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Docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid supplementation alter rat skeletal muscle fatty acid composition  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6, DPAn-6 are highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, ? 20 carbons, ? 3 double bonds that differ by a single carbon-carbon double bond at the ?19 position. Membrane 22:6n-3 may support skeletal muscle function through optimal ion pump activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and electron transport in the mitochondria. Typically n-3 fatty acid deficient feeding trials utilize linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA as a comparison group, possibly introducing a lower level of HUFA in addition to n-3 fatty acid deficiency. The use of 22:5n-6 as a dietary control is ideal for determining specific requirements for 22:6n-3 in various physiological processes. The incorporation of dietary 22:5n-6 into rat skeletal muscles has not been demonstrated previously. A one generation, artificial rearing model was utilized to supply 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 to rats from d2 after birth to adulthood. An n-3 fatty acid deficient, artificial milk with 18:2n-6 was supplemented with 22:6n-3 and/or 22:5n-6 resulting in four artificially reared (AR dietary groups; AR-LA, AR-DHA, AR-DPAn-6, AR-DHA+DPAn-6. A dam reared group (DAM was included as an additional control. Animals were sacrificed at 15 wks and soleus, white gastrocnemius and red gastrocnemius muscles were collected for fatty acid analyses. Results In all muscles of the DAM group, the concentration of 22:5n-6 was significantly lower than 22:6n-3 concentrations. While 22:5n-6 was elevated in the AR-LA group and the AR-DPAn-6 group, 20:4n-6 tended to be higher in the AR-LA muscles and not in the AR-DPAn-6 muscles. The AR-DHA+DPAn-6 had a slight, but non-significant increase in 22:5n-6 content. In the red gastrocnemius of the AR-DPAn-6 group, 22:5n-6 levels (8.1 ± 2.8 wt. % did not reciprocally replace the 22:6n-3 levels observed in AR-DHA reared rats (12.2 ± 2.3 wt. % suggesting a specific preference/requirement for 22:6n-3 in red gastrocnemius. Conclusion Dietary 22:5n-6 is incorporated into skeletal muscles and appears to largely compete with 22:6n-3 for incorporation into lipids. In contrast, 18:2n-6 feeding tends to result in elevations of 20:4n-6 and restrained increases of 22:5n-6. As such, 22:5n-6 dietary comparison groups may be useful in elucidating specific requirements for 22:6n-3 to support optimal health and disease prevention.

Lim Sun-Young

2007-04-01

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Dietary (n-6?:?n-3) Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats  

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The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6?:?n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1?:?1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6?:?1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30?:?1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Di...

Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

2012-01-01

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Unusually High Levels of n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Whale Sharks and Reef Manta Rays  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12–17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA—eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %...

Couturier, L. I. E.; Rohner, C. A.; Richardson, A. J.; Pierce, S. J.; Marshall, A. D.; Jaine, F. R. A.; Townsend, K. A.; Bennett, M. B.; Weeks, S. J.; Nichols, P. D.

2013-01-01

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Unusually high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in whale sharks and reef manta rays.  

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Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source. PMID:23975574

Couturier, L I E; Rohner, C A; Richardson, A J; Pierce, S J; Marshall, A D; Jaine, F R A; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M B; Weeks, S J; Nichols, P D

2013-10-01

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MOLECULAR SWITCH THAT CONTROLS THE FLUX OF LINOLEIC ACID INTO N-6 OR N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN MICROORGANISMS  

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Full Text Available Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA of the n-6 and n-3 series play important roles in nutrition. Microorganisms are important sources of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids; however, most produce either n-6 or n-3 fatty acids as the major PUFAs and very few produce both. This differential production suggests that PUFAs metabolic pathway is strictly controlled in microorganisms. The major pathway of n-6/n-3 faty acids biosynthesis in lower eukaryotes is composed of ?12 Desaturase (Des, ?3 Des (?15, ?17, ?6 Des, ?6 Elongase (Elo, ?5 Des, ?5 Elo and ?4 Des, among which ?6 Des and ?15 (?3 Des, located at the branch point of PUFAs metabolic pathways, are key regulators of the flux of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6 into either n-6 or n-3 fatty acid metabolic pathways. These latter two enzymes work together as a molecular switch that control the production of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. However the mechanism of the molecular switch is, so far, not clear. This review summarizes the recent advancement of the molecular base of the differentail production of n-6 or n-3 PUFAs in microorganisms.

Mingxuan Wang

2014-01-01

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Running Speed in Mammals Increases with Muscle n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content  

OpenAIRE

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important dietary components that mammals cannot synthesize de novo. Beneficial effects of PUFAs, in particular of the n-3 class, for certain aspects of animal and human health (e.g., cardiovascular function) are well known. Several observations suggest, however, that PUFAs may also affect the performance of skeletal muscles in vertebrates. For instance, it has been shown that experimentally n-6 PUFA-enriched diets increase the maximum swimming speed in...

Ruf, Thomas; Valencak, Teresa; Tataruch, Frieda; Arnold, Walter

2006-01-01

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Running speed in mammals increases with muscle n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content.  

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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important dietary components that mammals cannot synthesize de novo. Beneficial effects of PUFAs, in particular of the n-3 class, for certain aspects of animal and human health (e.g., cardiovascular function) are well known. Several observations suggest, however, that PUFAs may also affect the performance of skeletal muscles in vertebrates. For instance, it has been shown that experimentally n-6 PUFA-enriched diets increase the maximum swimming speed in salmon. Also, we recently found that the proportion of PUFAs in the muscle phospholipids of an extremely fast runner, the brown hare (Lepus europaeus), are very high compared to other mammals. Therefore, we predicted that locomotor performance, namely running speed, should be associated with differences in muscle fatty acid profiles. To test this hypothesis, we determined phospholipid fatty acid profiles in skeletal muscles of 36 mammalian species ranging from shrews to elephants. We found that there is indeed a general positive, surprisingly strong relation between the n-6 PUFAs content in muscle phospholipids and maximum running speed of mammals. This finding suggests that muscle fatty acid composition directly affects a highly fitness-relevant trait, which may be decisive for the ability of animals to escape from predators or catch prey. PMID:17183696

Ruf, Thomas; Valencak, Teresa; Tataruch, Frieda; Arnold, Walter

2006-01-01

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cAMP-depending signaling regulates the adipogenic effect of N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

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The effect of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) on adipogenesis and obesity is controversial as fundamentally opposing results both in vivo and in vitro have been reported. Using in vitro cell culture models we show that the adipogenic action of the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid was dependent on the intracellular levels of cAMP. In conditions with baseline intracellular levels of cAMP, n-6 PUFAs acted pro-adipogenic, whereas n-6 PUFAs acted anti-adipogenic when the intracellular levels of cAMP were elevated. The anti-adipogenic action of n-6 PUFAs was dependent on a PKA-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase (COX) expression and activity. In vivo the intracellular levels of cAMP are modulated in response to dietary intake of different classes of macronutrients. Accordingly, we show that n-6 PUFAs were pro-adipogenic when combined with a high carbohydrate diet, but non-adipogenic when combined with a high protein diet in mice. The high protein diet increased the glucagon/insulin ratio, leading to elevated cAMP-dependent signaling and induction of COX-mediated prostaglandin synthesis. Mice fed the high protein diet had a markedly lower feed efficiency than mice fed the high carbohydrate diet. Yet, oxygen consumption and apparent heat production were similar. Mice on a high protein diet had increased hepatic expression of PGC-1a and genes involved in energy demanding processes like urea synthesis and gluconeogenesis. We conclude that cAMP signaling is pivotal in regulating the adipogenic effect of n-6 PUFAs, and that diet-induced differences in cAMP levels can explain the ability of n-6 PUFAs to either enhance or counteract adipogenesis and obesity.

Madsen, Lise; Pedersen, Lone MØller

2008-01-01

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Effect of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on hare reproductive performances.  

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The study was carried out on 42 breeder couples (42 males and 42 females) of European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), divided into three groups fed three different experimental diets (14 couples/treatment). Two diets were supplemented with n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; 2% of linseed oil and soybean oil, respectively) and were compared with a control diet supplemented with a monounsaturated fatty acids (2% of olive oil). During the experimental period (from 15 April to 30 September), the following parameters were recorded: days from the beginning of trial to the first parturition, parturition interval, number of parturitions, number of leverets born (alive and dead), dead during suckling, the total number of leverets weaned and feed intake per cage (of males, females and leverets until weaning). Feed intake was not influenced by treatments. In hares fed n-3 and n-6 diets, the days from the beginning of the trial to the first parturition and the parturition interval were similar and were lower compared with control group (63.1 v. 70.6 days, and 37.8 v. 40.9 days, respectively; P < 0.05). Hares from n-6 group had a higher (P < 0.05) number of parturitions per cage during the experimental period than the n-3 and control group that showed a similar value (3.00 v. 2.36, respectively). The total number of leverets born per cage and parturition in n-6 and n-3 groups increased with respect to those fed control diet (P < 0.05). The leverets' mortality rate at birth was higher in n-6 than in n-3 and control group (3.50 v. 2.17, respectively; P < 0.05). In control group, leverets' mortality rate during suckling was lower with respect to n-3 (P < 0.05) and n-6 (P < 0.05), showing the highest value for the latter (P < 0.05). In spite of this higher mortality, the number of leverets weaned per cage and parturition was higher (P < 0.05) in n-6 compared with n-3 group, being the latter higher than the control group (3.12, 2.79 and 2.43, respectively). Our results show that the dietary PUFAs, particularly n-6 supplementation, have a positive influence on the reproductive performances of the European brown hare. PMID:22444130

Tufarelli, V; Valentini, L; Dario, M; Laudadio, V

2010-05-01

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Association of plasma n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with synovitis in the knee: the MOST study  

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In osteoarthritis (OA) the synovium is often inflamed and inflammatory cytokines contribute to cartilage damage. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory effects whereas omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) have, on balance, proinflammatory effects. The goal ...

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Effect of Different Dietary n-6 to n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios on the Performance and Fatty Acid Composition in Muscles of Broiler Chickens.  

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The objective of this study was to investigate the different dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 (n-6/n-3) fatty acid (FA) on performance and n-6/n-3 FA in muscles of broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 10 replicates in each (10 birds/replicate). Birds were fed on a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 1% oil during starter (day 1 to 21) and 2% oil during finisher (day 22 to 39) phases, respectively. Treatments of high, medium and low dietary n-6/n-3 FA were formulated by replacing rice bran oil with linseed oil to achieve n-6/n-3 FA close to >20:1, 10:1 and 5:1, respectively. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05) among the treatments. Serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. In breast, concentration of C18:3n-3 was significantly greater (p = 0.001) for medium and low vs high n-6/n-3 FA, while concentrations of C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3, total n-3 FA, and n-6/n-3 FA were significantly higher for low vs medium, and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In contrast, concentrations of C18:2 and mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA) were lower for low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In thigh muscles, concentrations of C20:5n-3 were higher (p<0.05) for medium and low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA, and concentrations of C18:3n-3, C22:6, and n-3 FA were greater (p<0.05) for medium vs high, low vs medium dietary n-6/n-3 FA. However, concentrations of C18:1, MUFA, n-6/n-3 were lower (p<0.05) for low and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In conclusion, lowering the dietary n-6/n-3 FA did not affect the performance of chickens, but enhanced beneficial long-chain n-3 FA and decreased n-6/n-3 FA in chicken breast and thigh, which could be advantageous for obtaining healthy chicken products. PMID:25358321

Mandal, G P; Ghosh, T K; Patra, A K

2014-11-01

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Seasonal Variations of n-6: n-3 Ratios and Fatty Acid Compositions in Foot and Tissue of Chiton lamyi in a High Primary Productivity Area  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Fatty acid content and composition in mollusks is a function of their feeding diversity. Chabahar bay located in the northern part of Oman sea in Indian ocean provides high rates of primary productivity and a diverse food source for mollusks in this area. Identification of fatty acid compositions of Chiton lamyi and study their seasonal changes in the intertidal zone of Chabahar bay. Study the meat quality by n-6: n-3 ratios calculation throughout the year. Approach: Chiton lamyi species analyzed seasonally for its fatty acid compositions in foot and internal tissue separately by GC/MS chromatography. Temperature and nutrients measured monthly for evaluating their effects on investigated seasonal variations of fatty acids. Pearson analysis showed effects of measured environmental factors on studied fatty acids composition. n-6: n-3 ratio calculated seasonally in order to study meat quality. Results: Thirteen fatty acids identified in foot and internal tissue of Chiton lamyi. The major Saturated Fatty Acids (SFAs were myristic, palmitic and stearic acids. The major Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs were palmitoleic, oleic and 11-eicosenoic acids and Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs were linoleic, eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids. Palmitic acid was the most abundant in this species. Fatty acid contents of foot and internal tissue of Chiton lamyi were similar but their seasonal variations were different. Pearson analysis showed correlation among palmitic and oleic acids with silicate; oleic acid with phosphate; Linoleic and arachidonic acids with nitrate in Chiton lamyi internal tissues, but no correlation observed in foot. Although temperature showed correlation with heptadecanoic and methyl-heptadecanoic acids in Chiton lamyi foot, no correlation found in internal tissues. Also, n-6: n-3 ratio calculations showed domination of n-3 fatty acid over n-6 only in spring. Conclusion: Fatty acid variations were not same at different organs and environmental factors could have opposite effects on them in this species. Also, n-6: n-3 ratio showed the lack of food loads throughout the year except in spring for this species. These findings can lead the best exploitation periods for such marine mollusks.

Nooshin Sajjadi

2009-01-01

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Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA. The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123. Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Results Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply. Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %, however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4 but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Conclusions Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower n-3 PUFA portion in farmed fish can be offset by the higher fat content, however, with an unfavourable FA distribution compared to wild fellows.

Strobel Claudia

2012-10-01

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Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Conversion of linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. Design and methods In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, human hepatoma cells were incubated with varying ratios of [13C] labeled linoleic acid ([13C]LA- and alpha-linolenic acid ([13C]ALA-methylesters. Regulative cellular signal transduction pathways involved were studied by determinations of transcript levels of the genes encoding delta-5 desaturase (D5D and delta-6 desaturase (D6D, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR? and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1 were also examined. Results Maximum conversion was observed in cells incubated with the mixture of [13C]LA/[13C]ALA at a ratio of 1:1, where 0.7% and 17% of the recovered [13C]ALA was converted to DHA and EPA, respectively. Furthermore, differential regulation of enzymes involved in the conversion at the transcript level, dependent on the ratio of administered n6 to n3 fatty acids in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Conclusion Formation of EPA and DHA was highest at an administered LA/ALA ratio of 1:1, although gene expression of PPAR?, SREBP-1c and D5D involved in ALA elongation were higher in the presence of ALA solely. Also, our findings suggest that a diet-induced enhancement of the cell membrane content of highly unsaturated fatty acids is only possible up to a certain level.

Somoza Veronika

2009-02-01

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Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on clinical outcome in a porcine model on postoperative infection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) on clinical outcome in a porcine model on early aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI). A total of eighty-four pigs were randomised to a 35 d dietary treatment with 10 % (w/w) fish oil (rich in n-3 LC-PUFA), sunflower oil (rich in n-6 LC-PUFA) or animal fat. After 3 weeks of dietary treatment, the pigs had an aortic vascular prosthetic graft inserted, and it was inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (106 colony-forming units). Changes in selected plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations and in plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration were determined in the 3-week preoperative period. Clinical signs of infection, i.e. rectal temperature, hindquarter function, general appearance and feed intake, were monitored daily in the 14 d post-operative period, and, finally, daily body-weight gain was determined in both periods. The preoperative changes in plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations reflected the fatty acid compositions of the dietary treatments given, and plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration decreased in the fish oil treatment (P < 0·001). In the post-operative period, feed intake (P = 0·004) and body-weight gain (P = 0·038) were higher in the fish oil treatment compared with the sunflower oil treatment. The dietary treatments did not affect the number of days pigs were showing fever, weakness in the hindquarters or impaired general appearance. In conclusion, preoperative treatment with dietary fish oil compared with sunflower oil improved clinical outcome in pigs with AVPGI by improving feed intake and body-weight gain post-operatively.

Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; TØnnesen, Else Kirstine

2012-01-01

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Effects of dietary supplementation of saturated fatty acids and of n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma and red blood cell membrane phospholipids and deformability in weanling guinea pigs.  

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The fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl esters, plasma phospholipids, red blood cell (RBC) membrane phosphatidylcholine (corresponding to the outer membrane leaflet), and phosphatidylethanolamine (corresponding to the inner membrane leaflet) was investigated in weanling guinea pigs fed with diets of cacao (saturated fatty acids), sunflower oil [n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)] or fish oil (n-3 PUFA) for 20 wk. RBC deformation was measured by means of a cell-transit analyzer (filtration) and a cone-plate rheoscope. The contents of saturated fatty acids in plasma phospholipids and RBC membrane leaflets were similar in all three groups. Diets with sunflower oil resulted in a high content of linoleic acid in plasma cholesteryl esters and in the outer leaflet of RBC membranes. Fatty acids of fish oil were mainly incorporated in plasma phospholipids and in the inner leaflet of RBC membranes. The arachidonic acid content was high in all groups in the plasma phospholipids and in the inner leaflet. The n-6 and n-3 PUFA were mainly incorporated in the inner leaflet. In all groups the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and the total PUFA content were similar in the inner RBC membrane. The RBC filtration times and the RBC deformation indices were not affected by the dietary treatment. PMID:10380118

Pöschl, J M; Paul, K; Leichsenring, M; Han, S R; Pfisterer, M; Bremer, H J; Linderkamp, O

1999-05-01

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Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues.  

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The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different heat treatments (pan-frying, oven-baking, and grilling) on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish tissue. Four fish species were examined: pike, carp, cod, and herring. High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI/MS), was employed for determination of intact lipid molecules containing n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. Although mostly non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols, TGs) were present in the fish tissue, the PUFAs were present preferentially in the phospholipid fraction. Omnivorous fish species (carp, herring) contained more TGs than did predatory ones (pike, cod). Higher amounts of PUFAs were detected in the marine species than in the freshwater ones. The impact of heat treatments on the lipid composition in the fish tissue seems to be species-specific, as indicated by multivariate data analysis. Herring tissue is most heat-stable, and the mildest heat treatment for PUFA preservation was oven-baking. PMID:25624225

Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tom?ala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

2015-06-01

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Bioactive Fatty Acids  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

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Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

2012-11-23

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Effects of ELOVL4 gene overexpress on the synthesis efficiency of n3 and n6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids  

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Full Text Available AIM:To compare the synthesis efficiency of n3 and n6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid(VLC-PUFAby overexpressing ELOVL4 protein, providing guidance for treating Stargardt-like macular dystrophy(STGD3.METHODS:To establish recombinant adenovirus with the ELOVL4 protein and green fluorescent protein, transferred into cultured PC12 cells. The cells were divided into 3 groups: PC12, PC12+Ad-GFP and PC12+Ad- ELOVL4, former two groups serve as controls. ELOVL4 gene expression was quantified by qRT-PCRs. ELOVL4 protein was analyzed by Western-Blot(WB. The transduced cells were treated with both EPA and AA(1:1. After 48h of incubation, cells were collected, total lipids extracted and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS. RESULTS: When supplemented together, 20:5n3(EPAand 20:4n6(AAwere efficiently taken up at almost the same amounts in the PC12 cells regardless of ELOVL4 expression. The ELOVL4-expressing cells elongated both EPA and AA to a series of n3 and n6 VLC-PUFAs. From 20:5n3/EPA, 34:5n3 and 36:5n3 account for 0.71% and 1.6%, respectively. From 20:4n6/DHA, 34:4n6 and 36:4n6 were only 0.46% and 0.61%, respectively. The total relative mol% of n3 VLC-PUFAs synthesized from EPA was almost two times that of n6 VLC-PUFAs synthesized from AA.CONCLUSION: ELOVL4 protein preferentially elongates n3 PUFA to VLC-PUFAs over n6 PUFA. Dietary supplementation of appropriate n3/n6 PUFAs may provide STGD3 patients with some therapeutic benefits.

Man Yu

2014-08-01

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Opposing associations of serum n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid with colorectal adenoma risk: An endoscopy-based case-control study  

OpenAIRE

Several human and animal studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) might be associated with a decreased risk, whereas other studies showed that n-6 PUFA may be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. However, results from these studies are not consistent. We evaluated the associations between serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels and colorectal adenoma risk in an endoscopy-based case-control study, conducted in The Netherlands between 1997 and 2002. We included 36...

Pot, G. K.; Geelen, A.; Heijningen, E. M. B.; Siezen, C. L. E.; Kranen, H. J.; Kampman, E.

2008-01-01

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Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

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Abstract Background The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA) or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA) (both...

Rader Daniel J; Billheimer Jeffrey T; Matthan Nirupa R; Lecker Jaime L; Lichtenstein Alice H

2011-01-01

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Chronic Dietary n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deprivation Leads to Conservation of Arachidonic Acid and a More Rapid Loss of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Rat Brain Phospholipids.  

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To determine how the level of dietary n-6 PUFA affects the rate of loss of arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA in brain phospholipids, male rats were fed either a deprived or adequte n-6 PUFA diet for 15 weeks post-weaning, and then subjected to an intracerebroventricular infusion of 3H-ARA or 3H-DHA. Brains were collected at fixed times over 128 days to determine half-lives and the rates of loss from brain phospholipids (Jout). Compared to the adequate n-6 PUFA rats, the deprived n-6-PUFA rats had a 15% lower concentration of ARA and 18% higher concentration of DHA in their brain total phospholipids. Loss half-lives of ARA in brain total phospholipids and fractions (except phosphatidylserine) were longer in the deprived n-6 PUFA rats while the Jout was decreased. In the deprived versus adequate n-6 PUFA rats, the Jout of DHA was higher. In conclusion, chronic n-6 PUFA deprivation decreases the rate of loss of ARA and increases the rate of loss of DHA in brain phospholipids. Thus, a low n-6 PUFA diet can be used to target brain ARA and DHA metabolism. PMID:25477531

Lin, Lauren E; Chen, Chuck T; Hildebrand, Kayla D; Liu, Zhen; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P

2014-12-01

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The association of red blood cell n-3 and n-6 fatty acids with bone mineral density and hip fracture risk in the women's health initiative.  

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Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in red blood cells (RBCs) are an objective indicator of PUFA status and may be related to hip fracture risk. The primary objective of this study was to examine RBC PUFAs as predictors of hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women. A nested case-control study (n?=?400 pairs) was completed within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) using 201 incident hip fracture cases from the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) cohort, along with 199 additional incident hip fracture cases randomly selected from the WHI Observational Study. Cases were 1:1 matched on age, race, and hormone use with non-hip fracture controls. Stored baseline RBCs were analyzed for fatty acids using gas chromatography. After removing degraded samples, 324 matched pairs were included in statistical analyses. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were constructed according to case-control pair status; risk of fracture was estimated for tertiles of RBC PUFA. In adjusted hazard models, lower hip fracture risk was associated with higher RBC ?-linolenic acid (tertile 3 [T3] hazard ratio [HR]: 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.85; p for linear trend 0.0154), eicosapentaenoic acid (T3 HR: 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.87; p for linear trend 0.0181), and total n-3 PUFAs (T3 HR: 0.55; 95% CI, 0.30-1.01; p for linear trend 0.0492). Conversely, hip fracture nearly doubled with the highest RBC n-6/n-3 ratio (T3 HR: 1.96; 95% CI, 1.03-3.70; p for linear trend 0.0399). RBC PUFAs were not associated with BMD. RBC PUFAs were indicative of dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFAs (Spearman's rho?=?0.45, p?n-6 PUFAs (rho?=?0.17, p?acid (rho?=?0.09, p?acid, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid and total n-3 PUFAs, may predict lower hip fracture risk. Contrastingly, a higher RBC n-6/n-3 ratio may predict higher hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:23018646

Orchard, Tonya S; Ing, Steven W; Lu, Bo; Belury, Martha A; Johnson, Karen; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Jackson, Rebecca D

2013-03-01

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Effects of different n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios and of enterolactone on gene expression and PG secretion in bovine endometrial cells.  

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Feeding flaxseed to dairy cows can modulate gene expression and PG synthesis in the uterus at the time of peri-implantation. The objectives of the present study were to determine which flaxseed components are responsible for these effects and how different endometrial cell types are affected. We evaluated the effects of six different linoleic acid (n-6):?-linolenic acid (n-3) ratios and three concentrations of the lignan enterolactone (ENL) on endometrial stromal cells (SC) and epithelial cells (EC). The mRNA abundance of genes with known or suspected roles in embryo survival or PG synthesis was evaluated, along with PGE2 and PGF2? concentrations in culture media. The mRNA abundance of several genes was modulated by different fatty acid (FA) ratios and/or ENL, and this modulation differed between cell types. The FA4 (FA at an n-6:n-3 ratio of 4) treatment (rich in n-3 FA) increased the mRNA abundance of genes that have positive effects on uterine receptivity and implantation when compared with the FA25 (FA at an n-6:n-3 ratio of 25) treatment (rich in n-6 FA). ENL decreased PGE2 and PGF2? concentrations in both cell types, and this reduction was associated with lower mRNA abundance of the PG synthase genes AKR1B1 and PTGES in SC. The combination of ENL with FA (FA4 treatment) resulted in the greatest reduction in PGF2? concentrations when compared with the addition of FA (FA4) or ENL alone. Because of the known luteolytic properties of PGF2?, a reduction in endometrial PGF2? secretion would favour the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:25366386

Hallé, Catherine; Goff, Alan K; Petit, Hélène V; Blouin, Richard; Palin, Marie-France

2014-11-01

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Kinetics of chronic inflammation in Nile tilapia fed n?3 and n?6 essential fatty acids / Cinética da inflamação crônica em tilápia?do?nilo alimentada com ácidos graxos essenciais n?3 e n?6  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da suplementação alimentar com ácidos graxos essenciais sobre a cinética do acúmulo de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes em tilápia?do?nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). As fontes de suplementação foram óleo de soja (OS, fonte de ômega 6, n?6) e [...] óleo de linhaça (OL, fonte de ômega 3, n?3), nas seguintes proporções: 100% OS; 75% OS + 25% OL; 50% OS + 50% OL; 25% OS + 75% OL; e 100% OL (quatro repetições por tratamento). Após período de alimentação de três meses, foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo, e lamínulas de vidro foram implantadas no tecido subcutâneo dos peixes, as quais foram removidas para exame aos 2, 4, 6 e 8 dias após o implante. O desempenho produtivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os peixes alimentados com 100% de óleo de linhaça tiveram maior acúmulo de macrófagos e formação mais rápida de células de Langhans, no sexto dia. No oitavo dia, as células de Langhans foram predominantes nas lamínulas implantadas nos peixes alimentados com 75 e 100% de óleo de linhaça. Os ácidos graxos n?3 podem contribuir para o recrutamento de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes, na resposta inflamatória crônica a corpo estranho em peixes. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on the kinetics of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The supplementation sources were soybean oil (SO, source of omega 6, n?6) and li [...] nseed oil (LO, source of omega 3, n?3), in the following proportions: 100% SO; 75% SO + 25% LO; 50% SO + 50% LO; 25% SO + 75% LO; and 100% LO (four replicates per treatment). After a feeding period of three months, growth performance was evaluated, and glass coverslips were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of fish, being removed for examination at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after implantation. Growth performance did not differ between treatments. Fish fed 100% linseed oil diet had the greatest macrophage accumulation and the fastest Langhans cell formation on the sixth day. On the eighth day, Langhans cells were predominant on the coverslips implanted in the fish feed 75 and 100% linseed oil. n?3 fatty acids may contribute to macrophage recruitment and giant cell formation in fish chronic inflammatory response to foreign body.

Róberson, Sakabe; Flávio Ruas de, Moraes; Marco Antonio de Andrade, Belo; Fabiana, Pilarski; Julieta Rodini Engrácia de, Moraes.

2013-03-01

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Seasonal Variations of n-6: n-3 Ratios and Fatty Acid Compositions in Foot and Tissue of Chiton lamyi in a High Primary Productivity Area  

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Problem statement: Fatty acid content and composition in mollusks is a function of their feeding diversity. Chabahar bay located in the northern part of Oman sea in Indian ocean provides high rates of primary productivity and a diverse food source for mollusks in this area. Identification of fatty acid compositions of Chiton lamyi and study their seasonal changes in the intertidal zone of Chabahar bay. Study the meat quality by n-6: n-3 ratios calculation throughout the year.

Nooshin Sajjadi; Peyman Eghtesadi-Araghi; Shahla Jamili; Mehri Hashtroodi; Sahar Farzadnia; Ali Mashinchian

2009-01-01

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Randomized controlled trial examining the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells.  

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The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160) were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender. PMID:24830830

Pipingas, Andrew; Cockerell, Robyn; Grima, Natalie; Sinclair, Andrew; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew; Myers, Stephen; Croft, Kevin; Sali, Avni; Pase, Matthew P

2014-05-01

29

Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Fish Oil and Multivitamin Supplementation on the Incorporation of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids into Red Blood Cells  

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Full Text Available The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160 were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

Andrew Pipingas

2014-05-01

30

Age-related Changes of n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex of Individuals with Major Depressive Disorder  

OpenAIRE

Accumulating evidence finds a relative deficiency of peripheral membrane fatty acids in persons with affective disorders such as unipolar and bipolar depression. Here we sought to investigate whether postmortem brain fatty acids within the anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) varied according to the presence of major depression at the time of death. Using capillary gas chromatography we measured fatty acids in a depressed group (n=12), and in a control group without lifetime history of psychiatr...

Conklin, Sarah M.; Runyan, Caroline; Leonard, Sherry; Reddy, Ravinder D.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Yao, Jeffrey K.

2010-01-01

31

Differential response to an algae supplement high in DHA mediated by maternal periconceptional diet: intergenerational effects of n-6 fatty acids.  

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Algae high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may provide a source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) for inclusion in the diet of lambs to improve the LCn-3PUFA status of meat. The effect of background LCn-3PUFA status on the metabolism of high DHA algae is, however, unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the response to a high in DHA algae supplement fed to lambs for six weeks prior to slaughter was mediated by a maternal periconceptional diet. Forty Poll Dorset × Border Leicester × Merino weaner lambs were allocated to receive either a ration based on oat grain, lupin grain, and chopped lucerne (control) or the control ration with DHA-Gold™ algae included at 1.92 % DM (Algae) based on whether the dams of lambs had previously been fed a diet high in n-3 or n-6 around conception. LCn-3PUFA concentration was determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) prior to and following feeding. The concentrations of EPA and DHA in the plasma and RBC of lambs receiving the control ration were significantly (p < 0.001) lower when lambs received the ration for 14 days compared with pre-feeding concentrations. The concentrations of EPA and DHA were also significantly (p < 0.001) higher when lambs consumed the Algae ration compared with the control ration for 42 days. The increase in EPA and DHA was, however, significantly (p < 0.05) lower if lamb dams had previously been fed a diet high in n-6 at conception. Assessing the previous nutrition and n-3 status of lambs may allow producers to more accurately predict the likely response to supplements high in LCn-3PUFA, particularly, DHA. PMID:24996881

Clayton, Edward H; Lamb, Tracy A; Refshauge, Gordon; Kerr, Matthew J; Bailes, Kristy L; Ponnampalam, Eric N; Friend, Michael A; Hopkins, David L

2014-08-01

32

Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

Kawabata Terue

2011-08-01

33

Effects of altering the ratio of dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acids on performance and inflammatory responses to a lipopolysaccharide challenge in lactating Holstein cows.  

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The study was designed to evaluate the effects of altering the ratio between n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FA) in the diet and the intake of these FA by lactating dairy cows on lactation performance and inflammatory acute phase responses to a challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Multiparous Holstein cows (n=45) were blocked based on milk yield from d 6 to d 10 postpartum and, within each block, assigned randomly to 1 of 3 dietary treatments at 14d postpartum; treatments lasted for 90d. Diets were supplemented with a mixture of Ca salts of fish, safflower, and palm oils to create 3 different ratios of n-6 to n-3 FA; namely, 3.9, 4.9, or 5.9 parts of n-6 to 1 part of n-3 FA (R4, R5, and R6, respectively). During the first 5 wk of the study, blood was sampled weekly and analyzed for concentrations of metabolites and hormones. On d 75 postpartum, cows received an infusion of 10µg of LPS into one quarter of the mammary gland to evaluate inflammatory acute phase responses. Altering the ratio of dietary n-6 to n-3 FA was reflected in changes in the FA composition of plasma and milk fat. Reducing the ratio of n-6 to n-3 FA from R6 to R4 increased dry matter intake (24.7, 24.6, and 26.1±0.5kg/d for R6, R5, and R4, respectively), with concurrent increases in yields of 3.5% fat-corrected milk (43.4, 45.4, and 48.0±0.8kg/d), milk fat (1.53, 1.60, and 1.71±0.03kg/d), milk true protein (1.24, 1.28, and 1.32±0.02kg/d), and milk lactose (2.12, 2.19, and 2.29±0.04kg/d). After the LPS challenge, concentrations of IL-6 in plasma increased as the ratio of n-6 to n-3 FA increased (112.5, 353.4, and 365.1±86.6pg/mL for R4, R5, and R6, respectively). Elevations of body temperature and somatic cell count were greater for cows fed R5 compared with those fed R4 or R6 (41.3, 40.8, and 40.8±0.2°C; 4.33, 3.68, and 3.58±0.25×10(6)/mL, for R5, R4, and R6, respectively). Haptoglobin concentration was greatest at 24h after LPS challenge for cows fed R6. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst by neutrophils collected from circulation were unaffected by dietary treatment in the first 48h after intramammary LPS infusion. In conclusion, supplying the same quantity of FA in the diet of early lactation dairy cows but altering the ratio of the polyunsaturated FA of the n-6 to n-3 families influenced lactation performance and inflammatory responses to an LPS challenge. PMID:25465551

Greco, L F; Neto, J T Neves; Pedrico, A; Ferrazza, R A; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Martinez, N; Garcia, M; Ribeiro, E S; Gomes, G C; Shin, J H; Ballou, M A; Thatcher, W W; Staples, C R; Santos, J E P

2015-01-01

34

Influence of the phospholipid n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism before and after myocardial ischemia.  

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The influence of dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on heart pump function and mitochondrial energy metabolism was investigated before and after ischemia. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed for 8 weeks a diet containing either 10% of sunflower seed oil (SSO group) or 10% of a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of fish oil and sunflower seed oil (FO group). The hearts were perfused according to the working mode for 15 min with a Krebs-Henseleit medium containing glucose (11 mM), insulin (10 IU/L) and caprylic acid (25 microM). They were then either maintained in normoxic conditions (70 min) or subjected to a global no-flow normothermic ischemia (20 min) followed by reperfusion (50 min). The aortic and coronary flows were monitored at 5-min intervals. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the coronary effluent was evaluated in the control hearts and during ischemia/reperfusion. At the end of the perfusion, two subpopulations of mitochondria were prepared from each heart, by either mechanical or enzyme extraction (ME and EE mitochondria, respectively). The succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was evaluated. Furthermore, the respiration parameters were assessed with either glutamate (20 mM) or palmitoylcarnitine (25 microM) as substrate. Substituting sunflower seed oil by fish oil in the diet provoked a large decrease in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of cardiac phospholipids. The n-3 PUFA enrichment did not alter the coronary and aortic flows nor the LDH release in physiological conditions. Conversely, during post-ischemic reperfusion, the increased amount of n-3 PUFA improved the recovery of aortic flow and decreased the LDH release, without affecting significantly the coronary flow. In ME and EE mitochondria, the phospholipid n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was similarly modified by the dietary manipulations. The analysis of total cardiac SDH activity suggested an ischemia-induced oedema, of similar magnitude in the two dietary groups. However, neither dietary manipulations nor ischemia influenced the mitochondrial extraction. Similarly, the parameters of glutamate oxidation were also unaffected. Conversely, with palmitoylcarnitine, post-ischemic reperfusion induced a decrease in both state III respiration rate and energy production which were more important in the EE mitochondria of the SSO group. These results suggest that the recovery of mitochondrial energy metabolism and myocardial pump function during reperfusion may be improved in n-3 PUFA-rich hearts. This could be related to a lower injury in n-3 PUFA-rich membranes. Since cardiac function in physiological conditions was not affected by the diet, fish oil could be considered as a beneficial factor to limit heart injury during ischemia and reperfusion. PMID:7918684

Demaison, L; Sergiel, J P; Moreau, D; Grynberg, A

1994-10-21

35

Transgenic Increase in n-3/n-6 Fatty Acid Ratio Protects Against Cognitive Deficits Induced by an Immune Challenge through Decrease of Neuroinflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) display immunomodulatory properties in the brain, n-3 PUFAs being able to reduce inflammation whereas n-6 PUFAs are more pro-inflammatory. It has been extensively demonstrated that exposure to a peripheral immune challenge leads to the production and release of inflammatory mediators in the brain in association with cognitive deficits. The question arises whether n-3 PUFA supplementation could downregulate the brain inflammatory response and subsequent cognitive alterations. In this study, we used a genetically modified mouse line carrying the fat-1 gene from the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, encoding an n-3 PUFA desaturase that catalyzes conversion of n-6 into n-3 PUFA. Consequently, these mice display endogenously elevated n-3 PUFA tissue contents. Fat-1 mice or wild-type (WT) littermates were injected peripherally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, to induce an inflammatory episode. Our results showed that LPS altered differently the phenotype of microglia and the expression of cytokines and chemokines in Fat-1 and WT mice. In Fat-1 mice, pro-inflammatory factors synthesis was lowered compared with WT mice, whereas anti-inflammatory mechanisms were favored 24?h after LPS treatment. Moreover, LPS injection impaired spatial memory in WT mice, whereas interestingly, the Fat-1 mice showed normal cognitive performances. All together, these data suggest that the central n-3 PUFA increase observed in Fat-1 mice modulated the brain innate immune system activity, leading to the protection of animals against LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and subsequent spatial memory alteration. PMID:25228141

Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Madore, Charlotte; Joffre, Corinne; Aubert, Agnès; Kang, Jing Xuan; Nadjar, Agnès; Layé, Sophie

2015-02-01

36

Expression of E-FABP in PC12 cells increases neurite extension during differentiation: involvement of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids  

OpenAIRE

Epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP), a member of the family of FABPs, exhibits a robust expression in neurons during axonal growth in development and in nerve regeneration following nerve injury. This study examines the impact of E-FABP expression in normal neurite extension in differentiating pheochromocytoma cell (PC12) cultures supplemented with selected long chain free fatty acids (LCFFA). We found that E-FABP binds to a broad range of saturated and unsaturated LCFFAs, including...

Liu, Jo-wen; Almaguel, Frankis G.; Bu, Liming; Leon, Daisy D.; Leon, Marino

2008-01-01

37

ELOVL2 controls the level of n-6 28:5 and 30:5 fatty acids in testis, a prerequisite for male fertility and sperm maturation in mice.  

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ELOVL2 is a member of the mammalian microsomal ELOVL fatty acid enzyme family, involved in the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids including PUFAs required for various cellular functions in mammals. Here, we used ELOVL2-ablated (Elovl2(-/-)) mice to show that the PUFAs with 24-30 carbon atoms of the ?-6 family in testis are indispensable for normal sperm formation and fertility in male mice. The lack of Elovl2 was associated with a complete arrest of spermatogenesis, with seminiferous tubules displaying only spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes without further germinal cells. Furthermore, based on acyl-CoA profiling, heterozygous Elovl2(+/-) male mice exhibited haploinsufficiency, with reduced levels of C28:5 and C30:5n-6 PUFAs, which gave rise to impaired formation and function of haploid spermatides. These new insights reveal a novel mechanism involving ELOVL2-derived PUFAs in mammals and previously unrecognized roles for C28 and C30 n-6 PUFAs in male fertility. In accordance with the function suggested for ELOVL2, the Elovl2(-/-) mice show distorted levels of serum C20 and C22 PUFAs from both the n-3 and the n-6 series. However, dietary supplementation with C22:6n-3 could not restore male fertility to Elovl2(+/-) mice, suggesting that the changes in n-6 fatty acid composition seen in the testis of the Elovl2(+/-) mice, cannot be compensated by increased C22:6n-3 content. PMID:21106902

Zadravec, Damir; Tvrdik, Petr; Guillou, Hervé; Haslam, Richard; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Napier, Johnathan A; Capecchi, Mario R; Jacobsson, Anders

2011-02-01

38

Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalised n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A high dietary intake of n-6 compared to n-3 fatty acids (FAs may promote the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. In two recent studies, short-term (10-day duodenal administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich seal oil ameliorated joint pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Using unpublished data from these two studies we here investigated whether normalisation of the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood and tissues by seal oil administration was associated with improved health related quality of life (HRQOL as assessed by the generic short-form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire. Results In the first pilot study, baseline n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosal biopsies from 10 patients with IBD (9 of those had joint pain was significantly increased compared with that in 10 control patients without IBD or joint pain. Following seal oil administration, the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio of the IBD-patients was significantly lowered to the level seen in untreated controls. In the subsequent, randomized controlled study (n = 19, seal oil administration reduced the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood similarly and also the SF-36 assessed bodily pain, while n-6 FA rich soy oil administration had no such effect. Conclusion In these two separate studies, short-term duodenal administration of seal oil normalised the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and improved the bodily pain dimension of HRQOL of patients with IBD-related joint pain. The possibility of a causal relationship between n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and bodily pain in IBD-patients warrants further investigations.

Lind Ragna

2006-03-01

39

Antioxidant status, lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet containing currant oil rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a prospective antiatherogenic potential. Currant oil from Ribes nigrum L. is one of the few plant oils containing PUFAn-3 (15.3 mol%) in addition to PUFAn-6 (60.5 mol%). This study was aimed at comparing the effects of currant oil with those of lard fat, rich in saturated (43.8 mol%) and monounsaturated (47.0 mol%) fatty acids, on antioxidant parameters, the lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on 1 % (w/w) cholesterol diets containing either 10 % of currant oil (COD) or lard fat (LFD). After 3 weeks of feeding, the COD induced a significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and an increase in Cu(2+) induced oxidizability of serum lipids, but did not affect liver GSH and t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of liver microsomes. Although the COD did not cause accumulation of liver triacylglycerols as LFD, the lipoprotein profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) was not significantly improved after COD. The consumption of PUFAn-3 was reflected in LDL as an increase in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that currant oil affects positively the lipid metabolism in the liver, above all it does not cause the development of a fatty liver. However, adverse effects of currant oil on the antioxidant status in the blood still remain of concern. PMID:12678660

Vecera, R; Skottová, N; Vána, P; Kazdová, L; Chmela, Z; Svagera, Z; Walterá, D; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

2003-01-01

40

Trabajos de Investigación Increase of plasma fatty acids without changes in n-6/n-3-PUFA ratio in asymptomatic obese subjects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La obesidad está asociada con una inflamación de bajo grado que contribuye al desarrollo de la insulino-resistencia y de la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos saturados (AGS), monoinsaturados (AGMI) y poliinsaturados (AGPI) en sujetos o [...] besos asintomáticos y determinar el ratio ácido araquidónico/ácido eicosapentanoico [ARA/EPA] como un posible marcador de inflamación, con su eventual asociación con los niveles de proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (PCRus). Se reclutaron 14 sujetos obesos (34,4 ± 11.1 años; índice de masa corporal: 36,0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) y 12 normopeso (30,6 ± 7.8 años; índice de masa corporal: 23,6 ± 2,4 kg/m2); las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos fueron determinados por cromatografía de gases. Los niveles de PCRus fueron más elevadas en los sujetos obesos (p=0,01) y correlacionaron con el contenido de grasa corporal. Los porcentajes relativos de AGS, AGMI, AGPI no se vieron afectados en los sujetos obesos, pero sus concentraciones plasmáticas se incrementaron en comparación con el grupo control. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias en las concentraciones de PUFAs de cadena larga (DHA, EPA y ARA) ni en el ratio ARA/EPA en los sujetos obesos. Estas observaciones no apoyan el uso del ratio ARA/EPA como un marcador de inflamación de bajo grado evaluada por PCRus en este grupo de sujetos obesos asintomáticos. Abstract in english Obesity is associated with a low grade inflammation which contributes to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the total saturated (SFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma from asymptomatic obese subjects and [...] to determine the arachidonic/eicosapentanoic acid ratio [ARA/EPA] as a marker of inflammation, and its eventual association with ultrasensitive CRP. Fourteen obese (34.4 ± 11.1y.; BMI: 36.0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) and 12 normal-weight (30.6 ± 7.8y.; BMI: 23,6± 2,4 kg/m2) subjects were recruited and their plasma fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. usCRP was higher in the obese subjects (p=0,01) and correlates with their body fat content. The percentages of SFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs were not affected in the obese subjects but their concentrations were increased, compared with the control group. However, no differences in the long chain PUFAs (DHA and EPA) concentrations or in the plasmatic ARA/EPA ratio were observed in these subjects. These observations do not support a relation between the ARA/EPA ratio and the presence of low grade inflammation evaluated by plasma usCRP in this group of asymptomatic obese subjects.

Jerusa, Brignardello; Pamela, Morales; Erik, Diaz; Oscar, Brunser; Martin, Gotteland.

2011-06-01

41

Comparative effects of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acid-rich diet consumption on lupus nephritis, autoantibody production and CD4+ T cell-related gene responses in the autoimmune NZBWF1 mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypical autoimmune disease, correlates with the onset and severity of kidney glomerulonephritis. There are both preclinical and clinical evidence that SLE patients may benefit from consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in fish oil, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we employed the NZBWF1 SLE mouse model to compare the effects of dietary lipids on the onset and severity of autoimmune glomerulonephritis after consuming: 1) n-3 PUFA-rich diet containing docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil (DFO), 2) n-6 PUFA-rich Western-type diet containing corn oil (CRN) or 3) n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich Mediterranean-type diet containing high oleic safflower oil (HOS). Elevated plasma autoantibodies, proteinuria and glomerulonephritis were evident in mice fed either the n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets, however, all three endpoints were markedly attenuated in mice that consumed the n-3 PUFA diet until 34 wk of age. A focused PCR array was used to relate these findings to the expression of 84 genes associated with CD4+ T cell function in the spleen and kidney both prior to and after the onset of the autoimmune nephritis. n-3 PUFA suppression of autoimmunity in NZBWF1 mice was found to co-occur with a generalized downregulation of CD4+ T cell-related genes in kidney and/or spleen at wk 34. These genes were associated with the inflammatory response, antigen presentation, T cell activation, B cell activation/differentiation and leukocyte recruitment. Quantitative RT-PCR of representative affected genes confirmed that n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with reduced expression of CD80, CTLA-4, IL-10, IL-18, CCL-5, CXCR3, IL-6, TNF-? and osteopontin mRNAs in kidney and/or spleens as compared to mice fed n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets. Remarkably, many of the genes identified in this study are currently under consideration as biomarkers and/or biotherapeutic targets for SLE and other autoimmune diseases. PMID:24945254

Pestka, James J; Vines, Laura L; Bates, Melissa A; He, Kaiyu; Langohr, Ingeborg

2014-01-01

42

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes  

OpenAIRE

Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of th...

Calder, Philip C.

2010-01-01

43

Retroconversion of docosapentaenoic acid (n-6): an alternative pathway for biosynthesis of arachidonic acid in Daphnia magna.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess metabolic pathways for arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) biosynthesis in Daphnia magna. Neonates of D. magna were maintained on [(13)C] enriched Scenedesmus obliquus and supplemented with liposomes that contained separate treatments of unlabeled docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6), 20:4n-6, linoleic acid (18:2n-6) or oleic acid (18:1n-9). Daphnia in the control treatment, without any supplementary fatty acids (FA) containing only trace amounts of 20:4n-6 (~0.3% of all FA). As expected, the highest proportion of 20:4n-6 (~6.3%) was detected in Daphnia that received liposomes supplemented with this FA. Higher availability of 18:2n-6 in the diet increased the proportion of 18:2n-6 in Daphnia, but the proportion of 20:4n-6 was not affected. Daphnia supplemented with 22:5n-6 contained ~3.5% 20:4n-6 in the lipids and FA specific stable isotope analyses validated that the increase in the proportion of 20:4n-6 was due to retroconversion of unlabeled 22:5n-6. These results suggest that chain shortening of 22:5n-6 is a more efficient pathway to synthesize 20:4n-6 in D. magna than elongation and desaturation of 18:2n-6. These results may at least partially explain the discrepancies noticed between phytoplankton FA composition and the expected FA composition in freshwater cladocerans. Finally, retroconversion of dietary 22:5n-6 to 20:4n-6 indicates Daphnia efficiently retain long chain n-6 FA in lake food webs, which might be important for the nutritional ecology of fish. PMID:24715497

Strandberg, Ursula; Taipale, Sami J; Kainz, Martin J; Brett, Michael T

2014-06-01

44

Plant fatty acid hydroxylases  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01

45

Fatty acid analogs  

Science.gov (United States)

In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

Elmaleh, David R. (Newton Center, MA); Livni, Eli (Brookline, MA)

1985-01-01

46

Essential-fatty acid supply of weanling piglets  

OpenAIRE

This thesis describes research on the essential-fatty acid supply of weanling piglets. Vertebrates require dietary sources of essential fatty acids. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) and a-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n-3) are considered the parent compounds of the n-6 and n-3 families of PUFAs, respectively. The products of desaturation and elongation arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4 n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n-3), are the precursors for eicosan...

Schellingerhout, Anneke Beatrix

2002-01-01

47

Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Essential fatty acids (EFA are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy.

Bill Lands

2012-09-01

48

Immunoglobulin and fatty acids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition. In particular it relates to the use of said composition as a feed and/or a food composition

Munk, Jens Kristian Technical University of Denmark,

49

ELOVL2 controls the level of n-6 28:5 and 30:5 fatty acids in testis, a prerequisite for male fertility and sperm maturation in mice  

OpenAIRE

ELOVL2 is a member of the mammalian microsomal ELOVL fatty acid enzyme family, involved in the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids including PUFAs required for various cellular functions in mammals. Here, we used ELOVL2-ablated (Elovl2?/?) mice to show that the PUFAs with 24–30 carbon atoms of the ?-6 family in testis are indispensable for normal sperm formation and fertility in male mice. The lack of Elovl2 was associated with a complete arrest of spermatogenesis, with seminifer...

Zadravec, Damir; Tvrdik, Petr; Guillou, Herve?; Haslam, Richard; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Napier, Johnathan A.; Capecchi, Mario R.; Jacobsson, Anders

2011-01-01

50

Fatty acid supply of growing pigs in Central Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

This thesis concerns the influence of essential dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and growth performance of growing pigs kept on samll holdings in Central Vietnam. Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the body and have to be ingested with the feed. There are two families of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that cannot be metabolically interconverted. Linoleic acid (LA; C18:2 n-6) is the parent compound of the n-6 PUFAs and aleph-linolen...

Nguyen, Linh Quang

2002-01-01

51

Trans Fatty Acids  

Science.gov (United States)

Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

Doyle, Ellin

1997-09-01

52

Changes in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids during lipid-peroxidation of mitochondria obtained from rat liver and several brain regions: effect of alpha-tocopherol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of intraperitoneal administration of alpha-tocopherol (100 mg/kg weight/24 h) on ascorbate (0-0.4 mM) induced lipid peroxidation of mitochondria isolated from rat liver, cerebral hemispheres, brain stem and cerebellum was examined. The ascorbate induced light emission in hepatic mitochondria was nearly completely inhibited by alpha-tocopherol (control-group: 114.32+/-14.4; vitamin E-group: 17.45+/-2.84, c.p.m.x10(-4)). In brain mitochondria, 0.2 mM ascorbate produced the maximal chemiluminescence and significant differences among both groups were not observed. No significant differences in the chemiluminescence values between control and vitamin E treated groups were observed when the three brain regions were compared. The light emission produced by mitochondrial preparations was much higher in cerebral hemispheres than in brain stem and cerebellum. In liver and brain mitochondria from control group, the level of arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3) was profoundly affected. Docosahexaenoic in liver mitochondria from vitamin E group decreased by 30% upon treatment with ascorbic acid when compared with mitochondria lacking ascorbic acid. As a consequence of vitamin E treatment, a significant increase of C22:6n3 was detected in rat liver mitochondria (control-group: 6.42 +/-0.12; vitamin E-group: 10.52 +/-0.46). Ratios of the alpha-tocopherol concentrations in mitochondria from rats receiving vitamin E to those of control rats were as follows: liver, 7.79; cerebral hemispheres, 0.81; brain stem, 0.95; cerebellum, 1.05. In liver mitochondria, vitamin E shows a protector effect on oxidative damage. In addition, vitamin E concentration can be increased in hepatic but not in brain mitochondria. Lipid peroxidation mainly affected, arachidonic (C20:4n6) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6n3) acids. PMID:10913231

Zanetti, R; Catalá, A

2000-06-01

53

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

Philip C. Calder

2010-03-01

54

Apparent relative retention of the phosphatidylethanolamine molecular species 18:0-20:5(n-3), 16:0-22:6(n-3) and the sum 16:0-20:4(n-6) plus 16:0-20:3(n-9) in the liver microsomes of pig on an essential fatty acid deficient diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts at a better understanding of the cell membrane organization and functioning need to assess the physical properties which partly depend (i) on the positional distribution of the fatty acids in the membrane phospholipids (PLs) and (ii) on the way by which the PL molecular species are affected by exogenous fatty acids. To do that, the effects of essential (polyunsaturated) fatty acid (EFA) deficiency and enrichment were studied in the liver microsomes of piglets feeding on either an EFA-deficient diet or an EFA-enriched diet containing hydrogenated coconut oil or a mixture of soya + corn oils, respectively. After derivatization, the diacylated forms of choline and ethanolamine PLs were analyzed using a combination of chromatographic techniques and fast-atom bombardment-mass spectrometry. The dinitrobenzoyl-diacylglycerol derivatives corresponding to the molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were identified. It appears that three factors brought about a marked apparent relative retention: the nature of (i) the base of the polar head, (ii) fatty acids at the sn-1 position and (iii) fatty acids at the sn-2 position. The highest apparent relative retentions were displayed by the 18:0-20:5(n-3)-PE and 16:0-22:6(n-3)-PE. It is noteworthy that the behavior of 20:3 n-9--which is synthesized during the EFA-deficient diet by the same bioconversion system as 20:4 n-6--was very similar to that of 20:4 n-6 during the formation of PC and PE molecular species and that the molecular species of PE containing 20:4(n-6) and 20:3(n-9), gathered together as metabolical homologues, were also apparently retained, particularly in association with 16:0. Present observations are consistent with some others showing retention or preferential distribution of EFA in PE and suggest that specific acyltransferase(s), ethanolamine phosphotransferase and methyltransferase would be mainly involved for PE and PC formation in liver endoplasmic reticulum. Fast-atom bombardment-mass spectrometry of intact phospholipids enables us to show that there is no very long chain dipolyunsaturated phospholipid in liver endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:1730045

Menguy, L; Christon, R; Van Dorsselaer, A; Léger, C L

1992-01-01

55

Discovery of essential fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

Spector, Arthur A; Kim, Hee-Yong

2015-01-01

56

Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipids and in the Central and External Positions of Triacylglycerol in Muscle and Subcutaneous Fat of Beef Steers Fed Diets Supplemented with Oil Containing n6 and n3 Fatty Acids While Undergoing One of Three 48?h Feed Withdrawal Treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine the effects of dietary oil and feed withdrawal treatments on fatty acid composition of phospholipids of triacylglycerol in pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle and subcutaneous fat from the brisket. A 2 × 3 factorial experiment was conducted with crossbred steers with an initial body weight of 280.5 ± 5.8?kg. Steers were fed either a control or an oil containing diet where 5% of the control diet was replaced with an equal mixture sunflower and flax oil while undergoing one of three feed withdrawal treatments: no withdrawal, a single 48?h withdrawal before initiation of fattening at one year of age, or 48?h withdrawal at 8?wk intervals from weaning to initiation of fattening. At time of processing samples of muscle and fat were obtained and analyzed to determine fatty acid composition. Disproportionate distribution of the fatty acids was observed by diet, feed withdrawal regimen and whether the sample was from muscle or fat. Differences are discussed in detail, and our data suggests a special function for the fatty acids that accumulate in specific positions of the triacylglycerol due to treatment. PMID:22900190

Margetak, C; Travis, G; Entz, T; Mir, P S; Wei, S; Dodson, M V

2012-01-01

57

Role of fatty acids in malignancy and visual impairment, Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies  

OpenAIRE

International variation in breast and colon cancer incidence is positively related to total fat intake. However, total fat consists of different fatty acid families, e.g., saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies suggest that these fatty acid families have different effects on breast and colon carcinogenesis. Therefore the action of each fatt...

Tsubura, A.; Yuri, T.; Yoshizawa, K.; Uehara, N.; Takada, H.

2009-01-01

58

Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

Ivan?ica Delaš

2005-04-01

59

Fatty acids profiles of some Spanish wild vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in human nutrition, being associated with several health benefits. The analyzed vegetables, in spite of its low fat content, lower than 2%, present a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3, n-6 and n-9 series, such as ?-linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids, respectively. Wild edible plants contain in general a good balance of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The present study tries to contribute to the preservation and valorization of traditional food resources, studying the fatty acids profile of 20 wild vegetables by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection. Results show that species in which leaves are predominant in their edible parts have in general the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios: Rumex pulcher (5.44), Cichorium intybus (5.14) and Papaver rhoeas (5.00). Due to the low n-6/n-3 ratios of the majority of the samples, they can be considered interesting sources of n-3 fatty acids, especially those with higher total fat amount, such as Bryonia dioica, Chondrilla juncea or Montia fontana, with the highest contents of ?-linolenic acid (67.78, 56.27 and 47.65%, respectively). The wild asparaguses of Asparagus acutifolius and Tamus communis stand out for their linoleic acid content (42.29 and 42.45%, respectively). All these features reinforce the interest of including wild plants in diet, as an alternative to the variety of vegetables normally used. PMID:22701061

Morales, P; Ferreira, I C F R; Carvalho, A M; Sánchez-Mata, M C; Cámara, M; Tardío, J

2012-06-01

60

Improving the fatty acid profile of fairy shrimp, Streptocephalus dichotomus, using a lipid emulsion rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids are the largest component of lipids and have become a useful tool in the determination of live feeds to a variety of cultured species. Bioencapsulation is a technique which allows high-level incorporation of desired components (i.e., fatty acids, vitamins, antibiotics, etc.) in live feeds, which in turn can be supplemented to the consumer organisms. The procedure described in the present study serves as a platform of technology for enriching the Streptocephalus dichotomus. Uptake of two enrichment diets (ALGAMAC2000 and DHA-SELCO) by adult S. dichotomus was investigated. The fatty acid profile supports the hypothesis that the enrichment diet increases the level of essential fatty acids, such as linolic, linolenic, eicosapentenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids. The average content (percent of total fatty acids detected) of the enriched organism by different highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) products were as follows: ALGAMAC2000 showed 14-22% saturated fatty acid (SFA), 17-18% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), 28-41% polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), 23-34% n-3, and 4.9-7.5% n-6, whereas DHA-SELCO showed about 20-23% SFA, 20-26% MUFA, 38% PUFA, 28-31% n-3, and 7.5-10% n-6. Our present investigation proves that both HUFA-rich diets appear to be an appropriate enrichment diet, and further provides an additional rationale for using fairy shrimp as a maturation diet for any cultivable freshwater organism. PMID:15537314

Velu, Chinavenmeni S; Munuswamy, Natesan

2004-11-17

61

Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipids and in the Central and External Positions of Triacylglycerol in Muscle and Subcutaneous Fat of Beef Steers Fed Diets Supplemented with Oil Containing n6 and n3 Fatty Acids While Undergoing One of Three 48?h Feed Withdrawal Treatments  

OpenAIRE

This study was designed to determine the effects of dietary oil and feed withdrawal treatments on fatty acid composition of phospholipids of triacylglycerol in pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle and subcutaneous fat from the brisket. A 2 × 3 factorial experiment was conducted with crossbred steers with an initial body weight of 280.5 ± 5.8?kg. Steers were fed either a control or an oil containing diet where 5% of the control diet was replaced with an equal mixture sunflower and flax oil w...

Margetak, C.; Travis, G.; Entz, T.; Mir, P. S.; Wei, S.; Dodson, M. V.

2012-01-01

62

Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. PMID:25577101

Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

2015-05-15

63

Human requirement for N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diet of our ancestors was less dense in calories, being higher in fiber, rich in fruits, vegetables, lean meat, and fish. As a result, the diet was lower in total fat and saturated fat, but contained equal amounts of n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids. Linoleic acid (LA) is the major n-6 fatty acid, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the major n-3 fatty acid. In the body, LA is metabolized to arachidonic acid (AA), and ALA is metabolized to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The ratio of n-6 to n-3 essential fatty acids was 1 to 2:1 with higher levels of the longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as EPA, DHA, and AA, than today's diet. Today this ratio is about 10 to 1:20 to 25 to 1, indicating that Western diets are deficient in n-3 fatty acids compared with the diet on which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established. The n-3 and n-6 EPA are not interconvertible in the human body and are important components of practically all cell membranes. The N-6 and n-3 fatty acids influence eicosanoid metabolism, gene expression, and intercellular cell-to-cell communication. The PUFA composition of cell membranes is, to a great extent, dependent on dietary intake. Therefore, appropriate amounts of dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids need to be considered in making dietary recommendations. These two classes of PUFA should be distinguished because they are metabolically and functionally distinct and have opposing physiological functions; their balance is important for homeostasis and normal development. Studies with nonhuman primates and human newborns indicate that DHA is essential for the normal functional development of the retina and brain, particularly in premature infants. A balanced n-6/n-3 ratio in the diet is essential for normal growth and development and should lead to decreases in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases and improve mental health. Although a recommended dietary allowance for essential fatty acids does not exist, an adequate intake (AI) has been estimated for n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids by an international scientific working group. For Western societies, it will be necessary to decrease the intake of n-6 fatty acids and increase the intake of n-3 fatty acids. The food industry is already taking steps to return n-3 essential fatty acids to the food supply by enriching various foods with n-3 fatty acids. To obtain the recommended AI, it will be necessary to consider the issues involved in enriching the food supply with n-3 PUFA in terms of dosage, safety, and sources of n-3 fatty acids. PMID:10901194

Simopoulos, A P

2000-07-01

64

Depression and long chain n-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue in adults from Crete  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Only one study has investigated the relationship of essential fatty acids in the adipose tissue with depression in adults and suggested an inverse relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) (DHA) and depression. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between adipose tissue polyunsaturated fatty acids especially n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, an index of long-term or habitual fatty acid intake, and depression in adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of healthy adults from the islan...

Mamalakis, G.; Kalogeropoulos, N.; Andrikopoulos, N.; Hatzis, C.; Kromhout, D.; Moschandreas, J.; Kafatos, A.

2006-01-01

65

Effects of Parental Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake on Offspring Microbiome and Immunity  

OpenAIRE

The “Western diet” is characterized by increased intake of saturated and omega-6 (n?6) fatty acids with a relative reduction in omega-3 (n?3) consumption. These fatty acids can directly and indirectly modulate the gut microbiome, resulting in altered host immunity. Omega-3 fatty acids can also directly modulate immunity through alterations in the phospholipid membranes of immune cells, inhibition of n?6 induced inflammation, down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, and...

Myles, Ian A.; Pincus, Nathan B.; Fontecilla, Natalia M.; Datta, Sandip K.

2014-01-01

66

Fatty acid-producing hosts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

2013-12-31

67

Effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and fertilizing ability of fowl semen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Broiler breeder roosters received two diets, containing either 5% salmon oil (SO) or 5% corn oil (CO). The diets differed essentially in their polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition, with n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios of 41.6 in SO and 1.5 in CO. The effects of these diets on the fatty acid composition of spermatozoa and seminal plasma, and on fertility evaluated after artificial insemination were observed. Whatever the diet, the fatty acid composition of spermatozoa showed notable amounts of 20:4n-6 (5-9%) and 22:4n-6 (15-21%). These essential fatty acids were not detected in the diets and were synthesized from 18:2n-6, which was abundant in the diet (15-16%) but low in spermatozoa (2-3%). Spermatozoa were also very rich in saturated fatty acids (39%). There was a clear influence of dietary lipids on the spermatozoa fatty acid profile: the proportion of n-3 fatty acids in spermatozoa from males fed SO compared to CO was higher (9.6% vs. 4.3%) and that of n-6 fatty acids was lower (22.4% vs. 33.3%). The fatty acid composition of seminal plasma included a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids (49%) than the proportion in spermatozoa, whereas minor fatty acids (14:0, 16:1n-7, 16:1n-9, 22:5n-3) were not detected. The influence of dietary lipids on the seminal plasma fatty acid profile was the same as for the spermatozoa, especially in the PUFA profile. In addition, the SO diet gave significantly higher fertility rates (96%) than the CO diet (91.6%). These results clearly show that the lipid composition of the diet may modify the fatty acid composition of the semen and its fertilizing ability. PMID:9160721

Blesbois, E; Lessire, M; Grasseau, I; Hallouis, J M; Hermier, D

1997-05-01

68

Increase of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Thraustochytrids through Thraustochytrid Ubiquitin Promoter-Driven Expression of a Fatty Acid ?5 Desaturase Gene?†  

OpenAIRE

Thraustochytrids, marine protists known to accumulate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in lipid droplets, are considered an alternative to fish oils as a source of PUFAs. The major fatty acids produced in thraustochytrids are palmitic acid (C16:0), n ? 6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (C22:5n ? 6), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6n ? 3), with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5n ? 3) and arachidonic acid (AA) (C20:4n ? 6) as minor constituents. We attempted here to alter the fat...

Kobayashi, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Matsuda, Takanori; Abe, Eriko; Hama, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Masahiro; Honda, Daiske; Okita, Yuji; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

2011-01-01

69

Fatty acid profile of plasma and liver lipids in mice depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering the numerous features of the metabolic syndrome found in rats depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids and in the perspective of further work conducted in (n-3)-depleted mice, the fatty acid profile of plasma and liver lipids was assessed in both male and female control and second-generation (n-3)-depleted mice. In addition to gender differences, the major alteration found in the (n-3)-depleted animals consisted in the expected severe depletion of plasma triacylglycerols and phospholipids, as well as liver phospholipids, in C20:5(n-3), C22:5(n-3) and C22:6(n-3). In plasma triacylglycerols, the weight percentages of C18:2(n-6) and C18:3(n-6) were lower in (n-3)-depleted mice than in control animals. In both plasma and liver phospholipids, however, the weight percentages of long-chain polyunsaturated (n-6) fatty acids (C20:4(n-6) and C22:4(n-6)) were higher in (n-3)-depleted mice than in control animals. The C16:1(n-7)/C16:0 and C18:1(n-9)/C18:0 ratio in both plasma and liver phospholipids were also increased in female (n-3)-depleted mice but not so in male animals. Highly significant correlations were found between the weight percentage of each fatty acid in liver versus plasma phospholipids. Taken as a whole, these findings indicate that second-generation mice depleted in (n-3) fatty acids represent a suitable model, in terms of the remodelling of the fatty acid profile in plasma and liver lipids, to investigate the metabolic and functional consequences of such a depletion. PMID:18813865

Peltier, Sebastien; Portois, Laurence; Malaisse, Willy J; Carpentier, Yvon A

2008-10-01

70

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children

Tetens, Inge

2010-01-01

71

21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food additive meets the following...

2010-04-01

72

Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis and Elongation  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid elongation are two parts of a critically important pathway in plants. The endproducts are essential components of cell membranes, waxes, and suberin. Two chemical families of herbicide (groups that share similar chemical structures) inhibit fatty acid synthesis, while fatty acid elongation is inhibited by two other families. This lesson will provide an overview of fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and explain where herbicides inhibit the pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to these herbicides will be described.

73

Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children.

Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte

2012-01-01

74

Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an infant´s daily energy needs and provide a supply of fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. The characteristics of milk lipids are largely determined by their fatty acid composition. In this work the general characteristics of breast milk and milk lipids, as well as the influence of maternal diet on composition of fatty acids in breast milk, are discussed. Breast milk provides all dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n-6 and ?-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, as well as their longer-chain more-unsaturated metabolites, including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular importance in visual and neural development, and their content in milk is a reflection of the mother´s current and long-term dietary intake. A positive association has been established between the maternal intake of fish and seafood and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid in milk. Numerous researches have been shown that supplementation with docosahexaenoic acids during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation significantly increases the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk.

Mihela Dujmovi?

2013-08-01

75

Product Fat-1 Transgenic Simmental Crossbred Cattle Endogenously Synthesizing Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using OSM  

OpenAIRE

Meat products normally contain low omega-3 fatty acids and high ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may contribute to the prevalence of many diseases. In order to obtained in such beef with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids will be more healthy to meet people’s diet, researchers generated the fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans c fat-1 gene encoding an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the gene is ab...

Song-Jia Lai; Jian Wang; Xiao-Mao Guo; Wei Wang,

2012-01-01

76

Patients with anorexia nervosa demonstrate deficiencies of selected essential fatty acids, compensatory changes in nonessential fatty acids and decreased fluidity of plasma lipids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the essential fatty acid status of patients with anorexia nervosa. Blood was collected from eight fasting female anorexia nervosa patients with a mean of 81% ideal body weight. Fatty acid composition of phospholipids, nonesterified fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesteryl esters of plasma were determined by capillary gas chromatography to indicate polyunsaturated fatty acids status compared with 19 healthy female adults fatty acid deficiencies in plasma phospholipids different from simple nutritional essential fatty acid deficiency or chronic malnutrition. The phospholipid profile showed significantly lower (n-6) and (n-3) elongation and desaturation products, and elevated short-chain saturated, short-chain monounsaturated, branched-chain and odd-chain fatty acids. These elevations indicate enhancement of biosynthesis of alternative fatty acids that only partially compensated for the loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids in providing membrane "fluidity." Calculated mean melting point of the fatty acids of phospholipids in patients with anorexia nervosa was elevated 7.7 degrees C above normal values. These results demonstrate that patients with anorexia nervosa have deficiencies of selected essential fatty acids, compensatory changes in nonessential fatty acids and decreased fluidity of plasma lipids. PMID:7722693

Holman, R T; Adams, C E; Nelson, R A; Grater, S J; Jaskiewicz, J A; Johnson, S B; Erdman, J W

1995-04-01

77

The quality properties and saturated and unsaturated fatty acid profiles of quail egg: the alterations of fatty acids with process effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nutritional composition (moisture, ash, crude protein, available carbohydrates, total lipids), energy value, some quality characteristics (yolk weight, albumen weight and shell weight), cholesterol level and fatty acid profiles of quail egg were determined (pquail egg was higher than laying hen's egg. The fatty acid composition of quail egg yolk consisted of 24 fatty acids including saturated fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, C20:0, C22:0, C24:0), monounsaturated fatty acids (C15:1, C16:1, C17:1, C18:1n9, C18:1n7, C22:1n9, C24:1) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (C18:2n6t , C18:2n6c , C18:3n6, C18:3n3, C20:2, C20:3n6, C20:3n3, C20:4n6, C22:2, C20:5n3, C22:6n3). The total cholesterol level of quail egg was found to be 73.45+/-1.07 mg/100 g. Linoleic acid (C18:2n6c) (10.28%), arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) (1.92%) and cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3) (0.63%) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fatty acid content of quail egg yolk, whereas oleic acid (C18:1n9c) was the major monounsaturated fatty acid comprising 26.71% in the yolk. The palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) levels were 16.62% and 6.89%, respectively. Total omega-3 was detected as 1.16% in raw egg whereas it was 0.82% in soft-boiled (rafadan) egg. The polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid proportion was 0.58 and 0.64 for raw and processed yolk, respectively. PMID:17162332

Toku?o?lu, Ozlem

2006-01-01

78

Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficie [...] ntly expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

Meilan, Xue; Yinlin, Ge; Jinyu, Zhang; Qing, Wang; Lin, Hou.

1141-11-01

79

Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

Meilan Xue

2012-12-01

80

Enzymatic purification of polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have various physiological functions. Of these, ethyl eicosapentaenoate is industrially purified and used as a medicine. Other PUFAs, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), and arachidonic acid (AA), are also expected to be used as pharmaceutical agents; however, their industrial purification processes have not been established. Because PUFAs are highly unstable against heat and oxidation, we attempted to purify them by taking advantage of their enzymatic reactions. When free fatty acids (FFAs) originating from PUFA-containing oil were selectively esterified with lauryl alcohol (LauOH) using a lipase acting on a desired PUFA very weakly, the PUFA was efficiently enriched in the FFA fraction. In addition, when selective alcoholysis of ethyl esters originating from PUFA-containing oil with LauOH was carried out, the PUFA ethyl ester (EtPUFA) was enriched to a desired purity in the unreacted ethyl ester fraction. These reaction mixtures contain LauOH, PUFA (EtPUFA), and lauryl esters, and their molecular weights are different from one another. Hence, PUFA or EtPUFA can be easily separated by conventional distillation. Selective esterification increased the purity of DHA, GLA, and n-6 PUFAs rich in AA to 91, 98, and 96 wt%, respectively. Selective alcoholysis was also effective for increasing the purity of ethyl docosahexaenoate to 90 wt%. PMID:16233035

Shimada, Y; Sugihara, A; Tominaga, Y

2001-01-01

81

A simplified method for analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of fatty acid composition of biological materials is a common task in lipid research. Conventionally, preparation of samples for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography involves two separate procedures: lipid extraction and methylation. This conventional method is complicated, tedious and time consuming. Development of a rapid and simple method for lipid analysis is warranted. Results We simplified the conventional method by combining the extraction and methylation into a single step (omitting the procedure of prior extraction. Various biological samples including cultured cells, animal tissues and human specimens have been tested using the new method. Statistical analysis indicates that the recovery of long chain fatty acids from tissue samples by the simplified method is significantly higher than that by the traditional method, but there is no difference in relative fatty acid composition between the two methods. This simplified method can significantly save time and materials, and reduce the potentials of sample loss and contamination. Conclusion The lipid extraction procedure prior to methylation employed conventionally in lipid analysis can be omitted without affecting the recovery of long chain (? 18 C fatty acids and their composition. The simplified method is rapid, easy-to-use, suitable for analysis of total long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (e.g. n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in various biological samples, especially when the number of samples to be analyzed is large and/or the specimen size is small.

Wang Jingdong

2005-03-01

82

[Unsaturated fatty acids intake and breast cancer risk: epidemiological data review  

OpenAIRE

The relationship between fatty acids and breast cancer has been debated for long, because of the high frequency of breast cancer and the contradictory results from the numerous studies devoted to this issue. The present review includes case-control and prospective studies, according to specified methodological criteria, which estimated the exposure to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) using dietary questionnaires or markers (plasma, erythroc...

Thie?baut, Anne; Chaje?s, Ve?ronique; Clavel-chapelon, Franc?oise; Gerber, Mariette

2005-01-01

83

Regulation of Elovl and fatty acid metabolism  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acids are important regulators in the control of mammalian energy homeostasis. They are ingested in the diet but a significant amount are also endogenously produced by de novo lipogenesis. Fatty acid elongation beyond 16 carbons (palmitic acid) can occur to generate very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), a process that is initiated by the rate-limiting condensation reaction. To date, six mammalian enzymes responsible for this reaction, ELOVL1-6 (Elongation of very long chain fatty acid), ...

Brolinson, Annelie

2009-01-01

84

Dietary lipids and forages interactions on cow and goat milk fatty acid composition and sensory properties  

OpenAIRE

This review summarises the known effects of dietary factors on bovine and caprine milk fatty acid composition, as well as the regulation of cow and goat mammary lipid secretion. Special attention is given to fatty acids that could play a role for human health, such as saturated fatty acids, oleic acid, n-6- or n-3-C18 to C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans isomers of C18:1 and C18:2, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The main dietary factors taken into account are the nature o...

Chilliard, Yves; Ferlay, Anne

2004-01-01

85

Genotype, production system and sex effects on fatty acid composition of meat from goat kids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P?>?0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase. PMID:25186278

Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Ak?n; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Sava?, Türker

2015-02-01

86

Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

SHARE WITH WOMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your baby gets most of his or her food from the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important family ...

87

Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis  

OpenAIRE

Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus america...

Beltz, Barbara S.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Benton, Jeannie L.; Sandeman, David C.

2007-01-01

88

Simulation of Palm based Fatty Acids Distillation  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acids have long been recognized for their commercial value in the absence of glycerol. Chemicals derived from fatty acids are widely used in the formulation of detergents, lubricant, surfactants and in pharmaceutical industries. In addition, fatty acids also play a vital role in human metabolism and are widely used as catalyst in some chemical reactions. Commercially produced fatty acids are derived from naturally occurring fats and oils through the process of hydrolysis. Most of these ...

Chin Peng Jiun; Oh Pin Pin; Awang Bono

2010-01-01

89

Analysis of Fatty Acids from Gentiana olivieri  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The plants of Gentiana olivieri collected from Hazar Ganji, Quetta, were analysed for their fatty acid composition. The acids were converted into methyl esters and identified by Gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which revealed the presence of pentadecanoic, hexadecanoic, heptadecanoic, octadecenoic and nonadecanoic acid. The only unsaturated fatty acid found was heptadecatrienoic acid.

Arsala Mansoor

1999-01-01

90

Proximate Composition and Fatty Acids Profile in Oleaginous Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty acids were quantified in oleaginous seeds: pistachio, almonds, European nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, pecan nuts, and macadamia nuts. Three brands of each sample were purchased in three lots (n = 9. The proximate composition, energetic value, and fatty acids (FA were determined by gas chromatography. All seeds had large amounts of total lipids and the highest contents (ca. 70% were found in macadamia, pecan, and European nuts. The samples had significant amounts of crude protein. Pistachio and cashew nuts had the greatest amount (ca. 20%, as well as the largest carbohydrate contents (32%. All seeds were rather energetic, ranging from 600 to 760 Kcal.g-1. From seven to nine FA were identified and quantified, oleic (n-9 and linoleic (n-6 acids were the major acids. Essential fatty acid a-linolenic (n-3 was found in European nuts (except pistachio with an n-6/n-3 ratio (4:1 that is very beneficial to health. Trans FA were also observed in salted roasted cashew nuts. The major saturated FA (SFA was palmitic, stearic, and arachidonic acids, however, their amounts were much lower than those of polyunsaturated acids (PUFA and monounsaturated acids (MUFA. European nuts had the greatest PUFA/SFA ratio (9, followed by almonds (3.6.

Angela Claudia Rodrigues

2012-11-01

91

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2000-01-01

92

Multi-targeted Therapy of Cancer by Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

OpenAIRE

Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids necessary for human health. Currently, the Western diet contains a disproportionally high amount of n-6 PUFAs and low amount of n-3 PUFAs, and the resulting high n-6/n-3 ratio is thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. Studies in human populations have linked high consumption of fish or fish oil to reduced risk of colon, prostate and breast cancer, although other st...

Berquin, Isabelle M.; Edwards, Iris J.; Chen, Yong Q.

2008-01-01

93

Propylenated fatty acids as emulsifiers  

OpenAIRE

Hydroxy propylenyl stéarate, palmitate, laurate, oléate and linoleate were prepared by reaction of propylene oxide with fatty acid at 160 °C for five hours stirring in presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. Physico-chemical properties of the five products, regarding their use as emulsifiers, were determined.

Se prepararon estearato, palmitato, laurato, oleato y linoleato de hidroxipropilenilos mediante reacción de oxido de propileno con ácido graso a 160 °C du...

El-shattory, Y.; Aly, Saadia M.; Megahed, M. G.

1999-01-01

94

Fungitoxicity of fatty acids against dermatophytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten saturated and three unsaturated fatty acids over a wide spectrum of their carbon chain length were tested for their fungitoxicity against five dermatophytes. The experiments showed that short chain saturated fatty acids (C 7:0-C 11:0) are more toxic to dermatophytes than long chain ones (> C 12:0). The antifungal activity decreases with increasing carbon chain length in the even-numbered carbon chain series. Odd-numbered carbon fatty acids show irregularities in these respects. Undecanoic acid (C 11:0) is outstandingly most toxic in the C 7:0-C 18:0 series. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are more toxic than their corresponding saturated acids. The per cent growth inhibition decreased from day 4 to day 12 at all concentrations suggesting the degradation and/or utilization of fatty acids by the fungi during the observation period. The results are discussed on the background of the biochemistry of fatty acids. PMID:8316262

Garg, A P; Müller, J

1993-01-01

95

Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Training improves insulin sensitivity, which in turn may affect performance by modulation of fuel availability. Insulin action, in turn, has been linked to specific patterns of muscle structural lipids in skeletal muscle. This study investigated whether regular exercise training exerts an effect on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P <0.05). The ratio between n-6 and n-3 fatty acids was significantly lower in the trained (11.1 +/- 0.9) than the untrained leg (13.1 +/- 1.2, P <0.05). In contrast, training did not affect muscle triacylglycerol fatty acid composition. Citrate synthase activity was increased by 17% in the trained compared with the untrained leg (P <0.05). In this model, diet plays a minimal role, as the influence of dietary intake is similar on both legs. Regular exercise training per se influences the phospholipid fatty acid composition of muscle membranes but has no effect on the composition of fatty acids stored in triacylglycerols within the muscle.

Helge, JØrn Wulff; Wu, B J

2001-01-01

96

Fatty acid composition of frequently consumed foods in Turkey with special emphasis on trans fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid compositions of frequently consumed foods in Turkey were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with particular emphasis on trans fatty acids. The survey was carried out on 134 samples that were categorized as meat products, chocolates, bakery products and others. The meat products except chicken-based foods have trans fatty acids, arising as a result of ruminant activity, with an average content of 1.45 g/100 g fatty acids. The conjugated linoleic acid content of meat and chicken doner kebabs were found higher than other meat products. Chocolate samples contained trans fatty acids less than 0.17 g/100 g fatty acids, with the exceptional national product of chocolate bars and hazelnut cocoa cream (2.03 and 3.68 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). Bakery products have the highest trans fatty acid contents and ranged from 0.99 to 17.77 g/100 g fatty acids. The average trans fatty acid contents of infant formula and ice-cream, which are milk-based products, were 0.79 and 1.50 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively. Among the analyzed foods, it was found that coffee whitener and powdered whipped topping had the highest saturated fatty acid contents, with an average content of 98.71 g/100 g fatty acids. PMID:17852509

Karabulut, Ihsan

2007-12-01

97

Selective incorporation of various C-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three 14C-labeled 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, 7,10,13,16-[14C]docosatetraenoic acid (22:4(n-6)), 7,10,13,16,19-[14C]docosapentaenoic acid (22:5(n-3)), and 4,7,10,13,16,19-[14C]docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)), were compared with [3H]arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6] and [14C]linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)) to characterize their incorporation into the lipids of Ehrlich ascites cells. The relatively rapid incorporation of the labeled 22-carbon acids into phosphatidic acid indicated that substantial amounts of these acids may be incorporated through the de novo pathway of phospholipid synthesis. In marked contrast to 20:4(n-6), the 22-carbon acids were incorporated much less into choline glycerophospholipids (CGP) and inositol glycerophospholipids (IGP). No selective preference was apparent for the (n-3) or (n-6) type of fatty acids. The amounts of the acids incorporated into diacylglycerophosphoethanolamine were in the order of: 22:6(n-3) greater than 20:4(n-6) much greater than 22:5(n-3) greater than or equal to 22:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6), whereas for alkylacylglycerophosphoethanolamine they were in the order of: 22:4(n-6) greater than 22:6(n-3) greater than 22:5(n-3) much greater than 20:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6). Of the mechanisms possibly responsible for the selective entry of 22-carbon acids into ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, the most reasonable explanation was that the cytidine-mediated ethanolamn was that the cytidine-mediated ethanolamine phosphotransferase may have a unique double selectivity: for hexaenoic species of diacylglycerol and for 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing species of alkylacylglycerol. The relative distribution of fatty acids between newly incorporated and already maintained lipid classes suggested that IGP may function in Ehrlich cells as an intermediate pool for the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acids in glycerolipids

98

Plasma Fatty Acid Profile of Gestating Ewes Supplemented with Fishmeal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (>18C cannot be adequately synthesized by ruminant tissues to meet their requirements; therefore, their concentration in body depends on the supply through feed. It may be possible to improve the essential fatty acid status of ruminant animals, during gestation by manipulating the maternal diet with Fishmeal (FM. The objectives of this research were to (1 determine the effect of fishmeal supplementation on the plasma fatty acid profile of ewes during late gestation and (2 determine the status of the plasma docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 of lambs born to these ewes. Approach: Eight gestating ewes [Rideau-Arcott, 97±5 kg initial body weight, 100 days of gestation] were used in a completely randomized design. Ewes were individually-housed and fed either a control diet (supplemented with soybean meal or a fishmeal supplemented diet. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture for plasma fatty acids analysis on 100, 114, 128 and 142 days of â??gestationâ?. Blood samples from the lambs were also collected via jugular venipuncture immediately after birth and before receiving their mothersâ?? colostrum. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The ewes from both groups, i.e., control and fishmeal supplemented, had a similar fatty acid profile prior to supplementation (at 100 days, p>0.05. Thereafter, there was an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid, total n3-PUFA and total very long chain n3-PUFA (>C18 contents in plasma for the fishmeal supplemented ewes compared to the control (p0.05 in total saturated fatty acids, total monounsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid, total trans-18:1, total cis-18:1, or total n6-PUFA contents in ewe plasma between control and fishmeal supplemented groups. Lambs born to ewes fed the fishmeal supplemented diet had greater (pConclusion: The ewes supplemented with fishmeal supplementation showed a positive response with the enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and total very long chain n3-PUFA in plasma during gestation and these fatty acids were transferred to the fetus as well.

Mamun M. Or-Rashid

2012-01-01

99

Fatty acid profile of traditional soymilk  

OpenAIRE

Soymilk is a water extract of soybeans, closely resembling dairy milk in physical appearance and composition. Most fatty acids in soybean and its derivates are unsaturated, and therefore susceptible to oxidation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of the thermal conditions during the elaboration process of soymilk on its fatty acid profile. For this, the fatty acid composition of soymilk, okara (soymilk residue), and soybean were studied by gas chromatography with flame...

Pen?alvo, Jose? Luis; Castilho, M. Conc?eica?o; Silveira, M. Irene N.; Matallana, M. Cruz; Torija, M. Esperanza

2004-01-01

100

Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Obesity  

OpenAIRE

While low levels of unesterified long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are normal metabolic intermediates of dietary and endogenous fat, LCFAs are also potent regulators of key receptors/enzymes, and at high levels become toxic detergents within the cell. Elevated levels of LCFAs are associated with diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mammals evolved fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that bind/sequester these potentially toxic free fatty acids in the cytosol and present them f...

Atshaves, B. P.; Martin, G. G.; Hostetler, H. A.; Mcintosh, A. L.; Kier, A. B.; Schroeder, F.

2010-01-01

101

Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of three Mediterranean cephalopods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in three commercially important cephalopods of the Mediterranean sea (cuttlefish, octopus and squid) were determined. The results of the proximate analysis showed that these species had very high protein:fat ratios similar to lean beef. Docosahexaenoic, palmitic and eicosipentaenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids among analyzed species. The amount of n-3 fatty acids was higher than that of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 fatty acids. Despite the fact that cephalopods contain small amounts of fat they were found quite rich in n-3 fatty acids. Finally, PDCAAS indicated that these organisms had a very good protein quality. PMID:17009215

Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Feist, Christian; Sagredos, Angelos

2006-10-01

102

Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition 1,2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Home parenteral nutrition (HPN), initiated in patients with severe malabsorption or decreased oral intake, may exhaust stores of essential fatty acids and cause clinical manifestations, mainly dermatitis. Plasma fatty acid profiles were measured by gas-liquid chromatography in 37 healthy control subjects and 56 patients receiving HPN. The concentration (% by wt of total fatty acids) of 18:2n-6 was 22.8% and 11.4% (P 200 cm of remaining small intestine, those receiving parenteral lipids had only minor changes in the fatty acids of plasma phospholipids compared with patients not receiving parenteral lipids. In patients with < 100 cm of remaining small intestine, those receiving parenteral lipids had increased concentrations of total n-6 fatty acids; however, these did not reach the concentrations in control subjects. No differences were seen in n-3 fatty acids. Twenty-five of the 56 patients receiving HPN reported skin problems. No differences were found in plasma phospholipid fatty acids, Holman index, or the supply of parenteral lipids between patients with and without skin problems. Patients receiving HPN had biochemical signs of EFAD. Parenteral lipids did not increase the concentration of essential fatty acids to values comparable with those of control subjects, but 500 mt 20% Intralipid once a week was sufficient to prevent an increase in the Holman index above 0.2.

Jeppesen, P. B.; HØy, Carl-Erik

1998-01-01

103

Different impacts of short-chain fatty acids on saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aurantiochytrium is an important docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) producer containing two kinds of fatty acid synthesis pathways, that is, the fatty acid synthase pathway (FAS) for saturated fatty acid synthesis and the polyketide synthase pathway (PKS) for polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. To understand the regulation mechanism between the two pathways, the impacts of six short-chain fatty acids on the fatty acid synthesis of Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116 were studied. All short-chain fatty acids showed little effect on the cell growth, but some of them significantly affected lipid accumulation and fatty acid composition. Pentanoic acid and isovaleric acid greatly inhibited the synthesis of saturated fatty acids, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis was not affected. Analysis of malic enzyme activity, which supplied NADPH for saturated fatty acids biosynthesis, indicated that the two fatty acid synthesis pathways can utilize different substrates and possess independent sources of NADPH. PMID:24053543

Song, Xiaojin; Tan, Yanzhen; Liu, Yajun; Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Guanglei; Feng, Yingang; Cui, Qiu

2013-10-16

104

Fatty acid synthesis enzyme clans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ketoacyl reductases (KRs), hydroxyacyl dehydratases (HDs), and enoyl reductases (ERs) are part of the fatty acid/polyketide synthesis cycle. They are known as acyl dehydrogenases, enoyl hydratases, and hydroxyacyl dehydrogenases, respectively, when catalyzing their reverse reactions. Earlier, we classified these enzymes into four KR, eight HD, and five ER families by statistical criteria. Members of all four KR families and three ER families have Rossmann folds, while five HD family members have HotDog folds. This suggests that those proteins with the same folds in different families may be distantly related, and therefore in clans, even though their amino acid sequences may not be homologous. We have now defined two clans containing three of the four KR families and two of the eight HD families, using manual and statistical tests. One of the ER families is related to the KR clan. PMID:25257602

Phan, Ngoc N; Lee, Yuen Keong; Reilly, Peter J

2014-09-26

105

A double-blind controlled trial of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.  

OpenAIRE

A trial of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis has been conducted over a 5 year period. Ambulant patients (312) with acute remitting disease were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo. Both groups were given dietary advice to increase the intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the treatment group in addition received capsules containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Analysis of clinical outcome at the end of 2 years of treatment was made in te...

Bates, D.; Cartlidge, N. E.; French, J. M.; Jackson, M. J.; Nightingale, S.; Shaw, D. A.; Smith, S.; Woo, E.; Hawkins, S. A.; Millar, J. H.

1989-01-01

106

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX. : Fatty Acid Synthesis from Enzymically and Chemically Acetylated Rabbit Mammary Gland Fatty Acid Synthetase.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

# 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids. Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles of acetate were bound per mole of fatty acid synthetase, with 20–25 moles being bound to thiol groups per mole of enzyme. Acylation did not inhibit enzyme activity. The majority of the bound acetate was stable to hydrolysis at o °C. Out of the 60 moles of acetate bound per mole of acetylated enzyme, up to 20 moles were incorporated into fatty acids in the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH. # 4. 4. Due to the rapid hydrolysis of acetyl-fatty acid synthetase prepared from both acetyl-CoA and acetic anhydride, direct carboxylation of acetyl-fatty acid synthetase to form malonyl-fatty acid synthetase could not be demonstrated by CO2 fixation under the experimental conditions used. With acetic anhydride as acetyl donor, there was a low rate of incorporation of acetate into fatty acids in the presence of NADPH but absence of added malonyl-CoA. This could be due to direct carboxylation of the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase or, if any CoA were associated with the fatty acid synthetase, to carboxylation of acetyl-CoA formed by chemical acetylation of this CoA.

Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max

1972-01-01

107

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids in muscle lipids of lambs from the Patagonian area of Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of fatty acids were measured in total lipids, triacyglycerol and phospholipid fractions of intramuscular fat (IMF) from the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of 10 lambs reared to approximately 30kg live weight on natural pasture with their dams. Fatty acid composition was also measured in 25 (five of each) Semitendinosus (ST), Semimembranosus (SM), Rectus femoris (RF), Gluteus (GLU) and Tensor fascia latea (TFL) muscles. Intramuscular fat percentages were similar for all muscles. Aspects of the fatty-acid patterns of relevance to human nutrition tended to favor the leg muscles with lower saturated fatty acids (SFA %), n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios (pC20:5 n-3), docosapentanoic (C22:5 n-3) and docosahexanoic (C22:6 n-3) acids in leg compared to LD lipids. PMID:22062915

Garcia, P T; Casal, J J; Fianuchi, S; Magaldi, J J; Rodríguez, F J; Nancucheo, J A

2008-07-01

108

40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721.3627 Section 721.3627...721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid (PMN P-94-422) is...

2010-07-01

109

75 FR 71556 - Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-8852-2] Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY...residues of polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters; the mono-, di-, or triglyceride...known as polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters, when used as an inert...

2010-11-24

110

Relationships between intramuscular fat content, selected carcass traits, and fatty acid profile in bulls using a F2-population.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality and nutritional value of beef is related to the amount of intramuscular fat (IMF) as well as to its fatty acid composition. In this study the relations between the IMF content and the total fatty acid composition, the fatty acids (FA) of triacylglycerols (TG) and the FA of phospholipids (PL) in longissimus muscle of F(2) Charolais×German Holstein crossbred bulls have been analysed. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, C18:2n-6; C18:3n-3) and stearic acid (C18:0) are strongly positively correlated to IMF in longissimus muscle at the quantitative level (mg/100g fresh tissue), but there are negative correlation coefficients for the relative proportion of these fatty acids to IMF. The relationships between IMF and the fatty acid profile of the subfractions TG and PL are lower compared to total muscle fat. Selected carcass fat traits are positively correlated to most of the fatty acids. PMID:22094240

Hoehne, A; Nuernberg, G; Kuehn, C; Nuernberg, K

2012-03-01

111

Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders  

OpenAIRE

Epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary consumption of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), commonly found in fish or fish oil, may modify the risk for certain neuropsychiatric disorders. As evidence, decreased blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with several neuropsychiatric conditions, including Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder, Alzheimer's Disease, Schizophrenia and Depression. Supplementation s...

Young, Genevieve; Conquer, Julie

2005-01-01

112

Fatty acid composition of hemp seed oils from different locations in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent interest in hemp seed as a source of food has largely focused on its oil content and fatty acid profile. The oil content and fatty acid composition (15 fatty acids) of twenty one different hemp seed samples of domestic origin from north-western Turkey were monitored. The samples were obtained from seed wholesalers and local spice shops and are of unknown genetic origin. The oil content of the hemp seeds ranged between 29.6 to 36.5%. Out of the 15 detected fatty acids, the omega-6 linoleic acid (18:2n-6) was predominant and fluctuated from 55.4 to 56.9%, while the omega-3 a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid ranged from 16.5 to 20.4% and the omega-9 oleic acid (18:1n-9) ranged from 11.4 to 15.9%. Of the minor fatty acids, the highest concentrations were found for {gamma}-linolenic acid (18:3n-6), range 0.6-1.1%, followed by stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), range 0.3-0.5%. These results show that hemp seed grown in north-western Turkey provides a well balanced and rich source of dietary omega-6 and -3 essential fatty acids and appears to be a potentially valuable source of food. (Author) 31 refs.

Kiralan, M.; Gul, V.; Metin Kara, S.

2010-07-01

113

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721...Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. ...substance identified as a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

2010-07-01

114

Fatty acid biomarkers of symbionts and unusual inhibition of tetracosapolyenoic acid biosynthesis in corals (octocorallia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven zooxanthellae-free species of octocorals (the genera Acanthogorgia, Acabaria, Chironephthya, Echinogorgia, Menella, Ellisella, and Bebryce) and two zooxanthellate octocorals (the genera Paralemnalia and Rumphella) were examined to elucidate their fatty acid (FA) composition. Arachidonic (about 40% of the total FA) and palmitic acids were predominant in all the species studied. Seven furan FA (F-acids) (up to 9.7%) were identified in the azooxanthellate octocorals. The main F-acids were 14,17-epoxy-15-methyldocosa-14,16-dienoic and 14,17-epoxy-15,16-dimethyldocosa-14,16-dienoic acids. In all specimens of Bebryce studeri, C(25-28) demospongic FA (about 20%) were identified. These FA reflect the presence of a symbiotic sponge in B. studeri and can be used as the specific markers for other corals. A significant difference (P odd-chain and methyl-branched saturated FA, 18:1n-7, and 7-Me-16:1n-10; that indicated the presence of an advanced bacterial community in azooxanthellate corals. The zooxanthellate species were distinguished by significant amounts of 18:3n-6, 18:4n-3, and 16:2n-7 acids, which are proposed as the markers of zooxanthellae in soft corals. Contrary to the normal level of 24:5n-6 (9.4%) and 22:4n-6 (0.6%), unexpected low concentrations of 24:5n-6 (0.4%) accompanied by a high content of 22:4n-6 (up to 11.9%) were detected in some specimens. The presence of an unknown factor in octocorals, specific for n-6 PUFA, which inhibited elongation of 22:4n-6 to 24:4n-6, is conjectured. PMID:19034546

Imbs, Andrey B; Demidkova, Darya A; Dautova, Tatyana N; Latyshev, Nikolay A

2009-04-01

115

Changes in fatty acid composition of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk) fed on microalgal and wheat germ diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fatty acid incorporation and changes in various lipid and phospholipid classes in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis subjected to three different dietary regimens were analysed and compared. Group A was unfed; group B received a diet consisting of 100% Thalassiosira weissflogii, exhibiting the typical fatty acid composition of diatoms, and group C received a diet consisting of 100% wheat germ conferring a 18:2:n-6 abundance. Biochemical analyses of diets and mussels were carried out at the beginning and at the end of the 30-day experimental period. Starvation and T. weissflogii based diet poorly affected mussel growth and fatty acid composition which remained unchanged. On the contrary, the wheat germ-based diet increased the condition index and deeply affected the fatty acid profile of all lipid and phospholipid classes. The high dietary 18:2n-6 level drastically reduced tissue content of 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. The biosynthesis of Non Methylene Interrupted (NMI) dienoic fatty acid appeared to be insensitive to the high input of 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-9 respectively from diet B and C, and to the PUFA shortage of diet C. Nevertheless the two NMI trienoic derivatives, 20:3Delta5,11,14 and 22:3Delta7,13 16, were found higher in C with respect to other groups, presumably due to the high 18:2n-6 content of this diet. PMID:17482494

Pirini, Maurizio; Manuzzi, Maria P; Pagliarani, Alessandra; Trombetti, Fabiana; Borgatti, Anna R; Ventrella, Vittoria

2007-08-01

116

Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (pmyristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (pacids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (pacid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

Hwang, J A; Islam, M M; Ahmed, S T; Mun, H S; Kim, G M; Kim, Y J; Yang, C J

2014-08-01

117

Dietary fatty acid profile: effects on caecal fermentation and performance of young and fattening rabbits  

OpenAIRE

The present work was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of different fatty acid combinations (saturated, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; PUFA) on caecal fermentation activity, feed intake, growth rate and feed efficiency of young rabbits around weaning (17 to 44 d) and fattening rabbits (28 to 63 d of age). Five diets were formulated using the same raw materials and including 3% of lard (A diet, rich in saturated fat), sunflower oil (S diet, rich in n-6 PUFA), linseed...

Casado, Cristina; Moya, Javier; Pascual, Juan Jose?; Blas, Enrique; Cervera, Concha

2013-01-01

118

Phospholipid and triacylglycerol fatty acid composition of major life stages of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Phospholipid and triacylglycerol fatty acid compositions of whole animals from all life stages of Eurygaster integriceps, including eggs, nymphs, pre-diapausing adults and diapausing adults, were determined. The fatty acid composition of total lipids of their food, wheat, was also determined. The major components of the insects and their food were the expected C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Since fatty acid compositions of third-stadium nymphs were not similar to the profiles of their food, most likely, dietary fatty acids are modified by the insect. The fact is that the food does not provide C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but the insect tissue lipids include these components. We suggest biosynthesis of the C20 components by elongation/desaturation of C18:2n-6, an abundant component of the diets. We also show differences in fatty acid profiles from each of the life stages. PMID:12031463

Bashan, Mehmet; Akbas, Halit; Yurdakoc, Kadir

2002-06-01

119

Product Fat-1 Transgenic Simmental Crossbred Cattle Endogenously Synthesizing Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using OSM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Meat products normally contain low omega-3 fatty acids and high ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may contribute to the prevalence of many diseases. In order to obtained in such beef with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids will be more healthy to meet people’s diet, researchers generated the fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans c fat-1 gene encoding an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the gene is absent in mammals. In this study, researchers successful product the embryo of fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle using OSM. The results of Western Blotting and fluoroscopic examination have proved that the fat-1 gene has been into genome of clone embryo and translated into proteins which could be used to embryo transfer.

Song-Jia Lai

2012-01-01

120

Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

2003-01-01

121

Testes of obese rats are highly responsive to n-3 long-chain fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated whether fatty acid compositions of testes are affected by the obese condition and dietary n-3 long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake. Male lean and obese Zucker rats were fed a 15 % (w/w, total diet) fat diet containing either 0 or 5·0 % (w/w, total fatty acids) n-3 LCFA for 8 weeks. Reproductive organ weights, sperm morphology and fatty acid composition of phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) of testes were analysed. The obese rats had significantly (P fatty acid composition was minor in PC and PE except for DHA (22 : 6n-3). The n-3 LCFA diet significantly (P acid (20 : 4n-6) and DPA (22 : 5n-6) in testicular PC and PE of lean and obese rats compared with the control diet. The acylation of dietary n-3 LCFA into 22 : 6n-3 was 2-fold higher in obese rat testes than in lean rats fed the same diet. Underdeveloped testes had 70 % less 22 : 5n-6 in PC and PE than normal-size testes. Results indicate that testicular fatty acid composition is sensitive to dietary fat modulations and especially obese rats responded more to dietary n-3 LCFA than their lean counterparts. The selective reduction in 22 : 5n-6 in underdeveloped testes indicates that 22 : 5n-6 is important in male reproduction in rats and requires further study to define the role of elongation and desaturation in testicular development. PMID:21486514

Suh, Miyoung; Merrells, Krystal J; Dick, Amy; Taylor, Carla G

2011-10-01

122

Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry : a cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. Conclusions Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders

2011-01-01

123

Hepatic steatosis in n-3 fatty acid depleted mice: focus on metabolic alterations related to tissue fatty acid composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only few data relating the metabolic consequences of feeding diets very low in n-3 fatty acids. This experiment carried out in mice aims at studying the impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA depletion on hepatic metabolism. Results n-3 PUFA depletion leads to a significant decrease in body weight despite a similar caloric intake or adipose tissue weight. n-3 PUFA depleted mice exhibit hypercholesterolemia (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol as well as an increase in hepatic cholesteryl ester and triglycerides content. Fatty acid pattern is profoundly modified in hepatic phospholipids and triglycerides. The decrease in tissue n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio correlates with steatosis. Hepatic mRNA content of key factors involved in lipid metabolism suggest a decreased lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, PPAR?, and an increased ?-oxidation (CPT1, PPAR? and PGC1? without modification of fatty acid esterification (DGAT2, GPAT1, secretion (MTTP or intracellular transport (L-FABP. Histological analysis reveals alterations of liver morphology, which can not be explained by inflammatory or oxidative stress. However, several proteins involved in the unfolded protein response are decreased in depleted mice. Conclusion n-3 PUFA depletion leads to important metabolic alterations in murine liver. Steatosis occurs through a mechanism independent of the shift between ?-oxidation and lipogenesis. Moreover, long term n-3 PUFA depletion decreases the expression of factors involved in the unfolded protein response, suggesting a lower protection against endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatocytes upon n-3 PUFA deficiency.

Malaisse WJ

2008-12-01

124

40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721... § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. ...substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs...

2010-07-01

125

Influence of fatty acids on wine foaming.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of fatty acids (free and bound as ethyl esters) on wine foaming was studied in different white wines and the corresponding sparkling wines. Moreover, from three of these wines the foam formed by CO(2) injection was separated, and two fractions were then obtained: foam wine (FW) and remainder wine (RW). In these fractions and the sparkling wines produced from them, foam properties and fatty acids were also determined. The free fatty acids C8, C10, and C12 were negatively correlated with foamability (HM), whereas the ethyl esters of hexanoic, octanoic, and decanoic acids were positively related to HM. The value of HM was directly proportional to the ratio of esterified to unesterified fatty acids. This was confirmed by the changes that occur in the esterification ratio during the second fermentation and aging. No influence was observed on either the Bikerman coefficient or the stability time of foam. PMID:12428957

Gallart, Magdalena; López-Tamames, Elvira; Suberbiola, Gabriel; Buxaderas, Susana

2002-11-20

126

Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reverses cystic fibrosis-related fatty acid abnormalities in CFTR(-/-) mice by suppressing fatty acid desaturases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cystic fibrosis patients and model systems exhibit consistent abnormalities in metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids that appear to play a role in disease pathophysiology. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that these changes are due to overexpression of fatty acid desaturases that can be reversed by supplementation with the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate. However, these findings have not been tested in vivo. The current study aimed to test these results in an in vivo model system, the CFTR(-/-) knockout mouse. When compared with wild-type mice, the knockout mice exhibited fatty acid abnormalities similar to those seen in cystic fibrosis patients and other model systems. The abnormalities were confined to lung, ileum and pancreas, tissues that are affected by the disease. Similar to in vitro models, these fatty acid changes correlated with increased expression of ?5- and ?6-desaturases and elongase 5. Dietary supplementation with high-dose free docosahexaenoate or a combination of lower-dose docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate in triglyceride form corrected the fatty acid abnormalities and reduced expression of the desaturase and elongase genes in the ileum and liver of knockout mice. Only the high-dose docosahexaenoate reduced histologic evidence of disease, reducing mucus accumulation in ileal sections. These results provide in vivo support for the hypothesis that fatty acid abnormalities in cystic fibrosis result from abnormal expression and activity of metabolic enzymes in affected cell types. They further demonstrate that these changes can be reversed by dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation, highlighting the potential therapeutic benefit for cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:25448610

Njoroge, Sarah W; Laposata, Michael; Boyd, Kelli L; Seegmiller, Adam C

2015-01-01

127

The Decrease of n-3 Fatty Acid Energy Percentage in an Equicaloric Diet Fed to B6C3Fe Mice for Three Generations Elicits Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Feeding mice, over 3 generations, an equicaloric diet in which ?-linolenic acid, the dietary precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, was substituted by linoleic acid, the dietary precursor of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly increased body weight throughout life when compared with standard diet-fed mice. Adipogenesis observed in the low n-3 fatty acid mice was accompanied by a 6-fold upregulation of stearyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1), whose activity is correlated to p...

Davis, John M.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Qiaoyan Hu; Adam Baca; Ingeborg Hanbauer; Ignacio Rivero-Covelo; Ekrem Maloku

2009-01-01

128

Modulation of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in heart cells by fish oil fatty acids.  

OpenAIRE

The highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids from fish oils, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; C20:5 (n-3)] and docosahexanoic acid [DHA; C22:6 (n-3)], prevent the toxicity of high concentrations of the cardiac glycoside ouabain to isolated neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Arachidonic acid [C20:4 (n-6)] lacks such protective action. The protective effect of the n-3 fatty acids is associated with their ability to prevent high levels of cytosolic free calcium from occurring in response to the ouabain. This i...

Hallaq, H.; Smith, T. W.; Leaf, A.

1992-01-01

129

Fatty acid profiles in tissues of mice fed conjugated linoleic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The incorporation of vaccenic acid (VA, 0.5 and 1.2%), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, mixture of primarily c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA, 1.2%), linoleic acid (LA, 1.2%) and oleic acid (OA, 1.2%) into different tissues of mice was examined. The effects on the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) in kidney, spleen, liver and adipose tissue were investigated. VA and CLA (c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA) were primarily found in TAG, especially in kidney and adipose tissue, respectively. Conversion of VA to c9,t11-CLA was indicated by our results, as both fatty acids were incorporated into all the analyzed tissues when a diet containing VA but not c9,t11-CLA was fed. Most of the observed effects on the fatty acid profiles were seen in the CLA group, whereas only minor effects were observed in the VA groups compared with the CA group. Thus, CLA increased n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PL from kidney and spleen and lowered the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in these tissues. Furthermore, CLA increased C-22 PUFA in the PL fraction of kidney, spleen and liver, but reduced the level of arachiclonic acid in PL of liver and spleen and lowered the Delta(9)-desaturation indexes in all analyzed tissue TAG.

GØttsche, Jesper; Straarup, Ellen Marie

2006-01-01

130

Milk in human nutrition: Comparison of fatty acid profiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk and milk products are very important in human nutrition. Fatty acids (FA, which are the major component of milk lipids, have different effects on human health. The aim of this study was to determine and compare fatty acid composition of human milk, infant formula and cow's milk most often consumed in Serbian population. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Our results showed that saturated FA were predominant in all types of milk, particularly in cow's milk with more than 70%. Monounsaturated oleic acid was significantly higher in human milk (36% than in infants formula (30% and cow's milk (26%. Although polyunsaturated FA content of cow's milk was very low (3.6% compared with infant formula (15% and human milk (19%, cow's milk had the most desirable n6/n3 ratio, and content of n-3 precursor ?-linolenic acid. Low content of n-3 FA may be due to a relatively low consumption of marine foods in Serbian population. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are important in infant development and maintenance of overall human health, were detected only in human milk. These results suggest that human milk is the most desirable food in infants' nutrition, but low content of n-3 FA indicates that supplementation of lactating women with n-3 FA is highly recommendable.

Arsi? Aleksandra

2009-01-01

131

Fatty acid composition, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant activity of avian semen.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work demonstrates that spermatozoa from five avian species (chicken, turkey, guinea fowl, duck and goose) are all characterised by high proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids, from 46 (turkey) to 55% (duck) of total. For each of the species, the most abundant fatty acids were arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosatetraenoic (22:4n-6) acids, representing between 22 (turkey) and 40% (chicken) of total. Significant activities of the major isozymes of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, which protect against the peroxidation associated with high degree of fatty acid unsaturation, were found in spermatozoa from all species. The seminal plasma also had these activities and showed additional mechanisms for protecting spermatozoa from peroxidation. In general terms, these lipid and enzyme proteins were similar between the five avian species and different from those reported for mammalian sperm. PMID:9787812

Surai, P F; Blesbois, E; Grasseau, I; Chalah, T; Brillard, J P; Wishart, G J; Cerolini, S; Sparks, N H

1998-07-01

132

Furanoid fatty acids from fish lipids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids, recently reported as constituents of certain fish lipids, were identified to be derivatives of furan (furanoid fish fatty acids). 12,15-Epoxy-13,14-dimethyleicosa-12,14-dienoic acid is predominant among the furan acids and is associated with bis-homologs in regard to chain length. Monomethyl acids, such as 12,15-epoxy-13-methyleicosa-12,14-dienoic, are present in appreciable amounts. The structures were concluded from oxidative degradations, from mass spectrometry of methyl esters of the novel acids and fatty acids derived from them by opening the ring, and from nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and Raman spectra. The results from chemical procedures and from spectrometric methods were in agreement with those obtained with authentic methyl 9,12-epoxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoate. The number of substituents at the furan ring greatly influences hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, and hydrolysis reactions of the ring. PMID:1196019

Glass, R L; Krick, T P; Sand, D M; Rahn, C H; Schlenk, H

1975-11-01

133

Fatty acid and cholesterol content, chemical composition and sensory evaluation of horsemeat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed to determine the fatty acid and chemical composition and cholesterol concentration of horsemeat, and to evaluate its taste acceptability by the Brazilian population. Horsemeat samples (M. longissimus dorsi) were obtained from a Paraná State slaughterhouse. The chemical composition r [...] evealed a low lipid (2.9%) and high protein content (22.5%). The concentrations of the nutritionally important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), were 2.97% and 0.43%, respectively. The polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA) ratio was 0.97, which is within the recommended range. The cholesterol concentration of 40.5 mg/100 g is lower than that of other meat such as chicken, beef, mutton and pork. The sensory evaluation revealed excellent acceptability.

I.B., Tonial; A.C., Aguiar; C.C., Oliveira; E.G., Bonnafé; J.V., Visentainer; N.E., de Souza.

134

Fatty acid metabolism and vascular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid metabolism is abnormal in insulin-resistant states that increase the risk of atherosclerosis such as type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. How fatty acids promote vascular disease is poorly understood, but lipoprotein lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-physiologically related proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism-may be involved. Glucocorticoid metabolism is also abnormal in insulin-resistant states and may promote several components of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that hepatic fatty acid metabolism is required for the development of insulin resistance and hypertension caused by glucocorticoid excess, suggesting that crosstalk between glucocorticoid receptor-and PPARalpha-dependent pathways may contribute to vascular disease. PMID:15030793

Semenkovich, Clay F

2004-02-01

135

Phospholipid fatty acid composition, vitamin E content and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation of duck spermatozoa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies on chicken semen have suggested that the lipid and fatty acid composition of spermatozoa may be important determinants of fertility. Phospholipid fatty acid composition, vitamin E content and in vitro susceptibility to lipid peroxidation of duck spermatozoa were investigated using GC-MS and HPLC based methods. The total phospholipid fraction of duck spermatozoa was characterized by high proportions of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic (20:4n-6), docosatetraenoic (22:4n-6) and docosapentaenoic (22:5n-6) acids but a substantial proportion of the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acid was also present. Palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) fatty acids were the major saturates in sperm phospholipids. Among the phospholipid classes, phosphatidylserine (PS) had the highest degree of unsaturation due to very high proportions of 22:6n-3, 22:5n-6, 22:4n-6 and 20:4n-6, comprising together more than 75% of total fatty acids in this fraction. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) also contained high proportions of these four C(20-22) polyunsaturates, which together formed 60% of total fatty acids in this phospholipid. Spermatozoa and seminal plasma of duck semen were characterized by unexpectedly low content of vitamin E, being more than 4-fold lower than in chicken semen. In duck semen the major proportion of the vitamin E (>70%) was located in the spermatozoa. The very high proportion of 22:6n-3 in PS and PE fractions of duck sperm lipids and the comparatively low levels of vitamin E could predispose semen to lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless the in vitro susceptibilities to Fe2+-stimulated lipid peroxidation of duck and chicken spermatozoa were very similar. The results of the study suggest that increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity and increased antioxidant activity of seminal plasma may compensate for the low levels of vitamin E to help protect the membranes of duck spermatozoa, which exhibit a high degree of unsaturation from oxidative stress. PMID:10798481

Surai, P F; Brillard, J P; Speake, B K; Blesbois, E; Seigneurin, F; Sparks, N H

2000-03-15

136

Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

137

Omega-3 fatty acids for bipolar disorder.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder and is amongst the top thirty causes of worldwide disability. Mood stabilisers are the primary pharmacological intervention, both in the treatment of acute episodes and in prophylaxis. There is, however, mounting evidence that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in psychiatric conditions, particularly those involving disturbances of mood. OBJECTIVES: To review the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids as e...

Prof Paul Montgomery; Dr Alexandra Richardson

2008-01-01

138

Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was <4, regardless of dietary n3:n6. In future studies on wild eel, these measures can be used to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats of individual European eel.

Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

2012-03-01

139

Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids were 49.2 +/- 3.1, 44.9 +/- 1.8, and 37.7 +/- 1.7, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 3.3 +/- 0.7, 5.8 +/- 2.0, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Beef contained 2.1 +/- 0.8 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids, about half that found in veal (4.0 +/- 1.2 g/100 g fatty acids) and lamb (4.5 +/- 0.6 g/100 g fatty acids). Trans C-16:1 was 0.24 +/- 0.01, 0.14 +/- 0.02, and 0.79 +/- 0.02 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Only small variations in trans and other fatty acids could be demonstrated between cuts. The overlap between cis and trans C-18:1 by capillary GLC was verified by argentation-thin-layer chromatography followed by GLC, on three samples of veal and three samples of lamb. In veal 1.0 g, and in lamb 1.4 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids were hidden under the cis C-18:1 peak. The mean intake of trans fatty acids from ruminant meat is estimated at 0.2 g/d.

Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.

1998-01-01

140

Functional characterization of polyunsaturated fatty acid delta 6-desaturase and elongase genes from the black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid delta 6-desaturase (D6DES) and elongases are key enzymes in the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from microorganisms to higher animals. To identify the genes encoding D6DES and elongases for PUFAs, we isolated each cDNA with a high similarity to the D6DES and ELOVL5-like elongases of mammals and fishes via degenerate PCR and RACE-PCR from Acanthopagrus schlegelii. A recombinant vector expressing AsD6DES was subsequently constructed and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to test the enzymatic activity toward n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in the PUFA biosynthesis. The heterologously expressed AsD6DES produced ?-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3 n-6) and stearidonic acid (STA, C18:4 n-3) at conversion rates of 26.3-35.6% from exogenous linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) and ?-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n-3) substrates, respectively. When AsELOVL5 was expressed in yeast, it conferred an ability to elongate GLA to di-homo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3 n-6). In addition, AsELOVL5 showed an ability to convert ARA (C20:4 n-6) and EPA (C20:5 n-3) to dodecylthioacetic acid (DTA, C22:4 n-6) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, C22:5 n-3), respectively. In these results, the AsD6DES encodes a delta 6-fatty acid desaturase and the AsELOVL5 encoding a long-chain fatty acid elongase shows activity to enlongate C18?6/C20?5, but not C22. PMID:24052399

Kim, Sun Hee; Park, Jong Sug; Kim, So Yun; Kim, Jung-Bong; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Jong Bum

2014-03-01

141

Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[14C]palmitate to 14CO2 and total [14C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ?M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ?M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine

142

Relationship between Acute Phase Proteins and Serum Fatty Acid Composition in Morbidly Obese Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Obesity is considered a low-grade inflammatory state and has been associated with increased acute phase proteins as well as changes in serum fatty acids. Few studies have assessed associations between acute phase proteins and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Objective. To investigate the relationship between acute phase proteins (C-Reactive Protein, Orosomucoid, and Albumin) and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Methods. Twenty-two morbidly obese patients were enrolled in this study. Biochemical and clinical data were obtained before bariatric surgery, and fatty acids measured in preoperative serum. Results. Orosomucoid was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.027) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (P = 0.037) and positively with arachidonic acid (AA) (P = 0.035), AA/EPA ratio (P = 0.005), and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (P = 0.035). C-Reactive Protein (CRP) was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.048), and both CRP and CRP/Albumin ratio were negatively correlated with margaric acid (P = 0.010, P = 0.008, resp.). Albumin was positively correlated with EPA (P = 0.027) and margaric acid (P = 0.008). Other correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum fatty acids are linked to acute phase proteins in morbidly obese patients. PMID:24167354

Fernandes, Ricardo; Beserra, Bruna Teles Soares; Cunha, Raphael Salles Granato; Hillesheim, Elaine; Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Pequito, Danielle Cristina Tonello; de Castro, Isabela Coelho; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio; Nunes, Everson Araújo; Trindade, Erasmo Benício Santos de Moraes

2013-01-01

143

Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years  

Science.gov (United States)

Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks' gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P = 0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.). Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P = 0.024). A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P = 0.013). These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy. PMID:23049600

Pike, Katharine C.; Calder, Philip C.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Robinson, Sian M.; Roberts, Graham C.; Cooper, Cyrus; Godfrey, Keith M.; Lucas, Jane S. A.

2012-01-01

144

Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6. Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

Calder P.C.

2003-01-01

145

Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6). Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substra [...] te for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids) including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

P.C., Calder.

2003-04-01

146

Plasma Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Major Depression  

OpenAIRE

Deficiencies in polyunsaturated essential fatty acids (PUFA) are implicated in mood disorders, although mechanisms of action and regional specificity in the brain are unknown. We hypothesized that plasma phospholipid PUFA levels are correlated with regionally specific relative cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (rCMRglu). 29 medication-free depressed subjects were studied using [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6...

Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Milak, Matthew S.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Freed, Peter J.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Malone, Kevin M.; Parsey, Ramin V.; Mann, J. John

2009-01-01

147

Metabolism of furan fatty acids in fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vivo experiments on interconversions of furan fatty acids in fish are described. Administration of 2- or 3-14C-labelled furan fatty acids showed that the heterocycle does not interfere with conversions at the carboxyl group, such as shortening and elongating the chain, or its reduction to alcohol. There was no indication for desaturation of proximal chains, methylation or demethylation of the ring, or changes in the terminal chains. According to these restricted metabolic correlations, the furan fatty acids can be classified in specific structural families of bis-homologs. Distinct parent furan compounds are likely for each of these families. [1-14C]Acetate was incorporated by fish into furan fatty acids. Their chemical oxidation showed that only the resulting dicarboxylic fragments were labelled. They represent the proximal chain including alpha-C of the ring. Label was not found in the monocarboxylic acids which represent terminal chains with alpha'-C, and ring-methyl substituents with beta- and beta'-C. Accordingly, fish do not synthesize from acetate the terminal alkyl chain including the carbons in the cyclic portion of the furan fatty acids. PMID:6712980

Sand, D M; Glass, R L; Olson, D L; Pike, H M; Schlenk, H

1984-05-11

148

Variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions in Thai Perilla seeds grown at different locations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Perilla or Nga-Kee-Mon (Perilla frutescens seed has long been known as a rich source of ?-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3. It is widely cultivated throughout Thailand. However, there are no data on the variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions among crops from different regions. The aim of this study was to examine the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seed grown at different locations. Two different perilla seeds were harvested from Maehongsorn and Chiang Mai districts, and one commercial perilla was purchased from local market. Seeds were ground, lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v and its composition determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed with GLC using standard methods. Lipid content was between 34-36% (w/w. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in perilla seed (97% of total lipids, and a minor component was phytosterol (3% of total lipids. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates was approximately 1: 1: 8. Most predominant fatty acid was ?-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3 (55-60% of total fatty acid. Seeds from Maehongsorn district had the highest concentration of ?-linolenic acid, and commercial perilla had the lowest (P<0.05. Other two predominant fatty acids were linoleic acid (18:2, n-6 (18-22% of total fatty acid and oleic acid (18:1 (11-13% of total fatty acid. The results showed that the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seeds varied significantly among samples from different locations.

Maitree Suttajit

2006-03-01

149

Dietary fatty acids and human health  

OpenAIRE

A considerable amount of evidence has accumulated to support the view that the very long chain omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) have beneficial cardiovascular and anti-inflammatory properties and that levels of their consumption are insufficient in most Western diets. More recently, attention has been given to the possibility that the precursor omega-3 PUFA, alpha linolenic acid (ALNA), may share some of the beneficial actions of EPA/DHA on huma...

Williams, Christine

2000-01-01

150

Study of fatty acid-bacteria interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. During our work we investigated fatty acid-bacteria interactions. The antibacterial property of fatty acids was reported by several authors. Despite of them there is not reassuring explanation about the mechanism of the antibacterial activity of these compounds. An effect can considerably change in case of different structured fatty acids. Our earlier studies conduct that small changes in the structures can modify changes in their behavior towards bacteria. The stearic acid does not cause any antibacterial effects during the first few hours of the investigation, may even help the bacterial growth. However, linolic acid (C18:2) shows a strong antibacterial effect during the first hours. After 24 hours this effect wears out and the bacteria have adapted to the stress. We studied the antibacterial activity using direct bioautography. This method has the advantage to allow examining lipophilic compounds. The linoleic acid decomposes in time under different physiological conditions creating numerous oxidized molecules. This may be the reason of its antimicrobial effect. For studying this phenomenon we used infrared and mass spectroscopic methods. We applied infrared spectroscopy for indicating any changes in the spectra of the fatty acids after the interaction of fatty acids with bacteria. So we are able to deduct on what could happen during these process. We paid great attention towards the changes of double bonds, on methylation and anges of double bonds, on methylation and demethylation processes. Using mass spectroscopy we searched for oxidized products that may play important role in this process. These studies are only part of our more widespreading investigations, dealing with the antimicrobial properties of fatty acids.

151

Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

2011-08-23

152

Fatty acid composition of the brain, retina, liver and adipose tissue of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, primate).  

Science.gov (United States)

The particular interest in supplementing human foods with n-3 fatty acids has arisen from the findings that this series of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have an impact on neuronal functions. Indeed vertebrates, including humans, preferentially use docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) over other long-chain n-3 PUFA for the genesis of their neuronal and retinal membranes. The grey mouse lemur is a nocturnal prosimian primate originating from Madagascar. The increased use of this omnivorous primate in nutritional studies (chronic caloric restriction, n-3 fatty acids supplementation), justifies the interest of determining their fatty acids body composition. In the present study, we report the fatty acid composition in lipid classes from the main target tissues (brain, retina, liver and adipose tissue) of six adult mouse lemurs raised under laboratory nutritional conditions. Among the main findings, n-6-docosapentaenoic acid (n-6-DPA; 22:5n-6) is very low in the brain cortex and retina, whereas there is a very high accumulation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in the neural tissues compared to liver and plasma. In particular, DHA accounts for about one half of the total fatty acids in the retina ethanolamine glycerophospholipids. This high concentration clearly indicates that DHA is efficiently transferred from blood lipids to the outer segment of the mouse lemur retina. We conclude that the mouse lemur n-3 PUFA metabolism efficiently drives DHA to neural tissues, through the blood-brain barrier and the blood-retina barrier. PMID:22684890

Pifferi, Fabien; Perret, Martine; Guesnet, Philippe; Aujard, Fabienne; Alessandri, Jean-Marc

2012-08-01

153

Effect of intravenous omega-3 fatty acid infusion and hemodialysis on fatty acid composition of free fatty acids and phospholipids in patients with end-stage renal disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have been reported to have decreased levels of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ?-3 PUFAs administered intravenously during HD, as well as the effect of HD treatment, on the fatty acid composition of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), plasma phospholipids, and platelet phospholipids.

Madsen, Trine; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup

2011-01-01

154

Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Total Fatty Acids in Cider  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports the composition of total fatty acids in an apple beverage, cider. Fatty acids are present in the free or esterified form and contribute to both the flavor and foam properties of cider. Fatty acids were separated and identified as methyl esters by GC-MS, and 12 of these were subsequently determined by GC-FID. The major fatty acids found in cider were caproic, caprylic, capric, and palmitic acid, the saturated acids predominating over the unsaturated ones. The pro...

Blanco-gomis, Domingo; Mangas, J. J.; Margolles, Inmaculada; Arias, Pilar

2011-01-01

155

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic...Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic...chemical substance identified as a fatty acid amine condensate,...

2010-07-01

156

40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric...Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric...chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate,...

2010-07-01

157

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.

2002-01-01

158

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory

159

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

Science.gov (United States)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

2002-10-01

160

The fatty acid composition of muscles and fat depots of ostriches as influenced by genotype  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Three genotypes of ostrich (South African Black, Zimbabwean Blue Necks and crosses between Zimbabwean Blue Neck males x South African Black females) were used to investigate the influence of genotype on the fatty acid composition of the musculus gastrocnemius and musculus iliofibularis, and abdomina [...] l and breast fat depots. Total saturated fatty acids in both the m. gastrocnemius and m. iliofibularis were higher in crosses (36.4% and 35.9%) than in South African Black ostriches (32.9% and 30.4%), whereas mono-unsaturated fatty acids were highest in South African Black ostriches. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids in the m. gastrocnemius were lowest in South African Black ostriches (26.5%) compared with the Zimbabwean Blue Necks (33.2%). Neither the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated (0.73 to 0.99) nor n-6 to n-3 (1.6 to 2.2) fatty acids were influenced by genotype, although the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in Zimbabwean Blue Necks was higher in the m. gastrocnemius (0.99) than in the m. iliofibularis (0.73). Differences in individual fatty acids were prominent in the breast fat, and total saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids differed between genotypes in both breast and abdominal fat. Only the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in the fat depots differed between South African Black (0.48) and Zimbabwean Blue Neck ostriches (0.42). The latter ratio was higher in the breast (0.50) than abdominal (0.42) fat in Zimbabwean Blue Necks. These results indicate that crossbreeding of different genotypes of ostriches reared under similar conditions does influence the overall fatty acid profiles of meat and fat.

L.C., Hoffman; M.M., Brand; S.W.P., Cloete; M., Muller.

161

40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol...Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol...formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated...

2010-07-01

162

Fatty acid-derived signals in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants synthesize many fatty acid derivatives, several of which play important regulatory roles. Jasmonates are the best characterized examples. Jasmonate-insensitive mutants and mutants with a constitutive jasmonate response have given us new insights into jasmonate signalling. The jasmonate biosynthesis mutant opr3 allowed the dissection of cyclopentanone and cyclopentenone signalling, thus defining specific roles for these molecules. Jasmonate signalling is a complex network of individual signals and recent findings on specific activities of methyl jasmonate and (Z)-jasmone add to this picture. In addition, there are keto, hydroxy and hydroperoxy fatty acids that might be involved in cell death and the expression of stress-related genes. Finally, there are bruchins and volicitin, signal molecules from insects that are perceived by plants in the picomole to femtomole range. They highlight the importance of fatty acid-derived molecules in interspecies communication and in plant defence. PMID:11992827

Weber, Hans

2002-05-01

163

Milk fatty acids II: prediction of the production of individual fatty acids in bovine milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously observed relationships between dietary composition and production of a small number of individual milk fatty acids were the motivation to examine whether equations could be developed to predict production of all the major individual milk fatty acids. Such equations could be incorporated into ration formulation programs and used to examine factors that influence milk fat composition. Data from 29 published experiments on Holstein cows that provided 120 dietary treatments were entered into CPM-Dairy to obtain estimates of amounts of individual long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) absorbed from the intestines. These derived data and other dietary and animal data including the reported fatty acid composition of milk fat were entered into a spreadsheet. Descriptors of diet included daily intake of dry matter, total fermentable carbohydrate, total fatty acids, and profile of dietary fatty acids, intake of neutral detergent fiber, supplemental fish-oil, buffer, and magnesium oxide. Cow data included body weight and days in milk (DIM). Multiple linear regression was used to develop equations to predict the production (g/d) of each of 26 major LCFA. The equations developed generally had R(2) values in excess of 0.5. Production (g/d) of total de novo fatty acids (C4:0 to C15:0) (PTdenovo) was found to be positively related to the intake of fermentable carbohydrate, and negatively related to the intake of fish oil fatty acids and the estimated total amount of unsaturated fatty acids absorbed from the intestines. The PTdenovo was greater in pasture-fed cows than total mixed ration-fed cows and was negatively related to the square root of DIM. Production of each individual de novo fatty acid was described by a fixed proportion of PTdenovo. These proportions were 0.12 +/- 0.006 (C4:0), 0.083 +/- 0.0039 (C6:0), 0.0516 +/- 0.0025 (C8:0), 0.111 +/- 0.003 (C10:0), 0.134 +/- 0.0037 (C12:0), 0.441 +/- 0.007 (C14:0), 0.046 +/- 0.0024 (C14:1), and 0.0432 +/- 0.0017 (C15:0). Separate independent equations were developed to describe the daily production of C16:0, C16:1, and the main individual preformed fatty acids (>C16). The productions of each of the main individual pre-formed fatty acids were generally strongly related to the corresponding estimated amount (g/d) of specific fatty acids absorbed from the intestines. Percentage estimates for the direct transfer of the major absorbed LCFA to their corresponding LCFA in milk were 42% (C16:0); 9.5% (C18:0); 47.5% (cis-9 C18:1); 16.1% (all isomers of trans-C18:1), 38% (cis-9, cis-12 C18:2); and 31% (cis-9, cis-12, cis15 C18:3). High dietary intake of fish oil fatty acids was negatively associated with the production of all of the major individual preformed fatty acids with the exception of C20:5 and C22:6. In some instances, particular dietary factors were found to have positive influences on production of one fatty acid and negative influences on another. For example, high levels of dietary magnesium oxide were positively associated with production of C17 fatty acids but negatively associated with production of C18:0 and cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (conjugated linoleic acid). This analysis quantified effects of major dietary and cow factors on production of individual fatty acids in milk. PMID:18292274

Moate, P J; Chalupa, W; Boston, R C; Lean, I J

2008-03-01

164

Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey?...

Martemucci Giovanni; D’Alessandro Angela Gabriella

2012-01-01

165

Effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, breed and dietary vitamin E on the fatty acids of lamb muscle, liver and adipose tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of feeding n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of muscle, adipose tissue and liver of lambs was investigated. Groups of eight ram lambs per breed, SuffolkxLleyn (24 kg live weight) and Scottish Blackface (18 kg live weight), were each fed one of six diets containing one of three fat sources (50 g fatty acids/kg DM; Megalac((R)) (calcium soap of palm fatty acid distillate; Volac Ltd, Royston, Herts., UK) and formaldehyde-treated whole linseed (Trouw Nutrition UK, Northwich, Ches., UK) either alone or with fish oil (1:1, w/w) and either 100 or 500 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg DM. Feed was offered ad libitum until slaughter at approximately half breed mature live weight. The type of dietary fat had no effect on intake, growth rate or feed conversion ratio. The 3.0-fold higher concentration of 18 : 3n-3 in the linseed compared with the Megalac((R)) diet approximately doubled (Plinseed also increased (Plinseed-fish oil raised the 20 : 5n-3 concentrations above those for the linseed diet and also increased 22 : 6n-3. Scottish Blackface lambs had lower concentrations of 18 : 3n-3 in all lipids compared with Suffolk x Lleyn lambs, but more 20 : 5n-3 in the polar lipids of muscle and liver. High levels of dietary vitamin E were associated with small decreases in the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids and increases in PUFA. Linseed raised the PUFA : saturated fatty acid ratios in liver and adipose tissue but not in muscle, and improved the n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio, as did the linseed-fish oil. Different combinations of dietary fatty acids and better protection against rumen biohydrogenation are required to improve muscle PUFA : saturated fatty acids ratios. PMID:15035682

Demirel, G; Wachira, A M; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Wood, J D; Enser, M

2004-04-01

166

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Science.gov (United States)

40 Protection of Environment 30...false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic...Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...3620 Fatty acid amine condensate,...

2010-07-01

167

Fatty acid composition of forage herb species  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive value and FA concentrations. FA concentrations were generally lower in June after a heavy cut than in May and August.

Warner, D.; Jensen, SØren Krogh

2010-01-01

168

Fatty Acid Composition of Flax Sprouts  

OpenAIRE

The oil and fatty acid profile of flax (Linum usitatissimum) sprouts and seed were compared to determine nutrition potential of sprouts. Equal quantities of seed from three flax cultivars (Rahab-94, Pembina and Linott) were sprouted twice in three replications and were analysed for oil and fatty acid contents during summer 2011. Three flax cultivars were observed with high oil content on dry weight basis in sprouts (15.9%) and seeds (33.99%). Significant variations (P<0.0001) between seed and...

Narina, Satya S.; Hamama, Anwar A.; Bhardwaj, Harbans L.

2013-01-01

169

Fatty acid composition of Piedmont "Ossolano" cheese  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acid composition of 66 samples of "Ossolano", a typical semi-hard cheese produced from raw cow milk in the Ossola valley (North Piedmont, West Italy) was determined. The survey was carried out on 24 summer cheeses produced in mountain farms (1500-2200 m) with milk from pasture-fed cows and 42 winter cheeses produced in valley farms (500-800 m) with milk from hay- and concentrate-fed cows. Seasonal variation in feeding condition was responsible for the observed variations in fatty acid c...

Zeppa, Giuseppe; Giordano, Manuela; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Arlorio, Marco

2003-01-01

170

[Role of fatty acids in sperm membrane].  

Science.gov (United States)

One of causes of male infertility is reduced sperm motility. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play significant role for physiological sperm function. Oxidative stress occurs when the production of potentially destructive ROS exceeds the natural antioxidant defences, resulting in cell damage. Sperm phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids are particularly susceptible to peroxidative damage by free radicals. Detrimental effects of lipid peroxidation should decrease sperm quality and be responsible of fertility problems. The review deals with sperm membrane composition, importance of fatty acids and prevention possibilities of oxidative cell damage. PMID:24874823

Stramová, X; Hampl, R; St?pán, J; Kan?ár, R

2014-04-01

171

Centesimal composition and fatty acids of meat from lambs fed diets containing soybean hulls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and fatty acids in meat from animals fed diets containing levels of soybean hulls. The experiment was conducted at UESB in Itapetinga-BA, Brazil. Twenty-five confined Santa Inês rams were used. Treatments consisted of different l [...] evels of substitution of corn by soybean hulls (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) and elephant grass silage as forage. The design was completely randomized. Samples of concentrate and silage were collected to evaluate the fatty acid composition. The experimental period lasted 110 days. After this period, the animals were slaughtered and samples of the longissimus muscle were collected and vacuum-packed for further analysis. The levels of total lipid and protein showed quadratic effect with the increase of soybean hulls in the diet, as the moisture increased linearly with inclusion. There was no effect of treatments on the percentage of ash. The composition of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA/SFA and omega 6 (n-6) did not change, but increases in n-3 and reduction in the n-6:n-3 ratio were observed when the the amount of soybean hulls in the diet increased. The content of fatty acid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ranged from 3.0 to 4.0 g/kg at levels of substitution. The inclusion of soybean hulls in the diet increased CLA, the n-3 and decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio.

Lívia Santos, Costa; Robério Rodrigues, Silva; Fabiano Ferreira da, Silva; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Julliana Izabelle, Simionato; Jair de Araújo, Marques; Vinícius Lopes da, Silva; Cláudia Batista, Sampaio.

1720-17-01

172

Relative irritancy of free fatty acids of different chain length.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free fatty acids of human skin surface lipids have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris because of their apparent irritant and comedogenic properties. Prior studies on the relative irritancy of free fatty acids revealed the saturated C8 to C14 fatty acids and a C18 dienoic unsaturated fatty acid (linoleic) to be most irritating. Saturated free fatty acids from C3 to C18, and unsaturated C18 free fatty acids were applied daily under occlusive patch tests to human skin until detectable erythema appeared. The most irritating fatty acids were C8 through C12. Of the unsaturated fatty acids tested, only linoleic acid produced irritation. PMID:233889

Stillman, M A; Maibach, H I; Shalita, A R

1975-01-01

173

Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed. The ten species were: chicory (Cichorium intybus), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), birds-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), white meliot (Melilotus officinalis), caraway (Carum carvi), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), white clover (Trifolium repens) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). FA content in single species deviated considerably, although the main FA were C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6, with chervil being the exception with C18:1n-9 as main FA. The majority of FA were found in the phospholipid and sterol fraction, with C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6 as the dominating FA.

Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; SØegaard, Karen

2012-01-01

174

Inverse association between 18-carbon trans fatty acids and intelligence quotients in smoking schizophrenia patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate polyunsaturated (PUFA) and trans isomeric fatty acid status in schizophrenia patients. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids (PL) and triacylglycerols (TG) was analyzed by gas chromatography in 29 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy controls. We found no difference in PL n-3 fatty acid status between the two groups, while the values of 22:5n-6 were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls. In TG, values of docosatrienoic acid (20:3n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in controls. We found no difference in the trans fatty acid status between patients and controls. In smoking schizophrenia patients significant negative correlations were detected between Wechsler adult full-scale intelligence quotients and values of total trans fatty acids in PL lipids, whereas no such correlation was seen either in non-smoking schizophrenia patients, or in healthy controls. While data obtained in the present study fail to furnish evidence for n-3 PUFA supplementation to the diet of patients with schizophrenia, they indicate that in smoking schizophrenia patients high dietary exposure to trans fatty acids is associated with lower intelligence quotients. PMID:24210662

Lohner, Szimonetta; Vágási, Judit; Marosvölgyi, Tamás; Tényi, Tamás; Decsi, Tamás

2014-01-30

175

Conversion of ?-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of ?-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (?-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert ?-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time. PMID:23600588

Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

2014-04-01

176

Sintesis n-6 Etil Ester Asam Lemak Dari Beberapa Minyak Ikan Air Tawar  

OpenAIRE

Linoleic acid which include n-6 PUFA is essential fatty acid and as precursor in the formation of arachidonic, docosatetranoic, docosapertanoic and omega-6 fatty acids. This linoleic acid is easy destroyed by oxidation effect because there were polyunsaturated bonds, there fore to prevent destroyed og n-6 PUFA from head/”jeroan” oils same kinds of fresh water fishes, it is performed by percolation extraction and using BHT antioxidant. Structure confirmation was found after IR spectrosc...

Kaban, Jamaran; Daniel

2009-01-01

177

Fatty acid relationships in former cannabis users with schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abnormalities in the fatty acid (FA)-based endocannabinoid lipid signaller anandamide, and prevalent cannabis use, have been found to be associated with schizophrenia and may potentially alter stress mechanisms. Other FA-based signallers, however, reportedly enhance anandamide function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between peripherally-measured levels of the FA sources of anandamide and its related signallers. The authors examined erythrocyte FA levels in patients who were former cannabis users ("C-ever") (n=6) or cannabis-naïve ("C-never") (n=6), in relation to symptoms of stress measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS). The results showed that, in former cannabis users only, arachidonic acid (AA, anandamide's precursor) was positively correlated with total 16- and 18-carbon monounsaturated and saturated FAs (16,18m+sFAs), precursors of lipid signallers that enhance or interact with anandamide function. In C-ever, both AA and 16,18m+sFAs correlated inversely with stress, while the 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA, linoleic acid, was positively correlated with stress. Although the findings are tentative in this small sample, potential interventions are indicated. Future research may determine whether these FAs are involved in hypothesised links between anandamide abnormalities, cannabis use and stress in schizophrenia. PMID:16236415

Monterrubio, Sharon; Solowij, Nadia; Meyer, Barbara J; Turner, Nigel

2006-03-01

178

Effects of parental omega-3 fatty acid intake on offspring microbiome and immunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Western diet" is characterized by increased intake of saturated and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids with a relative reduction in omega-3 (n-3) consumption. These fatty acids can directly and indirectly modulate the gut microbiome, resulting in altered host immunity. Omega-3 fatty acids can also directly modulate immunity through alterations in the phospholipid membranes of immune cells, inhibition of n-6 induced inflammation, down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, and by serving as pre-cursors to anti-inflammatory lipid mediators such as resolvins and protectins. We have previously shown that consumption by breeder mice of diets high in saturated and n-6 fatty acids have inflammatory and immune-modulating effects on offspring that are at least partially driven by vertical transmission of altered gut microbiota. To determine if parental diets high in n-3 fatty acids could also affect offspring microbiome and immunity, we fed breeding mice an n-3-rich diet with 40% calories from fat and measured immune outcomes in their offspring. We found offspring from mice fed diets high in n-3 had altered gut microbiomes and modestly enhanced anti-inflammatory IL-10 from both colonic and splenic tissue. Omega-3 pups were protected during peanut oral allergy challenge with small but measurable alterations in peanut-related serologies. However, n-3 pups displayed a tendency toward worsened responses during E. coli sepsis and had significantly worse outcomes during Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. Our results indicate excess parental n-3 fatty acid intake alters microbiome and immune response in offspring. PMID:24489864

Myles, Ian A; Pincus, Nathan B; Fontecilla, Natalia M; Datta, Sandip K

2014-01-01

179

Dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and docosahexaenoic acid: actions on bone mineral and serum biomarkers in ovariectomized rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypoestrogenic states escalate bone loss in animals and humans. This study evaluated the effects of the amount and ratio of dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on bone mineral in 3-month-old sexually mature ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats. For 12 weeks, the rats were fed either a high-PUFA (HP) or a low-PUFA (LP) diet with a ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of 5:1 (HP5 and LP5) or 10:1 (HP10 and LP10). All diets (modified AIN-93G) provided 110.4 g/kg of fat from safflower oil and/or high-oleate safflower oil blended with n-3 PUFAs (DHASCO oil) as a source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fatty acid analyses confirmed that the dietary ratio of 5:1 significantly elevated the amount of DHA in the periosteum, marrow and cortical and trabecular bones of the femur. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements for femur and tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density showed that the DHA-rich diets (HP5 and LP5) resulted in a significantly lower bone loss among the OVX rats at 12 weeks. Rats fed the LP diets displayed the lowest overall serum concentrations of the bone resorption biomarkers pyridinoline (Pyd) and deoxypyridinoline, whereas the bone formation marker osteocalcin was lowest in the HP groups. Regardless of the dietary PUFA content, DHA in the 5:1 diets (HP5 and LP5) preserved rat femur BMC in the absence of estrogen. This study indicates that the dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs (LP5 and HP5) and bone tissue concentration of total long-chain n-3 PUFAs (DHA) minimize femur bone loss as evidenced by a higher BMC in OVX rats. These findings show that dietary DHA lowers the ratio of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid)/n-3 in bone compartments and that this ratio in tissue correlates with reduced Pyd but higher bone alkaline phosphatase activity and BMC values that favor bone conservation in OVX rats. PMID:16102959

Watkins, Bruce A; Li, Yong; Seifert, Mark F

2006-04-01

180

Opposite regulation of CD36 ubiquitination by fatty acids and insulin: effects on fatty acid uptake.  

Science.gov (United States)

FAT/CD36 is a membrane scavenger receptor that facilitates long chain fatty acid uptake by muscle. Acute increases in membrane CD36 and fatty acid uptake have been reported in response to insulin and contraction. In this study we have explored protein ubiquitination as one potential mechanism for the regulation of CD36 level. CD36 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) or HEK 293 cells was found to be polyubiquitinated via a process involving both lysines 48 and 63 of ubiquitin. Using CHO cells expressing the insulin receptor (CHO/hIR) and CD36, it is shown that addition of insulin (100 nm, 10 and 30 min) significantly reduced CD36 ubiquitination. In contrast, ubiquitination was strongly enhanced by fatty acids (200 microm palmitate or oleate, 2 h). Similarly, endogenous CD36 in C2C12 myotubes was ubiquitinated, and this was enhanced by oleic acid treatment, which also reduced total CD36 protein in cell lysates. Insulin reduced CD36 ubiquitination, increased CD36 protein, and inhibited the opposite effects of fatty acids on both parameters. These changes were paralleled by changes in fatty acid uptake, which could be blocked by the CD36 inhibitor sulfosuccinimidyl oleate. Mutation of the two lysine residues in the carboxyl-terminal tail of CD36 markedly attenuated ubiquitination of the protein expressed in CHO cells and was associated with increased CD36 level and enhanced oleate uptake and incorporation into triglycerides. In conclusion, fatty acids and insulin induce opposite alterations in CD36 ubiquitination, modulating CD36 level and fatty acid uptake. Altered CD36 turnover may contribute to abnormal fatty acid uptake in the insulin-resistant muscle. PMID:18353783

Smith, Jill; Su, Xiong; El-Maghrabi, Raafat; Stahl, Philip D; Abumrad, Nada A

2008-05-16

181

Fatty acids of lamb meat from two breeds fed different forage: concentrate ratio.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lambs from two Turkish breeds, Kivircik a meat breed and Sakiz a breed used for milk and meat production, were fed a diet containing commercial concentrate and hay in the ratios of either 75:25 or 25:75. The effects on fatty acid composition were studied. After weaning (at about 8 weeks) a total of 40 male lambs (20 Kivircik, 20 Sakiz) were divided into four groups of 10 animals and fed either commercial concentrate or grass hay-based diets. The lambs were group fed indoors for 60 days. The mean intramuscular total fatty acid content of longissimus dorsi for Sakiz was lower than that for Kivircik lamb. Increasing the dried grass percentage in the ration decreased the final live weight of the lambs but intramuscular total fatty acid content increased (2088 vs. 1791mg/kg muscle, pdiets than from lambs fed concentrate-based diets whereas all n-6 were higher in the latter. Polyunsaturated:saturated ratios were higher in the latter animals; 0.26 compared with 0.16 in the lambs fed grass hay. Concentrate groups displayed a higher n-6/n-3 ratio in the same muscle, 7.11 compared with 1.28 in the lambs fed grass. Muscle from Kivircik lambs had higher concentrations of C18:2 n-6 and its metabolite C20:4 n-6 (p<0.001) and also C18:3 n-3. PMID:22061549

Demirel, G; Ozpinar, H; Nazli, B; Keser, O

2006-02-01

182

Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of Three Phytomonas Species  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-fre...

Celso Vataru Nakamura; Luciana Waldow; Sandra Regina Pelegrinello; Tânia Ueda-Nakamura; Benício Alves de Abreu Filho; Benedito Prado Dias Filho

1999-01-01

183

Determination of chemosensitivity to free fatty acids in humans  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the present investigation was to determine gustatory sensitivity to free fatty acids in humans. Preliminary psychophysical data in humans indicate that long-chain fatty acids of varying saturation are effective taste stimuli. This is consistent with electrophysiological and animal data attributing a gustatory component to free fatty acids. The present study sought to isolate the taste property of three 18-C fatty acids by masking other sensory attributes and used detection thre...

Chale-rush, Angela

2006-01-01

184

Extraction of Fatty Acids from Microalgae  

OpenAIRE

Algae are the most often processed as a fast growing biomass with a high proportion of lipids. Their composition is suitable as nutraceuticals owing to the high content of proteins, vitamins, enzymes, fatty acids, pigments with antioxidant effect (especially carotenoids) and other valuable substances.

Rouskova?, Milena

2013-01-01

185

Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

TRI PRARTONO

2010-12-01

186

Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp.) five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp.) and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus) and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synech...

Thidarat Noiraksar; Piyawan Srivilas; Jarunan Pratoomyot

2005-01-01

187

Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different l [...] evels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

Tanja, Hess; Trinette, Ross-Jones.

2014-12-01

188

Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fatty acid biosynthesis from [1-14C]acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 ?M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl2, 1 mM each of the MnCl2 and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO3, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 ?g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO3, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg2+ and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor

189

Vascular Dysfunction Induced in Offspring by Maternal Dietary Fat Involves Altered Arterial Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis  

OpenAIRE

Nutrition during development affects risk of future cardiovascular disease. Relatively little is known about whether the amount and type of fat in the maternal diet affect vascular function in the offspring. To investigate this, pregnant and lactating rats were fed either 7%(w/w) or 21%(w/w) fat enriched in either18:2n-6, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, or fish oil. Their offspring were fed 4%(w/w) soybean oil from weaning until day 77. Type and amount of maternal dietary fat altere...

Kelsall, Christopher J.; Hoile, Samuel P.; Irvine, Nicola A.; Masoodi, Mojgan; Torrens, Christopher; Lillycrop, Karen A.; Calder, Philip C.; Clough, Geraldine F.; Hanson, Mark A.; Burdge, Graham C.

2012-01-01

190

Fatty Acid Composition of Turkish Rhododendron Species  

OpenAIRE

This study describes work aimed at the rapid evaluation of the fatty acid (FA) composition of Turkish Rhododendron species, particularly the leaves and the flowers of the toxic plants, R. ponticum and R. luteum. The FA profiles of the available parts of three other nonpoisonous Rhododendron species were also investigated. Subtotal extracts obtained (using n-hexane, chloroform and methanol) from total chloroform:methanol (1:1) extracts were analyzed and compared to each other. Palmitic acid wa...

Carballeira, N. M.; Cartagena, M. M.; Tasdemir, D.

2008-01-01

191

Cholesterol concentration and fatty acid profile of red deer (Cervus elaphus) meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of gender and age on intramuscular fat (IMF) levels, cholesterol concentration, and fatty acid composition were investigated in the semitendinosus (ST) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles of feral red deer (Cervus elaphus). Six stags of >2years of age, four hinds of 1year, and six calves of 6months were shot in Slovenia. Generally, all parameters measured were influenced by interaction of muscle and treatment group (hinds, stags and calves) at the 5% level or less. In ST muscle, the IMF levels were highest for hinds. In the TB muscle, cholesterol was lower for stags than for hinds and calves. The saturated fatty acids were the highest for stags and the mono-unsaturated fatty acids for hinds. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were the highest for calves and lowest for hinds. The n-3 PUFAs were the lowest for hinds. In both muscles, the calves had higher n-6 PUFAs than stags and hinds. Only the ST muscle of the hinds contained >1% (1.44%) of the conjugated linoleic acid isomer 18:2cis-9,trans-11, while in the TB of hinds and calves this fatty acid was higher than with stags. We conclude that gender and age of feral red deer influence the IMF content, the cholesterol concentration, and the fatty acid composition of the meat. PMID:22063609

Polak, T; Rajar, A; Gašperlin, L; Zlender, B

2008-11-01

192

Fatty acids composition in South African freshwater fish as indicators of food quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Lipid classes and fatty acid composition of three commercially important freshwater fish species Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia), Clarias gariepinus (African catfish) and Cyprinus carpio (carp) obtained from an aquaculture, different river systems and fish markets from different provinc [...] es in South Africa were investigated. Fatty acids were extracted from the fish fillets through the Folch extraction method (using chloroform: methanol at the ratio of 2:1). Generally, tilapia fish species was found to be the richest in fatty acid composition. In all fish species analysed, palmitic acid (16:0) was found to be the most abundant fatty acid ranging from 18.24 to 21.84%. Appreciable quantities of essential polyunsaturated fatty acid such as docosahexaenoic (DHA) (22:6 n-3, 3.92 to 6.16%), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5 n-3, 1.91 to 2.92%) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6, 7.19 to 8.50%) were also found. Observations show that fish species obtained from Gauteng Province are richer in fatty acids compared to those in Limpopo Province. The study points out that all fish species investigated contain appreciable levels of Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and are therefore suitable for an unsaturated low-fat diet. This is important especially for poor communities who cannot afford to get a balanced diet, rich in some essential fatty acids.Therefore, it is important to determine the nutritional value of local fish, since it significantly contribute to a healthy diet in rural communities.

Erasmus, Chauke; Ewa, Cukrowska; Mary-Jane, Thaela-Chimuka; Luke, Chimuka; Hermogene, Nsengimana; Hlanganani, Tutu.

2008-01-01

193

21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be...

2010-04-01

194

MYOCARDIAL CONCENTRATIONS OF FATTY ACIDS IN DOGS WITH DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY  

Science.gov (United States)

To compare the myocardial concentrations of fatty acids in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with control dogs using myocardium from 7 dogs with DCM, 16 control dogs. Myocardial tissues were homogenized and total fatty acids extracted and converted to methyl esters. Myocardial fatty acids conce...

195

Fatty acid metabolism in adipocytes: functional analysis of fatty acid transport proteins 1 and 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) and FATP4 in facilitating adipocyte fatty acid metabolism was investigated using stable FATP1 or FATP4 knockdown (kd) 3T3-L1 cell lines derived from retrovirus-delivered short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Decreased expression of FATP1 or FATP4 did not affect preadipocyte differentiation or the expression of FATP1 (in FATP4 kd), FATP4 (in FATP1 kd), fatty acid translocase, acyl-coenzyme A synthetase 1, and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein but did lead to increased levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha. Both FATP1 and FATP4 kd adipocytes exhibited reduced triacylglycerol deposition and corresponding reductions in diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol levels compared with control cells. FATP1 kd adipocytes displayed an approximately 25% reduction in basal (3)H-labeled fatty acid uptake and a complete loss of insulin-stimulated (3)H-labeled fatty acid uptake compared with control adipocytes. In contrast, FATP4 kd adipocytes as well as HEK-293 cells overexpressing FATP4 did not display any changes in fatty acid influx. FATP4 kd cells exhibited increased basal lipolysis, whereas FATP1 kd cells exhibited no change in lipolytic capacity. Consistent with reduced triacylglycerol accumulation, FATP1 and FATP4 kd adipocytes exhibited enhanced 2-deoxyglucose uptake compared with control adipocytes. These findings define unique and distinct roles for FATP1 and FATP4 in adipose fatty acid metabolism. PMID:17164224

Lobo, Sandra; Wiczer, Brian M; Smith, Ann J; Hall, Angela M; Bernlohr, David A

2007-03-01

196

Serum fatty acid binding protein 4, free fatty acids and metabolic risk markers  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acid binding protein (FABP) 4 chaperones free fatty acids (FFA) in the adipocytes during lipolysis. Serum FFA relates to Metabolic Syndrome (METS) and serum FABP4 is emerging as a novel risk marker. In 36 overweight/obese women, serum FABP4 and FFA were measured hourly during 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin resistance was determined using frequently sampled intravenous GTT (FS-IVGTT). Serum lipids and inflammation markers were measured at fasting.

Karakas, Sidika E.; Almario, Rogelio U.; Kim, Kyoungmi

2009-01-01

197

Proportions of rumen volatile fatty acids in relation to milk fatty acid profiles  

OpenAIRE

Three experiments were conducted in order to develop and validate principal component (PC) regressions for predicting rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) proportions, based on a combination of milk odd and branched chain fatty acids (MOBCFA). Grass- or legume silage and concentrate-based diets were fed to rumen fistulated Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The diets differed in silage type (Expt. 1), amount of protected starch (Expt. 2) or varied in the forage to concentrate ratio (F/C). Each experime...

Vlaeminck, B.; Fievez, V.; Dhanoa, M. S.; Vuuren, A. M.; Dewhurst, R. J.

2003-01-01

198

Fatty Acid Synthesis by Indonesian Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis  

OpenAIRE

Since the primary storage nutrients in diatoms consist of lipid, they are potential for the industrial fatty acid production. High value fatty acids include arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This study aimed to analyze fatty acid synthesis by Chaetoceros gracilis diatom during growth. There was a large increase in lipid yield from 4pg cell-1 mass of lipid per cell at the exponential phase to 283pg cell-1 at stationary phase. The lipid concentrations also increa...

ALBERTA RIKA PRATIWI; DAHRUL SYAH; LINAWATI HARDJITO; LILY MARIA GORETTI PANGGABEAN; MAGGY THENAWIDJAJA SUHARTONO

2009-01-01

199

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

Karla A. Bascuñán

2014-11-01

200

Fatty acid facts, Part I. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for mood?  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemic character of depressive disorders has prompted further research into dietary habits that could make an etiological contribution. One clear change in the diet of the population in developed countries has been the replacement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by saturated fats and trans-fats as well as by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, and the members of the -3 and -6 series are crucial for human health. In biochemical processes there is a competition between these two series. A higher dietary intake of omega-6 results in the excessive incorporation of these molecules in the cell membrane with numerous pathological consequences, presumably due to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. Members of the omega-3 family and their derivatives modulate the inflammatory action. Essential fatty acids play a major role in brain development and brain functioning. The omega-3 series members docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide fluidity to the cell membrane, facilitating certain processes including neurotransmission and ion channel flow. It is thought that omega-3 deficiency during the fetal and postnatal period may have a long-term effect at various levels. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive association between omega-3 deficits and mood disorders. As for treatment, there is convincing evidence that add-on omega-3 fatty acids to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy results in improved mood. There is no evidence that fatty acid monotherapy has a mood-elevating effect, with a possible exception for childhood depression. There are indications that omega-3 has a prophylactic effect on perinatal depression and has a negative effect on natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function. These observations need further study in view of the popularity of self-medication. PMID:19034351

Pawels, E K J; Volterrani, D

2008-10-01

201

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures. No significant interactions with the dietary macronutrient composition were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokineswere not associated with absolute PUFA intake, but the macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) was associated with the n-3/n-6 ratio. CONCLUSION: In humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs, in particular ALA, is beneficially associated with body fatness. The favourable association is, however, not reflected in systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nor is it influenced by macronutrients in the diet.

Lund, Anne-Sofie Q; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

2013-01-01

202

Identification of a two-component fatty acid kinase responsible for host fatty acid incorporation by Staphylococcus aureus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ?fakA and ?fakB1 ?fakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ?fakA strain. The severe deficiency in ?-hemolysin protein secretion in ?fakA and ?fakB1 ?fakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was required to support virulence factor transcription. These data reveal the function of two conserved gene families, their essential role in the incorporation of host fatty acids by Gram-positive pathogens, and connects fatty acid kinase to the regulation of virulence factor transcription in S. aureus. PMID:25002480

Parsons, Joshua B; Broussard, Tyler C; Bose, Jeffrey L; Rosch, Jason W; Jackson, Pamela; Subramanian, Chitra; Rock, Charles O

2014-07-22

203

Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly ?-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

Martemucci Giovanni

2012-09-01

204

Effects of Planktonic Food Organisms on Fatty Acid Composition of Penaeus monodon Fabricius Larvae  

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Full Text Available Penaeus monodon larvae at the first mysis stage were reared to the first post larval stage (PL-1 in 1-L lmhoff cones on three different diets: rotifers enriched with Pavlova lutheri (Rp, rotifers enriched with a commercial micro-encapsulated diet (Re, and a mixture of P. lutheri and Artemia salina nauplii (PA. The 14 essential fatty acids in the larvae that received the three different diets were measured and compared. Profiles of the fatty acids in the larvae and diets were also described. Fatty acid composition of the larvae resembled that of the diets. The total fatty acid per dry weight of larvae was higher in larvae fed PA than that of larvae fed Rp or Re (p<0.01. The highest levels of the four major essential fatty acids – 18:2(n-6, 18:3(n-3, 20:5(n-3, and 22:6(n-3 – were found in the larvae that received Re, PA, and Rp respectively. There was no significant difference in survival rates (86.7 - 92.5% of the larvae receiving different diets (p>0.05. The fatty acid composition of the larvae fed a mixture of Pavlova and Artemia resembled that found in Artemia but not in Pavlova.

Piyapong CHOTIPUNTU

2004-01-01

205

Enhancement of polyunsaturated fatty acid production by cerulenin treatment in polyunsaturated fatty acid-producing bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

When docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-producing Moritella marina strain MP-1 was cultured in the medium containing 0.5 microg cerulenin ml-1, an inhibitor for fatty acid biosynthesis, the cells grew normally, but the content of DHA in the total fatty acids increased from 5.9-19.4%. The DHA yield of M. marina strain MP-1 cells also increased from 4 to 13.7 mg l-1 by cerulenin treatment. The same effect of cerulenin was observed in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-producing Shewanella marinintestina strain IK-1 grown in the medium containing 7.5 microg cerulenin ml-1, and the cerulenin treatment increased the EPA yield from 1.6 to 8 mg l-1. The use of cerulenin is, therefore, advantageous to increase the content of intracellular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in particular PUFA-containing phospholipids in bacterial cells. PMID:15834803

Morita, Naoki; Nishida, Takanori; Tanaka, Mika; Yano, Yutaka; Okuyama, Hidetoshi

2005-03-01

206

21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids...perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids...substitute for or together with the oleic acid permitted by this paragraph....

2010-04-01

207

The anticlastogenic potential of fatty acid methyl esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

To test for possible anticlastogenic effects of fatty acids, the methyl esters of fatty acids--short-chain to long-chain--were examined on busulfan in Chinese hamster bone-marrow cells using the chromosome aberration test. When the experimental animals were treated with fatty acid esters and the mutagen, the chromosome-breaking actions of busulfan were not modulated by the short-chain fatty acids, but the fatty acids from lauric acid (C12) up to nonadecanoic acid (C19) reduced the rate of aberrant metaphases from 9.4 to about 3% at doses of 100 mg/kg and less. Other chemical properties of the fatty acids (saturated or not, number of double bonds, even- or odd-numbered) had no influence on the anticlastogenic effects. The only exceptions to this rule were arachidonic acid, which had no effect, and gamma-linolenic acid, which had no consistent effect on the action of busulfan. PMID:3785274

Renner, H W

1986-12-01

208

Identification of fatty acids in canine seminal plasma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seminal plasma contains various biochemical components associated with sperm function. However, there is limited information regarding the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm. The aim of this study was to identify the fatty acid content in canine seminal plasma using gas chromatography. Twelve ejaculates were studied, the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation and then the lipids were extracted, methylated and analysed by chromatography. The total lipids in the seminal plasma were 2.5 ± 0.3%, corresponding to 85% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 15% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The greatest proportions of SFA were palmitic acid (30.4%), stearic acid (23.4%) and myristic acid (5.3%) and of UFA oleic acid (9.0%). Therefore, the protocols and techniques used enabled the identification of 18 different fatty acids in canine seminal plasma, which constitutes a good method to evaluate and quantify the fatty acid profile in this species. PMID:23398451

Díaz, R; Inostroza, K; Risopatrón, J; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

2014-03-01

209

The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mammalian pineal gland is a prominent secretory organ with a high metabolic activity. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the main secretory product of the pineal gland, efficiently scavenges both the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals counteracting lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. Approximately 25% of the total fatty acids present in the rat pineal lipids are represented by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). These very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play important roles in the pineal gland. In addition to the production of melatonin, the mammalian pineal gland is able of convert these polyunsaturated fatty acids into bioactive lipid mediators. Lipoxygenation is the principal lipoxygenase (LOX) activity observed in the rat pineal gland. Lipoxygenation in the pineal gland is exceptional because no other brain regions express significant LOX activities under normal physiological conditions. The rat pineal gland expresses both 12- and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, producing 12- and 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12- and 15-HpETE) from arachidonic acid and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14- and 17-HdoHE) from docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The rat pineal also produces hepoxilins via LOX pathways. The hepoxilins are bioactive epoxy-hydroxy products of the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 12S-lipoxygenase (12S-LOX) pathway. The two key pineal biochemical functions, lipoxygenation and melatonin synthesis, may be synergistically regulated by the status of n-3 essential fatty acids. PMID:19879958

Catalá, Angel

2010-02-01

210

Long-term effects of perinatal essential fatty acid deficiency on anxiety-related behavior in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary essential fatty acids have been shown to regulate behavioral and cognitive functions in rodents. However, the long-term effect on behavior, besides memory and learning, of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD), i.e., lack of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, during the perinatal period has not been investigated. Therefore, pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were given either an EFAD or an isoenergetic control diet from gestational day 16 and throughout lactation. The female offspring were given standard chow from 3 weeks of age, and at 12 to 14 weeks of age, open-field, object recognition, light-dark transition, elevated plus maze, and social interaction tests were performed. The brain glycerophospholipid fatty acid composition was investigated in 3-week-old and adult offspring by gas chromatography. The differences observed in behavior were indicative of lower anxiety in the EFAD mice compared to controls illustrated by more time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze (+ 41%, p < .05) and in the light compartment in the light-dark transition test (+ 63%, p < .05). The proportion of total n-3 fatty acids, especially 22:6n-3 in the brain, was lower with a compensatory increase in the proportion of total n-6 fatty acids, foremost 22:5n-6, in the EFAD mice compared to controls at 3 weeks of age. In the adult brains the fatty acid composition was normalized. In conclusion, our data show that EFAD during the perinatal period results in short-term alterations of fatty acid composition in brain and decreased anxiety in adult life. PMID:22352789

Palsdottir, Vilborg; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Blomqvist, Maria; Egecioglu, Emil; Olsson, Bob

2012-04-01

211

Effect of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) oil administered by gavage on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stress of mouse liver  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of daily intragastric administration of bullfrog oil (oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic acid-rich oil), corresponding to 0.4% of body weight for four weeks, on fatty acid composition and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and catalase activ [...] ity) in mouse liver. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), biomarkers of tissue injury, were determined in liver homogenates and serum. The proportions of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids, from 37 to 60%) in the total fatty acid content were increased in the liver of the bullfrog oil-treated group (P

L.P., Silva; C.K., Miyasaka; E.F., Martins; J.R.S.A., Leite; Z.G.M., Lacava; R., Curi; R.B., Azevedo.

1491-14-01

212

Measuring Oral Fatty Acid Thresholds, Fat Perception, Fatty Food Liking, and Papillae Density in Humans  

OpenAIRE

Emerging evidence from a number of laboratories indicates that humans have the ability to identify fatty acids in the oral cavity, presumably via fatty acid receptors housed on taste cells. Previous research has shown that an individual's oral sensitivity to fatty acid, specifically oleic acid (C18:1) is associated with body mass index (BMI), dietary fat consumption, and the ability to identify fat in foods. We have developed a reliable and reproducible method to assess oral chemoreception of...

Haryono, Rivkeh Y.; Sprajcer, Madeline A.; Keast, Russell S. J.

2014-01-01

213

Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids  

CERN Document Server

Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd sup 3 sup + glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations.

Ghelmez-Dumitru, M; Piscureanu, M; Sterian, A

2003-01-01

214

Fat Depots, Free Fatty Acids, and Dyslipidemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Body fat deposition and excess free fatty acid (FFA metabolism contribute to dyslipidemia and the adverse health consequences of obesity. Individuals with upper body obesity have impaired functioning of adipocytes, the primary fatty acid storage site. Excess visceral fat is strongly associated with impaired suppression of FFA release in response to insulin, as well as with hypertriglyceridemia and low concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol. High FFA concentrations can induce insulin resistance in muscle and liver. Furthermore, failure of hyperinsulinemia to normally suppress FFA is associated with impaired carbohydrate oxidation and muscle glucose storage, reduced hepatic insulin clearance and elevated triglycerides. Understanding the impact of body fat distribution on FFA metabolism and dyslipidemia is critical for determining the link between overweight and obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. In the current review, we will explore the relationship between adipose tissue, body fat depots, and FFA metabolism.

Jon O. Ebbert

2013-02-01

215

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH{sub 2}O{sub 2}), acetic acid (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}), propionic acid (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}), butyric acid (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}O{sub 2}), n-hexanoic acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}O{sub 2}), n-caprylic acid (C{sub 8}H{sub 16}O{sub 2}), lauric acid (C{sub 12}H{sub 24}O{sub 2}), myristic acid (C{sub 14}H{sub 28}O{sub 2}), palmitic acid (C{sub 16}H{sub 32}O{sub 2}), oleic acid (C{sub 18}H{sub 34}O{sub 2}) and stearic acid (C{sub 18}H{sub 36}O{sub 2}), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Gerward, L. E-mail: gerward@fysik.dtu.dk

2002-10-01

216

Omega 3 fatty acids in psychiatry  

OpenAIRE

Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 LC-PUFAs) are thought to be important for normal dopaminergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Depression is less prevalent in societies with high fish consumption, and depressed patients have significantly lower red blood cell ?-3 levels. Studies with ?-3 supplementation have led to controversial results. A significantly longer remission of bipolar symptomatology has been confirmed from a high-dose DHA and EPA mix...

Pavlovi? D.M.; Pavlovi? Aleksandra M.; La?kovi? Maja

2013-01-01

217

Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ?mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ?Ci [14C]acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest [14C]acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total 14C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 10) relative to 1

218

Lipids, lipoproteins, and fatty acids during infantile marasmus in the Fès area of Morocco.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lipid composition of plasma, including total HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apo AI, apo B, and fatty acids was investigated in 29 malnourished Moroccan children in two groups: 12 children with mild PCM, and 17 with severe PCM. Normally nourished children from the same area (n = 15) served as controls. The severe malnourished children showed a significant reduction of apo AI, total and LDL cholesterol, and an increase in the levels of triglycerides. Furthermore, these children showed a decrease in the saturated fatty acids myristic and stearic acid, and a similar decrease in the essential fatty acid (EFA) metabolites, especially eicosatrienoic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid, with an increase in the oleic and cisvaccenic monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, the PCM group showed only an increase of docosatetraenoic and docosapentaenoic, with an associated decrease in myristic acid and palmitic acid. On the other hand, the indexes of delta 9 desaturase and elongase n-3 and n-6 were increased, and this was found to be related to the severity of the malnutrition. These results suggest that the severity of malnutrition is associated with an increase of desaturation and elongation of PUFA, EFA deficiency and/or peroxidation. PMID:10424250

Houssaïni, F Z; Foulon, T; Iraqi, M R; Payen, N; Groslambert, P

1999-06-01

219

Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in meat fatty acid composition stems mainly from the need to find ways to produce healthier meat, i.e. with a higher ratio of polyunsaturated (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids and a more favourable balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA. In pigs, the drive has been to increase n-3 PUFA in meat and this can be achieved by feeding sources such as linseed in the diet. Only when concentrations of ?-linolenic acid (18:3) approach 3% of neutral lipids or phospholipids are there any adverse effects on meat quality, defined in terms of shelf life (lipid and myoglobin oxidation) and flavour. Ruminant meats are a relatively good source of n-3 PUFA due to the presence of 18:3 in grass. Further increases can be achieved with animals fed grain-based diets by including whole linseed or linseed oil, especially if this is "protected" from rumen biohydrogenation. Long-chain (C20-C22) n-3 PUFA are synthesised from 18:3 in the animal although docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) is not increased when diets are supplemented with 18:3. DHA can be increased by feeding sources such as fish oil although too-high levels cause adverse flavour and colour changes. Grass-fed beef and lamb have naturally high levels of 18:3 and long chain n-3 PUFA. These impact on flavour to produce a 'grass fed' taste in which other components of grass are also involved. Grazing also provides antioxidants including vitamin E which maintain PUFA levels in meat and prevent quality deterioration during processing and display. In pork, beef and lamb the melting point of lipid and the firmness/hardness of carcass fat is closely related to the concentration of stearic acid (18:0). PMID:22063928

Wood, J D; Richardson, R I; Nute, G R; Fisher, A V; Campo, M M; Kasapidou, E; Sheard, P R; Enser, M

2004-01-01

220

The use of radioactive fatty acids for evaluation of fatty acid ?-oxidation in the animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pharmacokinetics and metabolic features of I-radionuclide labelled derivatives of aliphatic carboxylic acid were studied in experiment. The authors show the possibilities of nuclear medicine in deriving information on the activity of fatty acid ?-oxidation in the animal liver and body using compounds with C4=C11 aliphatic chain locus

221

Ageing, adipose tissue, fatty acids and inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A common feature of ageing is the alteration in tissue distribution and composition, with a shift in fat away from lower body and subcutaneous depots to visceral and ectopic sites. Redistribution of adipose tissue towards an ectopic site can have dramatic effects on metabolic function. In skeletal muscle, increased ectopic adiposity is linked to insulin resistance through lipid mediators such as ceramide or DAG, inhibiting the insulin receptor signalling pathway. Additionally, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased with elevated visceral adipose distribution. In ageing, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, with the pathway of differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes becoming impaired; this results in dysfunctional adipocytes less able to store fat and subsequent fat redistribution to ectopic sites. Low grade systemic inflammation is commonly observed in ageing, and may drive the adipose tissue dysfunction, as proinflammatory cytokines are capable of inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. Beyond increased ectopic adiposity, the effect of impaired adipose tissue function is an elevation in systemic free fatty acids (FFA), a common feature of many metabolic disorders. Saturated fatty acids can be regarded as the most detrimental of FFA, being capable of inducing insulin resistance and inflammation through lipid mediators such as ceramide, which can increase risk of developing atherosclerosis. Elevated FFA, in particular saturated fatty acids, maybe a driving factor for both the increased insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation in older adults. PMID:25367746

Pararasa, Chathyan; Bailey, Clifford J; Griffiths, Helen R

2014-11-01

222

Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Guinea Pigs12  

OpenAIRE

It is well established that the nutritional status of the host affects resistance to disease. The impact of dietary lipids on experimental pulmonary infection with mycobacteria has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the role of dietary (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids on immunity and resistance to aerosol infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in guinea pigs. Weanling guinea pigs were fed purified, isocaloric diets differing only in lipid sourc...

Mcfarland, Christine T.; Fan, Yang-yi; Chapkin, Robert S.; Weeks, Bradley R.; Mcmurray, David N.

2008-01-01

223

A possibility of increasing the content of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in broiler meat  

OpenAIRE

Decreased intake of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and loss of balance of n-6/n-3 PUFA in the diet of people in the past 100-150 years may partly explain the occurrence and permanent increase of typical diseases of modern civilization such as cardiovascular, heart disease, allergies and various malignant diseases. The increase input of long chain PUFAn3 in the human diet can be achieved by enriching animal foods (meat, milk and eggs) with long chain ...

Bedekovi? D.; Janje?i? Z.; Pintar J.; Muži? S.

2012-01-01

224

Amelioration of diabesity-induced colorectal ontogenesis by omega-3 fatty acids in mice  

OpenAIRE

Postnatal intestinal ontogenesis in an animal model of diabesity may recapitulate morphological and transduction features of diabesity-induced intestinal dysplasia and its amelioration by endogenous (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Proliferation, differentiation, and transduction aspects of intestinal ontogenesis have been studied here in obese, insulin-resistant db/db mice, in fat-1 transgene coding for desaturation of (n-6) PUFA into (n-3) PUFA, in db/db crossed with fat-1 mice, an...

Algamas-dimantov, Anna; Davidovsky, Dana; Ben-ari, Julius; Kang, Jing X.; Peri, Irena; Hertz, Rachel; Bar-tana, Jacob; Schwartz, Betty

2012-01-01

225

21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely...conditions: (a) They are manufactured from glycerin, lactic acid, and fatty acids conforming with § 172.860...

2010-04-01

226

Nitro-fatty acids: novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Nitro-fatty acids are formed and detected in human plasma, cell membranes, and tissue, modulating metabolic as well as inflammatory signaling pathways. Here we discuss the mechanisms of nitro-fatty acid formation as well as their key chemical and biochemical properties. The electrophilic properties [...] of nitro-fatty acids to activate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways are discussed in detail. A critical issue is the influence of nitroarachidonic acid on prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases, redirecting arachidonic acid metabolism and signaling. We also analyze in vivo data supporting nitro-fatty acids as promising pharmacological tools to prevent inflammatory diseases.

H., Rubbo.

2013-09-06

227

Total cellular fatty acid composition of cultured Pneumocystis carinii.  

OpenAIRE

Oleic acid makes up > 50% of the total fatty acids of Pneumocystis carinii grown on WI-38 cells. Oleic acid levels increased in parallel with increasing trophozoites over 7 days in culture. The fatty acid composition of P. carinii resembles that of certain fungi but differs from those of lung surfactant lipid, host cells, and fetal bovine serum.

Paulsrud, J. R.; Queener, S. F.; Bartlett, M. S.; Smith, J. W.

1993-01-01

228

[Dynamics of fatty acid composition of total lipids during embryonic development of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L].  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamics of fatty acid composition of total lipids was studied for freshwater salmon Salmo salar L. during its embryonic development from blastula (3 hours) up to hatching (108 days) as well as in unfertilized eggs. Stable amount of total and some saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of total lipids was observed during embryonic development. Considerable changes in fatty acid composition were observed at the stage of prelarvae hatching, i.e., significant decrease of (n-6) PUFA (18:2(n-6) and 20:4(n-6)) and (n-3) PUFA and increase of total and some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was registered. Change in saturation ratio of membrane lipids justifies the presence of the biochemical mechanism forwarded on regulation of cell membrane enzymes in accordance with the changes of internal physiological processes taking place in the organism and fluctuations of external environmental conditions or the preparation period (as reproduction). Data on peculiarities of transformation and utilization of fatty acids during salmon embryonic development may be used for understanding of their functional role in the developing organism as well as for assessing the quality of the caviar. PMID:22650081

Murzina, S A; Nefedova, Z A; Ripatti, P O; Nemova, N N; Markova, L V

2012-01-01

229

Studies on the fatty acids of Dictyota species from Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of the fatty acids extracted from three brown algae Dictyota dichotoma (Huds.) Lamour., D. hauckiana Nizam. and D. indica Sond. is reported. Altogether twelve saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were identified as methyl esters by GC-MS, out of which pentadecylic, palmitic and margaric acids occur in all the three species, while others are of selective distribution. D. indica slightly differed in its fatty acid composition as compared to other species. PMID:16414691

Shaikh, W; Shameel, M; Usmanghani, K; Ahmad, V U

1991-07-01

230

Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow  

OpenAIRE

This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation....

Pires, J. A. A.; Grummer, R. R.

2008-01-01

231

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases  

OpenAIRE

The article presents some general facts about omega-3 fatty acids and their role in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the human body. Their beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been known for decades. Since then, several epidemiological and interventional trials showed the value of omega-3 acids in the treatment of certain diseases. Most of them revealed the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids on he...

Vesa, S?tefan C.; Sorin Cri?an; Magdalena Teodorescu

2008-01-01

232

TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS  

OpenAIRE

The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness) of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

Leshukov, K.; Klimov, K.; Kuprina, O.

2012-01-01

233

Occurrence of a furan fatty acid in marine bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fatty acid containing a furan ring was detected in the cellular lipids of marine bacteria, Shewanella putrefaciens, Marinomonas comunis, Enterobacter agglomerans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, etc., which were isolated from the intestinal liquor of fishes. Analytical data indicated that the fatty acid was 10,13-epoxy-11-methyloctadeca-10, 12-dienoic acid. Therefore, we propose that furan fatty acids detected in marine fish are derived not only from marine plants but also from intestinal bacteria of fishes. PMID:7548190

Shirasaka, N; Nishi, K; Shimizu, S

1995-10-01

234

Eccentric contractions affect muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated if prior eccentric contractions, and thus mechanical strain and muscle damage, exert an effect on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats, and whether a possible effect could be attenuated by dietary supplements. Twenty-three rats were randomised to three groups who received chow with added fish oil (n = 8), vitamin C (n = 8) or no supplement (n = 7). After 3 weeks of feeding, calf muscles on one side were stimulated electrically during anaesthesia causing eccentric contractions. Two days later the white gastrocnemius, a part of the stimulated calf muscle, was excised from both legs. In the muscles stimulated to contract eccentrically, compared to the control muscles, the proportion of arachidonic acid, C20:4,n-6 (17.7 +/- 0.6; 16.4 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) and docosapentanoeic acid, C22:5,n-3 (2.9 +/- 0.1 and 2.7 +/- 0.1% of total fatty acids, respectively) was uniformly higher across groups (P <0.02) with no differences between diet groups.The proportion of long chain polyunsaturates was also significantly higher in the eccentrically contracted (39.9 +/- 0.6% of total fatty acids) compared to the control leg (38.2 +/- 0.6% of total fatty acids; P <0.01). In contrast no differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols stored within the muscle. Thus one severe bout of eccentric contractions modulates the fatty acid composition of the muscle membrane phospholipids when compared to a control leg, and supplemental intake of fish oil or vitamin C did not attenuate this effect.

Helge, JØrn Wulff; Therkildsen, K J

2001-01-01

235

21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids...Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty...

2010-04-01

236

ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MIANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MILK  

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Full Text Available In this work was analysedquality of raw cow’s milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of the favourable effect on cholesterol, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat was 36.76 % of which 32.77 % were monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 4.0 %. A high proportion of milk fat formed monounsaturated oleic acid 30.92 %. The proportion of linoleic acid in milk fat was 3.48 % and 0.31 % linoleic acid.

Juraj ?ubo?

2013-02-01

237

Effects of fatty acids on lysis of Streptococcus faecalis.  

OpenAIRE

Palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids at concentrations of 200 nmol/ml all inhibited autolysin activity 80% or more in whole cells or cell-free extracts. This concentration of the saturated fatty acids palmitic acid and stearic acid had little or no effect on the growth of whole cells or protoplasts. However, the unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid induced lysis in both situations. This lytic effect is apparently not related to any uncoupling activity or inhibition of ...

Carson, D. D.; Daneo-moore, L.

1980-01-01

238

Fatty acid composition of individual polar lipid classes from marine macrophytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Major glycolipids [monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG)) and phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG)] as well as betaine lipid 1,2-diacylglycero-O-4'-(N,N,N-tri-methyl)-homoserine (DGTS) were isolated from Anfeltia tobuchiensis (Rhodophyta), Laminaria japonica, Sargassum pallidum (Phaeophyta), Ulva fenestrata (Chlorophyta) and Zostera marina (Embriophyta), harvested in the Sea of Japan. GC analysis of their fatty acid (FA) composition revealed that the n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) shared the most part of the sum of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs in PC and PE compared with glycolipids and PG. In algae, it was related to the prevalence of 20:4n-6 over 20:5n-3 in non-photosynthetic lipids. Percentage of n-6 PUFAs as well as the sum of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs decreased in the following sequence: PC-->PE-->PG. The saturation increased in the lines of MGDG-->DGDG-->SQDG and PC-->PE-->PG. PG was close to SQDG by the level of saturation. Distribution of C(18) and C(20) PUFAs in polar lipids depended on taxonomic position of macrophytes. Balance between C(18) and C(20) PUFAs was preferably shifted to the side of C(20) PUFAs in PC and PE that was observed in contrast to glycolipids and PG from L. japonica containing both series of FAs. The set of major FAs of polar lipid classes can essentially differ from each other and from total lipids of macrophytes. For example, MGDG was found to accumulate characteristic fatty acids 16:4n-3, 16:3n-3, 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3, 20:3n-6 in U. fenestrata, Z. marina, L. japonica and S. pallidum, respectively. PMID:15016568

Sanina, Nina M; Goncharova, Svetlana N; Kostetsky, Eduard Y

2004-03-01

239

Fatty acid composition of cream fermented by probiotic bacteria  

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Full Text Available The production of fatty acids in cream containing one of the three probiotic microorganisms (Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was evaluated at 4±1 °C for up to 15 days. Gas chromatographic analysis of the fatty acid content showed that during storage the amount of linoleic and ?-linolenic acids increased in the probiotic cream fermented with B. lactis compared to the control cream. Probiotic bacteria were all associated with increases in medium chain and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in fermented cream. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids were found in cream fermented with L. acidophilus, while the highest amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in cream fermented with B. lactis. The results of this study demonstrate that probiotic bacteria could improve the fatty acid profile of fermented creams and provide high value-added dairy products.

Lutfiye Yilmaz-Ersan

2013-08-01

240

Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and ?-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat  

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Full Text Available Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA and ?-linolenic acid (LNA for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05 the ?-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in ?-linolenic acid (p < 0.05 decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05 upregulation of PPAR? and PPAR? gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene in the ST muscle for the high ?-linolenic acid group compared with the low ?-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of ?-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPAR? and PPAR?, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

Mahdi Ebrahimi

2014-09-01

241

Opposite Regulation of CD36 Ubiquitination by Fatty Acids and Insulin: EFFECTS ON FATTY ACID UPTAKE*  

OpenAIRE

FAT/CD36 is a membrane scavenger receptor that facilitates long chain fatty acid uptake by muscle. Acute increases in membrane CD36 and fatty acid uptake have been reported in response to insulin and contraction. In this study we have explored protein ubiquitination as one potential mechanism for the regulation of CD36 level. CD36 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) or HEK 293 cells was found to be polyubiquitinated via a process involving both lysines 48 and 63 of ubiquitin. Using CHO c...

Smith, Jill; Su, Xiong; El-maghrabi, Raafat; Stahl, Philip D.; Abumrad, Nada A.

2008-01-01

242

Enrichment of decanoic acid in cuphea fatty acids via distillation  

Science.gov (United States)

The introduction of a new crop often requires the development of new products and purification techniques of either the oil or fatty acids. Most new crops enter the cosmetic market first due to their high rates of returns. However, the cosmetic market often demands high purity and colorless materi...

243

Fatty acid analysis of blood serum, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa of normozoospermic vs. asthenozoospermic males.  

Science.gov (United States)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is found in extremely high levels in human ejaculate with the majority occurring in the spermatozoa. However, the relative concentration of DHA and other fatty acids, in blood serum, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa of asthenozoospermic vs. normozoospermic individuals is not known. We analyzed the phospholipid fatty acid composition of blood serum, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa of normozoospermic men and asthenozoospermic men in order to determine if DHA levels, as well as the levels of other fatty acids, differed. The serum phospholipid DHA levels were similar in the two groups, suggesting similar intakes of dietary DHA. On the other hand, seminal plasma levels of DHA (3.0 vs. 3.7%) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (11.8 vs. 13.5%) were significantly lower in asthenozoospermic vs. normozoospermic men, respectively, while 18:1 (19.0 vs. 16.8%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (24.2 vs. 21.7%) were significantly higher in the asthenozoospermic vs. the normozoospermic men. Spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic men had higher levels of 18:1, 20:0, 22:0, 22:1, and 24:0 than sperm from normozoospermic men, and lower levels of 18:0 and DHA (8.2 vs. 13.8%). Furthermore, total MUFA (19.3 vs. 16.5%) was higher and total PUFA (19.0 vs. 24.0%), n-3 fatty acids (9.3 vs. 14.6%), and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids (1.0 vs. 1.6) were lower in the asthenozoospermic men. Therefore, in asthenozoospermic individuals, lower levels of DHA in the seminal plasma, but not in the blood serum, mimic the decreased concentrations of DHA in the spermatozoa. This suggests that the lower concentrations of spermatozoon DHA in these individuals are due not to dietary differences but to some type of metabolic difference in the asthenozoospermic men. PMID:10529089

Conquer, J A; Martin, J B; Tummon, I; Watson, L; Tekpetey, F

1999-08-01

244

Polyunsaturated fatty acids production by Schizochytrium sp. isolated from mangrove  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five Schizochytrium strains (N-1, N-2, N-5, N-6, and N-9 were isolated from fallen, senescent leaves of mangrove tree (Kandelia candel in Hong Kong. The fungi were cultivated in glucose yeast extract medium containing 60 g of glucose, 10 g of yeast extract and 1 L of 15‰ artificial seawater, initial pH 6.0, with shaking for 52 hr at 25ºC. Biomass yields of 5 isolates ranged from 10.8 to 13.2 g/l. Isolate N-2 yielding the highest dried cell mass at 13.2 g/l and isolate N-9 grew poorly with 10.8 g/l of biomass. EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3 yield was low in most strains, while DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3 was high on the same medium. The contents of DHA in biomass varied: 174.9, 203.6, 186.1, 171.3 and 157.9 mg/g of dried-biomass for Schizochytrium isolate N-1, N-2, N-5, N-6, and N-9, respectively. Isolate N-2 had the highest proportion of DHA in fatty acid profile with 15:0, 28.7%; 16:0, 21.3%; 18:0, 0.9%; 18:3, 0.2%; 20:4, 0.3%; 20:5, 0.9%; 22:4, 6.7%; 22:6, 36.1%; and others, 9.3%. The salinity range for growth of Schizochytrium isolates was from 0-30‰ with optimum salinity for growth between 20-30‰.

K.W. Fan

2003-09-01

245

The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. Methods GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA, DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (74–77% linoleic acid. Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 8–12 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR-? and retinoid × receptor-? (RXR-? were determined in a set of 18 animals per group. Results DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-? or RXR-? expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression.

Abdi Khosro

2008-11-01

246

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based profiling of serum fatty acids in acetaminophen-induced liver injured rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we have developed and validated a simple, accurate and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of 18 fatty acids in rat serum, including both non-esterified (NEFA) and esterified (EFA) fatty acids, and subsequent analysis of fatty acid metabolic profiles. This novel method was used to evaluate the serum levels of fatty acids from vehicle- and acetaminophen (APAP)-treated rats. Serum levels of 7 NEFAs and 14 EFAs were significantly higher in APAP-treated rats 24 h after APAP administration at 1500 mg kg?¹ when compared with vehicle-treated controls. Control and APAP-treated rats could be differentiated based on their metabolic profiles using two different chemometric analysis methods: principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). More importantly, we identified the following NEFAs as potential biomarkers of APAP-induced liver injury: oleic acid (C18:1n9), linoleic acid (C18:2n6), docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n6). The serum concentrations of C18:1n9, C18:2n6 and C22:6n3 were all positively correlated (r?>?0.8; Pearson's correlation analysis) with the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). These results suggest that a novel targeted metabolomics method based on the metabolic profiling of fatty acids analyzed by GC-MS provides exact serum concentrations of fatty acids as well as a prospective methodology to evaluate chemically induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:23239188

Xiong, Yin-Hua; Xu, Ying; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao

2014-02-01

247

Fatty Acid Profiles of Western Canadian Bison (Bison bison Meat  

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Full Text Available Western Canadian bison meat is renowned for its natural healthfulness; however, studies on the dietary effects on the fatty acid (FA profile are limited. Herein, we evaluated the FA profiles of retail bison (longissimus dorsi representing grain-fed (Grain, grass-fed (Grass and grass-fed plus oat and pea screening supplement from early (Early-con or late (Late-con season harvested finishing regimes. Bison meat contained less than 30 mg fat/g meat, and was lowest for Early-con bison. Proportions of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA were greatest in Early-con and lowest for Late-con bison. Early-con bison had the greatest proportion of omega-6 (n-6 FA and Late-con bison the lowest, yet as mg/g meat, total n-6 content did not differ. In contrast, Grass and Early-con bison had greater proportions of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3 and total omega-3 (n-3 FA. The n-3 content for Grain, Grass, Early-con and Late-con bison were 38, 90, 69 and 69 mg/100 g meat, respectively. The 3:1 n-6/n-3 ratios of Grass, Early-con and Late-con bison were superior to the 7:1 ratio of Grain bison. Proportions of potentially beneficial biohydrogenation intermediates (BI, including t11-18:1 and c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid, were greater for Early-con and Late-con bison. Proportions of cis-monounsaturated FA were similar for both Grain and Grass bison; however, Late-con was greater than Early-con bison. Cumulatively, Grass, Early-con and Late-con bison were more desirable compared to Grain on account of greater proportions of n-3 FA and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio. Furthermore, seasonal supplementation enhanced the BI proportions with potential beneficial bioactivity in Early-con and Late-con bison.

Tyler D. Turner

2014-07-01

248

Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of Three Phytomonas Species  

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Full Text Available Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine.

Celso Vataru Nakamura

1999-07-01

249

Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of Three Phytomonas Species  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linoleni [...] c were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine.

Celso Vataru, Nakamura; Luciana, Waldow; Sandra Regina, Pelegrinello; Tânia, Ueda-Nakamura; Benício Alves de, Abreu Filho; Benedito Prado, Dias Filho.

1999-07-01

250

Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool

251

Characterization of the fatty acid synthetase system of Curtobacterium pusillum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Curtobacterium pusillum contains 11-cyclohexylundecanoic acid as a major component of cellular fatty acids. A trace amount of 13-cyclohexyltridecanoic acid is also present. Fatty acids other than omega-cyclohexyl fatty acids present are 13-methyltetradecanoic, 12-methyltetradecanoic, n-pentadecanoic, 14-methylpentadecanoic, 13-methylpentadecanoic, n-hexadecanoic, 15-methylhexadecanoic, 14-methylhexadecanoic, and n-heptadecanoic acids. The fatty acid synthetase system of this bacterium was studied. Various 14C-labeled precursors were added to the growth medium and the incorporation of radioactivity into cellular fatty acids was analyzed. Sodium [14C]acetate and [14C]glucose were incorporated into almost all species of cellular fatty acids, the incorporation into 11-cyclohexylundecanoic acid being predominant. [14C]Isoleucine was incorporated into 12-methyltetradecanoic and 14-methylhexadecanoic acids: [14C]leucine into 13-methyltetradecanoic and 15-methylhexadecanoic acids; and [14C]valine into 14-methylpentadecanoic acid. [14C]-Shikimic acid was incorporated almost exclusively into omega-cyclohexyl fatty acids. The fatty acid synthetase activity of the crude enzyme preparation of C. pusillum was reconstituted on the addition of acyl carrier protein. This synthetase system required NADPH and preferentially utilized cyclohexanecarbonyl-CoA as a primer. The system was also able to use branched- and straight-chain acyl-CoAs with 4 to 6 carbon atoms effectively as primers but was unable to use acetyl-CoA. However, if acetyl acyl carrier protein was used as the priming substrate, the system produced straight-chain fatty acids. The results imply that the specificity of the initial acyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein acyltransferase dictates the structure of fatty acids synthesized and that the enzymes catalyzing the subsequent chain-elongation reactions do not have the same specificity restriction. PMID:3528138

Kawaguchi, A; Uemura, N; Okuda, S

1986-06-01

252

Evolution of fatty acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L. mesocarp at different stages of ripening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of medlar (Mespilus germanica L. varied significantly among the ripening stages sampled at 157, 172 and 187 DAFs (days after full bloom. Twenty-one different fatty acids were detected in preclimacteric fruit and 17 when the climacteric began. Principal fatty acids, determined in medlar fruit harvested from October (157 and 172 DAFs to November (187 DAF were mainly palmitic acid (16:0, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, and a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. While the content of saturated fatty acids [palmitic acid (16:0 and stearic acid (18:0] increased, the content of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and linolenic acid (18:3n-3] decreased through ripening, in parallel with pulp darkening. The percentage of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in ripe, hard fruits was 60.0 and 13.5 % of dry wt at 157 DAF which decreased throughout ripening, remaining at 28.7 and 5.6 % of dry wt, respectively, in the fully softened and darkened pulp. A marked decreases in the double bond index, percentage of unsaturation and the ratio of unsaturation/saturation were also seen throughout the medlar ripening. The contribution of unsaturated fatty acid to the total fatty acid content decreased markedly as the medlar fruit became progressively softer and darkened.La composición en ácidos grasos del níspero (Mespilus germanica L. varió significativamente entre los estados de maduración muestreados a los 157, 172 y 187 DAFs (días después de la floración. Veinte y un ácidos grasos diferentes fueron detectados en el fruto preclimatérico y 17 cuando comenzó el climaterio. Los ácidos grasos principales encontrados en nísperos, recolectados desde Octubre (157 y 172 DAFs hasta Noviembre (187 DAF, fueron principalmente ácido palmítico (16:0, ácido linoléico (18:2n-6, y ácido a-linolénico (18:3n-3. En tanto que el contenido en ácidos grasos saturados (ácido palmítico (16:0 y ácido esteárico (18:0 aumentó, el contenido en ácidos grasos esenciales (ácido linoleico (18:2n-6 y ácido linolénico (18:3n-6 disminuyó durante la maduración, en paralelo con el oscurecimiento de la pulpa. El porcentaje de ácido linoleico y de ácido a-linolénico en frutos maduros sin reblandecer fue de 60.0 y 13.5 % del peso seco a 157 DAF, disminuyendo durante la maduración, y permaneciendo a 28.7 y 56 % del peso seco, respectivamente, en la pulpa completamente blanda y oscura. También se observó durante la maduración del níspero una marcada disminución en el número de dobles enlaces, en el tanto por ciento de instauración y en la relación instauración / saturación. La contribución de los ácidos grasos insaturados al contenido de ácidos grasos totales disminuyó marcadamente cuando el níspero comenzó progresivamente a reblandecerse y oscurecerse.

Strnad, M.

2002-09-01

253

Authentication of farmed and wild turbot (Psetta maxima) by fatty acid and isotopic analyses combined with chemometrics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid composition and stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) were determined in muscle tissue of turbot (Psetta maxima). The multivariate analysis of the data was performed to evaluate their utility in discriminating wild and farmed fish. Wild (n=30) and farmed (n=30) turbot of different geographical origins (Denmark, The Netherlands, and Spain) were sampled from March 2006 to February 2007. The application of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) to analytical data demonstrated the combination of fatty acids and isotopic measurements to be a promising method to discriminate between wild and farmed fish and between wild fish of different geographical origin. In particular, IRMS (Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) alone did not permit us to separate completely farmed from wild samples, resulting in some overlaps between Danish wild and Spanish farmed turbot. On the other hand, fatty acids alone differentiated between farmed and wild samples by 18:2n-6 but were not able to distinguish between the two groups of wild turbot. When applying LDA isotope ratios, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, and 20:4n-6 fatty acids were decisive to distinguish farmed from wild turbot of different geographical origin, while delta(15)N, 18:2n-6, and 20:1n-11 were chosen to classify wild samples from different fishing zones. In both cases, 18:2n-6 and delta(15)N were determinant for classification purposes. We would like to emphasize that IRMS produces rapid results and could be the most promising technique to distinguish wild fish of different origin. Similarly, fatty acid composition could be used to easily distinguish farmed from wild samples. PMID:18380461

Busetto, Maria L; Moretti, Vittorio M; Moreno-Rojas, Jose M; Caprino, Fabio; Giani, Ivan; Malandra, Renato; Bellagamba, Federica; Guillou, Claude

2008-04-23

254

Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of fatty acids against phytopathogenic fungi. Two pot experiments were conducted by mixing palmitic and oleic acids in the soil in which poor plant growth was observed. In addition, the antifungal activities of nine fatty acids (butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid) against four phytopathogenic fungi: Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, were assessed by measuring mycelial growth and spore germination via Petri dish assay. The results of the pot experiments showed that the mixture of palmitic and oleic acids enhanced the growth of the seedlings of continuous-tomato and continuous-cucumber. Except for oleic acid, in the Petri dish assay, the fatty acids tested were observed to inhibit the mycelial growth of one or more tested fungi. In addition to the suppression of mycelial growth, butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, and palmitic acid showed an inhibitory effect against spore germination and the extent of inhibition varied with both the type of fatty acids, and the fungi. In particular, capric acid displayed strong inhibitory effect against C. lagenarium on the mycelial growth and spore germination. The saturated fatty acids, i.e. palmitic acids, showed stronger antifungal activity than the unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. oleic acid. It suggests that fatty acids might be applicable to exploring for alternative approaches to integrated control of phytopathogens. PMID:18443921

Liu, Siyun; Ruan, Weibin; Li, Jing; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jingan; Gao, Yubao; Wang, Jingguo

2008-08-01

255

Fatty acids are required for epidermal permeability barrier function.  

OpenAIRE

The permeability barrier is mediated by a mixture of ceramides, sterols, and free fatty acids arranged as extracellular lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum. Whereas prior studies have shown that cholesterol and ceramides are required for normal barrier function, definitive evidence for the importance of nonessential fatty acids is not available. To determine whether epidermal fatty acid synthesis also is required for barrier homeostasis, we applied 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic aci...

Mao-qiang, M.; Elias, P. M.; Feingold, K. R.

1993-01-01

256

Fatty acids intake among diverse ethnic groups in Indonesia  

OpenAIRE

The use of dietary pattern specifically fatty acids intake should prove to be an informative and powerful means to augment our understanding of the role of diet in chronic disease particularly CHD. Cross sectional study was implemented to describe the nutrients intake specifically fatty acids intake of 4 (four) ethnic groups in Indonesia, such as Minangkabau, Sundanese, Javanese and Buginese. The percentage of saturated fatty acid (SAFA) to total energy intakes were around 20%. The percent...

Hatma, Ratna D.; Widjaja Lukito; Rumawas, Yohanna S. P.

2005-01-01

257

TRPA1 Is a Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Sensor in Mammals  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acids can act as important signaling molecules regulating diverse physiological processes. Our understanding, however, of fatty acid signaling mechanisms and receptor targets remains incomplete. Here we show that Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a cation channel expressed in sensory neurons and gut tissues, functions as a sensor of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in vitro and in vivo. PUFAs, containing at least 18 carbon atoms and three unsaturated bonds, activate TRP...

Motter, Arianne L.; Ahern, Gerard P.

2012-01-01

258

Syntrophic degradation of fatty acids by methanogenic communities  

OpenAIRE

In methanogenic environments degradation of fatty acids is a key process in the conversion of organic matter to methane and carbon dioxide. For degradation of fatty acids with three or more carbon atoms syntrophic communities are required. This chapter describes the general features of syntrophic degradation in methanogenic environments and the properties of the microorganisms involved. Syntrophic fatty acid-degrading communities grow at the minimum of what is thermodynamically possible and t...

Stams, A. J. M.; Worm, Petra; Sousa, D. Z.; Alves, M. M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

2012-01-01

259

Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas  

OpenAIRE

The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available die...

Ivan?ica Delaš; Tanja Ka?unko; Jasna Beganovi?; Frane Delaš

2005-01-01

260

Dietary shochu kasu alleviates fatty liver induced by orotic acid  

OpenAIRE

The effects of dietary shochu kasu (5%) on orotic acid-induced fatty liver were studied in rats. Liver triglyceride content of orotic acid-fed rats increased by 5-fold in comparison to basal group. Shochu kasu reduced triglyceride content by two-third. The activities of fatty acid synthase and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase significantly decreased that was approximately by 35% and 20%, respectively. The serum lipid levels however were nearly unchanged. The alleviation of fatty liver in rats...

Yohanes Buang, Pius D. Ola

2010-01-01

261

Effects of Diets High in Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Socially Induced Stress Responses in Guinea Pigs  

Science.gov (United States)

Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), such as omega-3 and omega-6 poly- and omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients and major components of neuronal cell membranes. They play a major role in modulating brain functions and physiology and may therefore diminish behavioral and physiological stress reactions in corroboration with decreased cortisol concentrations. Functionally, cortisol itself can modulate several behaviors and also the fatty acid metabolism in the long term. But only little is known about the behavioral and physiological influences of dietary UFAs in a social group, where individuals are regularly exposed to stressful situations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary UFAs on saliva cortisol concentrations and behavioral responses in socially confronted guinea pigs. Three groups of animals were additionally supplemented with 500 mg chia seeds (high in omega-3), walnuts (high in omega-6), or peanuts (high in omega-9) per kg bodyweight each day and compared to a control group. During social confrontation saliva cortisol concentrations significantly increased in all groups, which was accompanied by a loss in bodyweight. However, cortisol levels remained lower in the chia and walnut groups compared to controls. Additionally, the walnut group displayed significantly increased locomotion, while no differences between groups were detected in socio-positive, sexual, or aggressive behaviors. Total plasma omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were significantly increased in the corresponding groups, due to the dietary supplementations. However, a significant decrease in plasma omega-3 and an increase in plasma n-6 fatty acids were detected in the chia group when comparing the measurements before and after social confrontation. We conclude that both omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids can diminish behavioral and physiological stress responses to the social environment, enabling individuals to cope with social stressors, but at the expense of plasma derived omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:25551380

Nemeth, Matthias; Millesi, Eva; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Wallner, Bernard

2014-01-01

262

BIOCONVERSION OF N-6 AND N-3 PUFAS BY BACILLUS MEGATERIUM ALA2  

Science.gov (United States)

We have been working on producing value-added products from vegetable oils by biocatalysis including healthy oils and new oxygenated fatty acids. Oxygenated fatty acids can be used as specialty chemicals and biomedicals. Bacillus megaterium ALA2 (NRRL B-21660) converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to value-...

263

Maternal dietary fat affects the LT muscle fatty acid composition of progeny at weaning and finishing stages in pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted to investigate whether maternal dietary fat affects the fatty acid composition of the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle in offspring pigs at weaning and finishing stages. Fourteen sows were randomly assigned to a control or a high fat (HF) group. The HF sows received a diet containing 8% corn oil starting seven days before farrowing until weaning. The results showed that a high-fat diet significantly increased the contents of serum-lipid-related indexes in the sows. Although the triglyceride content did not change, the C18:2n-6 content was higher in the colostrum and in the LT muscle of offspring pigs at both investigated stages. The total n-6 content and the n-6/n-3 ratio generally increased. This study demonstrated that maternal dietary fat during lactation affects the fatty acid composition of the LT muscle of progeny at weaning, and can have persistent effects in later life. PMID:24334032

Ci, Le; Sun, Hailin; Huang, Yanping; Guo, Jun; Albrecht, Elke; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

2014-03-01

264

21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1290 Fatty acids... (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

2010-04-01

265

High Homogeneity of the Yersinia pestis Fatty Acid Composition  

OpenAIRE

The cellular fatty acid compositions of 29 strains of Yersinia pestis representing the global diversity of this species have been analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography to investigate the extent of fatty acid polymorphism in this microorganism. After culture standardization, all Y. pestis strains studied displayed some major fatty acids, namely, the 12:0, 14:0, 3-OH-14:0, 16:0, 16:1?9cis, 17:0-cyc, and 18:1?9trans compounds. The fatty acid composition of the various isolates studied was extr...

Leclercq, Alexandre; Guiyoule, Annie; El Lioui, Mohamed; Carniel, Elisabeth; Decallonne, Jacques

2000-01-01

266

Dietary shochu kasu alleviates fatty liver induced by orotic acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of dietary shochu kasu (5% on orotic acid-induced fatty liver were studied in rats. Liver triglyceride content of orotic acid-fed rats increased by 5-fold in comparison to basal group. Shochu kasu reduced triglyceride content by two-third. The activities of fatty acid synthase and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase significantly decreased that was approximately by 35% and 20%, respectively. The serum lipid levels however were nearly unchanged. The alleviation of fatty liver in rats with shochu kasu, therefore, was associated with the inhibition of fatty acid synthase and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activities.

Yohanes Buang, Pius D. Ola, Teruyoshi Yanagita

2010-06-01

267

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and FFAR4  

OpenAIRE

The beneficial roles of omega-3 fatty acids (?3-FAs) on obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic diseases are well known. Most of these effects can be explained by their anti-inflammatory effects, triggered through their receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) activation. Although the whole mechanism of action is not fully described yet, it has been shown that stimulation of ?3-FA to GPR120 is followed by receptor phosphorylation. This makes GPR120 be capable of interacting t...

Da YoungOh

2014-01-01

268

Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking  

OpenAIRE

We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0900 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass?1·min?1) clamp (0800–1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-13C]...

Kanaley, Jill A.; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T.; Guo, Zengkui; Jensen, Michael D.

2013-01-01

269

Acylation of cellular proteins with endogenously synthesized fatty acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of cellular proteins contain covalently bound fatty acids. Previous studies have identified myristic acid and palmitic acid covalently linked to protein, the former usually attached to proteins by an amide linkage and the latter by ester or thio ester linkages. While in a few instances specific proteins have been isolated from cells and their fatty acid composition has been determined, the most frequent approach to the identification of protein-linked fatty acids is to biosynthetically label proteins with fatty acids added to intact cells. This procedure introduces possible bias in that only a selected fraction of proteins may be labeled, and it is not known whether the radioactive fatty acid linked to the protein is identical with that which is attached to the protein when the fatty acid is derived from endogenous sources. We have examined the distribution of protein-bound fatty acid following labeling with (/sup 3/H)acetate, a general precursor of all fatty acids, using BC/sup 3/H1 cells (a mouse muscle cell line) and A431 cells (a human epidermoid carcinoma). Myristate, palmitate, and stearate account for essentially all of the fatty acids linked to protein following labeling with (/sup 3/H)acetate, but at least 30% of the protein-bound palmitate in these cells was present in amide linkage. In BC3H1 cells, exogenous palmitate becomes covalently bound to protein such that less than 10% of the fatty acid is present in amide linkage. These data are compatible with multiple protein acylating activities specific for acceptor protein fatty acid chain length and linkage.

Towler, D.; Glaser, L.

1986-02-25

270

Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english It is widely accepted that the consumption of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatizat [...] ion. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid was found in all but one species. Additionally, some species contained docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid of the ?-6 series, was present in all studied macroalgae. Fucus spiralis L. exhibited the highest amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ?-3 and ?-6 series. The ?-6/?-3 ratio in half of the studied species was lower than 1. This information reinforces the potential application of some brown macroalgae as dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Graça, Silva; Renato B., Pereira; Patrícia, Valentão; Paula B., Andrade; Carla, Sousa.

2013-08-01

271

Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS, have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

Gao Qianqian

2012-03-01

272

[Analysis of fatty acids in tissues of Penaeus vannamei cultured in sea- and fresh-waters by ultrasonic extraction-capillary gas chromatography].  

Science.gov (United States)

The components and contents of fatty acids in the muscle and the hepatopancreas of Penaeus vannamei cultured in the ponds of sea- and fresh-waters were determined. Lipid was extracted from tissues with "Folch" solvent under ultrasonication, and esterified with KOH-BF3 method followed by capillary gas chromatography. A fused-silica BPX70 capillary column (60 m x 0.25 mm i.d.) and flame ionization detector (FID) were employed. Fatty acids, more importantly, the positional isomers, were identified by applying equivalent chain length (ECLT) values based on even-chain saturated fatty acid methyl ester standards. Area normalization method can be used to quantify the contents of the fatty acids. The results indicated that between the two kinds of shrimps the nature of major fatty acids were the same, but there were more differences in the contents of major fatty acids. In all the tested fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) were majority and the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids were obviously higher than monounsaturated fatty acids. In the muscle lipid of the two kinds of shrimps, the total contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexenoic acid (DHA) (highly unsaturated fatty acids) were very high, which reached to over 20%. In the hepatopancreas, the total contents of EPA and DHA were lower (ranged from 11% to 17%). Contents of n-6 cluster UFA in fresh-water shrimps were higher than that in sea-water shrimps. The value of (n-3)/(n-6) of sea-water shrimps was higher than that of fresh-water shrimps. PMID:16013568

Lu, Jie; Huang, Kai; Zang, Ning; Li, Junfang; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yong

2005-03-01

273

Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures, a suitable system for polyunsaturated fatty acid studies and production  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic and health promoting role of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs from fish, i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 are well known. These same benefits may however be shared by some of their precursors, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3. In order to obtain alternative sources for the large-scale production of PUFAs, new searches are being conducted focusing on higher plants oils which can contain these n-3 and n-6 C18 precursors, i.e. SDA and GLA (18:3n-6, ?-linolenic acid. Results The establishment of the novel Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures represents a powerful tool in order to research the accumulation and metabolism of fatty acids (FAs in a plant particularly rich in GLA and SDA. Furthermore, this study constitutes the first example of a Boraginaceae species hairy root induction and establishment for FA studies and production. The dominant PUFAs, 18:2n-6 (LA, linoleic acid and 18:3n-6 (GLA, accounted for about 50% of total FAs obtained, while the n-3 PUFAs, 18:3n-3 (ALA, ?-linolenic acid and 18:4n-3 (SDA, represented approximately 5% of the total. Production of FAs did not parallel hairy root growth, and the optimal productivity was always associated with the highest biomass density during the culture period. Assuming a compromise between FA production and hairy root biomass, it was determined that sampling times 4 and 5 gave the most useful FA yields. Total lipid amounts were in general comparable between the different hairy root lines (29.75 and 60.95 mg/g DW, with the major lipid classes being triacylglycerols. The FAs were chiefly stored in the hairy roots with very minute amounts being released into the liquid nutrient medium. Conclusions The novel results presented here show the utility and high potential of E. acanthocarpum hairy roots. They are capable of biosynthesizing and accumulating a large range of polyunsaturated FAs, including the target GLA and SDA fatty acids in appreciable quantities.

Ravelo Ángel G

2011-04-01

274

The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat and blood plasma in pruritic dogs and dogs without skin problems.  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in subcutaneous fat and the relative amounts of PUFAs in plasma in two groups of dogs. Group 1 included dogs with a good skin and coat condition. Group 2 was comprised of dogs with pruritus and compatible clinical signs of atopy. The fatty acid composition of the total lipid fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography. In subcutaneous fat, the concentration of adrenic acid (22:4n-6) was lower...

Taugbøl, O.; Baddaky-taugbøl, B.; Saarem, K.

1998-01-01

275

[Raman spectrometry of several saturated fatty acids and their salts].  

Science.gov (United States)

Saturated fatty acids and their salts widely exist in the nature, and they are well known as important chemical materials. Their infrared spectra have been studied in detail. Nevertheless, few works on the Raman spectra characteristics of saturated fatty acids and their salts have been published before. Man-made crystals of acetic acid, stearic acid, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, calcium stearate and magnesium stearate were investigated by means of Fourier transform Raman spectrometry for purpose of realizing their Raman spectra. Positive ions can cause the distinctions between the spectra of saturated fatty acids and their salts. The differences in mass and configuration between Ca2+ and Mg2+ result in the Raman spectra's diversity between calcium and magnesium salts of saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it is considered that the long carbon chain weakened the influence of different positive ions on the salts of saturated fatty acids. PMID:17260749

Luo, Man; Guan, Ping; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yan

2006-11-01

276

Interaction of rat liver microsomes containing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids with fatty acid binding protein: peroxidation effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the studies described here rat liver microsomes containing labeled palmitic, stearic, oleic or linoleic acids were incubated with fatty acid binding protein (FABP) and the rate of removal of 14C-labeled fatty acids from the membrane by the soluble protein was measured using a model system. More unsaturated than saturated fatty acids were removed from native liver mircrosomes incubated with similar amounts of FABP. The in vitro peroxidation of microsomal membranes mediated by ascorbate-Fe++, modified its fatty acid composition with a considerable decrease of the peroxidizability index. These changes in the microsomes facilitated the removal of oleic and linoeic acids by FABP, but the removal of palmitic and stearic acids was not modified. This effect is proposed to result from a perturbation of membrane structure following peroxidation with release of free fatty acids from susceptible domains. PMID:7845387

Catalá, A; Arcemis, C; Cerruti, A

1994-08-31

277

Erythrocyte and platelet phospholipid fatty acids as markers of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: comparison with serum levels of sialic acid, TPS and Cyfra 21-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phospholipid fatty acid profiles of erythrocytes and platelets from fifty patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, followed by "ROC" curves analysis to gain novel biomarker information. Sialic acid and cytokeratins were also examined. Potentially useful fatty acid markers: Erythrocytes: phosphatidylcholine, 18:2n6 and 20:4n6; phosphatidylethanolamine, 22:4n6 and 22:6n3 + 24:1n9. Platelets: phosphatidylcholine, 22.0; phosphatidylethanolamine, 22:5n3 + 24:0. At the cut-off value to obtain maximum accuracy, the best biomarkers were found in platelets: phosphatidylserine + phosphatidylinositol (PS + PI), 21:0; sphyngomyelin: 20:1n9 and 22:1n9. All these fatty acids showed similar/higher diagnostic yields than the commonly used markers sialic acid or cytokeratins. PMID:18443962

de Castro, Javier; Rodríguez, Marina C; Martínez-Zorzano, Vicenta S; Hernández-Hernández, Angel; Llanillo, Marcial; Sánchez-Yagüe, Jesús

2008-05-01

278

Elongation of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids by human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human skin fibroblasts readily incorporate exogenous arachidonate (20:4(n-6)) and eicosapentaenoate (20:5(n-3)) into cellular phospholipids and triacylglycerol. The extent of incorporation of 1.25 ?M [14C]20:4(n-6) and [14C]20:5(n-3) from culture medium with delipidized serum protein is similar, 20% in 1 hr increasing to 60-70% within 8 hr. Elongation of incorporated [14C]20:5(n-3) to [14C]22:5(n-3) is extensive, 40% by 8 hr and 85% by 48 hr. Elongation of [14C]20:4(n-6) to [14C]22:4(n-6) is 1$C]20:5(n-3) and plateaus at ?20% of incorporated 14C-fatty acid. Although incorporated, exogenous 22:4(n-6) is not an effective inhibitor of the elongation of [14C]arachidonate; however, exogenous 20:5(n-3) is inhibitory, with an ID50 of 5 ?M. With exogenous concentrations of [14C]arachidonate from 0.4 - 10 ?M, the percentage incorporated in 24 hr remains relatively constant. By contrast, the extent of elongation of incorporated [14C]arachidonate increases from 12% at 0.4 ?M to 43% at 10 ?M. Under these conditions, elongation of incorporated [14C]20:5(n-3) is ?75%. Thus, in these cells, selectivity of the elongation system results in differential metabolism of 20-carbon n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. Furthermore, arachidonate appears to act as a positive modulator of its own elongation

279

Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids in human and animal health: An African perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipids are essential for plant and animal development, growth and nutrition and play critical roles in health and reproduction. The dramatic increase in the human population has put increasing pressure on human food sources, especially of those sources of food which contain adequate levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and more importantly, sources of food which have favorable ratios of the n-3 (18-carbon, ?-linolenic acid, ALA) to n-6 (18-carbon linoleic acid, LA) PUFAs. Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of the n-3 PUFAs in diets as well as potentially negative effects of excessive levels of n-6 PUFAs in diets. This review discusses these human health issues relating to changes in diets based on environmental and industrial changes as well as strategies in East Africa for improving lipid composition of food using indigenous sources. PMID:25458696

Dunbar, B S; Bosire, R V; Deckelbaum, R J

2014-12-01

280

Fatty acid biosynthesis VII. Substrate control of chain-length of products synthesised by rat liver fatty acid synthetase  

OpenAIRE

- 1. Gas-liquid and paper chromatography have been used to determine the chain-lengths of fatty acids synthesised by purified rat liver fatty acid synthetase from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA, [1,3-14C2]malonyl-CoA and from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA plus partially purified rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase. - 2. A wide range (C4:0–C18:0) of fatty acids was synthesised and the proportions were modified by substrate concentrations in the same manner as for purified rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase. - 3...

Hansen, Heinz Johs Max; Carey, E. M.; Dils, R.

2011-01-01

281

Fatty Acid Status and Its Relationship to Cognitive Decline and Homocysteine Levels in the Elderly  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 series, are known for their protective effects. Considering that cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for dementia, which is common at aging, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fatty acid status in the elderly was associated with cognitive function and cardiovascular risk. Forty-five elderly persons (age ?60 years) were included and divided into two groups based on their Mini-Mental Status Examination score adjusted for educational level: the case group (n = 12) and the control group (n = 33). Serum fatty acid composition, homocysteine (Hcy), hs-CRP, lipid profile and different cognitive domains were evaluated. The case group, characterized by reduced cognitive performance, showed higher levels of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7 fatty acids and lower levels of 22:0, 24:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (DHA) and total PUFAs compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The n-6/n-3 ratio was elevated in both study groups, whereas alterations in Hcy, hs-CRP and lipid profile were observed in the case group. Cognitive function was positively associated with the 24:1n-9, DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while 14:0, 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio and Hcy were inversely associated. In addition, n-3 PUFAs, particularly DHA, were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk, assessed by Hcy levels in the elderly. PMID:25221976

Baierle, Marília; Vencato, Patrícia H.; Oldenburg, Luiza; Bordignon, Suelen; Zibetti, Murilo; Trentini, Clarissa M.; Duarte, Marta M. M. F.; Veit, Juliana C.; Somacal, Sabrina; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Grune, Tilman; Breusing, Nicolle; Garcia, Solange C.

2014-01-01

282

Total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed catla catla fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This experimental work was aimed to study the moisture content, total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed freshwater major carp Catla catla of three different weight categories designated as W{sub 1} (601-900g), W{sub 2} (901- 1200)g and W{sub 3} (1201-1500g). Seven fish specimens of each of the three weight categories of wild and farmed Catla catla were obtained from Trimu Head, Jhang and Fish Hatchery, Satiana Road and Faisalabad, respectively. The fish were dissected to remove the liver and after weighing, liver samples were prepared and subjected to chemical analysis. Wild Catla catla liver had a significantly (p <0.05) higher moisture content as compared to the farmed species. Farmed Catla catla deposited significantly (p < 0.05) higher lipid contents in liver. Proportions of saturated fatty acids varied irregularly in the lipids of the liver from both wild and farmed Catla catla. Saturated fatty acids C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:0 and C22:0 were identified with considerable percentages in the liver of Catla catla from both habitats and monounsaturated fatty acid C18:1 was found in considerable amounts in the liver of both major carp. Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as C18:3 (n-6) and C20: 2 (n-6) were detected in the liver of the wild fish of W{sub 2} and W{sub 3} and was similar in the W{sub 3} weight category of the farmed species. (Author) 22 refs.

Hassan, M.; Shaihid chatha, S. A.; Tahira, I.; Hussain, B.

2010-07-01

283

Effects of different cooking methods on fatty acid profiles in four freshwater fishes from the Laurentian Great Lakes region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish is often promoted as a healthy part of the human diet due its high content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Previous studies have shown that cooked fish can have different fatty acid profiles than raw fillets, depending on the cooking method and fish species. In this study, the fatty acid content of broiled, baked or fried skinless, boneless fillets of four fish species from the tributaries of the Great Lakes, or connecting rivers, was compared to fatty acid profiles in raw sections from the same fillet. Cooking treatments had little effect on n-3 fatty acid content; however, fried treatments generally had higher n-6 and MUFA content, which is likely a result of the cooking oil used (canola). Broiling or baking is generally the most healthy option presented in this study, as these methods result in lower levels of less-favourable fatty acids; however, the choice of cooking oil may also influence the overall fatty acid content in cooked fish. PMID:24996368

Neff, Margaret R; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Braekevelt, Eric; Arts, Michael T

2014-12-01

284

Thiamine and fatty acid content of walleye tissue from three southern U.S. reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined the thiamine concentration in egg, muscle, and liver tissues of walleyes Sander vitreus and the fatty acid content of walleye eggs from three southern U.S. reservoirs. In two Tennessee reservoirs (Dale Hollow and Center Hill), in which there were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the forage base, natural recruitment of walleyes was not occurring; by contrast in Lake James Reservoir, North Carolina, where there were no alewives, the walleye population was sustained via natural recruitment. Female walleye tissues were collected and assayed for thiamine (vitamin B1) and fatty acid content. Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be the predominant form of thiamine in walleye eggs. In 2000, mean total egg thiamine concentrations were similar among Center Hill, Dale Hollow, and Lake James reservoirs (2.13, 3.14, and 2.77 nmol thiamine/g, respectively). Egg thiamine concentration increased as maternal muscle (r 2 = 0.73) and liver (r2 = 0.68) thiamine concentration increased. Walleye egg thiamine does not appear to be connected to poor natural reproduction in Tennessee walleyes. Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, which are found in all three reservoirs, had higher thiaminase activity than alewives. Six fatty acids differed among the walleye eggs for the three reservoirs. Two were physiologically important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6[n-3]), which are important eicosanoid precursors involved in the regulation of biological functions, such as immune response and reproduction. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Honeyfield, D.C.; Vandergoot, C.S.; Bettoli, P.W.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Zajicek, J.L.

2007-01-01

285

Fatty acids, lipid emulsions and the immune and inflammatory systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids modulate the responses of cells of the immune system. Inflammatory and immune responses in patients receiving parenteral nutrition may be modulated by the type of lipid used, which may influence clinical outcomes. Lipid emulsions based solely upon soybean oil may not be optimal because of the role of n-6 fatty acids in promoting inflammation and suppressing immune responses. Lipid emulsions with soybean oil in various combinations with medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), olive oil and fish oil are available. Some early studies have suggested better immune function with MCT-soybean oil than with soybean oil alone, but the differences were small, and more recent studies suggested little difference between soybean oil, MCT-soybean oil and soybean oil-olive oil regarding markers of inflammation and immunity. The inclusion of fish oil in combination with one or more other oils (i.e. soybean, MCT, olive) in the parenteral regimen administered to patients following major gastrointestinal surgery reduces the post-surgery rise in inflammatory markers and the fall in cell-mediated immune markers. These changes are associated with improvements in clinical outcomes. Whether similar effects of intravenous fish oil occur in critically ill patients is not clear at present because of the small number, small size and variable findings of existing studies. The lipid component of parenteral nutrition may modify inflammatory and immune processes in ways that influence patient outcome. The inclusion of fish oil in parenteral nutrition for post-surgical patients is associated with benefits. The situation regarding critically ill patients is not clear. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25471799

Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C

2015-01-01

286

Influence of omega-3 fatty acids from the flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) on the brain development of newborn rats Influencia de los ácidos grasos omega-3 de la linaza (Linum usitatissimum) en el desarrollo del cerebro de ratas recién nacidas  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: The importance of essential fatty acids, in particular the omega-3 family, in the central nervous system development of newborns is well documented. The flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is considered one of the best vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The influence of omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed on the brain development of newborn rats was evaluated. Material and methods: Pups of the F1 generation were obtained from 18 female Wistar rats divided in 3 groups (n = 6), FG: ...

Lenzi Almeida, K. C.; Teles Boaventura, G.; Guzma?n Silva, Mª A.

2011-01-01

287

Measuring oral fatty acid thresholds, fat perception, fatty food liking, and papillae density in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging evidence from a number of laboratories indicates that humans have the ability to identify fatty acids in the oral cavity, presumably via fatty acid receptors housed on taste cells. Previous research has shown that an individual's oral sensitivity to fatty acid, specifically oleic acid (C18:1) is associated with body mass index (BMI), dietary fat consumption, and the ability to identify fat in foods. We have developed a reliable and reproducible method to assess oral chemoreception of fatty acids, using a milk and C18:1 emulsion, together with an ascending forced choice triangle procedure. In parallel, a food matrix has been developed to assess an individual's ability to perceive fat, in addition to a simple method to assess fatty food liking. As an added measure tongue photography is used to assess papillae density, with higher density often being associated with increased taste sensitivity. PMID:24961177

Haryono, Rivkeh Y; Sprajcer, Madeline A; Keast, Russell S J

2014-01-01

288

Fatty Acid Profiles and Cholesterol Composition of Venison from Farmed Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is important to evaluate venison characteristics as a new high quality red meat in the meat marketing system. This information is vital to ensure their commercial success and dietary benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the venison quality from farmed deer according to cuts or muscles based on fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content and to do comparative study on venison quality between species of farmed deer (rusa, sambar, fallow and imported red deer and feeding regimens, i.e., grass-fed vs concentrate-fed venison. The samples of venison were derived from javan rusa (Cervus timorensis russa, moluccan rusa (Cervus timorensis moluccensis, sambar (Cervus unicolor brookei, fallow (Dama dama and imported red deer (Cervus elaphus. Moluccan rusa and red deer were grass-fed deer. Javan rusa, sambar and fallow deer were concentrate-fed deer. Cholesterol content in Longissimus Dorsi (LD muscles of sambar, fallow and rusa deer were 75.36, 76.61 and 77.58 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Cholesterol content in Biceps Femoris (BF muscles of moluccan rusa, sambar, fallow and red deer were 56.61, 59.26, 86.37 and 98.44 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Concentrate-fed deer LD and Psoas Major (PM muscles show higher C18:2 (n-6 than grass-fed deer. Grass-fed rusa deer shows the highest C18:3 (n- 3 percentages in PM muscle. Grass-fed rusa and red deer gave an ideal n-6:n-3 ratio of less than 5. Species of deer did not influence n-6:n-3 ratio and fatty acid composition in venison. Feeding regimens (grass-fed vs concentrate-fed significantly (p< 0.05 influence n-6:n-3 ratio, fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content in the venison of farmed deer in this study.

N.A. Norfarizan-Hanoon

2007-01-01

289

Identification of sulfoglycolipid bioactivities and characteristic fatty acids of marine macroalgae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty acid compositions of 21 species of marine macroalgae, including 5 species of Chlorophyta (green algae), 13 of Rhodophyta (red algae), and 3 of Heterokontophyta (brown algae), were collected from northeastern Taiwan to survey their functional lipids. The lipid contents of green algae ranged from 15.36 to 20.15 mg/g, dry basis (db), and were characterized by a high content of C18:2 and C18:3, red algae (18.57-28.34 mg/g db) were high in C20:4 and C20:5, and brown algae (13.11-19.56 mg/g db) were high in C18:4, C20:4, and C:20:5. All algal lipids contained fatty acids of odd-number carbons, C17:0, and C17:1. Red algae had relatively higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and were richer in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) than green and brown algae. A red alga, Porphyra crispata , was extracted with ethanol and separated on a hydrophobic column (Diaion HP-20 column) to obtain sulfoglycolipids (sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols, SQDGs). The main fatty acids in SQDGs were palmitic acid (C16:0), 33.3%; EPA (C20:5), 30.0%; arachidonic acid (C20:4), 12.7%; oleic acid (C18:1), 7.52%; and stearic acid (C18:0), 6.83%. The n-3/n-6 ratio was 1.9, whereas the authentic standard, spinach SQDG, did not contain n-3 fatty acids. Sulfoglycolipids inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). The IC50 was 126 ?g/mL, which is lower than that of the spinach SQDG (255 ?g/mL). PMID:22827609

Tsai, Cheng-Jung; Sun Pan, Bonnie

2012-08-29

290

Dietary manipulation of fatty acid composition in lamb meat and its effect on the volatile aroma compounds of grilled lamb.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect on lamb muscle of five dietary supplements high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was measured. The supplements were linseed oil, fish oil, protected lipid (high in linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) and ?-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3)), fish oil/marine algae (1:1), and protected lipid/marine algae (1:1). Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) were found in the highest amounts in the meat from lambs fed diets containing algae. Meat from lambs fed protected lipid had the highest levels of C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, due to the effectiveness of the protection system. In grilled meat from these animals, volatile compounds derived from n-3 fatty acids were highest in the meat from the lambs fed the fish oil/algae diet, whereas compounds derived from n-6 fatty acids were highest in the meat from the lambs fed the protected lipid diet. PMID:22062813

Elmore, J Stephen; Cooper, Sarah L; Enser, Michael; Mottram, Donald S; Sinclair, Liam A; Wilkinson, Robert G; Wood, Jeffrey D

2005-02-01

291

Effects of dietary lipids on tissue fatty acids profile, growth and reproductive performance of female rice field eel (Monopterus albus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of different lipids on tissue fatty acid profile and reproductive performance in female rice field eel were investigated in this study. Virgin female eels were fed with six diets containing different lipids (diets FO, LO, SO, PO and PL with fish oil, linseed oil, soybean oil, peanut oil and pork lard, respectively; diet APO with arachidonic acid and peanut oil). The results showed that there were positive correlations between the contents of 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the tissues of eels and those of the corresponding fatty acids in their diets. The specific growth rate of eels fed with diet PO was the lowest and significantly lower than that of FO and SO. Gonad of eels fed with diets PO and PL showed hypogonadism. The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) can be synthesized by eels, but the quantity was not enough to meet their reproduction requirement completely. The fatty acid desaturation, rather than elongation probably was one of the limiting factors. Addition of proper amount of ARA in diet was favorable to the increase of the hatching rate of fertilized eggs, while EPA and DHA in diet were beneficial to the increase of the survival rate of larva. Both n-3PUFA and a suitable n-6/n-3PUFA ratio were necessary for growth and reproduction of eels. PMID:21046236

Zhou, Qiu-Bai; Wu, Hua-Dong; Zhu, Chang-Sheng; Yan, Xing-Hong

2011-09-01

292

21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. 172.850... Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food...additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol may be...

2010-04-01

293

40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol...Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol...identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with...

2010-07-01

294

40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700...3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical...generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct...

2010-07-01

295

40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate...721.6220 Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate...generically as an aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine...

2010-07-01

296

40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol. 721...3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol. ...generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol...

2010-07-01

297

40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417...CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417...description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory....

2010-07-01

298

40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory...Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting...

2010-07-01

299

40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol...Chemical Substances § 721.3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol...substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated...

2010-07-01

300

21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 true Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene...Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and...

2010-04-01

301

40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. 721...Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. ...identified generically as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt...

2010-07-01

302

40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). ...substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

2010-07-01

303

21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids. 172.856 Section... Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely used in...

2010-04-01

304

40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...  

Science.gov (United States)

...polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800...polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical...polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct (PMN...

2010-07-01

305

EFFECTS OF ETHYLENE CHLOROHYDRIN ON FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS  

Science.gov (United States)

Male chicks weighing 700 to 900 g. received an acute or eight doses IG of 60 or 40 mg/kg ethylene chlorohydrin (ECH) respectively and were sacrificed eighteen hours after the last dose. Mitochondrial elongation of fatty acids was decreased significantly while fatty acid synthetas...

306

Fatty acid levels and risk of asthma in young adults  

OpenAIRE

Background: There is current interest in the possible protective effect of long chain (n-3) fatty acids from fish in chronic lung diseases such as asthma. The aim of this community based cross sectional study was to determine whether plasma long chain (n-3) fatty acids, as a measure of dietary intake, differed between 1601 young adults with and without asthma.

Woods, R.; Raven, J.; Walters, E.; Abramson, M.; Thien, F.

2004-01-01

307

Method to manufacture ?123I-labelled fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The end bromated C16 to C18 fatty acids are especially used for the conversion. They are suitable for medical examinations such as heart attack and ischaemia. They are manufactured by distributing diluted ?-bromium fatty acid solution onto round glass perls, evaporation of the solvent, contacting with 123iodide solution and conversion. They can be chromatographically perified. (DG)

308

Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Most vegetable oils are ri [...] ch in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6), the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor) and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

P.C., Calder.

1998-04-01

309

Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6, the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

P.C. Calder

1998-04-01

310

Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term ?3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ?3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ?3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ?3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ?3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (?3 or sunflower oil (?9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ?3-PUFAs. Plasma of ?3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of ?3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ?3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ?9 myocytes. In the ?9 myocytes, but not in the ?3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ?3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ?3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ?3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ?3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

HesterMDen Ruijter

2010-11-01

311

Investigation of the roles of the substances in serum lipids and their constitutive fatty acids in chronic urticaria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The newly-generated lipid mediators include products of arachidonate metabolism, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. In this study, serum lipids and fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (C20:4) were examined in 12 normal subjects (6 males and 6 females) and 23 subjects with chronic urticaria (6 males and 17 females), including 17 who made an excellent or good recovery (4 males and 13 females). The results indicated a relationship between chronic urticaria and serum lipids and fatty acids. The omega 6 (n-6) and omega 3 (n-3) series of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation were suggested that may be one of the mediators in chronic urticaria. Pantethine, glutathione and ascorbic acid were effective in controlling chronic urticaria. PMID:2794222

Kobayashi, S

1989-06-01

312

Halogenated fatty acids : I. Formation and occurrence in lipids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids. However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their determination.

Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas

1997-01-01

313

Profiling of esterified fatty acids as biomarkers in the blood of dengue fever patients using a microliter-scale extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved gas chromatography with mass spectrometry procedure was developed to highlight the esterified fatty acids in 100 ?L blood of dengue fever patients in the early febrile phase versus healthy volunteers. 24 adult patients and 24 healthy volunteers were included in this study. The recoveries of targeted esterified fatty acids content were in the range of 92.10-101.00% using methanol/dichloromethane (2:1, v/v) as the extraction solvent. An efficient chromatographic separation of targeted 17 esterified fatty acid methyl esters was obtained. The limits of detection and quantification were within the range of 16-131 and 53-430 ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation of intraday and interday precision values ranged from 0.4 to 5.0%. The statistical data treatment showed a significant decrease of the content of four saturated fatty acids, C14:0, C15:0, C16:0, and C18:0 (P value < 0.05), and also showed a decrease of the content of eight unsaturated fatty acids, C16:1, C18:3n6, C18:2n6, C18:1n9, C20:3n3, C20:4n6, C20:2, and C22:6n3 (P value < 0.05) in dengue fever patients. Moreover, the amount of three omega-6 fatty acids including C18:3n6, C18:2n6, and C20:4n6 was dramatically decreased in the blood of dengue fever patients to a limit of 50 ± 10%. PMID:25380415

Khedr, Alaa; Hegazy, Maha; Kamal, Ahmed; Shehata, Mostafa A

2015-01-01

314

Deficiencies of polyunsaturated fatty acids and replacement by nonessential fatty acids in plasma lipids in multiple sclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid compositions of plasma phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, and nonesterified fatty acids of 14 clinically proven and graded cases of multiple sclerosis were determined by capillary gas chromatography and compared with the values obtained for 100 normal, healthy subjects. In phospholipids, linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6; 18 carbon atoms, 2 double bonds, 6 carbon atoms beyond last double bond) was normal and 18:3 omega 6 was increased, but all subsequent omega 6 acids were subnormal (P less than 0.001), indicating impairment of chain elongation. All omega 3 acids were subnormal. The paucity of polyunsaturated fatty acids was compensated mass-wise by an increase in saturated acids. Disproportionate increases in short-chain, saturated, and monounsaturated acids, decreases in long-chain homologs, and increases of branched and odd-chain acids were observed. Loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids and replacement by nonessential acids lowered mean chain length and raised mean melting point significantly, suggesting that lowered membrane fluidity was only partially compensated by endogenous synthesis of lower-melting, nonessential acids. This phenomenon was not observed in cholesteryl esters or triacylglycerols. Nonesterified fatty acids showed significant changes in pattern of possible autacoid precursors. The abnormal profile of fatty acids in multiple sclerosis has features in common with profiles of other syndromes involving viral infections. PMID:2734316

Holman, R T; Johnson, S B; Kokmen, E

1989-06-01

315

Lipid composition of lactational diets influences the fatty acid profile of the progeny before and after suckling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of adding no or 8% fat of varying sources (coconut oil, fish oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil) to diets for sows 1 week prior to farrowing and during lactation on the composition of fatty acids in plasma and tissues of the progeny while sucking and 3 weeks after weaning from the sow. A control diet without supplemental fat and four diets supplemented with 8% of coconut oil, rapeseed oil, fish oil or sunflower oil were provided to lactating sows (n = 15), and during the post-weaning period the same weaner diet was provided to all piglets (n = 15 litters), which were housed litterwise. The dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids of the maternal diets largely influenced the progeny, as the ratio varying from 1.2 (fish oil) to 12.2 (sunflower oil) in the sow milk was reflected in plasma and adipose tissues of the sucking progeny. The liver showed similar variations according to dietary treatments, but a lower n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio. From day 4 to later on during the suckling period, the concentration of C14:0, C16:0 and C18:1 in the liver of the piglets decreased, irrespective of the dietary treatments of sows. In plasma and liver, the total concentration of saturated fatty acids (SAFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) did not differ markedly in piglets sucking sows fed different dietary fatty acids, whereas the adipose tissue of piglets sucking sows fed sunflower oil and coconut oil showed the highest proportion of PUFA and SAFA, respectively. Weaning lowered the concentration of lipid-soluble extracts in plasma and the concentration of fatty acids in the liver of the piglets. Within the post-weaning period, dietary treatments of sows, rather than age of piglets, influenced the fatty acid composition of plasma and adipose tissue of the piglets, whereas the hepatic fatty acid profile was more affected by the age of the piglets during the post-weaning period. This study shows that the fatty acid profile of plasma and tissues of the progeny is highly dependent on the maternal dietary composition, and that the dietary impact persists for up to 3 weeks after the suckling period. PMID:22444797

Lauridsen, C; Jensen, S K

2007-08-01

316

Fatty acid composition of mature human milk in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved gas-chromatographic method with high resolution, sensitivity, and precision was used for analyzing the fatty acid composition of human milk lipids. In 24-h collections of mature hindmilk of 15 German women, 42 different fatty acids could be separated and quantified. Among the saturated fatty acids (median sum 42.76%, wt/wt), six odd-chain fatty acids accounted for 1.16%. Cis monounsaturated acids represented 37.98%. Trans fatty acids, which may have untoward effects on the recipient infant, contributed 4.40% with seven isomers. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) fraction (13.82%) included 10 long-chain PUFAs (LCPs; 1.66%). The content of the physiologically important LCPs in milk lipids did not correlate with their parent fatty acids (ie, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids) but there was a significant correlation between the sum of omega-3 and omega-6 LCPs suggesting interindividual differences in the capacity for secretion of milk-lipid LCPs between mothers. PMID:3376910

Koletzko, B; Mrotzek, M; Bremer, H J

1988-06-01

317

Threonine 286 of fatty acid desaturase 7 is essential for ?-3 fatty acid desaturation in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

Science.gov (United States)

Omega-3 fatty acid desaturases catalyze the conversion of dienoic fatty acids (C18:2 and C16:2) into trienoic fatty acids (C18:3 and C16:3), accounting for more than 50% of the total fatty acids in higher plants and the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Here, we describe a Thr residue located in the fourth transmembrane domain of fatty acid desaturase 7 (FAD7) that is essential for the biosynthesis of ?-3 fatty acids in C. reinhardtii. The ?-3 fatty acid deficiency in strain CC-620, which contains a putative missense mutation at Thr286 of CrFAD7, was recovered by the overexpression of CC-125 CrFAD7. A Ser substitution in position 286 was able to partially complement the phenotype of the ?-3 fatty acid deficiency, but other substitution variants, such as Tyr, His, Cys, and Gly, failed to do so. Prediction of the phosphorylation target site revealed that Thr286 may be phosphorylated. Analysis of the structural conformation of CC-620 CrFAD7 via topology prediction (and bends in the helix) shows that this missense mutation may collapse the catalytic structure of CrFAD7. Taken together, this study suggests that Thr286 is essential for the maintaining the catalytic structure of CrFAD7.

Lim, Jong-Min; Vikramathithan, Jayaraman; Hwangbo, Kwon; Ahn, Joon-Woo; Park, Youn-Il; Choi, Dong-Woog; Jeong, Won-Joong

2015-01-01

318

Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis.

319

Modelling intracellular fatty acid transport: possible mechanistic role of cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

A computer model is presented in which the role of cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) in the intracellular translocation of fatty acids (FA) from one membrane to an opposite membrane is studied. The model consists of a cubical space, in which FABP and FA are allowed to diffuse at random. The amount of FA released from the donor membrane and reaching an opposite acceptor membrane is calculated in a variety of conditions. The data provided by the various simulations suggest that FABP can play a significant role in intracellular FA transport only if FABP is able to take up FA directly from FA containing membranes and to directly deliver FA to an acceptor membrane, thus preventing the unfavourable thermodynamical situation in which FA must solubilize in an aqueous environment prior to binding to FABP. PMID:9250602

Vork, M M; Glatz, J F; Van der Vusse, G J

1997-07-01

320

Fatty acid profile of pig meat after probiotic administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to study the fatty acid profile of pig meat after probiotic administration. Thirty postweaned pigs (25 day old) were distributed into 2 groups: control (n = 15) and probiotic (n = 15). Each experimental group was fed ad libitum on a commercial diet for 35 days. Lactobacillus amylovorus and Enterococcus faecium mixed culture (10(8) CFU/ml)was daily orally delivered to the probiotic group. At the end of the assay, six pigs randomly selected from each group were slaughtered and muscle samples (Longissimus dorsi) were taken for fatty acid analysis. Tissues from the probiotic group animals exhibited an increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids; furthermore, linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (18:3), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations were significantly higher (p probiotic administration could be useful to modify and improve the fatty acid profile of pig meat. PMID:22506842

Ross, Gloria Romina; Van Nieuwenhove, Carina Paola; González, Silvia Nelina

2012-06-13

321

Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiac arrhythmias  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are suggestions of effects of marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in relation to ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death and, more recently, also of possible effects related to atrial fibrillation. RECENT FINDINGS: On the basis of the recently published human studies, this article not only focusses primarily on recent developments and current knowledge on the effect of marine omega-3 PUFAs on atrial fibrillation, but also provides a status for their effects on ventricular arrhythmias. SUMMARY: Marine omega-3 PUFAs may protect against ventricular arrhythmias, and there is growing evidence for an effect of marine omega-3 PUFAs in the prevention and treatment of atrial fibrillation. Further studies are needed to establish which patients are more likely to benefit from omega-3 PUFAs, the timing of treatment, and the dosages.

Rix, Thomas A; Christensen, Jeppe H

2012-01-01

322

Tagging fatty acids with 99m tecnetium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a search for a fatty acid analogue suitable for labelling with sup(99m)Tc for myocardial imaging, analogues of the general formula X-Y-COOH where the ligand groups X, Y were NH2, SH or COOH, capable of forming complexes with metal ions, were synthesized. Among many such, one compound (CH2(SH).CH2(SH).(CH2)8.COOH) was selected for further study. Injected intravenously together with a reducing agent into mice, rats and one dog, the compound proved unsatisfactory for the purpose because of its toxicity and its failure to localize in the myocardium. The search for alternative analogues and alternative labelling procedures must continue

323

Fatty acid changes help to better understand regression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To investigate whether liver steatosis reduction due to a six-month dietary intervention results in significant changes in the concentrations of fatty acids. METHODS: A group of 35 Caucasian individuals diagnosed with different levels of steatosis were prospectively enrolled in the present study. Analysis of the fatty acid profiles was performed according to changes in liver steatosis (liver steatosis reduction by one or two degrees) after a six-month dietary intervention. The diet helped reduce body mass in obese and overweight patients, and stabilize both glycemia and dyslipidemia. Fatty acids were extracted according to the Folch method and analyzed by gas chromatography. RESULTS: This study showed significant changes in fatty acid profiles in patients who had reduced liver steatosis by one as well as two degrees. A reduction in liver steatosis by one degree caused a significant increase in the level of the n-3 family: eicosapentaenoic acid (P fatty acid profiles, and these changes may reflect an alteration in fatty acid synthesis and metabolism. These findings may help better understand regression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25574105

Maciejewska, Dominika; Drozd, Arleta; Ossowski, Piotr; Ryterska, Karina; Jamio?-Milc, Dominika; Banaszczak, Marcin; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Kaczorowska, Ma?gorzata; Sabinicz, Anna; Stachowska, Ewa

2015-01-01

324

Analysis of mixtures of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in fermentation broth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols has attracted increasing concerns because of energy crisis and environmental impact of fossil fuels. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for the extraction and quantification of these compounds become necessary. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection (HPLC-RID) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in these samples. The optimum chromatographic conditions are C18 column eluted with methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v); column temperature, 26°C; flow rate, 1.0mL/min. Calibration curves of all selected analytes showed good linearity (r(2)?0.9989). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the 10 compounds were less than 4.46% and 5.38%, respectively, which indicated that the method had good repeatability and precision. Besides, a method for simultaneous extraction of fatty acids and fatty alcohols from fermentation broth was optimized by orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: solvent, ethyl acetate; solvent to sample ratio, 0.5:1; rotation speed, 2min at 260rpm; extraction temperature, 10°C. This study provides simple and fast methods to simultaneously extract and quantify fatty acids and fatty alcohols for the first time. It will be useful for the study of microbial production of these products. PMID:24290170

Liu, Yilan; Chen, Ting; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Huo, Weiyan; Yan, Daojiang; Chen, Jinjin; Zhou, Jiemin; Xing, Jianmin

2014-01-01

325

Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to Apri...

Sieswerda Lee E; Seguin Jennifer; Ross Brian M

2007-01-01

326

Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver  

OpenAIRE

The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in ...

Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.

1980-01-01

327

SOME EFFECTS OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES ON SERUM FATTY ACIDS DISTRIBUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Serum total fatty acids were estimated in controls and women using the oral contraceptives Eugynon (containing 0.5 mg.of norgestron and 0.05 mg ethinyl oestradiol and Lyndiol (containing 2.5 mg. of linostrol and 0.05 mg of ethiny oestradiol for periods ranging from 8 to 110 weeks. The serum total fatty acids level was found to be approximately 70% higher in the women using oral contraceptives, the difference being predominantly in the myristic and palmitoleic acid contents respectively. No significant difference was seen between the effect of Eugynon and Lyndiol usage upon blood fatty acids.

H Mohammadiha

1977-08-01

328

Docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in retinal phospholipids of piglets fed an infant formula enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: effects of egg phospholipids and fish oils with different ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid to docosahexaenoic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is the major fatty acid in the phosphatidylethanolamine of photoreceptor cells. The supply of preformed DHA in milk may play an important role in early human visual development. We examined the effect of adding dietary DHA from yolk or fish oil on its accretion in the retina of newborn piglets fed artificially for 2 wk. DHA-enriched eggs from hens fed rapeseed oil and two fish oils with a high or low ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) to DHA were used. The basic (conventional) formula contained (% by wt of total fatty acids) 17% linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and 1.3% alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). The yolk-enriched formula also contained 0.5% arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) and 0.4% DHA. The fish-oil-enriched formulas contained either 0.3% EPA and 0.2% DHA (from salmon oil) or supply the DHA required without increasing the EPA status but only the yolk-enriched formula allowed the artificially reared piglets to attain the same AA status in blood lipids as with sow milk feeding. The DHA concentration plateaued in the retina when it reached 7.5% by wt of total fatty acids in plasma phospholipids. Yolk phospholipids and fish oils are equally potent sources for supplying the highest retinal DHA concentration, which was found to be 41.7% by wt of total fatty acids in phosphatidylethanolamine (compared with 35% without supplementation). Inclusion of 0.2-0.3% DHA ensures maximal DHA accretion in the retina but cosupplementation with AA is necessary to achieve the status with maternal feeding in blood lipids and to prevent any possible imbalance between n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. PMID:9497179

Alessandri, J M; Goustard, B; Guesnet, P; Durand, G

1998-03-01

329

Deficiencies of polyunsaturated fatty acids and replacement by nonessential fatty acids in plasma lipids in multiple sclerosis.  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acid compositions of plasma phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, and nonesterified fatty acids of 14 clinically proven and graded cases of multiple sclerosis were determined by capillary gas chromatography and compared with the values obtained for 100 normal, healthy subjects. In phospholipids, linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6; 18 carbon atoms, 2 double bonds, 6 carbon atoms beyond last double bond) was normal and 18:3 omega 6 was increased, but all subsequent omega 6 acids w...

Holman, R. T.; Johnson, S. B.; Kokmen, E.

1989-01-01

330

Effect of dietary alfalfa on the fatty acid composition and indexes of lipid metabolism of rabbit meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to analyse and increase the quality of rabbit meat by increasing the levels of natural bioactive compounds through providing fresh alfalfa to rabbits as complementary feed. At 50 days of age, forty rabbits were divided into two homogeneous groups and fed pelleted feed (control group) or pelleted feed plus fresh alfalfa (alfalfa group). The lipid content of meat was significantly higher in the control group likely due to the higher feed consumption observed in this group. The same trend was observed in the contents of myristic, palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic acid. On the contrary, the supplementation of fresh alfalfa increased the stearic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and total polyunsaturated fatty acid contents; also the total monounsaturated fatty acids and the ?- and ?-tocopherol content was significantly lower. Moreover, alfalfa ingestion decreased the n-6 content, n-6/n-3 ratio and thrombogenicity index. PMID:24036258

Dal Bosco, A; Mugnai, C; Roscini, V; Mattioli, S; Ruggeri, S; Castellini, C

2014-01-01

331

Dietary intake and plasma metabolomic analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in bipolar subjects reveal dysregulation of linoleic acid metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) profiles associate with risk for mood disorders. This poses the hypothesis of metabolic differences between patients and unaffected healthy controls that relate to the primary illness or are secondary to medication use or dietary intake. However, dietary manipulation or supplementation studies show equivocal results improving mental health outcomes. This study investigates dietary patterns and metabolic profiles relevant to PUFA metabolism, in bipolar I individuals compared to non-psychiatric controls. We collected seven-day diet records and performed metabolomic analysis of fasted plasma collected immediately after diet recording. Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender and energy intake found that bipolar individuals had significantly lower intake of selenium and PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (n-3), arachidonic acid (AA) (n-6) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (n-3/n-6 mix); and significantly increased intake of the saturated fats, eicosanoic and docosanoic acid. Regression analysis of metabolomic data derived from plasma samples, correcting for age, gender, BMI, psychiatric medication use and dietary PUFA intake, revealed that bipolar individuals had reduced 13S-HpODE, a major peroxidation product of the n-6, linoleic acid (LA), reduced eicosadienoic acid (EDA), an elongation product of LA; reduced prostaglandins G2, F2 alpha and E1, synthesized from n-6 PUFA; and reduced EPA. These observations remained significant or near significant after Bonferroni correction and are consistent with metabolic variances between bipolar and control individuals with regard to PUFA metabolism. These findings suggest that specific dietary interventions aimed towards correcting these metabolic disparities may impact health outcomes for individuals with bipolar disorder. PMID:24953860

Evans, Simon J; Ringrose, Rachel N; Harrington, Gloria J; Mancuso, Peter; Burant, Charles F; McInnis, Melvin G

2014-10-01

332

Alterations in growth and fatty acid profiles under stress conditions of Hansenula polymorpha defective in polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using chemical mutagenesis, mutants of Hansenula polymorpha that were defective in fatty acid synthesis were selected based on their growth requirements on saturated fatty acid mixtures. One mutant (S7) was incapable of synthesizing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic and ?-linolenic acids. A genetic analysis demonstrated that the S7 strain had a double lesion affecting fatty acid synthesis and ?(12)-desaturation. A segregant with a defect in PUFA synthesis (H69-2C) displayed normal growth characteristics in the temperature range of 20-42 °C through a modulation of the cellular fatty acid composition. Compared with the parental strain, this yeast mutant had increased sensitivity at low and high temperatures (15 and 48 °C, respectively) with an increased tolerance to oxidative stress. The responses to ethanol stress were similar for the parental and PUFA-defective strains. Myristic acid was also determined to play an essential role in the cell growth of H. polymorpha. These findings suggest that both the type of cellular fatty acids and the composition of fatty acids might be involved in the stress responsive mechanisms in this industrially important yeast. PMID:23645092

Sooksai, Sarintip; Chewchanlertfa, Pattsarun; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Harashima, Satoshi; Laoteng, Kobkul

2013-08-01

333

Efeito sazonal sobre os ácidos graxos e colesterol do polvo Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797 / Seasonal effects on fatty acids and cholesterol contents in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi realizado um estudo sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos e colesterol na manta de polvo comum, Octopus vulgaris, capturado na praia de Camocim - CE, no decorrer dos meses de abril a outubro em coletas bimensais. Apesar do ácido oleico (C18: 1n9) apresentar comportamento uniforme ao longo do tempo de [...] coleta, a maioria dos demais ácidos graxos foi afetada (p = 1%) pela época de coleta. Os níveis dos ácidos araquidônico (C20:4n6), oleico (C18:1n9), esteárico (C18:0) e linoleico (C18:2n6) foram superiores àqueles reportados na literatura. O somatório de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados e monoinsaturados revelou que o óleo de polvo apresenta um teor significativo de ácidos graxos insaturados. Foi observado um aumento gradativo de colesterol ao longo do tempo estudado e um comportamento inverso para a relação de ácidos graxos n3/n6. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the fatty acids and cholesterol profile in the mantle of common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, collected twice a month in in coastal waters of Camocim/CE beach over the period from April to October. Although the Oleic acid (C18:n9) did not show significant change [...] s over the months, the majority of fatty acids varied during this period of time. The Arachidonic (C20:4n6), oleic (C18:n9), stearic (C18:0), and linoleic (C18:2n6) acids were found in higher levels than those reported in the literature. Polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids accounted for most of the octopus fatty acids. During the time of analysis, it was observed a gradual increase in the cholesterol and the fatty acids n3/ n6 ratio presented the opposite result, i.e., a gradual decrease.

Margarida Maria Monteiro, Vasconcelos; Jorge Fernando Fuentes, Zapata.

2010-06-01

334

Efeito sazonal sobre os ácidos graxos e colesterol do polvo Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797 Seasonal effects on fatty acids and cholesterol contents in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos e colesterol na manta de polvo comum, Octopus vulgaris, capturado na praia de Camocim - CE, no decorrer dos meses de abril a outubro em coletas bimensais. Apesar do ácido oleico (C18: 1n9 apresentar comportamento uniforme ao longo do tempo de coleta, a maioria dos demais ácidos graxos foi afetada (p = 1% pela época de coleta. Os níveis dos ácidos araquidônico (C20:4n6, oleico (C18:1n9, esteárico (C18:0 e linoleico (C18:2n6 foram superiores àqueles reportados na literatura. O somatório de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados e monoinsaturados revelou que o óleo de polvo apresenta um teor significativo de ácidos graxos insaturados. Foi observado um aumento gradativo de colesterol ao longo do tempo estudado e um comportamento inverso para a relação de ácidos graxos n3/n6.The aim of this study was to investigate the fatty acids and cholesterol profile in the mantle of common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, collected twice a month in in coastal waters of Camocim/CE beach over the period from April to October. Although the Oleic acid (C18:n9 did not show significant changes over the months, the majority of fatty acids varied during this period of time. The Arachidonic (C20:4n6, oleic (C18:n9, stearic (C18:0, and linoleic (C18:2n6 acids were found in higher levels than those reported in the literature. Polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids accounted for most of the octopus fatty acids. During the time of analysis, it was observed a gradual increase in the cholesterol and the fatty acids n3/ n6 ratio presented the opposite result, i.e., a gradual decrease.

Margarida Maria Monteiro Vasconcelos

2010-06-01

335

Fatty Acids and Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Rett Syndrome Conundrum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are epidemically explosive clinical entities, but their pathogenesis is still unclear and a definitive cure does not yet exist. Rett syndrome (RTT is a rare genetically determined cause of autism linked to mutations in the X-linked MeCP2 gene or, more rarely, in CDKL5 or FOXG1. A wide phenotypical heterogeneity is a known feature of the disease. Although several studies have focused on the molecular genetics and possible protein changes at different levels, to date very little attention has been paid to fatty acids in this disease, which could be considered as a natural paradigm for the ASDs. To this regard, a quite enigmatic feature of the disease is the evidence in the affected patients of an extensive peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (arachidonic acid, AA, docosaexahenoic acid, DHA, adrenic acid, AdA and, to a lesser extent, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, in contrast with amelioration of the redox changes and phenotypical severity following the supplementation of some of those same fatty acids (DHA + EPA. Therefore, fatty acids may represent a kind of Janus Bifrons in the particular context of RTT. Here, we propose a rational explanation for this apparent “fatty acid paradox” in RTT. A better understanding of this paradox could also be of help to get a better insight into the complex mechanism of action for polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease.

Joussef Hayek

2013-08-01

336

Absolute quantification of fatty acid and proximate composition of cow and goat powdered milks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho investigou a qualidade lipídica de leites processados por quantificação de ácidos graxos. Dez amostras de leite em pó integral de vaca e duas de cabra foram submetidas à extração de lipídios totais e à preparação dos ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos. Estes foram separados em cromatóg [...] rafo a gás. A variação da quantidade de ácidos graxos por gramas de lipídios para compostos poliinsaturados, ômega 6, ômega 3 e ácido linoléico conjugado, foi respectivamente: 25,20-46,67, 12,82-31,45, 1,77-7,65 e 7,77-11,60 mg g-1. A razão n-6/n-3 foi menor para os leites em pó de vaca (2,85-6,07) em relação aos de cabra (11,31-12,75) e a quantidade de ácidos graxos trans variou de 0,09 a 0,17 g por porção de 26 g. As amostras apresentaram ácidos graxos essenciais ômega 6 e ômega 3, isômeros do ácido linoléico conjugado e quantidade de ácidos graxos trans em conformidade com a legislação brasileira. Abstract in english This work investigated of the lipid quality of processed milks by fatty acid quantification. Ten samples of dry whole milk from cow and two from goat were submitted to total lipid extraction and to fatty acid methyl ester synthesis. Then, the synthesized products were separated in a gas chromatograp [...] h. The variation of the fatty acid per total lipid gram for polyunsaturated compounds, omega-6, omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid, was 25.20-46.67, 12.82-31.45, 1.77-7.65 and 7.77-11.60, respectively. The n-6/n-3 ratio for the cow powdered milk samples (2.85-6.07) was lesser reagarding goat milk samples (11.31-12.75) and the trans fatty acid amount varied from 0.09 to 0.17 g per 26 g portion. Essential fatty acids from the omega-3 and omega-6 groups were present in every sample, besides conjugated linoleic acid isomers. The trans fatty acid contents of the samples is in accordance with the Brazilian legislation.

Weliton P., Batiston; Swami A., Maruyama; Sandra T. M., Gomes; Jesuí V., Visentainer; Nilson E. de, Souza; Makoto, Matsushita.

1907-19-01

337

Influence of fatty acid oxidation rate on glycerol release from cardiac myocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quiescent cardiac myocytes are characterized by low rates of fatty acid oxidation due to the reduced energy demand compared with beating hearts. The accumulation of intracellular fatty acid metabolites may, therefore, result in feed-back inhibition of the cardiac lipase responsible for the mobilization of triacylglycerols (lipolysis). The objective of this study was to examine if interventions that increase fatty acid oxidation rates in myocytes have an effect on lipolysis. Addition of 100 ..mu..M dinitrophenol (DNP) to calcium-tolerant rat ventricular myocytes caused an increase in the rate of /sup 14/C-oleic acid oxidation from 1.11 +/- 0.06 to 2.38 +/- 0.17 nmol /sup 14/CO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ cells/min (115% stimulation; mean +/- S.D., n = 3). In parallel incubations, DNP increased the rate of lipolysis from 4.4 +/- 1.7 to 13.6 +/- 3.2 nmol glycerol/10/sup 6/ cells/30 min (215% stimulation). The addition of 1 mM barium to a modified Ringer's incubation medium produced an increase in the contractile activity of the myocytes, and increased the rates of oleic acid oxidation from 0.62 +/- 0.16 to 0.88 +/- 0.23 nmol/10/sup 6/ cells/min (42% stimulation; n = 6) and lipolysis from 13.1 +/- 6.5 to 22.2 +/- 6.4 nmol/10/sup 6/ cells/30 min (70% stimulation). These data show that stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in myocardial myocytes is accompanied by increased lipolytic rates, the latter probably due to release of feed-back inhibition of cardiac lipases by accumulated fatty acid metabolites.

Larsen, T.S.; Severson, D.L.

1986-03-05

338

Influence of fatty acid oxidation rate on glycerol release from cardiac myocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quiescent cardiac myocytes are characterized by low rates of fatty acid oxidation due to the reduced energy demand compared with beating hearts. The accumulation of intracellular fatty acid metabolites may, therefore, result in feed-back inhibition of the cardiac lipase responsible for the mobilization of triacylglycerols (lipolysis). The objective of this study was to examine if interventions that increase fatty acid oxidation rates in myocytes have an effect on lipolysis. Addition of 100 ?M dinitrophenol (DNP) to calcium-tolerant rat ventricular myocytes caused an increase in the rate of 14C-oleic acid oxidation from 1.11 +/- 0.06 to 2.38 +/- 0.17 nmol 14CO2/106 cells/min (115% stimulation; mean +/- S.D., n = 3). In parallel incubations, DNP increased the rate of lipolysis from 4.4 +/- 1.7 to 13.6 +/- 3.2 nmol glycerol/106 cells/30 min (215% stimulation). The addition of 1 mM barium to a modified Ringer's incubation medium produced an increase in the contractile activity of the myocytes, and increased the rates of oleic acid oxidation from 0.62 +/- 0.16 to 0.88 +/- 0.23 nmol/106 cells/min (42% stimulation; n = 6) and lipolysis from 13.1 +/- 6.5 to 22.2 +/- 6.4 nmol/106 cells/30 min (70% stimulation). These data show that stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in myocardial myocytes is accompanied by increased lipolytic rates, the latter probably due to release of feed-back inhibition of cardiac lipases by accumulated fatty acid metabolites

339

Plasma fatty acids and the risk of metabolic syndrome in ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence of predictive power of various fatty acids on the risk of metabolic syndrome was scanty. We evaluated the role of various fatty acids, including saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, transfat, n-6 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, for the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. Results A nested case-control study based on 1000 cases of metabolic syndrome and 1:1 matched control subjects. For saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and transfat, the higher the concentration the higher the risk for metabolic syndrome: participants in the highest quintile had a 2.22-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 2.97 higher risk of metabolic syndrome. In addition, the participants in higher EPA quintiles were less likely to have the risk of metabolic syndrome (adjusted risk, 0.46 [0.34 to 0.61] for the fifth quintile. Participants in the highest risk group (low EPA and high transfat had a 2.36-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome (95% CI, 1.38 to 4.03, compared with those in the lowest risk group (high EPA and low transfat. For prediction power, the area under ROC curves increased from 0.926 in the baseline model to 0.928 after adding fatty acids. The net reclassification improvement for metabolic syndrome risk was substantial for saturated fat (2.1%, P = 0.05. Conclusions Plasma fatty acid components improved the prediction of the metabolic syndrome risk in Taiwan.

Hsu Hsiu-Ching

2011-02-01

340

Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR?  

OpenAIRE

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR?) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR? ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR?. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR? discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R. S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

2008-01-01

341

Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric (Pitt); (Michigan); (Van Andel); (Morehouse-MED)

2010-03-08

342

Fatty acid composition of cream fermented by probiotic bacteria  

OpenAIRE

The production of fatty acids in cream containing one of the three probiotic microorganisms (Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus) was evaluated at 4±1 °C for up to 15 days. Gas chromatographic analysis of the fatty acid content showed that during storage the amount of linoleic and ?-linolenic acids increased in the probiotic cream fermented with B. lactis compared to the control cream. Probiotic bacteria were all associated with increases in medium...

Lutfiye Yilmaz-Ersan

2013-01-01

343

PROP taster status and oral fatty acid perception.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies with rat taste cells treated with polyunsaturated fatty acids suggest that fatty acids may play a role in dietary fat perception. In humans, sensitivity to the textural properties of fat is associated with the genetic ability to taste the bitter compound 6-N-2-propylthiouracil (PROP). However, it has not been shown that PROP tasters are more sensitive in discriminating fatty acids in a high-fat food. Our study with human subjects was designed to test the hypothesis that the ability to orally detect food-grade conjugated linoleic acid added to high-fat vanilla ice cream is associated with the ability to taste PROP. Eighty percent of the PROP tasters in this study, but only 17% of the PROP nontasters correctly discriminated the sample containing the added free fatty acid in a difference test versus unadulterated high-fat vanilla ice cream (Fisher's Exact Test, P=.05). Because most fatty foods contain minute amounts of free fatty acids, further studies with humans examining the contribution of fatty acids to fat perception seem warranted. PMID:15001033

Nasser, J A; Kissileff, H R; Boozer, C N; Chou, C J; Pi-Sunyer, F X

2001-01-01

344

Suitability of bronopol preservative treated milk for fatty acid determination.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work aimed to test if milk preserved with bronopol can be reliably used for fatty acid determination. Dairy production and milk quality are often monitored regularly to assess performance and contribute to selection indices. With evidence that fat composition can be influenced by selective breeding, there might be an interest in using samples collected in routine testing to evaluate individual cow fatty acid profiles, contributing to breeding indices. However, most recording services use a preservative such as bronopol and there is no published record if this influences subsequent fatty acid analysis. This study used milk from an oil seed supplementation trial, generating a wide range of milk fatty acid profiles, to test if the concentration of 31 individual fatty acids determined by GC were influenced by bronopol. Provided preserved samples are subsequently frozen, milk treated with bronopol can reliably be used to evaluate fatty acid composition in most cases; however bronopol might influence a few long-chain fatty acids present in relatively low concentrations. This is one small step towards simplifying milk compositional analysis but it could ultimately streamline the inclusion of milk fat quality into breeding indices, either with a view to 'healthier' milk or potentially reducing methane output and the environmental impact of dairy production. PMID:21411031

Butler, Gillian; Stergiadis, Sokratis

2011-05-01

345

Fatty acids and terpenoids from Trigonia fasciculata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A fração lipídica do extrato hexânico das raízes de Trigonia fasciculata foi analisada por CG/EM sob a forma de seus ésteres metílicos, identificando-se dezessete ácidos graxos, sendo o ácido oléico (38,8%) o principal componente. A análise por CG/EM da fração menos polar da parte insaponificável do [...] extrato hexânico das raízes permitiu identificar quinze sesquiterpenos não oxigenados, sendo o alfa-santaleno (28,4%) o componente majoritário. Cromatografia em gel de sílica da fração mais polar permitiu o isolamento de dois triterpenos conhecidos, ácido betulínico e friedelina, e o diterpeno inédito 7-(2-hidroxiacetil)-10-hidroxitetradecaidro-1-metileno-4b,7,10a-trimetilfenantreno (6alfa-hidroxi-15-oxo-allodevadarool). Todas as substâncias isoladas e identificadas são inéditas para a espécie. A determinação estrutural foi realizada por derivatização química, comparação com dados da literatura, análise espectral, incluíndo RMN 2D (COSY, HETCOR e COLOC), e cristalografia de raios X. Abstract in english The fatty portion of the hexane extract from roots of Trigonia fasciculata has been determined by GC/MS analysis of the methyl ester mixture. Seventeen fatty acids were identified and oleic acid (38.8%) was the major component. The GC/MS analysis of the less polar fraction of the non-saponifiable pa [...] rt of the root hexane extract allowed the identification of fifteen sesquiterpenes and alpha-santalene (28.4%) was the major component. Chromatography over silica gel of the more polar fraction allowed the isolation of two known compounds: betulinic acid and friedelin, and a novel diterpene 7-(2-hydroxy-acetyl)-10-hydroxy-tetradecahydro-1-methylene-4b,7,10a-trimethyl -phenantrene (6alpha-hydroxy-15-oxo-allodevadarool), all unknown for the species. Structure determination was accomplished by chemical derivatization, comparison to literature data and spectral analysis, including 2D NMR (COSY, HETCOR, COLOC) and X-ray crystallography.

Jair, Mafezoli; Regina Helena A., Santos; Maria Teresa P., Gambardela; Edilberto R., Silveira.

2003-05-01

346

Effects of Fatty Acid Inclusion in a DMPC Bilayer Membrane  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Free fatty acids in biomembranes have been proposed to be a central component in several cellular control and regulatory mechanisms. To elucidate some fundamental elements underlying this, we have applied molecular dynamics simulations and experimental density measurements to study the molecular packing and structure of oleic acid (HOA) and stearic acid (HSA) in fluid bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The experimental data show a small but consistent positive excess volume for fatty acid concentrations below 10 mol %. At higher concentrations the fatty acids mix ideally with fluid DMPC. The simulations, which were benchmarked against the densitometric data, revealed interesting differences in the structure and location of the fatty acids depending on their protonation status. Thus, the protonated (uncharged) acid is located rather deeply in the membrane with an average position of the carboxy group near the second carbon segment of the lipid chains with a typical end-to-end distance of 16?18 Å. This structure of the fatty acid brings about a rather tight lateral packing in the mixed membrane and a moderate ordering and hence stretching of the lipid chains. Deprotonation of the fatty acids is associated with a pronounced movement of their carboxy group to a more hydrated position at the membrane interface and a lateral expansion driven by the mutual repulsion of the anions. These changes increase both the disorder and the degree of interdigitation of the lipid chains, and they make the membrane thinner by 2?3 Å.

Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

2009-01-01

347

Alterations of fatty acid ?-oxidation capability in the liver of ketotic cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dairy cows are highly susceptible to ketosis after parturition. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of fatty acid ?-oxidation-related enzymes in the liver of ketotic (n=6) and nonketotic (n=6) cows. Serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and glucose were determined by using standard biochemical techniques. The mRNA abundance and protein content of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain (ACSL), carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I), carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase long chain (ACADL), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were evaluated by real-time PCR and ELISA. We found that serum glucose levels were lower in ketotic cows than in nonketotic cows, but serum BHBA and NEFA concentrations were higher. Messenger RNA and protein levels of ACSL were significantly higher in livers of ketotic cows than those in nonketotic cows. In contrast, mRNA levels of CPT I and mRNA and protein levels of CPT II, ACADL, HMGCS, and ACC were decreased in the liver of ketotic cows. Serum NEFA concentration positively correlated with ACSL protein levels and negatively correlated with protein levels of CPT II, HMGCS, ACADL, and ACC. In addition, serum BHBA concentration negatively correlated with protein levels of CPT II, HMGCS, and ACADL. Overall, fatty acid ?-oxidation capability was altered in the liver of ketotic compared with nonketotic cows. Furthermore, high serum NEFA and BHBA concentrations play key roles in affecting pathways of fatty acid metabolism in the liver. PMID:22459824

Li, P; Li, X B; Fu, S X; Wu, C C; Wang, X X; Yu, G J; Long, M; Wang, Z; Liu, G W

2012-04-01

348

Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. PMID:25510639

Dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

2015-01-15

349

21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food additive meets the following specifications:...

2010-04-01

350

Incorporation and fatty acid composition in liver of Nile tilapia fed with flaxseed oil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i2.7970 Incorporation and fatty acid composition in liver of Nile tilapia fed with flaxseed oil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i2.7970  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most consumed freshwater fish in South America is Nile tilapia. The present study examined the effects of flaxseed oil (FO, source of alfa-linolenic acid (LNA, on the total lipid composition and polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-3 PUFA, contents on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus liver. Tilapias were given diets with increasing levels 0.00, 1.2, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00% (w w-1 of FO as a replacement of sunflower oil for five months. Fatty acids analysis of methyl esters revealed 45 fatty acids common to all treatments. The increase of flaxseed oil resulted in a decrease in total n-6 PUFA (35.1 to 21.1% and an increase in n-3 PUFA (3.3 to 18.5%. The diet with LNA underwent sequential desaturation and elongation in liver, leading to an increase in all n-3 PUFA and a decrease in n-6/n-3 ratios (10.7 to 1.1. The manipulation of fatty acids with FO may be used to increase n-3 PUFA and to help balance n-6/n-3 PUFA in dietary supplements, thus, the liver tilapia becomes one product with major nutritional value.One of the most consumed freshwater fish in South America is Nile tilapia. The present study examined the effects of flaxseed oil (FO, source of alfa-linolenic acid (LNA, on the total lipid composition and polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-3 PUFA, contents on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus liver. Tilapias were given diets with increasing levels 0.00, 1.2, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00% (w w-1 of FO as a replacement of sunflower oil for five months. Fatty acids analysis of methyl esters revealed 45 fatty acids common to all treatments. The increase of flaxseed oil resulted in a decrease in total n-6 PUFA (35.1 to 21.1% and an increase in n-3 PUFA (3.3 to 18.5%. The diet with LNA underwent sequential desaturation and elongation in liver, leading to an increase in all n-3 PUFA and a decrease in n-6/n-3 ratios (10.7 to 1.1. The manipulation of fatty acids with FO may be used to increase n-3 PUFA and to help balance n-6/n-3 PUFA in dietary supplements, thus, the liver tilapia becomes one product with major nutritional value.

Nilson Evelázio de Souza

2011-04-01

351

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents some general facts about omega-3 fatty acids and their role in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the human body. Their beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been known for decades. Since then, several epidemiological and interventional trials showed the value of omega-3 acids in the treatment of certain diseases. Most of them revealed the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids on heart and cardiac functions. However, some of these studies couldn?t demonstrate a positive association between fish oils and preventing cardiac events. The major cardiologic societies from European Union and United States of America recommend omega-3 fatty acids as supplements for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases.

?tefan C. Vesa

2008-12-01

352

A rapid GC-MS method for quantification of positional and geometric isomers of fatty acid methyl esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

So far the most frequently used method for fatty acid (FA) analysis is GC coupled to flame ionization detector (FID). However, GC-FID does not allow profiling of FA synthesis and metabolism using stable isotopes. Here we present a rapid and sensitive GC-MS method for determination of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Fatty acid methylation was carried out by transesterification with acetyl-chloride and methanol. FAME separation applies a short and polar cyano-column resulting in an analysis time of 17.2min. Separation was achieved for positional and geometrical (cis/trans) isomers with chain lengths between C8 and C28. Partial overlap of FAMEs (e.g. for C20:2 (n-6) and C21:0) could be resolved using selected ion monitoring (SIM). The precisions for human plasma samples were better than 10% coefficient of variation (CV) except for very low abundant FAs and LODs were in the low femtomol range on column. The developed GC-MS method also allows quantification of conjugated FAs such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers because lowering the derivatization temperature from 95 °C to room temperature prevented cis to trans double bond isomerization. Finally, profiling of fatty acid synthesis and metabolism was exemplified with stable isotope labeling of macrophages using fatty acid precursors or deuterated fatty acids. In summary, we present a fast and robust GC-MS method for fatty acid profiling of positional and geometrical isomers including CLAs as well as very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). The method is suitable for both clinical studies and basic research including application of stable isotope compounds. PMID:22542399

Ecker, Josef; Scherer, Max; Schmitz, Gerd; Liebisch, Gerhard

2012-05-15

353

Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented.

João Varela

2013-06-01

354

Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae  

Science.gov (United States)

The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented. PMID:23807546

Martins, Dulce Alves; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Pereira, Hugo; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Varela, João; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

2013-01-01

355

Effects of a diet lacking HUFA on lipid and fatty acid content of intestine and gills of male gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) broodstock at different stages of the reproductive cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A feeding experiment was carried out to determine the effect of a diet lacking n-3 and n-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) on lipid and fatty acid content in intestine and gills of male gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) broodstock at different stages of the reproductive cycle: November (pre-spermatogenesis), March (spermatogenesis), and June (post-spermatogenesis). For this purpose, gilthead seabream broodstock were fed either a control diet (C) or an n-3 and n-6 HUFA-deficient diet (D). The results showed no changes in fatty acid content of polar lipids of intestine and gills from fish fed diet C at different stages of the reproductive cycle. However, significant changes were observed in the fatty acid content of neutral lipids in intestine but not in gills in this group. Thus, between November and March, saturates and n-3 HUFA decreased while monoenes increased. In June, the contents of these fatty acids had returned to their initial values (November). Moreover, in fish fed diet D, the fatty acid content of neutral lipid changed in both intestine and gills. In intestine NL, a decrease in saturates and n-3 HUFA and an increment in monoenes were observed from November to June. In gills, a decrease was also observed in n-3 HUFA from NL along the cycle. Nevertheless, n-6 HUFA content remained unchanged. These results show both tissue specificity in seasonal mobilization of fatty acids linked to reproductive processes and the influence of dietary fatty acids on body composition. PMID:21553061

Martín, M V; Almansa, E; Cejas, J R; Bolaños, A; Jerez, S; Lorenzo, A

2011-12-01

356

Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three positions in accordance with the distributions in test fats. Calculations of postprandial TAG concentrations from fatty acid data revealed increasing amounts up to 4 h but lower response curves (IAUC) for the two saturated fats in accordance with previous published data. The T fat gave results comparable to the O and L fats. The test fatty acids were much less reflected in VLDL TAG and there was no dietary influence on the response curves. Conclusions: The fatty acid composition in the test fats as well as the positional distributions of these were maintained in the chylomicrons. No specific clearing of chylomicron TAG was observed in relation to time. Sponsorship: Danish Research Development Program for Food Technology.

Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.

2005-01-01

357

Fatty Acids Induce Leukotriene C4 Synthesis in Macrophages in a Fatty Acid Binding Protein-Dependent Manner  

OpenAIRE

Obesity results in increased macrophage recruitment to adipose tissue that promotes a chronic low-grade inflammatory state linked to increased fatty acid efflux from adipocytes. Activated macrophages produce a variety of pro-inflammatory lipids such as leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and 5-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) suggesting the hypothesis that fatty acids may stimulate eicosanoid synthesis. To assess if eicosanoid production increases with obesity, adipose tissue of leptin def...

Long, Eric K.; Hellberg, Kristina; Foncea, Rocio; Hertzel, Ann V.; Suttles, Jill; Bernlohr, David A.

2013-01-01

358

Studies on furan fatty acids of salmon roe phospholipids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mature salmon roe lipids were found to consist of triacylglycerols (63%), phospholipids (30%), sterols (4.2%), steryl esters (0.7%), and other minor components. In the steryl esters and phospholipids, furan fatty acids were detected instead of the triacylglycerols of the testes lipids in male fish. The representative 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethyleicosa-12,14-dienoic acid (F6) amounted to 3.8% and 0.6% of the total fatty acids in each fraction, respectively. However, the absolute amount of the acid in the phospholipid was much more than that contained in the steryl esters. The characteristic distribution of the furan acids found in the phospholipids was common to the steryl esters in the liver. Large amounts of furan acids were contained in phosphatidylcholine (PC) rather than in phosphatidylethanolamine. For positional analysis of furan fatty acids in PC, furan-containing species in the molecule were concentrated fourteenfold by using selective hydrogenation and repeated silica gel column chromatography. A series of furan fatty acids in PC was found to be exclusively linked to the sn-1 position. The amount of the acids in the roe exclusively linked to the sn-1 position. The amount of the acids in the roe phospholipids was comparable with that in the testes triacylglycerols. The physiological roles of furan fatty acids are discussed. PMID:3182753

Ishii, K; Okajima, H; Okada, Y; Watanabe, H

1988-05-01

359

Knockout of fatty acid desaturase genes in Pichia pastoris GS115 and its effect on the fatty acid biosynthesis and physiological consequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), including oleic acid (OA, C18:1n-9), linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) and ?-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), are major components of membrane lipids in Pichia pastoris GS115. In order to clarify the biosynthesis pathway of UFAs on the molecular level and investigate their possible roles in growth and development of this strain, we here report modified strains with disrupted desaturase gene by homologous recombination. Gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid composition in the corresponding mutants confirmed that ?(12)-desaturase encoded by Fad12 was responsible for the formation of LA, and ALA was synthesized by ?(15)-desaturase encoded by Fad15. Simultaneous deletion of Fad9A and Fad9B was lethal and supplementation of OA could restore growth, indicating that possibly both Fad9A and Fad9B encoded ?(9)-desaturase that converted SA into OA. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that wild type and Fad15 mutant grew at almost the same rate, Fad12 mutant grew much slower than these two strains. Moreover, OA was positively correlated to cold tolerance and ethanol tolerance of GS115, whereas LA and ALA did not affect cold tolerance and ethanol tolerance of it. In addition, we showed that tolerance of GS115 to high concentration of methanol was independent of these three UFAs. PMID:22918456

Yu, Ai-Qun; Zhu, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Lai-Jun; Li, Ming-Chun

2012-12-01

360

Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vit [...] ro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

J.A.A., Pires; R.R., Grummer.

2008-07-01

361

Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

J.A.A. Pires

2008-07-01

362

Correlation of omega-3 levels in serum phospholipid from 2053 human blood samples with key fatty acid ratios  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was conducted to explore the relationships between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and key fatty acid ratios including potential cut-offs for risk factor assessment with respect to coronary heart disease and fatal ischemic heart disease. Methods Blood samples (n = 2053 were obtained from free-living subjects in North America and processed for determining the levels of total fatty acids in serum phospholipid as omega-3 fatty acids including EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5 n-3 and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6 n-3 by combined thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatographic analyses. The omega-3 levels were correlated with selected omega-6: omega-3 ratios including AA (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6: EPA and AA:(EPA+DHA. Based on previously-published levels of omega-3 fatty acids considered to be in a 'lower risk' category for heart disease and related fatality, 'lower risk' categories for selected fatty acid ratios were estimated. Results Strong inverse correlations between the summed total of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and all four ratios (omega-6:omega-3 (n-6:n-3, AA:EPA, AA:DHA, and AA:(EPA+DHA were found with the most potent correlation being with the omega-6:omega-3 ratio (R2 = 0.96. The strongest inverse relation for the EPA+DHA levels in serum phospholipid was found with the omega-6: omega-3 ratio (R2 = 0.94 followed closely by the AA:(EPA+DHA ratio at R2 = 0.88. It was estimated that 95% of the subjects would be in the 'lower risk' category for coronary heart disease (based on total omega-3 ? 7.2% with omega-6:omega-3 ratios Conclusions Strong inverse correlations between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum (or plasma phospholipid and omega-6: omega-3 ratios are apparent based on this large database of 2053 samples. Certain fatty acid ratios may aid in cardiovascular disease-related risk assessment if/when complete profiles are not available.

Rowe William

2009-12-01

363

Gamma irradiation effect on fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid isomers of lamb meat  

OpenAIRE

The perception of quality and "healththiness" of food has become the most important factor for decision. ln meat, this aspect is largely related to its fat content and fatty acid composition. Some meat fatty acids play important roles in metabolism and human health. Recent interest in a minor group of fatty acids that are characteristic of ruminant fat, named conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), is also of great nutritional and bíological consideration. One of the major concerns with the existing...

Alfaia, Cristina M. M.; Ribeiro, Paulo J. L.; Castro, Matilde L. F.; Bessa, Rui J. B.; Prates, Jose? A. M.

2007-01-01

364

Lipid modifications of microsomes isolated from villus and crypt zones of bovine intestinal mucosa: relationship with fatty acid binding protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present studies were conducted to examine the fatty acid composition of microsomal lipids of bovine small intestine. Microsomes and cytosol were isolated from mucosal scrapings enriched with villus and crypts cells, and the following studies were conducted to: 1) analyse fatty acids from microsomal lipids; 2) incorporate 1-14C oleic acid to microsomal lipids; and 3) bind 1-14C oleic acid to cytosolic proteins of villus and crypt zone. The results of these studies demonstrated that: (1) the major unsaturated fatty acids of microsomes were oleic (C18:1 n-9), linoleic (C18:2 n-6) and arachidonic acids (C20:4 n-6), which increased from crypt to villus tip of the bovine intestinal mucosa; (2) gel filtration chromatography indicated that the low-molecular weight cytosolic proteins obtained from superficial mucosal scrapings contained the greatest oleic acid binding activity; (3) the incorporation of 1-14C oleic acid to microsomes was higher in phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol esters from villus than in crypts zones; (4) the protein content of cytosol and microsomes was longer in villus zones than in crypts zones; (5) the peroxidizability index showed the highest value in villus microsomes. PMID:9224550

Furlan, L; Catala, A

1997-02-01

365

Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissue of beef cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissue was investigated in intensively fed beef cattle. Heifers had more intramuscular fat with higher proportion of monounsaturated FA, while bulls had higher proportion of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA. The same was found in adipose tissue accompanied by higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA in bulls. The PUFA/SFA ratio was close to recommendation for human diet only in bulls’ muscle, while n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios were generally higher than recommended. The observed FA variability between sexes was due to the differences in fatness. To improve the nutritional value, the n-3 PUFA in beef should be increased.

Ivan Juri?

2010-01-01

366

[Free radicals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cell death, brain aging].  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal death generally involves, directly or indirectly, free radical attack and peroxidation. Targets are nucleic acids, proteins, the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix and especially membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids. a) One example for the fundamental role of fatty acids. Dietary fatty acids, and more particularly essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, have a direct influence on the composition of cerebral membranes, and hence on their functioning. Each of the two series of polyunsaturated fatty acids plays a particular role. In animals, a deficiency in linolenic acid causes serious perturbations in the nervous system. In fact, feeding animals with oils that have a low n-3 content leads to severe abnormalities in the composition of membranes, both of the brain and other organs. The rate of recovery from these anomalies is extremely slow in the brain, but rapid in the liver. Compared to certain other organs, the nervous system is neither protected against deficiency nor has it priority in the satisfaction if its needs. A decrease in acids of the linolenic series in the membranes results in a 40% reduction of Na-K-ATPase in nerve endings and a 20% reduction in 5'-nucleotidase. It also leads to anomalies in the electroretinogram which disappear with age. This deficiency in linolenic acid has little effect on motor function and disturbes activity and emotivity only slightly, but it seriously affects learning tasks. The presence of linolenic acid in the diet confers greater resistance to certain neurotoxic substances (triethyl lead, for example). Fatty acids essential for the brain could be those with very long chains. They are probably synthesized in the liver from linolenic and linoleic acids. They can also be supplied directly by food. However, if the diet contains a large proportion of very long chain fatty acids (fish oils), the lipid composition of all organs, including the brain, is altered. During the period of brain development there is a linear relation between the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the brain and that of the diet. The requirement in linolenic acid is 200 mg/100 g of diet (0.4% of calories). That of linoleic acid is 1,200 mg/100 g of diet (2.4% of calories). b) Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Arachidonic acid is released by lysis of phospholipids (it is directly toxic), its peroxidized derivatives are extremely toxic. Peroxidation of membrane lipids alters enzymatic activity, the relationship between receptor and ligand, transport, and the symmetry of the lipid bilayer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2846129

Bourre, J M

1988-01-01

367

The examination of fatty acid taste with edible strips.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine whether humans could detect long-chain fatty acids when these lipid molecules are delivered to the oral cavity by edible taste strips. For suprathreshold studies, up to 1.7 ?mol of stearic acid or linoleic acid was incorporated into 0.03 mm thick, one-inch square taste strips. Normalized taste intensity values for stearic acid were in the barely detectable range, with values equal to, or slightly above control strips. One-third of test subjects described the taste quality as oily/fatty/waxy. Approximately 75% of test subjects could detect the presence of linoleic acid when this fatty acid was incorporated into dissolvable strips. Normalized taste intensity values for linoleic acid were in the weak to moderate range. The most commonly reported taste quality responses for linoleic acid were fatty/oily/waxy, or bitter. When nasal airflow was obstructed, the perceived taste intensity of linoleic acid decreased by approximately 40%. Taste intensity values and taste quality responses for linoleic acid were then compared among tasters and non-tasters of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). Individuals who could detect the bitter taste of PROP reported higher taste intensity values for linoleic acid compared with PROP non-tasters. However, taste quality responses for linoleic acid were similar among both PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters. These results indicate that humans can detect long-chain fatty acids by both olfactory and non-olfactory pathways when these hydrophobic molecules are delivered to the oral cavity by means of edible taste strips. These studies further show that genetic variation in taste sensitivity to PROP affects chemosensory responses to the cis-unsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid) in the oral cavity. PMID:22521910

Ebba, Sahbina; Abarintos, Ray A; Kim, Dae G; Tiyouh, Melissa; Stull, Judith C; Movalia, Ankur; Smutzer, Gregory

2012-07-16

368

Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(lll)/O-2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(ll) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls, These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(ll) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed, In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.

Refsgaard, Hanne; Tsai, Lin

2000-01-01

369

Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (?,?-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.

Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

2000-01-01

370

Fatty acid composition of spermatozoa and immature germ cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

A great deal of attention has recently been given to the essential role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of sperm membranes. We studied the fatty acid composition of the immature germ cells (IGC) and of the sperm populations separated by Percoll gradient in the ejaculate of normozoospermic patients. Fatty acid pattern was analysed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry on a capillary column. In IGC, differences were found compared with mature spermatozoa, with a higher percentage of saturated fatty acids and of essential fatty acids. On the contrary, the long-chain PUFA were significantly lower in IGC. The highest concentration of n3 PUFA docohexaenoic acid (DHA) was detected in the spermatozoa deriving from 70-100% Percoll layers and a direct linear correlation was found between the increase of DHA and increased percentage of Percoll gradient. An inverse relationship between the percentage of atypical sperm forms in each layer and the percentage of DHA was also observed. This study demonstrates that the human germ cell line can elongate and desaturate essential fatty acids and that the percentage of long-chain PUFA is correlated with the normal morphology of sperm cells. PMID:10694269

Lenzi, A; Gandini, L; Maresca, V; Rago, R; Sgrò, P; Dondero, F; Picardo, M

2000-03-01

371

Comparison of fatty acid content of fresh and frozen fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Walbaum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the percentage content of fatty acids (FA) of 54 rainbow trout fresh and frozen fillets. Frozen fillets were stored at -15ºC for 45 and 90 days. Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty ac [...] ids were determined by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometry. The results indicated that during frozen storage, SFA and MUFA content increased by 32.63 and 9.25%, respectively, while PUFA content decreased by 25.3%, n-6 by 12.4% and n-3 by 32.55%. These changes were more significant (P ? 0.05) during the first 45 d of storage. It was concluded that the frozen storage had a negative impact on meat quality of rainbow trout due to the reduction of PUFA, n-3/n-6, polyene index and PUFA/ SFA and the increase of the SFA, and atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes, which meant a substantial loss of nutritional value in the fillets of rainbow trout.

Celia, Chávez-Mendoza; José Arturo, García-Macías; Alma Delia, Alarcón-Rojo; Juan Ángel, Ortega-Gutiérrez; Celia, Holguín-Licón; Gabriela, Corral-Flores.

2014-02-01

372

A Lipoxygenase Sensor for Essential Fatty Acid (EFA) Determination  

OpenAIRE

The essential fatty acids (EFAs) are a group of 12 compounds, but linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid are the only EFAs which are found in the diet, particularly in vegetable oils, in some abundance. The other on EFAs are either metabolic products of linoleic and a-linolenic acids or are found in the diet especially in marine foods, considerebly smaller amounts. The steadily growing knowledge about the correlation between the fatty acid composition of the diet and clinical disorders leads to a...

O?nal, Secil; Timur, Suna; Akyilmaz, Erol; Telefoncu, Azmi; Ege University, Faculty Of Science

2001-01-01

373

A new anxiolytic fatty acid from Aethusa cynapium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation was carried out with a view to separate bioactive constituent from Aethusa cynapium. Bioactivity guided fractionation of the anxiolytic methanol extract has led to the isolation of a novel unsaturated fatty acid. Structure of the acid characterized by UV, IR, 1H NMR, C13 NMR, MS techniques was found to be trideca-7, 9, 11-trienoic acid. Antianxiety activity was confirmed using the mCPP-induced hypolocomotion test. This new fatty acid-trideca-7,9,11-trienoic acid, isolated from A. cynapium was found to be responsible for the antianxiety activity of the plant. PMID:20603195

Shri, Richa; Bhutani, K K; Sharma, Anupam

2010-12-01

374

Effect of early dietary deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids on two lectin binding sites in the small intestine of postweanling rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine whether dietary lipids influence the development of intestinal cell glycosylation, in relationship to diet-induced changes in phospholipid fatty acid composition. The ability of two different lectins, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA), to combine specifically with particular carbohydrate residues was used to investigate the surface characteristics of epithelial cells of rats fed different dietary lipids from birth to 6 weeks of age. Diets contained 5% (weight) peanut oil (PO), rich in n-6 fatty acids; salmon oil (SO), rich in n-3 fatty acids; hydrogenated palm oil (HPO), deficient in both n-6 and n-3 fatty acids or a PO and rapeseed oil (RO) mixture (PRO), the control diet. Pieces of jejunal and ileal villi were excised from postweanling rats and prepared for lectin histochemical study. Concurrently, epithelial cells were removed from jejunal and ileal segments for determining their phospholipid fatty acid compositions. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency was evidenced in the HPO group by the appearance of eicosatrienoic acid (20:3n-9) in both jejunal and ileal phospholipids, which paralleled the decrease in arachidonic acid content. Accretion of 18:1n-9 and 20:3n-9 in cell phospholipids of group HPO was not sufficient to match the unsaturation level in rats fed nonhydrogenated vegetable oils (PRO, PO) or fish oil (SO). The lectin histochemical study showed that WGA strongly labelled the brush border membrane microvilli whereas binding of MAA was specific to goblet cells and mucus. Regardless of the type of diet, WGA binding was weaker in the ileum than in the jejunum. In comparison to all other groups, WGA-labelling of villi was less intense in the jejunum and disappeared almost completely in the ileum of HPO-fed rats. Although SO- and PO-fed rats had, respectively, very low and high ratios of n-6 to n-3 in their intestinal phospholipids, binding of WGA in both groups was not markedly different from that in the control (PRO). MAA-labelling was very intense in jejunal and ileal villi of n-3-fed (SO) rats, whereas it was strongly attenuated in the n-3- and n-6 deficient (HPO) group. These results suggest that intestinal glycosyltransferase activities involved in cell differentiation were altered relative to the overall unsaturation index of dietary fatty acids. Alterations of epithelial glycosylation mainly resulted from a drop in total n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, although it may be speculated that there is a specific effect of n-3 fatty acids. PMID:7472903

Alessandri, J M; Joannic, J L; Delpal, S; Durand, G

1995-08-01

375

Nondestructive analyses of unsaturated fatty acid species in dietary oils by attenuated total reflectance with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to develop a nondestructive method to quantitate relative amounts of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) species in vegetable oils and oil seeds using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR). The alkene Cbond;H stretching vibrations of unsaturated fatty acids in oils showed IR absorption bands with various peak positions and intensities at around 3010 cm(-1), depending on the extent of unsaturation and PUFA species. With the aid of partial least-squares regression analysis, the FTIR measurement could practically predict the content of each PUFA species in the oil to be tested. A calculation method was also presented to directly find PUFA species in oils from the FTIR spectra. This technique was applied to dried soybean seeds to demonstrate a nonhomogenous distribution of saturated fatty acids and PUFAs, as well as glycans, in soybean cross sections. PMID:14648770

Yoshida, Satoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi

2003-12-01

376

Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders: an overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review addresses the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders, from the biochemical rationale for their use to the growing body of data supporting their clinical efficacy.

Young Christopher

2003-01-01

377

Study indicates irradiation does not harm fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies have linked a low rate of coronary heart disease to an increased dietary intake of highly unsaturated fatty acids found in seafood. International Food Institute of Queensland researchers have looked at how preservative processes might affect such fatty acids. One of the processes currently being used for extending the shelf-life of products such as herbs, spices, potatoes and onion and which is now receiving consideration for use with seafood is irradiation. Within the limits of this study no alterations to the fatty acid components of the seafood studied were observed and no radiolytically induced fatty acids were detected. These preliminary findings indicate that irradiation has considerable potential for extending the shelf life of seafood, enabling it to be marketed to a wider community. 2 refs., 3 tab

378

Fatty acids changes of baby food fat by ? irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a mutual protection when mixtures of components irradiated together, so experimental investigation is necessary for determination of the effects that actually occur in different class of nutrients in formulated foods. This work is concerned with the effect of ? irradiated on fatty acids content of a formulated baby food fat and the results is compared with changes of fatty acids in irradiated whole foods. Irradiation was performed with a gamma cell (Co-60) at dose levels of 0.5, 1.5, 6, 10, 30, 45 kGy at room temperature and in the presence of air. The samples were analyzed immediately after irradiation by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that destruction of fatty acids in this formulated food is reasonably less than fatty acids of whole foods fat

379

21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...conditions: (a) They are prepared from corn oil, cottonseed oil, lard, palm oil from fruit, peanut oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and tallow and the fatty acids derived from these substances (hydrogenated and...

2010-04-01