WorldWideScience
 
 
1

[N-6 fatty acids and cardiovascular health: dietary intake recommendations].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) are well known for their critical role in many physiological functions and reduce risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, some argue that excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA may lead to adverse effects on health and therefore recommend reducing dietary n-6 PUFA intake or fixing an upper limit. Epidemiological studies show that n-6 PUFA dietary intake significantly lowers blood LDL-cholesterol levels. In addition, n-6 PUFA intake lower several cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure, inflammatory markers, haemostatic parameters and obesity. Data from prospective cohort and interventional studies converge towards a specific protective role of dietary n-6 PUFA intake, in particular linoleic acid, against CVD. In regards to studies examined in this narrative review, recommendation for n-6 PUFA intake above 5%, and ideally about 10% of total energy appears justified for the prevention of ischemic heart disease.

Czernichow S; Thomas D; Bruckert E

2011-06-01

2

Acylation and metabolism of (n-6) fatty acids in hepatocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Isolated hepatocytes (5 x 10/sup 6/ in 2ml) from chow fed rats were incubated from 20 to 60 min. with increasing concentrations of (1-/sup 14/C) labeled 18:2 (n-6), 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6) to define optimum conditions for measuring acylation and metabolism to other (n-6) acids with subsequent incorporation into lipids. The triglycerides (TG) and phospholipids (PL) contained 157 and 80 nmols of 18:2 (n-6) and 6.0 and 6.1 nmols of other (n-6) acids, respectively, when cells were incubated with 0.3mM (1-/sup 14/C) 18:2 (n-6) for 40 min. When cells were incubated with 0.3mM (1-/sup 14/C) 18:2 (n-6) plus 0.15 to 0.45mM 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6), the metabolism of 18:2 (n-6) to other (n-6) acids was inhibited but not totally abolished. These results may suggest that (n-6) acid made from linoleate do not totally equilibrate with exogenous 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6).

Voss, A.C.; Sprecher, H.

1986-05-01

3

The opposing effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can be classified in n-3 fatty acids and n-6 fatty acids, and in westernized diet the predominant dietary PUFAs are n-6 fatty acids. Both types of fatty acids are precursors of signaling molecules with opposing effects, that modulate membrane microdomain composition, receptor signaling and gene expression. The predominant n-6 fatty acid is arachidonic acid, which is converted to prostaglandins, leukotrienes and other lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase products. These products are important regulators of cellular functions with inflammatory, atherogenic and prothrombotic effects. Typical n-3 fatty acids are docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, which are competitive substrates for the enzymes and products of arachidonic acid metabolism. Docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived eicosanoids antagonize the pro-inflammatory effects of n-6 fatty acids. n-3 and n-6 fatty acids are ligands/modulators for the nuclear receptors NFkappaB, PPAR and SREBP-1c, which control various genes of inflammatory signaling and lipid metabolism. n-3 Fatty acids down-regulate inflammatory genes and lipid synthesis, and stimulate fatty acid degradation. In addition, the n-3/n-6 PUFA content of cell and organelle membranes, as well as membrane microdomains strongly influences membrane function and numerous cellular processes such as cell death and survival. PMID:18198131

Schmitz, Gerd; Ecker, Josef

2007-12-25

4

Artificial rearing with docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid alters rat tissue fatty acid composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6; 22:5n-6) are components of enriched animal feed and oil derived from Schizochytrium species microalgae. A one generation, artificial rearing model from day 2 after birth onward (AR) and a dam-reared control group (DAM) were used to examine DPAn-6 feeding on the fatty acid composition of various rat tissues at 15 weeks of age. Four AR diets were based on an n-3 fatty acid-deficient, 18:2n-6-based artificial milk with 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 added: AR-LA, AR-DHA, AR-DPAn-6, and AR-DHA+DPAn-6. The 22:6n-3 levels for the DAM, AR-DHA, and AR-DHA+DPAn-6 groups tended to be similar and higher than in the AR-LA and AR-DPAn-6 groups. The levels of 22:5n-6 tended to be higher only in the absence of dietary 22:6n-3. Adipose levels of 22:5n-6 was the only exception, as 22:5n-6 was significantly higher in AR-DHA+DPAn-6 than was observed in either the DAM or the AR-DHA group. There were no differences in 20:4n-6 levels within the tissues examined. In conclusion, 22:5n-6 replaces 22:6n-3 in the absence of 22:6n-3 only and does not appear to compete with 22:6n-3 in the presence of dietary 22:6n-3, suggesting that oils containing 22:5n-6 and 22:6n-3 may be a good dietary source of 22:6n-3. PMID:17703057

Stark, Ken D; Lim, Sun-Young; Salem, Norman

2007-08-16

5

Significant inverse associations of serum n-6 fatty acids with plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidemiological studies suggested that n-6 fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (LA), have beneficial effects on CHD, whereas some in vitro studies have suggested that n-6 fatty acids, specifically arachidonic acid (AA), may have harmful effects. We examined the association of serum n-6 fatty acids with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). A population-based cross-sectional study recruited 926 randomly selected men aged 40-49 years without CVD during 2002-2006 (310 Caucasian, 313 Japanese and 303 Japanese-American men). Plasma PAI-1 was analysed in free form, both active and latent. Serum fatty acids were measured with gas-capillary liquid chromatography. To examine the association between total n-6 fatty acids (including LA and AA) and PAI-1, multivariate regression models were used. After adjusting for confounders, total n-6 fatty acids, LA and AA, were inversely and significantly associated with PAI-1 levels. These associations were consistent across three populations. Among 915 middle-aged men, serum n-6 fatty acids had significant inverse associations with PAI-1.

Lee S; Curb JD; Kadowaki T; Evans RW; Miura K; Takamiya T; Shin C; El-Saed A; Choo J; Fujiyoshi A; Otake T; Kadowaki S; Seto T; Masaki K; Edmundowicz D; Ueshima H; Kuller LH; Sekikawa A

2012-02-01

6

Searching for health beneficial n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in plant seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Various plant seeds have received little attention in fatty acid research. Seeds from 30 species mainly of Boraginaceae and Primulaceae were analysed in order to identify potential new sources of the n-3 PUFA ?-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) and of the n-6 PUFA ?-linolenic acid (GLA...

Kuhnt, Katrin; Degen, Christian; Jaudszus, Anke; Jahreis, Gerhard

7

Unusually High Levels of n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Whale Sharks and Reef Manta Rays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source.

Couturier LI; Rohner CA; Richardson AJ; Pierce SJ; Marshall AD; Jaine FR; Townsend KA; Bennett MB; Weeks SJ; Nichols PD

2013-10-01

8

Unusually High Levels of n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Whale Sharks and Reef Manta Rays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source.

Couturier LI; Rohner CA; Richardson AJ; Pierce SJ; Marshall AD; Jaine FR; Townsend KA; Bennett MB; Weeks SJ; Nichols PD

2013-08-01

9

Lipids of selected molds grown for production of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lipid classes and component fatty acids of seven fungi were examined. Three marine fungi, Thraustochytrium aureum, Thraustochytrium roseum and Schizochytrium aggregatum (grown at 30, 25 and 25 degrees C, respectively), produced less than 10% lipid but contained docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) up to 30% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) up to 11% of the total fatty acids. Mortierella alpinapeyron produced 38% oil containing solely n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with arachidonic acid (AA) at 11% of the total fatty acids. Conidiobolus nanodes and Entomorphthora exitalis produced 25% oil and contained both n-3 and n-6 PUFA, with AA at 16% and 18%, respectively. Saprolegnia parasitica produced 10% oil and contained AA and EPA, respectively, at 19% and 18%. The triacylglycerol fraction always represented the major component at between 44% and 68% of the total lipid. Each fungus, except T. aureum, had the greatest degree of fatty acid unsaturation in the phospholipid fraction. The triacylglycerol fraction of T. aureum was the most unsaturated with DHA representing 29% (w/w) of all fatty acids present. The presence of the enzyme ATP:citrate lyase correlated with the ability of molds to accumulate more than 10% (w/w) lipid when the fungi were grown in nitrogen-limiting media. In those molds that failed to accumulate more than 10% lipid, the enzyme was absent. PMID:1608297

Kendrick, A; Ratledge, C

1992-01-01

10

Lipids of selected molds grown for production of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The lipid classes and component fatty acids of seven fungi were examined. Three marine fungi, Thraustochytrium aureum, Thraustochytrium roseum and Schizochytrium aggregatum (grown at 30, 25 and 25 degrees C, respectively), produced less than 10% lipid but contained docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) up to 30% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) up to 11% of the total fatty acids. Mortierella alpinapeyron produced 38% oil containing solely n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with arachidonic acid (AA) at 11% of the total fatty acids. Conidiobolus nanodes and Entomorphthora exitalis produced 25% oil and contained both n-3 and n-6 PUFA, with AA at 16% and 18%, respectively. Saprolegnia parasitica produced 10% oil and contained AA and EPA, respectively, at 19% and 18%. The triacylglycerol fraction always represented the major component at between 44% and 68% of the total lipid. Each fungus, except T. aureum, had the greatest degree of fatty acid unsaturation in the phospholipid fraction. The triacylglycerol fraction of T. aureum was the most unsaturated with DHA representing 29% (w/w) of all fatty acids present. The presence of the enzyme ATP:citrate lyase correlated with the ability of molds to accumulate more than 10% (w/w) lipid when the fungi were grown in nitrogen-limiting media. In those molds that failed to accumulate more than 10% lipid, the enzyme was absent.

Kendrick A; Ratledge C

1992-01-01

11

The influence of n-6 fatty acid supplemented diet on the effect of imipramine in an animal model of depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent data have shown an association between polyunsaturated fatty acid and depression. This study examined the effect of the supplementation with n-6 fatty acid on the behavior of rats treated with imipramine and submitted to the Forced Swimming Test (FST). Non-supplemented imipramine-treated rats presented a significant reduction of immobility time in the FST whereas n-6 fatty acid-supplemented rats showed a significantly higher immobility time. Imipramine significantly increased norepinephrine plasma concentrations in the two groups. These results show that the diet supplemented with n-6 fatty acid altered the behavior of the animals in the FST, inhibiting the imipramine effect. PMID:17275891

Borsonelo, Elizabethe C; Galduróz, Jose C F; Suchecki, Deborah; Calil, Helena M

2006-12-28

12

Ethnic differences in early pregnancy maternal n-3 and n-6 fatty acid concentrations: an explorative analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethnicity-related differences in maternal n-3 and n-6 fatty acid status may be relevant to ethnic disparities in birth outcomes observed worldwide. The present study explored differences in early pregnancy n-3 and n-6 fatty acid composition of maternal plasma phospholipids between Dutch and ethnic minority pregnant women in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, with a focus on the major functional fatty acids EPA (20 : 5n-3), DHA (22 : 6n-3), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20 : 3n-6) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20 : 4n-6). Data were derived from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) cohort (inclusion January 2003 to March 2004). Compared with Dutch women (n 2443), Surinamese (n 286), Antillean (n 63), Turkish (n 167) and Moroccan (n 241) women had generally lower proportions of n-3 fatty acids (expressed as percentage of total fatty acids) but higher proportions of n-6 fatty acids (general linear model; P n-6 fatty acid patterns is warranted, particularly to elucidate the explanatory role of fatty acid intake v. metabolic differences. PMID:18983717

van Eijsden, Manon; Hornstra, Gerard; van der Wal, Marcel F; Bonsel, Gouke J

2008-11-05

13

Impact of maternal dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on milk medium-chain fatty acids and the implications for neonatal liver metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Levels of n-6, n-3, and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) in milk are highly variable. Higher carbohydrate intakes are associated with increased mammary gland MCFA synthesis, but the role of unsaturated fatty acids for milk MCFA secretion is unclear. This study addressed whether n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, which are known to inhibit hepatic fatty acid synthesis, influence MCFA in rat and human milk and the implications of varying MCFA, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids in rat milk for metabolic regulation in the neonatal liver. Rats were fed a low-fat diet or one of six higher-fat diets, varying in 16:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, and long-chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids. Higher maternal dietary 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 did not influence milk MCFA, but lower maternal plasma triglycerides, due to either a low-fat or a high-fat high-LC n-3 diet led to higher milk MCFA. MCFA levels were inversely associated with 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 in human milk, likely reflecting the association between dietary total fat and unsaturated fatty acids. High LC n-3 fatty acid in rat milk was associated with lower hepatic Pklr, Acly, Fasn, and Scd1 and higher Hmgcs2 in the milk-fed rat neonate, with no effect of milk 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, or MCFA. These studies show that the dietary fatty acid composition does not impact MCFA secretion in milk, but the fatty acid composition of milk, particularly the LC n-3 fatty acid, is relevant to hepatic metabolic regulation in the milk-fed neonate. PMID:21791621

Novak, Elizabeth M; Innis, Sheila M

2011-07-26

14

Impact of maternal dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on milk medium-chain fatty acids and the implications for neonatal liver metabolism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Levels of n-6, n-3, and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) in milk are highly variable. Higher carbohydrate intakes are associated with increased mammary gland MCFA synthesis, but the role of unsaturated fatty acids for milk MCFA secretion is unclear. This study addressed whether n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, which are known to inhibit hepatic fatty acid synthesis, influence MCFA in rat and human milk and the implications of varying MCFA, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids in rat milk for metabolic regulation in the neonatal liver. Rats were fed a low-fat diet or one of six higher-fat diets, varying in 16:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, and long-chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids. Higher maternal dietary 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 did not influence milk MCFA, but lower maternal plasma triglycerides, due to either a low-fat or a high-fat high-LC n-3 diet led to higher milk MCFA. MCFA levels were inversely associated with 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 in human milk, likely reflecting the association between dietary total fat and unsaturated fatty acids. High LC n-3 fatty acid in rat milk was associated with lower hepatic Pklr, Acly, Fasn, and Scd1 and higher Hmgcs2 in the milk-fed rat neonate, with no effect of milk 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, or MCFA. These studies show that the dietary fatty acid composition does not impact MCFA secretion in milk, but the fatty acid composition of milk, particularly the LC n-3 fatty acid, is relevant to hepatic metabolic regulation in the milk-fed neonate.

Novak EM; Innis SM

2011-11-01

15

Identification and characterization of a novel yeast omega3-fatty acid desaturase acting on long-chain n-6 fatty acid substrates from Pichia pastoris.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cDNA sequence putatively encoding a omega(3)-fatty acid desaturase gene was isolated from methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris GS115. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cloned cDNA showed high identity to known fungal omega(3)-fatty acid desaturases. Functional identification of this gene heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVScl indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence exhibited omega(3)-fatty acid desaturase activity. The newly identified omega(3)-fatty acid desaturase, named Pp-FAD3, is novel because it showed broad n-6 fatty acid substrate specificity by its ability to convert all the 18-carbon and 20-carbon n-6 substrates examined to the corresponding n-3 fatty acids, with an approximately equivalent high conversion rate. Pp-FAD3 is the first known yeast omega(3)-fatty acid desaturase to act on long-chain n-6 fatty acid substrates. Heterologous expression of the newly identified omega(3) desaturase in different hosts will be an alternative method to increase the flow of n-6 fatty acid intermediates into their n-3 derivatives. PMID:17914745

Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Mingchun; Wei, Dongsheng; Xing, Laijun

2008-01-01

16

Searching for health beneficial n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in plant seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various plant seeds have received little attention in fatty acid research. Seeds from 30 species mainly of Boraginaceae and Primulaceae were analysed in order to identify potential new sources of the n-3 PUFA ?-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) and of the n-6 PUFA ?-linolenic acid (GLA). The fatty acid distribution differed enormously between genera of the same family. Echium species (Boraginaceae) contained the highest amount of total n-3 PUFA (47.1%), predominantly ALA (36.6%) and SDA (10.5%) combined with high GLA (10.2%). Further species of Boraginaceae rich in both SDA and GLA were Omphalodes linifolia (8.4, 17.2%, resp.), Cerinthe minor (7.5, 9.9%, resp.) and Buglossoides purpureocaerulea (6.1, 16.6%, resp.). Alkanna species belonging to Boraginaceae had comparable amounts of ALA (37.3%) and GLA (11.4%) like Echium but lower SDA contents (3.7%). Different genera of Primulaceae (Dodecatheon and Primula) had varying ALA (14.8, 28.8%, resp.) and GLA portions (4.1, 1.5%, resp.), but similar amounts of SDA (4.9, 4.5%, resp.). Cannabis sativa cultivars (Cannabaceae) were rich in linoleic acid (57.1%), but poor in SDA and GLA (0.8, 2.7%, resp.). In conclusion, several of the presented plant seeds contain considerable amounts of n-3 PUFA and GLA, which could be relevant for nutritional purposes due to their biological function as precursors for eicosanoid synthesis. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: N-3 PUFA are important for human health and nutrition. Unfortunately, due to the increasing world population, overfishing of the seas and generally low amounts of n-3 PUFA in major oil crops, there is a demand for new sources of n-3 PUFA. One approach involves searching for potential vegetable sources of n-3 PUFA; especially those rich in ALA and SDA. The conversion of ALA to SDA in humans is dependent on the rate-limiting ?6-desaturation. Plant-derived SDA is therefore a promising precursor regarding the endogenous synthesis of n-3 long-chain PUFA in humans. The present study shows that, in addition to seed oil of Echium, other species of Boraginaceae (Cerinthe, Omphalodes, Lithospermum, Buglossoides) and Primulaceae (Dodecatheon, Primula), generally high in n-3 PUFA (30-50%), contain considerable amounts of SDA (5-10%). Therefore, these seed oils could be important for nutrition. PMID:22745569

Kuhnt, Katrin; Degen, Christian; Jaudszus, Anke; Jahreis, Gerhard

2012-02-01

17

Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids levels on egg and larval quality of Eurasian perch  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three groups of 40 perch breeders were reared in order to study the effects of 3 different levels of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on egg quality. Two experimental diets, R1 and R2 (n-3/n-6 = 0.13 and 35.54, respectively), were compared to one commercial food, R3 (n-3/n-6 = 3.48.). Spawning and fertilization rates were high for diets R I and R3, which displayed a n-3/n-6 ratio of 0.77 and 2.34 in the eggs, respectively, by comparison with R2 (n-3/n-6 = 4.87), which produced low reproductive performances. We can conclude that dietary n-3 and n-6 FA levels influence egg and larval quality of Eurasian perch.

Henrotte, E.; Overton, Julia Lynne

2008-01-01

18

Targeted alteration of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for the treatment of chronic headaches: A randomized trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids are biosynthetic precursors to lipid mediators with antinociceptive and pronociceptive properties. We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, parallel-group clinical trial to assess clinical and biochemical effects of targeted alteration in dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for treatment of chronic headaches. After a 4-week preintervention phase, ambulatory patients with chronic daily headache undergoing usual care were randomized to 1 of 2 intensive, food-based 12-week dietary interventions: a high n-3 plus low n-6 (H3-L6) intervention, or a low n-6 (L6) intervention. Clinical outcomes included the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6, primary clinical outcome), Headache Days per month, and Headache Hours per day. Biochemical outcomes included the erythrocyte n-6 in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) score (primary biochemical outcome) and bioactive n-3 and n-6 derivatives. Fifty-six of 67 patients completed the intervention. Both groups achieved targeted intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. In intention-to-treat analysis, the H3-L6 intervention produced significantly greater improvement in the HIT-6 score (-7.5 vs -2.1; P<0.001) and the number of Headache Days per month (-8.8 vs -4.0; P=0.02), compared to the L6 group. The H3-L6 intervention also produced significantly greater reductions in Headache Hours per day (-4.6 vs -1.2; P=0.01) and the n-6 in HUFA score (-21.0 vs -4.0%; P<0.001), and greater increases in antinociceptive n-3 pathway markers 18-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid (+118.4 vs +61.1%; P<0.001) and 17-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (+170.2 vs +27.2; P<0.001). A dietary intervention increasing n-3 and reducing n-6 fatty acids reduced headache pain, altered antinociceptive lipid mediators, and improved quality-of-life in this population. PMID:23886520

Ramsden, Christopher E; Faurot, Keturah R; Zamora, Daisy; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Macintosh, Beth A; Gaylord, Susan; Ringel, Amit; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Feldstein, Ariel E; Mori, Trevor A; Barden, Anne; Lynch, Chanee; Coble, Rebecca; Mas, Emilie; Palsson, Olafur; Barrow, David A; Mann, J Douglas

2013-07-22

19

Dietary polyunsaturated n-6 lipids effects on the growth and fatty acid composition of rat mammary tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a polyunsaturated n-6 high-fat diet on rat DMBA-induced breast cancer at different stages of the carcinogenesis and to investigate if changes in the tumor fatty acid composition are one of the mechanisms by which dietary lipids could exert their effects. 14 fatty acids were evaluated in 6 lipid fractions. The results firstly showed that this high-fat diet stimulated the malignant mammary tumor growth, mainly all in the promotion group. The tumor lipid analysis indicated: 1) that each lipid fraction presented distinct major fatty acids (>5%) which were not the most abundant in the diet, except in the case of the triacylglicerides, suggesting the different resistance to dietary fatty acid modification of the tumor lipid fractions; 2) a higher arachidonic acid content in the fractions with less linoleic acid, above all in phospholipids, particularly in the phosphatidylethanolamine, indicating a different efficiency of conversion; 3) the three most abundant fatty acids in the dietary lipid (18:2n-6, 18:1n-9 and 16:0) were those which essentially displayed the differences between groups; thus, the high-fat diet changed the tumor lipid profile, increasing the 18:2n-6 relative content and decreasing that of the 18:1n-9; differences were significant in phosphatidylcholine, free fatty acids and triacylglycerides. Any change was obtained in the phosphatidylinositol. The greatest number of differences was found in the promotion group. Taken as a whole, our results suggest the different roles of lipid fractions in breast cancer cells and an association between cancer malignancy and the content of linoleic and oleic acids. PMID:11834214

Escrich, E; Solanas, M; Soler, M; Ruiz de Villa, M C.; Sanchez, J A.; Segura, R

2001-09-01

20

Dietary polyunsaturated n-6 lipids effects on the growth and fatty acid composition of rat mammary tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a polyunsaturated n-6 high-fat diet on rat DMBA-induced breast cancer at different stages of the carcinogenesis and to investigate if changes in the tumor fatty acid composition are one of the mechanisms by which dietary lipids could exert their effects. 14 fatty acids were evaluated in 6 lipid fractions. The results firstly showed that this high-fat diet stimulated the malignant mammary tumor growth, mainly all in the promotion group. The tumor lipid analysis indicated: 1) that each lipid fraction presented distinct major fatty acids (>5%) which were not the most abundant in the diet, except in the case of the triacylglicerides, suggesting the different resistance to dietary fatty acid modification of the tumor lipid fractions; 2) a higher arachidonic acid content in the fractions with less linoleic acid, above all in phospholipids, particularly in the phosphatidylethanolamine, indicating a different efficiency of conversion; 3) the three most abundant fatty acids in the dietary lipid (18:2n-6, 18:1n-9 and 16:0) were those which essentially displayed the differences between groups; thus, the high-fat diet changed the tumor lipid profile, increasing the 18:2n-6 relative content and decreasing that of the 18:1n-9; differences were significant in phosphatidylcholine, free fatty acids and triacylglycerides. Any change was obtained in the phosphatidylinositol. The greatest number of differences was found in the promotion group. Taken as a whole, our results suggest the different roles of lipid fractions in breast cancer cells and an association between cancer malignancy and the content of linoleic and oleic acids.

Escrich E; Solanas M; Soler M; Ruiz de Villa MC; Sanchez JA; Segura R

2001-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Fatty fish in the diet of patients with type 2 diabetes: comparison of the metabolic effects of foods rich in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dietary advice, including modification of dietary fat quality, is the basis of treatment of diabetes, but there is some uncertainty about the optimal amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-6 (omega-6) and n-3 (omega-3) series. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effects of diets rich in n-3 or n-6 fatty acids on glucose and lipoprotein metabolism in type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: In a crossover study during 2 consecutive 3.5-wk periods, the participants were provided diets with identical nutrient compositions containing either a high proportion of n-3 (n-3 diet) or n-6 (n-6 diet) fatty acids through the inclusion of fatty fish or lean fish and fat containing linoleic acid, respectively. RESULTS: Blood glucose concentrations at fasting and during the day were lower with the n-6 than with the n-3 diet (P = 0.009 and P = 0.029, respectively), and the area under the insulin curve during the day was significantly higher (P = 0.03) with the n-6 diet. Both diets showed similar effects on insulin sensitivity and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 concentrations. The reductions in VLDLs and serum apolipoprotein B concentrations were more pronounced after the n-3 diet. CONCLUSIONS: The risk related to the moderately higher blood glucose concentrations with the n-3-enriched diet may be counteracted by positive effects with regard to lipoprotein concentrations. An increase in long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fatty fish, and of n-6 fatty acids from linoleic acid, may be recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Karlström BE; Järvi AE; Byberg L; Berglund LG; Vessby BO

2011-07-01

22

Targeted alteration of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for the treatment of chronic headaches: a randomized trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids are biosynthetic precursors to lipid mediators with anti-nociceptive and pro-nociceptive properties. We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, parallel-group clinical trial to assess clinical and biochemical effects of targeted alteration in dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for treatment of chronic headaches. After a 4-week pre-intervention phase, ambulatory patients with Chronic Daily Headache undergoing usual care were randomized to one of two intensive, food-based 12-week dietary interventions: a high n-3 plus low n-6 (H3-L6) intervention, or a low n-6 (L6) intervention. Clinical outcomes included the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6, primary clinical outcome), Headache Days per month and Headache Hours per day. Biochemical outcomes included the erythrocyte n-6 in HUFA score (primary biochemical outcome) and bioactive n-3 and n-6 derivatives. Fifty-six of sixty-seven patients completed the intervention. Both groups achieved targeted intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. In intention-to-treat analysis, the H3-L6 intervention produced significantly greater improvement in the HIT-6 score (-7.5 vs. -2.1; p<0.001) and the number of Headache Days per month (-8.8 vs. -4.0; p=0.02), compared to the L6 group. The H3-L6 intervention also produced significantly greater reductions in Headache Hours per day (-4.6 vs. -1.2; p=0.01) and the n-6 in HUFA score (-21.0 vs. -4.0%; <0.001), and greater increases in anti-nociceptive n-3 pathway markers 18-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid (+118.4 vs. +61.1%; p<0.001) and 17-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (+170.2 vs. +27.2; p<0.001). A dietary intervention increasing n-3 and reducing n-6 fatty acids reduced headache pain, altered anti-nociceptive lipid mediators, and improved quality-of-life in this population.

Ramsden CE; Faurot KR; Zamora D; Suchindran CM; Macintosh BA; Gaylord S; Ringel A; Hibbeln JR; Feldstein AE; Mori TA; Barden A; Lynch C; Coble R; Mas E; Palsson O; Barrow DA; Douglas Mann J

2013-07-01

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Dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids are equipotent in stimulating volume regulation in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This investigation addresses whether enriching cellular phospholipids with n-3 or n-6 fatty acids affects the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in murine Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Two weeks of dietary n-3-rich fish oil (7.5%, wt/wt) increased the ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid in cellular phospholipids compared with an olive oil control diet. Cells grown in mice fed on fish oil had an accelerated RVD response after hypotonic exposure, indicating that the volume-induced K conductance was increased. The fish oil diet furthermore resulted in an increased Cl conductance during RVD, demonstrated as an increased initial rate of cell shrinkage after addition of K ionophore to the swollen cells. The initial rate of volume recovery correlated positively with the sum of eicosanoid precursors (arachidonic acid plus eicosapentaenoic acid) (P = 0.007). Diet supplemented with n-6 fatty acids resulted in an enhanced RVD response as well. RVD was inhibited by anti-calmodulin drugs, and exogenous leukotriene D and leukotriene D were equipotent in attenuating this inhibition. We conclude that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids result in a more effective RVD response because of an increase in the volume-induced Cl and K conductances. We propose that this is caused by an enhanced volume-induced leukotriene synthesis due to an increase in eicosanoid precursor availability.

Lauritzen, L.; Hoffmann, E.K.

1993-01-01

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COMPOSITION OF N-3 FATTY ACIDS HAVING HIGH CONCENTRATION OF EPA AND/OR DHA AND CONTAINING N-6 FATTY ACIDS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids containing at least 80% by weight of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n-3) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3) and at least 3% by weight of n-6 fatty acids, particularly C20:4 n-6 and C22:5 n-6, is reported. For a better chemical and biological characterization of the composition, the content of other C20, C21 and C22 n-3 acids different from EPA and DHA is preferably reduced to less than 3% by weight. In the composition all said acids are present in the form of free acids, or their salts, or C1-C3 alkyl esters. The described composition is useful for the production of a dietetic or pharmaceutical preparation useful for treatment of conditions sensitive to the action of EPA and DHA, particularly in subjects potentially exposed to bleeding problems or to problems caused by coagulation defects.

BRUZZESE TIBERIO

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Interactions and antigen dependence of dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on antibody responsiveness in growing layer hens  

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Effects of four levels of dietary linoleic acid (LA), an n-6 fatty acid, and four levels of ?-linolenic acid (LNA), an n-3 fatty acid, and their interactions on immune responses in growing layer hens were studied. Immune responses were induced by injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or Myc...

Sijben, J.W.C.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Parmentier, H.K.; Schrama, J.W.

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Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying) which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA. The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123). Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Results Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply. Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %), however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4) but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Conclusions Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower n-3 PUFA portion in farmed fish can be offset by the higher fat content, however, with an unfavourable FA distribution compared to wild fellows.

Strobel Claudia; Jahreis Gerhard; Kuhnt Katrin

2012-01-01

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Contrasting effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on cyclooxygenase-2 in model systems for arthritis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is intimately involved in symptoms of arthritis while dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are thought to be beneficial. In these experiments, using both bovine and human in vitro systems that mimic features of arthritis, we show that the n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is able to reduce mRNA and protein levels of COX-2. Activity, as assessed through prostaglandin E(2) formation, was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These effects of EPA contrasted noticeably with the n-6 PUFA, arachidonic acid. The data provide direct evidence for a molecular mechanism by which dietary n-3 PUFA, such as EPA, can reduce inflammation and, hence, associated symptoms in arthritis.

Hurst S; Rees SG; Randerson PF; Caterson B; Harwood JL

2009-10-01

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Age-related changes of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the anterior cingulate cortex of individuals with major depressive disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulating evidence finds a relative deficiency of peripheral membrane fatty acids in persons with affective disorders such as unipolar and bipolar depression. Here we sought to investigate whether postmortem brain fatty acids within the anterior cingulate cortex (BA-24) varied according to the presence of major depression at the time of death. Using capillary gas chromatography we measured fatty acids in a depressed group (n=12), and in a control group without lifetime history of psychiatric diagnosis (n=14). Compared to the control group, the depressed group showed significantly lower concentrations of numerous saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids including both the n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Additionally, significant correlations between age at death and precursor (or metabolites) in the n-3 fatty acid pathway were demonstrated in the depressed group but not in control subjects. In the n-6 fatty acid family, the ratio of 20:3(n-6)/18:2(n-6) was higher in patients than in control groups, whereas the ratio of 20:4(n-6)/20:3(n-6) was relatively decreased in patients. Lastly, a significant negative correlation between age and the ratio of 20:4(n-6) to 22:6(n-3) was found in patients, but not in controls. Taken together, decreases in 22:6(n-3) may be caused, at least in part, by the diminished formation of 20:5(n-3), which is derived from 20:4(n-3) through a Delta5 desaturase reaction. The present findings from postmortem brain tissue raise the possibility that an increased ratio of 20:4(n-6) to 22:6(n-3) may provide us with a biomarker for depression. Future research should further investigate these relationships. PMID:20060277

Conklin, Sarah M; Runyan, Caroline A; Leonard, Sherry; Reddy, Ravinder D; Muldoon, Matthew F; Yao, Jeffrey K

2010-01-08

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Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on clinical outcome in a porcine model on postoperative infection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) on clinical outcome in a porcine model on early aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI). A total of eighty-four pigs were randomised to a 35 d dietary treatment with 10 % (w/w) fish oil (rich in n-3 LC-PUFA), sunflower oil (rich in n-6 LC-PUFA) or animal fat. After 3 weeks of dietary treatment, the pigs had an aortic vascular prosthetic graft inserted, and it was inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (106 colony-forming units). Changes in selected plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations and in plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration were determined in the 3-week preoperative period. Clinical signs of infection, i.e. rectal temperature, hindquarter function, general appearance and feed intake, were monitored daily in the 14 d post-operative period, and, finally, daily body-weight gain was determined in both periods. The preoperative changes in plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations reflected the fatty acid compositions of the dietary treatments given, and plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration decreased in the fish oil treatment (P < 0·001). In the post-operative period, feed intake (P = 0·004) and body-weight gain (P = 0·038) were higher in the fish oil treatment compared with the sunflower oil treatment. The dietary treatments did not affect the number of days pigs were showing fever, weakness in the hindquarters or impaired general appearance. In conclusion, preoperative treatment with dietary fish oil compared with sunflower oil improved clinical outcome in pigs with AVPGI by improving feed intake and body-weight gain post-operatively.

Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; TØnnesen, Else Kirstine

2012-01-01

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Effects of dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immunoglobulins, cytokines, fatty acid composition, and performance of lactating sows and suckling piglets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the performance of lactating sows and their piglets. Thirty pregnant Landrace sows were assigned to one of three treatments from d 108 of gestation until weaning (26-29 d) and were fed diets containing different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA including 3:1, 9:1 and 13:1. The effects on sow and litter production traits were examined together with an assessment of sow body condition. No differences were detected among the treatments for the daily feed intake of sows or changes in sow weight and back-fat levels during lactation (P?>?0.05). Litter size at d 14 and d 21 were tended to increase in 3:1 treatment compared with 9:1 and 13:1 treatments (P?acid, total n-3 PUFA, and the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in the colostrum, milk, and piglets plasma (P?n-6:n-3 PUFA in sow diets on colostrum, milk, and piglet plasma immunoglobulin concentrations are studied. No difference was observed among treatments in the concentrations of IgM, and IgA in colostrum (P?>?0.05). A great significant difference for IgG concentration was observed among 3 group in colostrum. A great significant difference for IgA, and IgM (P?n-6:n-3 PUFA in lactating sow diet had an effect on the immune component including immunoglobulin and cytokines, and it tended to increase the litter average daily gain and improve the immune status of piglets when dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA was 9:1.

Yao W; Li J; Wang JJ; Zhou W; Wang Q; Zhu R; Wang F; Thacker P

2012-01-01

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Seasonal Variations of n-6: n-3 Ratios and Fatty Acid Compositions in Foot and Tissue of Chiton lamyi in a High Primary Productivity Area  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Fatty acid content and composition in mollusks is a function of their feeding diversity. Chabahar bay located in the northern part of Oman sea in Indian ocean provides high rates of primary productivity and a diverse food source for mollusks in this area. Identification of fatty acid compositions of Chiton lamyi and study their seasonal changes in the intertidal zone of Chabahar bay. Study the meat quality by n-6: n-3 ratios calculation throughout the year. Approach: Chiton lamyi species analyzed seasonally for its fatty acid compositions in foot and internal tissue separately by GC/MS chromatography. Temperature and nutrients measured monthly for evaluating their effects on investigated seasonal variations of fatty acids. Pearson analysis showed effects of measured environmental factors on studied fatty acids composition. n-6: n-3 ratio calculated seasonally in order to study meat quality. Results: Thirteen fatty acids identified in foot and internal tissue of Chiton lamyi. The major Saturated Fatty Acids (SFAs) were myristic, palmitic and stearic acids. The major Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs) were palmitoleic, oleic and 11-eicosenoic acids and Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) were linoleic, eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids. Palmitic acid was the most abundant in this species. Fatty acid contents of foot and internal tissue of Chiton lamyi were similar but their seasonal variations were different. Pearson analysis showed correlation among palmitic and oleic acids with silicate; oleic acid with phosphate; Linoleic and arachidonic acids with nitrate in Chiton lamyi internal tissues, but no correlation observed in foot. Although temperature showed correlation with heptadecanoic and methyl-heptadecanoic acids in Chiton lamyi foot, no correlation found in internal tissues. Also, n-6: n-3 ratio calculations showed domination of n-3 fatty acid over n-6 only in spring. Conclusion: Fatty acid variations were not same at different organs and environmental factors could have opposite effects on them in this species. Also, n-6: n-3 ratio showed the lack of food loads throughout the year except in spring for this species. These findings can lead the best exploitation periods for such marine mollusks.

Nooshin Sajjadi; Peyman Eghtesadi-Araghi; Shahla Jamili; Mehri Hashtroodi; Sahar Farzadnia; Ali Mashinchian

2009-01-01

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Effects of trans n-6 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of tissues and liver microsomal desaturation in the rat  

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Full Text Available 18:2? 9c,12t and 18:2 ?9t,12c are present in our diet, as result of heat treatment of vegetable oils. A nutritional study was carried out in order to obtain more precise information on the conversion of these two isomers into long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by rat tissues. This in vivo study performed using rat fed with small quantities of mono trans linoleic acid isomers (0.6% of total energy) showed that 18:2 ?9c,12t was converted into 20:4 ?5c,8c,11c,14t while 18:2 ?9t,12c was only slightly converted into 20:4 ?5c,8c,11t,14c. Furthermore 18:2 ?9t,12c was preferentially elongated into 20:2 ?11t,14c. Each C20 metabolite of these mono trans 18:2 isomers was isolated as methyl ester by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by silver nitrate thin layer chromatography (AgNO3-TLC).The structure of the components was identified using partial hydrazine reduction, AgNO3-TLC of the resulting monoenes and gas-liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) derivatives. Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (GC-FTIR) confirmed the frans geometry. Gas-liquid chromatography (GC) analyses showed that 18:2 ?9c,12t and 18:2 ?9t,12c were present in different tissue lipids (liver, heart, testes, brain and adipose tissue), and without any modification in the amount of 20:4n-6. 20:4 ?5c, 8c,11c,14t was incorporated in different rat tissues except in brain. Furthermore, its incorporation followed that of its structural analogue, 20:3n-9 in liver phospholipid classes (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine). Finally, an in vitro study carried out with rat liver microsomes showed that dietary trans 18:2 isomers could inhibit the ?6- desaturation of 18:2n-6 to 18:3n-6 and the ?5-desaturation of 20:3n-6 to 20:4n-6.

Berdeaux, Olivier; Sébédio, Jean Louis; Chardigny, Jean Michel; Blond, Jean Paul; Mairot, Thierry; Vatèles, Jean Michel; Poullain, Didier; Nöel, Jean Pierre

1996-01-01

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Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Conversion of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. Design and methods In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), human hepatoma cells were incubated with varying ratios of [13C] labeled linoleic acid ([13C]LA)- and alpha-linolenic acid ([13C]ALA)-methylesters. Regulative cellular signal transduction pathways involved were studied by determinations of transcript levels of the genes encoding delta-5 desaturase (D5D) and delta-6 desaturase (D6D), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c). Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) were also examined. Results Maximum conversion was observed in cells incubated with the mixture of [13C]LA/[13C]ALA at a ratio of 1:1, where 0.7% and 17% of the recovered [13C]ALA was converted to DHA and EPA, respectively. Furthermore, differential regulation of enzymes involved in the conversion at the transcript level, dependent on the ratio of administered n6 to n3 fatty acids in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Conclusion Formation of EPA and DHA was highest at an administered LA/ALA ratio of 1:1, although gene expression of PPAR?, SREBP-1c and D5D involved in ALA elongation were higher in the presence of ALA solely. Also, our findings suggest that a diet-induced enhancement of the cell membrane content of highly unsaturated fatty acids is only possible up to a certain level.

Harnack Kerstin; Andersen Gaby; Somoza Veronika

2009-01-01

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Increased erythrocytes n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids is significantly associated with a lower prevalence of steatosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is commonly associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Although dietary fat contributes substantially to the accumulation of liver fat, the role of individual fatty acids in this accumulation is unclear. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we set out to determine whether liver fat content (LFC), was associated with red blood cell fatty acid (RBC-FA) composition in people with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and sixty-two type 2 diabetic patients were included in this study. LFC was measured using (1)H-MR Spectroscopy. RBC-FA composition was measured by gas chromatography. RESULTS: One hundred and nine (67.2%) patients had steatosis. Patients with steatosis had a higher BMI (p = 0.0005), and higher plasma triglyceride levels (p = 0.009) than did patients without steatosis. We report a significant association between palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) concentrations and ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acid (palmitoleic acid to palmitic acid) and higher liver fat content. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), homo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) were associated with lower LFC. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that an increased erythrocytes long-chain n-3 and n-6 fatty acids was associated with a lower prevalence of steatosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. These results suggest that n-3 and n-6 fatty acids supplementation could be a promising treatment for NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Petit JM; Guiu B; Duvillard L; Jooste V; Brindisi MC; Athias A; Bouillet B; Habchi M; Cottet V; Gambert P; Hillon P; Cercueil JP; Verges B

2012-08-01

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Dietary n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratios differentially influence hormonal signature in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome relative to healthy controls  

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Dietary ratios of omega-3 (n-3) to omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been implicated in controlling markers of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profiles and adiposity. However, the role of dietary PUFAs in regulating energy systems in he...

Burghardt, Paul R; Kemmerer, Elyse S; Buck, Bradley J; Osetek, Andrew J; Yan, Charles; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L

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Dietary n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratios differentially influence hormonal signature in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome relative to healthy controls  

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Abstract Dietary ratios of omega-3 (n-3) to omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been implicated in controlling markers of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profiles and adiposity. However, the role of dietary PUFAs in regulating e...

Burghardt Paul R; Kemmerer Elyse S; Buck Bradley J; Osetek Andrew J; Yan Charles; Koch Lauren G; Britton Steven L

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Changes of the mucosal n3 and n6 fatty acid status occur early in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence.  

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Despite data favouring a role of dietary fat in colonic carcinogenesis, no study has focused on tissue n3 and n6 fatty acid (FA) status in human colon adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Thus, FA profile was measured in plasma phospholipids of patients with colorectal cancer (n = 22), sporadic adenoma (n = ...

Fernández-Bañares, F; Esteve, M; Navarro, E; Cabré, E; Boix, J; Abad-Lacruz, A; Klaassen, J; Planas, R; Humbert, P; Pastor, C

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Changes of the mucosal N3 and N6 fatty acid status occur early in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence  

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Despite data favouring a role of dietary fat in colonic carcinogenesis, no study has focused on tissue n3 and n6 fatty acid (FA) status in human colon adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Thus, FA profile was measured in plasma phospholipids of patients with colorectal cancer (n = 22), sporadic adenoma (n = ...

Fernández Bañares, Fernando; Esteve i Comas, Maria; Navarro, E.; Cabré i Gelada, Eduard; Bosch i Genover, Jaume

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How do n-3 fatty acid (short-time restricted vs unrestricted) and n-6 fatty acid enriched diets affect the fatty acid profile in different tissues of German Simmental bulls?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effect of n-6 (control group) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supply (treatment group unrestricted) and a short-time feed restriction for n-3 PUFA supply (treatment group restricted) on intramuscular fat content and the total fatty acid composition in different tissues (muscle, subcutaneous fat, liver, serum and erythrocytes) and lipid classes of intramuscular fat of German Simmental bulls (n=25). Exogenous n-3 PUFA caused a higher concentration of the sum of all single n-3 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) in all analysed tissues. Feed restriction compared to control feeding induced a significant decrease of C18:1cis-9 in the phospholipid fraction of longissimus muscle and in subcutaneous fat. The concentration of C18:3n-3 in liver of treatment groups was between 34 and 44% higher compared to control. PUFA in serum and the sum of n-3 PUFA in erythrocytes were significantly higher in both treatment groups compared to control. The synthesis and deposition of n-3 LC PUFA seems to be tissue dependent according to different relative amounts. PMID:20650572

Herdmann, A; Martin, J; Nuernberg, G; Wegner, J; Dannenberger, D; Nuernberg, K

2010-06-16

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n-6 fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Randomised controlled trials (RCT) of mixed n-6 and n-3 PUFA diets, and meta-analyses of their CHD outcomes, have been considered decisive evidence in specifically advising consumption of 'at least 5-10 % of energy as n-6 PUFA'. Here we (1) performed an extensive literature search and extracted detailed dietary and outcome data enabling a critical examination of all RCT that increased PUFA and reported relevant CHD outcomes; (2) determined if dietary interventions increased n-6 PUFA with specificity, or increased both n-3 and n-6 PUFA (i.e. mixed n-3/n-6 PUFA diets); (3) compared mixed n-3/n-6 PUFA to n-6 specific PUFA diets on relevant CHD outcomes in meta-analyses; (4) evaluated the potential confounding role of trans-fatty acids (TFA). n-3 PUFA intakes were increased substantially in four of eight datasets, and the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid was raised with specificity in four datasets. n-3 and n-6 PUFA replaced a combination of TFA and SFA in all eight datasets. For non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)+CHD death, the pooled risk reduction for mixed n-3/n-6 PUFA diets was 22 % (risk ratio (RR) 0.78; 95 % CI 0.65, 0.93) compared to an increased risk of 13 % for n-6 specific PUFA diets (RR 1.13; 95 % CI 0.84, 1.53). Risk of non-fatal MI+CHD death was significantly higher in n-6 specific PUFA diets compared to mixed n-3/n-6 PUFA diets (P = 0.02). RCT that substituted n-6 PUFA for TFA and SFA without simultaneously increasing n-3 PUFA produced an increase in risk of death that approached statistical significance (RR 1.16; 95 % CI 0.95, 1.42). Advice to specifically increase n-6 PUFA intake, based on mixed n-3/n-6 RCT data, is unlikely to provide the intended benefits, and may actually increase the risks of CHD and death. PMID:21118617

Ramsden, Christopher E; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Majchrzak, Sharon F; Davis, John M

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Maternal and neonatal plasma n-3 and n-6 fatty acids of pregnant women and neonates in three regions in China with contrasting dietary patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate concentrations of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in pregnant women and neonates from River/Lake, Coastal and Inland regions of China. Demographic, nutritional and anthropometric data, as well as blood samples (maternal and cord) were obtained. Plasma choline phosphglyceride (CPG) fatty acids were analysed. Median daily fatty acid intakes of the women from River/Lake, Coastal and Inland women were linoleic acid (LA), 20.2, 22.1, 31.7 g; arachidonic acid (AA), 157.2, 95.6, 141.3 mg; alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), 4.2, 1.0, 1.8 g; eicosapentenoic acid (EPA), 22.4, 28.6, 3.1 mg; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 51.7, 54.7, 33.3 mg and the n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio, 4.7, 20.9,17.2. The median maternal and cord plasma CPG AA levels of River/Lake, Coastal and Inland groups were 7.3 and 15.7, 6.7 and 16.1%, and 7.2 and 16.9%. The median maternal and neonatal DHA levels in the three regions were 3.2 and 4.7%, 3.0 and 4.3%, and 2.0 and 3.6%. There appears to be a close association between dietary intake of AA, EPA, DHA and the corresponding level in maternal plasma CPG (p<0.05). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the low intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as EPA and DHA and the unbalanced n-6 to n-3 fatty acids ratio are the main problems in terms of dietary fat intake among Chinese pregnant women. Measures could be taken such as increasing the supply of oily fish or ALA rich edible oils to increase n-3 fatty acids intake for pregnant Chinese women. PMID:19786386

Zhang, Jian; Wang, Yiqun; Meng, Liping; Wang, Chunrong; Zhao, Wenhua; Chen, Junshi; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Crawford, Michael A

2009-01-01

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Concentrations of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in Dutch bovine milk fat and their contribution to human dietary intake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Weekly samples representative of Dutch milk were analyzed for concentrations of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA). Concentrations of the n-3 FA ?-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosatetraenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid were 0.495±0.027, 0.041±0.004, 0.067±0.005, and 0.086±0.008g per 100g of fat, respectively, whereas docosahexaenoic acid was absent or present in concentrations lower than 0.020g per 100g of fat. Concentrations of the n-6 FA linoleic acid (LeA), ?-linoleic acid, dihomo-?-linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were 1.428±0.068, 0.070±0.007, 0.066±0.004, and 0.089±0.004g per 100g of fat, respectively; adrenic acid was present in concentrations lower than 0.020g per 100g of fat, whereas docosapentaenoic acid was absent in all samples. The concentrations of ALA and LeA were significantly higher in spring and summer, compared with autumn and winter. The concentrations of all other ALA- and LeA-derived n-3 and n-6 FA were not significantly different between seasons. The contribution of milk fat to the daily intake of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was calculated for human consumption levels in different countries. Milk fat contributed between 10.7 and 14.1% to the daily intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and between 23.5 and 34.2% to the intake of docosapentaenoic acid; whereas docosahexaenoic acid contribution was marginal. Arachidonic acid from milk fat contributed between 10.5 and 18.8% to the human intake of n-6 FA.

van Valenberg HJ; Hettinga KA; Dijkstra J; Bovenhuis H; Feskens EJ

2013-07-01

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Influence of 18:2n-6/20:5n-3 ratio in diets on growth and fatty acid composition of juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 120-day feeding trial was conducted to examine the effects of the ratio of dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) on the growth and fatty acid composition of juvenile Haliotis discus hannai (initial shell length 10.23 ± 1.48 mm; initial body weight 0.13 ± 0.05 g) in a recirculation water system. Five semipurified diets with 35 g kg?¹ total lipid were formulated to contain graded LA/EPA ratios (1 : 0, 0.75 : 0.25, 0.5 : 0.5, 0.25 : 0.75, and 0 : 1, respectively). Twenty-five juveniles were stocked in a rearing unit, a plastic basket (20 × 20 × 10 cm), as a replicate, and there were three replicates for each dietary treatment. The results showed that abalone survival rates were generally high (90.1-98.3%) and independent of the dietary treatments. However, abalone growth was significantly affected by LA/EPA ratio (P < 0.05). The LA/EPA ratio of 0.25 : 0.75 (Diet 4) produced the highest weight gain rate (WGR, 416.3%), closely followed by the ratio of 0 : 1 (Diet 5, 412.9%), the ratio of 0.5 : 0.5 (Diet 3, 399.7%) and the ratio of 0.75 : 0.25 (Diet 2, 372.1%), but no significant differences were observed among these treatments. The abalone fed the diet without 20:5n-3 (Diet 1) had the lowest WGR (Diet 1, 363.8%), which was significantly lower than that of Diet 4. Fatty acid profiles in abalone body reflected those of dietary lipids, especially for the polyunsaturated fatty acids. The contents of arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) in abalone tissues were positively correlated with dietary level of 18:2n-6 (P < 0.05). Similar correlation was also observed between the level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in abalone tissues and the level of dietary EPA. It is suggested that abalone, H. discus hannai, have the capacity to synthesize 20:4n-6 from 18:2n-6, and maybe 22:6n-3 from 20:5n-3.

XU W; MAI KS; AI QH; TAN BP; ZHANG WB; MA HM; LIUFU ZG

2011-06-01

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Plasma phospholipid fatty acid and ex vivo neutrophil responses are differentially altered in dogs fed fish- and linseed-oil containing diets at the same n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of diets containing either 18-carbon n-3 fatty acids (FA) or 20/22-carbon n-3 FA on canine plasma and neutrophil membrane fatty acid composition, superoxide and leukotriene B? and B? production when fed at the same n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio was investigated. Four groups of ten dogs each were fed a low fat basal diet supplemented with safflower oil (SFO), beef tallow (BTO), linseed oil (LSO), or Menhaden fish oil (MHO) for 28 days. Dietary fat provided 40.8% of energy and the n-6:n-3 of the diets were ~100:1, 9.7:1, 0.38:1, and 0.34:1 for the SFO, BTO, LSO and MHO groups, respectively. The MHO and LSO groups had increased incorporation of EPA and DPA in both the plasma and neutrophil membranes compared to the BTO and SFO groups. DHA was observed in the MHO but not in the LSO group. Neutrophils from the MHO diet fed dogs had less LTB? and greater LTB? than the other three groups. The LSO group also showed a reduction in LTB? and greater LTB? production compared to the SFO and BTO groups. Both LSO and MHO groups had lower superoxide production compared to the SFO and BTO groups. Diets containing 18 or 20/22 carbon n-3 FA fed at the same n-6:n-3 resulted in differential incorporation of long chain n-3 FA into neutrophil membranes. Thus, fatty acid type and chain length individually affect neutrophil membrane structure and function and these effects exist independent of dietary total n-6:total n-3 FA ratios.

Waldron MK; Hannah SS; Bauer JE

2012-04-01

45

Bisphenol A alters n-6 fatty acid composition and decreases antioxidant enzyme levels in rat testes: a LC-QTOF-based metabolomics study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Male reproductive toxicity induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been widely reported. The testes have proven to be a major target organ of BPA toxicity, so studying testicular metabolite variation holds promise for the discovery of mechanisms linked to the toxic effects of BPA on reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered doses of BPA at the levels of 0, 50 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. We used an unbiased liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF)-based metabolomics approach to discover, identify, and analyze the variation of testicular metabolites. Two n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were identified as potential testicular biomarkers. Decreased levels of LA and increased levels of AA as well as AA/LA ratio were observed in the testes of the exposed group. According to these suggestions, testicular antioxidant enzyme levels were detected. Testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined significantly in the exposed group compared with that in the non-exposed group, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as catalase (CAT) also showed a decreasing trend in BPA treated group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BPA caused testicular n-6 fatty acid composition variation and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels. This study emphasizes that metabolomics brings the promise of biomarkers identification for the discovery of mechanisms underlying reproductive toxicity.

Chen M; Xu B; Ji W; Qiao S; Hu N; Hu Y; Wu W; Qiu L; Zhang R; Wang Y; Wang S; Zhou Z; Xia Y; Wang X

2012-01-01

46

n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulate prostaglandin E secretion but not markers of lipogenesis in adipocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A dramatic rise in the incidence of obesity in the U.S. has accelerated the search for interventions that may impact this epidemic. One recently recognized target for such intervention is adipose tissue, which secretes a variety of bioactive substances including prostaglandins. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to decrease lipolysis in adipocytes, but limited studies have explored alternative mechanisms by which PGE2 might impact obesity, such as adipogenesis or lipogenesis. Studies conducted on ApcMin/+ mice indicated that selective inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme led to significant reductions in fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity in adipose tissue suggesting lipogenic effects of PGE2. To further investigate whether these lipid mediators directly regulate lipogenesis, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes to determine the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and celecoxib on PGE2 formation and FAS used as a lipogenic marker. Both arachidonic acid (AA) and EPA dose-dependently increased PGE secretion from adipocytes. AA was expectedly more potent and exhibiting at 150 uM dose a 5-fold increase in PGE2 secretion over EPA. Despite higher secretion of PGE by EPA and AA compared to control, neither PUFA significantly altered FAS activity. By contrast both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA levels. Addition of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, significantly decreased PGE2 secretion (p 2 and celecoxib further decreased the FAS activity compared to PGE2 alone or untreated controls. In conclusion, EPA-mediated inhibition of AA metabolism did not significantly alter FAS activity while both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA expression. COX-2 inhibition significantly decreased PGE2 production resulting in a decrease in FAS activity and expression that was not reversed with the addition of exogenous PGE2, suggesting an additional mechanism that is independent of COX-2.

Wortman Patrick; Miyazaki Yuko; Kalupahana Nishan S; Kim Suyeon; Hansen-Petrik Melissa; Saxton Arnold M; Claycombe Kate J; Voy Brynn H; Whelan Jay; Moustaid-Moussa Naima

2009-01-01

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Effect of dietary intervention to reduce the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio on maternal and fetal fatty acid profile and its relation to offspring growth and body composition at 1 year of age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Evidence is accumulating that the long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) are associated with offspring growth and body composition. We investigated the relationship between LCPUFAs in red blood cells (RBCs) of pregnant women/breastfeeding mothers and umbilical cord RBCs of their neonates with infant growth and body composition ? 1 year of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In an open-label randomized, controlled trial, 208 healthy pregnant women received a dietary intervention (daily supplementation with 1200 mg n-3 LCPUFAs and dietary counseling to reduce arachidonic acid (AA) intake) from the 15th week of gestation until 4 months of lactation or followed their habitual diet. Fatty acids of plasma phospholipids (PLs) and RBCs from maternal and cord blood were determined and associated with infant body weight, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass and fat mass assessed by skinfold thickness measurements and ultrasonography. RESULTS: Dietary intervention significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio in maternal and cord-blood plasma PLs and RBCs. Maternal RBCs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), n-3 LCPUFAs and n-6 LCPUFAs at the 32nd week of gestation were positively related to birth weight. Maternal n-3 LCPUFAs, n-6 LCPUFAs and AA were positively associated with birth length. Maternal RBCs AA and n-6 LCPUFAs were significantly negatively related to BMI and Ponderal Index at 1 year postpartum, but not to fat mass. CONCLUSION: Maternal DHA, AA, total n-3 LCPUFAs and n-6 LCPUFAs might serve as prenatal growth factors, while n-6 LCPUFAs also seems to regulate postnatal growth. The maternal n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio does not appear to have a role in adipose tissue development during early postnatal life.

Much D; Brunner S; Vollhardt C; Schmid D; Sedlmeier EM; Brüderl M; Heimberg E; Bartke N; Boehm G; Bader BL; Amann-Gassner U; Hauner H

2013-03-01

48

Changes in rat n-3 and n-6 fatty acid composition during pregnancy are associated with progesterone concentrations and hepatic FADS2 expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mechanisms responsible for changes to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC PUFA) status during pregnancy have not been fully elucidated. Tissue samples were collected from virgin and pregnant (day 12 and 20) female rats. LC PUFA status, sex hormone concentrations and hepatic mRNA expression of FADS1, FADS2 and elongase were assessed. Day 20 gestation females had higher plasma and liver docosahexaenoic acid and lower arachidonic acid content than virgin females (P<0.05). There was higher FADS2 mRNA expression during pregnancy (P=0.051). Progesterone and oestradiol concentrations positively correlated with hepatic FADS2 mRNA expression (P=0.043, P=0.004). Progesterone concentration positively correlated with hepatic n-6 docosapentaenoic acid content (P=0.006), and inversely correlated with intermediates in LC PUFA synthesis including n-3 docosapentaenoic acid, ?-linolenic acid and 20:2n-6 (P<0.05). Changes in progesterone and oestradiol during pregnancy may promote the synthesis of LC PUFA via increased FADS2 expression.

Childs CE; Hoile SP; Burdge GC; Calder PC

2012-04-01

49

Changes in rat n-3 and n-6 fatty acid composition during pregnancy are associated with progesterone concentrations and hepatic FADS2 expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms responsible for changes to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC PUFA) status during pregnancy have not been fully elucidated. Tissue samples were collected from virgin and pregnant (day 12 and 20) female rats. LC PUFA status, sex hormone concentrations and hepatic mRNA expression of FADS1, FADS2 and elongase were assessed. Day 20 gestation females had higher plasma and liver docosahexaenoic acid and lower arachidonic acid content than virgin females (P<0.05). There was higher FADS2 mRNA expression during pregnancy (P=0.051). Progesterone and oestradiol concentrations positively correlated with hepatic FADS2 mRNA expression (P=0.043, P=0.004). Progesterone concentration positively correlated with hepatic n-6 docosapentaenoic acid content (P=0.006), and inversely correlated with intermediates in LC PUFA synthesis including n-3 docosapentaenoic acid, ?-linolenic acid and 20:2n-6 (P<0.05). Changes in progesterone and oestradiol during pregnancy may promote the synthesis of LC PUFA via increased FADS2 expression. PMID:22495065

Childs, C E; Hoile, S P; Burdge, G C; Calder, P C

2012-04-09

50

Effect of reducing the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio on the maternal and fetal leptin axis in relation to infant body composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: To investigate the effect of reducing the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in maternal nutrition on the maternal and cord blood leptin axis and their association with infant body composition up to 2 years. Design and Methods: 208 healthy pregnant women were randomized to either dietary intervention to reduce the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio from 15(th) week gestation until 4 months postpartum or a control group. Leptin, soluble leptin receptor and free leptin index were determined in maternal and cord plasma and related to infant body composition assessed by skinfold thicknesses up to 2 years. Results: The intervention had no effect on either the maternal or fetal leptin axis. Maternal leptin in late pregnancy was inversely related to infant weight and lean body mass (LBM) up to 2 years, after multiple adjustments. Cord leptin was positively related to weight, body fat and LBM at birth, and inversely associated with weight, BMI, fat mass and LBM at 2 years and weight gain up to 2 years. The contribution of cord leptin to infant outcomes was overall stronger compared with maternal leptin. Conclusions: Both, maternal and fetal leptin were associated with subsequent infant anthropometry with a greater impact of fetal leptin.

Brunner S; Schmid D; Hüttinger K; Much D; Brüderl M; Sedlmeier EM; Kratzsch J; Amann-Gassner U; Bader BL; Hauner H

2013-04-01

51

The association of red blood cell n-3 and n-6 fatty acids with bone mineral density and hip fracture risk in the women's health initiative.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in red blood cells (RBCs) are an objective indicator of PUFA status and may be related to hip fracture risk. The primary objective of this study was to examine RBC PUFAs as predictors of hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women. A nested case-control study (n?=?400 pairs) was completed within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) using 201 incident hip fracture cases from the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) cohort, along with 199 additional incident hip fracture cases randomly selected from the WHI Observational Study. Cases were 1:1 matched on age, race, and hormone use with non-hip fracture controls. Stored baseline RBCs were analyzed for fatty acids using gas chromatography. After removing degraded samples, 324 matched pairs were included in statistical analyses. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were constructed according to case-control pair status; risk of fracture was estimated for tertiles of RBC PUFA. In adjusted hazard models, lower hip fracture risk was associated with higher RBC ?-linolenic acid (tertile 3 [T3] hazard ratio [HR]: 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.85; p for linear trend 0.0154), eicosapentaenoic acid (T3 HR: 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.87; p for linear trend 0.0181), and total n-3 PUFAs (T3 HR: 0.55; 95% CI, 0.30-1.01; p for linear trend 0.0492). Conversely, hip fracture nearly doubled with the highest RBC n-6/n-3 ratio (T3 HR: 1.96; 95% CI, 1.03-3.70; p for linear trend 0.0399). RBC PUFAs were not associated with BMD. RBC PUFAs were indicative of dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFAs (Spearman's rho?=?0.45, p?n-6 PUFAs (rho?=?0.17, p?acid (rho?=?0.09, p?acid, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid and total n-3 PUFAs, may predict lower hip fracture risk. Contrastingly, a higher RBC n-6/n-3 ratio may predict higher hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women.

Orchard TS; Ing SW; Lu B; Belury MA; Johnson K; Wactawski-Wende J; Jackson RD

2013-03-01

52

Comparison of effects of serum n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios on coronary atherosclerosis in patients treated with pitavastatin or pravastatin undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

A low n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio is associated with cardiovascular events. However, the effects of this ratio on coronary atherosclerosis have not been fully examined, particularly in patients treated with different types of statins. This study compared the effects of n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios on coronary atherosclerosis in patients treated with pitavastatin and pravastatin. Coronary atherosclerosis in nonculprit lesions in the percutaneous coronary intervention vessel was evaluated using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound in 101 patients at the time of percutaneous coronary intervention and 8 months after statin therapy. Pitavastatin and pravastatin were used to treat 51 and 50 patients, respectively. Changes in the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid+DHA/AA ratios were not correlated with the percentage change in plaque volume in the pitavastatin group, whereas the percentage change in plaque volume and the changes in the DHA/AA ratio (r = -0.404, p = 0.004) and eicosapentaenoic acid+DHA/AA ratio (r = -0.350, p = 0.01) in the pravastatin group showed significant negative correlations. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age (? = 0.306, p = 0.02), the presence of diabetes mellitus (? = 0.250, p = 0.048), and changes in the DHA/AA ratio (? = -0.423, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of the percentage change in plaque volume in patients treated with pravastatin. In conclusion, decreases in n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios are associated with progression in coronary atherosclerosis during pravastatin therapy but not during pitavastatin therapy. PMID:23497779

Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Sato, Akira; Nozato, Toshihiro; Miyake, Shogo; Takeyama, Youichi; Morino, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Takao; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Michishita, Ichiro

2013-03-13

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Dietary n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratios differentially influence hormonal signature in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome relative to healthy controls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Dietary ratios of omega-3 (n-3) to omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been implicated in controlling markers of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profiles and adiposity. However, the role of dietary PUFAs in regulating energy systems in healthy relative to metabolic diseased backgrounds has not been systematically addressed. We used dietary manipulation of n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios in an animal model of metabolic syndrome and a related healthy line to assay feeding behavior and endocrine markers of feeding drive and energy regulation. Two related lines of rodents with a healthy and a metabolic syndrome phenotype were fed one of two isocaloric diets, comprised of either a 1:1 or a 1:30 n-3 to n-6 ratio, for 30 days. Food intake and weight gain were monitored; and leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and a suite of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in energy regulation were assayed following the dietary manipulation period. There was no difference in caloric intake or weight gain between diet groups, however there was a significant interaction between diet and phenotypic line on central and peripheral markers of energy homeostasis. Thus serum levels of leptin, acylated-ghrelin and adiponectin, and mRNA levels of the anorexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, cocaine-amphetamine related transcript (CART), showed differential, dietary responses with HCR rats showing an increase in anorexigenic signals in response to unbalanced n-3:6 ratios, while LCR did not. These data are the first to demonstrate that a rodent line with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype responds differentially to dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids relative to a related healthy line with regard to endocrine markers of energy homeostasis. The dietary n-3:n-6 ratios used in this experiment represent extreme points of natural human diets, however the data suggest that optimal recommendations regarding omega-3 and omega-6 intake may have differing effects in healthy subjects relative to metabolic syndrome patients. Further research is necessary to establish these responses in human populations.

Burghardt Paul R; Kemmerer Elyse S; Buck Bradley J; Osetek Andrew J; Yan Charles; Koch Lauren G; Britton Steven L; Evans Simon J

2010-01-01

54

Dietary n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratios differentially influence hormonal signature in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome relative to healthy controls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary ratios of omega-3 (n-3) to omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been implicated in controlling markers of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profiles and adiposity. However, the role of dietary PUFAs in regulating energy systems in healthy relative to metabolic diseased backgrounds has not been systematically addressed. We used dietary manipulation of n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios in an animal model of metabolic syndrome and a related healthy line to assay feeding behavior and endocrine markers of feeding drive and energy regulation. Two related lines of rodents with a healthy and a metabolic syndrome phenotype were fed one of two isocaloric diets, comprised of either a 1:1 or a 1:30 n-3 to n-6 ratio, for 30 days. Food intake and weight gain were monitored; and leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and a suite of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in energy regulation were assayed following the dietary manipulation period. There was no difference in caloric intake or weight gain between diet groups, however there was a significant interaction between diet and phenotypic line on central and peripheral markers of energy homeostasis. Thus serum levels of leptin, acylated-ghrelin and adiponectin, and mRNA levels of the anorexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, cocaine-amphetamine related transcript (CART), showed differential, dietary responses with HCR rats showing an increase in anorexigenic signals in response to unbalanced n-3:6 ratios, while LCR did not. These data are the first to demonstrate that a rodent line with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype responds differentially to dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids relative to a related healthy line with regard to endocrine markers of energy homeostasis. The dietary n-3:n-6 ratios used in this experiment represent extreme points of natural human diets, however the data suggest that optimal recommendations regarding omega-3 and omega-6 intake may have differing effects in healthy subjects relative to metabolic syndrome patients. Further research is necessary to establish these responses in human populations. PMID:20584300

Burghardt, Paul R; Kemmerer, Elyse S; Buck, Bradley J; Osetek, Andrew J; Yan, Charles; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Evans, Simon J

2010-06-28

55

Kinetics of chronic inflammation in Nile tilapia fed n?3 and n?6 essential fatty acids Cinética da inflamação crônica em tilápia?do?nilo alimentada com ácidos graxos essenciais n?3 e n?6  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on the kinetics of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The supplementation sources were soybean oil (SO, source of omega 6, n?6) and linseed oil (LO, source of omega 3, n?3), in the following proportions: 100% SO; 75% SO + 25% LO; 50% SO + 50% LO; 25% SO + 75% LO; and 100% LO (four replicates per treatment). After a feeding period of three months, growth performance was evaluated, and glass coverslips were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of fish, being removed for examination at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after implantation. Growth performance did not differ between treatments. Fish fed 100% linseed oil diet had the greatest macrophage accumulation and the fastest Langhans cell formation on the sixth day. On the eighth day, Langhans cells were predominant on the coverslips implanted in the fish feed 75 and 100% linseed oil. n?3 fatty acids may contribute to macrophage recruitment and giant cell formation in fish chronic inflammatory response to foreign body.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da suplementação alimentar com ácidos graxos essenciais sobre a cinética do acúmulo de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes em tilápia?do?nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). As fontes de suplementação foram óleo de soja (OS, fonte de ômega 6, n?6) e óleo de linhaça (OL, fonte de ômega 3, n?3), nas seguintes proporções: 100% OS; 75% OS + 25% OL; 50% OS + 50% OL; 25% OS + 75% OL; e 100% OL (quatro repetições por tratamento). Após período de alimentação de três meses, foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo, e lamínulas de vidro foram implantadas no tecido subcutâneo dos peixes, as quais foram removidas para exame aos 2, 4, 6 e 8 dias após o implante. O desempenho produtivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os peixes alimentados com 100% de óleo de linhaça tiveram maior acúmulo de macrófagos e formação mais rápida de células de Langhans, no sexto dia. No oitavo dia, as células de Langhans foram predominantes nas lamínulas implantadas nos peixes alimentados com 75 e 100% de óleo de linhaça. Os ácidos graxos n?3 podem contribuir para o recrutamento de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes, na resposta inflamatória crônica a corpo estranho em peixes.

Róberson Sakabe; Flávio Ruas de Moraes; Marco Antonio de Andrade Belo; Fabiana Pilarski; Julieta Rodini Engrácia de Moraes

2013-01-01

56

Kinetics of chronic inflammation in Nile tilapia fed n?3 and n?6 essential fatty acids/ Cinética da inflamação crônica em tilápia?do?nilo alimentada com ácidos graxos essenciais n?3 e n?6  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da suplementação alimentar com ácidos graxos essenciais sobre a cinética do acúmulo de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes em tilápia?do?nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). As fontes de suplementação foram óleo de soja (OS, fonte de ômega 6, n?6) e óleo de linhaça (OL, fonte de ômega 3, n?3), nas seguintes proporções: 100% OS; 75% OS + 25% OL; 50% OS + 50% OL; 25% OS + 75% OL; e (more) 100% OL (quatro repetições por tratamento). Após período de alimentação de três meses, foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo, e lamínulas de vidro foram implantadas no tecido subcutâneo dos peixes, as quais foram removidas para exame aos 2, 4, 6 e 8 dias após o implante. O desempenho produtivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os peixes alimentados com 100% de óleo de linhaça tiveram maior acúmulo de macrófagos e formação mais rápida de células de Langhans, no sexto dia. No oitavo dia, as células de Langhans foram predominantes nas lamínulas implantadas nos peixes alimentados com 75 e 100% de óleo de linhaça. Os ácidos graxos n?3 podem contribuir para o recrutamento de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes, na resposta inflamatória crônica a corpo estranho em peixes. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on the kinetics of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The supplementation sources were soybean oil (SO, source of omega 6, n?6) and linseed oil (LO, source of omega 3, n?3), in the following proportions: 100% SO; 75% SO + 25% LO; 50% SO + 50% LO; 25% SO + 75% LO; and 100% LO (four replicates per t (more) reatment). After a feeding period of three months, growth performance was evaluated, and glass coverslips were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of fish, being removed for examination at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after implantation. Growth performance did not differ between treatments. Fish fed 100% linseed oil diet had the greatest macrophage accumulation and the fastest Langhans cell formation on the sixth day. On the eighth day, Langhans cells were predominant on the coverslips implanted in the fish feed 75 and 100% linseed oil. n?3 fatty acids may contribute to macrophage recruitment and giant cell formation in fish chronic inflammatory response to foreign body.

Sakabe, Róberson; Moraes, Flávio Ruas de; Belo, Marco Antonio de Andrade; Pilarski, Fabiana; Moraes, Julieta Rodini Engrácia de

2013-03-01

57

n-3 and n-6 Fatty acids are independently associated with lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent risk factor for CVD and has been proposed as a marker of vascular inflammation. Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (FA) and several n-6 FA are known to suppress inflammation and may influence Lp-PLA2 mass and activity. The associations of n-3 and n-6 plasma FA with Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were analysed using linear regression analysis in 2246 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; statistical adjustments were made to control for body mass, inflammation, lipids, diabetes, and additional clinical and demographic factors. Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were significantly lower in participants with the higher n-3 FA EPA (? = - 4·72, P< 0·001; ? = - 1·53; P= 0·023) and DHA levels (? = - 4·47, ? = - 1·87; both P< 0·001). Those in the highest quintiles of plasma EPA and DHA showed 12·71 and 19·15 ng/ml lower Lp-PLA2 mass and 5·7 and 8·90 nmol/min per ml lower Lp-PLA2 activity than those in the first quintiles, respectively. In addition, lower Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were associated with higher levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (? = - 1·63, ? = - 1·30; both P< 0·001), while ?-linolenic acid was negatively associated with activity (? = - 27·7, P= 0·027). Lp-PLA2 mass was significantly higher in participants with greater plasma levels of n-6 linoleic (? = 0·828, P= 0·011) and dihomo-?-linolenic acids (? = 4·17, P= 0·002). Based on their independent associations with Lp-PLA2 mass and activity, certain n-3 and n-6 FA may have additional influences on CVD risk. Intervention studies are warranted to assess whether these macronutrients may directly influence Lp-PLA2 expression or activity.

Steffen BT; Steffen LM; Liang S; Tracy R; Jenny NS; Tsai MY

2013-04-01

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High levels of both n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in cord serum phospholipids predict allergy development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) reduce T-cell activation and dampen inflammation. They might thereby counteract the neonatal immune activation and hamper normal tolerance development to harmless environmental antigens. We investigated whether fatty acid composition of cord serum phospholipids affects allergy development up to age 13 years. METHODS: From a population-based birth-cohort born in 1996/7 and followed until 13 years of age (n?=?794), we selected cases with atopic eczema (n?=?37) or respiratory allergy (n?=?44), as well as non-allergic non-sensitized controls (n?=?48) based on diagnosis at 13 years of age. Cord and maternal sera obtained at delivery from cases and controls were analysed for proportions of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids among serum phospholipids. RESULTS: The cord serum phospholipids from subject who later developed either respiratory allergy or atopic eczema had significantly higher proportions of 5/8 LCPUFA species, as well as total n-3 LCPUFA, total n-6 LCPUFA and total LCPUFA compared to cord serum phospholipids from controls who did not develop allergy (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Conversely, individuals later developing allergy had lower proportion of the monounsaturated fatty acid 18?1n-9 as well as total MUFA (p<0.001) among cord serum phospholipids. The risk of respiratory allergy at age 13 increased linearly with the proportion of n-3 LCPUFA (Ptrend<0.001), n-6 LCPUFA (Ptrend?=?0.001), and total LCPUFA (Ptrend<0.001) and decreased linearly with the proportions of total MUFA (Ptrend?=?0.025) in cord serum phospholipids. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier estimates of allergy development demonstrated that total LCPUFA proportion in cord serum phospholipids was significantly associated with respiratory allergy (P?=?0.008) and sensitization (P?=?0.002), after control for sex and parental allergy. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of long-chain PUFAs among cord serum phospholipids may predispose to allergy development. The mechanism is unknown, but may involve dampening of the physiologic immune activation in infancy needed for proper maturation of the infant's immune system.

Barman M; Johansson S; Hesselmar B; Wold AE; Sandberg AS; Sandin A

2013-01-01

59

Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on clinical outcome in a porcine model on post-operative infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) on clinical outcome in a porcine model on early aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI). A total of eighty-four pigs were randomised to a 35 d dietary treatment with 10 % (w/w) fish oil (rich in n-3 LC-PUFA), sunflower oil (rich in n-6 LC-PUFA) or animal fat. After 3 weeks of dietary treatment, the pigs had an aortic vascular prosthetic graft inserted, and it was inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (106 colony-forming units). Changes in selected plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations and in plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration were determined in the 3-week preoperative period. Clinical signs of infection, i.e. rectal temperature, hindquarter function, general appearance and feed intake, were monitored daily in the 14 d post-operative period, and, finally, daily body-weight gain was determined in both periods. The preoperative changes in plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations reflected the fatty acid compositions of the dietary treatments given, and plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration decreased in the fish oil treatment (P < 0·001). In the post-operative period, feed intake (P = 0·004) and body-weight gain (P = 0·038) were higher in the fish oil treatment compared with the sunflower oil treatment. The dietary treatments did not affect the number of days pigs were showing fever, weakness in the hindquarters or impaired general appearance. In conclusion, preoperative treatment with dietary fish oil compared with sunflower oil improved clinical outcome in pigs with AVPGI by improving feed intake and body-weight gain post-operatively. PMID:21810284

Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Tønnesen, Else K; Jensen, Karin H; Damgaard, Birthe M; Halekoh, Ulrich; Lauridsen, Charlotte

2011-08-02

60

Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on clinical outcome in a porcine model on post-operative infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) on clinical outcome in a porcine model on early aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI). A total of eighty-four pigs were randomised to a 35 d dietary treatment with 10 % (w/w) fish oil (rich in n-3 LC-PUFA), sunflower oil (rich in n-6 LC-PUFA) or animal fat. After 3 weeks of dietary treatment, the pigs had an aortic vascular prosthetic graft inserted, and it was inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (106 colony-forming units). Changes in selected plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations and in plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration were determined in the 3-week preoperative period. Clinical signs of infection, i.e. rectal temperature, hindquarter function, general appearance and feed intake, were monitored daily in the 14 d post-operative period, and, finally, daily body-weight gain was determined in both periods. The preoperative changes in plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations reflected the fatty acid compositions of the dietary treatments given, and plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration decreased in the fish oil treatment (P < 0·001). In the post-operative period, feed intake (P = 0·004) and body-weight gain (P = 0·038) were higher in the fish oil treatment compared with the sunflower oil treatment. The dietary treatments did not affect the number of days pigs were showing fever, weakness in the hindquarters or impaired general appearance. In conclusion, preoperative treatment with dietary fish oil compared with sunflower oil improved clinical outcome in pigs with AVPGI by improving feed intake and body-weight gain post-operatively.

Langerhuus SN; Tønnesen EK; Jensen KH; Damgaard BM; Halekoh U; Lauridsen C

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Effect of dietary enrichment with either n-3 or n-6 fatty acids on systemic metabolite and hormone concentration and ovarian function in heifers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of dietary n-3 or n-6 fatty acid (FA) supplementation on blood FA, metabolite and hormone concentrations, follicle size and dynamics and corpus luteum (CL) size. Reproductively normal heifers (n = 24) were individually fed diets of chopped straw and concentrate containing either (i) no added lipid (CON; n = 8); (ii) 2% added fat as whole raw soya beans (WSB, n-6; n = 8); or (iii) 2% added fat as fish oil (FO, n-3; n = 8). Following oestrous cycle synchronisation, blood samples were collected at appropriate times and intervals for the measurement of hormones, FAs and metabolites. On days 15 and 16 of the cycle, animals were subjected to an intravenous oxytocin challenge and prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) response, measured as venous concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2? (PGFM). Dry matter intake and average daily gain were similar among treatments (P > 0.05). Plasma concentration of linoleic acid was highest on WSB (P 0.05). There was a diet × day interaction for PGFM (P 0.05). Concentrations of PGFM on day 16 were similar for WSB and FO and were greater than CON at 15 (P < 0.01) and 45 min (P < 0.05) post oxytocin administration, and at 30 min for FO (P < 0.05). With the exception of PGFM, dietary lipid source did not affect the reproductive variables measured. PMID:22443668

Childs, S; Lynch, C O; Hennessy, A A; Stanton, C; Wathes, D C; Sreenan, J M; Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

2008-06-01

62

Genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster are associated with altered (n-6) and (n-3) essential fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in women during pregnancy and in breast milk during lactation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The enzymes encoded by fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1 and FADS2 are rate-limiting enzymes in the desaturation of linoleic acid [LA; 18:2(n-6)] to arachidonic acid [ARA; 20:4(n-6)], and alpha-linolenic acid [ALA; 18:3(n-3)] to eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:5(n-3)] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)]. ARA, EPA, and DHA play central roles in infant growth, neural development, and immune function. The maternal ARA, EPA, and DHA status in gestation influences maternal-to-infant transfer and breast milk provides fatty acids for infants after birth. We determined if single nucleotide polymorphisms in FADS1 and FADS2 influence plasma phospholipid and erythrocyte ethanolamine phosphoglyceride (EPG) (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids of women in pregnancy or their breast milk during lactation. We genotyped rs174553, rs99780, rs174575, and rs174583 in the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster and analyzed plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids and dietary intake for 69 pregnant women and breast milk for a subset of 54 women exclusively breast-feeding at 1 mo postpartum. Minor allele homozygotes of rs174553(GG), rs99780(TT), and rs174583(TT) had lower ARA but higher LA in plasma phospholipids and erythrocyte EPG and decreased (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acid product:precursor ratios at 16 and 36 wk of gestation. Breast milk fatty acids were influenced by genotype, with significantly lower 14:0, ARA, and EPA but higher 20:2(n-6) in the minor allele homozygotes of rs174553(GG), rs99780(TT), and rs174583(TT) and lower ARA, EPA, 22:5(n-3), and DHA in the minor allele homozygotes G/G of rs174575. We showed that genetic variants of FADS1 and FADS2 influence blood lipid and breast milk essential fatty acids in pregnancy and lactation.

Xie L; Innis SM

2008-11-01

63

Genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster are associated with altered (n-6) and (n-3) essential fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in women during pregnancy and in breast milk during lactation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enzymes encoded by fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1 and FADS2 are rate-limiting enzymes in the desaturation of linoleic acid [LA; 18:2(n-6)] to arachidonic acid [ARA; 20:4(n-6)], and alpha-linolenic acid [ALA; 18:3(n-3)] to eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:5(n-3)] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)]. ARA, EPA, and DHA play central roles in infant growth, neural development, and immune function. The maternal ARA, EPA, and DHA status in gestation influences maternal-to-infant transfer and breast milk provides fatty acids for infants after birth. We determined if single nucleotide polymorphisms in FADS1 and FADS2 influence plasma phospholipid and erythrocyte ethanolamine phosphoglyceride (EPG) (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids of women in pregnancy or their breast milk during lactation. We genotyped rs174553, rs99780, rs174575, and rs174583 in the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster and analyzed plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids and dietary intake for 69 pregnant women and breast milk for a subset of 54 women exclusively breast-feeding at 1 mo postpartum. Minor allele homozygotes of rs174553(GG), rs99780(TT), and rs174583(TT) had lower ARA but higher LA in plasma phospholipids and erythrocyte EPG and decreased (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acid product:precursor ratios at 16 and 36 wk of gestation. Breast milk fatty acids were influenced by genotype, with significantly lower 14:0, ARA, and EPA but higher 20:2(n-6) in the minor allele homozygotes of rs174553(GG), rs99780(TT), and rs174583(TT) and lower ARA, EPA, 22:5(n-3), and DHA in the minor allele homozygotes G/G of rs174575. We showed that genetic variants of FADS1 and FADS2 influence blood lipid and breast milk essential fatty acids in pregnancy and lactation. PMID:18936223

Xie, Lin; Innis, Sheila M

2008-11-01

64

Serum n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio correlates with coronary plaque vulnerability: an optical coherence tomography study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A low ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) has been demonstrated to be associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for the assessment of coronary plaque vulnerability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between EPA/AA ratio and coronary plaque vulnerability. This study involved 58 patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. OCT image acquisition was performed before the procedure in the culprit lesions. We assessed lipid-rich plaque length and arc, fibrous cap thickness, frequency of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), thrombus, ruptured plaque, macrophage infiltration, and microvessels using OCT. Patients were divided into two groups according to the median value of serum EPA/AA ratio: a low-EPA/AA group (n = 29, EPA/AA ratio <0.36) and a high-EPA/AA group (n = 29, EPA/AA ratio ?0.36). In qualitative analyses, TCFA (35.4 vs 6.9 %, P = 0.0095), macrophage infiltration (48.3 vs 13.8 %, P = 0.0045), and microvessels (44.8 vs 10.3 %, P = 0.0033) were more frequently observed in the low-EPA/AA group. In quantitative analyses, the low-EPA/AA group had wider maximum lipid arc (114.0 ± 94.8° vs 56.4 ± 66.0°, P = 0.0097), longer lipid length (4.8 ± 4.5 vs 1.6 ± 2.6 mm, P = 0.0037), and thinner fibrous cap (69.3 ± 28.3 vs 113.3 ± 46.6 ?m, P = 0.005) compared with the high-EPA/AA group. EPA/AA ratio was positively correlated with fibrous cap thickness (r = 0.46, P = 0.007). In a multivariate model, an EPA/AA ratio <0.36 was associated with the presence of TCFA (odds ratio 6.41, 95 % confidence interval 1.11-61.91, P = 0.0371). In our detailed OCT analysis, lower EPA/AA ratio was associated with higher vulnerability of coronary plaques to rupture.

Hasegawa T; Otsuka K; Iguchi T; Matsumoto K; Ehara S; Nakata S; Nishimura S; Kataoka T; Shimada K; Yoshiyama M

2013-09-01

65

Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA) in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL) in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

Kawabata Terue; Hirota Satoko; Hirayama Tomoko; Adachi Naoko; Kaneko Yoshinori; Iwama Noriko; Kamachi Keiko; Araki Eiji; Kawashima Hiroshi; Kiso Yoshinobu

2011-01-01

66

Effect of diets enriched in Delta6 desaturated fatty acids (18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3), on growth, fatty acid composition and highly unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in two populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to test the hypothesis that diets containing relatively high amounts of the Delta6 desaturated fatty acids stearidonic acid (STA, 18:4n-3) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6), may be beneficial in salmonid culture. The rationale being that STA and GLA would be better substrates for highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) synthesis as their conversion does not require the activity of the reputed rate-limiting enzyme, fatty acid Delta6 desaturase. Duplicate groups of two Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) populations with different feeding habits, that had been reported previously to show differences in HUFA biosynthetic capacity, were fed for 16 weeks on two fish meal based diets containing 47% protein and 21% lipid differing only in the added lipid component, which was either fish oil (FO) or echium oil (EO). Dietary EO had no detrimental effect on growth performance and feed efficiency, mortalities, or liver and flesh lipid contents in either population. The proportions of 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:3n-6, 18:4n-3, 20:3n-6 and 20:4n-3 in total lipid in both liver and flesh were increased by dietary EO in both populations. However, the percentages of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were reduced by EO in both liver and flesh in both strains, whereas 20:4n-6 was only significantly reduced in flesh. In fish fed FO, HUFA synthesis from both [1-(14)C]18:3n-3 and [1-(14)C]20:5n-3 was significantly higher in the planktonivorous Coulin charr compared to the demersal, piscivorous Rannoch charr morph. However, HUFA synthesis was increased by EO in Rannoch charr, but not in Coulin charr. In conclusion, dietary EO had differential effects in the two populations of charr, with HUFA synthesis only stimulated by EO in the piscivorous Rannoch morph, which showed lower activities in fish fed FO. However, the hypothesis was not proved as, irrespective of the activity of the HUFA synthesis pathway in either population, feeding EO resulted in decreased tissue levels of n-3HUFA and 20:4n-6. This has been observed previously in salmonids fed vegetable oils, and thus the increased levels of Delta6 desaturated fatty acids in EO did not effectively compensate for the lack of dietary HUFA. PMID:16630735

Tocher, Douglas R; Dick, James R; MacGlaughlin, Philip; Bell, J Gordon

2006-04-19

67

ELOVL2 controls the level of n-6 28:5 and 30:5 fatty acids in testis, a prerequisite for male fertility and sperm maturation in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

ELOVL2 is a member of the mammalian microsomal ELOVL fatty acid enzyme family, involved in the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids including PUFAs required for various cellular functions in mammals. Here, we used ELOVL2-ablated (Elovl2(-/-)) mice to show that the PUFAs with 24-30 carbon atoms of the ?-6 family in testis are indispensable for normal sperm formation and fertility in male mice. The lack of Elovl2 was associated with a complete arrest of spermatogenesis, with seminiferous tubules displaying only spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes without further germinal cells. Furthermore, based on acyl-CoA profiling, heterozygous Elovl2(+/-) male mice exhibited haploinsufficiency, with reduced levels of C28:5 and C30:5n-6 PUFAs, which gave rise to impaired formation and function of haploid spermatides. These new insights reveal a novel mechanism involving ELOVL2-derived PUFAs in mammals and previously unrecognized roles for C28 and C30 n-6 PUFAs in male fertility. In accordance with the function suggested for ELOVL2, the Elovl2(-/-) mice show distorted levels of serum C20 and C22 PUFAs from both the n-3 and the n-6 series. However, dietary supplementation with C22:6n-3 could not restore male fertility to Elovl2(+/-) mice, suggesting that the changes in n-6 fatty acid composition seen in the testis of the Elovl2(+/-) mice, cannot be compensated by increased C22:6n-3 content. PMID:21106902

Zadravec, Damir; Tvrdik, Petr; Guillou, Hervé; Haslam, Richard; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Napier, Johnathan A; Capecchi, Mario R; Jacobsson, Anders

2010-11-24

68

Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalised n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A high dietary intake of n-6 compared to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) may promote the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. In two recent studies, short-term (10-day) duodenal administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich seal oil ameliorated joint pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Using unpublished data from these two studies we here investigated whether normalisation of the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood and tissues by seal oil administration was associated with improved health related quality of life (HRQOL) as assessed by the generic short-form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Results In the first pilot study, baseline n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosal biopsies from 10 patients with IBD (9 of those had joint pain) was significantly increased compared with that in 10 control patients without IBD or joint pain. Following seal oil administration, the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio of the IBD-patients was significantly lowered to the level seen in untreated controls. In the subsequent, randomized controlled study (n = 19), seal oil administration reduced the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood similarly and also the SF-36 assessed bodily pain, while n-6 FA rich soy oil administration had no such effect. Conclusion In these two separate studies, short-term duodenal administration of seal oil normalised the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and improved the bodily pain dimension of HRQOL of patients with IBD-related joint pain. The possibility of a causal relationship between n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and bodily pain in IBD-patients warrants further investigations.

Bjørkkjær Tormod; Brun Johan G; Valen Merete; Arslan Gülen; Lind Ragna; Brunborg Linn A; Berstad Arnold; Frøyland Livar

2006-01-01

69

Transgenic increase in N-3/n-6 Fatty Acid ratio reduces maternal obesity-associated inflammation and limits adverse developmental programming in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this is a dominant mechanism in fetal metabolic programming. In this study, we utilized the Fat-1 transgenic mouse to test whether increasing the maternal n-3/n-6 tissue fatty acid ratio could reduce the consequences of maternal obesity-associated inflammation and thereby mitigate downstream developmental programming. Eight-week-old WT or hemizygous Fat-1 C57BL/6J female mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) for 8 weeks prior to mating with WT chow-fed males. Only WT offspring from Fat-1 mothers were analyzed. WT-HFD mothers demonstrated increased markers of infiltrating adipose tissue macrophages (P<0.02), and a striking increase in 12 serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05), while Fat1-HFD mothers remained similar to WT-CD mothers, despite equal weight gain. E18.5 Fetuses from WT-HFD mothers had larger placentas (P<0.02), as well as increased placenta and fetal liver TG deposition (P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively) and increased placental LPL TG-hydrolase activity (P<0.02), which correlated with degree of maternal insulin resistance (r?=?0.59, P<0.02). The placentas and fetal livers from Fat1-HFD mothers were protected from this excess placental growth and fetal-placental lipid deposition. Importantly, maternal protection from excess inflammation corresponded with improved metabolic outcomes in adult WT offspring. While the offspring from WT-HFD mothers weaned onto CD demonstrated increased weight gain (P<0.05), body and liver fat (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), and whole body insulin resistance (P<0.05), these were prevented in WT offspring from Fat1-HFD mothers. Our results suggest that reducing excess maternal inflammation may be a promising target for preventing adverse fetal metabolic outcomes in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. PMID:23825686

Heerwagen, Margaret J R; Stewart, Michael S; de la Houssaye, Becky A; Janssen, Rachel C; Friedman, Jacob E

2013-06-25

70

Transgenic increase in N-3/n-6 Fatty Acid ratio reduces maternal obesity-associated inflammation and limits adverse developmental programming in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this is a dominant mechanism in fetal metabolic programming. In this study, we utilized the Fat-1 transgenic mouse to test whether increasing the maternal n-3/n-6 tissue fatty acid ratio could reduce the consequences of maternal obesity-associated inflammation and thereby mitigate downstream developmental programming. Eight-week-old WT or hemizygous Fat-1 C57BL/6J female mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) for 8 weeks prior to mating with WT chow-fed males. Only WT offspring from Fat-1 mothers were analyzed. WT-HFD mothers demonstrated increased markers of infiltrating adipose tissue macrophages (P<0.02), and a striking increase in 12 serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05), while Fat1-HFD mothers remained similar to WT-CD mothers, despite equal weight gain. E18.5 Fetuses from WT-HFD mothers had larger placentas (P<0.02), as well as increased placenta and fetal liver TG deposition (P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively) and increased placental LPL TG-hydrolase activity (P<0.02), which correlated with degree of maternal insulin resistance (r?=?0.59, P<0.02). The placentas and fetal livers from Fat1-HFD mothers were protected from this excess placental growth and fetal-placental lipid deposition. Importantly, maternal protection from excess inflammation corresponded with improved metabolic outcomes in adult WT offspring. While the offspring from WT-HFD mothers weaned onto CD demonstrated increased weight gain (P<0.05), body and liver fat (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), and whole body insulin resistance (P<0.05), these were prevented in WT offspring from Fat1-HFD mothers. Our results suggest that reducing excess maternal inflammation may be a promising target for preventing adverse fetal metabolic outcomes in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity.

Heerwagen MJ; Stewart MS; de la Houssaye BA; Janssen RC; Friedman JE

2013-01-01

71

Transgenic Increase in N-3/N-6 Fatty Acid Ratio Reduces Maternal Obesity-Associated Inflammation and Limits Adverse Developmental Programming in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this is a dominant mechanism in fetal metabolic programming. In this study, we utilized the Fat-1 transgenic mouse to test whether increasing the maternal n-3/n-6 tissue fatty acid ratio could reduce the consequences of maternal obesity-associated inflammation and thereby mitigate downstream developmental programming. Eight-week-old WT or hemizygous Fat-1 C57BL/6J female mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) for 8 weeks prior to mating with WT chow-fed males. Only WT offspring from Fat-1 mothers were analyzed. WT-HFD mothers demonstrated increased markers of infiltrating adipose tissue macrophages (P<0.02), and a striking increase in 12 serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05), while Fat1-HFD mothers remained similar to WT-CD mothers, despite equal weight gain. E18.5 Fetuses from WT-HFD mothers had larger placentas (P<0.02), as well as increased placenta and fetal liver TG deposition (P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively) and increased placental LPL TG-hydrolase activity (P<0.02), which correlated with degree of maternal insulin resistance (r?=?0.59, P<0.02). The placentas and fetal livers from Fat1-HFD mothers were protected from this excess placental growth and fetal-placental lipid deposition. Importantly, maternal protection from excess inflammation corresponded with improved metabolic outcomes in adult WT offspring. While the offspring from WT-HFD mothers weaned onto CD demonstrated increased weight gain (P<0.05), body and liver fat (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), and whole body insulin resistance (P<0.05), these were prevented in WT offspring from Fat1-HFD mothers. Our results suggest that reducing excess maternal inflammation may be a promising target for preventing adverse fetal metabolic outcomes in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity.

Heerwagen, Margaret J. R.; Stewart, Michael S.; de la Houssaye, Becky A.; Janssen, Rachel C.; Friedman, Jacob E.

2013-01-01

72

Comparative study between n-6, trans and n-3 fatty acids on repeated amphetamine exposure: a possible factor for the development of mania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last decades, foods rich in omega-3 (?-3) fatty acids (FA) have been replaced by omega-6 (?-6) and trans FA, which are found in processed foods. The influence of ?-6 (soybean oil--SO), trans (hydrogenated vegetable fat--HVF) and ?-3 (fish oil--FO) fatty acids on locomotor and oxidative stress (OS) parameters were studied in an animal model of mania. Rats orally fed with SO, HVF and FO for 8 weeks received daily injections of amphetamine (AMPH--4 mg/kg/mL-ip) for the last week of oral supplementation. HVF induced hyperactivity, increased the protein carbonyl levels in the cortex and decreased the mitochondrial viability in cortex and striatum. AMPH-treatment increased the locomotion and decreased the mitochondrial viability in all groups, but its neurotoxicity was higher in the HVF group. Similarly, AMPH administration increased the protein carbonyl levels in striatum and cortex of HVF-supplemented rats. AMPH reduced the vitamin-C plasmatic levels of SO and HVF-fed rats, whereas no change was observed in the FO group. Our findings suggest that trans fatty acids increased the oxidative damage per se and exacerbated the AMPH-induced effects. The impact of trans fatty acids consumption on neuronal diseases and its consequences in brain functions must be further evaluated.

Trevizol F; Benvegnú DM; Barcelos RC; Boufleur N; Dolci GS; Müller LG; Pase CS; Reckziegel P; Dias VT; Segat H; Teixeira AM; Emanuelli T; Rocha JB; Bürger ME

2011-01-01

73

Comparative study between n-6, trans and n-3 fatty acids on repeated amphetamine exposure: a possible factor for the development of mania.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decades, foods rich in omega-3 (?-3) fatty acids (FA) have been replaced by omega-6 (?-6) and trans FA, which are found in processed foods. The influence of ?-6 (soybean oil--SO), trans (hydrogenated vegetable fat--HVF) and ?-3 (fish oil--FO) fatty acids on locomotor and oxidative stress (OS) parameters were studied in an animal model of mania. Rats orally fed with SO, HVF and FO for 8 weeks received daily injections of amphetamine (AMPH--4 mg/kg/mL-ip) for the last week of oral supplementation. HVF induced hyperactivity, increased the protein carbonyl levels in the cortex and decreased the mitochondrial viability in cortex and striatum. AMPH-treatment increased the locomotion and decreased the mitochondrial viability in all groups, but its neurotoxicity was higher in the HVF group. Similarly, AMPH administration increased the protein carbonyl levels in striatum and cortex of HVF-supplemented rats. AMPH reduced the vitamin-C plasmatic levels of SO and HVF-fed rats, whereas no change was observed in the FO group. Our findings suggest that trans fatty acids increased the oxidative damage per se and exacerbated the AMPH-induced effects. The impact of trans fatty acids consumption on neuronal diseases and its consequences in brain functions must be further evaluated. PMID:21078338

Trevizol, Fabíola; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Boufleur, Nardeli; Dolci, Geisa S; Müller, Liz G; Pase, Camila S; Reckziegel, Patrícia; Dias, Verônica T; Segat, Hecson; Teixeira, Angélica M; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Rocha, João Batista T; Bürger, Marilise E

2010-11-13

74

n-3 and n-6 fatty acid processing and growth effects in neoplastic and non-cancerous human mammary epithelial cell lines.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The type rather than the amount of dietary fat may be more important in breast carcinogenesis. While animal studies support this view, little is known about the effects of essential fatty acids (EFAs) at the cellular level. The MCF-7 breast cancer and the MCF-10A non-cancerous human mammary epitheli...

Grammatikos, S. I.; Subbaiah, P. V.; Victor, T. A.; Miller, W. M.

75

Seasonal Variations of n-6: n-3 Ratios and Fatty Acid Compositions in Foot and Tissue of Chiton lamyi in a High Primary Productivity Area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Fatty acid content and composition in mollusks is a function of their feeding diversity. Chabahar bay located in the northern part of Oman sea in Indian ocean provides high rates of primary productivity and a diverse food source for mollusks in this area. Identification of ...

Nooshin Sajjadi; Peyman Eghtesadi-Araghi; Shahla Jamili; Mehri Hashtroodi; Sahar Farzadnia; Ali Mashinchian

76

Ácidos graxos poli-insaturados n-3 e n-6: metabolismo em mamíferos e resposta imune Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: metabolism in mammals and immune response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A experimentação animal apresenta uma grande importância para o desenvolvimento da ciência. O uso de camundongos em experimentos ocorre devido à semelhança destes animais com os seres humanos, fácil criação e manutenção e resposta experimental bastante rápida. Esses animais possuem as mesmas enzimas dessaturases e elongases que os humanos, por isso são usados em pesquisas envolvendo incorporação e síntese de ácidos graxos em tecidos. Os ácidos graxos da família ômega-3 e ômega-6 são de suma importância na dieta humana, pois estes não são sintetizados pela síntese de novo e são precursores dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados de cadeia muito longa, como os ácidos eicosapentaenóico, docosahexaenóico e araquidônico. Estes desempenham funções importantes no organismo, como a síntese de eicosanóides que estão envolvidos diretamente no sistema imune e nas respostas inflamatórias. A razão entre o consumo de ácidos graxos n-6 e n-3 na dieta é um importante fator para determinar a ingestão adequada de ácidos graxos bem como prevenir o aparecimento de doenças. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar a incorporação de ácidos graxos em tecidos de animais e discutir a importância dos ácidos da família n-3 e seus metabólitos no sistema imunológico.Experiments with animals are very important for the improvement of science. The use of mice in experiments is due to their similarity with humans, the easy of raising and maintaining them and their very fast response. These animals have the same desaturase and elongase enzymes as humans and so they are used in research involving the incorporation and synthesis of fatty acids in tissues. The fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 are extremely important in the human diet because they are not synthesized de novo and are precursors of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as the eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids. These acids play important roles in animals, such as precursors of eicosanoids, which are directly involved in the immune system and inflammatory response. The dietary n-3:n-6 intake ratio is important for assessing proper fatty acid intake and for preventing the development of diseases. Thus, this article assessed the incorporation of fatty acids in animal tissues and discussed the importance of n-3 fatty acids and its metabolites for the immune system.

João Ângelo De Lima Perini; Flávia Braidotti Stevanato; Sheisa Cyléia Sargi; Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer; Márcia Machado De Oliveira Dalalio; Makoto Matshushita; Nilson Evelázio De Souza; Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer

2010-01-01

77

Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet.

Tso P; Caldwell J; Lee D; Boivin GP; DeMichele SJ

2012-06-01

78

Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. PMID:22265940

Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

2012-01-12

79

Trabajos de Investigación Increase of plasma fatty acids without changes in n-6/n-3-PUFA ratio in asymptomatic obese subjects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La obesidad está asociada con una inflamación de bajo grado que contribuye al desarrollo de la insulino-resistencia y de la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos saturados (AGS), monoinsaturados (AGMI) y poliinsaturados (AGPI) en sujetos obesos asintomáticos y determinar el ratio ácido araquidónico/ácido eicosapentanoico [ARA/EPA] como un posible marcador de inflamación, con su eventual asociación con los niveles de proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (PCRus). Se reclutaron 14 sujetos obesos (34,4 ± 11.1 años; índice de masa corporal: 36,0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) y 12 normopeso (30,6 ± 7.8 años; índice de masa corporal: 23,6 ± 2,4 kg/m2); las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos fueron determinados por cromatografía de gases. Los niveles de PCRus fueron más elevadas en los sujetos obesos (p=0,01) y correlacionaron con el contenido de grasa corporal. Los porcentajes relativos de AGS, AGMI, AGPI no se vieron afectados en los sujetos obesos, pero sus concentraciones plasmáticas se incrementaron en comparación con el grupo control. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias en las concentraciones de PUFAs de cadena larga (DHA, EPA y ARA) ni en el ratio ARA/EPA en los sujetos obesos. Estas observaciones no apoyan el uso del ratio ARA/EPA como un marcador de inflamación de bajo grado evaluada por PCRus en este grupo de sujetos obesos asintomáticos.Obesity is associated with a low grade inflammation which contributes to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the total saturated (SFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma from asymptomatic obese subjects and to determine the arachidonic/eicosapentanoic acid ratio [ARA/EPA] as a marker of inflammation, and its eventual association with ultrasensitive CRP. Fourteen obese (34.4 ± 11.1y.; BMI: 36.0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) and 12 normal-weight (30.6 ± 7.8y.; BMI: 23,6± 2,4 kg/m2) subjects were recruited and their plasma fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. usCRP was higher in the obese subjects (p=0,01) and correlates with their body fat content. The percentages of SFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs were not affected in the obese subjects but their concentrations were increased, compared with the control group. However, no differences in the long chain PUFAs (DHA and EPA) concentrations or in the plasmatic ARA/EPA ratio were observed in these subjects. These observations do not support a relation between the ARA/EPA ratio and the presence of low grade inflammation evaluated by plasma usCRP in this group of asymptomatic obese subjects.

Jerusa Brignardello; Pamela Morales; Erik Diaz; Oscar Brunser; Martin Gotteland

2011-01-01

80

Proteomic Changes Induced by Effective Chemopreventive Ratios of n-3:n-6 Fatty Acids and Tamoxifen against MNU-Induced Mammary Cancer in the Rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We used a proteomic approach to gain insights into the mechanisms of protection at the protein level by a high n-3:n-6 ratio in the absence and presence of Tamoxifen. Four groups were treated with 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) and fed the following diets with varied n-3:n-6 ratios; Group 1 =1:1; Groups 2 and 3 =10:1 and 25:1, respectively; Group 4: (25:1) plus Tamoxifen(1 mg/kg diet). The plasma from 6 rats/group was pooled and analyzed with the isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation(iTRAQ) method; 148 proteins were identified with 95% confidence by ProteinPilot 4.0. In plasma of rats fed 10:1, 25:1 n-3:n-6, and 25:1 plus Tamoxifen the number of proteins that met our criteria(p?0.05, error factor?2) were 10, 14, and 19 proteins, respectively. Selected proteins were further validated by Western blotting. Compared to 1:1, both 10:1 and 25:1 diets up-regulated vitamin D binding protein, gelsolin, and 14-3-3 sigma, reported to have tumor suppressive effects, whereas A1BG, which has been reported to be elevated in the serum of breast cancer patients was decreased. Compared to 25:1, the 25:1 plus Tamoxifen diet down-regulated apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, and ITIH4. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis determined that the trends of specific proteins were related to lipid metabolism in the 25:1 n-3:n-6 group, while the 25:1 n-3:n-6 plus Tamoxifen group included proteins involved in cancer and inflammation. Our results demonstrate that several proteins were altered in a manner consistent with chemoprevention; such proteins may serve as biomarkers to monitor efficacy of n-3 and Tamoxifen in future clinical chemoprevention trials.

Skibinski CG; Thompson HJ; Das A; Manni A; Bortner J Jr; Stanley A; Stanley B; El-Bayoumy K

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Proteomic changes induced by effective chemopreventive ratios of n-3:n-6 fatty acids and tamoxifen against MNU-induced mammary cancer in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

We used a proteomic approach to gain insights into the mechanisms of protection at the protein level by a high n-3:n-6 ratio in the absence and presence of Tamoxifen. Four groups were treated with 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) and fed the following diets with varied n-3:n-6 ratios; group 1 = 1:1; groups 2 and 3 = 10:1 and 25:1, respectively; group 4: (25:1) plus Tamoxifen (1 mg/kg diet). The plasma from six rats/group was pooled and analyzed with the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation method; 148 proteins were identified with 95% confidence by ProteinPilot 4.0. In plasma of rats fed 10:1, 25:1 n-3:n-6, and 25:1 plus Tamoxifen, the number of proteins that met our criteria (P ? 0.05, error factor ? 2) were 10, 14, and 19 proteins, respectively. Selected proteins were further validated by Western blotting. Compared to 1:1, both 10:1 and 25:1 diets upregulated vitamin D binding protein, gelsolin, and 14-3-3 sigma, reported to have tumor suppressive effects, whereas alpha-1B-glycoprotein, which has been reported to be elevated in the serum of breast cancer patients was decreased. Compared to 25:1, the 25:1 plus Tamoxifen diet downregulated apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, and inter-?-inhibitor H4 heavy chain. Ingenuity pathway analysis determined that the trends of specific proteins were related to lipid metabolism in the 25:1 n-3:n-6 group, whereas the 25:1 n-3:n-6 plus Tamoxifen group included proteins involved in cancer and inflammation. Our results show that several proteins were altered in a manner consistent with chemoprevention. Such proteins may serve as biomarkers to monitor efficacy of n-3 and Tamoxifen in future clinical chemoprevention trials. PMID:23880232

Skibinski, Christine G; Thompson, Henry J; Das, Arunangshu; Manni, Andrea; Bortner, James D; Stanley, Anne; Stanley, Bruce A; El-Bayoumy, Karam

2013-07-23

82

Proteomic changes induced by effective chemopreventive ratios of n-3:n-6 fatty acids and tamoxifen against MNU-induced mammary cancer in the rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We used a proteomic approach to gain insights into the mechanisms of protection at the protein level by a high n-3:n-6 ratio in the absence and presence of Tamoxifen. Four groups were treated with 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) and fed the following diets with varied n-3:n-6 ratios; group 1 = 1:1; groups 2 and 3 = 10:1 and 25:1, respectively; group 4: (25:1) plus Tamoxifen (1 mg/kg diet). The plasma from six rats/group was pooled and analyzed with the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation method; 148 proteins were identified with 95% confidence by ProteinPilot 4.0. In plasma of rats fed 10:1, 25:1 n-3:n-6, and 25:1 plus Tamoxifen, the number of proteins that met our criteria (P ? 0.05, error factor ? 2) were 10, 14, and 19 proteins, respectively. Selected proteins were further validated by Western blotting. Compared to 1:1, both 10:1 and 25:1 diets upregulated vitamin D binding protein, gelsolin, and 14-3-3 sigma, reported to have tumor suppressive effects, whereas alpha-1B-glycoprotein, which has been reported to be elevated in the serum of breast cancer patients was decreased. Compared to 25:1, the 25:1 plus Tamoxifen diet downregulated apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, and inter-?-inhibitor H4 heavy chain. Ingenuity pathway analysis determined that the trends of specific proteins were related to lipid metabolism in the 25:1 n-3:n-6 group, whereas the 25:1 n-3:n-6 plus Tamoxifen group included proteins involved in cancer and inflammation. Our results show that several proteins were altered in a manner consistent with chemoprevention. Such proteins may serve as biomarkers to monitor efficacy of n-3 and Tamoxifen in future clinical chemoprevention trials.

Skibinski CG; Thompson HJ; Das A; Manni A; Bortner JD; Stanley A; Stanley BA; El-Bayoumy K

2013-09-01

83

Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6) leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP) leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein), or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein) or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein) for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor ? protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ? expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

Nuernberg Karin; Breier Bernhard H; Jayasinghe Shakeela N; Bergmann Hannes; Thompson Nichola; Nuernberg Gerd; Dannenberger Dirk; Schneider Falk; Renne Ulla; Langhammer Martina; Huber Korinna

2011-01-01

84

Efeito dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 na expressão de genes do metabolismo de lipídeos e risco de aterosclerose/ Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in the lipid metabolism and risk of atherosclerosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A aterosclerose, principal responsável pela patogênese do infarto miocárdico e cerebral, bem como pela gangrena e por outras doenças vasculares periféricas, permanece como principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade nas populações "ocidentalizadas". Estima-se que 17,5 milhões de pessoas morreram por doenças cardiovasculares em 2005, o que representou 30% das causas de morte nesse ano, e que, em 2015, 20 milhões de pessoas morrerão por doenças cardiovasculares n (more) o mundo. Os ácidos graxos n-3, principalmente os de cadeia longa, encontrados nos peixes, têm-se mostrado particularmente úteis na prevenção e tratamento de doenças como dislipidemias, diabetes mellitus e obesidade, apresentando importante efeito cardioprotetor. Nesse contexto, pesquisas têm evidenciado que ao menos parte dos benefícios dos ácidos graxos eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico sobre o risco de doenças cardiovasculares é decorrente da modulação de genes responsivos aos receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomos e envolvidos no metabolismo lipídico. Nesta revisão, pretende-se expor alguns mecanismos de ação dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 sobre o metabolismo de lipídeos e de lipoproteínas. Conclui-se que muitos aspectos que contribuem para o risco de doenças cardiovasculares são afetados pela ingestão de n-3. Além da redução de triglicérides, fatores como o aumento de adiponectina, a redução da concentração de colesterol plasmático e a melhora do transporte reverso de colesterol também são responsáveis pela redução do risco de aterosclerose promovida pelos ácidos graxos n-3. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos adicionais para definir mais claramente os mecanismos celulares e moleculares responsáveis pelo efeito cardioprotetor dos ácidos graxos n-3. Abstract in english Atherosclerosis, the main cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, gangrene and other peripheral vascular diseases, also persists as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Western populations. Roughly 17.5 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2005, representing 30% of the causes of death in that year, and in 2015, another 20 million people will die of cardiovascular diseases around the world. The n-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain n-3 found in (more) fish, have been shown to be particularly effective in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus and obesity, presenting an important cardioprotective effect. In this context, studies have found that at least some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids regard the modulation of genes that respond to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors involved in lipid metabolism. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of some n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In conclusion, many aspects that contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases are affected by n-3 intake. N-3 fatty acids not only reduce triglycerides, but also promote factors that increase adiponectin, reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the reverse cholesterol transport, and all of these contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. However, additional studies are still necessary to elucidate all the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the cardioprotective effect of n-3 fatty acids.

Raposo, Helena Fonseca

2010-10-01

85

Efeito dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 na expressão de genes do metabolismo de lipídeos e risco de aterosclerose Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in the lipid metabolism and risk of atherosclerosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A aterosclerose, principal responsável pela patogênese do infarto miocárdico e cerebral, bem como pela gangrena e por outras doenças vasculares periféricas, permanece como principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade nas populações "ocidentalizadas". Estima-se que 17,5 milhões de pessoas morreram por doenças cardiovasculares em 2005, o que representou 30% das causas de morte nesse ano, e que, em 2015, 20 milhões de pessoas morrerão por doenças cardiovasculares no mundo. Os ácidos graxos n-3, principalmente os de cadeia longa, encontrados nos peixes, têm-se mostrado particularmente úteis na prevenção e tratamento de doenças como dislipidemias, diabetes mellitus e obesidade, apresentando importante efeito cardioprotetor. Nesse contexto, pesquisas têm evidenciado que ao menos parte dos benefícios dos ácidos graxos eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico sobre o risco de doenças cardiovasculares é decorrente da modulação de genes responsivos aos receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomos e envolvidos no metabolismo lipídico. Nesta revisão, pretende-se expor alguns mecanismos de ação dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 sobre o metabolismo de lipídeos e de lipoproteínas. Conclui-se que muitos aspectos que contribuem para o risco de doenças cardiovasculares são afetados pela ingestão de n-3. Além da redução de triglicérides, fatores como o aumento de adiponectina, a redução da concentração de colesterol plasmático e a melhora do transporte reverso de colesterol também são responsáveis pela redução do risco de aterosclerose promovida pelos ácidos graxos n-3. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos adicionais para definir mais claramente os mecanismos celulares e moleculares responsáveis pelo efeito cardioprotetor dos ácidos graxos n-3.Atherosclerosis, the main cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, gangrene and other peripheral vascular diseases, also persists as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Western populations. Roughly 17.5 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2005, representing 30% of the causes of death in that year, and in 2015, another 20 million people will die of cardiovascular diseases around the world. The n-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain n-3 found in fish, have been shown to be particularly effective in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus and obesity, presenting an important cardioprotective effect. In this context, studies have found that at least some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids regard the modulation of genes that respond to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors involved in lipid metabolism. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of some n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In conclusion, many aspects that contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases are affected by n-3 intake. N-3 fatty acids not only reduce triglycerides, but also promote factors that increase adiponectin, reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the reverse cholesterol transport, and all of these contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. However, additional studies are still necessary to elucidate all the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the cardioprotective effect of n-3 fatty acids.

Helena Fonseca Raposo

2010-01-01

86

New bioactive fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid, and racinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid. DOD showed antibacterial activity including against food-borne pathogens. Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. For example: linoleic acid was converted to12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid and then to 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DHOA). From here, there are two bioconversion pathways. The major pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(S)-octadecenoic acid (THOA) --> 12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (DEOA) --> 7-hydroxy-DEOA. The minor pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,16-THOA --> 12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid. 12,13,17-THOA has anti-plant pathogenic fungal activity. The tetrahydrofuranyl moiety is known in anti cancer drugs. Strain ALA2 also converts other n-3 and n-6 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to many new oxygenated unsaturated fatty acid products. All of these new products have high potential for antimicrobial agents or biomedical applications. We also screened 12 Mortierella fungal strains from the ARS Culture Collection for the production of bioactive fatty acids such as dihomo-gama-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid. All of the strains tested produced AA and DGLA from glucose or glycerol. The top five AA producers (mg AA/g CDW) were in the following order: M. alpina > M. zychae > M. hygrophila > M. minutissima > M. parvispora. Both AA and DGLA are important natural precursors of a large family of prostaglandin and thromboxane groups.

Hou CT

2008-01-01

87

New bioactive fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid, and racinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid. DOD showed antibacterial activity including against food-borne pathogens. Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. For example: linoleic acid was converted to12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid and then to 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DHOA). From here, there are two bioconversion pathways. The major pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(S)-octadecenoic acid (THOA) --> 12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (DEOA) --> 7-hydroxy-DEOA. The minor pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,16-THOA --> 12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid. 12,13,17-THOA has anti-plant pathogenic fungal activity. The tetrahydrofuranyl moiety is known in anti cancer drugs. Strain ALA2 also converts other n-3 and n-6 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to many new oxygenated unsaturated fatty acid products. All of these new products have high potential for antimicrobial agents or biomedical applications. We also screened 12 Mortierella fungal strains from the ARS Culture Collection for the production of bioactive fatty acids such as dihomo-gama-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid. All of the strains tested produced AA and DGLA from glucose or glycerol. The top five AA producers (mg AA/g CDW) were in the following order: M. alpina > M. zychae > M. hygrophila > M. minutissima > M. parvispora. Both AA and DGLA are important natural precursors of a large family of prostaglandin and thromboxane groups. PMID:18296335

Hou, Ching T

2008-01-01

88

The metabolism and distribution of docosapentaenoic acid (n-6) in the liver and testis of growing rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the metabolism and distribution of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6, DPA) in the liver and testis of growing rats, 22:5n-6 was administered to their dams. Newborn rats with a low hepatic arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, AA) level were generated by administrating a diet rich in docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) but n-6 fatty acid (FA) free to pregnant dams. After parturition, 22:5n-6 or linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA) was administered with a high level of 22:6n-3 to the dams until weaning. At weaning, the hepatic 20:4n-6 level was significantly highest in the DPA-DHA but not LA-DHA diet-fed animals. The hepatic delta-6 desaturase (D6D) mRNA abundance was significantly lower in both the LA-DHA and DPA-DHA diet-fed animals, connoted with the 20:4n-6 content recovered by 22:5n-6 that did not involve D6D and supporting the occurrence of retroconversion in the liver of the growing rats. The low D6D level in the 3-week-old testis was not in proportion to the elevated 22:5n-6 level, implying that early testicular 22:5n-6 accumulation might require supply from the circulation system. PMID:18838818

Tam, Phyllis S Y; Sawada, Rumi; Cui, Yan; Matsumoto, Akiyo; Fujiwara, Yoko

2008-10-07

89

Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein). Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P<0,05). The PUFA/SFA ratio was the highest in Simmental calves and the lowest in Holstein calves. Simmental calves also had the highest n-6/n-3 ratio while the crossbreed calves had the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio.

Nikolina Kelava; Miljenko Konja?i?; Ante Ivankovi?; Jelena Ramljak; Ivica Kos

2010-01-01

90

Subchronic toxicity of baltic herring oil and its fractions in the rat (III) bone tissue composition and dimension, and ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in total bone mineral density determined by the bone-ash method were recently demonstrated in rats, exposed to Herring oil from the contaminated southern part of the Baltic Sea. In the present study more detailed analysis of bone structure and biomechanics was performed and obtained results were evaluated in the context of dietary factors, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D and vitamin A. Baltic Sea herring oil was fractionated into one relatively pollutant-free fraction (F1), and two fractions with pronounced enrichment of pollutants (F2 and F3). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets supplemented with Baltic Herring oil, its fractions, Nordic Sea capelin oil or soy oil. Femur was scanned with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and also tested by a mechanical compression analysis. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin A and D were analysed in serum. Rats fed the high dose of herring oil exhibited shorter femur length with decreased diaphyseal cortical bone mineral density, as well as lowered metaphyseal cross-sectional area compared to the soy oil group. Rats fed the high dose of F1 diet had increased cortical and decreased trabecular area, and higher total and trabecular bone mineral density. Rats fed the low dose of F2 diet showed similar changes associated with increased maximum load and energy absorption in compression test of the femoral metaphysis. In summary, our findings in changes of bone geometry and density could not be linked to any isolated exposure parameter, suggesting synergistic or antagonistic effects of several components of the test diets.

Stern N; Korotkova M; Strandvik B; Oxlund H; Oberg M; Håkansson H; Lind PM

2005-06-01

91

Hepatic fatty acid partitioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A net retention of triacylglycerol within the liver is a prerequisite for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The accumulation of liver fat reflects an imbalance between fatty acid input and disposal. Here we summarize recent research into understanding the fate of fatty acids within the hepatocyte. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies have elucidated the contribution of different sources of fatty acids to liver fat and to plasma triacylglycerol. Some recent studies have suggested that, contrary to expectations, hepatic fatty acid oxidation is upregulated in insulin-resistant individuals. A recent observation shows the potential importance of fatty acid transformation, especially desaturation, to determination of metabolic fate. These studies highlight our lack of understanding of the regulation of metabolic partitioning of fatty acids within the human liver. SUMMARY: The regulation of hepatic fatty acid partitioning involves many factors; not least insulin. Insulin undoubtedly regulates the supply of fatty acids to the liver from adipose tissue; however, whether insulin has a direct intrahepatic effect on hepatic fatty acid partitioning, in humans, remains unclear. The transformation of fatty acids, by desaturases, may have an important role in aiding the disposal of saturated fatty acids via oxidative pathways. Factors that upregulate hepatic fatty acid oxidation need to be elucidated.

Hodson L; Frayn KN

2011-06-01

92

Polymorphisms in candidate obesity genes and their interaction with dietary intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect obesity risk in a sub-sample of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIM: In several genes coding for molecules involved in the regulation of body weight (fat mass) and thermogenesis, polymorphisms have been reported which possibly modify human obesity risk. The aim of this study was a) to reproduce these observations with data and biological material from the Heidelberg cohort of EPIC, a large European prospective investigation into diet and cancer, and b) to investigate potential effects of interactions between dietary fatty acid intake and allelic variants on obesity risk. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Within EPIC-Heidelberg, 154 subjects with a body mass index > 35 kg/m(2) and 154 age- and sex-matched normal-weight controls were selected and genotypes determined for 11 candidate genes. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) were computed by means of unconditional logistic regression and different adjustment models. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP and allele-specific PCR. RESULTS: For most of the investigated genes (PPARA, PPARG2, UCP1, UCP2, UCP3, BAR-2, APM1, leptin, SORBS1, HSL, and TNFA) an indication for a minor effect on obesity risk was found. Indication of a risk-increasing effect was strongest for the homozygous form of leptin -2548AA with an adjusted OR of 3.53 (p < 0.009). Additionally, for the polymorphic sites of BAR-2 (Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu) a significant effect on obesity risk was seen. Importantly, the results of the analysis of gene-diet interactions suggest that the allelic variants of candidate genes (leptin, TNFA, PPARG2) might strongly affect diet-related obesity risk. CONCLUSIONS: The results support some but not all previous reports about a risk-modulating effect of polymorphisms in genes affecting obesity risk. The most important finding is an indication of substantial interaction between allelic variants of particular genes and fatty acid intake-related obesity risk. These observations suggest that future studies on polymorphisms in obesity genes should take data on dietary habits into account.

Nieters A; Becker N; Linseisen J

2002-10-01

93

Trabajos de Investigación Increase of plasma fatty acids without changes in n-6/n-3-PUFA ratio in asymptomatic obese subjects/ Aumento de las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos sin cambio en el ratio de n-6/n-3 PUFA en sujetos obesos asintomáticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La obesidad está asociada con una inflamación de bajo grado que contribuye al desarrollo de la insulino-resistencia y de la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos saturados (AGS), monoinsaturados (AGMI) y poliinsaturados (AGPI) en sujetos obesos asintomáticos y determinar el ratio ácido araquidónico/ácido eicosapentanoico [ARA/EPA] como un posible marcador de inflamación, con su eventual asociación con (more) los niveles de proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (PCRus). Se reclutaron 14 sujetos obesos (34,4 ± 11.1 años; índice de masa corporal: 36,0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) y 12 normopeso (30,6 ± 7.8 años; índice de masa corporal: 23,6 ± 2,4 kg/m2); las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos fueron determinados por cromatografía de gases. Los niveles de PCRus fueron más elevadas en los sujetos obesos (p=0,01) y correlacionaron con el contenido de grasa corporal. Los porcentajes relativos de AGS, AGMI, AGPI no se vieron afectados en los sujetos obesos, pero sus concentraciones plasmáticas se incrementaron en comparación con el grupo control. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias en las concentraciones de PUFAs de cadena larga (DHA, EPA y ARA) ni en el ratio ARA/EPA en los sujetos obesos. Estas observaciones no apoyan el uso del ratio ARA/EPA como un marcador de inflamación de bajo grado evaluada por PCRus en este grupo de sujetos obesos asintomáticos. Abstract in english Obesity is associated with a low grade inflammation which contributes to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the total saturated (SFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma from asymptomatic obese subjects and to determine the arachidonic/eicosapentanoic acid ratio [ARA/EPA] as a marker of inflammation, and its eventual association with ultrasensitive CRP. Fourteen obese (34.4 ± 11. (more) 1y.; BMI: 36.0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) and 12 normal-weight (30.6 ± 7.8y.; BMI: 23,6± 2,4 kg/m2) subjects were recruited and their plasma fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. usCRP was higher in the obese subjects (p=0,01) and correlates with their body fat content. The percentages of SFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs were not affected in the obese subjects but their concentrations were increased, compared with the control group. However, no differences in the long chain PUFAs (DHA and EPA) concentrations or in the plasmatic ARA/EPA ratio were observed in these subjects. These observations do not support a relation between the ARA/EPA ratio and the presence of low grade inflammation evaluated by plasma usCRP in this group of asymptomatic obese subjects.

Brignardello, Jerusa; Morales, Pamela; Diaz, Erik; Brunser, Oscar; Gotteland, Martin

2011-06-01

94

Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipids and in the Central and External Positions of Triacylglycerol in Muscle and Subcutaneous Fat of Beef Steers Fed Diets Supplemented with Oil Containing n6 and n3 Fatty Acids While Undergoing One of Three 48?h Feed Withdrawal Treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine the effects of dietary oil and feed withdrawal treatments on fatty acid composition of phospholipids of triacylglycerol in pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle and subcutaneous fat from the brisket. A 2 × 3 factorial experiment was conducted with crossbred steers with an initial body weight of 280.5 ± 5.8?kg. Steers were fed either a control or an oil containing diet where 5% of the control diet was replaced with an equal mixture sunflower and flax oil while undergoing one of three feed withdrawal treatments: no withdrawal, a single 48?h withdrawal before initiation of fattening at one year of age, or 48?h withdrawal at 8?wk intervals from weaning to initiation of fattening. At time of processing samples of muscle and fat were obtained and analyzed to determine fatty acid composition. Disproportionate distribution of the fatty acids was observed by diet, feed withdrawal regimen and whether the sample was from muscle or fat. Differences are discussed in detail, and our data suggests a special function for the fatty acids that accumulate in specific positions of the triacylglycerol due to treatment. PMID:22900190

Margetak, C; Travis, G; Entz, T; Mir, P S; Wei, S; Dodson, M V

2012-07-29

95

Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipids and in the Central and External Positions of Triacylglycerol in Muscle and Subcutaneous Fat of Beef Steers Fed Diets Supplemented with Oil Containing n6 and n3 Fatty Acids While Undergoing One of Three 48 h Feed Withdrawal Treatments  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine the effects of dietary oil and feed withdrawal treatments on fatty acid composition of phospholipids of triacylglycerol in pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle and subcutaneous fat from the brisket. A 2 × 3 factorial experiment was conducted with crossbred steers with an initial body weight of 280.5 ± 5.8?kg. Steers were fed either a control or an oil containing diet where 5% of the control diet was replaced with an equal mixture sunflower and flax oil while undergoing one of three feed withdrawal treatments: no withdrawal, a single 48?h withdrawal before initiation of fattening at one year of age, or 48?h withdrawal at 8?wk intervals from weaning to initiation of fattening. At time of processing samples of muscle and fat were obtained and analyzed to determine fatty acid composition. Disproportionate distribution of the fatty acids was observed by diet, feed withdrawal regimen and whether the sample was from muscle or fat. Differences are discussed in detail, and our data suggests a special function for the fatty acids that accumulate in specific positions of the triacylglycerol due to treatment.

Margetak, C.; Travis, G.; Entz, T.; Mir, P. S.; Wei, S.; Dodson, M. V.

2012-01-01

96

Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipids and in the Central and External Positions of Triacylglycerol in Muscle and Subcutaneous Fat of Beef Steers Fed Diets Supplemented with Oil Containing n6 and n3 Fatty Acids While Undergoing One of Three 48?h Feed Withdrawal Treatments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was designed to determine the effects of dietary oil and feed withdrawal treatments on fatty acid composition of phospholipids of triacylglycerol in pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle and subcutaneous fat from the brisket. A 2 × 3 factorial experiment was conducted with crossbred steers with an initial body weight of 280.5 ± 5.8?kg. Steers were fed either a control or an oil containing diet where 5% of the control diet was replaced with an equal mixture sunflower and flax oil while undergoing one of three feed withdrawal treatments: no withdrawal, a single 48?h withdrawal before initiation of fattening at one year of age, or 48?h withdrawal at 8?wk intervals from weaning to initiation of fattening. At time of processing samples of muscle and fat were obtained and analyzed to determine fatty acid composition. Disproportionate distribution of the fatty acids was observed by diet, feed withdrawal regimen and whether the sample was from muscle or fat. Differences are discussed in detail, and our data suggests a special function for the fatty acids that accumulate in specific positions of the triacylglycerol due to treatment.

Margetak C; Travis G; Entz T; Mir PS; Wei S; Dodson MV

2012-01-01

97

The combined effects of genetic variation in the SIRT1 gene and dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on serum LDL-C and HDL-C levels: a population based study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslipidemia due to high total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, or low HDL-cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Both SIRT1 and PUFAs can influence the expression of genes for nuclear receptors and transcription factors related to lipid metabolism such as LXR?, LXR?, PPAR?, SREBP-1c. Methods A total of 707 Japanese males and 723 females were randomly selected from the participants who visited a medical center for routine medical check-ups. We analyzed the combined effects of the genotype/haplotype of the SIRT1 gene and dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio on the determination of serum lipid levels. Results We found that the SIRT1 gene marked with haplotype 2 was associated with decreased serum LDL-cholesterol and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. In addition, the associations between the SIRT1 haplotype 2 and decreased LDL-C and increased HDL-C levels were only observed in the low n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio group, but not in the high n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio group. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the combination of genetic variation in the SIRT1 gene and dietary n-6 and/or n-3 PUFA intake influence the determination of inter-individual variations of serum levels of LDL-C and HDL-C.

Inamori Tomoko; Goda Toshinao; Kasezawa Nobuhiko; Yamakawa-Kobayashi Kimiko

2013-01-01

98

The combined effects of genetic variation in the SIRT1 gene and dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on serum LDL-C and HDL-C levels: a population based study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia due to high total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, or low HDL-cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Both SIRT1 and PUFAs can influence the expression of genes for nuclear receptors and transcription factors related to lipid metabolism such as LXR?, LXR?, PPAR?, SREBP-1c. METHODS: A total of 707 Japanese males and 723 females were randomly selected from the participants who visited a medical center for routine medical check-ups. We analyzed the combined effects of the genotype/haplotype of the SIRT1 gene and dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio on the determination of serum lipid levels. RESULTS: We found that the SIRT1 gene marked with haplotype 2 was associated with decreased serum LDL-cholesterol and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. In addition, the associations between the SIRT1 haplotype 2 and decreased LDL-C and increased HDL-C levels were only observed in the low n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio group, but not in the high n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the combination of genetic variation in the SIRT1 gene and dietary n-6 and/or n-3 PUFA intake influence the determination of inter-individual variations of serum levels of LDL-C and HDL-C.

Inamori T; Goda T; Kasezawa N; Yamakawa-Kobayashi K

2013-01-01

99

Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Essential fatty acids (EFA) are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy.

Bill Lands

2012-01-01

100

Dietary fatty acids and myocardial function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is widely recognized that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) and cholesterol can profoundly influence the development of atherosclerotic plaques in coronary vessels, which may lead to myocardial infarction. The possibility that dietary fatty acids may also directly influence cardiac function has received less attention. We therefore reviewed the evidence of the effects of dietary fatty acids, in particular n-3 and n-6 PUFA's, on myocardial phospholipid fatty acid composition and cardiovascular performance. Heart organelles appear to incorporate uncommon fatty acids like 22:1 and trans- 18:1. Diets enriched with 22:1 induce myocardial lipidosis. N-9, n-6 and n-3 families compete among membrane C20 and C22 acids. Several studies have dealt with the relation between diet-induced changes of cardiac membrane (sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria) phospholipids and membrane function. In view of the variety of diets used and of the membrane functions studied, the results do not permit equivocal interpretation. Several investigators have reported an altered stress response of the heart due to a change of PUFA's in the diet. In rats fed with a low 18:2n-6/18:3n-3 ratio combined with relatively low amounts of saturated fatty acids, a high incidence of myocardial lesions has been observed. Pigs are less sensitive but more susceptible to the development of vitamin E deficiency, when the dietary PUFA content is high. Increased contractility and coronary flow rate have been reported for Langendorff-perfused hearts of rats fed 18:2n-6-rich diets. The effects on coronary flow rate are possibly related to alterations in eicosanoid synthesis, which may also contribute to the reduction by n-6 or n-3 PUFA's in infarct size, magnitude of recovery of function and suppression of reperfusion arrhythmias following release of a coronary artery ligation. On the other hand, increased peroxidation of membrane lipids, due to their high content of n-3 PUFA, may be deleterious.

Lamers JM; Hartog JM; Verdouw PD; Hülsmann WC

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content) results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.). Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

Philip C. Calder

2010-01-01

102

Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content) results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.). Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component. PMID:22254027

Calder, Philip C

2010-03-18

103

Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated (18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)) fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of (1-/sup 14/C)labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism.

de Lema, M.G.; Aeberhard, E.E.

1986-11-01

104

Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated [18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)] fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of [1-14C]labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism.

1986-01-01

105

The impact of omega-3 fatty acids on osteoporosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) comprise 2 main classes: n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The most common source of n-6 fatty acids is linoleic acid (LA) which is found in high concentrations in various vegetable oils. Arachidonic acid (AA), the 20-carbon n-6 fatty acid, is obtained largely by synthesis from LA in the body. The n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) are found in fish and fish oils. Long-Chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and lipid mediators derived from LCPUFAs have critical roles in the regulation of a variety of biological processes including bone metabolism. There are different mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids affect bone: effect on calcium balance, effect on osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast activity, change of membrane function, decrease in inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), modulation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Animal studies have shown that a higher dietary omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids ratio is associated with beneficial effects on bone health. In spite of increasing evidence of the positive effects of dietary fats on bone metabolism from animal and in vitro studies, the few studies conducted in humans do not allow us to draw a definitive conclusion on their usefulness in clinical practice. PMID:20041817

Maggio, M; Artoni, A; Lauretani, F; Borghi, L; Nouvenne, A; Valenti, G; Ceda, G P

2009-01-01

106

Polyunsaturated fatty acids and peripheral artery disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is substantial evidence that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FAs) play an important role in prevention of atherosclerosis. In vitro and in vivo studies focusing on the interactions between monocytes and endothelial cells have explored the molecular effects of FAs on these interactions. Epidemiological surveys, followed by large, randomized, control trials have demonstrated a reduction in major cardiovascular events with supplementation of n-3 FAs in secondary prevention settings. The evidence of beneficial effects specific to patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) remains elusive, and is the focus of this review.

Grenon SM; Hughes-Fulford M; Rapp J; Conte MS

2012-02-01

107

Production of cloned transgenic cow expressing omega-3 fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are important for human health. Alternative resources of n-3 PUAFs created by transgenic domestic animals would be an economic approach. In this study, we generated a mfat-1 transgenic cattle expressed a Caenorhabditis elegans gene, mfat-1, encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Fatty acids analysis of tissue and milk showed that all of the examined n-3 PUAFs were greatly increased and simultaneously the n-6 PUAFs decreased in the transgenic cow. A significantly reduction of n-6/n-3 ratios (P<0.05) in both tissue and milk were observed.

Wu X; Ouyang H; Duan B; Pang D; Zhang L; Yuan T; Xue L; Ni D; Cheng L; Dong S; Wei Z; Li L; Yu M; Sun QY; Chen DY; Lai L; Dai Y; Li GP

2012-06-01

108

Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0), along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6) was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

Ivan?ica Delaš; Tanja Ka?unko; Jasna Beganovi?; Frane Delaš

2005-01-01

109

Interaction of Fatty Acid Genotype and Diet on Changes in Colonic Fatty Acids in a Mediterranean Diet Intervention Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Mediterranean diet increases intakes of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids and lowers intake of n-6 fatty acids. This can impact colon cancer risk since n-6 fatty acids are metabolized to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interactions of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase genes, FADS1 and FADS2, and changes in diet on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. A total of 108 individuals at increased risk of colon cancer were randomized to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet. Fatty acids were measured in both serum and colonic mucosa at baseline and after 6 months. Each individual was genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster. Linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of diet, genotype and the diet by genotype interaction on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. Genetic variation in the FADS genes was strongly associated with baseline serum arachidonic acid (n-6, AA) but not significantly associated with serum eicosapentaenoic acid (n-3) and colonic fatty acid concentrations. After intervention, there was a significant diet by genotype interaction for AA concentrations in colon. Subjects who had all major alleles for FADS1/2 and were following a Mediterranean diet had 16% lower AA concentrations in the colon after 6 months of intervention than subjects following the Healthy Eating diet. These results indicate that FADS genotype could modify the effects of changes in dietary fat intakes on AA concentrations in the colon.

Porenta S; Ko YA; Gruber SB; Mukherjee B; Baylin A; Ren J; Djuric Z

2013-09-01

110

Long-chain fatty acids and inflammation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inflammation plays a key role in many common conditions and diseases. Fatty acids can influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms acting from the membrane to the nucleus. They act through cell surface and intracellular receptors that control inflammatory cell signalling and gene expression patterns. Modifications of inflammatory cell membrane fatty acid composition can modify membrane fluidity, lipid raft formation and cell signalling leading to altered gene expression and can alter the pattern of lipid and peptide mediator production. Cells involved in the inflammatory response usually contain a relatively high proportion of the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid in their membrane phospholipids. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have well-recognised roles in inflammation. Oral administration of the marine n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA increases the contents of EPA and DHA in the membranes of cells involved in inflammation. This is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of arachidonic acid present. EPA is a substrate for eicosanoid synthesis and these are often less potent than those produced from arachidonic acid. EPA gives rise to E-series resolvins and DHA gives rise to D-series resolvins and protectins. Resolvins and protectins are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Thus, the exposure of inflammatory cells to different types of fatty acids can influence their function and so has the potential to modify inflammatory processes.

Calder PC

2012-05-01

111

Long-chain fatty acids and inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammation plays a key role in many common conditions and diseases. Fatty acids can influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms acting from the membrane to the nucleus. They act through cell surface and intracellular receptors that control inflammatory cell signalling and gene expression patterns. Modifications of inflammatory cell membrane fatty acid composition can modify membrane fluidity, lipid raft formation and cell signalling leading to altered gene expression and can alter the pattern of lipid and peptide mediator production. Cells involved in the inflammatory response usually contain a relatively high proportion of the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid in their membrane phospholipids. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have well-recognised roles in inflammation. Oral administration of the marine n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA increases the contents of EPA and DHA in the membranes of cells involved in inflammation. This is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of arachidonic acid present. EPA is a substrate for eicosanoid synthesis and these are often less potent than those produced from arachidonic acid. EPA gives rise to E-series resolvins and DHA gives rise to D-series resolvins and protectins. Resolvins and protectins are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Thus, the exposure of inflammatory cells to different types of fatty acids can influence their function and so has the potential to modify inflammatory processes. PMID:22369781

Calder, Philip C

2012-02-28

112

Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human beings evolved consuming a diet that contained about equal amounts of n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids. Over the past 100-150 y there has been an enormous increase in the consumption of n-6 fatty acids due to the increased intake of vegetable oils from corn, sunflower seeds, safflower seeds, cottonseed, and soybeans. Today, in Western diets, the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids ranges from approximately 20-30:1 instead of the traditional range of 1-2:1. Studies indicate that a high intake of n-6 fatty acids shifts the physiologic state to one that is prothrombotic and proaggregatory, characterized by increases in blood viscosity, vasospasm, and vasoconstriction and decreases in bleeding time. n-3 Fatty acids, however, have antiinflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic, and vasodilatory properties. These beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids have been shown in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and, in some patients with renal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most of the studies were carried out with fish oils [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. However, alpha-linolenic acid, found in green leafy vegetables, flaxseed, rapeseed, and walnuts, desaturates and elongates in the human body to EPA and DHA and by itself may have beneficial effects in health and in the control of chronic diseases.

Simopoulos AP

1999-09-01

113

[A catalogue of fatty acids].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fatty acids structure and function is an area of renewed interest because of its effects on plasma lipids, biosynthesis of prostaglandins, leucotrienes and thromboxanes, and the obligatory demands of some fatty acids, especially for the newborn. Fatty acids are identified in three different ways: by the classical nomenclature, by its trivial name, and by the new methods also known as the omega system. These three different methods have created some confusion. The aim of this article is to revise fatty acids chemical structure and to compile a list of nutritional important fatty acids with the three different terminologies.

Canalejo E; Martín Peña G; Gómez Molero L; Ruiz Galiana J

1996-01-01

114

Omega-3 fatty acids for cystic fibrosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that a diet rich in omega-3 essential fatty acids may have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects for chronic conditions such as cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there is evidence that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality and to identify any adverse events associated with supplementation. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Authors and persons interested in the subject of the review were contacted.Date of last search: 10 March 2011. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials in people with cystic fibrosis comparing omega-3 fatty acid supplements with placebo. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the studies. MAIN RESULTS: The searches identified 13 studies; four studies with 91 participants were included. Two studies compared omega-3 fatty acids to olive oil for six weeks. One study compared a liquid dietary supplement containing omega-3 fatty acids to one without for six months. One study compared omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids to a control (capsules with customised fatty acid blends) for three months. Only one short-term study (19 participants) comparing omega-3 to placebo reported a significant improvement in lung function and Shwachman score and a reduction in sputum volume in the omega-3 group. Another study (43 participants) demonstrated a significant increase in serum phospholipid essential fatty acid content and a significant drop in the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation compared to control. The longer-term study (17 participants) demonstrated a significant increase in essential fatty acid content in neutrophil membranes and a significant decrease in the leukotriene B4 to leukotriene B5 ratio in participants taking omega-3 supplements compared to placebo. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review found that regular omega-3 supplements may provide some benefits for people with cystic fibrosis with relatively few adverse effects, although evidence is insufficient to draw firm conclusions or recommend routine use of these supplements in people with cystic fibrosis. This review has highlighted the lack of data for many outcomes meaningful to people with or making treatment decisions about cystic fibrosis. A large, long-term, multicentre, randomised controlled study is needed to determine any significant therapeutic effect and to assess the influence of disease severity, dosage and duration of treatment. Future researchers should note the need for additional pancreatic enzymes.

Oliver C; Jahnke N

2011-01-01

115

(Radioiodinated free fatty acids)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

Knapp, Jr., F. F.

1987-12-11

116

Dietary linoleic acid has no effect on arachidonic acid, but increases n-6 eicosadienoic acid, and lowers dihomo-gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma of adult men.  

Science.gov (United States)

High intakes of linoleic acid (LA,18:2n-6) have raised concern due to possible increase in arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) synthesis, and inhibition of alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) desaturation to eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). In healthy men, 10.5% energy compared to 3.8% energy LA with 1% energy ALA increased plasma phospholipid LA and 20:2n-6, the elongation product of LA, and decreased EPA, with no change in ARA. However, LA was inversely related to ARA at both 10.5% energy and 3.8% energy LA, (r=-0.761, r=-0.817, pn-6 fatty acid intake are important modifiers of plasma ARA. PMID:19356914

Angela Liou, Y; Innis, Sheila M

2009-04-08

117

ESTERIFIED FATTY ACID COMPOSITION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention is directed to compositions comprising lecithin, olive oil, esterified fatty acids and mixed tocophenols for use in the treatment and prevention of various types of arthritis and other inflammatory joint conditions, periodontal diseases and psoriasis, which avoid many of the side effects associated with known treatments. The compositions of the present invention have the advantage of increased stability, a reduction of arachidonic acid in cells, a reduction in eicosanoid production and enhanced cell regulation and communication. Also disclosed are methods for using the compositions for treatment and prevention.

SPENCER WILLIAM P; MILLSAP PATRICK S

118

Aberrations in plasma phospholipid fatty acids in lung cancer patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abnormalities in lipid metabolism have been frequently observed in cancer and are associated with a poor prognosis. However, a detailed, longitudinal characterization of fatty acid status is lacking. This study aimed to assess plasma phospholipid fatty acids before chemotherapy, immediately after and 1 month following chemotherapy in a group of 50 patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer and explore factors which may contribute to aberrations in fatty acids. Their mean ± SD characteristics: age 64 ± 8.5 years, 75% advanced stage disease, body mass index 27.0 ± 5.4 kg/m², 6 month weight loss -4.6 ± 6.1%. Compared to patients with early stage disease, patients with advanced disease had abnormal fatty acid profiles including significantly lower (P < 0.05) amounts of total phospholipid fatty acids, saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic). Longitudinal analysis revealed that patients with advanced disease who completed chemotherapy had stable fatty acid levels and continued to maintain levels 1 month following completion of chemotherapy. Comparatively, patients who did not complete chemotherapy due to toxicity or disease progression had progressive loss of total phospholipid fatty acids, stearic, linoleic and n-6 fatty acids and a trend towards lower docosahexaenoic, arachidonic, palmitic, n-3 and saturated fatty acids. These results suggest that loss of fatty acids is prevalent, progressive and potentially influenced by advanced disease and chemotherapy treatment.

Murphy RA; Bureyko TF; Mourtzakis M; Chu QS; Clandinin MT; Reiman T; Mazurak VC

2012-04-01

119

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic childhood disorders: panacea, promising, or placebo  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA, or LCP) include the essential fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) and linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) as well as a number of metabolites of both, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachid...

120

Fatty acid desaturases from primula  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates generally to methods and compositions concerning desaturase enzymes that modulate the number and location of double bonds in long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA's). In particular, the invention relates to methods and compositions for improving omega-3 fatty acid profiles in plant products and parts using desaturase enzymes and nucleic acids encoding for such enzymes. In particular embodiments, the desaturase enzymes are Primula Delta6-desaturases. Also provided are improved soybean oil compositions having SDA and a beneficial overall content of omega-3 fatty acids relative to omega-6 fatty acids.

URSIN VIRGINIA; FROMAN BYRON; SIMMONS JENNIFER; LAROSA THOMAS J; DONG FENGGAO; SCREEN STEVEN

 
 
 
 
121

[Fatty acid composition of platelet phospholipids and plasma lipids in obese Zucker rats  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this work was to see whether hyperlipaemia observed in genetically obese Zucker rats (fa/fa) was associated with differences in fatty-acid composition of plasma triacylglycerols, plasma phospholipids and of platelet phospholipids, in comparison with the control lean rats (Fa/-). Results showed that plasma triacylglycerols and phospholipids were increased in obese rats. In triacylglycerols, the amount of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was highly increased whereas the amount of the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was little modified. In plasma phospholipids, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were also increased, as were the n-3 fatty acids (except C 18:3 n-3); the n-6 fatty acids were little increased except C 20:3 n-6 which was markedly increased. These results concerning the amounts of fatty acids have their counterpart in their relative proportions of fatty acids. Data thus obtained suggest that conversion of linoleic acid (C 18:2 n-6) into arachidonic acid (C 20:4 n-6) was decreased in obese rats, particularly the delta 5 desaturation step. On the contrary, conversion of linolenic acid (C 18:3 n-3) into higher polyenes seemed increased. Thrombocytosis was not modified in the obese rat, but the volume of the platelets was increased. Platelet phospholipids exhibited the same modifications as plasma phospholipids but with different magnitude. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were little augmented, n-3 fatty acids were more augmented (except C 18:3 n-3 acid which was unchanged); n-6 fatty acids were not modified except C 20:3 n-6 acid which was highly increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Blond JP; Précigou P; Bézard J

1988-03-01

122

Intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and risk of ovarian cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Limited experimental evidence suggests that omega-3 polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells in vitro, whereas omega-6 polyunsaturated (n-6) fatty acids have been shown to promote carcinogenesis, but epidemiological studies to date have been inconclusive. Our aim was to evaluate the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in ovarian carcinogenesis. METHODS: Participants in the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study (1,366 cases and 1,414 population controls) self-completed risk factor and food frequency questionnaires. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We found no association between intake of total n-3 fatty acids from foods, or the individual n-3 fatty acids-alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic acids-and ovarian cancer risk. High intake of total n-6 fatty acids was inversely associated with risk (OR for highest vs. lowest category 0.78, 95 % CI 0.60-1.00, p-trend 0.04); however, the association was restricted to n-6 fatty acids from avocado, vegetables, and nuts. Neither higher intake of the individual n-6 fatty acids nor the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids was associated with ovarian cancer risk. We found no evidence that risk varied by supplement use. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide no evidence of a protective role for n-3 fatty acids in ovarian carcinogenesis. The benefit, if any, of higher intake of n-6 fatty acids is due to general properties of the food sources, rather than due to the n-6 fatty acids per se.

Ibiebele TI; Nagle CM; Bain CJ; Webb PM

2012-11-01

123

Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, dietary fatty acids and prostate cancer risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal and experimental studies have demonstrated that long-chain n-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of prostate cancer, whereas n-6 fatty acids might promote it. We performed a case-cohort analysis within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study using a random sample of 1,717 men and 464 prostate cancer cases to investigate associations between fatty acids assessed in plasma phospholipids (PPLs) or diet (estimated using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire) and prostate cancer risk. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression. Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL saturated fatty acids (SFAs); HR [95% CI] = 1.51 [1.06, 2.16] (Q5 vs. Q1, fifth vs. first quintile); p-trend = 0.003. HRs (Q5 to Q2 vs. Q1) were significantly elevated for %PPL palmitic acid. %PPL oleic acid was inversely associated with risk, HR = 0.62 [0.43, 0.91] (Q5 vs. Q1); p-trend = 0.04. No statistically significant linear trends were observed for dietary intakes. The HRs were elevated for moderate intakes of linoleic acid (Q2 and Q3 vs. Q1, 1.58 [1.10, 2.28] and 1.70 [1.18, 2.46], respectively), but the increase was not significant for higher intakes (Q4 and Q5). No association varied significantly by tumour aggressiveness (all p-homogeneity > 0.1). Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL SFA, largely attributable to palmitic acid and inversely associated with %PPL monounsaturated fatty acids, largely attributable to oleic acid. Higher risks were also observed for dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fats, primarily linoleic acid. PMID:23575905

Bassett, Julie K; Severi, Gianluca; Hodge, Allison M; Macinnis, Robert J; Gibson, Robert A; Hopper, John L; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G

2013-05-09

124

Health implications of high dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated Fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed "eicosanoids," which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show striking increases in the (n-6) to (n-3) ratio (~15?:?1), which are associated with greater metabolism of the n-6 PUFA compared with n-3 PUFA. Coinciding with this increase in the ratio of (n-6)?:?(n-3) PUFA are increases in chronic inflammatory diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). By increasing the ratio of (n-3)?:?(n-6) PUFA in the Western diet, reductions may be achieved in the incidence of these chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:22570770

Patterson, E; Wall, R; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Stanton, C

2012-04-05

125

Health implications of high dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated Fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed "eicosanoids," which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show striking increases in the (n-6) to (n-3) ratio (~15?:?1), which are associated with greater metabolism of the n-6 PUFA compared with n-3 PUFA. Coinciding with this increase in the ratio of (n-6)?:?(n-3) PUFA are increases in chronic inflammatory diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). By increasing the ratio of (n-3)?:?(n-6) PUFA in the Western diet, reductions may be achieved in the incidence of these chronic inflammatory diseases.

Patterson E; Wall R; Fitzgerald GF; Ross RP; Stanton C

2012-01-01

126

Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fatty acid composition of inflammatory and immune cells is sensitive to change according to the fatty acid composition of the diet. In particular, the proportion of different types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in these cells is readily changed, and this provides a link between dietary PUFA intake, inflammation, and immunity. The n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and related compounds, which have important roles in inflammation and in the regulation of immunity. Fish oil contains the n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Feeding fish oil results in partial replacement of AA in cell membranes by EPA. This leads to decreased production of AA-derived mediators. In addition, EPA is a substrate for cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase and gives rise to mediators that often have different biological actions or potencies than those formed from AA. Animal studies have shown that dietary fish oil results in altered lymphocyte function and in suppressed production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages. Supplementation of the diet of healthy human volunteers with fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA results in decreased monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis and decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines. Fish oil feeding has been shown to ameliorate the symptoms of some animal models of autoimmune disease. Clinical studies have reported that fish oil supplementation has beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and among some asthmatics, supporting the idea that the n-3 PUFA in fish oil are anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory.

Calder PC

2001-09-01

127

Fatty acids from fish: the anti-inflammatory potential of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of potent lipid mediators, termed eicosanoids, which play an important role in the regulation of inflammation. Eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFAs (e.g., arachidonic acid) have proinflammatory and immunoactive functions, whereas eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFAs [e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] have anti-inflammatory properties, traditionally attributed to their ability to inhibit the formation of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. While the typical Western diet has a much greater ratio of n-6 PUFAs compared with n-3 PUFAs, research has shown that by increasing the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids in the diet, and consequently favoring the production of EPA in the body, or by increasing the dietary intake of EPA and DHA through consumption of fatty fish or fish-oil supplements, reductions may be achieved in the incidence of many chronic diseases that involve inflammatory processes; most notably, these include cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis, but psychiatric and neurodegenerative illnesses are other examples.

Wall R; Ross RP; Fitzgerald GF; Stanton C

2010-05-01

128

Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pathogenesis and treatment of multiple sclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological, biochemical, animal model and clinical trial data described in this overview strongly suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly n-6 fatty acids, have a role in the pathogenesis and treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Data presented provides further evidence for a disturbance in n-6 fatty acid metabolism in MS. Disturbance of n-6 fatty acid metabolism and dysregulation of cytokines are shown to be linked and a "proof of concept clinical trial" further supports such a hypothesis. In a randomised double-blind, placebo controlled trial of a high dose and low dose selected GLA (18:3n-6)-rich oil and placebo control, the high dose had a marked clinical effect in relapsing-remitting MS, significantly decreasing the relapse rate and the progression of disease. Laboratory findings paralleled clinical changes in the placebo group in that production of mononuclear cell pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta) was increased and anti-inflammatory TGF-beta markedly decreased with loss of membrane n-6 fatty acids linoleic (18:2n-6) and arachidonic acids (20:4n-6). In contrast there were no such changes in the high dose group. The improvement in disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale) in the high dose suggests there maybe a beneficial effect on neuronal lipids and neural function in MS. Thus disturbed n-6 fatty acid metabolism in MS gives rise to loss of membrane long chain n-6 fatty acids and loss of the anti-inflammatory regulatory cytokine TGF-beta, particularly during the relapse phase, as well as loss of these important neural fatty acids for CNS structure and function and consequent long term neurological deficit in MS. PMID:17922959

Harbige, Laurence S; Sharief, Mohammad K

2007-10-01

129

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many antiinflammatory pharmaceutical products inhibit the production of certain eicosanoids and cytokines and it is here that possibilities exist for therapies that incorporate n-3 and n-9 dietary fatty acids. The proinflammatory eicosanoids prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) are derived from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA), which is maintained at high cellular concentrations by the high n-6 and low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the modern Western diet. Flaxseed oil contains the 18-carbon n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid, which can be converted after ingestion to the 20-carbon n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Fish oils contain both 20- and 22-carbon n-3 fatty acids, EPA and docosahexaenoic acid. EPA can act as a competitive inhibitor of AA conversion to PGE(2) and LTB(4), and decreased synthesis of one or both of these eicosanoids has been observed after inclusion of flaxseed oil or fish oil in the diet. Analogous to the effect of n-3 fatty acids, inclusion of the 20-carbon n-9 fatty acid eicosatrienoic acid in the diet also results in decreased synthesis of LTB(4). Regarding the proinflammatory ctyokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta, studies of healthy volunteers and rheumatoid arthritis patients have shown < or = 90% inhibition of cytokine production after dietary supplementation with fish oil. Use of flaxseed oil in domestic food preparation also reduced production of these cytokines. Novel antiinflammatory therapies can be developed that take advantage of positive interactions between the dietary fats and existing or newly developed pharmaceutical products.

James MJ; Gibson RA; Cleland LG

2000-01-01

130

Dietary fatty acids and lipoprotein metabolism: new insights and updates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dyslipidemia is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dietary fatty acid composition regulates lipids and lipoprotein metabolism and may confer CVD benefit. This review updates understanding of the effect of dietary fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: High dietary fish-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption diminished hepatic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) secretion and enhanced TRL to LDL conversion. n-3 PUFA also decreased TRL-apoB-48 concentration by decreasing TRL-apoB-48 secretion. High n-6 PUFA intake decreased liver fat, and plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, triglycerides, total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Intake of saturated fatty acids with increased palmitic acid at the sn-2 position was associated with decreased postprandial lipemia, which might be due to decreased triglyceride absorption. Replacing carbohydrate with monounsaturated fatty acids increased TRL catabolism. Ruminant trans-fatty acid decreased HDL cholesterol, but the mechanisms are unknown. A new role for APOE genotype in regulating lipid responses was also described. SUMMARY: The major advances in understanding the effect of dietary fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism have focused on n-3 PUFA. This knowledge provides insights into the importance of regulating lipoprotein metabolism as a mode to improve plasma lipids and potential CVD risk. Further studies are required to better understand the cardiometabolic effects of other dietary fatty acids.

Ooi EM; Ng TW; Watts GF; Barrett PH

2013-06-01

131

Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT) whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs) profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL) of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), trans fatty acids (t-FAs), and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI) and thrombogenic index (TI) were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs), PUFAs (5.3%), MUFAs (21.3%), t-FAs (3.6%) and CLA (0.8%). The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%), 9cis-18:1 (18.2%), 18:0 (9.6%), 14:0 (9.5%), 10:0 (9.3%) and 12:0 (4.5%). Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

Daniela Pittau; Romina Panzalis; Carlo Spanu; Christian Scarano; Enrico P.L. De Santis

2013-01-01

132

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children

Tetens, Inge

2010-01-01

133

METHOD FOR PRODUCING FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for producing fatty acid methyl ester has steps of providing waste oil with a fatty acid proceeding a first, second and third esterification and proceeding transesterification to obtain the fatty acid methyl ester. Because the method of the present invention uses low cost waste oil as a raw material, cost of fatty acid methyl ester can be decreased. Moreover, an amount of free fatty acid in the waste oil can be reduced by esterification, therefore, waste oil used in the transesterification has lowered amount of free fatty acid. Accordingly, the method has increased yield of fatty acid methyl ester.

KAO TZE-MING; LIN CHIEE-SHYAN

134

Long chain omega-3 fatty acids: micronutrients in disguise.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Considerable information has accumulated to show that DHA and EPA have unique roles that differ from other n-3 fatty acids and the n-6 fatty acids, with increasing understanding of the mechanisms through which these fatty acids reduce risk of disease. DHA and EPA regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, but are present in foods of animal origin, which are generally high in protein with variable triglycerides and low carbohydrate. Biological activity at intakes too low to provide significant amounts of energy is consistent with the definition of a vitamin for which needs are modified by life-stage, diet and genetic variables, and disease. Recent studies reveal that DHA may play a central role in co-coordinating complex networks that integrate hepatic glucose, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism for the purpose of efficient utilization of dietary protein, particularly during early development when the milk diet provides large amounts of energy from fat.

Innis SM; Novak EM; Keller BO

2013-01-01

135

Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children.

Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte

2012-01-01

136

Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an infant´s daily energy needs and provide a supply of fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. The characteristics of milk lipids are largely determined by their fatty acid composition. In this work the general characteristics of breast milk and milk lipids, as well as the influence of maternal diet on composition of fatty acids in breast milk, are discussed. Breast milk provides all dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and ?-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), as well as their longer-chain more-unsaturated metabolites, including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3). Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular importance in visual and neural development, and their content in milk is a reflection of the mother´s current and long-term dietary intake. A positive association has been established between the maternal intake of fish and seafood and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid) in milk. Numerous researches have been shown that supplementation with docosahexaenoic acids during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation significantly increases the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk.

Greta Kreši?; Mihela Dujmovi?; Milena L. Mandi?; Nikolina Mrduljaš

2013-01-01

137

Polyunsaturated fatty acids in maternal plasma and in breast milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to explain processes underlying the transfer of fatty acids from the maternal compartment into human milk, the lipid content and the fatty acid composition of maternal plasma and milk have been analyzed in breastfeeding mothers at 1 day and 3 months of lactation. The rise in milk lipids occurring during the study period was concomitant with a fall in plasma total fat content, mainly due to the decrease of triglycerides. Significant correlations between plasma and milk fatty acids at the two time points were observed only for linoleic (LA, 18:2 n-6) and (alpha;-linolenic acid (alpha LNA, 18:3 n-3), while for arachidonic (AA, 20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) correlations were found only at one day and 3 months, respectively. These data suggest that levels of the n-6 and n-3 18C polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk are closely dependent on their concentrations in maternal plasma, in turn related with the dietary intake, while the accumulation of AA and DHA in milk is the result of a sequence of transfer and metabolic processes.

Marangoni F; Agostoni C; Lammardo AM; Bonvissuto M; Giovannini M; Galli C; Riva E

2002-05-01

138

Polyunsaturated fatty acids in maternal plasma and in breast milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to explain processes underlying the transfer of fatty acids from the maternal compartment into human milk, the lipid content and the fatty acid composition of maternal plasma and milk have been analyzed in breastfeeding mothers at 1 day and 3 months of lactation. The rise in milk lipids occurring during the study period was concomitant with a fall in plasma total fat content, mainly due to the decrease of triglycerides. Significant correlations between plasma and milk fatty acids at the two time points were observed only for linoleic (LA, 18:2 n-6) and (alpha;-linolenic acid (alpha LNA, 18:3 n-3), while for arachidonic (AA, 20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) correlations were found only at one day and 3 months, respectively. These data suggest that levels of the n-6 and n-3 18C polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk are closely dependent on their concentrations in maternal plasma, in turn related with the dietary intake, while the accumulation of AA and DHA in milk is the result of a sequence of transfer and metabolic processes. PMID:12144876

Marangoni, F; Agostoni, C; Lammardo, A M; Bonvissuto, M; Giovannini, M; Galli, C; Riva, E

139

Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

Du M; Ahn DU; Sell JL

2000-12-01

140

Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA. PMID:11194037

Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

2000-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

The quality properties and saturated and unsaturated fatty acid profiles of quail egg: the alterations of fatty acids with process effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nutritional composition (moisture, ash, crude protein, available carbohydrates, total lipids), energy value, some quality characteristics (yolk weight, albumen weight and shell weight), cholesterol level and fatty acid profiles of quail egg were determined (pquail egg was higher than laying hen's egg. The fatty acid composition of quail egg yolk consisted of 24 fatty acids including saturated fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, C20:0, C22:0, C24:0), monounsaturated fatty acids (C15:1, C16:1, C17:1, C18:1n9, C18:1n7, C22:1n9, C24:1) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (C18:2n6t , C18:2n6c , C18:3n6, C18:3n3, C20:2, C20:3n6, C20:3n3, C20:4n6, C22:2, C20:5n3, C22:6n3). The total cholesterol level of quail egg was found to be 73.45+/-1.07 mg/100 g. Linoleic acid (C18:2n6c) (10.28%), arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) (1.92%) and cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3) (0.63%) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fatty acid content of quail egg yolk, whereas oleic acid (C18:1n9c) was the major monounsaturated fatty acid comprising 26.71% in the yolk. The palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) levels were 16.62% and 6.89%, respectively. Total omega-3 was detected as 1.16% in raw egg whereas it was 0.82% in soft-boiled (rafadan) egg. The polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid proportion was 0.58 and 0.64 for raw and processed yolk, respectively. PMID:17162332

Toku?o?lu, Ozlem

142

The quality properties and saturated and unsaturated fatty acid profiles of quail egg: the alterations of fatty acids with process effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nutritional composition (moisture, ash, crude protein, available carbohydrates, total lipids), energy value, some quality characteristics (yolk weight, albumen weight and shell weight), cholesterol level and fatty acid profiles of quail egg were determined (p<0.01). The protein content of quail egg was higher than laying hen's egg. The fatty acid composition of quail egg yolk consisted of 24 fatty acids including saturated fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, C20:0, C22:0, C24:0), monounsaturated fatty acids (C15:1, C16:1, C17:1, C18:1n9, C18:1n7, C22:1n9, C24:1) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (C18:2n6t , C18:2n6c , C18:3n6, C18:3n3, C20:2, C20:3n6, C20:3n3, C20:4n6, C22:2, C20:5n3, C22:6n3). The total cholesterol level of quail egg was found to be 73.45+/-1.07 mg/100 g. Linoleic acid (C18:2n6c) (10.28%), arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) (1.92%) and cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3) (0.63%) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fatty acid content of quail egg yolk, whereas oleic acid (C18:1n9c) was the major monounsaturated fatty acid comprising 26.71% in the yolk. The palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) levels were 16.62% and 6.89%, respectively. Total omega-3 was detected as 1.16% in raw egg whereas it was 0.82% in soft-boiled (rafadan) egg. The polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid proportion was 0.58 and 0.64 for raw and processed yolk, respectively.

Toku?o?lu O

2006-11-01

143

Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasm (more) id pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu; Wang, Qing; Hou, Lin

2012-12-01

144

Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

Meilan Xue; Yinlin Ge; Jinyu Zhang; Qing Wang; Lin Hou

2012-01-01

145

[Influence of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) on the composition, permeability and fluidity of cardiac phospholipids in the rat: study using membrane models (liposomes)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For 9 weeks, 80 male SPF Wistar rats were fed purified diets containing mixtures of vegetable oils (15% by weight) with different linoleic and linolenic contents. Diet (L+) contained large amounts of linoleic acid (53% of the total fatty acids), diet (L+Ln) contained the same amount of linoleic acid but also 10% of alpha-linolenic acid, diet (L-) supplied a low level of linoleic acid (12% of the total fatty acids) and so did diet (L-Ln) which also contained 10% of alpha-linolenic acid. The levels and fatty acid composition of heart phospholipids were determined. Liposomes, prepared from the total phospholipids extracted from rat hearts, were tested at different temperatures (15 to 50 degrees C) for their permeability to urea and fluidity; fluidity was monitored by fluorescence depolarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). As already demonstrated, dietary alpha-linolenic acid substituted C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids of the linoleic family (n-6) for those of the linolenic acid family (n-3). This substitution remained high, even though linoleic acid represented more than 50% of the total dietary fatty acids. Diphosphatidylglycerol markedly increased in heart phospholipids of rats fed diets (L+) and (L+Ln). The changes in liposome permeability observed were rather well correlated with the unsaturation index of the phospholipid fatty acids, whereas fluidity changes were not. Fluidity decreased in liposomes of rats fed high levels of linoleic acid. Factors such as diphosphatidylglycerol or (n-3) fatty acid concentration in heart phospholipids could explain these results.

Rocquelin G; Yoyo N; Ducruet JM

1986-01-01

146

[Effect of zinc deficiency on the in vivo biosynthesis of fatty acids of the linoleic series in the rat  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of Zn deficiency on the in vivo synthesis of fatty acids of linoleic acid (n6) series was studied in rat liver. 1-14C Linoleic acid (18:2 n 6), 1-14C acetate plus delta-linolenic acid (18:3 n 6), and 1-14C eicosatrienoic acid (20:3 n 6) were administered to control rats and to animals which had been maintained for 32 days on a Zn-deficient diet. The distribution of label among microsomal fatty acids was measured one hour after the injections. 14C 18:2 n 6 was converted to 14C labeled (n 6) linolenate, eicosatrienoate, arachidonate, and docosapentaenoate. Label from 14C acetate was found in saturated fatty acids and in the above polyenes. The label from 14C 20:3 n 6 was transferred to (n 6) eicosatetraenoate and docosapentaenoate. These results are consistent with the occurrence of active delta 6, delta 5 and delta 4 desaturases, as well as fatty acid elongases in vivo. Zn deficiency modified the fatty acid composition of rat liver microsomes and decreased the rate of conversion of 14C 18:2 to higher homologs. The 20:4 n 6/18:2 n 6 ratio was decreased, which correlated with a decreased production of 14C 20:4 n 6 from 14C 18:2 n 6. The ratio (14C-labeled) phosphatidylcholine/triacylglycerols was significantly decreased in Zn-deprived rats. Zn deficiency thus decreases the activity of fatty acid desaturases and elongases and modifies the activity of the enzymes involved in the incorporation of fatty acids into lipids.

Ayala S; Brenner RR

1987-01-01

147

Reproductive abnormalities in mice expressing omega-3 fatty acid desaturase in their mammary glands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Caenorhabditis elegans n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1) acts on a range of 18- and 20-carbon n-6 fatty acid substrates. Transgenic female mice expressing the Fat-1 gene under transcriptional control of the goat ?-casein promoter produce milk phospholipids having elevated levels of n-3 polyunsat...

Pohlmeier, William E.; Hovey, Russell C.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.

148

A simplified method for analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of fatty acid composition of biological materials is a common task in lipid research. Conventionally, preparation of samples for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography involves two separate procedures: lipid extraction and methylation. This conventional method is complicated, tedious and time consuming. Development of a rapid and simple method for lipid analysis is warranted. Results We simplified the conventional method by combining the extraction and methylation into a single step (omitting the procedure of prior extraction). Various biological samples including cultured cells, animal tissues and human specimens have been tested using the new method. Statistical analysis indicates that the recovery of long chain fatty acids from tissue samples by the simplified method is significantly higher than that by the traditional method, but there is no difference in relative fatty acid composition between the two methods. This simplified method can significantly save time and materials, and reduce the potentials of sample loss and contamination. Conclusion The lipid extraction procedure prior to methylation employed conventionally in lipid analysis can be omitted without affecting the recovery of long chain (? 18 C) fatty acids and their composition. The simplified method is rapid, easy-to-use, suitable for analysis of total long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (e.g. n-6 and n-3 fatty acids) in various biological samples, especially when the number of samples to be analyzed is large and/or the specimen size is small.

Kang Jing X; Wang Jingdong

2005-01-01

149

?-6 Desaturase substrate competition: dietary linoleic acid (18:2n-6) has only trivial effects on ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) bioconversion in the teleost rainbow trout.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is generally accepted that, in vertebrates, omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compete for ?-6 desaturase enzyme in order to be bioconverted into long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA). However, recent studies into teleost fatty acid metabolism suggest that these metabolic processes may not conform entirely to what has been previously observed in mammals and other animal models. Recent work on rainbow trout has led us to question specifically if linoleic acid (LA, 18?2n-6) and ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 18?3n-3) (?-6 desaturase substrates) are in direct competition for access to ?-6 desaturase. Two experimental diets were formulated with fixed levels of ALA, while LA levels were varied (high and low) to examine if increased availability of LA would result in decreased bioconversion of ALA to its LC-PUFA products through substrate competition. No significant difference in ALA metabolism towards n-3 LC-PUFA was exhibited between diets while significant differences were observed in LA metabolism towards n-6 LC-PUFA. These results are evidence for minor if any competition between substrates for ?-6 desaturase, suggesting that, paradoxically, the activity of ?-6 desaturase on n-3 and n-6 substrates is independent. These results call for a paradigm shift in the way we approach teleost fatty acid metabolism. The findings are also important with regard to diet formulation in the aquaculture industry as they indicate that there should be no concern for possible substrate competition between 18?3n-3 and 18?2n-6, when aiming at increased n-3 LC-PUFA bioconversion in vivo.

Emery JA; Hermon K; Hamid NK; Donald JA; Turchini GM

2013-01-01

150

Fatty acid composition of selected macrophytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The content of total lipids and the fatty acid (FA) profile were determined for eight macroalgae (Cystoseira abies-marina, Fucus spiralis, Chaetomorpha pachynema, Codium elisabethae, Porphyra sp., Osmundea pinnatifida, Pterocladiella capillacea and Sphaeroccoccus coronopifolius). Total lipids were extracted using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform (2/1, v/v) and further derivatised to FA methyl esters (FAME). The analyses of FAME samples were performed by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionisation detector. The total lipid content ranged from 0.06 to 3.54?g (per 100?g). The most abundant saturated FA were palmitic (C16:0) and myristic (C14:0), while oleic (C18:1?n-9) was the dominant monounsaturated acid. All seaweeds contained linoleic FA (C18:2?n-6). The ?-linolenic (C18:3?n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5?n-3) acids were present only in Porphyra sp. (3.34%?±?0.13) and C. pachynema (0.47%?±?0.12), respectively. The n-6/n-3 and h/H ratios were low, suggesting a high nutritional value of the algae studied.

Patarra RF; Leite J; Pereira R; Baptista J; Neto AI

2013-04-01

151

Fatty acid composition of selected macrophytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The content of total lipids and the fatty acid (FA) profile were determined for eight macroalgae (Cystoseira abies-marina, Fucus spiralis, Chaetomorpha pachynema, Codium elisabethae, Porphyra sp., Osmundea pinnatifida, Pterocladiella capillacea and Sphaeroccoccus coronopifolius). Total lipids were extracted using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform (2/1, v/v) and further derivatised to FA methyl esters (FAME). The analyses of FAME samples were performed by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionisation detector. The total lipid content ranged from 0.06 to 3.54?g (per 100?g). The most abundant saturated FA were palmitic (C16:0) and myristic (C14:0), while oleic (C18:1?n-9) was the dominant monounsaturated acid. All seaweeds contained linoleic FA (C18:2?n-6). The ?-linolenic (C18:3?n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5?n-3) acids were present only in Porphyra sp. (3.34%?±?0.13) and C. pachynema (0.47%?±?0.12), respectively. The n-6/n-3 and h/H ratios were low, suggesting a high nutritional value of the algae studied. PMID:22591127

Patarra, R F; Leite, J; Pereira, R; Baptista, J; Neto, A I

2012-05-17

152

Dietary fatty acids and arthritis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Musculoskeletal complaints are the second most frequent reason for medical treatments. Within these diseases rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and, especially, osteoarthritis (OA) are common. Although the causes of arthritis are multifactorial and not fully understood, clinical trials have generally shown benefit from dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. This has usually been attributed to their anti-inflammatory properties. Recently we have used in vitro model systems to study the molecular mechanism(s) by which n-3 PUFAs may act to alleviate the symptoms of arthritis. These experiments showed that n-3 PUFAs reduce expression of cartilage-degrading proteinases, cyclooxygenase-2 and inflammatory cytokines. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was more effective than docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or alpha-linolenic acid. The data provide a scientific rationale for the consumption of n-3 fatty acids as part of a healthy diet and perhaps in treating arthritis.

Hurst S; Zainal Z; Caterson B; Hughes CE; Harwood JL

2010-04-01

153

Some Food and Drug Administration perspectives of fat and fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because of public health concerns about the amount of fat in the American diet, the Food and Drug Administration and the US Department of Agriculture have emphasized use of the recently reformed food label to inform consumers about the fat and fatty acid contents of foods. The health effects of specific fatty acids continue to be the subject of much research, discussion, and debate. Issues that must be addressed to further improve the communication effectiveness of the food label include health effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids; appropriate labeling of trans fatty acids, stearic acid, and other non-cholesterol-raising fatty acids; partially absorbed fats; and label claims, especially health claims, for specific fatty acids and fatty acids of biotechnologically altered foods.

Scarbrough FE

1997-05-01

154

Total dietary fat and fatty acid content modifies plasma phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity indices, and urinary prostaglandin E in women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compared with diets high in fat, low-fat diets are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that a low-fat (LF) (20% fat) and an LF high-omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid diet (LFn3) (23% fat with 3% as ?-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) would enhance n-3 composition of plasma phospholipid fatty acid and reduce urinary prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) relative to a high-fat diet (HF) (40% fat) and that these changes would be associated with alterations in ?5 desaturase (D5D) and ?6 desaturase (D6D) activity. Phospholipid fatty acids and urinary PGE(2) were measured, and D5D and D6D activity indices calculated in a crossover trial in 17 postmenopausal women fed each of 3 test diets (HF, LF, and LFn3) for 8-week feeding periods. Desaturase activity indices were calculated as D5D, 20:4n-6/20:3n-6, and D6D, 20:3n-6/18:2n-6. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid, ?-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), DHA, and total n-3 fatty acids increased, whereas linoleic acid and arachidonic acid decreased with consumption of LFn3. The LF resulted in enhanced arachidonic acid and DHA. High fat reduced D6D, whereas both HF and LF increased D5D. Urinary PGE(2) was reduced in response to both the LF and LFn3 diets. Low-fat diets, with or without long-chain n-3 fatty acids, promote positive health effects due in part to favorable alteration of plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles and modification in desaturase activity indices, suggesting that the type and amount of fat consumed are modifiable risk factors for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Raatz SK; Young LR; Picklo MJ Sr; Sauter ER; Qin W; Kurzer MS

2012-01-01

155

Free fatty acid profiles of emulsified lipids during in vitro digestion with pancreatic lipase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual free fatty acids released from milk protein-stabilized emulsions prepared with milk fat, soya bean oil or tuna fish oil during in vitro digestion with pancreatic lipase were monitored using gas chromatography. The results showed that saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were released faster than unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1n9, C18:2n6 and C18:3n3) from soya bean oil emulsions; short chain fatty acids were released faster than long chain fatty acids from milk fat emulsions; long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, were released more slowly than other fatty acids from fish oil emulsions. The results confirm that the release behaviour of fatty acids from emulsions during digestion is related not only to the position of the fatty acids in the triglycerides in the fat/oil, but also to the length of the carbon chain of the fatty acid. The rates and the extents of the digestion of lipids consisting of short chain fatty acids are higher than those of lipids consisting of long chain fatty acids. PMID:23561123

Zhu, Xianqian; Ye, Aiqian; Verrier, Timothee; Singh, Harjinder

2013-01-23

156

Free fatty acid profiles of emulsified lipids during in vitro digestion with pancreatic lipase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Individual free fatty acids released from milk protein-stabilized emulsions prepared with milk fat, soya bean oil or tuna fish oil during in vitro digestion with pancreatic lipase were monitored using gas chromatography. The results showed that saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were released faster than unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1n9, C18:2n6 and C18:3n3) from soya bean oil emulsions; short chain fatty acids were released faster than long chain fatty acids from milk fat emulsions; long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, were released more slowly than other fatty acids from fish oil emulsions. The results confirm that the release behaviour of fatty acids from emulsions during digestion is related not only to the position of the fatty acids in the triglycerides in the fat/oil, but also to the length of the carbon chain of the fatty acid. The rates and the extents of the digestion of lipids consisting of short chain fatty acids are higher than those of lipids consisting of long chain fatty acids.

Zhu X; Ye A; Verrier T; Singh H

2013-08-01

157

The role of essential fatty acids in the control of coronary heart disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Evidence from various research paradigms supports the cardiovascular benefits of a high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the long-chain, marine-derived n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids. The effect of the plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is, however, not clear. Concerns about a high n-6 PUFA intake has been raised, because n-6 PUFA may weaken the effects of n-3 PUFA.

Vedtofte, Mia S.; Jakobsen, Marianne U

2012-01-01

158

Influence of monochromatic light on quality traits, nutritional, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicken meat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), and the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio (P < 0.001), but reduced the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-3 fatty acid, and n-6 fatty acid. The IBL increased the n-3 and sulfur-containing amino acids but reduced the n-6:n-3 nonessential amino acids. The WL improved the concentration of most of the essential amino acids (P < 0.01) and nonessential amino acids (P < 0.01) of breast meat. It can be extracted that the light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat.

Kim MJ; Parvin R; Mushtaq MM; Hwangbo J; Kim JH; Na JC; Kim DW; Kang HK; Kim CD; Cho KO; Yang CB; Choi HC

2013-11-01

159

Essential fatty acids and radioprotection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Presenting a short review of published literature and some experimental results, the authors exemplified possible relationships between radioprotection and the essential fatty acid status underlying eicosanoid generation capacity[fr] Apres une courte revue de la litterature et la presentation de quelques resultats experimentaux, les auteurs donnent des exemples de relations possibles entre la radioprotection et le taux des acides gras essentiels, soulignant la possibilite de generation d'eicosanoides

1987-01-01

160

3???????????????? Three Fishes Muscle Fatty Acid Composition Analysis of Lha-sa River  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????(Schizothorax waltoni)??????(Ptychobarbus dipogon)???????(Shizopygopsis younghusbandi)?????????????????????????10??????????????????16:0?18:0????????16:1n-9?18:1n-9?18:1n-7????????18:2n-6?20:4n-6?20:5n-3?22:5n-3?22:6n-3?????????????????????????????????n-3???????????????? The fatty acid composition in muscle of three freshwater fishes Schizothorax waltoni, Ptychobarbus dipogon, Shizopygopsis younghusbandi was analyzed. The most abundant 10 fatty acids are the saturated fatty acids 16:0 and 18:0, the monounsaturated fatty acids 16:1n-9, 18:1n-9 and 18:1n-7, the polyunsaturated fatty acids 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3. The result showed that the pattern of fatty acids in the Tibetan fish resembled that of marine fish, and the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were relatively higher.  

??; ??; ????; ??; ??

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Simulation of Palm based Fatty Acids Distillation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fatty acids have long been recognized for their commercial value in the absence of glycerol. Chemicals derived from fatty acids are widely used in the formulation of detergents, lubricant, surfactants and in pharmaceutical industries. In addition, fatty acids also play a vital role in human metaboli...

Awang Bono; Oh Pin Pin; Chin Peng Jiun

162

Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from n-3 fatty acid precursors in rat hippocampal neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain, has important functions in the hippocampus. To better understand essential fatty acid homeostasis in this region of the brain, we investigated the contributions of n-3 fatty acid precursors in supplying hippocampal neurons with DHA. Primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons incorporated radiolabeled 18-, 20-, 22-, and 24-carbon n-3 fatty acid and converted some of the uptake to DHA, but the amounts produced from either [1-14C]alpha-linolenic or [1-14C]eicosapentaenoic acid were considerably less than the amounts incorporated when the cultures were incubated with [1-14C]22:6n-3. Most of the [1-14C]22:6n-3 uptake was incorporated into phospholipids, primarily ethanolamine phosphoglycerides. Additional studies demonstrated that the neurons converted [1-14C]linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, the main n-6 fatty acid in the brain. These findings differ from previous results indicating that cerebral and cerebellar neurons cannot convert polyunsaturated fatty acid precursors to DHA or arachidonic acid. Fatty acid compositional analysis demonstrated that the hippocampal neurons contained only 1.1-2.5 mol% DHA under the usual low-DHA culture conditions. The relatively low-DHA content suggests that some responses obtained with these cultures may not be representative of neuronal function in the brain. PMID:18248613

Kaduce, Terry L; Chen, Yucui; Hell, Johannes W; Spector, Arthur A

2008-02-04

163

Fatty Acid Composition of Human Colostrums of Burkinabe Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare/contrast the colostrum lipid composition of 53 Burkinabe women, collected in 2005 at the Maternity of Centre Medical Saint Camille in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), with similar data obtained in breast milk, five years ago and then to show the evolution of this important aliment. The fatty acid composition of colostrum samples was determined by Gas-liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Saturated lipids (C8:0-C:14-0) showed a progressive increasing trend in the Burkinabe woman colostrum with respect those already measured five years ago. The C15:0-C24:0 fractions were found costantly higher, but their trends were in progressive decrement. The 18:2n-6 fraction (linoleic acid) reached the highest value in the third day post partum. The 18:3n-3 was constantly higher in the second and third days. The 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid) and LC n-6 PUFA were lower ever since the first day, but with a trend to increase. Also 22: 6n-3 and LC n-3 PUFA were costantly lower. The 18:2n-6/18:3n-3 and LC n-6/LC n-3 ratios were lower and higher, respectively, if compared with those already measured five years ago. These results suggest the need to improve alimentary habits of mothers in order to restore the balanced n-6/n3 PUFA ratio in their colostrums.

Carbone Virginia; Musumeci Maria; Simpore Jacques; Saggese Paola; D`Agata Alfonsina; Musumeci Salvatore

2006-01-01

164

Extrauterine fatty acid accretion in infant brain: implications for fatty acid requirements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Total fatty acid content of infant brain was determined to assess minimal fatty acid requirements for synthesis of structural lipids in brain tissue during the first 13 weeks of life. Fatty acid accretion rates were determined by regression analysis of tissue fat components at varying postnatal ages. Quantitative fatty acid analysis indicated that postnatal accretion of long-chain polyenoic fatty acids in cerebellum, frontal and occipital brain lobes initially appeared to lag behind the rate of increase in brain weight and brain fat content. After a 4-week period total long-chain fatty acids increased at a rate similar to the increase in brain weight. Accretion of individual fatty acids in cerebellum also reflected changes in tissue total fatty acid content. These developmental changes in fatty acid components of whole brain and cerebellum are quantitatively relevant to estimation of the minimal extrauterine fatty acid requirements of the human neonate.

Clandinin MT; Chappell JE; Leong S; Heim T; Swyer PR; Chance GW

1980-06-01

165

Extrauterine fatty acid accretion in infant brain: implications for fatty acid requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total fatty acid content of infant brain was determined to assess minimal fatty acid requirements for synthesis of structural lipids in brain tissue during the first 13 weeks of life. Fatty acid accretion rates were determined by regression analysis of tissue fat components at varying postnatal ages. Quantitative fatty acid analysis indicated that postnatal accretion of long-chain polyenoic fatty acids in cerebellum, frontal and occipital brain lobes initially appeared to lag behind the rate of increase in brain weight and brain fat content. After a 4-week period total long-chain fatty acids increased at a rate similar to the increase in brain weight. Accretion of individual fatty acids in cerebellum also reflected changes in tissue total fatty acid content. These developmental changes in fatty acid components of whole brain and cerebellum are quantitatively relevant to estimation of the minimal extrauterine fatty acid requirements of the human neonate. PMID:7408743

Clandinin, M T; Chappell, J E; Leong, S; Heim, T; Swyer, P R; Chance, G W

1980-06-01

166

Acute Lung Injury Is Reduced in fat-1 Mice Endogenously Synthesizing n-3 Fatty Acids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) remains an important cause of mortality in intensive care units. Inflammation is controlled by cytokines and eicosanoids derived from the n-6 fatty acid (FA) arachidonic acid (AA). The n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and mediators ...

Mayer, Konstantin; Kiessling, Almuth; Ott, Juliane; Schaefer, Martina Barbara; Hecker, Matthias; Henneke, Ingrid

167

Proximate Composition and Fatty Acids Profile in Oleaginous Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty acids were quantified in oleaginous seeds: pistachio, almonds, European nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, pecan nuts, and macadamia nuts. Three brands of each sample were purchased in three lots (n = 9). The proximate composition, energetic value, and fatty acids (FA) were determined by gas chromatography. All seeds had large amounts of total lipids and the highest contents (ca. 70%) were found in macadamia, pecan, and European nuts. The samples had significant amounts of crude protein. Pistachio and cashew nuts had the greatest amount (ca. 20%), as well as the largest carbohydrate contents (32%). All seeds were rather energetic, ranging from 600 to 760 Kcal.g-1. From seven to nine FA were identified and quantified, oleic (n-9) and linoleic (n-6) acids were the major acids. Essential fatty acid a-linolenic (n-3) was found in European nuts (except pistachio) with an n-6/n-3 ratio (4:1) that is very beneficial to health. Trans FA were also observed in salted roasted cashew nuts. The major saturated FA (SFA) was palmitic, stearic, and arachidonic acids, however, their amounts were much lower than those of polyunsaturated acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated acids (MUFA). European nuts had the greatest PUFA/SFA ratio (9), followed by almonds (3.6).

Angela Claudia Rodrigues; Aloísio Henrique Pereira de Souza; Makoto Matsushita; Lucia Felicidade Dias; Jesui Vergílio Visentainer; Shawany Maldonado Tonsig; Nilson Evelazio de Souza

2012-01-01

168

Effect of Linseed Supplementation on Carcass, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition in Pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of linseed supplementation on carcass, meat quality and fatty acid profile of fat tissue was studied. No differences in carcass and meat quality traits were observed, the exception being drip loss that was lower in pigs supplemented with linseed. As regards fatty acids, linseed supplementation led to the increased content of unsaturated, polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids and decreased content of saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3 ratio in the subcutaneous and intramuscular fat of pigs.

Matjaž ?ervek; Mihael Geister; Maja Prevolnik; Martin Škrlep; Marko Ocepek; Maksimilijan Brus; Marko Gungl; Zorica Abraham-Pani?; Marjeta ?andek-Potokar; Dejan Škorjanc

2011-01-01

169

New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

1987-01-01

170

FATTY ACID TRIGLYCERIDES FOR MAKING BIOCOMPATIBLE COATINGS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a mixture (a) of fatty acid triglycerides having a slip melting point above 500C, the fatty acid composition of said mixture (a) comprising at least two different fatty acids and comprising from 20 to 95% by weight of saturated fatty acids and 80 to 5% by weight of unsaturate d fatty acids, and wherein at least one fatty acid triglyceride (a1 ) from s aid mixture (a) bears the same saturated fatty acid residue on each position of the glycerol moiety and corresponds to at least 10% by weight of said mi xture (a). This mixture is useful in the coating of medical devices to impro ve bio-compatibility, stability, and drug release.

SELS BERT; DE SCHEERDER IVAN; JACOBS PIERRE

171

FATTY ACID TRIGLYCERIDES FOR MAKING BIOCOMPATIBLE COATINGS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a mixture (a) of fatty acid triglycerides having a slip melting point above 500 C, the fatty acid composition of said mixture (a) comprising at least two different fatty acids and comprising from 20 to 95% by weight of saturated fatty acids and 80 to 5% by weight of unsaturated fatty acids, and wherein at least one fatty acid triglyceride (a1) from said mixture (a) bears the same saturated fatty acid residue on each position of the glycerol moiety and corresponds to at least 10% by weight of said mixture (a). This mixture is useful in the coating of medical devices to improve bio-compatibility, stability, and drug release.

JACOBS PIERRE; SELS BERT; DE SCHEERDER IVAN

172

FATTY ACID TRIGLYCERIDES FOR MAKING BIOCOMPATIBLE COATINGS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a mixture (a) of fatty acid triglycerides having a slip melting point above 500C, the fatty acid composition of said mixture (a) comprising at least two different fatty acids and comprising from 20 to 95% by weight of saturated fatty acids and 80 to 5% by weight of unsaturated fatty acids, and wherein at least one fatty acid triglyceride (a1 ) from said mixture (a) bears the same saturated fatty acid residue on each position of the glycerol moiety and corresponds to at least 10% by weight of said mixture (a). This mixture is useful in the coating of medical devices to improve bio-compatibility, stability, and drug release.

JACOBS PIERRE; SELS BERT; DE SCHEERDER IVAN

173

The effect of ploidy on the fatty acid profile during the reproductive cycle of female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss triploids are regularly produced in fish farms to improve growth because the triploid females do not develop ovaries during the reproductive cycle. In this study, the tissue fatty acid allocations in triploid and diploid females were compared during the reproductive cycle to determine whether the ploidy influences the fatty acid profile of fish produced in aquaculture. The ovaries, liver, and white muscle fatty acid contents of diploid and triploid females were analyzed during the reproductive cycle. Diploid females tend to accumulate more polyunsaturated fatty acids than triploids during some phases of the reproductive cycle, and this profile was compensated by an increase in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in triploid females. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) was the main n6 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the ovaries of diploid females during the most advanced phases of the reproductive cycle, and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3) was the main n3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. In triploid females, the percentage of both of these polyunsaturated fatty acids was lower than in diploid females during the most advanced phases of the reproductive cycle. In general, the lack of ovary development altered the hepatic synthesis of some fatty acids, mainly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreasing the content of the main fatty acids in the white muscle and, consequently, the mobilization of these specific fatty acids to the ovaries.

Ribeiro CS; Gomes AD; Vieira VARO; Tabata YA; Takahashi NS; Moreira RG

2012-12-01

174

Atherosclerosis, Dyslipidemia, and Inflammation: The Significant Role of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phospholipids play an essential role in cell membrane structure and function. The length and number of double bonds of fatty acids in membrane phospholipids are main determinants of fluidity, transport systems, activity of membrane-bound enzymes, and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. The fatty acid profile of serum lipids, especially the phospholipids, reflects the fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Moreover, long-chain n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids decrease very-low-density lipoprotein assembly and secretion reducing triacylglycerol production. N-6 and n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids are the precursors of signalling molecules, termed "eicosanoids," which play an important role in the regulation of inflammation. Eicosanoids derived from n-6 polyunsatured fatty acids have proinflammatory actions, while eicosanoids derived from n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids have anti-inflammatory ones. Previous studies showed that inflammation contributes to both the onset and progression of atherosclerosis: actually, atherosclerosis is predominantly a chronic low-grade inflammatory disease of the vessel wall. Several studies suggested the relationship between long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation, showing that fatty acids may decrease endothelial activation and affect eicosanoid metabolism.

Dessì M; Noce A; Bertucci P; Manca di Villahermosa S; Zenobi R; Castagnola V; Addessi E; Di Daniele N

2013-01-01

175

Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While the anticancer effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 fatty acids), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been the subject of intense study, our understanding regarding the underlying mechanisms of omega-3 fatty acids against cancer is still limited. Recent studies describing the cancer protective effect of EPA and DHA have sparked a renewed interest in using these fatty acids for cancer prevention and treatment. Here, we summarize the significance of omega-3 fatty acids in the initiation and progression of cancer, and review the complex mechanisms by which EPA and DHA are thought to have anticancer activities during cancer development. It is concluded that omega-3 fatty acids may exert their anticancer actions by influencing multiple targets implicated in various stages of cancer development, including cell proliferation, cell survival, angiogenesis, inflammation, metastasis and epigenetic abnormalities that are crucial to the onset and progression of cancer.

Jing K; Wu T; Lim K

2013-08-01

176

Sex differences in the relationship of dietary Fatty acids to cognitive measures in american children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because the first neurons evolved in an environment high in the n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), this fatty acid became a major component of neural structure and function and makes up 10% of the dry weight of the human brain. Since n-3 fatty acids must come from the diet, this suggests a possible positive role for dietary n-3 fatty acids in cognition and a possible negative role for n-6 fatty acids, which compete with n-3 for access to critical enzymes. Because human females must provide DHA for the growth of the unusually large brains of their offspring from maternal fat stored during childhood, their need for DHA is especially great. We used stepwise regression to determine whether particular dietary fatty acids and other nutrients were related to cognitive performance in over 4000 American children aged 6-16 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; a variety of possible biological, social, and environmental risk factors were statistically controlled. In this context the only dietary factors related to cognitive performance were n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Dietary n-3 fatty acids were positively related to cognitive test scores in male and female children, while n-6 showed the reverse relationship, significantly so in females. In female children the positive effects of n-3 intake were twice as strong as in males and exceeded the negative effects of lead exposure. This suggests that increasing dietary intake of n-3 and decreasing n-6 fatty acids may have cognitive benefits in children, especially in females.

Lassek WD; Gaulin SJ

2011-01-01

177

Intramuscular fatty acid composition in beef from Aosta cattle breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare fat quality of three categories of the Aosta cattle breeds by fatty acid composition. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum from 12 calves, 11 young bulls and 11 cows of Aosta Red Pied and Black Pied were bought at retail. Fatty acids content showed in most cases, except for C18:1, significant differences between the three categories. Veal calves had the lowest proportion of SFA and highest of PUFA, therefore they had the best PUFA/SFA ratio but the worst n-6/n-3 ratio due to the highest proportion of C18:2n-6. Besides veal calves was healthier by having best atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Black Pied young bulls, in comparison to Red Pied young bulls, showed a significant lower proportion of C10:0, C18:1, and a significant higher proportion of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6. Consequently they had a significant lower MUFA content but a higher PUFA content therefore a significant better PUFA/SFA ratio.

A. Brugiapaglia; G. Destefanis; E. Zanardi; M. T. Barge

2010-01-01

178

Maternal diet fatty acid composition affects neurodevelopment in rat pups.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of pre- and postnatal maternal dietary fatty acid composition on neurodevelopment in rat pups was studied. Timed pregnant dams were fed, beginning on d 2 of gestation and throughout lactation, either nonpurified diet (reference) or a purified diet whose fat source (22% of energy) was either corn oil or menhaden fish oil. On postnatal d 3, pups were randomly cross-fostered among dams of the same diet group and culled to 10 pups per dam. Milk was removed from stomachs of culled pups for fatty acid analyses. From postnatal d 4 to 30, pups were assessed daily for the appearance of neurodevelopmental reflexes. Auditory brainstem conduction times were measured on postnatal d 23 and 29. Pups were killed on postnatal d 30, and cerebrums were removed for fatty acid analyses. The fatty acid composition of maternal milk and pup cerebrums reflected maternal diet with higher levels of (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids in the fish oil and corn oil groups, respectively. The time of appearance of auditory startle was significantly delayed (P = 0.004), and auditory brainstem conduction times on postnatal d 23 and 29 were significantly longer in pups of the fish oil- than corn oil-fed dams (P

Saste, M D; Carver, J D; Stockard, J E; Benford, V J; Chen, L T; Phelps, C P

1998-04-01

179

Plasma Fatty Acid Profile of Gestating Ewes Supplemented with Fishmeal  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (>18C) cannot be adequately synthesized by ruminant tissues to meet their requirements; therefore, their concentration in body depends on the supply through feed. It may be possible to improve the essential fatty acid status of ruminant animals, during gestation by manipulating the maternal diet with Fishmeal (FM). The objectives of this research were to (1) determine the effect of fishmeal supplementation on the plasma fatty acid profile of ewes during late gestation and (2) determine the status of the plasma docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3) of lambs born to these ewes. Approach: Eight gestating ewes [Rideau-Arcott, 97±5 kg initial body weight, 100 days of gestation] were used in a completely randomized design. Ewes were individually-housed and fed either a control diet (supplemented with soybean meal) or a fishmeal supplemented diet. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture for plasma fatty acids analysis on 100, 114, 128 and 142 days of â??gestationâ?. Blood samples from the lambs were also collected via jugular venipuncture immediately after birth and before receiving their mothersâ?? colostrum. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The ewes from both groups, i.e., control and fishmeal supplemented, had a similar fatty acid profile prior to supplementation (at 100 days, p>0.05). Thereafter, there was an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3), docosahexaenoic acid, total n3-PUFA and total very long chain n3-PUFA (>C18) contents in plasma for the fishmeal supplemented ewes compared to the control (p0.05) in total saturated fatty acids, total monounsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid, total trans-18:1, total cis-18:1, or total n6-PUFA contents in ewe plasma between control and fishmeal supplemented groups. Lambs born to ewes fed the fishmeal supplemented diet had greater (pConclusion: The ewes supplemented with fishmeal supplementation showed a positive response with the enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and total very long chain n3-PUFA in plasma during gestation and these fatty acids were transferred to the fetus as well.

Mamun M. Or-Rashid; Rebecca Fisher; Niel Karrow; Ousama AlZahal; Brian W. McBride

2012-01-01

180

Propylenated fatty acids as emulsifiers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydroxy propylenyl stéarate, palmitate, laurate, oléate and linoleate were prepared by reaction of propylene oxide with fatty acid at 160 °C for five hours stirring in presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. Physico-chemical properties of the five products, regarding their use as emulsifiers, were determined.Se prepararon estearato, palmitato, laurato, oleato y linoleato de hidroxipropilenilos mediante reacción de oxido de propileno con ácido graso a 160 °C durante cinco horas de agitación en presencia de hidróxido potásico como catalizador. Se determinaron las propiedades físico-químicas de los cinco productos, en cuanto a su uso como emulsionantes.

El-Shattory, Y.; Aly, Saadia M.; Megahed, M. G.

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Simulation of Palm based Fatty Acids Distillation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty acids have long been recognized for their commercial value in the absence of glycerol. Chemicals derived from fatty acids are widely used in the formulation of detergents, lubricant, surfactants and in pharmaceutical industries. In addition, fatty acids also play a vital role in human metabolism and are widely used as catalyst in some chemical reactions. Commercially produced fatty acids are derived from naturally occurring fats and oils through the process of hydrolysis. Most of these raw materials result in nature as complex mixtures of triglycerides, alcohols and other esters. Alternatively, common edible oils used are sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, palm and palm kernel oil. Crude fatty acids can be obtained from the process of hydrolysis and will be purified through total distillation. Due to fatty acid market demand, the purity requirement of distillated fatty acid products is increasing greatly. Since desired purity of fatty acid is achievable through the most common and most efficient means of fractionation distillation process, study on simulation of fatty acids distillation has a significant contribution to the oleo chemical industry. In this simulation study, the optimization of the tray specification, feed stream pressure and temperature on the purity performance of the fatty acid composition are investigated. In South East Asia, palm tree fruit ripen continuously and can be harvested all year round. Therefore, palm based fatty acids are selected to be used as the feed components. In the present study, binary and multi-component distillations of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are studied. This simulation model is developed by using HYSYS simulator with suitable thermodynamic package chosen. A shortcut simulation method is built in advanced for preliminary estimations and for determining rigorous operating limits. Eventually, parametric optimization is performed to obtain the optimum operating conditions of the rigorous distillation column.

Awang Bono; Oh Pin Pin; Chin Peng Jiun

2010-01-01

182

PPARs : fatty acid sensors controlling metabolism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that play key roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism, inflammation, cellular growth, and differentiation. The receptors bind and are activated by a broad range of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives and they thereby serve as major transcriptional sensors of fatty acids. Here we review the function, regulation, and mechanism of the different PPAR subtypes with special emphasis on their role in the regulation of lipid metabolism.

Poulsen, Lars la Cour; Siersbæk, Majken

2012-01-01

183

Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.  

Science.gov (United States)

n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 fatty acids) have been shown to have a beneficial effect on bone in animal studies, although little is known about their role in bone metabolism in humans. We investigated the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and daily n-3 fatty acid intake. This cross-sectional, community-based, epidemiologic study was conducted among 205 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 63.5 years, range 46-79). We examined BMD, serum N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), urinary type-I collagen cross-linked-N-telopeptide (uNTX), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Nutrient intake was calculated using a food-frequency questionnaire. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Simple regression analysis showed that intake of neither n-3 fatty acid nor n-6 fatty acid was associated with age or lipid metabolism indices. However, simple regression analysis showed that n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with both lumbar spine BMD and femoral neck BMD. n-6 fatty acid intake was positively associated with femoral neck BMD but not lumbar spine BMD. Multiple regression analysis showed that n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, BMI, duration of menopausal state, grip strength, PINP, uNTX, and intakes of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, and n-6 fatty acid. In conclusion, n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with lumbar spine BMD independent of bone resorption and serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in postmenopausal women. PMID:23708886

Nawata, Kiyoko; Yamauchi, Mika; Takaoka, Shin; Yamaguchi, Toru; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

2013-05-26

184

Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 fatty acids) have been shown to have a beneficial effect on bone in animal studies, although little is known about their role in bone metabolism in humans. We investigated the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and daily n-3 fatty acid intake. This cross-sectional, community-based, epidemiologic study was conducted among 205 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 63.5 years, range 46-79). We examined BMD, serum N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), urinary type-I collagen cross-linked-N-telopeptide (uNTX), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Nutrient intake was calculated using a food-frequency questionnaire. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Simple regression analysis showed that intake of neither n-3 fatty acid nor n-6 fatty acid was associated with age or lipid metabolism indices. However, simple regression analysis showed that n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with both lumbar spine BMD and femoral neck BMD. n-6 fatty acid intake was positively associated with femoral neck BMD but not lumbar spine BMD. Multiple regression analysis showed that n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, BMI, duration of menopausal state, grip strength, PINP, uNTX, and intakes of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, and n-6 fatty acid. In conclusion, n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with lumbar spine BMD independent of bone resorption and serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in postmenopausal women.

Nawata K; Yamauchi M; Takaoka S; Yamaguchi T; Sugimoto T

2013-08-01

185

The Influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on total lipid fatty acid composition of a canine mastocytoma cell line.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cutaneous mast cells are considered as key immune effectors in the pathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). These cells release immediate-phase and late-phase mediators of inflammation. Dietary fatty acids are incorporated in cellular membranes and seem to influence mediator production and release. A dietary intervention with n6- and n3-fatty acids is thought to alleviate clinical symptoms in atopic dogs. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of n6- and n3-fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of canine mastocytoma cells (C2) as a possible model for CAD. The C2 was cultured in a basic medium called Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DEH) or with additional 14 mum linoleate (C18:2n6, DEH-LA), gamma-linolenate (C18:3n6, DEH-GLA), arachidonate (C20:4n6, DEH-AA), alpha-linolenate (C18:3n3, DEH-LnA), eicosapentaenoate (C20:5n3, DEH-EPA) or docosahexaenoate (C22:6n3, DEH-DHA). Cell growth was examined for 11 days in all media. Cell growth increased from days 1 to 8 and decreased thereafter in all media conditions. The fatty acids supplied did not influence cell growth. The cells were harvested after 8 days for fatty acid analysis. The fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography after extraction and trans-esterification of the lipids. The added fatty acids increased the concentration of these fatty acids in C2 differently (LA 4.9-fold, GLA 6.9-fold, AA 6-fold, LNA 9.3-fold, EPA 6.5-fold and DHA 8.4-fold). Furthermore, elongated and Delta6-desaturated products of the corresponding fatty acids were significantly elevated. However, Delta5-desaturated products were not measurable. These results let us assume that C2 has no measurable activity of the Delta5-desaturase. In case the low activity of Delta5-desaturase is one of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of CAD, C2 seems to be an adequate model for investigations in CAD.

Seidel A; Gueck T; Fuhrmann H

2005-06-01

186

The Influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on total lipid fatty acid composition of a canine mastocytoma cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cutaneous mast cells are considered as key immune effectors in the pathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). These cells release immediate-phase and late-phase mediators of inflammation. Dietary fatty acids are incorporated in cellular membranes and seem to influence mediator production and release. A dietary intervention with n6- and n3-fatty acids is thought to alleviate clinical symptoms in atopic dogs. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of n6- and n3-fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of canine mastocytoma cells (C2) as a possible model for CAD. The C2 was cultured in a basic medium called Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DEH) or with additional 14 mum linoleate (C18:2n6, DEH-LA), gamma-linolenate (C18:3n6, DEH-GLA), arachidonate (C20:4n6, DEH-AA), alpha-linolenate (C18:3n3, DEH-LnA), eicosapentaenoate (C20:5n3, DEH-EPA) or docosahexaenoate (C22:6n3, DEH-DHA). Cell growth was examined for 11 days in all media. Cell growth increased from days 1 to 8 and decreased thereafter in all media conditions. The fatty acids supplied did not influence cell growth. The cells were harvested after 8 days for fatty acid analysis. The fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography after extraction and trans-esterification of the lipids. The added fatty acids increased the concentration of these fatty acids in C2 differently (LA 4.9-fold, GLA 6.9-fold, AA 6-fold, LNA 9.3-fold, EPA 6.5-fold and DHA 8.4-fold). Furthermore, elongated and Delta6-desaturated products of the corresponding fatty acids were significantly elevated. However, Delta5-desaturated products were not measurable. These results let us assume that C2 has no measurable activity of the Delta5-desaturase. In case the low activity of Delta5-desaturase is one of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of CAD, C2 seems to be an adequate model for investigations in CAD. PMID:15943605

Seidel, A; Gueck, T; Fuhrmann, H

2005-06-01

187

Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition 1,2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Home parenteral nutrition (HPN), initiated in patients with severe malabsorption or decreased oral intake, may exhaust stores of essential fatty acids and cause clinical manifestations, mainly dermatitis. Plasma fatty acid profiles were measured by gas-liquid chromatography in 37 healthy control subjects and 56 patients receiving HPN. The concentration (% by wt of total fatty acids) of 18:2n-6 was 22.8% and 11.4% (P 200 cm of remaining small intestine, those receiving parenteral lipids had only minor changes in the fatty acids of plasma phospholipids compared with patients not receiving parenteral lipids. In patients with < 100 cm of remaining small intestine, those receiving parenteral lipids had increased concentrations of total n-6 fatty acids; however, these did not reach the concentrations in control subjects. No differences were seen in n-3 fatty acids. Twenty-five of the 56 patients receiving HPN reported skin problems. No differences were found in plasma phospholipid fatty acids, Holman index, or the supply of parenteral lipids between patients with and without skin problems. Patients receiving HPN had biochemical signs of EFAD. Parenteral lipids did not increase the concentration of essential fatty acids to values comparable with those of control subjects, but 500 mt 20% Intralipid once a week was sufficient to prevent an increase in the Holman index above 0.2.

Jeppesen, P. B.; HØy, Carl-Erik

1998-01-01

188

Effects of essential fatty acid contents of lipid emulsions on erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in patients on long-term parenteral nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the long-term intravenous infusion of 2 lipid emulsions, differing in essential fatty acid (EFA) content, on fatty acid pattern of red blood cell (RBC) was investigated in 5 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. They were randomly assigned to receive daily intravenous infusion of either a soybean emulsion or a mixed medium-chain triacyl-glycerols (MCT): soybean emulsion, followed by the other, each for a period of 3 months. The soybean emulsion contained exclusively long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT) with 54% of C18:2n-6 and 6% of C18:3n-3. The mixed emulsion consisted of a 50:50 (w:w) mixture of soybean LCT and MCT, providing half the amount of the same EFA compared to LCT emulsion. The same phospholipid emulsifier was used in both preparations. Infusion of LCT for a 3 month period modified RBC fatty acid pattern as follows: 18:2n-6 increased, 20:4n-6 decreased as well as n-6:n-3 ratio. By contrast, infusion of MCT/LCT did not alter RBC fatty acids, and even tended to correct a pattern altered by the previous LCT infusion. The study demonstrates that soybean LCT provides an excess of C18: 2n-6 which affects the balance between RBC fatty acids in adult patients. Decreasing the intake of C18:2n-6 and C18: 3n-3, by using a mixed MCT/LCT emulsion, appears more appropriate for keeping a balanced pattern. PMID:16840007

Dahlan, W; Richelle, M; Kulapongse, S; Rössle, C; Deckelbaum, R J; Carpentier, Y A

1992-10-01

189

Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is ...

Martemucci Giovanni; D’Alessandro Angela Gabriella

190

Lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower docosahexaenoic acid in men with pedophilia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that abnormalities in plasma phospholipid fatty acids may play a role in aggressive behavior. Recently, it was suggested that a dysfunctional serotonergic turnover in the brain may be involved in the etiopathology of pedophilia. Depletion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may cause alterations in the serotonergic system that may be related to pedophilia and aggression. METHODS: This study examines the serum phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFA fractions in pedophilia. Twenty-seven pedophilic men and eighteen healthy volunteers participated in this study. RESULTS: In pedophilia there was a significant depletion of the C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), total n-3 fractions and an increase in the total n-6/n-3 and C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3 (arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid) ratios. Using the NEO Personality Inventory, lower DHA in pedophiles is related to more impulsiveness and lower agreeableness (trust, altruism, straightforwardness, compliance) and conscientiousness (self-discipline). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that a depletion of the serum phospholipid n-3 higher unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) and, in particular, of DHA may take part in the pathophysiology of pedophilia. One hypothesis is that a depletion of n-3 HUFAs and DHA may cause alterations in the serotonergic turnover, which are related to impulse discontrol and aggression-hostility, behaviors which are associated with pedophilia.

Mincke E; Cosyns P; Christophe AB; De Vriese S; Maes M

2006-12-01

191

Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of beef at retail of Piemontese, Limousin and Friesian breeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Samples of longissimus thoracis muscle of young bulls belonging to Piemontese (n=10), Limousin (n=11) and Friesian (n=10) breeds were analysed in order to study the chemical composition, fatty acids and cholesterol content of beef purchased at retail. The breeds and their differences in intramuscular fat content strongly influenced the fatty acids profile. The Piemontese animals displayed the lowest intramuscular fat and SFA content, while Friesian animals showed the highest intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA content. In general, Limousin animals had intermediate characteristics. A higher PUFA proportion on total fatty acids was observed in Piemontese breed, but the PUFA absolute content (mg/100g meat) did not differ among breeds. All the three breeds displayed a high content of n-6 fatty acids family and, consequently, a very unbalanced n-6/n-3 ratio. No differences were found for cholesterol content.

Brugiapaglia A; Lussiana C; Destefanis G

2014-01-01

192

Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of beef at retail of Piemontese, Limousin and Friesian breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of longissimus thoracis muscle of young bulls belonging to Piemontese (n=10), Limousin (n=11) and Friesian (n=10) breeds were analysed in order to study the chemical composition, fatty acids and cholesterol content of beef purchased at retail. The breeds and their differences in intramuscular fat content strongly influenced the fatty acids profile. The Piemontese animals displayed the lowest intramuscular fat and SFA content, while Friesian animals showed the highest intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA content. In general, Limousin animals had intermediate characteristics. A higher PUFA proportion on total fatty acids was observed in Piemontese breed, but the PUFA absolute content (mg/100g meat) did not differ among breeds. All the three breeds displayed a high content of n-6 fatty acids family and, consequently, a very unbalanced n-6/n-3 ratio. No differences were found for cholesterol content. PMID:24018276

Brugiapaglia, A; Lussiana, C; Destefanis, G

2013-08-15

193

Incorporation and fatty acid composition in liver of Nile tilapia fed with flaxseed oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most consumed freshwater fish in South America is Nile tilapia. The present study examined the effects of flaxseed oil (FO), source of alfa-linolenic acid (LNA), on the total lipid composition and polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-3 PUFA, contents on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) liver. Tilapias were given diets with increasing levels 0.00, 1.2, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00% (w w-1) of FO as a replacement of sunflower oil for five months. Fatty acids analysis of methyl esters revealed 45 fatty acids common to all treatments. The increase of flaxseed oil resulted in a decrease in total n-6 PUFA (35.1 to 21.1%) and an increase in n-3 PUFA (3.3 to 18.5%). The diet with LNA underwent sequential desaturation and elongation in liver, leading to an increase in all n-3 PUFA and a decrease in n-6/n-3 ratios (10.7 to 1.1). The manipulation of fatty acids with FO may be used to increase n-3 PUFA and to help balance n-6/n-3 PUFA in dietary supplements, thus, the liver tilapia becomes one product with major nutritional value.One of the most consumed freshwater fish in South America is Nile tilapia. The present study examined the effects of flaxseed oil (FO), source of alfa-linolenic acid (LNA), on the total lipid composition and polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-3 PUFA, contents on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) liver. Tilapias were given diets with increasing levels 0.00, 1.2, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00% (w w-1) of FO as a replacement of sunflower oil for five months. Fatty acids analysis of methyl esters revealed 45 fatty acids common to all treatments. The increase of flaxseed oil resulted in a decrease in total n-6 PUFA (35.1 to 21.1%) and an increase in n-3 PUFA (3.3 to 18.5%). The diet with LNA underwent sequential desaturation and elongation in liver, leading to an increase in all n-3 PUFA and a decrease in n-6/n-3 ratios (10.7 to 1.1). The manipulation of fatty acids with FO may be used to increase n-3 PUFA and to help balance n-6/n-3 PUFA in dietary supplements, thus, the liver tilapia becomes one product with major nutritional value.

Polyana Batoqui França; Ana Carolina Aguiar; Paula Fernandes Montanher; Marcela Boroski; Nilson Evelázio de Souza; Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer

2011-01-01

194

[Fatty acid composition of Fusidium coccineum lipids  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fatty acid composition of the lipids synthesized de novo or during growth of the organism producing fusidic acid, Fusidium coccineum on complex media was studied. The content of the total extractable lipids in the mycelium did not exceed 10-11 per cent ty the biomass dry weight. Unsaturated fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms in the chain, mainly oleinic and linoleic acids and saturated fatty acids such as palmitic and stearic acids predominated. The ratio of the main fatty acids and the content of the minor acids were subject to strains and conditions of their cultivation. However, linoleic and oleinic acids predominated in all the lipids except the lipids from submerged cultures growing in the form of unusually large clots. Such lipids contained up to 60 per cent of palmitic acid.

Konova IV; Beliaeva TV; Rudakova LM; Bartoshevich IuE

1985-11-01

195

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX. : Fatty Acid Synthesis from Enzymically and Chemically Acetylated Rabbit Mammary Gland Fatty Acid Synthetase.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

# 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids. Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles of acetate were bound per mole of fatty acid synthetase, with 20–25 moles being bound to thiol groups per mole of enzyme. Acylation did not inhibit enzyme activity. The majority of the bound acetate was stable to hydrolysis at o °C. Out of the 60 moles of acetate bound per mole of acetylated enzyme, up to 20 moles were incorporated into fatty acids in the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH. # 4. 4. Due to the rapid hydrolysis of acetyl-fatty acid synthetase prepared from both acetyl-CoA and acetic anhydride, direct carboxylation of acetyl-fatty acid synthetase to form malonyl-fatty acid synthetase could not be demonstrated by CO2 fixation under the experimental conditions used. With acetic anhydride as acetyl donor, there was a low rate of incorporation of acetate into fatty acids in the presence of NADPH but absence of added malonyl-CoA. This could be due to direct carboxylation of the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase or, if any CoA were associated with the fatty acid synthetase, to carboxylation of acetyl-CoA formed by chemical acetylation of this CoA.

Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max

1972-01-01

196

Exploring the Role of Fatty Acid on Transcription Factors Regulating Fatty Acid Metabolism with Emphasis on Trans Fatty Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty acids are unique macromolecules as they act as biological modulators of transcription factors and regulate their own metabolism by controlling the activity or abundance of transcription factors of fatty acid metabolism either by RNA processing and RNA stability. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR-?) and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP-1c) are transcription factors expressed primarily in adipose tissue. We have studied the relation of fatty acid including trans fatty acid assessed in adipose tissue with the transcription factors. Adipose tissue was collected from 50 healthy subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Fatty acid was assessed in the tissue by gas chromatography. The expressions of PPAR? and SREBP-1c were studied by real time RT-PCR. The expressions of PPAR? and SREBP1c were significantly correlated (r = 0.4 p

Ransi Ann Abraham; Lakshmy Ramakrishnan; Rajinder Parshad; Varna Seenu; Dorairaj Prabhakaran; Vinay Kumar Bahl

2013-01-01

197

Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

Pompéia C.; Lopes L.R.; Miyasaka C.K.; Procópio J.; Sannomiya P.; Curi R.

2000-01-01

198

Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency disturbs the fatty acid composition of mouse testis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a key enzyme in the mobilization of fatty acids from intracellular stores. In mice, HSL deficiency results in male sterility caused by a major defect in spermatogenesis. The testes contain high concentrations of PUFA and specific PUFA are essential for spermatogenesis. We investigated the fatty acid composition and the mRNA levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism in testis of HSL-knockout mice. HSL deficiency altered fatty acid composition in the testis but not in plasma. The most important changes were decreases in the essential n-6 PUFA LNA and the n-3 PUFA ALA, and an increase in the corresponding synthesis intermediates C22:4n-6 and C22:5n-3 without changes in DPAn-6 or DHA acids. Mead acid, which has been associated with an essential fatty acid deficit leading to male infertility, was increased in the testis from HSL-knockout mice. Moreover, the expression of SCD-1, FADS1, and FADS2 was increased while expression of ELOVL2, an essential enzyme for the formation of very-long PUFA in testis, was decreased. Given the indispensability of these fatty acids for spermatogenesis, the changes in fatty acid metabolism observed in testes from HSL-knockout male mice may underlie the infertility of these animals. PMID:23369366

Casado, M E; Pastor, O; Mariscal, P; Canfrán-Duque, A; Martínez-Botas, J; Kraemer, F B; Lasunción, M A; Martín-Hidalgo, A; Busto, R

2013-01-29

199

Intrauterine fatty acid accretion rates in human brain: implications for fatty acid requirements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fatty acid components of infant brain were determined to assess fatty acid requirements for synthesis of structural lipids in brain tissue during the last trimester of development in the fetus. Quantitative fatty acid analysis of cerebellum, frontal and occipital brain lobes indicated rapid accretion of chain elongation and desaturation products during the last trimester of brain growth. Frontal and occipital brain lobes were similar in fatty acid content. Fatty acid accretion rates were determined by regression analysis of tissue fat components at varying gestational ages. Tissue accretion of saturated and omega-9 fatty acids, as well as total fatty acid content, paralleled increases in whole brain weight. Levels of linoleic (C18:2, omega-6) and linolenic (C18:3, omega-3) acids were consistently low in brain during the last trimester of development, while marked substantial accretion of long chain desaturation products, arachidonic (C20:4, omega-6) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, omega-3) acids occurred. Accretion of individual fatty acids of cerebellum also reflected changes in tissue total fatty acid content, with exception of the levels of C18:3, omega-3 and its chain elongation products present in cerebellum during the last trimester. These developmental changes and estimates of fatty acid incorporation into whole brain and cerebellum are quantitatively relevant to estimation of fatty acid requirements of the low birth weight neonate.

Clandinin MT; Chappell JE; Leong S; Heim T; Swyer PR; Chance GW

1980-06-01

200

Intrauterine fatty acid accretion rates in human brain: implications for fatty acid requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid components of infant brain were determined to assess fatty acid requirements for synthesis of structural lipids in brain tissue during the last trimester of development in the fetus. Quantitative fatty acid analysis of cerebellum, frontal and occipital brain lobes indicated rapid accretion of chain elongation and desaturation products during the last trimester of brain growth. Frontal and occipital brain lobes were similar in fatty acid content. Fatty acid accretion rates were determined by regression analysis of tissue fat components at varying gestational ages. Tissue accretion of saturated and omega-9 fatty acids, as well as total fatty acid content, paralleled increases in whole brain weight. Levels of linoleic (C18:2, omega-6) and linolenic (C18:3, omega-3) acids were consistently low in brain during the last trimester of development, while marked substantial accretion of long chain desaturation products, arachidonic (C20:4, omega-6) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, omega-3) acids occurred. Accretion of individual fatty acids of cerebellum also reflected changes in tissue total fatty acid content, with exception of the levels of C18:3, omega-3 and its chain elongation products present in cerebellum during the last trimester. These developmental changes and estimates of fatty acid incorporation into whole brain and cerebellum are quantitatively relevant to estimation of fatty acid requirements of the low birth weight neonate. PMID:7408742

Clandinin, M T; Chappell, J E; Leong, S; Heim, T; Swyer, P R; Chance, G W

1980-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES.  

Science.gov (United States)

The very long chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids, octacosaheptaenoic [28:7(n-6)] and octacosaoctaenoic acid [28:8(n-3)], were found to be associated with phospholipids, obtained by fractionation of total lipid extracts into distinct lipid classes, in 4 and 6, respectively, ...

202

Effect of Fat-Mineral Preparation From Fish Oil on Fatty Acid Content on Cow Milk  

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Full Text Available 8-week-lasting investigation aimed at the assessment of the effect of fish oil application in the form of fat-mineral preparation (F-M) on fatty acid content in milk fat. The subject of this investigation were highly efficient dairy cows (primiparous and multiparous). The cows were administered F-M containing fish oil (1% in dry mass of ration) which resulted in decreased level of shortchain fatty acids in milk fat and increased level of longchain fatty acids. There was recorded significant increase in isomer cis-9,trans-11 CLA content, as well as the one of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 - EPA and DHA group. The number of n-3 group acid did considerably increase. The fatty acids n-6/n-3 ratio showed significant decrease in both experimental groups.

Witold Janeczek; Marek Szo?tysik; Robert Kupczy?ski; Józefa Chrzanowska; Stefania Kinal; Mariusz Korczy?ski; Anna Bartkowiak

2007-01-01

203

Metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat kidney cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids is characterized in tissues, such as liver and heart, especially from studies based on isolated cells incubated with radiolabelled fatty acid substrates. Differently, only little is known about the metabolism of fatty acids in the kidney. It is controversial whether the kidney possesses the ability to desaturate long-chain fatty acids or whether kidney cells are dependent on performed polyunsaturated fatty acids transported from the liver. In this study we used isolated rat kidney cells obtained by a perfusion technique. The cells were incubated with [1-(14)C]-labelled 18:3(n-3) or 20:3(n-6) fatty acids which were incorporated into complex lipids or desaturated/elongated. The lipids were separated by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The present study shows that isolated kidney cells take up and esterify labelled long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. We have also demonstrated that isolated rat kidney cells only to a minor extent Delta6-desaturate labelled 18:3(n-3) to 18:4 (n-3). Conversely, the Delta 5-desaturation of 20:3(n-6) to 20:4(n-6) is far more active. It may thus be concluded that the kidney, at least in part, must obtain its C(20) and C(22) fatty acids from the circulation, while the active Delta5-desaturase suggests that preformed C(20) fatty acids can be converted to more unsaturated homologues in the kidney.

Liabø J; Odden N; Christiansen EN; Hagve TA

2003-01-01

204

Fatty acid composition of hemp seed oils from different locations in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent interest in hemp seed as a source of food has largely focused on its oil content and fatty acid profile. The oil content and fatty acid composition (15 fatty acids) of twenty one different hemp seed samples of domestic origin from north-western Turkey were monitored. The samples were obtained from seed wholesalers and local spice shops and are of unknown genetic origin. The oil content of the hemp seeds ranged between 29.6 to 36.5%. Out of the 15 detected fatty acids, the omega-6 linoleic acid (18:2n-6) was predominant and fluctuated from 55.4 to 56.9%, while the omega-3 a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid ranged from 16.5 to 20.4% and the omega-9 oleic acid (18:1n-9) ranged from 11.4 to 15.9%. Of the minor fatty acids, the highest concentrations were found for {gamma}-linolenic acid (18:3n-6), range 0.6-1.1%, followed by stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), range 0.3-0.5%. These results show that hemp seed grown in north-western Turkey provides a well balanced and rich source of dietary omega-6 and -3 essential fatty acids and appears to be a potentially valuable source of food. (Author) 31 refs.

Kiralan, M.; Gul, V.; Metin Kara, S.

2010-07-01

205

Inhibition of topoisomerases by fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The inhibitory effects of various fatty acids on topoisomerases were examined, and their structure activity relationships and mechanism of action were studied. Saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C22:0) did not inhibit topoisomerase I, but cis-unsaturated fatty acids (C16:1 to C22:1) with one double bond showed strong inhibition of the enzyme. The inhibitory potency depended on the carbon chain length and the position of the double bond in the fatty acid molecule. The trans-isomer, methyl ester and hydroxyl derivative of oleic acid had no or little inhibitory effect on topoisomerases I and II. Among the compounds studied petroselinic acid and vaccenic acid (C18:1) with a cis-double bond were the potent inhibitors. Petroselinic acid was a topoisomerase inhibitor of the cleavable complex-nonforming type and acted directly on the enzyme molecule in a noncompetitive manner without DNA intercalation.

Suzuki K; Shono F; Kai H; Uno T; Uyeda M

2000-01-01

206

Inhibition of topoisomerases by fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inhibitory effects of various fatty acids on topoisomerases were examined, and their structure activity relationships and mechanism of action were studied. Saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C22:0) did not inhibit topoisomerase I, but cis-unsaturated fatty acids (C16:1 to C22:1) with one double bond showed strong inhibition of the enzyme. The inhibitory potency depended on the carbon chain length and the position of the double bond in the fatty acid molecule. The trans-isomer, methyl ester and hydroxyl derivative of oleic acid had no or little inhibitory effect on topoisomerases I and II. Among the compounds studied petroselinic acid and vaccenic acid (C18:1) with a cis-double bond were the potent inhibitors. Petroselinic acid was a topoisomerase inhibitor of the cleavable complex-nonforming type and acted directly on the enzyme molecule in a noncompetitive manner without DNA intercalation. PMID:10995067

Suzuki, K; Shono, F; Kai, H; Uno, T; Uyeda, M

2000-01-01

207

PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF FATTY ACID ESTERS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for producing C1-C4 alkyl esters of fatty acids comprising the steps of: (a) reacting glycerine with a glyceride mixture containing levels of free fatty acids which inhibit trans-esterification with alkaline catalysts until the level of free fatty acids is reduced sufficiently to enable the use of an alkaline trans-esterification catalyst; (b) reacting the mixture resulting from step (a) with one or more alkaline trans-esterification catalysts and one or more C1-C4 alcohols until a mixture of one or more C1-C4 alkyl esters of fatty acids and crude glycerine forms; (c) recovering the one or more C1-C4 alkyl esters of fatty acids; and (d) recovering the crude glycerine, wherein at least a portion of the crude glycerine recovered in step (d) is used in step (a) of a subsequent process.

BARBIERI GIOVANNI; GASPARINI GIACOMO SALVATORE; WRIGLEY PETER RONALD; JONES PETER WILLIAM; MORRISON JOHN DAVID; KILLICK ROBERT WILLIAM

208

Modification of fatty acids by genetic engineering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oils derived from temperature oilseeds have a fairly narrow range of fatty acid distribution. With the exception of the crucifers, most have oils that predominantly consist of C18-fatty acids with varying degrees of desaturation. Although common in tropical oilseeds and many wild species, fatty acid with shorter than 16-carbon chain length are virtually absent from temperature oilseeds. Genetic engineering has made it possible to transfer genes between widely different taxa and thus has facilitated modifications of fatty acids to much higher degree than what was possible via mutagenesis or interspecific crosses between close relatives. Brassica napus, a species of rapeseed has been a very successful target for genetic engineering. The same species has also been successfully used in modifications of fatty acid profiles by means of conventional plant breeding, resulting in types such as high erucic rapeseed (closest to wild type), low erucic rape, low linolenic rape and high oleic rape. (orig.)

Sovero, M. [Calgene Inc., Davis, CA (United States)

1998-12-31

209

Influence of goats feeding on the fatty acids content in milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of modeling the content of fatty acids of milk fat, in order to increase the contents of desirable n-3 unsaturated fatty acids and decrease saturated fatty acid with adequate nutrition of goats. Previous studies showed that the milk of goats on pasture increased content of caproic (C6:0), caprylic (C8:0), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6) and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In the same group of goats lower content of palmitoleic (C16:1), linoleic (C18:2) and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was found, as well as lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared with group of goats kept indoors and fed with alfalfa hay. In milk of goats fed with diets supplemented with safflower oil, content of CLA significantly increased, while goats fed with diets supplement with linseed oil had significantly higher content of C18:3 in milk, compared with group of goats fed without addition of these oils. Goats fed with addition of protected fish oil had significant transfer of eicosapentaenoic-EPA and docosahexaenoic-DHA fatty acids in milk. Protected fish oil reduced the negative impact of long chain fatty acids on the activity of ruminal microorganisms, consumption and digestibility of fiber, as well as inhibition of synthesis of fatty acids in milk gland. When adding unprotected fish oil, increase of stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1) fatty acids occurred, because of the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen.

Željka Klir; Zvonko Antunovi?; Josip Novoselec

2012-01-01

210

Serum omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and cutaneous p53 expression in an Australian population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is some evidence from experimental studies that long-chain n-3 and n-6 fatty acids may be able to modify early skin carcinogenesis, but whether this applies in the general population is not known. METHODS: We investigated associations between serum polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and p53 expression in normal skin, as a biomarker of early UV-induced carcinogenesis, in an unselected sample of Australian adults. Participants in the Nambour Skin Cancer Prevention Trial provided a dorsal hand punch biopsy which was used for immunohistochemical assessment of p53 immunoreactivity. Cross-sectional associations with serum fatty acid concentrations were analyzed in 139 participants, adjusting for confounding variables including skin phenotype, past sun exposure, and smoking status. RESULTS: There was an inverse association, showing a dose-response relationship, between total n-3 fatty acid serum concentrations and p53 immunoreactivity in the whole epidermis and the basal layer. This was particularly due to eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid concentrations. There was no evidence for increased p53 immunoreactivity in participants with relatively high serum n-6 fatty acid concentrations. The ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acid concentrations was not associated with p53 immunoreactivity. CONCLUSION: These results add to growing evidence that long-chain fatty acids may be able to modify early skin carcinogenesis. IMPACT: The prospect that increased intake of n-3 fatty acids could help prevent skin cancer is attractive.

van der Pols JC; Xu C; Boyle GM; Hughes MC; Carr SJ; Parsons PG; Green AC

2011-03-01

211

[Fatty acid composition and phospholipid pattern in auxotrophs for unsaturated fatty acids (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between fatty acid composition and phospholipid pattern has been studied in Escherichia coli auxotrophs for unsaturated fatty acids. 1. The presence of a regulatory mechanism which enables the organism to maintain a given fluidity of the lipids has been corroborated using exogenous fatty acids which cause dramatic changes in fatty acid composition. 2. The fatty composition of phosphatidic acid is different from that of the other classes of phospholipids. 3. Changes in fatty acid composition are concomittant with the alteration of the phospholipid pattern. The ratio of phosphatidylglycerol to diphosphatidylglycerol is particularly sensitive to the physical characteristics of the exogenous unsaturated fatty acid. The relative increase in diphosphatidylglycerol is associated with membrane alterations.

Beaudoin AR

1976-11-01

212

Fatty acid profile, volatiles and antibacterial screening of lipids of the sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa (Schmidt) collected from the Bay of Bengal (Orissa Coast)  

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Full Text Available The fatty acid composition as well as the volatiles of a lipophilic extract from the marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa (Schmidt) was analysed. The fatty acids (FA) were characterized by linear saturated fatty acids (33.05 %), branched saturated fatty acids (9.30 %) and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (18.07 %). A significant amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (30.79 %) was found in the total lipid, which included linoleic acid (18:2 n–6, 11.14 %), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid/?-linolenic acid (18:3 n–3, 1.99 %), dihomo-g-linolenic acid (20:3 n–6, 2.03 %) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n–3, 0.5 %). An antibacterial assay of the lipid extract of F. cavernosa showed broad-spectrum activity against different human and fish pathogens.

PRAVAT MANJARI MISHRA; AYINAMPUDI SREE; MADHUSMITA ACHARYA; ANURAG PRATAP DAS

2009-01-01

213

Fatty acid status and maternal mental health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal mental health (MMH) problems are a major public health concern with adverse consequences for women, their offspring and families. Intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially the n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid, which are found predominantly in cold water fish, has been associated with a range of mental health outcomes and may improve MMH. The demands for these fatty acids are increased during pregnancy and lactation, and may influence MMH as they are integral parts of cell membranes especially in the brain and play a role in physiological processes such as membrane fluidity and neurotransmitter function. Observational studies and intervention trials that have examined the role of fatty acids and MMH disorders especially post-partum depression (PPD) were identified using Pubmed and have been reviewed. Only three well-designed large prospective studies were identified; these studies examined the relationship between dietary intakes of n-3 fatty acids and fish during pregnancy, and found limited evidence of an association with PPD. Several intervention trials (n=8) have been done but generally suffer from small sample size and vary in terms of the study subject characteristics and timing, duration and dosage of the intervention. The results are mixed, but one recently completed large trial found no evidence of benefit among women who received DHA during pregnancy. Few studies have been conducted in developing countries, and gaps remain on the influence of other nutrient deficiencies, genetic polymorphisms that influence n-3 fatty acid synthesis and total fatty acid intake.

Ramakrishnan U

2011-04-01

214

Lipid content and fatty acid profile of the fruit seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis  

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Full Text Available The lipid content and profile of oil from Diospyros mespiliformis seeds was determined. Total oil content of the seeds was low at 0.70±0.17 %. Although the oil yield was low, the fatty acid profile shows an interesting pattern: split as 39.54% total saturated fatty acids with palmitic acid (C16:0) at 30.06±0.61% of the total saturated fatty acids: total monounsaturated fatty acids constituted 29.42% of the oil yield with palmitoleic acid (C16:1n7) at 29.37±0.38% making up the large proportion of the monounsaturated fatty acids. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids grossed 29.66% of the oil yield and were divided as 28.71±1.79% linoleic (LA, C18:2n6) acid and 0.95±0.61% ?-linolenic (ALA, C18:3n3) acid. In terms of fatty acid profile, D. mespiliformis seed oil has a high potential as a source of LA and ALA, both essential fatty acids. However a lot of breeding work has to be invested into the tree in order to come up with provenances of D. mespiliformis with higher oil yields to warrant commercial exploitation of its fruit kernel oil.

Eliton M Chivandi; K H Erlwanger; B C Davidson

2009-01-01

215

Challenges with fats and fatty acid methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The content and chemical nature of lipids in feedstuffs is heterogeneous. It has long been known that ether extraction by the Weende procedure inadequately characterizes the fat content of feedstuffs, yet it remains the official method. Diethyl ether (or hexanes that are often used) extracts significant amounts of nonnutritive, nonsaponifiable lipids from forages, and often incompletely extracts lipids of nutritional value, especially fatty acids present as salts of divalent cations. Preextraction hydrolysis of insoluble fatty acid salts with acid releases these fatty acids, and this step is included in the official procedure for certain feedstuffs in the United Kingdom; however, acid hydrolysis increases analysis time and decreases precision. Acid hydrolysis also causes confusion as to the proper definition of the fat content of feedstuffs. A preferred method of fat analysis determines the total fatty acid concentration in feed samples by converting fatty acid salts, as well as the acyl components in all lipid classes, such as triacylglycerols, phospholipids, and sphingolipids, to methyl esters using a simple, direct one-step esterification procedure. Fatty acid methyl esters are then quantified by GLC, which provides information on both fatty acid quantity and profile in a single analysis. Adjustments in conditions and reagents may be necessary to overcome difficulty in quantitatively preparing esters from certain types of fatty acids and their derivatives in commercial fat supplements. After correction for glycerol content, analysis of oils by this procedure provides information on the content of nonsaponifiable material, such as chlorophyll, waxes, and indigestible polymers formed from heat- or oxidatively damaged fats. The correct description of feedstuffs for energy value of fats is the content of total fatty acids.

Palmquist DL; Jenkins TC

2003-12-01

216

Product Fat-1 Transgenic Simmental Crossbred Cattle Endogenously Synthesizing Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using OSM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Meat products normally contain low omega-3 fatty acids and high ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may contribute to the prevalence of many diseases. In order to obtained in such beef with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids will be more healthy to meet people’s diet, researchers generated the fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans c fat-1 gene encoding an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the gene is absent in mammals. In this study, researchers successful product the embryo of fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle using OSM. The results of Western Blotting and fluoroscopic examination have proved that the fat-1 gene has been into genome of clone embryo and translated into proteins which could be used to embryo transfer.

Wei Wang; Xiao-Mao Guo; Jian Wang; Song-Jia Lai

2012-01-01

217

Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat  

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Full Text Available The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat) on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn); T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fat. The lipids from the diets had significantly statistical effects (p<0,05) on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat. Multivariate techniques also showed differences in fatty acid composition within treatments due to sex. The studied dietary lipids affected the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) but had only small effects on the n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio.

SG Rondelli; O Martinez; PT García

2004-01-01

218

Dietary n-3 fatty acids significantly suppress lipogenesis in bovine muscle and adipose tissue: a functional genomics approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of German Holstein bulls induced by a grass-silage/n-3 fatty acid based intervention diet versus a maize-silage/n-6 fatty acid based control diet were analyzed and related to shifts in lipogenic gene expression, protein expression, and enzyme activity patterns. Significantly higher amounts of n-3 fatty acids and by mean factors of 2.2-2.5 decreased n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios in both tissues were obtained upon n-3 fatty acid intervention. In longissimus muscle, these changes of fatty acid profiles were associated with reduced SREBP1c (p = 0.02), ACC (p = 0.00), FAS (p = 0.10) and SCD (p = 0.03) gene expression, ?6D (p = 0.03) and SCD (p = 0.03) protein expression as well as SCD enzyme activity (p = 0.03). In subcutaneous adipose tissue, significantly reduced ACC (p = 0.00) and FAS (p = 0.01) gene expression, SCD protein expression (p = 0.02) and SCD enzyme activity (p = 0.03) were detected upon n-3 fatty acid intervention, although lower degrees of correlation between gene and corresponding gene products were obtained in relation to longissimus muscle. The study elucidates tissue-specific functional genomic responses to dietary fatty acid manipulation in regard to fatty acid profile tailoring of animal tissues. PMID:21614646

Hiller, Beate; Herdmann, Andrea; Nuernberg, Karin

2011-05-26

219

Tracing fatty acid metabolism by click chemistry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fatty acids are abundant constituents of all biological systems, and their metabolism is important for normal function at all levels of an organism. Aberrations in fatty acid metabolism are associated with pathological states and have become a focus of current research, particularly due to the interest in metabolic overload diseases. Here we present a click-chemistry-based method that allows tracing of fatty acid metabolism in virtually any biological system. It combines high sensitivity with excellent linearity and fast sample turnover. Since it is free of radioactivity, it can be combined with any other modern analysis technology and can be used in high-throughput applications. Using the new method, we provide for the first time an analysis of cellular fatty metabolism with high time resolution and a comprehensive comparison of utilization of a broad spectrum of fatty acids in hepatoma and adipose cell lines.

Thiele C; Papan C; Hoelper D; Kusserow K; Gaebler A; Schoene M; Piotrowitz K; Lohmann D; Spandl J; Stevanovic A; Shevchenko A; Kuerschner L

2012-12-01

220

Fatty acids of Rhodobryum ontariense (Bryaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of Rhodobryum ontariense (Kindb.) Kindb. has not been previously investigated. Fatty acids of this moss were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively with an aim to identify its corresponding pattern. A total of eight fatty acids were identified including two acetylenic ones: 9,12,15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic acid (42.26%), ?-linolenic acid (20.32%), palmitic acid (14.31%), 9,12-octadecadienoic-6-ynoic acid (13.31%), linoleic acid (5.25%), oleic acid (2.47%), stearic acid (1.14%) and ?-linolenic acid (0.92%). To our knowledge, this is the first record of acetylenic fatty acids in the genus Rhodobryum. In general, acetylenic fatty acids vary considerably among different moss groups and have been used as a chemotaxonomic character in bryophyte classifications. Other species of Rhodobryum from Asia have been traditionally used in ethno medicine by indigenous cultures. Two fatty acids of those reported here, 9,12,15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic and ?-linolenic acid, have known cardio protective activity, which supports respective claims of traditional herbal use of these mosses. PMID:21895464

Pejin, B; Bianco, A; Newmaster, S; Sabovljevic, M; Vujisic, Lj; Tesevic, V; Vajs, V; De Rosa, S

2011-09-06

 
 
 
 
221

Fatty acids of Rhodobryum ontariense (Bryaceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The chemical composition of Rhodobryum ontariense (Kindb.) Kindb. has not been previously investigated. Fatty acids of this moss were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively with an aim to identify its corresponding pattern. A total of eight fatty acids were identified including two acetylenic ones: 9,12,15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic acid (42.26%), ?-linolenic acid (20.32%), palmitic acid (14.31%), 9,12-octadecadienoic-6-ynoic acid (13.31%), linoleic acid (5.25%), oleic acid (2.47%), stearic acid (1.14%) and ?-linolenic acid (0.92%). To our knowledge, this is the first record of acetylenic fatty acids in the genus Rhodobryum. In general, acetylenic fatty acids vary considerably among different moss groups and have been used as a chemotaxonomic character in bryophyte classifications. Other species of Rhodobryum from Asia have been traditionally used in ethno medicine by indigenous cultures. Two fatty acids of those reported here, 9,12,15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic and ?-linolenic acid, have known cardio protective activity, which supports respective claims of traditional herbal use of these mosses.

Pejin B; Bianco A; Newmaster S; Sabovljevic M; Vujisic Lj; Tesevic V; Vajs V; De Rosa S

2012-01-01

222

Process for Production of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Sterolesters from Soapstock  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a process for production of fatty acids directly from soapstock generated in the alkali refining process including the steps of (a) adding a lipase directly to the alkaline soapstock to facilitate hydrolysis of glycerides without prior neutralisation, (b) neutralizing and splitting the soaps with strong acids, and (c) separating the fatty acid phase from the aqueous phase by settling and/or centrifugation. A second embodiment is a process in which the soapstock is first neutralized and split with strong acids, followed by adding a lipase to facilitate glyceride hydrolysis, and separating the fatty acid phase. The fatty acids so obtained can be esterified with C1-C6 alcohols using a lipase that is selective for fatty acids and does not transesterify the sterolesters, and the fatty acid esters and sterolesters are separated by distillation.; The sterolesters are useful as supplements for food, as pharmaceutical agents for lowering cholesterol and as biofuel and biodiesel.

KEMPERS PETER; SCHOERKEN ULRICH; WOLF THOMAS; SATO SETSUO; BUENO DE ALMEIDA WANDERSON; SILVA BIZZARRI PABLO; SHIGUERU ARAUJO ALEXSSANDER

223

Hepatic steatosis in n-3 fatty acid depleted mice: focus on metabolic alterations related to tissue fatty acid composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only few data relating the metabolic consequences of feeding diets very low in n-3 fatty acids. This experiment carried out in mice aims at studying the impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) depletion on hepatic metabolism. Results n-3 PUFA depletion leads to a significant decrease in body weight despite a similar caloric intake or adipose tissue weight. n-3 PUFA depleted mice exhibit hypercholesterolemia (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol) as well as an increase in hepatic cholesteryl ester and triglycerides content. Fatty acid pattern is profoundly modified in hepatic phospholipids and triglycerides. The decrease in tissue n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio correlates with steatosis. Hepatic mRNA content of key factors involved in lipid metabolism suggest a decreased lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, PPAR?), and an increased ?-oxidation (CPT1, PPAR? and PGC1?) without modification of fatty acid esterification (DGAT2, GPAT1), secretion (MTTP) or intracellular transport (L-FABP). Histological analysis reveals alterations of liver morphology, which can not be explained by inflammatory or oxidative stress. However, several proteins involved in the unfolded protein response are decreased in depleted mice. Conclusion n-3 PUFA depletion leads to important metabolic alterations in murine liver. Steatosis occurs through a mechanism independent of the shift between ?-oxidation and lipogenesis. Moreover, long term n-3 PUFA depletion decreases the expression of factors involved in the unfolded protein response, suggesting a lower protection against endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatocytes upon n-3 PUFA deficiency.

Pachikian BD; Neyrinck AM; Cani PD; Portois L; Deldicque L; De Backer FC; Bindels LB; Sohet FM; Malaisse WJ; Francaux M; Carpentier YA; Delzenne NM

2008-01-01

224

Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry : a cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. Conclusions Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders

2011-01-01

225

The relationship between age and the fatty acid composition of cerebral cortex and erythrocytes in human subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The important role that neural tissue fatty acid composition plays in neurodevelopment and various pathological states is increasingly recognized. However, there are limited data regarding the fatty acid composition of normal human brain at various ages. The purpose of this study was to describe human cerebral cortex fatty acid composition from ages 2 to 88 years. The relationship between cerebral cortex and erythrocyte fatty acid composition was also investigated. Samples of frontal cerebral cortex and of erythrocytes were obtained from 58 human subjects on whom autopsies were performed. The mean age of subjects was 40 +/- 29 years, with a range of 2 to 88 years. The fatty acid composition of tissues was determined, and linear regression models were used to describe the relationship between age and the fatty acid composition of cerebral cortex and erythrocytes. The data were bilinear, with changes occurring after the approximate age of 18 years. Therefore, the cohort was divided into subjects with ages 18 years. In the younger group, the polyunsaturated fatty acids generally decreased with age, with the exception of 22:6n3, which demonstrated a significant increase. The level of mono-unsaturated fatty acids, in contrast, generally increased to the age of 18 years. Several of the polyunsaturated fatty acids also decreased with age in the older cohort, particularly 20:4n6. The levels of 18:2n6, however, increased significantly with age in the older cohort. Among subjects < or =18 years of age, there was no significant relationship between cerebral cortex and erythrocyte fatty acid levels. In the older cohort, there was a significant relationship between brain and erythrocyte levels for several fatty acids, particularly 16:0. These data demonstrate that levels of cerebral cortex fatty acids change from early childhood through late adulthood, and indicate that the levels of several erythrocyte fatty acids may be useful in predicting brain fatty acid levels in adults. PMID:11704343

Carver, J D; Benford, V J; Han, B; Cantor, A B

2001-09-15

226

Process for production of fatty acids, fatty acid esters and sterolesters from soapstock  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a first process for production of fatty acids directly from any soapstock generated in the alkali refining process comprising of a) adding a lipase directly to the alkaline soapstock to facilitate hydrolysis of mono-,di- and triglycerides without prior neutralisation b) neutralizing and splitting the soaps with strong acids until reaching pH 1-6, c) separating the fatty acid phase from the aqueous by settling and/or centrifugation. In a second embodiment a second process for production of fatty acids directly from any soapstock is subject of the invention.This process comprises i) neutralizing and splitting the soaps with strong acids until reaching pH 1-6 ii) adding a lipase to facilitate mono-/di-/triglyceride hydrolysis iii) separating the fatty acid phase from the aqueous by settling and / or centrifugation In a further subject matter the invention deals with the use of said fatty acids for enzymatic or chemical synthesis of C1 to C6 alcanol esters and / or for chemical dimerisation of the fatty acids.As a consequence the invention also refers to a process for obtaining sterolesters and/or fatty acid esters characterized in that the fatty acids obtained according to the processes for production of fatty acids directly from any soapstock as aforementioned described are a) esterified with C1 to C6 alkanol with a Lipase that is selective for fatty acids and does not transesterify the sterolesters b) the fatty acid esters are separated from the sterolesters by distillation The use of said sterolesters for animal feed, food, health foods and as pharmaceutical agent for lowering cholesterol and/or as precursor for steroid synthesis as well as the use of said fatty acid esters as solvent, for the production of fatty alcohols, as biofuel, and biodiesel, as plastisicer or for dimerization is also subject of the invention.

KEMPERS PETER; SCHOERKEN ULRICH; WOLF THOMAS; SATO SETSUO; BUENO DE ALMEIDA WANDERSON; SILVA BIZZARI PABLO; ARAUJO ALEXSSANDER SHIGUERU

227

PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF FATTY ACIDS, FATTY ACID ESTERS AND STEROLESTERS FROM SOAPSTOCK  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a first process for production of fatty acids directly from any soapstock generated in the alkali refining process comprising of a) adding a lipase directly to the alkaline soapstock to facilitate hydrolysis of mono-,di- and triglycerides without prior neutralisation b) neutralizing and splitting the soaps with strong acids until reaching pH 1-6, c) separating the fatty acid phase from the aqueous by settling and/or centrifugation. In a second embodiment a second process for production of fatty acids directly from any soapstock is subject of the invention.This process comprises i) neutralizing and splitting the soaps with strong acids until reaching pH 1-6 ii) adding a lipase to facilitate mono-/di-/triglyceride hydrolysis iii) separating the fatty acid phase from the aqueous by settling and / or centrifugation In a further subject matter the invention deals with the use of said fatty acids for enzymatic or chemical synthesis of C1 to C6 alcanol esters and / or for chemical dimerisation of the fatty acids.As a consequence the invention also refers to a process for obtaining sterolesters and/or fatty acid esters characterized in that the fatty acids obtained according to the processes for production of fatty acids directly from any soapstock as aforementioned described are a) esterified with C1 to C6 alkanol with a Lipase that is selective for fatty acids and does not transesterify the sterolesters b) the fatty acid esters are separated from the sterolesters by distillation The use of said sterolesters for animal feed, food, health foods and as pharmaceutical agent for lowering cholesterol and/or as precursor for steroid synthesis as well as the use of said fatty acid esters as solvent, for the production of fatty alcohols, as biofuel, and biodiesel, as plastisicer or for dimerization is also subject of the invention.

KEMPERS PETER; SCHOERKEN ULRICH; WOLF THOMAS; SATO SETSUO; BUENO DE ALMEIDA WANDERSON; SILVA BIZZARRI PABLO; SHIGUERU ARAUJO ALEXSSANDER

228

PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF FATTY ACIDS, FATTY ACID ESTERS ANDSTEROLESTERS FROM SOAPSTOCK  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a first process for production of fatty acids di rectly from any soapstock generated in the alkali refining process comprisin g of a) adding a lipase directly to the alkaline soapstock to facilitate hyd rolysis of mono-,di- and triglycerides without prior neutralisation b) neutr alizing and splitting the soaps with strong acids until reaching pH 1-6, c) separating the fatty acid phase from the aqueous by settling and/or centrifu gation. In a second embodiment a second process for production of fatty acid s directly from any soapstock is subject of the invention. This process comp rises i) neutralizing and splitting the soaps with strong acids until reachi ng pH 1-6 ii) adding a lipase to facilitate mono-/di-/triglyceride hydrolysi s iii) separating the fatty acid phase from the aqueous by settling and / or centrifugation In a further subject matter the invention deals with the use of said fatty acids for enzymatic or chemical synthesis of C1 to C6 alcanol esters and / or for chemical dimerisation of the fatty acids. As a conseque nce the invention also refers to a process for obtaining sterolesters and/or fatty acid esters characterized in that the fatty acids obtained according to the processes for production of fatty acids directly from any soapstock a s aforementioned described are a) esterified with C1 to C6 alkanol with a Li pase that is selective for fatty acids and does not transesterify the sterol esters b) the fatty acid esters are separated from the sterolesters by disti llation The use of said sterolesters for animal feed, food, health foods and as pharmaceutical agent for lowering cholesterol and/or as precursor for st eroid synthesis as well as the use of said fatty acid esters as solvent, for the production of fatty alcohols, as biofuel, and biodiesel, as plastisicer or for dimerization is also subject of the invention.

BUENO DE ALMEIDA WANDERSON; SILVA BIZZARRI PABLO; SATO SETSUO; SHIGUERU ARAUJO ALEXSSANDER; SCHOERKEN ULRICH; KEMPERS PETER; WOLF THOMAS

229

Maternal fatty acid status in pregnancy and childhood atopic manifestations: KOALA Birth Cohort Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of atopic disorders has increased rapidly, but aetiological factors responsible for this increase are still largely unknown. Prenatal exposure to a pro-inflammatory fatty acid status is hypothesized although little research has been carried out. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether prenatal fatty acid exposures are associated with atopy in childhood. METHODS: In the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, maternal blood samples (n=1275) at 34-36 weeks of pregnancy were assayed for n-6 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs). The full spectrum of offspring atopic manifestations (wheeze, asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, eczema, atopic dermatitis, allergic sensitization, and high total IgE) until the age of 6-7 years was assessed by repeated parental questionnaires and measurements of total and specific IgE. Associations of maternal fatty acid status with child atopic outcomes were analysed using multivariable logistic regression and generalized estimating equations for repeated measurements. RESULTS: High ratio of maternal n-6 vs. n-3 LCPs was associated with a lower risk of eczema in the child (P for trend 0.012). More specifically, we found a decreased risk of eczema in the first 7 months of life with increasing arachidonic acid levels (P for trend 0.013). No associations were found between maternal fatty acids and offspring airway-related atopic manifestations, sensitization, or high total IgE. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The development of atopic disorders in early childhood is associated with prenatal exposure to n-6 vs. n-3 fatty acids, but with inconsistencies between different manifestations. Further exploration of associations with maternal diet and genetic variants in genes regulating fatty acid metabolism are required. This study shows that the influence of prenatal exposure to fatty acids on the risk of eczema in the child is limited to the first year of life.

Notenboom ML; Mommers M; Jansen EH; Penders J; Thijs C

2011-03-01

230

HIGH POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID LEVELS IN TWO SUBTROPICAL MACROALGAE, CLADOSIPHON OKAMURANUS AND CAULERPA LENTILLIFERA  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The lipid and fatty acid compositions in two edible subtropical algae (the brown alga Cladosiphon okamuranus Tokida and the green alga Caulerpa lentillifera J. Agardh) were determined to clarify their lipid characteristics and nutritional values. Glycolipids and phospholipids were the major lipid classes, with significant levels of triacylglycerols. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were the major fatty acids of both algae. The lipid class composition and major fatty acids were similar in both the algal species, irrespective of wild and cultured specimens. Typical n-6 PUFA, such as 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid) and 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid), occurred in characteristically high levels in both of the algae. High levels of n-3 PUFA were measured in all lipid classes of both species without 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid), 18:3n-3, 18:4n-3, and 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) for Cl. okamuranus; and 16:3n-3, 18:3n-3, and 20:5n-3 for Ca. lentillifera. The finding suggests that the green algal species, which mainly biosynthesizes short-chain (C?? and C??) PUFA, differs from that of the brown alga, which is capable of biosynthesizing high 20:5n-3 levels. The PUFA levels in glycolipids of the two algal species comprised up to 60%, even though they are subtropical marine species. High n-6 PUFA levels in the algal lipids probably influence the significant levels of n-6 PUFA in herbivorous fishes, because the n-6 PUFA levels in marine fish lipids are generally undetectable or negligible.

Saito Hiroaki; Xue Changhu; Yamashiro Rieko; Moromizato Satoshi; Itabashi Yutaka

2010-08-01

231

Historical overview of n-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first evidence that fish oil fatty acids might have a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease came from the discovery that Greenland Eskimos, who have a diet high in n-3 fatty acids, have a lower mortality from coronary heart disease than do Danes and Americans. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential in our diets and can be classified in 2 groups: n-6 fatty acids found in plant seeds and n-3 fatty acids found in marine vertebrates. Further evidence of n-3 benefits to human health include a 1989 study demonstrating a 29% reduction in fatal cardiac arrhythmias among subjects with a recent myocardial infarction who had been advised to consume fish oil. The GISSI-Prevenzione Trial found a significant reduction in relative reduction of death, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke in subjects consuming n-3 fatty acids. In a recent study, subjects with implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) at high risk for fatal ventricular arrhythmias were randomly assigned to four 1-g capsules of either an ethyl ester concentrate of n-3 fatty acids or olive oil daily for 12 mo. Subjects receiving n-3 who thus had significantly higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in their red blood cell membranes showed a longer time to first ICD events and had a significantly lower relative risk of having an ICD event or probable event (P = 0.033). These studies demonstrate that fish oil fatty acids have beneficial effects on coronary heart disease. PMID:18541598

Leaf, Alexander

2008-06-01

232

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids in muscle lipids of lambs from the Patagonian area of Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of fatty acids were measured in total lipids, triacyglycerol and phospholipid fractions of intramuscular fat (IMF) from the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of 10 lambs reared to approximately 30kg live weight on natural pasture with their dams. Fatty acid composition was also measured in 25 (five of each) Semitendinosus (ST), Semimembranosus (SM), Rectus femoris (RF), Gluteus (GLU) and Tensor fascia latea (TFL) muscles. Intramuscular fat percentages were similar for all muscles. Aspects of the fatty-acid patterns of relevance to human nutrition tended to favor the leg muscles with lower saturated fatty acids (SFA %), n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios (p<0.01) and higher concentrations of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05). The estimated fatty acid concentrations (mg/100g of meat) showed higher contribution of arachidonic (C20:4 n-6), eicosapentanoic (C20:5 n-3), docosapentanoic (C22:5 n-3) and docosahexanoic (C22:6 n-3) acids in leg compared to LD lipids. PMID:22062915

Garcia, P T; Casal, J J; Fianuchi, S; Magaldi, J J; Rodríguez, F J; Nancucheo, J A

2007-12-23

233

Hepatic n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid depletion promotes steatosis and insulin resistance in mice : genomic analysis of cellular targets.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are characterised by a decreased n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio in hepatic phospholipids. The metabolic consequences of n-3 PUFA depletion in the liver are poorly understood. We have reproduced a drastic drop in n-3 PUFA among hepatic ...

Pachikian, Barbara D.; Essaghir, Ahmed; Demoulin, Jean Baptiste; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Catry, Emilie; De Backer, Fabienne

234

Understanding omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current intakes of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are low in most individuals living in Western countries. A good natural source of these fatty acids is seafood, especially oily fish. Fish oil capsules contain these fatty acids also. Very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are readily incorporated from capsules into transport (blood lipids), functional (cell and tissue), and storage (adipose) pools. This incorporation is dose-dependent and follows a kinetic pattern that is characteristic for each pool. At sufficient levels of incorporation, EPA and DHA influence the physical nature of cell membranes and membrane protein-mediated responses, lipid-mediator generation, cell signaling, and gene expression in many different cell types. Through these mechanisms, EPA and DHA influence cell and tissue physiology and the way cells and tissues respond to external signals. In most cases the effects seen are compatible with improvements in disease biomarker profiles or health-related outcomes. As a result, very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids play a role in achieving optimal health and in protection against disease. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids not only protect against cardiovascular morbidity but also against mortality. In some conditions, for example rheumatoid arthritis, they may be beneficial as therapeutic agents. On the basis of the recognized health improvements brought about by long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, recommendations have been made to increase their intake. The plant omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), can be converted to EPA, but conversion to DHA appears to be poor in humans. Effects of ALA on human health-related outcomes appear to be due to conversion to EPA, and since this is limited, moderately increased consumption of ALA may be of little benefit in improving health outcomes compared with increased intake of preformed EPA + DHA.

Calder PC; Yaqoob P

2009-11-01

235

Characteristics of fatty acid distribution is associated with colorectal cancer prognosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate tissue fatty acid distribution in relation to the incidence of colorectal cancer prognosis, adjacent normal tissue and cancerous tissue from 35 samples of clinically incident colorectal cancer were obtained. Fatty acids were measured in the colorectal mucosa phospholipid fraction by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Palmitoleic acid and oleic acid were significantly lower in colorectal cancerous tissue, ranging from 20% to 50% less than the adjacent normal tissue. The omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid family members (20:2, 20:3, 20:4 and 22:4) were higher by 1-3 fold in cancerous colorectal tissue. Contrary with the high level of n-6 fatty acids, about a 37% to 87% reduction in EPA and DHA was observed in colorectal cancerous tissue. A higher level of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid was detected in the C cancer stage than in the B cancer stage (p<0.05), but a lower level of oleic acid and docosahexenoic acid was detected in the C cancer stage (p<0.05). The fatty acid distribution of colorectal tissue is strongly linked to the incidence of colorectal cancer. This study also provides scientific basis for identifying novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

Zhang J; Zhang L; Ye X; Chen L; Zhang L; Gao Y; Kang JX; Cai C

2013-05-01

236

Murine glomerular leukotriene B4 synthesis. Manipulation by (n-6) fatty acid deprivation and cellular origin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Leukotriene (LT) B4 is an important pro-inflammatory autocoid. In order to investigate the potential role of this eicosanoid in renal inflammation, in this study we determined the capability of glomeruli to synthesize this mediator. Glomeruli were able to synthesize LTB4 when provided with exogenous...

Lefkowith, J B; Morrison, A R; Schreiner, G F

237

Milk in human nutrition: Comparison of fatty acid profiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk and milk products are very important in human nutrition. Fatty acids (FA), which are the major component of milk lipids, have different effects on human health. The aim of this study was to determine and compare fatty acid composition of human milk, infant formula and cow's milk most often consumed in Serbian population. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Our results showed that saturated FA were predominant in all types of milk, particularly in cow's milk with more than 70%. Monounsaturated oleic acid was significantly higher in human milk (36%) than in infants formula (30%) and cow's milk (26%). Although polyunsaturated FA content of cow's milk was very low (3.6%) compared with infant formula (15%) and human milk (19%), cow's milk had the most desirable n6/n3 ratio, and content of n-3 precursor ?-linolenic acid. Low content of n-3 FA may be due to a relatively low consumption of marine foods in Serbian population. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are important in infant development and maintenance of overall human health, were detected only in human milk. These results suggest that human milk is the most desirable food in infants' nutrition, but low content of n-3 FA indicates that supplementation of lactating women with n-3 FA is highly recommendable.

Arsi? Aleksandra; Prekajski Niveska; Vu?i? Vesna; Tepši? Jasna; Popovi? Tamara; Vrvi? M.; Glibeti? Marija

2009-01-01

238

Ferritin couples iron and fatty acid metabolism  

Science.gov (United States)

A physiological relationship between iron, oxidative injury, and fatty acid metabolism exists, but transduction mechanisms are unclear. We propose that the iron storage protein ferritin contains fatty acid binding sites whose occupancy modulates iron uptake and release. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, we found that arachidonic acid binds ferritin specifically and with 60 ?M affinity. Arachidonate binding by ferritin enhanced iron mineralization, decreased iron release, and protected the fatty acid from oxidation. Cocrystals of arachidonic acid and horse spleen apoferritin diffracted to 2.18 ? and revealed specific binding to the 2-fold intersubunit pocket. This pocket shields most of the fatty acid and its double bonds from solvent but allows the arachidonate tail to project well into the ferrihydrite mineralization site on the ferritin L-subunit, a structural feature that we implicate in the effects on mineralization by demonstrating that the much shorter saturated fatty acid, caprylate, has no significant effects on mineralization. These combined effects of arachidonate binding by ferritin are expected to lower both intracellular free iron and free arachidonate, thereby providing a previously unrecognized mechanism for limiting lipid peroxidation, free radical damage, and proinflammatory cascades during times of cellular stress.—Bu, W., Liu, R., Cheung-Lau, J. C., Dmochowski, I. J., Loll, P. J., Eckenhoff, R. G. Ferritin couples iron and fatty acid metabolism.

Bu, Weiming; Liu, Renyu; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Loll, Patrick J.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.

2012-01-01

239

Fatty acids and inflammation: the cutting edge between food and pharma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inflammation underlies many common conditions and diseases. Fatty acids can influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms, including acting via cell surface and intracellular receptors/sensors that control inflammatory cell signalling and gene expression patterns. Some effects of fatty acids on inflammatory cells appear to be mediated by, or at least are associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, lipid raft formation, cell signalling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid and peptide mediator production. Cells involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these may have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Thus, fatty acid exposure and the fatty acid composition of human inflammatory cells influences their function. As a result of their anti-inflammatory actions marine n-3 fatty acids have therapeutic efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis, although benefits in other inflammatory diseases and conditions have not been unequivocally demonstrated. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 fatty acids may contribute to their protective actions towards atherosclerosis, plaque rupture and cardiovascular mortality. The therapeutic dose of n-3 fatty acids is not clear.

Calder PC

2011-09-01

240

Fatty acids and inflammation: the cutting edge between food and pharma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammation underlies many common conditions and diseases. Fatty acids can influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms, including acting via cell surface and intracellular receptors/sensors that control inflammatory cell signalling and gene expression patterns. Some effects of fatty acids on inflammatory cells appear to be mediated by, or at least are associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, lipid raft formation, cell signalling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid and peptide mediator production. Cells involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these may have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Thus, fatty acid exposure and the fatty acid composition of human inflammatory cells influences their function. As a result of their anti-inflammatory actions marine n-3 fatty acids have therapeutic efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis, although benefits in other inflammatory diseases and conditions have not been unequivocally demonstrated. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 fatty acids may contribute to their protective actions towards atherosclerosis, plaque rupture and cardiovascular mortality. The therapeutic dose of n-3 fatty acids is not clear. PMID:21816146

Calder, Philip C

2011-07-28

 
 
 
 
241

Production of hydroxy fatty acids by microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hydroxy fatty acids are widely used in chemical, food, and cosmetic industries as starting materials for the synthesis of polymers and as additives for the manufacture of lubricants, emulsifiers, and stabilizers. They have antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities and therefore can be applied for medicinal uses. Microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes, including P450, lipoxygenase, hydratase, 12-hydroxylase, and diol synthase, synthesize regio-specific hydroxy fatty acids. In this article, microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes, with a focus on region-specificity and diversity, are summarized and the production of mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids are introduced. Finally, the production methods of regio-specific and diverse hydroxy fatty acids, such as gene screening, protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and combinatory biosynthesis, are suggested.

Kim KR; Oh DK

2013-07-01

242

Disorders of fatty acid oxidation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recognition of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) disorders is important for the pediatric neurologist as they present with a spectrum of clinical disorders, including progressive lipid storage myopathy, recurrent myoglobinuria, neuropathy, progressive cardiomyopathy, recurrent hypoglycemic hypoketotic encephalopathy or Reye-like syndrome, seizures, and mental retardation. They constitute a critical group of diseases because they are potentially rapidly fatal and a source of major morbidity. There is frequently a family history of sudden infant death syndrome in siblings. Early recognition and prompt institution of therapy and appropriate preventive measures, and in certain cases specific therapy, may be life-saving and may significantly decrease long-term morbidity, particularly with respect to CNS sequelae. All currently known conditions are inherited as autosomal recessive traits. There are now at least 25 enzymes and specific transport proteins in the ?-oxidation pathway and 18 have been associated with human disease. The most common defect is medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, which had an incidence of 1 in 8930 live births in one series. The identification of serum acylcarnitines by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of dried blood spots on filter paper in newborn screening programs has significantly enhanced the early recognition of these disorders.

Tein I

2013-01-01

243

[Molecular mechanisms of action and health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid n6 (LA) and linolenic acid (ALA) n3 obtained from the diet are precursors of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (Lc-PUFAs) arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) respectively. Consumption of PUFAs is related with a better neurological and cognitive development in newborns. It has been demonstrated that consumption of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs decreases blood triglycerides by increasing fatty acid oxidation through activation of PPARalpha or by reducing the activation of SREBP-1 inhibiting lipogenesis. Dietary PUFAs activate PPARalpha and PPARgamma increasing lipid oxidation, and decreasing insulin resistance leading in a reduction of hepatic steatosis. Beneficial effects of PUFAs have been observed in humans and in animals models of diabetes, obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. It is important to promote the consumption of PUFAs. Main food sources of PUFAs n-6 are corn, soy and safflower oil, and for PUFAs n-3 are fish, soy, canola oil and, flaxseed. Finally FAO/WHO recommends an optimal daily intake of n6/n3 of 5-10:1.

Rodríguez-Cruz M; Tovar AR; del Prado M; Torres N

2005-05-01

244

[Composition and stability of fatty acids from deboned cachama and sardine meat during freezer storage  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Free fatty acids from total lipids and phospholipids in minced fish flesh from three sizes of Cachama (Colossoma macropomum) and Sardine (Sardinella anchovia) were evaluated. Cachama's most abundant unsaturated fatty acids from the total lipid fraction were: C18:1 (31-38%); C18:2, n-6 (13-15%); and C20:4, n-6 (3-5%), while in sardine were the follows: C18:1; C20:5 n-3 (12-24%) and C22: 6,n-3 (7-24%). C20:5, n-3 increased with the size and C22:6,n-3 decreased. The variance analysis indicated that percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-6 series in the total lipids of cachama and n-3 series in sardine were affected by the storage temperature from -10C to -20 degrees C (p < 0.01). Storage time had effect on the stability of sardine fatty acids (p-0.01) and cachama (p < 0.05). Sardine minced flesh presented the highest value of free fatty acids at-10 degrees C during the second month of storage (620 mg%) while cachama at the fourth month (230 mg%). TBA- value in sardine increased at -10 degrees C from 5.5 to 23 mg of malonaldehyde in fourth months while in cachama these value were almost the same (2-6 mg-kg) during the storage period at -10 degrees C and -20 degrees C.

Ortíz H; Bello R

1992-12-01

245

Evaluation of the Impact of Dietary Petroselinic Acid on the Growth Performance, Fatty Acid Composition, and Efficacy of Long Chain-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis of Farmed Nile Tilapia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to investigate the potential role of dietary petroselinic acid (PSA) in enhancing the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content in fish tissues. Three isolipidic casein-based diets were formulated to comprise graded levels of PSA (0, 10, or 20% of total fatty acid) with the incremented inclusion of coriander seed oil. Fish growth and nutrient digestibility were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by dietary PSA level. In general, dietary PSA affected the fatty acid composition of tilapia tissues and whole-body, which reflected dietary fatty acid ratios. Dietary PSA significantly (P < 0.05) increased ?-oxidation, particularly on ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6). This study provided evidence that PSA, a pseudoproduct mimicking the structure of 18:3n-6, did reduce ?-6 desaturation on 18:2n-6 but, contrary to popular speculation, did not stimulate more ?-6 desaturase activity on 18:3n-3. The overall ?-6 desaturase enzyme activity may be suppressed at high dietary levels of PSA. Nevertheless, the n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA biosynthesis was not significantly inhibited by dietary PSA, indicating that the bioconversion efficiency is not modulated only by ?-6 desaturase. The deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in liver and fillet lipids was higher in fish fed PSA-supplemented diets. PMID:23718861

Teoh, Chaiw-Yee; Ng, Wing-Keong

2013-06-13

246

Evaluation on the impact of dietary petroselinic acid on the growth performance, fatty acid composition and efficacy of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis of farmed Nile tilapia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study aimed to investigate the potential role of dietary petroselinic acid (PSA) in enhancing the n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content in fish tissues. Three isolipidic casein-based diets were formulated to comprise graded levels of PSA (0, 10 or 20% of total fatty acid) with the incremented inclusion of coriander seed oil. Fish growth and nutrient digestibility were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by dietary PSA level. In general, dietary PSA affected the fatty acid composition of tilapia tissues and whole-body, which reflected dietary fatty acid ratios. Dietary PSA significantly (P < 0.05) increased ?-oxidation, particularly on ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6). This study provided evidence that PSA, a pseudo-product mimicking the structure of 18:3n-6, did reduce ?-6 desaturation on 18:2n-6 but contrary to popular speculation, did not stimulate more ?-6 desaturase activity on 18:3n-3. The overall ?-6 desaturase enzyme activity may be suppressed at high dietary levels of PSA. Nevertheless, the n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA biosynthesis was not significantly inhibited by dietary PSA, indicating that the bioconversion efficiency is not only modulated by ?-6 desaturase. The deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in liver and fillet lipids was higher in fish fed PSA-supplemented diets.

Teoh CY; Ng WK

2013-05-01

247

Fatty acids and derivatives of antimicrobial agents  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is provided a food-grade microbicidal or microbiostatic composition containing a food or food-grade material and as the primary microbicide a mono-ester of a polyol and a twelve carbon atom aliphatic fatty acid.

KABARA JON J

248

Signalling pathways controlling fatty acid desaturation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microorganisms, plants and animals regulate the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) during changing environmental conditions as well as in response to nutrients. Unsaturation of fatty acid chains has important structural roles in cell membranes: a proper ratio of saturated to UFAs contributes to membrane fluidity. Alterations in this ratio have been implicated in various disease states including cardiovascular diseases, immune disorders, cancer and obesity. They are also the major components of triglycerides and intermediates in the synthesis of biologically active molecules such as eicosanoids, which mediates fever, inflammation and neurotransmission. UFAs homeostasis in many organisms is achieved by feedback regulation of fatty acid desaturases gene transcription. Here, we review recently discovered components and mechanisms of the regulatory machinery governing the transcription of fatty acid desaturases in bacteria, yeast and animals.

Mansilla MC; Banchio CE; de Mendoza D

2008-01-01

249

Borago Officinalis L. Foliar Fatty Acids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Borago officinalis L. collected at intervals over the growing season from two different regions in Tunisia was studied. Total Fatty Acids (TFA) amount was higher in Semmech than Amdoun for both rosette and stalk leaves. In ...

B. Mhamdi; W. Aidi Wannes; K. Hosni; A. Bellila; T. Chahed; W. Dhifi; M.E. Kchouk; B. Marzouk

250

Lymphatic Fatty Acid Absorption Profile During 24 Hours After Administration of Triglycerides to Rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study we determined in rats the complete 24-h lymphatic fatty acid profile after administration of either rapeseedoil (RO) or rapeseed oil interesterified with 10:0 (RO/C10) with special emphasis on the transition from absorptive topostabsorptive phase. Rats were subjected to cannulation of the main mesenteric lymph duct and the next day oils wereadministered through a gastric feeding tube. Lymph was collected in 1-h fractions for the following 24 h. The time formaximum lymphatic transport of fatty acids was at 4 h with fast changes in fatty acid composition from the fatty acids ofendogenous origin to those of the administered oils. Seven to eight hours after administration the transport wassignificantly lower than maximum, indicating the change from absorptive to postabsorptive phase. At 24 h afteradministration of either oil the transport of total fatty acids, palmitic acid (16:0), and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) together witholeic acid (18:1 n-9) after RO had not returned to the transport at baseline. In contrast, the transport of decanoic acid(10:0) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) returned to baseline values between 12 and 15 h. This indicated that theabsorption of purely exogenous fatty acids (illustrated by 10:0 and 18:3n-3) was complete at 15 h and that the fatty acidstransported between 15 and 24 h were derived mostly from endogenous stores.

Porsgaard, Trine Charlotte; Straarup, Ellen Marie

1999-01-01

251

Fatty acid quantification in different types of cookies with emphasis on trans Fatty Acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The objective of this work was to determine the centesimal composition and quantify the major fatty acids in the most produced cookies, filled cookies (28%), salty cookies (22%), butter cookies (12%), and wafers (4%), with emphasis on trans fatty acids. Three brands (A, B, C) of each kind of cookie were investigated. The results are given in brand alphabetic order. The Trans fatty acid results are given in g per 30 g portion of cookies, as recommended by Anvisa. Chocolate-flavored cookies presented trans fatty acid values of 0.055, 0.086, and 0.154 g. The amounts of trans fatty acids in salty cookies were 0.045, 0.115, and 0.051 g. Butter cookies have trans fatty acid values of 0.013, 0.054, and 0.010 g. The chocolate wafers were analyzed and presented the following amounts of trans fatty acids: 0.100, 0.170, and 0.301 g. The results show that the quantity of trans fatty acids in cookies is decreasing as a result of the modification of processes and/or raw materials. Only brand C wafer had trans fatty acid above the Brazilian regulation limits.  

Gisely Luzia Stroher; Angela Cláudia Rodrigues; Aline Kirie Gohara; Jesui Vergílio Visentainer; Makoto Matsushita; Nilson Evelazio de Souza

2011-01-01

252

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SOME LEAFY VEGETABLES OF BANGLADESH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of six different leafy vegetables of Bangladesh was investigated. The amount of bound fatty acids was found to be higher than the free fatty acids in all the leafy vegetables. Different fatty acids were identified and their relative proportions were determined by GLC from the leafy vegetables.

Kamal Karmakar, Tanvir Muslim* and Md. Azizur Rahman

2013-01-01

253

Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intakes Are Inversely Related to Elevated Depressive Symptoms among United States Women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evidence that depressive symptoms are inversely related to n-3 (?3) fatty acids is growing among United States adults. We assessed whether self-reported depressive symptoms were inversely associated with n-3 fatty acid intakes by using a cross-sectional study in 1746 adults (aged 30-65 y) in Baltimore City, MD (2004-2009). The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) was used, with a CES-D score ?16 suggestive of elevated depressive symptoms (EDS). By using the mean of two 24-h dietary recalls, n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs; ?20 carbons), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; ?18 carbons), and plausible ratios with n-6 (?6) fatty acids were estimated. EDS prevalence was 18.1% among men and 25.6% among women. In women, the uppermost tertile (tertile 3) of n-3 PUFAs (compared with tertile 1) was associated with reduced odds of EDS by 49%, with a substantial sex differential. The n-3 PUFA:n-6:PUFA ratio was inversely related to EDS among women (tertile 2 vs. tertile 1, OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.32; tertile 3 vs. tertile 1, OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.83). A similar pattern was noted for n-3 HUFA:n-6 HUFA among women. For CES-D subscales, n-3 PUFA (% of energy) was inversely related to somatic complaints, whereas positive affect was directly related to n-3 HUFA (% of energy; total population and among women), n-3 HUFA:n-6 HUFA (women), and n-3 HUFA:n-6 PUFA (total population and among women). In sum, among United States women, higher intakes of n-3 fatty acids [absolute (n-3) and relative to n-6 fatty acids (n-3:n-6)] were associated with lower risk of elevated depressive symptoms, specifically in domains of somatic complaints (mainly n-3 PUFAs) and positive affect (mainly n-3 HUFAs).

Beydoun MA; Fanelli Kuczmarski MT; Beydoun HA; Hibbeln JR; Evans MK; Zonderman AB

2013-09-01

254

[Elimination of all trans fatty acids  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At the start of the 20th century, the production of trans fatty acids was originally largely driven by the increasing demand for margarine. The two Dutch margarine firms Van den Bergh and Jurgens played an important role in this early development. In the early 1990s it was shown that trans fatty acids increase the risk of heart disease. Unilever, the successor to Van den Bergh and Jurgens, then took the lead in eliminating trans fatty acids from retail foods worldwide. As a result, intake in The Netherlands fell from 15 g per day in 1980 to 3 g per day in 2003. Dairy products and meat are now the major source of trans fatty acids. The effects on health of these ruminant trans fatty acids are unclear. There are three lessons to be learned from the rise and fall of trans fatty acids. First, a history of safe use does not guarantee safety of food components, because routine surveillance will fail to detect adverse effects on common illnesses with long incubation periods. Second, it shows that it is more effective and easier to change the composition of foods than to change consumer behaviour. And third, governments can have a major impact on consumers' health by mandating the use of healthier food ingredients.

Katan MB

2008-02-01

255

Are n-3 fatty acids still cardioprotective?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several recent randomized trials and subsequent meta-analyses have questioned the value of n-3 fatty acid supplementation in cardiovascular disease risk reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: This report focuses on four clinical trials published between 2010 and 2012 that have failed to show benefits of n-3 fatty acids, and on one meta-analysis from 2012 that used a controversial statistical approach in reaching a conclusion of no effect. SUMMARY: The question of the extent to which n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces risk for cardiovascular disease remains open. Future studies must be properly powered, use doses of n-3 fatty acids significantly higher than those provided in background diets, focus on patient populations with low n-3 fatty acid tissue levels, treat for longer periods of time, and consider the effects of these agents in the great majority of patients who are not on guideline-directed therapeutic regimens. The strong evidence-base from prospective cohort studies and the ever-deepening understanding of the cellular effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids together support the need for these nutrients in reducing cardiovascular risk. Short-term findings from randomized controlled trials need to be interpreted in the light of all the evidence.

Harris WS

2013-03-01

256

Is the fatty acid composition of freshwater zoobenthic invertebrates controlled by phylogenetic or trophic factors?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the fatty acid (FA) content and composition of ten zoobenthic species of several taxonomic groups from different freshwater bodies. Special attention was paid to essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6); and the n-3/n-6 and DHA/ARA ratios, which are important for consumers of higher trophic levels, i.e., fish. The content and ratios of these FA varied significantly in the studied zoobenthic species, consequently, the invertebrates were of different nutritional quality for fish. Eulimnogammarus viridis (Crustacea) and Dendrocoelopsis sp. (Turbellaria) had the highest nutrition value for fish concerning the content of EPA and DHA and n-3/n-6 and DHA/ARA ratios. Using canonical correspondence analysis we compared the FA profiles of species of the studied taxa taking into account their feeding strategies and habitats. We gained evidence that feeding strategy is of importance to determine fatty acid profiles of zoobenthic species. However, the phylogenetic position of the zoobenthic species is also responsible and may result in a similar fatty acid composition even if species or populations inhabit different water bodies or have different feeding strategies.

Makhutova ON; Sushchik NN; Gladyshev MI; Ageev AV; Pryanichnikova EG; Kalachova GS

2011-08-01

257

Functional Characterization of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Delta 6-Desaturase and Elongase Genes from the Black Seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fatty acid delta 6-desaturase (D6DES) and elongases are key enzymes in the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from microorganisms to higher animals. To identify the genes encoding D6DES and elongases for PUFAs, we isolated each cDNA with a high similarity to the D6DES and ELOVL5-like elongases of mammals and fishes via degenerate PCR and RACE-PCR from Acanthopagrus schlegelii. A recombinant vector expressing AsD6DES was subsequently constructed and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to test the enzymatic activity toward n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in the PUFA biosynthesis. The heterologously expressed AsD6DES produced ?-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3 n-6) and stearidonic acid (STA, C18:4 n-3) at conversion rates of 26.3-35.6 % from exogenous linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) and ?-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n-3) substrates, respectively. When AsELOVL5 was expressed in yeast, it conferred an ability to elongate GLA to di-homo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3 n-6). In addition, AsELOVL5 showed an ability to convert ARA (C20:4 n-6) and EPA (C20:5 n-3) to dodecylthioacetic acid (DTA, C22:4 n-6) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, C22:5 n-3), respectively. In these results, the AsD6DES encodes a delta 6-fatty acid desaturase and the AsELOVL5 encoding a long-chain fatty acid elongase shows activity to enlongate C18?6/C20?5, but not C22.

Kim SH; Park JS; Kim SY; Kim JB; Roh KH; Kim HU; Lee KR; Kim JB

2013-09-01

258

RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION OF HYDROXY FATTY ACIDS FROM SOURCE OILS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for recovering, purifying and enriching hydroxy fatty acids from source oils. The process comprises the steps of: (a) methylating the source oil to form therein hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters and non-hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters (b) separating the hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters from the non-hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters with an organic solvent mixture comprising a pentane/hexane and a short-chain alcohol and (c) separately recovering the hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters and the non-hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters from the organic solvent mixture. Hydroxy fatty acids that can be recovered, purified and enriched with the process include ricinoleic acid, densipolic acid, lesquerolic acid, and auricolic acid. The non- hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters can be recovered, purified and further processed into biodiesel fuels and/or lubricants.

WANASUNDARA UDAYA; GRUSHCOW JACK; SHUANGHUI LUI

259

Mechanisms of action of (n-3) fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

(n-3) PUFA are a family of biologically active fatty acids. The simplest member of this family, ?-linolenic acid, can be converted to the more biologically active very long-chain (n-3) PUFA EPA and DHA; this process occurs by a series of desaturation and elongation reactions, with stearidonic acid being an intermediate in the pathway. Biological activity of ?-linolenic and stearidonic acids most likely relates to their conversion to EPA. The very long-chain (n-3) PUFA have a range of physiological roles that relate to optimal cell membrane structure and optimal cell function and responses. Thus, (n-3) PUFA play a key role in preventing, and perhaps treating, many conditions of poor health and well-being. The multiple actions of (n-3) PUFA appear to involve multiple mechanisms that connect the cell membrane, the cytosol, and the nucleus. For some actions, (n-3) PUFA appear to act via receptors or sensors, so regulating signaling processes that influence patterns of gene expression. Some effects of (n-3) PUFA seem to involve changes in cell membrane fatty acid composition. Changing membrane composition can in turn affect membrane order, formation of lipid rafts, intracellular signaling processes, gene expression, and the production of both lipid and peptide mediators. Under typical Western dietary conditions, human cells tend to have a fairly high content of the (n-6) fatty acid arachidonic acid. Increased oral intake of EPA and DHA modifies the content of arachidonic acid as well as of EPA and DHA. Arachidonic acid is the substrate for eicosanoids involved in physiology and pathophysiology. The eicosanoids produced from EPA frequently have properties that are different from those that are produced from arachidonic acid. EPA and DHA are also substrates for production of resolvins and protectins, which seem to be biologically extremely potent. Increasing the contents of EPA and DHA in membranes modifies the pattern of production of these different lipid mediators.

Calder PC

2012-03-01

260

Role and significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in nutrition in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Hyperlipoproteinemia is a key factor in development of atherosclerosis, whereas regression of atherosclerosis mostly depends on decreasing the plasma level of total and LDL-cholesterol. Many studies have reported the hypocholesterolemic effect of linolenic acid. Types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) Linoleic and ?-linolenic acids are essential fatty acids. The main sources of linoleic acid are vegetable seeds and of ?-linolenic acid - green parts of plants. ?-linolenic acid is converted to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid is converted into arachidonic acid competing with eicosapentaenoic acid in the starting point for synthesis of eicosanoids, which are strong regulators of cell functions and as such, very important in physiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular system. Eicosanoids derived from eicosapentaenoic acid have different biological properties in regard to those derived from arachidonic acid, i.e. their global effects result in decreased vasoconstriction platelet aggregation and leukocyte toxicity. Role and significant of PUFA The n-6 to n-3 ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food is very important, and an optimal ratio 4 to 1 in diet is a major issue. Traditional western diets present absolute or relative deficiency of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a ratio 15-20 to 1. In our diet fish and fish oil are sources of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Refined and processed vegetable oils change the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids and obtained derivates have atherogenic properties.

Risti? Vanja I.; Risti? Gordana N.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Growth and development in preterm infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: a prospective, randomized controlled trial.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A randomized, masked, controlled trial was conducted to assess effects of supplementing premature infant formulas with oils containing the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n6), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n3) on growth, visual acuity, and multiple indices of...

O'Connor, DL; Hall, R; Adamkin, D; Auestad, N; Castillo, M; Connor, WE; Connor, SL; Fitzgerald, K; Groh-Wargo, S; Hartmann, EE

262

The effects of 2-bromopalmitate on the fatty acid composition in differentiating adipocytes of red sea bream (Pagrus major).  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether external factors affect the adipogenic function of fish adipocytes, the effects of 2-bromopalmitate (a PPAR agonist) on the fatty acid composition in differentiating adipocytes of red sea bream were investigated in vitro. In the presence of 2-bromopalmitate, the red sea bream adipocytes were differentiated and the effects on the fatty acid composition and the adipogenic gene expression were analyzed. With the level of 2-bromopalmitate, the content of 16:1n-7, a delta-9 desaturation product, increased in association with the increase in a stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression level while the triglyceride accumulation was not affected. Subsequently, the effects on the bioconversion of the n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, which are main series of dietary essential fatty acids, were examined. In the presence of 300 microM of 18:3n-3 or 18:2n-6, red sea bream stromal-vascular cells accumulated the lipid in the cytoplasm within 3 days by the fatty acid uptake with the increase of corresponding fatty acid contents. Furthermore, in both the 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 stored cells, the products of delta-6 desaturation (18:4n-3 and 18:3n-6, respectively) and C(18-20) elongation (20:3n-3 and 20:2n-6, respectively) were detected. However, neither the delta-6 desatutration nor C(18-20) elongation of 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 were enhanced by 2-bromopalmitate treatment. In conclusion, the results indicate that the adipocyte function in fish, e.g. adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition, can be modified by external factors and a main effect of 2-bromopalmitate is the increase in the content of delta-9 desaturation product by stimulating the SCD gene expression. PMID:19166960

Oku, Hiromi; Tokuda, Masaharu; Umino, Tetsuya

2009-01-09

263

The effects of 2-bromopalmitate on the fatty acid composition in differentiating adipocytes of red sea bream (Pagrus major).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine whether external factors affect the adipogenic function of fish adipocytes, the effects of 2-bromopalmitate (a PPAR agonist) on the fatty acid composition in differentiating adipocytes of red sea bream were investigated in vitro. In the presence of 2-bromopalmitate, the red sea bream adipocytes were differentiated and the effects on the fatty acid composition and the adipogenic gene expression were analyzed. With the level of 2-bromopalmitate, the content of 16:1n-7, a delta-9 desaturation product, increased in association with the increase in a stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression level while the triglyceride accumulation was not affected. Subsequently, the effects on the bioconversion of the n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, which are main series of dietary essential fatty acids, were examined. In the presence of 300 microM of 18:3n-3 or 18:2n-6, red sea bream stromal-vascular cells accumulated the lipid in the cytoplasm within 3 days by the fatty acid uptake with the increase of corresponding fatty acid contents. Furthermore, in both the 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 stored cells, the products of delta-6 desaturation (18:4n-3 and 18:3n-6, respectively) and C(18-20) elongation (20:3n-3 and 20:2n-6, respectively) were detected. However, neither the delta-6 desatutration nor C(18-20) elongation of 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 were enhanced by 2-bromopalmitate treatment. In conclusion, the results indicate that the adipocyte function in fish, e.g. adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition, can be modified by external factors and a main effect of 2-bromopalmitate is the increase in the content of delta-9 desaturation product by stimulating the SCD gene expression.

Oku H; Tokuda M; Umino T

2009-04-01

264

Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition between Farmed and Wild Indian White Shrimps, Fnneropenaeus indicus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is comparison of fatty acid profile between wild and farmed Indian white shrimps. According to the score-plot produced by the principle component analysis the wild Indian white shrimp showed a fatty acid composition clearly different from the farmed Indian white shrimp. In both groups, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (18: 1n-9) were the main SFA and MUFA, respectively. Based on results, the wild shrimp contained a higher level (P < 0.05) of n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids, whereas farmed shrimp contained a high level of n-6 poly unsaturated fatty (P < 0.05). Arachidonic acid (20: 4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20: 5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22: 6n-3) were significantly higher in wild shrimps. The n-3/n-6 fatty acids ratio was significantly higher in wild shrimps (P < 0.05). The comparison demonstrated that the nutritional value of wild shrimps is better than farmed shrimp and fatty acid profile of commercial diets should be reformed in order to maintenance of farmed shrimps nutritional value.

Hossein Ouraji; Abolghasem Esmaeili Fereidoni; Majid Shayegan; Shima Masoudi Asil

2011-01-01

265

Maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine fatty acids and atopy and wheeze in the offspring at age of 6 years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks' gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P = 0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.). Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P = 0.024). A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P = 0.013). These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

Pike KC; Calder PC; Inskip HM; Robinson SM; Roberts GC; Cooper C; Godfrey KM; Lucas JS

2012-01-01

266

Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6). Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids) including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

Calder P.C.

2003-01-01

267

Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6). Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids) including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in (more) their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

Calder, P.C.

2003-04-01

268

The Generation of Transgenic Mice with Fat1 and Fad2 Genes that have their own Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Microorganisms and higher plants possess their own omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) biosynthetic pathways. The n-6 fatty acid desaturase gene fad-2 codes for the n-6 desaturase enzyme that coverts oleic acid (OA 18:1 n-9) into linoleic acid (LA 18:2 n-6). The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat-1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme that converts n-6 PUFAs into n-3 PUFAs. Mammals lack n-3 and n-6 desaturase enzymes; therefore, they must obtain their omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids by consuming plants or seafood. The beneficial effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on human development and cardiovascular health have been well documented. Methods: Here, we generated fat-1 and fad-2 transgenic mice by introducing mammal expression vectors containing the fat-1 and fad-2 genes via microinjection. Results: Seven transgenic mice were obtained that expressed functional n-3 and n-6 desaturase enzymes. Analysis of the fatty acid contents of transgenic mouse livers revealed that n-6 and n-3 PUFA levels were greatly increased in the transgenic mice compared to wild-type mice. The use ratios of n-9 PUFAs (18:1 n-9) and n-6 PUFAs were both greater in the transgenic mice than in the wild-type controls. Conclusion: These transgenic mice were capable of producing their own omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. They have the same fatty acid metabolic pathways as higher plants and microbes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Chen Y; Mei M; Zhang P; Ma K; Song G; Ma X; Zhao T; Tang B; Ouyang H; Li G; Li Z

2013-08-01

269

STABLE BEVERAGE PRODUCTS COMPRISING POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID EMULSIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A beverage product comprising at least one beverage base and at least one polyunsaturated fatty acid emulsion, said emulsion comprising a continuous liquid phase; an emulsifier; and a discontinuous liquid phase comprising a blend including a polyunsaturated fatty acid source and a dispersing agent, the polyunsaturated fatty acid source comprising at least one polyunsaturated fatty acid, wherein the weight ratio of the fatty acid source to the dispersing agent in the blend ranges from about 9:1 to about 1:10.

CHEN YOULUNG; D'ANGELO LIHONG; SHEN CHENG; KING GEORGE A

270

Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have a variety of anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects that may be of relevance to atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations of myocardial infarction, sudden death, and stroke. The n-3 fatty acids that appear to be most potent in this respect are the long-chain polyunsaturates derived from marine oils, namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and this review is restricted to these substances. A variety of biologic effects of EPA and DHA have been demonstrated from feeding studies with fish or fish oil supplements in humans and animals. These include effects on triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, platelet function, endothelial and vascular function, blood pressure, cardiac excitability, measures of oxidative stress, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and immune function. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 fatty acids on manifestations of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke, whereas randomized, controlled, clinical feeding trials support this, particularly with respect to sudden cardiac death in patients with established disease. Clinically important anti-inflammatory effects in man are further suggested by trials demonstrating benefits of n-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disorders. Given the evidence relating progression of atherosclerosis to chronic inflammation, the n-3 fatty acids may play an important role via modulation of the inflammatory processes.

Mori TA; Beilin LJ

2004-11-01

271

Ferritin couples iron and fatty acid metabolism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A physiological relationship between iron, oxidative injury, and fatty acid metabolism exists, but transduction mechanisms are unclear. We propose that the iron storage protein ferritin contains fatty acid binding sites whose occupancy modulates iron uptake and release. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, we found that arachidonic acid binds ferritin specifically and with 60 ?M affinity. Arachidonate binding by ferritin enhanced iron mineralization, decreased iron release, and protected the fatty acid from oxidation. Cocrystals of arachidonic acid and horse spleen apoferritin diffracted to 2.18 ? and revealed specific binding to the 2-fold intersubunit pocket. This pocket shields most of the fatty acid and its double bonds from solvent but allows the arachidonate tail to project well into the ferrihydrite mineralization site on the ferritin L-subunit, a structural feature that we implicate in the effects on mineralization by demonstrating that the much shorter saturated fatty acid, caprylate, has no significant effects on mineralization. These combined effects of arachidonate binding by ferritin are expected to lower both intracellular free iron and free arachidonate, thereby providing a previously unrecognized mechanism for limiting lipid peroxidation, free radical damage, and proinflammatory cascades during times of cellular stress.

Bu W; Liu R; Cheung-Lau JC; Dmochowski IJ; Loll PJ; Eckenhoff RG

2012-06-01

272

Alteration of plasma phospholipid fatty acid profile in patients with septic shock.  

Science.gov (United States)

In septic shock patients, alterations of plasma phospholipid fatty acid profile have never been described. The purpose of this monocentric, non-interventional, observational prospective study was to describe this fatty acid profile in the early phase of septic shock in intensive care unit. Thirty-seven adult patients with septic shock were included after the first day of stay in intensive care unit, before any form of artificial nutritional support. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. All biological data from patients with septic shock were compared with laboratory reference values. Patients presented hypocholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. They had low concentrations of phospholipid fatty acids specifically n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a high n-6/n-3 ratio. Plasma phospholipid PUFA concentrations were strongly correlated with cholesterolemia. PUFAs/SFAs (saturated fatty acids) and PUFAs/MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids) ratios were low because of low percentage of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs and high percentage of SFAs and MUFAs. Low levels of plasma long chain PUFAs (?20 carbons) were significantly associated with mortality at 28th day. In conclusion, plasma phospholipid FA profile of septic patients is very characteristic, close to that of acute respiratory distress syndrome and mortality is associated with long chain PUFA decrease. This profile could be explained by numerous non-exclusive physio-pathological processes 1) an activation of hepatic de novo lipogenesis that could contribute to hepatic steatosis, 2) an elevated adipose tissue lipolysis, 3) an increased free radical attack of FA by oxidative stress, 4) an over-production of inflammatory lipid mediators. PMID:23954620

Rival, Thomas; Cinq-Frais, Christel; Silva-Sifontes, Stein; Garcia, Jésus; Riu, Béatrice; Salvayre, Robert; Genestal, Michèle; Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie

2013-08-15

273

Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in enterocyte models: T84 cell line vs. Caco-2 cell line.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human colon carcinoma cell lines such as Caco-2 cells, model of mature enterocytes and T84 cells, model of crypt cells are useful to study interactions between nutrient processing and metabolic functions at intestinal level. Our study aimed at comparing the ability of Caco-2 and T84 cells (1) to incorporate dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), (2) to process them and (3) to sort them into neutral lipids (NL), free fatty acids (FFA) and phospholipids (PL). Caco-2 and T84 cells were exposed to a 7-day long supplementation with PUFA. The amounts of fatty acids accumulated and incorporated into the NL, FFA or PL fractions were higher in Caco-2 than in T84 cells. Caco-2 cells were able to significantly elongate C18 PUFA and C20 PUFA of both n-3 and n-6 families. In contrast, T84 cells were unable to elongate the n-6 fatty acids whereas elongation of n-3 fatty acids was detectable but marginal. Similarly, a ?6 desaturase activity was observed in Caco-2 but not in T84 cells. In T84 cells, each exogenous fatty acid was predominantly accumulated in the PL fraction. In Caco-2 cells, C20 fatty acids and C18:2n-6 was preferentially accumulated in the PL fraction, while C22 PUFA and C18:3n-3 was preferentially accumulated in the NL fraction. Overall, this study has shown that Caco-2 and T84 cells, as models of intestinal mucosal cells, present large differences in PUFA accumulation capacity, specific elongase and desaturase activities and distribution pattern of exogenous PUFA and of their metabolites in the lipid classes.

Beguin P; Schneider AC; Mignolet E; Schneider YJ; Larondelle Y

2013-08-01

274

Relationship between Acute Phase Proteins and Serum Fatty Acid Composition in Morbidly Obese Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Obesity is considered a low-grade inflammatory state and has been associated with increased acute phase proteins as well as changes in serum fatty acids. Few studies have assessed associations between acute phase proteins and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Objective. To investigate the relationship between acute phase proteins (C-Reactive Protein, Orosomucoid, and Albumin) and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Methods. Twenty-two morbidly obese patients were enrolled in this study. Biochemical and clinical data were obtained before bariatric surgery, and fatty acids measured in preoperative serum. Results. Orosomucoid was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.027) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (P = 0.037) and positively with arachidonic acid (AA) (P = 0.035), AA/EPA ratio (P = 0.005), and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (P = 0.035). C-Reactive Protein (CRP) was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.048), and both CRP and CRP/Albumin ratio were negatively correlated with margaric acid (P = 0.010, P = 0.008, resp.). Albumin was positively correlated with EPA (P = 0.027) and margaric acid (P = 0.008). Other correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum fatty acids are linked to acute phase proteins in morbidly obese patients.

Fernandes, Ricardo; Beserra, Bruna Teles Soares; Cunha, Raphael Salles Granato; Hillesheim, Elaine; Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Pequito, Danielle Cristina Tonello; de Castro, Isabela Coelho; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio; Nunes, Everson Araujo; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes

2013-01-01

275

The Essential Fatty Acids and the Diet of Polar Bears  

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Full Text Available Plasma lipids of polar bears are significant because these bears prefer to consume high quantities of fat; furthermore one population fasts each year for over four months. In this paper plasma lipids of fed polar bears were compared to fasted bears. Fasted bears were hyperlipidemic to fed bears; both were hyperlipidemic to normal human plasma, in respect to cholesterol and triglycerides. In lipoproteins, the HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) triglyceride was very low as in human subjects in both fed and fasted animals. The other two, LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins) and VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoproteins) were consistently higher in fasted bears than in fed bears, and these fasted bears had much higher cholesterol and triglycerides than the fed bears. Since the fed bears seem to be protected against hyperlipidemia, the fatty acid composition of serum lipids was analyzed. The n-3 fatty acids not the n-6 type dominated in fed bears. These n-3 fatty acids (which were not available to fasted bears) seem to protect against high serum lipids. These results seem to support the concept of using fish oil capsules in the human clinic.

Kaduce Terry L.; G. Edgar Folk Jr.

2002-01-01

276

Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6) into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n ?=925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

Zhang P; Liu P; Dou H; Chen L; Chen L; Lin L; Tan P; Vajta G; Gao J; Du Y; Ma RZ

2013-01-01

277

Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6) into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n ?=925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077

Zhang, Peng; Liu, Peng; Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z

2013-02-20

278

INFLUENCE OF FINISHING DIET ON FATTY ACID PROFILE OF LONGISSIMUS MUSCLE OF BLACK SLAVONIAN PIGS  

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Full Text Available Regarding nutritional recommendations for humans, pork in general has too high ratio of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The n-6/n-3 index is particularly high if animals were intensively fed concentrate feeds, because the cereals like corn are rich in linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6). Traditional Black Slavonian pig production is an outdoor grazing system, which includes utilization of the natural resources of pasture and oak woodland with supplement of small amounts of corn or some other grains. However, fattening with cornbased concentrate mixtures before slaughter is common. In this study, the influence of finishing diet of acorn or corn-based mixture on fatty acid profile of longissimus muscle of Black Slavonian pigs was investigated. The indication of beneficial effects of acorn was found when Black Slavonian pigs were fed acorn instead of concentrate feed during pre-slaughter fattening. Feeding acorn ad libitum for a period of three weeks prior slaughter significantly increased the content of alpha linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) in the longissimus muscle in comparison to concentrate fed pigs (0.37 vs. 0.12, respectively; expressed as % of total fatty acid methyl esters, P ? 0.01). As a consequence, the n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle of acorn finishing pigs was nearly threefold lower than in concentrate finishing pigs (24.1 vs. 69.3, P ? 0.01).

Danijel Karolyi; Krešimir Salajpal; Goran Kiš; Marija ?iki?; Ivan Juri?

2007-01-01

279

Fatty acid-dependent ethanol metabolism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rates of ethanol oxidation by perfused livers from fasted female rats were decreased from 82 +/- 8 to 11 +/- 7 mumol/g/hr by 4-methylpyrazole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase. The subsequent addition of fatty acids of various chain lengths in the presence of 4-methylpyrazole increased rates of ethanol uptake markedly. Palmitate (1 mM) increased rates of ethanol oxidation to 95 +/- 8 mumol/g/hr, while octanoate and oleate increased rates to 58 +/- 11 and 68 +/- 15 mumol/g/hr, respectively. Hexanoate, a short-chain fatty acid oxidized predominantly in the mitochondria, had no effect. Addition of oleate also increased the steady-state level of catalase-H2O2. Pretreatment of rats for 1.5 hours with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (1.0 g/kg), an inhibitor of catalase, prevented the ethanol-dependent decrease in the steady-state level of catalase-H2O2 completely. Under these conditions, aminotriazole decreased rates of ethanol oxidation by about 50% and blocked the stimulation of ethanol oxidation by fatty acids. Oleate decreased rates of aniline hydroxylation by about 50%, indicating that cytochrome P450 is not involved in the stimulation of ethanol uptake by fatty acids. Furthermore, oleate stimulated ethanol uptake in livers from ADH-negative deermice indicating that fatty acids do not simply displace 4-methylpyrazole from alcohol dehydrogenase. It is concluded that the stimulation of ethanol oxidation by fatty acids is due to increased H2O2 supplied by the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids for the catalase-H2O2 peroxidation pathway.

Handler JA; Thurman RG

1985-11-01

280

Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) have an FDA indication for triglyceride lowering in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Some European agencies have also approved omega-3 fatty acids for cardiovascular risk modification. Several major societies in the US also recommend their use following myocardial infarction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to assimilate available evidence from randomized controlled trials into one systematic review to determine the association between omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review of randomized, controlled trials with meta-analysis METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (up to August 2012) were searched using a predefined algorithm. All randomized trials evaluating omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in adults were considered. Trials selected were all randomized, controlled against another diet or placebo, and implemented in primary or secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention settings. Trials with duration less than 1 year were excluded. Outcomes eligible for review included all-cause mortality, cardiac death, sudden death, MI, and all types of stroke. Fatty acids could be given through diet or through supplements. Additionally, references listed in reviews were screened. Two investigators independently extracted data. Another investigator resolved discrepancies. Results: After retrieving 3,625 citations, 20 studies involving 68,680 participants were included. Two trials used dietary counseling to provide omega-3 fatty acids. The rest used supplements. In the 2 trials using dietary fatty acids, all-cause mortality and cardiac death were assessed and showed associations in opposite directions; therefore, with these discrepancies, quantitative synthesis of these trials was not performed.

Kruse LG; Ogletree RL Jr

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

Response of plasma fatty acid profiles to changes in dietary n-3 fatty acids and its correlation with erythrocyte fatty acid profiles in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

An elevated level of long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FA) in tissue membranes has a positive influence on the progression and treatment of many diseases. Therefore, dietary supplementation of n-3 FA is recommended in some diseases. Even though n-3 FA are absorbed readily from the diet, their incorporation into tissues may be compromised in diseased animals. In a clinical setting, it is desirable to monitor the success of dietary intervention. Plasma FA as well as erythrocyte membrane (EM) FA can be used to monitor dietary FA intake. This study compares FA from EM and plasma with regard to their reaction time and reliability for monitoring dietary changes of tissue FA profiles in dogs. Thirty dogs were divided into three groups and fed for 12 weeks. The control group (CONT) was fed a commercial standard diet low in n-3 FA. One group received the standard diet and 85 mg/kg body weight of a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrate (ADD). The third group was fed a commercial dog food containing fish oil (FO), which is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EM and plasma FA profiles were analysed by GC separately. Data on EM FA were published recently. n-3 FA in plasma reached the new level after 2 weeks (8 weeks in EM). Dietary differences between DHA and EPA are obvious after 1 week already. The concomitant decrease in plasma n-6 FA differed between ADD and FO. In general, the correlation of n-6 FA between plasma and EM was low. We therefore conclude that analysis of plasma FA is sufficient for monitoring a diet-induced increase in tissue n-3 FA in dogs. However, EM FA should be analysed if the effect of dietary intervention on tissue n-6 FA is important. PMID:23279610

Stoeckel, K; Bachmann, L; Dobeleit, G; Fuhrmann, H

2012-12-20

282

Response of plasma fatty acid profiles to changes in dietary n-3 fatty acids and its correlation with erythrocyte fatty acid profiles in dogs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An elevated level of long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FA) in tissue membranes has a positive influence on the progression and treatment of many diseases. Therefore, dietary supplementation of n-3 FA is recommended in some diseases. Even though n-3 FA are absorbed readily from the diet, their incorporation into tissues may be compromised in diseased animals. In a clinical setting, it is desirable to monitor the success of dietary intervention. Plasma FA as well as erythrocyte membrane (EM) FA can be used to monitor dietary FA intake. This study compares FA from EM and plasma with regard to their reaction time and reliability for monitoring dietary changes of tissue FA profiles in dogs. Thirty dogs were divided into three groups and fed for 12 weeks. The control group (CONT) was fed a commercial standard diet low in n-3 FA. One group received the standard diet and 85 mg/kg body weight of a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrate (ADD). The third group was fed a commercial dog food containing fish oil (FO), which is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EM and plasma FA profiles were analysed by GC separately. Data on EM FA were published recently. n-3 FA in plasma reached the new level after 2 weeks (8 weeks in EM). Dietary differences between DHA and EPA are obvious after 1 week already. The concomitant decrease in plasma n-6 FA differed between ADD and FO. In general, the correlation of n-6 FA between plasma and EM was low. We therefore conclude that analysis of plasma FA is sufficient for monitoring a diet-induced increase in tissue n-3 FA in dogs. However, EM FA should be analysed if the effect of dietary intervention on tissue n-6 FA is important.

Stoeckel K; Bachmann L; Dobeleit G; Fuhrmann H

2012-12-01

283

Modeling fatty acid delivery from intestinal fatty acid binding protein to a membrane  

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Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) interacts with biological membranes and delivers fatty acid (FA) into them via a collisional mechanism. However, the membrane-bound structure of the protein and the pathway of FA transfer are not precisely known. We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulatio...

Mihajlovic, Maja; Lazaridis, Themis

284

Fatty acid compositions of red blood cell phospholipids in children with autism.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared the compositions of fatty acids including n-3, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans- and cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, and saturated fatty acids in the red blood cell membranes of 40 children with autism (20 with early onset autism and 20 with developmental regression) and age-matched, 20 typically developing controls and 20 subjects with non-autistic developmental disabilities. The main findings include increased levels of eicosenoic acid (20:1n9) and erucic acid (22:1n9) in autistic subjects with developmental regression when compared with typically developing controls. In addition, an increase in 20:2n6 and a decrease in 16:1n7t were observed in children with clinical regression compared to those with early onset autism. Our results do not provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that abnormal fatty acid metabolism plays a role in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder, although they suggest some metabolic or dietary abnormalities in the regressive form of autism. PMID:16581239

Bu, B; Ashwood, P; Harvey, D; King, I B; Water, J Van de; Jin, L-W

2006-04-01

285

Study of fatty acid-bacteria interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. During our work we investigated fatty acid-bacteria interactions. The antibacterial property of fatty acids was reported by several authors. Despite of them there is not reassuring explanation about the mechanism of the antibacterial activity of these compounds. An effect can considerably change in case of different structured fatty acids. Our earlier studies conduct that small changes in the structures can modify changes in their behavior towards bacteria. The stearic acid does not cause any antibacterial effects during the first few hours of the investigation, may even help the bacterial growth. However, linolic acid (C18:2) shows a strong antibacterial effect during the first hours. After 24 hours this effect wears out and the bacteria have adapted to the stress. We studied the antibacterial activity using direct bioautography. This method has the advantage to allow examining lipophilic compounds. The linoleic acid decomposes in time under different physiological conditions creating numerous oxidized molecules. This may be the reason of its antimicrobial effect. For studying this phenomenon we used infrared and mass spectroscopic methods. We applied infrared spectroscopy for indicating any changes in the spectra of the fatty acids after the interaction of fatty acids with bacteria. So we are able to deduct on what could happen during these process. We paid great attention towards the changes of double bonds, on methylation and demethylation processes. Using mass spectroscopy we searched for oxidized products that may play important role in this process. These studies are only part of our more widespreading investigations, dealing with the antimicrobial properties of fatty acids.

2009-09-03

286

Variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions in Thai Perilla seeds grown at different locations  

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Full Text Available Perilla or Nga-Kee-Mon (Perilla frutescens) seed has long been known as a rich source of ?-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3). It is widely cultivated throughout Thailand. However, there are no data on the variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions among crops from different regions. The aim of this study was to examine the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seed grown at different locations. Two different perilla seeds were harvested from Maehongsorn and Chiang Mai districts, and one commercial perilla was purchased from local market. Seeds were ground, lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v) and its composition determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID). Fatty acid composition was analyzed with GLC using standard methods. Lipid content was between 34-36% (w/w). Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in perilla seed (97% of total lipids), and a minor component was phytosterol (3% of total lipids). The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates was approximately 1: 1: 8. Most predominant fatty acid was ?-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3) (55-60% of total fatty acid). Seeds from Maehongsorn district had the highest concentration of ?-linolenic acid, and commercial perilla had the lowest (P<0.05). Other two predominant fatty acids were linoleic acid (18:2, n-6) (18-22% of total fatty acid) and oleic acid (18:1) (11-13% of total fatty acid). The results showed that the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seeds varied significantly among samples from different locations.

Sirithon Siriamornpun; Duo Li; Lifeng Yang; Siriwan Suttajit; Maitree Suttajit

2006-01-01

287

The inhibition of endothelial activation by unsaturated fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dietary long-chain fatty acids (FA) may influence pathological processes involving endothelial activation and leukocyte-endothelial interactions, such as inflammation and atherosclerosis. We previously showed that the n-3 FA docosahexaenoate (22:6n-3, DHA) inhibits cytokine-stimulated expression of endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules and soluble cytokines in the range of nutritionally achievable plasma concentrations. More recently we assessed structural determinants of VCAM-1 inhibition by FA. Cultured endothelial cells were incubated first with various saturated, monounsaturated, n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated FA alone and then together with interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor. Saturated FA did not inhibit cytokine-induced endothelial activation, while a progressive increase in inhibitory activity was observed, for the same chain length, with the increase in double bonds accompanying the transition from monounsaturates to n-6 and, further, to n-3 FA. Comparison of various FA indicated no role of the double-bond position or configuration; the greater number of double bonds could explain the greater inhibitory activity of n-3 vs. n-6 FA. In order to ascertain mechanisms for these effects, we demonstrated inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation by DHA in parallel with a reduction in hydrogen peroxide (a critical mediator of NF-kappaB activation) released by endothelial cells either extracellularly or intracellularly. This suggests that a property related to fatty acid peroxidability (the presence of multiple double bonds) is related to inhibitory properties of hydrogen peroxide release and, consequently, of endothelial activation.

De Caterina R; Spiecker M; Solaini G; Basta G; Bosetti F; Libby P; Liao J

1999-01-01

288

The inhibition of endothelial activation by unsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary long-chain fatty acids (FA) may influence pathological processes involving endothelial activation and leukocyte-endothelial interactions, such as inflammation and atherosclerosis. We previously showed that the n-3 FA docosahexaenoate (22:6n-3, DHA) inhibits cytokine-stimulated expression of endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules and soluble cytokines in the range of nutritionally achievable plasma concentrations. More recently we assessed structural determinants of VCAM-1 inhibition by FA. Cultured endothelial cells were incubated first with various saturated, monounsaturated, n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated FA alone and then together with interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor. Saturated FA did not inhibit cytokine-induced endothelial activation, while a progressive increase in inhibitory activity was observed, for the same chain length, with the increase in double bonds accompanying the transition from monounsaturates to n-6 and, further, to n-3 FA. Comparison of various FA indicated no role of the double-bond position or configuration; the greater number of double bonds could explain the greater inhibitory activity of n-3 vs. n-6 FA. In order to ascertain mechanisms for these effects, we demonstrated inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation by DHA in parallel with a reduction in hydrogen peroxide (a critical mediator of NF-kappaB activation) released by endothelial cells either extracellularly or intracellularly. This suggests that a property related to fatty acid peroxidability (the presence of multiple double bonds) is related to inhibitory properties of hydrogen peroxide release and, consequently, of endothelial activation. PMID:10419145

De Caterina, R; Spiecker, M; Solaini, G; Basta, G; Bosetti, F; Libby, P; Liao, J

1999-01-01

289

Methoxylated fatty acids in Blumeria graminis conidia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The total fatty acids (FA) composition of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici conidia, the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew, was analyzed as a function of their age. A total of 19 FA (C12-C24 saturated and unsaturated) and unusual methoxylated fatty acids (mFA) were detected in young, intermediate and old conidia. Two very long chain methoxylated FA were identified by GC-MS as 3-methoxydocosanoic and 3-methoxytetracosanoic acids. Medium chain FA were predominant in young conidia (75%, including 13% of mFA) while very long chain fatty acids constituted the major compounds in old conidia (74%, including 30% of mFA). We have shown for the first time that the total FA composition is strongly correlated with the age of B. graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) conidia.

Muchembled J; Sahraoui AL; Laruelle F; Palhol F; Couturier D; Grandmougin-Ferjani A; Sancholle M

2005-04-01

290

FATTY ACID DESATURASES FROM TETRASELMIS SUECICA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates generally to methods and compositions concerning desaturase enzymes that modulate the number and location of double bonds in long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA's). In particular, the invention relates to methods and compositions for improving omega-3 fatty acid profiles in plant products and parts using desaturase enzymes and nucleic acids encoding for such enzymes. In particular embodiments, the desaturase enzymes are Tetraselmis suecica delta 6 desaturases. Also provided are improved soybean oil compositions having GLA and SDA.

URSIN VIRGINIA; FROMAN BYRON; VALENTIN HENRY E

291

Fatty Acid Synthesis by Extracts of Euglena.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that stearic acid, a major produce of fatty acid synthesis by extracts of Euglena, is synthesized de novo. Moreover, avidin, an inhibitor of biotin-functional enzymes, does not inhibit the system from Euglena and does not alter the distributio...

G. M. Cheniae P. C. Kerr

1964-01-01

292

Effect of intravenous omega-3 fatty acid infusion and hemodialysis on fatty acid composition of free fatty acids and phospholipids in patients with end-stage renal disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have been reported to have decreased levels of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ?-3 PUFAs administered intravenously during HD, as well as the effect of HD treatment, on the fatty acid composition of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), plasma phospholipids, and platelet phospholipids.

Madsen, Trine; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup

2011-01-01

293

Fatty acid production in Schizochytrium sp.: Involvement of a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase and a type I fatty acid synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Schizochytrium sp. is a marine microalga that has been developed as a commercial source for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 (omega-3), enriched biomass, and oil. Previous work suggested that the DHA, as well as docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, C22:5 omega-6), that accumulate in Schizochytrium are products of a multi-subunit polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase (1). Here we show data to support this view and also provide information on other aspects of fatty acid synthesis in this organism. Three genes encoding subunits of the PUFA synthase were isolated from genomic DNA and expressed in E. coli along with an essential accessory gene encoding a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase). The resulting transformants accumulated both DHA and DPA. The ratio of DHA to DPA was approximately the same as that observed in Schizochytrium. Treatment of Schizochytrium cells with certain levels of cerulenin resulted in inhibition of 14C acetate incorporation into short chain fatty acids without affecting labeling of PUFAs, indicating distinct biosynthetic pathways. A single large gene encoding the presumed short chain fatty acid synthase (FAS) was cloned and sequenced. Based on sequence homology and domain organization, the Schizochytrium FAS resembles a fusion of fungal FAS beta and alpha subunits.

Hauvermale A; Kuner J; Rosenzweig B; Guerra D; Diltz S; Metz JG

2006-08-01

294

Fatty acid production in Schizochytrium sp.: Involvement of a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase and a type I fatty acid synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizochytrium sp. is a marine microalga that has been developed as a commercial source for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 (omega-3), enriched biomass, and oil. Previous work suggested that the DHA, as well as docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, C22:5 omega-6), that accumulate in Schizochytrium are products of a multi-subunit polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase (1). Here we show data to support this view and also provide information on other aspects of fatty acid synthesis in this organism. Three genes encoding subunits of the PUFA synthase were isolated from genomic DNA and expressed in E. coli along with an essential accessory gene encoding a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase). The resulting transformants accumulated both DHA and DPA. The ratio of DHA to DPA was approximately the same as that observed in Schizochytrium. Treatment of Schizochytrium cells with certain levels of cerulenin resulted in inhibition of 14C acetate incorporation into short chain fatty acids without affecting labeling of PUFAs, indicating distinct biosynthetic pathways. A single large gene encoding the presumed short chain fatty acid synthase (FAS) was cloned and sequenced. Based on sequence homology and domain organization, the Schizochytrium FAS resembles a fusion of fungal FAS beta and alpha subunits. PMID:17120926

Hauvermale, A; Kuner, J; Rosenzweig, B; Guerra, D; Diltz, S; Metz, J G

2006-08-01

295

Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. We tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end, stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. Conclusion: The data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J; Forman, Barry M; Stahl, Andreas

2012-10-01

296

Trans Fatty Acids: Their Chemical Structures, Formation and Dietary Intake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least a double bond in trans configuration or geometry.The double-bond angle of the trans fatty acids is smaller than the cis isomeric configuration and the acylchain is more linear, resulting in a more rigid molecule with different physical properties such as a highermelting point and greater thermodynamic stability. These appear in dairy fat because of ruminal activity, andin hydrogenated oils. Trans unsaturated fatty acids are solid fats produced artificially by heating liquidvegetable oils in the presence of metal catalysts and hydrogen. Trans fatty acids are found in numerousfoods. Margarines, shortenings and baked goods contain relatively high levels of trans fatty acids. Similar tosaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids also increase LDL cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol thereforeincreasing the risk of heart diseases. Therefore, the possible increase in risk for those diseases caused by ahigh trans fatty acid consumption should be carefully considered.

M. Tasan; O. Daglioglu

2005-01-01

297

Fatty acid composition and squalene content of the marine microalga Schizochytrium mangrovei.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Certain species of thraustochytrids are being explored as potential producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids for nutritional enrichment of food products and use as feed additives in aquaculture. The fatty acid composition and squalene content were determined in the thraustochytrid, Schizochytrium mangrovei that was newly isolated from decaying Kandelia candel leaves in Hong Kong mangrove habitat. The major fatty acid constituents identified in all three S. mangrovei strains were tetradeanoic acid (C14:0), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-6, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). DHA was the most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the percentage of DHA (of total fatty acids) in all these strains varied from 32.29 to 39.14%. Only slight changes were observed in fatty acid composition of the S. mangrovei strains harvested at their early (day 3) and late stationary (day 5) phases. In contrast, the cellular squalene content was affected significantly by the culture time; the largest decrease of squalene content from 0.162 mg/g to 0.035 mg/g was found in S. mangrovei FB1 as the culture aged.

Jiang Y; Fan KW; Wong RT; Chen F

2004-03-01

298

Fatty acid composition and squalene content of the marine microalga Schizochytrium mangrovei.  

Science.gov (United States)

Certain species of thraustochytrids are being explored as potential producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids for nutritional enrichment of food products and use as feed additives in aquaculture. The fatty acid composition and squalene content were determined in the thraustochytrid, Schizochytrium mangrovei that was newly isolated from decaying Kandelia candel leaves in Hong Kong mangrove habitat. The major fatty acid constituents identified in all three S. mangrovei strains were tetradeanoic acid (C14:0), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-6, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). DHA was the most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the percentage of DHA (of total fatty acids) in all these strains varied from 32.29 to 39.14%. Only slight changes were observed in fatty acid composition of the S. mangrovei strains harvested at their early (day 3) and late stationary (day 5) phases. In contrast, the cellular squalene content was affected significantly by the culture time; the largest decrease of squalene content from 0.162 mg/g to 0.035 mg/g was found in S. mangrovei FB1 as the culture aged. PMID:14995120

Jiang, Yue; Fan, King-Wai; Wong, Raymond Tsz-Yeung; Chen, Feng

2004-03-10

299

Fatty acids of erythrocyte membrane in acute pancreatitis patients  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To evaluate changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids during severe and mild acute pancreatitis (AP) of alcoholic and nonalcoholic etiology. METHODS: All consecutive patients with a diagnosis of AP and onset of the disease within the last 72 h admitted to the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences between June and December 2007 were included. According to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scale, the patients were subdivided into the mild (APACHE II score :0), palmitoleic (C16:1n7cis), arachidonic (C20:4n6), docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22:6n3), and docosapentaenoic (DPA, C22:5n3) acids were the major contributing factors. A decrease in the peroxidation and unsaturation indexes in AP patients as well as the severe and mild AP groups as compared with controls was observed. The concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the mild AP group were lower than in the control group. In severe AP of nonalcoholic etiology, the percentages of arachidic (C20:0) and arachidonic (C20:4n6) acids were decreased as compared with the control group. The patients with mild AP of nonalcoholic etiology had the increased percentages of total saturated FAs and gama linoleic acid (C18:3n6) and the decreased percentages of elaidic (C18:1n9t), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3), DPA (C22:5n3), DHA (C22:6n3) as well as total and n-3 PUFAs in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. CONCLUSION: The composition of FAs in erythrocyte membranes is altered during AP. These changes are likely to be associated with alcohol consumption, inflammatory processes, and oxidative stress.

Kuliaviene, Irma; Gulbinas, Antanas; Cremers, Johannes; Pundzius, Juozas; Kupcinskas, Limas; Dambrauskas, Zilvinas; Jansen, Eugene

2013-01-01

300

The fatty acid composition of muscles and fat depots of ostriches as influenced by genotype  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Three genotypes of ostrich (South African Black, Zimbabwean Blue Necks and crosses between Zimbabwean Blue Neck males x South African Black females) were used to investigate the influence of genotype on the fatty acid composition of the musculus gastrocnemius and musculus iliofibularis, and abdominal and breast fat depots. Total saturated fatty acids in both the m. gastrocnemius and m. iliofibularis were higher in crosses (36.4% and 35.9%) than in South African Black ostr (more) iches (32.9% and 30.4%), whereas mono-unsaturated fatty acids were highest in South African Black ostriches. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids in the m. gastrocnemius were lowest in South African Black ostriches (26.5%) compared with the Zimbabwean Blue Necks (33.2%). Neither the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated (0.73 to 0.99) nor n-6 to n-3 (1.6 to 2.2) fatty acids were influenced by genotype, although the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in Zimbabwean Blue Necks was higher in the m. gastrocnemius (0.99) than in the m. iliofibularis (0.73). Differences in individual fatty acids were prominent in the breast fat, and total saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids differed between genotypes in both breast and abdominal fat. Only the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in the fat depots differed between South African Black (0.48) and Zimbabwean Blue Neck ostriches (0.42). The latter ratio was higher in the breast (0.50) than abdominal (0.42) fat in Zimbabwean Blue Necks. These results indicate that crossbreeding of different genotypes of ostriches reared under similar conditions does influence the overall fatty acid profiles of meat and fat.

Hoffman, L.C.; Brand, M.M.; Cloete, S.W.P.; Muller, M.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from alpha-linolenic acid is inhibited by diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The conversion of the plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) to the long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) can be increased by ALA sufficient diets compared to ALA deficient diets. Diets containing ALA above an optimal level result in no further increase in DHA levels in animals and humans. The present study evaluates means of maximizing plasma DHA accumulation by systematically varying both linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and ALA dietary level. Weanling rats were fed one of 54 diets for three weeks. The diets varied in the percentage of energy (en%) of LA (0.07-17.1 en%) and ALA (0.02-12.1 en%) by manipulating both the fat content and the balance of vegetable oils. The peak of plasma phospholipid DHA (>8% total fatty acids) was attained as a result of feeding a narrow dietary range of 1-3 en% ALA and 1-2 en% LA but was suppressed to basal levels (?2% total fatty acids) at dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) above 3 en%. We conclude it is possible to enhance the DHA status of rats fed diets containing ALA as the only source of n-3 fatty acids but only when the level of dietary PUFA is low (<3 en%).

Gibson RA; Neumann MA; Lien EL; Boyd KA; Tu WC

2013-01-01

302

Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children. METHODS: In the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort, breast milk fatty acid profile was determined in 281 mothers and BMI development was prospectively followed up to the age of 7 y in 222 children. Age and BMI at adiposity rebound were registered. Furthermore, fat mass determination by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed in 207 children at 6-9 y of age. RESULTS: There was a significant association between breast milk DHA and BMI from 2 to 7 y, fat mass, and, for the girls, age at adiposity rebound. No associations were found between the breast milk n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio and body composition. CONCLUSION: Early intake of DHA may have an effect on body composition. Dietary habits of lactating mothers could contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in Western societies.

Pedersen L; Lauritzen L; Brasholt M; Buhl T; Bisgaard H

2012-12-01

303

Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed. The ten species were: chicory (Cichorium intybus), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), birds-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), white meliot (Melilotus officinalis), caraway (Carum carvi), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), white clover (Trifolium repens) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). FA content in single species deviated considerably, although the main FA were C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6, with chervil being the exception with C18:1n-9 as main FA. The majority of FA were found in the phospholipid and sterol fraction, with C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6 as the dominating FA.

Petersen, M B; SØegaard, Karen

2012-01-01

304

FATTY ACIDS PROFILES OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS WALBAUM, 1792), FED WITH ZEOLITE (CLINOPTILOLITE)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this trial, the lipid contents and fatty acid compositions (% of total fatty acids) of rainbow trout fed with four different ratios of clinoptilolite were studied. The fatty acid compositions of fish in groups ranged from 26.81% to 27.93 % saturated fatty acids, 25.35–31.435 % monounsaturated and 32.99–40.185 % polyunsaturated. Among them, those occurring in the highest proportions were oleic acid (C18:1n9, 19.85-22.27 %), palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.60-16.56 %), linoleic acid (C18:2n6, 11.43-18.88 %), cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3, 13.36-15.52 %), stearic acid (C18:0, 4.25-4.75 %), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 3.53-4.59 %), cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n3, 3.11-3.39 %), and myristic acid (C14:0, 2.56-2.85 %). The findings demonstrated that fatty acid compositions of the groups depend on feed, age, environmental conditions, and effects of feed additives like clinoptilolite. In this respect, it demonstrated that clinoptilolite can be added to fish feeds

D. Danabas

2011-01-01

305

Urinary excretion of arginine-vasopressin and prostaglandin E in essential fatty acid-deficient rats after oral supplementation with unsaturated fatty acid esters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Essential fatty-acid-deficient rats were supplemented with 300 mg/d of pure fatty acid esters: oleate (O), linoleate (L), arachidonate (A), and columbinate (C) for 10 d. The 24-h urine collections from each animal, collected 3 d before supplementations and again the last 3 d of the 10-d supplementation period, were analyzed for volume, and by radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and prostaglandin E (PGE). Linoleate and arachidonate supplements both decreased the initial high urinary AVP excretion, whereas it was further increased by the oleate supplement. There was no effect of columbinate supplementation on urinary AVP excretion. Urinary PGE excretion was increased ca. twofold by both linoleate and oleate supplements, increased ca. fivefold by arachidonate supplementation but was unaffected by columbinate supplementation. There was no effect of any of the supplemented fatty acids on urine output. Fatty acid analysis of total kidney lipids revealed a low percentage of 20:3(n-9) in the rats supplemented with (n-6) fatty acid. (L, A and C). The triene-tetraene ratio was 1.8 ± 0.6 (n = 6) in the kidneys of the oleate-supplemented rats. No relationship was found between urinary PGE excretion and the percentage of arachidonate or the ratio of 20:3 (n=9)/20:4(n-6) in total kidney lipids. It is suggested that increased urinary AVP excretion in EFA-deficient rats is mainly caused by a change in the renal excretatory mechanism of AVP rather than reflecting an increased plasma AVP concentration. Furthermore it is suggested that renal PGE synthesis in vivo is unaffected by high levels of 20:3(n-9) in kidney lipids.

Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

1986-01-01

306

Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english It is widely accepted that the consumption of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatization. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (more) , eicosapentaenoic acid was found in all but one species. Additionally, some species contained docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid of the ?-6 series, was present in all studied macroalgae. Fucus spiralis L. exhibited the highest amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ?-3 and ?-6 series. The ?-6/?-3 ratio in half of the studied species was lower than 1. This information reinforces the potential application of some brown macroalgae as dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Silva, Graça; Pereira, Renato B.; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa, Carla

2013-08-01

307

Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english It is widely accepted that the consumption of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatization. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (more) , eicosapentaenoic acid was found in all but one species. Additionally, some species contained docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid of the ?-6 series, was present in all studied macroalgae. Fucus spiralis L. exhibited the highest amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ?-3 and ?-6 series. The ?-6/?-3 ratio in half of the studied species was lower than 1. This information reinforces the potential application of some brown macroalgae as dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Silva, Graça; Pereira, Renato B.; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa, Carla

2013-01-01

308

Fatty acid compositions of six wild edible mushroom species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.

Günç Ergönül P; Akata I; Kalyoncu F; Ergönül B

2013-01-01

309

Fatty acid compositions of six wild edible mushroom species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

2013-06-06

310

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.

2002-01-01

311

Hypertension, single sugars and fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Macronutrients may induce various hemodynamic effects. In the fructose-fed rat blood pressure increase is associated with insulin resistance and enhanced sympathetic activity. In humans, oral glucose intake induces a slight and transient increase of blood pressure secondary to sympathetic activation. This increase may be higher in hypertensive subjects and followed by a significant fall in blood pressure in elderly subjects. Saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induces in male rats a significant increase in blood pressure related to sympathetic activation. Some observational and interventional studies suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty-acids may reduce blood pressure in humans. Thus, both carbohydrates and fatty acid balance may contribute to blood pressure changes. The clinical relevance of these data should be evaluated in long-term trials, in particular in overweight and hypertensive subjects.

Valensi P

2005-12-01

312

Alpha-linolenic acid deficiency in patients on long-term gastric-tube feeding: estimation of linolenic acid and long-chain unsaturated n-3 fatty acid requirement in man.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alpha-linolenic acid deficiency is described in four adults fed by gastric tube. In plasma and erythrocytes, total lipid 20:3n-9 was slightly increased but total n-6 fatty acids, arachidonic acid, and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid were normal. Total n-3 fatty acids, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 were decreased in both plasma and erythrocytes. Patients had a slight but definite scaly dermatitis, which disappeared with essential fatty acids supplementation. Simultaneously, levels of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3, 20:3n-9, and total n-3 fatty acids became normal while 18:2n-6, 20:3n-6, 20:4n-6, and total n-6 acids were unchanged or slightly lowered. Estimated minimal daily requirement of linolenic acid and of long-chain unsaturated n-3 acids in adults is approximately 0.2-0.3% and 0.1-0.2%, respectively, of total energy intake. Results suggest that conversion of linolenic acid to 22:6n-3 is increased in linolenic acid deficiency.

Bjerve KS; Mostad IL; Thoresen L

1987-01-01

313

Fatty Acid Composition of Flax Sprouts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oil and fatty acid profile of flax (Linum usitatissimum) sprouts and seed were compared to determine nutrition potential of sprouts. Equal quantities of seed from three flax cultivars (Rahab-94, Pembina and Linott) were sprouted twice in three replications and were analysed for oil and fatty acid contents during summer 2011. Three flax cultivars were observed with high oil content on dry weight basis in sprouts (15.9%) and seeds (33.99%). Significant variations (P0.05) variation among three cultivars was observed. The percentage of PUFAs in cultivars Pembina and Linott was 68.7 and in Rahab-94 was 67.7. The percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2) was significantly high in sprouts (19.51%) compared to seed (17.7%). The percentage of linolenic acid (18:3) was high in seed (52.8%) compared to sprouts (48.8%). The ratio of PUFA/SFA in sprouts was high in Pembina (6.97%) and Linott (6.82%) compared to Rahab-94 (6.38%). The fatty acid profile was similar in all the three cultivars with significant (P<0.0001) reduction (<1%) in PUFA/SFA ratio of sprouts compared to seed (7.4%). Flax sprouts are equally potential to seed for viable natural resources of essential fatty acids (18:2 and 18:3).

Satya S. Narina; Anwar A. Hamama; Harbans L. Bhardwaj

2013-01-01

314

Tissue fatty acid composition and estimated ? desaturase activity after castration in chicken broilers fed with linseed or sunflower oil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of the short-term addition of sunflower and linseed oil and castration on fatty acid composition and desaturation indexes in chicken broilers. Forty-eight male Ross 308 chicken broilers were supplemented with 5% of sunflower or linseed oil. The four experimental groups were linseed oil supplementation and castration (LC), linseed oil without castration (LN), sunflower oil and castration (SC) and sunflower oil without castration (SN). There was no significant influence of castration or oil supplement on live weights, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Castration resulted in an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), total n3, n6, measured desaturation indexes and a decrease in the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content of abdominal fat. In breast muscle, castration increased PUFA and 18:3n3 values, while in the liver tissue, castration did not influence the parameters measured. Linseed oil supplementation significantly increased 18:3n3, n3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA), total n3 and decreased total n6, n6/n3 ratio, and 20:4n6 content. Values for 20:4n6 were the highest in SC and the lowest in the LC group. Linseed oil also significantly decreased ?5 and ?4 desaturation indexes in the thighs and ?5 and ?5, 6 in abdominal fat and the liver. These results suggest that short-term supplementation of basal diet with 5% of linseed oil could significantly increase n3 LC PUFA and decrease n6/n3 ratio content in the edible tissues of chicken broilers, without adverse effects on growth performance. Meanwhile, castration only improved fatty acid profile in abdominal fat, which is not nutritionally important. The interactions observed between basal diet, supplemented oil, sex hormones and other non-nutritional factors must be elucidated in future trials in order to correctly predict the nutritional value of linseed-fed poultry.

Mašek T; Star?evi? K; Filipovi? N; Stojevi? Z; Brozi? D; Gottstein Z; Severin K

2013-08-01

315

Biosynthesis of cyclopentenyl fatty acids. Cyclopentenylglycine, a non-proteinogenic amino acid as precursor of cyclic fatty acids in Flacourtiaceae.  

Science.gov (United States)

In seeds of Hydnocarpus anthelminthica of Flacourtiaceae, cyclopentenylglycine and cyclopentenyl fatty acids are found naturally. The non-proteinogenic amino acid may serve as precursor of cyclopentenyl fatty acids via aleprolic acid, the starter molecule for these long-chain compounds. After administration of cyclopentenyl[2-14C]glycine to maturing seeds of H. anthelminthica, labelled cyclopentenyl fatty acids were synthesized. Comparative activities were observed, when [1-14C]aleprolic acid was supplied to the seeds. Incorporation studies with [1-14C]acetate revealed that the chain-lengthening systems for straight-chain and cyclic fatty acids were still functioning in mature seeds. Endosperm and embryo of H. Anthelminthica seeds synthesized cyclopentenyl fatty acids from cyclopentenyl[2-14C]glycine, [1-14C]aleprolic acid and [1-14C]acetate. In embryonic tissue, a dilution experiment proved the following path for cyclopentenyl fatty acid biosynthesis: cyclopentenylglycine leads to aleprolic acid leads to cyclopentenyl fatty acids. The conversion of cyclopentenylglycine to aleprolic acid may occur via transamination and oxidative decarboxylation; activated aleprolic acid is then lengthened by C2-units to cyclopentenyl fatty acids. PMID:856584

Cramer, U; Spener, F

1977-04-15

316

Biosynthesis of cyclopentenyl fatty acids. Cyclopentenylglycine, a non-proteinogenic amino acid as precursor of cyclic fatty acids in Flacourtiaceae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In seeds of Hydnocarpus anthelminthica of Flacourtiaceae, cyclopentenylglycine and cyclopentenyl fatty acids are found naturally. The non-proteinogenic amino acid may serve as precursor of cyclopentenyl fatty acids via aleprolic acid, the starter molecule for these long-chain compounds. After administration of cyclopentenyl[2-14C]glycine to maturing seeds of H. anthelminthica, labelled cyclopentenyl fatty acids were synthesized. Comparative activities were observed, when [1-14C]aleprolic acid was supplied to the seeds. Incorporation studies with [1-14C]acetate revealed that the chain-lengthening systems for straight-chain and cyclic fatty acids were still functioning in mature seeds. Endosperm and embryo of H. Anthelminthica seeds synthesized cyclopentenyl fatty acids from cyclopentenyl[2-14C]glycine, [1-14C]aleprolic acid and [1-14C]acetate. In embryonic tissue, a dilution experiment proved the following path for cyclopentenyl fatty acid biosynthesis: cyclopentenylglycine leads to aleprolic acid leads to cyclopentenyl fatty acids. The conversion of cyclopentenylglycine to aleprolic acid may occur via transamination and oxidative decarboxylation; activated aleprolic acid is then lengthened by C2-units to cyclopentenyl fatty acids.

Cramer U; Spener F

1977-04-01

317

Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus), camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii) y peces (Mugil cephalus), que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar.Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus), prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and finfish (Mugil cephalus), that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2): 577-587. Epub 2010 June 02.

Nabeel M Alikunhi; Rajendran Narayanasamy; Kathiresan Kandasamy

2010-01-01

318

Plant seed oils containing polyunsaturated fatty acids  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are plants that have been genetically modified to express a PKS-like system for the production of PUFAs (a PUFA PKS system), wherein oils produced by the plant contain at least one PUFA produced by the PUFA PKS system and are free of the mixed shorter-chain and less unsaturated PUFAs that are fatty acid products produced by the modification of products of the FAS system in standard fatty acid pathways. Also disclosed are the oil seeds, oils, and products comprising such oils produced by this system, as well as methods for producing such plants.

319

PLANT SEED OILS CONTAINING POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are plants that have been genetically modified to express a PKS-like system for the production of PUFAs (a PUFA PKS system), wherein oils produced by the plant contain at least one PUFA produced by the PUFA PKS system and are free of the mixed shorter-chain and less unsaturated PUFAs that are fatty acid products produced by the modification of products of the FAS system in standard fatty acid pathways. Also disclosed are the oil seeds, oils, and products comprising such oils produced by this system, as well as methods for producing such plants.

METZ JAMES G

320