor plant growth was observed. In addition, the antifungal activities of nine fatty acids (butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid) against four phytopathogenic fungi: Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, were assessed by measuring mycelial growth and spore germination via Petri dish assay. The results of the pot experiments showed that the mixture of palmitic and oleic acids enhanced the growth of the seedlings of continuous-tomato and continuous-cucumber. Except for oleic acid, in the Petri dish assay, the fatty acids tested were observed to inhibit the mycelial growth of one or more tested fungi. In addition to the suppression of mycelial growth, butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, and palmitic acid showed an inhibitory effect against spore germination and the extent of inhibition varied with both the type of fatty acids, and the fungi. In particular, capric acid displayed strong inhibitory effect against C. lagenarium on the mycelial growth and spore germination. The saturated fatty acids, i.e. palmitic acids, showed stronger antifungal activity than the unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. oleic acid. It suggests that fatty acids might be applicable to exploring for alternative approaches to integrated control of phytopathogens. PMID:18443921

Liu, Siyun; Ruan, Weibin; Li, Jing; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jingan; Gao, Yubao; Wang, Jingguo

2008-08-01

283

Senegalese sole (solea senegalensis) broodstock nutrition: arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) and reproductive physiology  

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Considerando la total ausencia del desove natural y fertilización de huevos en reproductores de lenguado Senegalés (Solea senegalensis) nacidos en cautividad (G1) comparados con peces salvajes mantenidos en cautivo que son capaces de producir huevos fertilizados viables para su cultivo. Esta tesis se realizó con el objetivo de determinar la importancia dietética de los ácidos grasos, específicamente del ácido graso araquidónico (20:4n-6, ARA) y su interacción en la disfunción reprod...

Norambuena Filcun, Fernando

2012-01-01

284

Dietary shochu kasu alleviates fatty liver induced by orotic acid  

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Full Text Available The effects of dietary shochu kasu (5% on orotic acid-induced fatty liver were studied in rats. Liver triglyceride content of orotic acid-fed rats increased by 5-fold in comparison to basal group. Shochu kasu reduced triglyceride content by two-third. The activities of fatty acid synthase and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase significantly decreased that was approximately by 35% and 20%, respectively. The serum lipid levels however were nearly unchanged. The alleviation of fatty liver in rats with shochu kasu, therefore, was associated with the inhibition of fatty acid synthase and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activities.

Yohanes Buang, Pius D. Ola, Teruyoshi Yanagita

2010-06-01

285

Fatty acid binding receptors in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology  

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Full Text Available Free fatty acids are essential dietary components and recognized as important molecules in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In the last decade, the molecular pathways for free fatty acid sensing in the gastrointestinal tract have been further elucidated by molecular identification and functional characterization of fatty acid binding receptors. These sensing molecules belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. In the intestine, four important receptors have been described so far. They differ in molecular structure, ligand specificity, expression pattern, and functional properties. In this review, an overview of intestinal fatty acid binding receptors and their role in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology is given.

Elke Kaemmerer, Patrick Plum, Christina Klaus, Ralf Weiskirchen, Christian Liedtke, Maximilian Adolf, Angela Schippers, Norbert Wagner, Andrea Reinartz, Nikolaus Gassler

2010-12-01

286

Quantitation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism using PET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abnormalities of fatty acid metabolism in the heart presage contractile dysfunction and arrhythmias. This study was performed to determine whether myocardial fatty acid metabolism could be quantified noninvasively using PET and 1-{sup 11}C-palmitate. Anesthetized dogs were studied during control conditions; during administration of dobutamine; after oxfenicine; and during infusion of glucose. Dynamic PET data after administration of 1-{sup 11}C-palmitate were fitted to a four-compartment mathematical model. Modeled rates of palmitate utilization correlated closely with directly measured myocardial palmitate and total long-chain fatty acid utilization (r = 0.93 and 0.96, respectively, p < 0.001 for each) over a wide range of arterial fatty acid levels and altered patterns of myocardial substrate use (fatty acid extraction fraction ranging from 1% to 56%, glucose extraction fraction from 1% to 16% and myocardial fatty acid utilization from 1 to 484 nmole/g/min). The percent of fatty acid undergoing oxidation could also be measured. The results demonstrate the ability to quantify myocardial fatty acid utilization with PET. The approach is readily applicable for the determination of fatty acid metabolism noninvasively in patients. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Bergmann, S.R.; Weinheimer, C.J.; Markham, J.; Herrero, P. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1996-10-01

287

Fatty acid and stable carbon isotope characterization of Camelina sativa oil: implications for authentication.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of authenticity characterization is an increasing and pressing requirement for all foods. Vegetable oil is one of the most studied foods because of its nutritional and medicinal properties in a correct diet. In this study, a total of 53 Camelina sativa samples, from all known growing areas, were chemically and isotopically characterized. The fatty acid content of camelina oil was determined by gas chromatography (GC), and the ratios of stable carbon isotopes ((13)C/(12)C) of individual fatty acids and seed/bulk oil were determined by gas chromatography-combustion-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) and elemental analysis-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). A total of 17 different fatty acids were detected by GC, with omega3 R-linolenic acid (C(18:3n3)) being the most abundant (29.7-40.0 wt %). Oleic acid (C(18:1n9)), linoleic acid (C(18:2n6)) and eicosenoic acid (C(20:1n9)) all belong to the second group of major fatty acids. The stable carbon isotopic values (delta(13)C) fell into a range typical for C(3) plants. The use of delta(13)C(18:2n6) vs delta(13)C(18:3n3) correlation could show cases where impurity or adulteration is suspected, whereas principal component analysis clearly separates oil samples from different continents. Preliminary results on the camelina oil authentication procedure provide a basis for the investigation of geographical origin and the further distinction between camelina and camelina refined or other, less expensive oils. PMID:19123821

Hrastar, Robert; Petrisic, Marinka G; Ogrinc, Nives; Kosir, Iztok Joze

2009-01-28

288

Nitric oxide converts fatty acid alkoxyl radicals into fatty acid allyl radicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitric oxide (()NO) is thought to react with fatty acid alkoxyl radical, which is generated from fatty acid hydroperoxide via one-electron reduction. However, detail in the reaction remains obscure. In the present study, we examined the reaction of nitric oxide with fatty acid alkoxyl radical generated in the lipoxygenase/linoleate/13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoate (13-HpODE) system under anaerobic conditions via HPLC equipped with mass spectrometry and photodiode array detections. In this reaction system, nitric oxide can scavenge linoleate alkoxyl radical, producing 13-ONO-9Z,11E-ODE. However, instead of 13-ONO-9Z,11E-ODE, 13-NO-9E,11E-ODE and 9-NO-10E,12E-ODE were alternatively detected in the reaction solution. To explain this contradiction, we proposed a mechanism as follows: (1) 13-ONO-9E/11Z-ODE undergoes homolytic cleavage at >CHONO bond into the linoleate allyl radical and nitrogen dioxide, (2) the allyl radical undergoes resonance stabilization into the E/E-form, and (3) nitric oxide scavenges the E/E-pentadiene radical at C9 or C13 position. Consequently, we concluded that nitric oxide immediately converts fatty acid alkoxyl radical into allyl radical. PMID:22037355

Koshiishi, Ichiro; Yokota, Azusa; Takajo, Tokuko

2011-12-15

289

The Two Carboxylases of Corynebacterium glutamicum Essential for Fatty Acid and Mycolic Acid Synthesis? †  

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The suborder Corynebacterianeae comprises bacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium glutamicum, and these bacteria contain in addition to the linear fatty acids, unique ?-branched ?-hydroxy fatty acids, called mycolic acids. Whereas acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase activity is required to provide malonyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis, a new type of carboxylase is apparently additionally present in these bacteria. It activates the ?-carbon of a linear fatty acid by carb...

2007-01-01

290

Methoxylated fatty acids reported in Rhizobium isolates arise from chemical alterations of common fatty acids upon acid-catalyzed transesterification procedures.  

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We obtained from a phospholipid extract of wild-type Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii ANU843 methoxylated fatty acids that had been previously reported as constitutive unusual Rhizobium fatty acids. The use of deuterated reagents and subsequent gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed that these methoxylated fatty acid derivatives are the products of chemical alterations of common cyclopropane-containing and unsaturated fatty acids occurring during various acid-catalyze...

Orgambide, G. G.; Reusch, R. N.; Dazzo, F. B.

1993-01-01

291

Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS, have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

Gao Qianqian

2012-03-01

292

Acylation of cellular proteins with endogenously synthesized fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of cellular proteins contain covalently bound fatty acids. Previous studies have identified myristic acid and palmitic acid covalently linked to protein, the former usually attached to proteins by an amide linkage and the latter by ester or thio ester linkages. While in a few instances specific proteins have been isolated from cells and their fatty acid composition has been determined, the most frequent approach to the identification of protein-linked fatty acids is to biosynthetically label proteins with fatty acids added to intact cells. This procedure introduces possible bias in that only a selected fraction of proteins may be labeled, and it is not known whether the radioactive fatty acid linked to the protein is identical with that which is attached to the protein when the fatty acid is derived from endogenous sources. We have examined the distribution of protein-bound fatty acid following labeling with ["3H]acetate, a general precursor of all fatty acids, using BC"3H1 cells (a mouse muscle cell line) and A431 cells (a human epidermoid carcinoma). Myristate, palmitate, and stearate account for essentially all of the fatty acids linked to protein following labeling with ["3H]acetate, but at least 30% of the protein-bound palmitate in these cells was present in amide linkage. In BC3H1 cells, exogenous palmitate becomes covalently bound to protein such that less than 10% of the fatty acid is present in amide linkage. These data are compatible with multiple protein acylating activities specific for acceptor protein fatty acid chain length and linkage

1986-02-25

293

Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english It is widely accepted that the consumption of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and deriva [...] tization. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid was found in all but one species. Additionally, some species contained docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid of the ?-6 series, was present in all studied macroalgae. Fucus spiralis L. exhibited the highest amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ?-3 and ?-6 series. The ?-6/?-3 ratio in half of the studied species was lower than 1. This information reinforces the potential application of some brown macroalgae as dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Silva, Graça; Pereira, Renato B.; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa, Carla.

294

Influence of omega-3 fatty acids from the flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) on the brain development of newborn rats Influencia de los ácidos grasos omega-3 de la linaza (Linum usitatissimum) en el desarrollo del cerebro de ratas recién nacidas  

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Objectives: The importance of essential fatty acids, in particular the omega-3 family, in the central nervous system development of newborns is well documented. The flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is considered one of the best vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The influence of omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed on the brain development of newborn rats was evaluated. Material and methods: Pups of the F1 generation were obtained from 18 female Wistar rats divided in 3 groups (n = 6), FG: ...

Lenzi Almeida, K. C.; Teles Boaventura, G.; Guzma?n Silva, Mª A.

2011-01-01

295

Fatty Acid Profiles and Cholesterol Composition of Venison from Farmed Deer  

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Full Text Available It is important to evaluate venison characteristics as a new high quality red meat in the meat marketing system. This information is vital to ensure their commercial success and dietary benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the venison quality from farmed deer according to cuts or muscles based on fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content and to do comparative study on venison quality between species of farmed deer (rusa, sambar, fallow and imported red deer and feeding regimens, i.e., grass-fed vs concentrate-fed venison. The samples of venison were derived from javan rusa (Cervus timorensis russa, moluccan rusa (Cervus timorensis moluccensis, sambar (Cervus unicolor brookei, fallow (Dama dama and imported red deer (Cervus elaphus. Moluccan rusa and red deer were grass-fed deer. Javan rusa, sambar and fallow deer were concentrate-fed deer. Cholesterol content in Longissimus Dorsi (LD muscles of sambar, fallow and rusa deer were 75.36, 76.61 and 77.58 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Cholesterol content in Biceps Femoris (BF muscles of moluccan rusa, sambar, fallow and red deer were 56.61, 59.26, 86.37 and 98.44 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Concentrate-fed deer LD and Psoas Major (PM muscles show higher C18:2 (n-6 than grass-fed deer. Grass-fed rusa deer shows the highest C18:3 (n- 3 percentages in PM muscle. Grass-fed rusa and red deer gave an ideal n-6:n-3 ratio of less than 5. Species of deer did not influence n-6:n-3 ratio and fatty acid composition in venison. Feeding regimens (grass-fed vs concentrate-fed significantly (p< 0.05 influence n-6:n-3 ratio, fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content in the venison of farmed deer in this study.

N.A. Norfarizan-Hanoon

2007-01-01

296

Effects of different cooking methods on fatty acid profiles in four freshwater fishes from the Laurentian Great Lakes region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish is often promoted as a healthy part of the human diet due its high content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Previous studies have shown that cooked fish can have different fatty acid profiles than raw fillets, depending on the cooking method and fish species. In this study, the fatty acid content of broiled, baked or fried skinless, boneless fillets of four fish species from the tributaries of the Great Lakes, or connecting rivers, was compared to fatty acid profiles in raw sections from the same fillet. Cooking treatments had little effect on n-3 fatty acid content; however, fried treatments generally had higher n-6 and MUFA content, which is likely a result of the cooking oil used (canola). Broiling or baking is generally the most healthy option presented in this study, as these methods result in lower levels of less-favourable fatty acids; however, the choice of cooking oil may also influence the overall fatty acid content in cooked fish. PMID:24996368

Neff, Margaret R; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Braekevelt, Eric; Arts, Michael T

2014-12-01

297

Thiamine and fatty acid content of walleye tissue from three southern U.S. reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined the thiamine concentration in egg, muscle, and liver tissues of walleyes Sander vitreus and the fatty acid content of walleye eggs from three southern U.S. reservoirs. In two Tennessee reservoirs (Dale Hollow and Center Hill), in which there were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the forage base, natural recruitment of walleyes was not occurring; by contrast in Lake James Reservoir, North Carolina, where there were no alewives, the walleye population was sustained via natural recruitment. Female walleye tissues were collected and assayed for thiamine (vitamin B1) and fatty acid content. Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be the predominant form of thiamine in walleye eggs. In 2000, mean total egg thiamine concentrations were similar among Center Hill, Dale Hollow, and Lake James reservoirs (2.13, 3.14, and 2.77 nmol thiamine/g, respectively). Egg thiamine concentration increased as maternal muscle (r 2 = 0.73) and liver (r2 = 0.68) thiamine concentration increased. Walleye egg thiamine does not appear to be connected to poor natural reproduction in Tennessee walleyes. Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, which are found in all three reservoirs, had higher thiaminase activity than alewives. Six fatty acids differed among the walleye eggs for the three reservoirs. Two were physiologically important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6[n-3]), which are important eicosanoid precursors involved in the regulation of biological functions, such as immune response and reproduction. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Honeyfield, D. C.; Vandergoot, C. S.; Bettoli, P. W.; Hinterkopf, J. P.; Zajicek, J. L.

2007-01-01

298

Polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce Fatty Acid Synthase and Hydroxy-Methyl-Glutaryl CoA-Reductase gene expression and promote apoptosis in HepG2 cell line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are the two major classes of PUFAs encountered in the diet, and both classes of fatty acids are required for normal human health. Moreover, PUFAs have effects on diverse pathological processes impacting chronic disease, such as cardiovascular and immune disease, neurological disease, and cancer. Aim To investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and arachidonic acid (ARA on the proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma cell line HepG2 after exposure to increasing concentrations of EPA or ARA for 48 h. Moreover, in the same cells the gene expression of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS and 3-Hydroxy-3-Methyl-Glutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (HMG-CoAR was also investigated. Method Cell growth and apoptosis were assayed by MTT and ELISA test, respectively after cell exposure to increasing concentrations of EPA and ARA. Reverse-transcription and real-time PCR was used to detect FAS and HMG-CoAR mRNA levels in treated cells. Results Our findings show that EPA inhibits HepG2 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, starting from 25 ?M (P Conclusion Our results demonstrate that EPA and ARA inhibit HepG2 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. The down-regulation of FAS and HMG-CoAR gene expression by EPA and ARA might be one of the mechanisms for the anti-proliferative properties of PUFAs in an in vitro model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Miccolis Angelica

2011-01-01

299

Cell Proliferation and Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolism in a Cell Line From Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii).  

Science.gov (United States)

Southern bluefin tuna (SBT, Thunnus maccoyii) aquaculture is a highly valuable industry, but research on these fish is hampered by strict catch quotas and the limited success of captive breeding. To address these limitations, we have developed a SBT cell line (SBT-E1) and here we report on fatty acid metabolism in this cell line. The SBT-E1 cells proliferated well in standard Leibovitz's L-15 cell culture medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) as the source of fatty acids. Decreasing the FBS concentration decreased the cell proliferation. Addition of the C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) or linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6) to the cell culture medium had little effect on the proliferation of the cells, whereas addition of the long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) significantly reduced the proliferation of the cells, especially at higher concentrations and especially for DHA. Addition of vitamin E to the culture medium overcame this effect, suggesting that it was due to oxidative stress. The fatty acid profiles of the total lipid from the cells reflected those of the respective culture media with little evidence for desaturation or elongation of any of the fatty acids. The only exceptions were EPA and ARA, which showed substantial elongation to 22:5n-3 and 22:4n-6, respectively, and DHA, which was significantly enriched in the cells compared with the culture medium. The results are discussed in light of the dietary PUFA requirements of SBT in the wild and in aquaculture. PMID:24825740

Scholefield, Andrew M; Schuller, Kathryn A

2014-07-01

300

Lipases catalyse hydrolysis of fatty acid anhydrides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regio-specific and non-regio-specific lipases from mammals and microorganisms catalyse the hydrolysis of short, medium and long-chain fatty acid anhydrides. All the lipases tested in the present study can catalyse the hydrolysis of pure fatty acid anhydrides more efficiently than that of glycerol tributyrate. Molecular turnovers more than four times higher than that measured using glycerol tributyrate were calculated. The presence of 0.5% (by mass) anhydride in a triacylglyceride can double the initial rate of proton release during enzymatic hydrolysis. This should be taken into account when testing the chain specificity of a lipase for various synthetic substrates. Lipase inhibition was found to be associated very often with anhydride hydrolysis. The inhibition rates depended on the anhydride and the origin of the lipase. Inhibition of lipase activity is probably due to the formation of a poorly reversible acyl-lipase complex which differs from the classical fully reversible acyl-lipase complex at the catalytic centre. PMID:2226444

Pieroni, G; Fourneron, J D

1990-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

Coordinated regulation and inositol-mediated and fatty acid-mediated repression of fatty acid synthase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, FAS1, FAS2, and FAS3 are the genes involved in saturated fatty acid biosynthesis. The enzymatic activities of both fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase are reduced 2- to 3-fold when yeast cells are grown in the presence of exogenous fatty acids. The mRNA levels of the FAS genes are correspondingly lower under repressive conditions. Expression of the FAS-lacZ reporter gene is also regulated by fatty acids. When a FAS2 multicopy plasmid is present in...

Chirala, S. S.

1992-01-01

302

Liquid biofuel production from volatile fatty acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of renewable fuels and chemicals reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and limits the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere only if a sustainable feedstock and an energy efficient process are used. The thesis assesses the possibility to use municipal and industrial waste as biomass feedstock to have little of no competition with food production, and to save greenhouse gasses emissions. Waste is a complex substrate with a diverse composition and high water content. It can be homogenized without losing its initial energy value by anaerobic conversion to volatile fatty acids (VFA). Using VFA gives the opportunity to process cheap and abundantly present biomass residues to a fuel and chemical instead of sugar containing crops or vegetable oil. This thesis describes the feasibility to convert VFA to compounds with a higher energy content using mixed culture fermentations by eliminating of oxygen and/or increasing the carbon and hydrogen content. At high hydrogen pressure, protons and electrons release via the reduction of organic products such as VFA becomes thermodynamically more attractive. Three VFA reduction reactions were studied: hydrogenation to an alcohol with (1) hydrogen and (2) an electrode as electron donor, and (3) by chain elongation with hydrogen and ethanol. Based on concentration, production rate and efficiency, elongation of acetate with hydrogen and/or ethanol was the best technique to convert VFA into a fuel. In a CSTR (Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor), 10.5 g L{sup -1} caproic acid and 0.48 g L{sup -1} caprylic acid were produced with ethanol and/or hydrogen at a specific MCFA (medium-chain fatty acids) production activity of 2.9 g caproate and 0.09 g caprylate per gram VSS d{sup -1} (volatile suspended solids). The products were selectively removed by calcium precipitation and solvent extraction with ethyl hexanoate and petroleum ether. Microbial characterization revealed that the microbial populations were stable and dominated by relatives of Clostridium kluyveri. VFA could also be reduced to alcohols. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids were biohydrogenated with hydrogen and acetic acid also with an electrode. Observed alcohol concentrations were 0.62 g L{sup -1} ethanol, 0.49 g L{sup -1} propanol and 0.27 g L{sup -1} n-butanol. Methanogenesis was successfully inhibited after thermal pre-treatment incubated at pH 6, while acetate reduction was enhanced. In the second study, ethanol (0.084 g L{sup -1}) was produced at the cathodic compartment of a bioelectrochemical system, in which the electron transport was mediated by methyl viologen. The ethanol production activity at the cathode was only of very short term, since the mediator irreversibly reacted at the surface of the cathode. Of the two VFA conversion processes, biohydrogenation and chain elongation, the latter was a more dominant process that consumes ethanol with acetate to medium chain fatty acids. With this technology, wet organic waste can be converted to biofuels carbon and energy efficient. The technology is promising due to the good fuel and separation properties of medium chain fatty acids, and the possibility to produce them at high concentrations and specific production rates comparable to other anaerobic conversions.

Steinbusch, K.J.J.

2010-03-19

303

The effect of dietary omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on ovine ovarian function and the pre-implantation embryo  

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There is considerable interest in the beneficial role of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on reproduction in ruminants. Detailed information regarding the mechanisms behind this beneficial effect is limited. The main objective of this thesis was to test the effects of dietary supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) or -6 (n-6) PUFA on gene expression, fatty acid (FA) composition and steroidogenesis in granulosa and theca cells and pre-implantation embryo development.

Hughes, Jaime

2011-01-01

304

Effects of dietary lipids on tissue fatty acids profile, growth and reproductive performance of female rice field eel (Monopterus albus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of different lipids on tissue fatty acid profile and reproductive performance in female rice field eel were investigated in this study. Virgin female eels were fed with six diets containing different lipids (diets FO, LO, SO, PO and PL with fish oil, linseed oil, soybean oil, peanut oil and pork lard, respectively; diet APO with arachidonic acid and peanut oil). The results showed that there were positive correlations between the contents of 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the tissues of eels and those of the corresponding fatty acids in their diets. The specific growth rate of eels fed with diet PO was the lowest and significantly lower than that of FO and SO. Gonad of eels fed with diets PO and PL showed hypogonadism. The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) can be synthesized by eels, but the quantity was not enough to meet their reproduction requirement completely. The fatty acid desaturation, rather than elongation probably was one of the limiting factors. Addition of proper amount of ARA in diet was favorable to the increase of the hatching rate of fertilized eggs, while EPA and DHA in diet were beneficial to the increase of the survival rate of larva. Both n-3PUFA and a suitable n-6/n-3PUFA ratio were necessary for growth and reproduction of eels. PMID:21046236

Zhou, Qiu-Bai; Wu, Hua-Dong; Zhu, Chang-Sheng; Yan, Xing-Hong

2011-09-01

305

The development of radioiodinated fatty acids for myocardial imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since free fatty acids are the principal energy source for the normally oxygenated myocardium, the use of iodine-123-labeled fatty acid analogues is an attractive approach for myocardial imaging. Interest in the use of these substances results from divergent fatty acid metabolic pathways in ischemic (triglyceride storage) versus normoxic tissue (?-oxidative clearance), following flow-dependent delivery. Iodine-123-labeled fatty acids may offer a unique opportunity to identity myocardial viability using single photon emission tomography. The development of structurally-modified fatty acids became of interest because of the relatively long acquisition periods required for SPECT. The significant time required by early generation single- or dual-head SPECT systems for data acquisition requires minimal redistribution during the acquisition period to ensure accurate evaluation of the regional fatty acid distribution pattern after re-construction. Research has focussed on the evaluation of structural modifications which can be introduced into the fatty acid chain which would inhibit the subsequent ?-oxidative catabolism which normally results in rapid myocardial clearance. Introduction of a methyl group in position-3 of the fatty acid carbon chain has been shown to significantly delay myocardial clearance and iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3- R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is a new tracer based on this strategy

1993-02-13

306

Increased Brain Fatty Acid Uptake in Metabolic Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured brain fatty acid uptake in a group of 23 patients with MS and 7 age-matched healthy control subjects during fasting conditions using positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]-palmitate and [18F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid ([18F]-FTHA). Sixteen MS subjects were restudied after 6 weeks of very low calorie diet intervention. RESULTS At baseline, brain global fatty acid uptake derived from [18F]-FTHA was 50% higher in patients with MS compared with control subjects. The mean percentage increment was 130% in the white matter, 47% in the gray matter, and uniform across brain regions. In the MS group, the nonoxidized fraction measured using [11C]-palmitate was 86% higher. Brain fatty acid uptake measured with [18F]-FTHA-PET was associated with age, fasting serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Both total and nonoxidized fractions of fatty acid uptake were associated with BMI. Rapid weight reduction decreased brain fatty acid uptake by 17%. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first study on humans to observe enhanced brain fatty acid uptake in patients with MS. Both fatty acid uptake and accumulation appear to be increased in MS patients and reversed by weight reduction.

Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jussi; Fielding, Barbara A.; Virtanen, Kirsi; Oikonen, Vesa; Kemppainen, Jukka; Viljanen, Tapio; Guiducci, Letizia; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Nagren, Kjell; Solin, Olof; Nuutila, Pirjo

2010-01-01

307

Fatty acids composition in fruits of wild rose species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oil content and fatty acids profile of a number of Polish wild species of rose fruits were examined by GC. The total fatty acid contents ranged from 6.5% to 12.9% of dry mass in fruits. The composition of oils was similar in the investigated species. 17 components were identified. An average composition was estimated as follows: linoleic acid (44.4-55.7%, a-linolenic acid (18.6-31.4%, oleic acid (13.5-20.3%, palmitic acid (2.3-3.3%, stearic acid (1-2.5%, octadecenoic acid (0.38-0.72%, eicosenoic acid (0.3-0.7%, eicosadienoic acid (0-0.16%, erucic acid (0.03-0.17% and minor fatty acids. The results indicate that rose fruits are a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially in R. rubiginosa, R. rugosa and R. dumalis. There were statistically significant (p<0.05 differences in fatty acid compositions of some species. Fatty acids were suggested to have a potential chemotaxonomic value in this genus.

Renata Nowak

2005-09-01

308

Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6, the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

Calder P.C.

1998-01-01

309

Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Most vegetable oils are ri [...] ch in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6), the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor) and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

Calder, P.C..

310

Genetic variability of fatty acids in bovine milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of bovine milk influences the technological properties of butterfat and also presents some potential benefits for human health. Impact of feeding on fat composition is well described in the literature; less information is available about the impact of genetics. Based on few studies, essentially conducted to isolate some feeding effect, the breed seemed to influence the fatty acids composition. The variation in the activity of ?-9 desaturase, key enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk, could explain these differences. Very few studies have been focussing on the estimation of genetic parameters of fatty acids composition. However, the moderate heritability estimates observed by these studies for the major fatty acids could suggest a potential genetic effect.

Soyeurt H.

2008-01-01

311

Cellular distribution and linkage of D-(-)-3-hydroxy fatty acids in Bacteroides species.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two strains of Bacteroides asaccharolyticus and two strains of Bacteroides fragilis were analyzed for total fatty acid, total lipid fatty acid, and total bound fatty acid profiles. Extracted lipids and defatted cell residues were subjected to sequential alkaline and acid methanolyses to distinguish ester- and amide-linked fatty acids in each fraction. In the lipid fractions, all the ester-linked fatty acids were nonhydroxylated, whereas all of the amide-linked fatty acids were hydroxylated. I...

1980-01-01

312

Recent developments in altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increasing evidence to indicate that nutrition is an important factor involved in the onset and development of several chronic human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type II diabetes and obesity. Clinical studies implicate excessive consumption of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans-fatty acids (TFA) as risk factors for CVD, and in the aetiology of other chronic conditions. Ruminant-derived foods are significant sources of medium-chain SFA and TFA in the human diet, but also provide high-quality protein, essential micronutrients and several bioactive lipids. Altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods offers the opportunity to align the consumption of fatty acids in human populations with public health policies without the need for substantial changes in eating habits. Replacing conserved forages with fresh grass or dietary plant oil and oilseed supplements can be used to lower medium-chain and total SFA content and increase cis-9 18:1, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to a variable extent in ruminant milk. However, inclusion of fish oil or marine algae in the ruminant diet results in marginal enrichment of 20- or 22-carbon PUFA in milk. Studies in growing ruminants have confirmed that the same nutritional strategies improve the balance of n-6/n-3 PUFA, and increase CLA and long-chain n-3 PUFA in ruminant meat, but the potential to lower medium-chain and total SFA is limited. Attempts to alter meat and milk fatty acid composition through changes in the diet fed to ruminants are often accompanied by several-fold increases in TFA concentrations. In extreme cases, the distribution of trans 18:1 and 18:2 isomers in ruminant foods may resemble that of partially hydrogenated plant oils. Changes in milk fat or muscle lipid composition in response to diet are now known to be accompanied by tissue-specific alterations in the expression of one or more lipogenic genes. Breed influences both milk and muscle fat content, although recent studies have confirmed the occurrence of genetic variability in transcript abundance and activity of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and identified polymorphisms for several key lipogenic genes in lactating and growing cattle. Although nutrition is the major factor influencing the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods, further progress can be expected through the use of genomic or marker-assisted selection to increase the frequency of favourable genotypes and the formulation of diets to exploit this genetic potential. PMID:23031638

Shingfield, K J; Bonnet, M; Scollan, N D

2013-03-01

313

Unsaturated fatty acids and insulin resistance in childhood obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: Obesity is characterized by increased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) that interfere with insulin signaling. The aim of our study was to assess the FFA profile in obese children and adolescents and to determine their relation with different degrees of insulin resistance. Methods: A transversal study was conducted of 51 children and adolescents (mean age, 11.7±1.6 years; 47% males) with obesity (body mass index ?95 percentile). Anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters were assessed. Insulin resistance was determined using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Plasma fatty acids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with heptadecanoic acid as the internal standard. Results: The mean concentration of myristic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, and total fatty acids was 9.3±2.2, 86.5±38.3, 93.0±35.5, 177.0±83.6, 48.5±14.9, and 414.3±160.9 ?mol/L, respectively. Total fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid and linoleic acid showed an inverse significant correlation with insulin resistance. Children with high insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >2.5) showed a decrease in unsaturated fatty acids compared with children having a HOMA-IR of childhood obesity. PMID:24353137

Toledo, Karen; Aranda, Mario; Asenjo, Sylvia; Sáez, Katia; Bustos, Paulina

2014-05-01

314

[Fatty acid composition of liver lipids in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and fatty liver].  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid spectrum of liver tissue lipids was studied by means of gas-liquid chromatography in 58 bioptic samples from patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and fatty hepatosis. A statistically significant decrease in content of linoleic, arachidonic and docosahexaenic acids as well as an increase in oleic, palmitoleic and myristic acids were found. Under conditions of the diseases studied fatty acid spectrum of liver tissue lipids altered. A decrease in degree of lipid desaturation was especially distinct in liver tissue cirrhosis. PMID:3630012

Mokhov, V M; Bliuzdin, Iu A

1987-01-01

315

Investigation of the roles of the substances in serum lipids and their constitutive fatty acids in chronic urticaria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The newly-generated lipid mediators include products of arachidonate metabolism, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. In this study, serum lipids and fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (C20:4) were examined in 12 normal subjects (6 males and 6 females) and 23 subjects with chronic urticaria (6 males and 17 females), including 17 who made an excellent or good recovery (4 males and 13 females). The results indicated a relationship between chronic urticaria and serum lipids and fatty acids. The omega 6 (n-6) and omega 3 (n-3) series of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation were suggested that may be one of the mediators in chronic urticaria. Pantethine, glutathione and ascorbic acid were effective in controlling chronic urticaria. PMID:2794222

Kobayashi, S

1989-06-01

316

EFFECTS OF ETHYLENE CHLOROHYDRIN ON FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS  

Science.gov (United States)

Male chicks weighing 700 to 900 g. received an acute or eight doses IG of 60 or 40 mg/kg ethylene chlorohydrin (ECH) respectively and were sacrificed eighteen hours after the last dose. Mitochondrial elongation of fatty acids was decreased significantly while fatty acid synthetas...

317

Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%). PMID:11014298

Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

2000-08-01

318

Umbilical cord PUFA are determined by maternal and child fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genetic variants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal supply with long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy is important for brain growth and visual and cognitive development and is provided by materno-fetal placental transfer. We recently showed that maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotypes modulate the amounts of LC-PUFA in maternal blood. Whether FADS genotypes influence the amounts of umbilical cord fatty acids has not been investigated until now. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maternal and child FADS genotypes on the amounts of LC-PUFA in umbilical cord venous plasma as an indicator of fetal fatty acid supply during pregnancy. A total of eleven cord plasma n-6 and n-3 fatty acids were analysed for association with seventeen FADS gene cluster SNP in over 2000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In a multivariable analysis, the maternal genotype effect was adjusted for the child genotype and vice versa to estimate which of the two has the stronger influence on cord plasma fatty acids. Both maternal and child FADS genotypes and haplotypes influenced amounts of cord plasma LC-PUFA and fatty acid ratios. Specifically, most analysed maternal SNP were associated with cord plasma levels of the precursor n-6 PUFA, whereas the child genotypes were mainly associated with more highly desaturated n-6 LC-PUFA. This first study on FADS genotypes and cord fatty acids suggests that fetal LC-PUFA status is determined to some extent by fetal fatty acid conversion. Associations of particular haplotypes suggest specific effects of SNP rs498793 and rs968567 on fatty acid metabolism. PMID:22877655

Lattka, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold; Zeilinger, Sonja; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Klopp, Norman; Ring, Susan M; Steer, Colin D

2013-04-14

319

21 CFR 573.640 - Methyl esters of higher fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Methyl esters of higher fatty acids. 573.640 Section...Listing § 573.640 Methyl esters of higher fatty acids. The food additive methyl esters of higher fatty acids may be safely...

2010-04-01

320

40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417...CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417...description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory....

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). ...substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

2010-07-01

322

40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section... Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability...the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The provisions...

2010-07-01

323

New Fatty Acid-Derived Lubricants and Additives.  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to addition products of dialkylphosphorodithioic acid, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, or bromotrichloromethane to unsaturated or epoxy fatty acid amides and esters. These products are useful as extreme pressure lubricants and additives.

G. Sumrell R. R. Mod F. C. Magne R. E. Koos

1978-01-01

324

Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term ?3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ?3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ?3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ?3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ?3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (?3 or sunflower oil (?9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ?3-PUFAs. Plasma of ?3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of ?3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ?3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ?9 myocytes. In the ?9 myocytes, but not in the ?3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ?3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ?3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ?3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ?3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

HesterMDen Ruijter

2010-11-01

325

Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. Results In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing ‘TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3 improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn’t strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-‘tesA-?fadL produced 4.8 g?L?1 extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g?h?1 g?1dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-‘tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired product. The strain pACY-‘tesA could also be chosen as the original strain for the next genetic manipulations. Conclusions The general strategy of metabolic engineering for the extracellular fatty acid production should be the cyclic optimization between cultivation performance and strain improvements. On the basis of our cultivation process optimization, strain improvements should be further carried out for the effective and cost-effective production process.

Liu Hui

2012-04-01

326

Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

2013-01-01

327

Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption. PMID:19648503

Coates, W; Ayerza, R

2009-11-01

328

Influence of diet transition on serum calcium and phosphorus and fatty acids in zoo giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to new recommendations for feeding giraffe in zoos, giraffe (n = 6) were transitioned from a typical hoofstock diet to diets containing reduced starch, protein, Ca and P and added n3 fatty acids. This diet was fed as a 50:50 mix with alfalfa and grass hay. Over the next 4 years, serum Ca, P, and fatty acids were measured every 6 months (summer and winter). Serum Ca was not affected by season (P = 0.67) or by diet (P = 0.12). Serum P was not affected season (P = 0.14), but was reduced by diet (Pgiraffe. PMID:20954252

Koutsos, E A; Armstrong, D; Ball, R; Dikeman, C; Hetherington, J; Simmons, L; Valdes, E V; Griffin, M

2011-01-01

329

Differential Effects of Antipsychotic Medications on Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Rats: Relationship with Liver Delta6-Desaturase Expression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), a lipid family comprised of omega-3 (n-3) and n-6 fatty acids, are a critical component of cellular membranes, and recent in vitro studies have found that antipsychotic medications up-regulate genes responsible for PUFA biosynthesis. To evaluate this effect in vivo, rats were treated with risperidone (1.5, 3, 6 mg/kg/d), paliperidone (1.5, 3, 6 mg/kg/d), olanzapine (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg/d), quetiapine (5, 10, 20 mg/kg/d), haloperidol (1, 3 mg/kg/d) or vehicle t...

Mcnamara, Robert K.; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Cole-strauss, Allyson; Lipton, Jack W.

2011-01-01

330

Tissue fatty acid composition and estimated ? desaturase activity after castration in chicken broilers fed with linseed or sunflower oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of the short-term addition of sunflower and linseed oil and castration on fatty acid composition and desaturation indexes in chicken broilers. Forty-eight male Ross 308 chicken broilers were supplemented with 5% of sunflower or linseed oil. The four experimental groups were linseed oil supplementation and castration (LC), linseed oil without castration (LN), sunflower oil and castration (SC) and sunflower oil without castration (SN). There was no significant influence of castration or oil supplement on live weights, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Castration resulted in an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), total n3, n6, measured desaturation indexes and a decrease in the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content of abdominal fat. In breast muscle, castration increased PUFA and 18:3n3 values, while in the liver tissue, castration did not influence the parameters measured. Linseed oil supplementation significantly increased 18:3n3, n3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA), total n3 and decreased total n6, n6/n3 ratio, and 20:4n6 content. Values for 20:4n6 were the highest in SC and the lowest in the LC group. Linseed oil also significantly decreased ?5 and ?4 desaturation indexes in the thighs and ?5 and ?5, 6 in abdominal fat and the liver. These results suggest that short-term supplementation of basal diet with 5% of linseed oil could significantly increase n3 LC PUFA and decrease n6/n3 ratio content in the edible tissues of chicken broilers, without adverse effects on growth performance. Meanwhile, castration only improved fatty acid profile in abdominal fat, which is not nutritionally important. The interactions observed between basal diet, supplemented oil, sex hormones and other non-nutritional factors must be elucidated in future trials in order to correctly predict the nutritional value of linseed-fed poultry. PMID:23905627

Mašek, T; Star?evi?, K; Filipovi?, N; Stojevi?, Z; Brozi?, D; Gottstein, Z; Severin, K

2014-04-01

331

Halogenated fatty acids I. Formation and occurrence in lipids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from suck flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids. However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their determination.

Mu, Huiling

1997-01-01

332

Increased prostaglandin response to oxytocin in ewes fed a diet high in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diets high in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6) are associated with increased prostaglandin F(2?) (PGF(2?)) synthesis in cattle, however, the specific effects on the potential prostaglandin response to an oxytocin challenge in sheep have not been reported. The aim of the current study was to determine whether oxytocin-stimulated PGF(2?) was significantly increased when ewes were fed a diet high in n-6 compared with a control diet low in n-6. Merino x Border Leicester ewes (n = 30) received one of two dietary treatments, either high in n-6 (70 % oat grain) or low in n-6 (control diet, 100 % cereal/legume silage). Ewes consumed the diets for 44 days prior to two consecutive oxytocin challenges. Plasma n-6 and PGF(2?) metabolite (PGFM) concentrations following oxytocin challenge were greater (P < 0.05) when ewes were fed a diet high in n-6 compared with the control diet. A higher availability of n-6 may have lead to an increased in vivo synthesis of PGF(2?), however, further research is required to determine the exact mechanisms involved. PMID:23264044

Gulliver, Catherine E; Friend, Michael A; King, Belinda J; Robertson, Susan M; Wilkins, John F; Clayton, Edward H

2013-02-01

333

Effect of dietary alfalfa on the fatty acid composition and indexes of lipid metabolism of rabbit meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to analyse and increase the quality of rabbit meat by increasing the levels of natural bioactive compounds through providing fresh alfalfa to rabbits as complementary feed. At 50 days of age, forty rabbits were divided into two homogeneous groups and fed pelleted feed (control group) or pelleted feed plus fresh alfalfa (alfalfa group). The lipid content of meat was significantly higher in the control group likely due to the higher feed consumption observed in this group. The same trend was observed in the contents of myristic, palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic acid. On the contrary, the supplementation of fresh alfalfa increased the stearic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and total polyunsaturated fatty acid contents; also the total monounsaturated fatty acids and the ?- and ?-tocopherol content was significantly lower. Moreover, alfalfa ingestion decreased the n-6 content, n-6/n-3 ratio and thrombogenicity index. PMID:24036258

Dal Bosco, A; Mugnai, C; Roscini, V; Mattioli, S; Ruggeri, S; Castellini, C

2014-01-01

334

N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autoimmune-Mediated Glomerulonephritis  

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Consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil suppresses inflammatory processes making these fatty acids attractive candidates for both the prevention and amelioration of several organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies have been conducted to determine whether fish oils containing the n-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can be used in the prevention and treatment of immunoglobulin A neph...

Pestka, James J.

2010-01-01

335

Dietary intakes and food sources of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

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Both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are recognized as essential nutrients in the human diet, yet reliable data on population intakes are limited. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the dietary intakes and food sources of individual n-6 and n-3 PUFA in the Australian population. An existing database with fatty acid composition data on 1690 foods was updated with newly validated data on 150 foods to estimate the fatty acid content of foods recorded as eaten by 10,851 adults in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey. Average daily intakes of linoleic (LA), arachidonic (AA), alpha-linolenic (LNA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids were 10.8, 0.052, 1.17, 0.056, 0.026, and 0.106 g, respectively, with long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (addition of EPA, DPA, and DHA) totaling 0.189 g; median intakes were considerably lower (9.0 g LA, 0.024 g AA, 0.95 g LNA, 0.008 g EPA, 0.006 g DPA, 0.015 g DHA, and 0.029 g LC n-3 PUFA). Fats and oils, meat and poultry, cereal-based products and cereals, vegetables, and nuts and seeds were important sources of n-6 PUFA, while cereal-based products, fats and oils, meat and poultry, cereals, milk products, and vegetable products were sources of LNA. As expected, seafood was the main source of LC n-3 PUFA, contributing 71%, while meat and eggs contributed 20 and 6%, respectively. The results indicate that the majority of Australians are failing to meet intake recommendations for LC n-3 PUFA (> 0.2 g per day) and emphasize the need for strategies to increase the availability and consumption of n-3-containing foods. PMID:12848284

Meyer, Barbara J; Mann, Neil J; Lewis, Janine L; Milligan, Greg C; Sinclair, Andrew J; Howe, Peter R C

2003-04-01

336

Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with ?-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids or ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%. At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

Cruz-Hernandez Cristina

2010-01-01

337

Effect of dietary fatty acids on antibody production and fatty acid composition of lymphoid organs in broiler chicks.  

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This study examined the effect of increasing amounts of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on antibody production in vivo and fatty acid composition of plasma and lymphoid tissues in the broiler. Chicks were fed four diets containing 12% added fat made up of different proportions of palm oil and soybean oil and immunized against bovine serum albumin at 14 to 16 d of age. Blood samples were taken every 4 to 5 d for 30 d; then the chicks were killed and liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, and bone marrow were sampled. Fatty acid composition in serum and tissues reflected the composition of the diets, although amounts of saturated fatty acids were tissue-specific. Arachidonic acid concentration was not changed by dietary fatty acid content. Antibody production developed more rapidly, reached a higher level, and was more persistent in the chicks fed lower levels of linoleic acid. A quadratic relationship was found between tissue linoleic acid or total polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and antibody production at 11 and 14 d after challenge. No correlation was found with arachidonic acid. It is concluded that dietary fatty acid composition can influence immune response in broilers. PMID:7501591

Friedman, A; Sklan, D

1995-09-01

338

Fatty Acids Composition in Germinating Cotton Seedlings Affected by High Temperature Stress  

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The results of fatty acids analysis suggested that greater unsaturation occurred with increasing germination time. High temperature had a marked effect on fatty acid composition and caused significant changes especially in neutral lipid and glycollpid fatty acids. Small changes were also observed in phophollpid fatty acids. A large increase in free fatty acid was also found, since free fatty acids are known to be damaging to cells.

Saghir Ahmed Sheikh; Muhammad Ibrahim Keerio; Maqsood Anwar Rustamani; Noor-u-Nisa Memon

2002-01-01

339

Efeito sazonal sobre os ácidos graxos e colesterol do polvo Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797 Seasonal effects on fatty acids and cholesterol contents in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797  

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Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos e colesterol na manta de polvo comum, Octopus vulgaris, capturado na praia de Camocim - CE, no decorrer dos meses de abril a outubro em coletas bimensais. Apesar do ácido oleico (C18: 1n9 apresentar comportamento uniforme ao longo do tempo de coleta, a maioria dos demais ácidos graxos foi afetada (p = 1% pela época de coleta. Os níveis dos ácidos araquidônico (C20:4n6, oleico (C18:1n9, esteárico (C18:0 e linoleico (C18:2n6 foram superiores àqueles reportados na literatura. O somatório de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados e monoinsaturados revelou que o óleo de polvo apresenta um teor significativo de ácidos graxos insaturados. Foi observado um aumento gradativo de colesterol ao longo do tempo estudado e um comportamento inverso para a relação de ácidos graxos n3/n6.The aim of this study was to investigate the fatty acids and cholesterol profile in the mantle of common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, collected twice a month in in coastal waters of Camocim/CE beach over the period from April to October. Although the Oleic acid (C18:n9 did not show significant changes over the months, the majority of fatty acids varied during this period of time. The Arachidonic (C20:4n6, oleic (C18:n9, stearic (C18:0, and linoleic (C18:2n6 acids were found in higher levels than those reported in the literature. Polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids accounted for most of the octopus fatty acids. During the time of analysis, it was observed a gradual increase in the cholesterol and the fatty acids n3/ n6 ratio presented the opposite result, i.e., a gradual decrease.

Margarida Maria Monteiro Vasconcelos

2010-06-01

340

Analysis of mixtures of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in fermentation broth.  

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Microbial production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols has attracted increasing concerns because of energy crisis and environmental impact of fossil fuels. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for the extraction and quantification of these compounds become necessary. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection (HPLC-RID) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in these samples. The optimum chromatographic conditions are C18 column eluted with methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v); column temperature, 26°C; flow rate, 1.0mL/min. Calibration curves of all selected analytes showed good linearity (r(2)?0.9989). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the 10 compounds were less than 4.46% and 5.38%, respectively, which indicated that the method had good repeatability and precision. Besides, a method for simultaneous extraction of fatty acids and fatty alcohols from fermentation broth was optimized by orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: solvent, ethyl acetate; solvent to sample ratio, 0.5:1; rotation speed, 2min at 260rpm; extraction temperature, 10°C. This study provides simple and fast methods to simultaneously extract and quantify fatty acids and fatty alcohols for the first time. It will be useful for the study of microbial production of these products. PMID:24290170

Liu, Yilan; Chen, Ting; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Huo, Weiyan; Yan, Daojiang; Chen, Jinjin; Zhou, Jiemin; Xing, Jianmin

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Tagging fatty acids with 99m tecnetium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a search for a fatty acid analogue suitable for labelling with sup(99m)Tc for myocardial imaging, analogues of the general formula X-Y-COOH where the ligand groups X, Y were NH2, SH or COOH, capable of forming complexes with metal ions, were synthesized. Among many such, one compound (CH2(SH).CH2(SH).(CH2)8.COOH) was selected for further study. Injected intravenously together with a reducing agent into mice, rats and one dog, the compound proved unsatisfactory for the purpose because of its toxicity and its failure to localize in the myocardium. The search for alternative analogues and alternative labelling procedures must continue

342

Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis.

2011-02-01

343

Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production  

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The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis. (author)

Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); da Silva, Camila [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); Department of Technology, Maringa State University (UEM), Umuarama, PR, 87506-370 (Brazil); Rossi, Carla C.R.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); College of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, 13083-970 (Brazil); Guirardello, Reginaldo [College of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, 13083-970 (Brazil); de Castilhos, Fernanda [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR, 81531-990 (Brazil); Oliveira, J. Vladimir [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, Erechim, RS, 99700-000 (Brazil)

2011-02-15

344

Fatty acid chemistry of Atrichum undulatum and Hypnum andoi  

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Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of the moss species Atrichum undulatum (Hedw. P. Beauv. (Polytrichaceae and Hypnum andoi A.J.E. Sm. (Hypnaceae collected in winter time were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS as a contribution to their chemistry. Eight fatty acids were identified in the chloroform/methanol extract 1:1 of A. undulatum (linoleic acid 26.80%, palmitic acid 22.17%, ?-linolenic acid 20.50%, oleic acid 18.49%, arachidonic acid 6.21%, stearic acid 3.34%, cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid 1.52% and behenic acid 1.01%, while six fatty acids were found in the same type of extract of H. andoi (palmitic acid 63.48%, erucic acid 12.38%, stearic acid 8.08%, behenic acid 6.26%, lignoceric acid 5.16% and arachidic acid 4.64%. According to this study, the moss A. undulatum can be considered as a good source of both essential fatty acids for humans (linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid during the winter.

Pejin Boris

2012-01-01

345

Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Profile in Mexican Adolescents: A Trans Fatty Acid Approach  

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Full Text Available The type of fat consumed in the Mexican diet could predispose to the development of Metabolic Syndrome (MS which has been associated with an increased risk to develop cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study included adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age, divided in two groups: Control Group (n = 31 and MS Group (n = 44. Waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol were determined. Erythrocytes’ fatty acids methyl esthers were quantified using gas chromatography with ionized flame detector. We identified 16 fatty acids (FA with chain lengths from C12 to C24, with emphasis in four trans FA (TFA isomers: vaccenic (C18:1n7t, elaidic (C18:1n9t, linoelaidic (C18:2n6t, and conjugated linoelaidic acids (C18:2n7t. MS Group had a less proportion of: myristic (C14, palmitoleic (C16:1, C18:1n7t, and linoleic acids (C18:2; and a higher one of C18:1n9t, C18:2n7t, and nervonic acids (C24:1 when compared to the control group. C24:1 and C18:1n9t had a significant positive association with MS (OR = 14.17 and OR = 12.94, respectively; whereas C14 (OR = 0.14, C18:1n7t (OR = 0.14, and C18:2 (OR = 0.22 appear to have a protective effect against the disease. The proportion of specific FAs in erythrocytes membranes differs between adolescents with MS and healthy controls; these FA not only showed a strong association with MS, but also correlated with most of its individual components. Interestingly, TFA displayed an antagonic behavior; while C18:1n9t had a strong association with MS, apparently C18:1n7t confers a protective effect; these results suggest that analyzing each TFA separately will constitute a more accurate approach to determine the role of TFAs in the pathogenesis of MS or other related metabolic disorders.

Maldonado-Hernández Jorge

2013-08-01

346

Effects of cold water swimming on blood rheological properties and composition of fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes of untrained older rats.  

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This is the first report on the effects of a single bout of swimming to exhaustion in cold water on rat erythrocyte deformability, aggregation and fatty acid composition in erythrocyte membranes. The results indicate that there was a significant decrease in body temperature of experimental rats swimming in water at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C when compared to the control. Erythrocyte aggregation indices did not change after swimming in water at 4 degrees C whereas erythrocyte deformability increased at shear stress 1,13 [Pa] and 15,96 [Pa]. Physical effort performed in water at 4 degrees C when compared to the control group resulted in an increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acid content in erythrocyte membranes that influenced the increase in their fluidity and permeability even though that of polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids decreased. Physical effort performed in 25 degrees C water resulted in an increase in saturated fatty acid content and a decrease in all polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids when compared to the control group. Swimming of untrained old rats in cold water affected rheological properties oferythrocytes in a negligible way while changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes were more pronounced. PMID:22195477

Teleg?ów, Aneta; Dabrowski, Zbigniew; Marchewka, Anna; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Bilski, Jan; Ja?kiewicz, Jerzy; Gdula-Argasi?ska, Joanna; G?odzik, Jacek; Lizak, Dorota; Kepi?ska, Magdalena

2011-01-01

347

Fatty Acid Composition of Tissue Cultured Breast Carcinoma and the Effect of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 Inhibition  

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Purpose Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a novel therapeutic target in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the pharmacologic inhibition of SCD1 on fatty acid composition in tissue explant cultures of human breast cancer and to compare these effects with those in adjacent nonneoplastic breast tissue. Methods Paired samples of tumor and adjacent noncancerous tissue were isolated from 12 patients with infiltrating ductal breast cancer. Samples were explant cultured in vitro, exposed to the highly selective SCD1 inhibitor CAY10566, and examined for fatty acid composition by gas liquid chromatography. The cytotoxic and antigrowth effects were evaluated by quantification of lactate dehydrogenase release and by sulforhodamine B (SRB) measurement, respectively. Results Breast cancer tissue samples were found to have higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p<0.001) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, p<0.001) and a lower level of linoleic acid (18:2n-6, p=0.02) than the normal-appearing breast tissues. While exhibiting no evident cytotoxicity, treatment with the SCD1 inhibitor, CAY10566 (0.1-1 µM), for 48 hours significantly increased 18:2n-6 levels in both the tumor and adjacent normal-appearing tissue (approximately 1.2 fold, p<0.05). However, the breast cancer tissue samples showed significant increases in the levels of MUFA and 20:4n-6 compared to the normal-appearing breast tissues (p<0.05). The SRB growth assay revealed a higher rate of inhibition with the SCD1 inhibitor in breast cancer tissues than in normal-appearing tissues (p<0.01, 41% vs. 29%). The SCD1 inhibitor also elevated saturated fatty acid (1.46-fold, p=0.001) levels only in the tumor tissue explant. Conclusion The fatty acid composition and response to SCD1 inhibition differed between the explant cultures from breast cancer and the adjacent normal-appearing tissue. Altered fatty acid composition induced by SCD1 inhibition may also, in addition to ?9 desaturation, modulate other reactions in de novo fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis, and subsequently affect the overall survival and progression of breast cancer.

Mohammadzadeh, Fatemeh; Mosayebi, Gholamali; Montazeri, Vahid; Darabi, Maryam; Fayezi, Shabnam; Shaaker, Maghsod; Rahmati, Mohammad; Baradaran, Behzad; Mehdizadeh, Amir

2014-01-01

348

A More Desirable Balanced Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition Achieved by Heterologous Expression of ?15/?4 Desaturases in Mammalian Cells  

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Arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids, but their biosyntheses in mammals are very limited. The biosynthesis of DHA is the most difficult, because this undergoes the Sprecher pathway–a further elongation step from docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), a ?6-desaturase acting on a C24 fatty acid substrate followed by a peroxisomal chain shortening step. This paper reports the successful heterologous expression of two non-mammalian genes (with modification of codon usage), coding for Euglena gracilis ?4-desaturase and Siganus canaliculatus ?4-desaturase respectively, in mammalian cells (HEK293 cell line). Both of the ?4-desaturases can efficiently function, directly converting DPA into DHA. Moreover, the cooperation of the E. gracilis ?4-desaturase with C. elegans ?15-desaturase (able to convert a number of n-6 PUFAs to their corresponding n-3 PUFAs) in transgenic HEK293 cells made a more desirable fatty acid composition – a drastically reduced n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio and a high level of DHA as well as EPA and ARA. Our findings provide a basis for potential applications of the gene constructs for expression of ?15/?4-desaturases in transgenic livestock to produce such a fatty acid profile in the related products, which certainly will bring benefit to human health.

Zhu, Guiming; Ou, Qin; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Xudong; Sun, Guozhi; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Kunfu; Fang, Heng; Wang, Mingfu; Sun, Jie; Ge, Tangdong

2013-01-01

349

Expression of dehydratase domains from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase increases the production of fatty acids in Escherichia coli.  

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Increasing the production of fatty acids by microbial fermentation remains an important step toward the generation of biodiesel and other portable liquid fuels. In this work, we report an Escherichia coli strain engineered to overexpress a fragment consisting of four dehydratase domains from the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase enzyme complex from the deep-sea bacterium, Photobacterium profundum. The DH1-DH2-UMA enzyme fragment was excised from its natural context within a multi-enzyme PKS and expressed as a stand-alone protein. Fatty acids were extracted from the cell pellet, esterified with methanol and quantified by GC-MS analysis. Results show that the E. coli strain expressing the DH tetradomain fragment was capable of producing up to a 5-fold increase (80.31 mg total FA/L culture) in total fatty acids over the negative control strain lacking the recombinant enzyme. The enhancement in production was observed across the board for all the fatty acids that are typically made by E. coli. The overexpression of the DH tetradomain did not affect E. coli cell growth, thus showing that the observed enhancement in fatty acid production was not a result of effects associated with cell density. The observed enhancement was more pronounced at lower temperatures (3.8-fold at 16 °C, 3.5-fold at 22 °C and 1.5-fold at 30 °C) and supplementation of the media with 0.4% glycerol did not result in an increase in fatty acid production. All these results taken together suggest that either the dehydration of fatty acid intermediates are a limiting step in the E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis machinery, or that the recombinant dehydratase domains used in this study are also capable of catalyzing thioester hydrolysis of the final products. The enzyme in this report is a new tool which could be incorporated into other existing strategies aimed at improving fatty acid production in bacterial fermentations toward accessible biodiesel precursors. PMID:24411456

Oyola-Robles, Delise; Rullán-Lind, Carlos; Carballeira, Néstor M; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

2014-02-01

350

Influence of fatty acid oxidation rate on glycerol release from cardiac myocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quiescent cardiac myocytes are characterized by low rates of fatty acid oxidation due to the reduced energy demand compared with beating hearts. The accumulation of intracellular fatty acid metabolites may, therefore, result in feed-back inhibition of the cardiac lipase responsible for the mobilization of triacylglycerols (lipolysis). The objective of this study was to examine if interventions that increase fatty acid oxidation rates in myocytes have an effect on lipolysis. Addition of 100 ?M dinitrophenol (DNP) to calcium-tolerant rat ventricular myocytes caused an increase in the rate of "1"4C-oleic acid oxidation from 1.11 +/- 0.06 to 2.38 +/- 0.17 nmol "1"4CO_2/10"6 cells/min (115% stimulation; mean +/- S.D., n = 3). In parallel incubations, DNP increased the rate of lipolysis from 4.4 +/- 1.7 to 13.6 +/- 3.2 nmol glycerol/10"6 cells/30 min (215% stimulation). The addition of 1 mM barium to a modified Ringer's incubation medium produced an increase in the contractile activity of the myocytes, and increased the rates of oleic acid oxidation from 0.62 +/- 0.16 to 0.88 +/- 0.23 nmol/10"6 cells/min (42% stimulation; n = 6) and lipolysis from 13.1 +/- 6.5 to 22.2 +/- 6.4 nmol/10"6 cells/30 min (70% stimulation). These data show that stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in myocardial myocytes is accompanied by increased lipolytic rates, the latter probably due to release of feed-back inhibition of cardiac lipases by accumulated fatty acid metabolites

1986-03-05

351

Fat intake and composition of fatty acids in serum phospholipids in a randomized, controlled, Mediterranean dietary intervention study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that rheumatoid arthritis patients, who adopted a modified Cretan Mediterranean diet, obtained a reduction in disease activity and an improvement in physical function and vitality. This shift in diet is likely to result in an altered intake of fatty acids. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the dietary intake of fatty acids, as well as the fatty acid profile in serum phospholipids, during the dietary intervention study presented earlier. Results From baseline to the end of the study, changes in the reported consumption of various food groups were observed in the Mediterranean diet group. The change in diet resulted in a number of differences between the Mediterranean diet group and the control diet group regarding the fatty acid intake. For instance, a lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids was observed in the Mediterranean diet group, both assessed by diet history interviews (dietary intake and measured in serum phospholipids. Moreover, the patients in the Mediterranean diet group that showed a moderate or better clinical improve