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Docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid supplementation alter rat skeletal muscle fatty acid composition  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6, DPAn-6) are highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, ? 20 carbons, ? 3 double bonds) that differ by a single carbon-carbon double bond at the ?19 position. Membrane 22:6n-3 may support skeletal muscle function through optimal ion pump activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and electron transport in the mitochondria. Typically n-3 fatty acid deficient feeding trials utilize linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA)...

Lim Sun-Young; Salem Norman; Stark Ken D

2007-01-01

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Acylation and metabolism of (n-6) fatty acids in hepatocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Isolated hepatocytes (5 x 10/sup 6/ in 2ml) from chow fed rats were incubated from 20 to 60 min. with increasing concentrations of (1-/sup 14/C) labeled 18:2 (n-6), 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6) to define optimum conditions for measuring acylation and metabolism to other (n-6) acids with subsequent incorporation into lipids. The triglycerides (TG) and phospholipids (PL) contained 157 and 80 nmols of 18:2 (n-6) and 6.0 and 6.1 nmols of other (n-6) acids, respectively, when cells were incubated with 0.3mM (1-/sup 14/C) 18:2 (n-6) for 40 min. When cells were incubated with 0.3mM (1-/sup 14/C) 18:2 (n-6) plus 0.15 to 0.45mM 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6), the metabolism of 18:2 (n-6) to other (n-6) acids was inhibited but not totally abolished. These results may suggest that (n-6) acid made from linoleate do not totally equilibrate with exogenous 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6).

Voss, A.C.; Sprecher, H.

1986-05-01

3

Acylation and metabolism of (n-6) fatty acids in hepatocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isolated hepatocytes (5 x 106 in 2ml) from chow fed rats were incubated from 20 to 60 min. with increasing concentrations of [1-14C] labeled 18:2 (n-6), 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6) to define optimum conditions for measuring acylation and metabolism to other (n-6) acids with subsequent incorporation into lipids. The triglycerides (TG) and phospholipids (PL) contained 157 and 80 nmols of 18:2 (n-6) and 6.0 and 6.1 nmols of other (n-6) acids, respectively, when cells were incubated with 0.3mM [1-14C] 18:2 (n-6) for 40 min. When cells were incubated with 0.3mM [1-14C] 18:2 (n-6) plus 0.15 to 0.45mM 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6), the metabolism of 18:2 (n-6) to other (n-6) acids was inhibited but not totally abolished. These results may suggest that (n-6) acid made from linoleate do not totally equilibrate with exogenous 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3

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Transgenic mice: fat-1 mice convert n-6 to n-3 fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammals cannot naturally produce omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids--beneficial nutrients found mainly in fish oil--from the more abundant omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids and so they must rely on a dietary supply. Here we show that mice engineered to carry a fat-1 gene from the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans can add a double bond into an unsaturated fatty-acid hydrocarbon chain and convert n-6 to n-3 fatty acids. This results in an abundance of n-3 and a reduction in n-6 fatty acids in the organs and tissues of these mice, in the absence of dietary n-3. As well as presenting an opportunity to investigate the roles played by n-3 fatty acids in the body, our discovery indicates that this technology might be adapted to enrich n-3 fatty acids in animal products such as meat, milk and eggs. PMID:14765186

Kang, Jing X; Wang, Jingdong; Wu, Lin; Kang, Zhao B

2004-02-01

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Metabolism of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in Atlantic salmon liver: stimulation by essential fatty acid deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidation, esterification, desaturation, and elongation of [1-14C]18:2n-6 and [1-14C]18:3n-3 were studied using hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) maintained on diets deficient in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or supplemented with n-3 PUFA. For both dietary groups, radioactivity from 18:3n-3 was incorporated into lipid fractions two to three times faster than from 18:2n-6, and essential fatty acids (EFA) deficiency doubled the incorporation. Oxidation to CO2 was very low and was independent of substrate or diet, whereas oxidation to acid-soluble products was stimulated by EFA deficiency. Products from 18:2n-6 were mainly 18:3n-6, 20:3n-6, and 20:4n-6, with minor amounts of 20:2n-6 and 22:5n-6. Products from 18:3n-3 were mainly 18:4n-3, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, with small amounts of 20:3n-3. The percentage of 22:6n-3 in the polar lipid fraction of EFA-deficient hepatocytes was fourfold higher than in n-3 PUFA-supplemented cells. This correlated well with our other results obtained after abdominal injection of [1-14C]18:3n-3 and [1-14C]18:2n-6. In hepatocytes incubated with [4,5-3H]-22:6n-3, 20:5n-3 was the main product. This retroconversion was increased by EFA deficiency, as was peroxisomal betaoxidation activity. This study shows that 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 can be elongated and desaturated in Atlantic salmon liver, and that this conversion and the activity of retroconversion of very long chain PUFA is markedly enhanced by EFA deficiency. PMID:10606039

Ruyter, B; Thomassen, M S

1999-11-01

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MOLECULAR SWITCH THAT CONTROLS THE FLUX OF LINOLEIC ACID INTO N-6 OR N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN MICROORGANISMS  

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Full Text Available Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA of the n-6 and n-3 series play important roles in nutrition. Microorganisms are important sources of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids; however, most produce either n-6 or n-3 fatty acids as the major PUFAs and very few produce both. This differential production suggests that PUFAs metabolic pathway is strictly controlled in microorganisms. The major pathway of n-6/n-3 faty acids biosynthesis in lower eukaryotes is composed of ?12 Desaturase (Des, ?3 Des (?15, ?17, ?6 Des, ?6 Elongase (Elo, ?5 Des, ?5 Elo and ?4 Des, among which ?6 Des and ?15 (?3 Des, located at the branch point of PUFAs metabolic pathways, are key regulators of the flux of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6 into either n-6 or n-3 fatty acid metabolic pathways. These latter two enzymes work together as a molecular switch that control the production of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. However the mechanism of the molecular switch is, so far, not clear. This review summarizes the recent advancement of the molecular base of the differentail production of n-6 or n-3 PUFAs in microorganisms.

Mingxuan Wang

2014-01-01

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Very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids bind strongly to liver fatty acid-binding protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthesis of n-3 and n-6 very long chain-PUFAs (VLC-PUFAs) from 18-carbon essential fatty acids is differentially regulated. The predominant product arising from n-3 fatty acids is docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), with the liver serving as the main site of production. The synthetic pathway requires movement of a 24-carbon intermediate from the endoplasmic reticulum to peroxisomes for retroconversion to 22:6n-3. The mechanism of this intra-organelle flux is unknown, but could be binding-protein facilitated. We thus investigated binding of a series of previously untested VLC-PUFAs to liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP). Three fluorometric assays were employed, all of which showed strong binding (K(d)' approximately 10(-8) to 10(-7) M) of 20-, 22-, and 24-carbon n-3 PUFAs to L-FABP. In contrast, synthesis of the predominant n-6 PUFA product, arachidonic acid, does not require intra-organelle transport. However, we found that n-6 VLC-PUFAs bound to L-FABP with affinities (K(d)' approximately 10(-8) to 10(-7) M) comparable to their n-3 counterparts. Although these results raise the possibility that L-FABP may participate in the cytoplasmic processing of n-3 and n-6 VLC-PUFAs, there is no evidence on the basis of binding affinities that L-FABP accounts for differences in the predominant products formed by the n-3 and n-6 PUFA metabolic pathways. PMID:11907148

Norris, Andrew W; Spector, Arthur A

2002-04-01

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Running Speed in Mammals Increases with Muscle n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content  

OpenAIRE

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important dietary components that mammals cannot synthesize de novo. Beneficial effects of PUFAs, in particular of the n-3 class, for certain aspects of animal and human health (e.g., cardiovascular function) are well known. Several observations suggest, however, that PUFAs may also affect the performance of skeletal muscles in vertebrates. For instance, it has been shown that experimentally n-6 PUFA-enriched diets increase the maximum swimming speed in...

Ruf, Thomas; Valencak, Teresa; Tataruch, Frieda; Arnold, Walter

2006-01-01

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cAMP-depending signaling regulates the adipogenic effect of N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) on adipogenesis and obesity is controversial as fundamentally opposing results both in vivo and in vitro have been reported. Using in vitro cell culture models we show that the adipogenic action of the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid was dependent on the intracellular levels of cAMP. In conditions with baseline intracellular levels of cAMP, n-6 PUFAs acted pro-adipogenic, whereas n-6 PUFAs acted anti-adipogenic when the intracellular levels of cAMP were elevated. The anti-adipogenic action of n-6 PUFAs was dependent on a PKA-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase (COX) expression and activity. In vivo the intracellular levels of cAMP are modulated in response to dietary intake of different classes of macronutrients. Accordingly, we show that n-6 PUFAs were pro-adipogenic when combined with a high carbohydrate diet, but non-adipogenic when combined with a high protein diet in mice. The high protein diet increased the glucagon/insulin ratio, leading to elevated cAMP-dependent signaling and induction of COX-mediated prostaglandin synthesis. Mice fed the high protein diet had a markedly lower feed efficiency than mice fed the high carbohydrate diet. Yet, oxygen consumption and apparent heat production were similar. Mice on a high protein diet had increased hepatic expression of PGC-1a and genes involved in energy demanding processes like urea synthesis and gluconeogenesis. We conclude that cAMP signaling is pivotal in regulating the adipogenic effect of n-6 PUFAs, and that diet-induced differences in cAMP levels can explain the ability of n-6 PUFAs to either enhance or counteract adipogenesis and obesity.

Madsen, Lise; Pedersen, Lone MØller

2008-01-01

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High levels of fat and (n-6 fatty acids in cancellous bone in osteoarthritis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is strongly linked with obesity and patients with osteoporosis (OP have a low body mass index. Anecdotal evidence, clinical and laboratory, suggests that OA bone contains more fat. However, conversion of osteoblasts to adipocytes is reported in OP and this would suggest that the more porous OP cancellous bone would have a high fat content. Objectives To test the hypothesis that OA bone contains more fat than OP bone. Methods Cores of cancellous bone were obtained from femoral heads of patients undergoing surgery for either OA or OP. Lipids were extracted using chloroform-methanol, weighed and expressed as a fraction of core mass and volume. A fatty acid analysis was performed using gas chromatography. Results OA bone contained twice as much fat per unit volume of tissue as OP. Levels of n-6 fatty acids were elevated in OA, especially arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6 which was almost double that found in OP. Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that lipids may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of OA and may provide part of the key to understanding why OA and OP lie at opposite ends of the spectrum of bone masses.

Aspden Richard M

2004-06-01

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Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids levels on egg and larval quality of Eurasian perch  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three groups of 40 perch breeders were reared in order to study the effects of 3 different levels of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on egg quality. Two experimental diets, R1 and R2 (n-3/n-6 = 0.13 and 35.54, respectively), were compared to one commercial food, R3 (n-3/n-6 = 3.48.). Spawning and fertilization rates were high for diets R I and R3, which displayed a n-3/n-6 ratio of 0.77 and 2.34 in the eggs, respectively, by comparison with R2 (n-3/n-6 = 4.87), which produced low reproductive performances. We can conclude that dietary n-3 and n-6 FA levels influence egg and larval quality of Eurasian perch.

Henrotte, E.; Overton, Julia Lynne

2008-01-01

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Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Conversion of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. Design and methods In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), human hepatoma cells were incubated with varying ratios of [13C] labeled linoleic acid ([13C]LA)- and alpha-linolenic acid ([13C]ALA)-methylesters. ...

Somoza Veronika; Andersen Gaby; Harnack Kerstin

2009-01-01

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Diversity in the ability of cultured cells to elongate and desaturate essential (n-6 and n-3) fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Essential fatty acids (EFAs) cannot be synthesized by mammalian cells. Once taken in with the diet, they can undergo desaturations/saturations and chain elongations/shortenings to yield a variety of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the same family. Cells in vitro from a variety of tissues are capable of processing EFAs to varying extents. Conversion of the parent EFAs, linoleic (LA, n-6) and alpha-linolenic (LNA, n-3) acids, to the 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (AA, n-6) and eicosapentanoic (EPA, n-3), requires chain elongation and delta 6 and delta 5 desaturations. AA and EPA are required by many tissues for optimal biological function and are precursors of biologically active eicosanoid hormones. All cultured cells are able to elongate exogenous LA and LNA, and most can perform delta 5 desaturation, so delta 6 desaturation is the limiting step in AA and EPA production. Longer fatty acids that have more double bonds than AA or EPA are less frequently produced due to a deficiency in delta 4 desaturating ability. The process of retroconversion (chain shortening) is less extensively studied, but evidence from a variety of cells suggests that this type of metabolic conversion is normally active. The example of MCF-7 (human breast cancer cell line) and MCF-10A cells (human noncancerous breast cell line) is discussed in order to emphasize the diversity in EFA processing ability of cultured cells. Under identical culture conditions, MCF-10A cells perform extensive desaturations, elongations, and retroconversions, whereas MCF-7 cells can only elongate and retroconvert exogenous EFAs. Given the great diversity in the ability of cultured cells to process EFAs, no conclusions can be drawn regarding the mechanisms responsible for the effects of exogenous EFAs on a particular cell until that cell's EFA processing patterns have been evaluated. PMID:7832535

Grammatikos, S I; Subbaiah, P V; Victor, T A; Miller, W M

1994-11-30

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Effect of diet, sex and age on fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens: n-3 and n-6 PUFA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The PUFA metabolism in broiler chicken was studied through the whole body fatty acid balance method. Four dietary lipid sources (palm fat, Palm; soyabean oil, Soya; linseed oil, Lin; fish oil, Fish) were added at 3 % to a basal diet containing 5 % palm fat. Diets were fed to female and male birds from day 1 to either day 21 or day 42 of age. Birds fed the Lin diet showed a significantly higher 18 : 2n-6 accumulation compared with the other diets (85.2 v. 73.6 % of net intake), whereas diet did not affect 18 : 3n-3 accumulation (mean 63 % of net intake). Bioconversion of 18 : 2n-6 significantly decreased in the order Palm>Lin>Soya>Fish (4.7, 3.9, 3.4 and 1 % of net intake, respectively). The 18 : 3n-3 bioconversion on the Palm and Soya diets was similar and significantly higher than in broilers on the Lin diet (9.1 v. 5.8 % of net intake). The beta-oxidation of 18 : 2n-6 was significantly lower on the Lin diet than on the other diets (10.8 v. 23.3 % of net intake), whereas beta-oxidation of 18 : 3n-3 was significantly higher on the Fish diet than on the other diets (41.5 v. 27.3 % of net intake). Feeding fish oil suppressed apparent elongase and desaturase activity, whereas a higher dietary supply of 18 : 3n-3 and 18 : 2n-6 enhanced apparent elongation and desaturation activity on the PUFA involved in the n-3 and n-6 pathway, respectively. Accumulation of 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3 increased and beta-oxidation decreased with age. Sex had a marginal effect on the PUFA metabolism. PMID:20187998

Poureslami, R; Raes, K; Turchini, G M; Huyghebaert, G; De Smet, S

2010-07-01

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Interactions and antigen dependence of dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on antibody responsiveness in growing layer hens  

OpenAIRE

Effects of four levels of dietary linoleic acid (LA), an n-6 fatty acid, and four levels of ?-linolenic acid (LNA), an n-3 fatty acid, and their interactions on immune responses in growing layer hens were studied. Immune responses were induced by injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or Mycobacterium butyricum particles at 35 d of age. Antibody (Ab) responses were measured until 21 d after immunization. In addition, delayed-type hypersensitivity, lymphocyte proliferation, weekly fee...

Sijben, J. W. C.; Nieuwland, M. G. B.; Parmentier, H. K.; Schrama, J. W.

2001-01-01

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Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA. The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123. Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Results Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply. Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %, however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4 but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Conclusions Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower n-3 PUFA portion in farmed fish can be offset by the higher fat content, however, with an unfavourable FA distribution compared to wild fellows.

Strobel Claudia

2012-10-01

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Fatty acid metabolism in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): effects of n-6 PUFA and MUFA in fish oil replaced diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)-rich and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA)-rich vegetable oils are increasingly used as fish oil replacers for aquafeed formulation. The present study investigated the fatty acid metabolism in juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, 38.4 g) fed diets containing fish oil (FO, as the control treatment) or two different vegetable oils (the MUFA-rich canola/rapeseed oil, CO; and the n-6 PUFA-rich cottonseed oil, CSO) tested individually or as a 50/50 blend (CO/CSO). The whole-body fatty acid balance method was used to deduce the apparent in vivo fatty acid metabolism. No effect on growth performance and feed utilization was recorded. However, it should be noted that the fish meal content of the experimental diets was relatively high, and thus the requirement for n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) may have likely been fulfilled even if dietary fish oil was fully replaced by vegetable oils. Overall, relatively little apparent in vivo fatty acid bioconversion was recorded, whilst the apparent in vivo ?-oxidation of dietary fatty acid was largely affected by the dietary lipid source, with higher rate of ?-oxidation for those fatty acids which were provided in dietary surplus. The deposition of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, as % of the dietary intake, was greatest for the fish fed on the CSO diet. It has been shown that European sea bass seems to be able to efficiently use n-6 PUFA for energy substrate, and this may help in minimizing the ?-oxidation of the health benefiting n-3 LC-PUFA and thus increase their deposition into fish tissues. PMID:23212581

Eroldo?an, Tufan O; Y?lmaz, Asuman H; Turchini, Giovanni M; Arslan, Murat; Sirkecio?lu, Necdet A; Engin, Kenan; Öz?ahino?lu, Ilgin; Mumo?ullar?nda, P?nar

2013-08-01

18

Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Conversion of linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. Design and methods In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, human hepatoma cells were incubated with varying ratios of [13C] labeled linoleic acid ([13C]LA- and alpha-linolenic acid ([13C]ALA-methylesters. Regulative cellular signal transduction pathways involved were studied by determinations of transcript levels of the genes encoding delta-5 desaturase (D5D and delta-6 desaturase (D6D, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR? and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1 were also examined. Results Maximum conversion was observed in cells incubated with the mixture of [13C]LA/[13C]ALA at a ratio of 1:1, where 0.7% and 17% of the recovered [13C]ALA was converted to DHA and EPA, respectively. Furthermore, differential regulation of enzymes involved in the conversion at the transcript level, dependent on the ratio of administered n6 to n3 fatty acids in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Conclusion Formation of EPA and DHA was highest at an administered LA/ALA ratio of 1:1, although gene expression of PPAR?, SREBP-1c and D5D involved in ALA elongation were higher in the presence of ALA solely. Also, our findings suggest that a diet-induced enhancement of the cell membrane content of highly unsaturated fatty acids is only possible up to a certain level.

Somoza Veronika

2009-02-01

19

Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on clinical outcome in a porcine model on postoperative infection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) on clinical outcome in a porcine model on early aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI). A total of eighty-four pigs were randomised to a 35 d dietary treatment with 10 % (w/w) fish oil (rich in n-3 LC-PUFA), sunflower oil (rich in n-6 LC-PUFA) or animal fat. After 3 weeks of dietary treatment, the pigs had an aortic vascular prosthetic graft inserted, and it was inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (106 colony-forming units). Changes in selected plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations and in plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration were determined in the 3-week preoperative period. Clinical signs of infection, i.e. rectal temperature, hindquarter function, general appearance and feed intake, were monitored daily in the 14 d post-operative period, and, finally, daily body-weight gain was determined in both periods. The preoperative changes in plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations reflected the fatty acid compositions of the dietary treatments given, and plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration decreased in the fish oil treatment (P < 0·001). In the post-operative period, feed intake (P = 0·004) and body-weight gain (P = 0·038) were higher in the fish oil treatment compared with the sunflower oil treatment. The dietary treatments did not affect the number of days pigs were showing fever, weakness in the hindquarters or impaired general appearance. In conclusion, preoperative treatment with dietary fish oil compared with sunflower oil improved clinical outcome in pigs with AVPGI by improving feed intake and body-weight gain post-operatively.

Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; TØnnesen, Else Kirstine

2012-01-01

20

Long and very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-6 series in rat seminiferous tubules. Active desaturation of 24:4n-6 to 24:5n-6 and concomitant formation of odd and even chain tetraenoic and pentaenoic fatty acids up to C32.  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation of long and very long chain (VLC) n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in isolated rat seminiferous tubules was investigated by following the metabolism of three 1-14C-labeled n-6 tetraenoic fatty acids (20:4, 24:4, and 32:4) and [U-14C]acetate. In contrast to [14C]32:4, which was poorly incorporated and altered, [14C]20:4 and [14C]24:4 were efficiently taken up by the tubules, esterified into lipids, elongated to VLCPUFA, and desaturated to pentaenoic fatty acids; the rate of [14C]24:4 desaturation to [14C]24:5 was notably high. The main products with [14C]acetate as precursor were labeled saturates and VLCPUFA, most of the label in tetraenoic and pentaenoic acids appearing in 24:4 and 24:5, respectively. These two C24 polyenes, connected by a delta 6 desaturation, may play a central role in n-6 PUFA metabolism, in their capacity as potential precursors of longer polyenes via elongation and of shorter ones, such as 22:5n-6, via retroconversion. Triacylglycerols, rich in C22 and C24 polyenes, incorporated the greatest amounts of both [14C] acetate-derived and exogenous 14C-PUFA, suggesting that this lipid class is involved in the traffic and metabolism of testicular PUFA. The detection of a series of unusual odd-chain tetraenoic and pentaenoic acids, also labeled with [U-14C]acetate, suggests that a PUFA chain shortening mechanism occurs in testis involving alpha- in addition to beta-oxidation. We speculate that alpha-oxidation plays a role in the retroconversion of PUFA. PMID:8505297

Aveldaño, M I; Robinson, B S; Johnson, D W; Poulos, A

1993-06-01

21

n-3 and n-6 fatty acid enrichment by dietary fish oil and phospholipid sources in brain cortical areas and nonneural tissues of formula-fed piglets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sufficient availability of both n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) is required for optimal structural and functional development in infancy. The question has been raised as to whether infant formulae would benefit from enrichment with 20 and 22 carbon fatty acids. To address this issue, we determined the effect of fish oil and phospholipid (LCPUFA) sources on the fatty acid composition of brain cortical areas and nonneural tissues of newborn piglets fed artificially for 2 wk. They were fed sow milk, a control formula, or the formula enriched with n-3 fatty acids from a low-20:5n-3 fish oil added at a high or a low concentration, or the formula enriched with n-3 and n-6 fatty acids from either egg yolk- or pig brain-phospholipids. Both the fish oil- and the phospholipid-enriched formula produced significantly higher plasma phospholipid 22:6n-3 concentrations than did the control formula. The 22:6n-3 levels in the brain, hepatic, and intestinal phospholipids were significantly correlated with plasma values, whereas cardiac 22:6n-3 content appeared to follow a saturable dose-response. Feeding sow milk resulted in a much higher 20:4n-6 content in nonneural tissues than did feeding formula. Supplementation with egg phospholipid increased the 20:4n-6 content in the heart, red blood cells, plasma, and intestine in comparison to the control formula, while pig brain phospholipids exerted this effect in the heart only. The addition of 4.5% fish oil in the formula was associated with a decline in 20:4n-6 in the cortex, cerebellum, heart, liver, and plasma phospholipids, whereas using this source at 1.5% limited the decline to the cerebellum, liver, and plasma. Whatever the dietary treatment, the phosphatidylethanolamine 20:4n-6 level was 10-20% higher in the brain temporal lobe than in the parietal, frontal, and occipital lobes in the temporal lobe by administering the formula enriched with egg or brain phospholipids. In conclusion, feeding egg phospholipids to neonatal pigs increased both the 22:6n-3 content in the brain and the 20:4n-6 content in the temporal lobe cortex. This source also increased the 22:6n-3 levels in nonneural tissues with only minor alterations of 20:4n-6. These data support the notion that infant formulae should be supplemented with both 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6 rather than with 22:6n-3 alone. PMID:10188591

Goustard-Langelier, B; Guesnet, P; Durand, G; Antoine, J M; Alessandri, J M

1999-01-01

22

Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells  

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Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

2012-11-23

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Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. ? fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. ? fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ? The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

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Effects of ELOVL4 gene overexpress on the synthesis efficiency of n3 and n6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids  

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Full Text Available AIM:To compare the synthesis efficiency of n3 and n6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid(VLC-PUFAby overexpressing ELOVL4 protein, providing guidance for treating Stargardt-like macular dystrophy(STGD3.METHODS:To establish recombinant adenovirus with the ELOVL4 protein and green fluorescent protein, transferred into cultured PC12 cells. The cells were divided into 3 groups: PC12, PC12+Ad-GFP and PC12+Ad- ELOVL4, former two groups serve as controls. ELOVL4 gene expression was quantified by qRT-PCRs. ELOVL4 protein was analyzed by Western-Blot(WB. The transduced cells were treated with both EPA and AA(1:1. After 48h of incubation, cells were collected, total lipids extracted and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS. RESULTS: When supplemented together, 20:5n3(EPAand 20:4n6(AAwere efficiently taken up at almost the same amounts in the PC12 cells regardless of ELOVL4 expression. The ELOVL4-expressing cells elongated both EPA and AA to a series of n3 and n6 VLC-PUFAs. From 20:5n3/EPA, 34:5n3 and 36:5n3 account for 0.71% and 1.6%, respectively. From 20:4n6/DHA, 34:4n6 and 36:4n6 were only 0.46% and 0.61%, respectively. The total relative mol% of n3 VLC-PUFAs synthesized from EPA was almost two times that of n6 VLC-PUFAs synthesized from AA.CONCLUSION: ELOVL4 protein preferentially elongates n3 PUFA to VLC-PUFAs over n6 PUFA. Dietary supplementation of appropriate n3/n6 PUFAs may provide STGD3 patients with some therapeutic benefits.

Man Yu

2014-08-01

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Differences in the interconversion between 20- and 22-carbon (n - 3) and (n - 6) polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

When male weanling rats were fed diets containing either 5% corn oil or a diet in which half of the corn oil was replaced by fish oil, the 20:5(n - 3) in liver choline and ethanolamine phosphoglycerides, not only partially replaced arachidonate but also paired with palmitic and stearic acids in the same molar ratio as did arachidonate. The 22:5(n - 3)/22:6(n - 3) ratio in the liver phospholipids of corn oil fed rats was similar to that found when the esterified levels of these two acids were increased 5-fold by feeding fish oil. Moreover, the pairing of both 22:5(n - 3) and 22:6(n - 3) with palmitic and stearic acids, on a molar ratio basis, was relatively independent of the total amount of esterified 22:5(n - 3) and 22:6(n - 3). When (3-14C)-labeled 22:4(n - 6) was injected into rats raised on a chow diet or incubated with hepatocytes from these animals, its primary metabolic fate was retroconversion to arachidonate followed by esterification. Conversely, [3-14C]22:5(n - 3) was a poorer substrate for retroconversion with a larger amount being esterified directly into phospholipids and, in addition, this acid served as a precursor for 22:6(n - 3). The enhanced metabolism of both [3-14C]22:4(n - 6) to 22:5(n - 6) and of [3-14C]22:5(n - 3) to 22:6(n - 3) in animals raised on a diet devoid of fat or in their hepatocytes may possibly be due to elevated 6-desaturase activity and/or the level of this enzyme or enzymes. This hypothesis is based on studies showing that the synthesis of 22:6(n - 3) proceeds via a pathway independent of a 4-desaturase but requires the use of a 6-desaturase at two steps (Voss, A., Reinhart, M., Sankarappa, S. and Sprecher, H. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 19995-20000). PMID:1627632

Voss, A; Reinhart, M; Sprecher, H

1992-07-01

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Altering n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios affects prostaglandin production by ovine uterine endometrium.  

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Consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is considered beneficial to health but effects on fertility remain uncertain. This study investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on endometrial prostaglandin (PG) production. Ovine uterine endometrial cells were cultured to confluence in DMEM/F12 medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum. Stromal and epithelial cell populations were confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Cultures were supplemented with 0, 20 or 100 ?M of ?-linolenic acid (ALA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 0 and 0.1 ?g/ml, or different combinations of EPA with arachidonic acid (AA) in serum-free medium for 24h. PGs were quantified using radioimmunoassay and PG-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS) isoforms, PGE and PGF synthase (microsomal PGES1 and PGFS) mRNAs by qPCR. LPS increased PGE2 production significantly without changing PGF2? production, causing increased PGE2:PGF2? ratios. ALA and SDA increased PGE2, PGF2? and PGE2:PGF2? ratios (P<0.05-0.01) while EPA alone did not affect PG generation. AA significantly stimulated PTGS1 and PTGS2 mRNA expression and PGE2 and PGF2? production (P<0.01). The stimulatory effect of AA was attenuated by up to 80% (P<0.05) when AA was combined with EPA. The PGE2:PGF2? ratio was not affected by AA or EPA alone, but increased when these two PUFAs were combined (P<0.05). SDA and EPA decreased PTGS1 mRNA expression (P<0.05) but did not alter PTGS2 expression. EPA and AA up-regulated mPGES1 expression (P<0.05) without affecting PGFS expression. Since AA is preferentially incorporated in uterine endometrium to produce 2-series PGs, alteration of PG production by EPA may affect many reproductive processes. PMID:24287151

Cheng, Zhangrui; Abayasekara, D Robert E; Ward, Freya; Preece, Daniel M W; Raheem, Kabir A; Wathes, D Claire

2013-12-01

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Effects of different n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios and of enterolactone on gene expression and PG secretion in bovine endometrial cells.  

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Feeding flaxseed to dairy cows can modulate gene expression and PG synthesis in the uterus at the time of peri-implantation. The objectives of the present study were to determine which flaxseed components are responsible for these effects and how different endometrial cell types are affected. We evaluated the effects of six different linoleic acid (n-6):?-linolenic acid (n-3) ratios and three concentrations of the lignan enterolactone (ENL) on endometrial stromal cells (SC) and epithelial cells (EC). The mRNA abundance of genes with known or suspected roles in embryo survival or PG synthesis was evaluated, along with PGE2 and PGF2? concentrations in culture media. The mRNA abundance of several genes was modulated by different fatty acid (FA) ratios and/or ENL, and this modulation differed between cell types. The FA4 (FA at an n-6:n-3 ratio of 4) treatment (rich in n-3 FA) increased the mRNA abundance of genes that have positive effects on uterine receptivity and implantation when compared with the FA25 (FA at an n-6:n-3 ratio of 25) treatment (rich in n-6 FA). ENL decreased PGE2 and PGF2? concentrations in both cell types, and this reduction was associated with lower mRNA abundance of the PG synthase genes AKR1B1 and PTGES in SC. The combination of ENL with FA (FA4 treatment) resulted in the greatest reduction in PGF2? concentrations when compared with the addition of FA (FA4) or ENL alone. Because of the known luteolytic properties of PGF2?, a reduction in endometrial PGF2? secretion would favour the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:25366386

Hallé, Catherine; Goff, Alan K; Petit, Hélène V; Blouin, Richard; Palin, Marie-France

2014-11-01

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Dietary n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratios differentially influence hormonal signature in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome relative to healthy controls  

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Full Text Available Abstract Dietary ratios of omega-3 (n-3 to omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been implicated in controlling markers of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profiles and adiposity. However, the role of dietary PUFAs in regulating energy systems in healthy relative to metabolic diseased backgrounds has not been systematically addressed. We used dietary manipulation of n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios in an animal model of metabolic syndrome and a related healthy line to assay feeding behavior and endocrine markers of feeding drive and energy regulation. Two related lines of rodents with a healthy and a metabolic syndrome phenotype were fed one of two isocaloric diets, comprised of either a 1:1 or a 1:30 n-3 to n-6 ratio, for 30 days. Food intake and weight gain were monitored; and leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and a suite of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in energy regulation were assayed following the dietary manipulation period. There was no difference in caloric intake or weight gain between diet groups, however there was a significant interaction between diet and phenotypic line on central and peripheral markers of energy homeostasis. Thus serum levels of leptin, acylated-ghrelin and adiponectin, and mRNA levels of the anorexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, cocaine-amphetamine related transcript (CART, showed differential, dietary responses with HCR rats showing an increase in anorexigenic signals in response to unbalanced n-3:6 ratios, while LCR did not. These data are the first to demonstrate that a rodent line with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype responds differentially to dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids relative to a related healthy line with regard to endocrine markers of energy homeostasis. The dietary n-3:n-6 ratios used in this experiment represent extreme points of natural human diets, however the data suggest that optimal recommendations regarding omega-3 and omega-6 intake may have differing effects in healthy subjects relative to metabolic syndrome patients. Further research is necessary to establish these responses in human populations.

Koch Lauren G

2010-06-01

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Maternal dietary n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio affects type 1 diabetes development in the offspring of non-obese diabetic mice.  

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Environment factors, including maternal or infant dietary nutrition have been reported to have an influence on the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. In the present study, to investigate the effect of maternal or post-weaning offspring's nutrition, in particular the essential fatty acid ratio (n-6/n-3) on the development of type 1 diabetes, we prepared two kinds of chows with n-6/n-3 ratios of 3.0 (L) and 14.5 (H), and provided them to mothers of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice during gestation and lactation and to the offspring after weaning. The n-6/n-3 ratios in breast milk and erythrocyte membrane of NOD offspring became nearly the same with that of the maternal diet at 2 weeks after birth. In the L chow-fed offspring from L chow-fed mother (LLL), levels of insulitis were higher than those in the H chow-fed offspring from H chow-fed mother (HHH) at 4 weeks of age, while the levels in the LLL offspring became lower than those in the HHH after 6 weeks. Early insulin autoantibody expressions were found from 2 to 6 weeks in the HHH offspring, but not in the LLL. The LLL offspring exhibited strong suppression of overt diabetes development in regard to the onset and accumulated incidence of diabetes compared to the HHH. The study with combined L and H chows during gestation, lactation in mother and in post-weaning offspring revealed that only the LLH chow significantly suppressed the development of diabetes with similar kinetics to LLL chow, although the other combinations may delay the onset of diabetes. The present findings suggest that n-6/n-3 ratio of the maternal diet during gestation and lactation rather than that of offspring after weaning strongly affects the development of overt diabetes in NOD mice. PMID:20846138

Kagohashi, Yukiko; Abiru, Norio; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Hashimoto, Michio; Shido, Osamu; Otani, Hiroki

2010-12-01

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Kinetics of chronic inflammation in Nile tilapia fed n?3 and n?6 essential fatty acids Cinética da inflamação crônica em tilápia?do?nilo alimentada com ácidos graxos essenciais n?3 e n?6  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on the kinetics of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The supplementation sources were soybean oil (SO, source of omega 6, n?6 and linseed oil (LO, source of omega 3, n?3, in the following proportions: 100% SO; 75% SO + 25% LO; 50% SO + 50% LO; 25% SO + 75% LO; and 100% LO (four replicates per treatment. After a feeding period of three months, growth performance was evaluated, and glass coverslips were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of fish, being removed for examination at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after implantation. Growth performance did not differ between treatments. Fish fed 100% linseed oil diet had the greatest macrophage accumulation and the fastest Langhans cell formation on the sixth day. On the eighth day, Langhans cells were predominant on the coverslips implanted in the fish feed 75 and 100% linseed oil. n?3 fatty acids may contribute to macrophage recruitment and giant cell formation in fish chronic inflammatory response to foreign body.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da suplementação alimentar com ácidos graxos essenciais sobre a cinética do acúmulo de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes em tilápia?do?nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. As fontes de suplementação foram óleo de soja (OS, fonte de ômega 6, n?6 e óleo de linhaça (OL, fonte de ômega 3, n?3, nas seguintes proporções: 100% OS; 75% OS + 25% OL; 50% OS + 50% OL; 25% OS + 75% OL; e 100% OL (quatro repetições por tratamento. Após período de alimentação de três meses, foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo, e lamínulas de vidro foram implantadas no tecido subcutâneo dos peixes, as quais foram removidas para exame aos 2, 4, 6 e 8 dias após o implante. O desempenho produtivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os peixes alimentados com 100% de óleo de linhaça tiveram maior acúmulo de macrófagos e formação mais rápida de células de Langhans, no sexto dia. No oitavo dia, as células de Langhans foram predominantes nas lamínulas implantadas nos peixes alimentados com 75 e 100% de óleo de linhaça. Os ácidos graxos n?3 podem contribuir para o recrutamento de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes, na resposta inflamatória crônica a corpo estranho em peixes.

Róberson Sakabe

2013-03-01

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Kinetics of chronic inflammation in Nile tilapia fed n?3 and n?6 essential fatty acids / Cinética da inflamação crônica em tilápia?do?nilo alimentada com ácidos graxos essenciais n?3 e n?6  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito da suplementação alimentar com ácidos graxos essenciais sobre a cinética do acúmulo de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes em tilápia?do?nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). As fontes de suplementação foram óleo de soja (OS, fonte de ômega 6, n?6) e [...] óleo de linhaça (OL, fonte de ômega 3, n?3), nas seguintes proporções: 100% OS; 75% OS + 25% OL; 50% OS + 50% OL; 25% OS + 75% OL; e 100% OL (quatro repetições por tratamento). Após período de alimentação de três meses, foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo, e lamínulas de vidro foram implantadas no tecido subcutâneo dos peixes, as quais foram removidas para exame aos 2, 4, 6 e 8 dias após o implante. O desempenho produtivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os peixes alimentados com 100% de óleo de linhaça tiveram maior acúmulo de macrófagos e formação mais rápida de células de Langhans, no sexto dia. No oitavo dia, as células de Langhans foram predominantes nas lamínulas implantadas nos peixes alimentados com 75 e 100% de óleo de linhaça. Os ácidos graxos n?3 podem contribuir para o recrutamento de macrófagos e a formação de células gigantes, na resposta inflamatória crônica a corpo estranho em peixes. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on the kinetics of macrophage accumulation and giant cell formation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The supplementation sources were soybean oil (SO, source of omega 6, n?6) and li [...] nseed oil (LO, source of omega 3, n?3), in the following proportions: 100% SO; 75% SO + 25% LO; 50% SO + 50% LO; 25% SO + 75% LO; and 100% LO (four replicates per treatment). After a feeding period of three months, growth performance was evaluated, and glass coverslips were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of fish, being removed for examination at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after implantation. Growth performance did not differ between treatments. Fish fed 100% linseed oil diet had the greatest macrophage accumulation and the fastest Langhans cell formation on the sixth day. On the eighth day, Langhans cells were predominant on the coverslips implanted in the fish feed 75 and 100% linseed oil. n?3 fatty acids may contribute to macrophage recruitment and giant cell formation in fish chronic inflammatory response to foreign body.

Róberson, Sakabe; Flávio Ruas de, Moraes; Marco Antonio de Andrade, Belo; Fabiana, Pilarski; Julieta Rodini Engrácia de, Moraes.

2013-03-01

32

Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalised n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A high dietary intake of n-6 compared to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) may promote the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. In two recent studies, short-term (10-day) duodenal administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich seal oil ameliorated joint pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Using unpublished data from these two studies we here investigated whether normalisation of the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood and tissues by seal oil ad...

Lind Ragna; Arslan Gülen; Valen Merete; Brun Johan G; Bjørkkjær Tormod; Brunborg Linn A; Berstad Arnold; Frøyland Livar

2006-01-01

33

Randomized controlled trial examining the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells.  

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The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160) were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender. PMID:24830830

Pipingas, Andrew; Cockerell, Robyn; Grima, Natalie; Sinclair, Andrew; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew; Myers, Stephen; Croft, Kevin; Sali, Avni; Pase, Matthew P

2014-05-01

34

Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Fish Oil and Multivitamin Supplementation on the Incorporation of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids into Red Blood Cells  

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Full Text Available The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160 were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

Andrew Pipingas

2014-05-01

35

Differential response to an algae supplement high in DHA mediated by maternal periconceptional diet: intergenerational effects of n-6 fatty acids.  

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Algae high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may provide a source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) for inclusion in the diet of lambs to improve the LCn-3PUFA status of meat. The effect of background LCn-3PUFA status on the metabolism of high DHA algae is, however, unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the response to a high in DHA algae supplement fed to lambs for six weeks prior to slaughter was mediated by a maternal periconceptional diet. Forty Poll Dorset × Border Leicester × Merino weaner lambs were allocated to receive either a ration based on oat grain, lupin grain, and chopped lucerne (control) or the control ration with DHA-Gold™ algae included at 1.92 % DM (Algae) based on whether the dams of lambs had previously been fed a diet high in n-3 or n-6 around conception. LCn-3PUFA concentration was determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) prior to and following feeding. The concentrations of EPA and DHA in the plasma and RBC of lambs receiving the control ration were significantly (p Algae ration compared with the control ration for 42 days. The increase in EPA and DHA was, however, significantly (p < 0.05) lower if lamb dams had previously been fed a diet high in n-6 at conception. Assessing the previous nutrition and n-3 status of lambs may allow producers to more accurately predict the likely response to supplements high in LCn-3PUFA, particularly, DHA. PMID:24996881

Clayton, Edward H; Lamb, Tracy A; Refshauge, Gordon; Kerr, Matthew J; Bailes, Kristy L; Ponnampalam, Eric N; Friend, Michael A; Hopkins, David L

2014-08-01

36

Effects of altering the ratio of dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acids on performance and inflammatory responses to a lipopolysaccharide challenge in lactating Holstein cows.  

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The study was designed to evaluate the effects of altering the ratio between n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FA) in the diet and the intake of these FA by lactating dairy cows on lactation performance and inflammatory acute phase responses to a challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Multiparous Holstein cows (n=45) were blocked based on milk yield from d 6 to d 10 postpartum and, within each block, assigned randomly to 1 of 3 dietary treatments at 14d postpartum; treatments lasted for 90d. Diets were supplemented with a mixture of Ca salts of fish, safflower, and palm oils to create 3 different ratios of n-6 to n-3 FA; namely, 3.9, 4.9, or 5.9 parts of n-6 to 1 part of n-3 FA (R4, R5, and R6, respectively). During the first 5 wk of the study, blood was sampled weekly and analyzed for concentrations of metabolites and hormones. On d 75 postpartum, cows received an infusion of 10µg of LPS into one quarter of the mammary gland to evaluate inflammatory acute phase responses. Altering the ratio of dietary n-6 to n-3 FA was reflected in changes in the FA composition of plasma and milk fat. Reducing the ratio of n-6 to n-3 FA from R6 to R4 increased dry matter intake (24.7, 24.6, and 26.1±0.5kg/d for R6, R5, and R4, respectively), with concurrent increases in yields of 3.5% fat-corrected milk (43.4, 45.4, and 48.0±0.8kg/d), milk fat (1.53, 1.60, and 1.71±0.03kg/d), milk true protein (1.24, 1.28, and 1.32±0.02kg/d), and milk lactose (2.12, 2.19, and 2.29±0.04kg/d). After the LPS challenge, concentrations of IL-6 in plasma increased as the ratio of n-6 to n-3 FA increased (112.5, 353.4, and 365.1±86.6pg/mL for R4, R5, and R6, respectively). Elevations of body temperature and somatic cell count were greater for cows fed R5 compared with those fed R4 or R6 (41.3, 40.8, and 40.8±0.2°C; 4.33, 3.68, and 3.58±0.25×10(6)/mL, for R5, R4, and R6, respectively). Haptoglobin concentration was greatest at 24h after LPS challenge for cows fed R6. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst by neutrophils collected from circulation were unaffected by dietary treatment in the first 48h after intramammary LPS infusion. In conclusion, supplying the same quantity of FA in the diet of early lactation dairy cows but altering the ratio of the polyunsaturated FA of the n-6 to n-3 families influenced lactation performance and inflammatory responses to an LPS challenge. PMID:25465551

Greco, L F; Neves Neto, J T; Pedrico, A; Ferrazza, R A; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Martinez, N; Garcia, M; Ribeiro, E S; Gomes, G C; Shin, J H; Ballou, M A; Thatcher, W W; Staples, C R; Santos, J E P

2015-01-01

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Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

Kawabata Terue

2011-08-01

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Hepatic storage and transport of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids by very-low-density lipoproteins in growing rats fed low- or adequate-protein diets with sunflower, soybean, coconut, and salmon oils.  

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Protein and essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiencies may both occur in chronic malnutrition and have common symptoms. To determine the interactions between dietary protein intake and EFA availability, rats were fed purified diets containing 20% or 2% casein and 5% as one of four fats (sunflower, soybean, coconut, or salmon oil) that differed particularly in their n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Protein malnutrition enhanced hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations while decreasing hepatic protein and phospholipid contents and mass and components of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The ratio of PUFAs to saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was consistently depressed by protein malnutrition in liver and VLDL triacylglycerol and phospholipid. Total n-6 and n-3 fatty acids were diminished by protein malnutrition, except with salmon oil, with which a decrease in 20:5n-3 was compensated for by an increase in 22:6n-3. The ratio of 20:4n-6 to 18:2n-6 was enhanced in liver phospholipid and VLDL triacylglycerol, and modified little in liver triacylglycerol. Generally, the ratio of 20:3n-9 to 20:4n-6, an index for EFA deficiency, was raised with protein malnutrition in liver triacylglycerol and phospholipid and in VLDL triacylglycerol. The extent of changes in each fatty acid proportion varied according to the oil fed. Overall, VLDL-apolipoprotein concentrations were, in general, strongly reduced with protein malnutrition. In conclusion, protein malnutrition may accelerate marginal EFA deficiency and decrease long-chain PUFA bioavailability and thus increase EFA requirement. PMID:9062525

Bouziane, M; Belleville, J; Prost, J

1997-03-01

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Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalised n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A high dietary intake of n-6 compared to n-3 fatty acids (FAs may promote the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. In two recent studies, short-term (10-day duodenal administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich seal oil ameliorated joint pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Using unpublished data from these two studies we here investigated whether normalisation of the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood and tissues by seal oil administration was associated with improved health related quality of life (HRQOL as assessed by the generic short-form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire. Results In the first pilot study, baseline n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosal biopsies from 10 patients with IBD (9 of those had joint pain was significantly increased compared with that in 10 control patients without IBD or joint pain. Following seal oil administration, the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio of the IBD-patients was significantly lowered to the level seen in untreated controls. In the subsequent, randomized controlled study (n = 19, seal oil administration reduced the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood similarly and also the SF-36 assessed bodily pain, while n-6 FA rich soy oil administration had no such effect. Conclusion In these two separate studies, short-term duodenal administration of seal oil normalised the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and improved the bodily pain dimension of HRQOL of patients with IBD-related joint pain. The possibility of a causal relationship between n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and bodily pain in IBD-patients warrants further investigations.

Lind Ragna

2006-03-01

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Levels of Soybean Oil and Time of Treatment for Nile Tilapia: a Factorial Design for Total n-3 Fatty Acids, n-6/n-3 and PUFA/SFA Ratios  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A 22 factorial design (two factors with two levels, in triplicate) was performed to investigate the influence of factors A (soybean oil content in supplemented diet, at 2.1 and 4.2%) and B (time of treatment, 15 and 30 days) in three responses [(a) total n-3 fatty acids; (b) n-6/n-3 ratio; and (c) p [...] olyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)/saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio] from lipids of Nile tilapia submitted to experimental treatment. Normality of residuals was assessed through statistical tests. Factors A and B were significant in all obtained regression models, while AB interaction was not a significant contributor for PUFA/SFA response. ANOVA and response surfaces obtained from factorial design indicated best results in tilapia that received the diet containing 4.2% of soybean oil during 30 days.

Ana P., Lopes; Vanessa V. A., Schneider; Paula F., Montanher; Ingrid L., Figueiredo; Hevelyse M. C., Santos; Swami A., Maruyama; Angela M. M., Araújo; Jesuí V., Visentainer.

2015-03-01

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The role of cyclooxygenase in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid mediated effects on cell proliferation, PGE(2) synthesis and cytotoxicity in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines.  

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This study was conducted to investigate the role of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) and its prostaglandin product PGE(2) in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-mediated effects on cellular proliferation of two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The long chain PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) both inhibited cell proliferation of Caco-2 cells compared with the long chain fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6). Neither incubation with PGE(2) nor reduction in PGE(2) synthesis by EPA compared with AA led to differential effects on cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells. This suggests that n-6 and n-3 PUFA-mediated cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells is not regulated via PGE(2) levels. AA and EPA had no effect on growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells with a low COX activity. However, stimulation of COX-2 activity by IL-1 beta resulted in a decrease in cell proliferation and an induction of cytotoxicity by AA as well as by EPA. Both inhibition of the COX pathway by indomethacin as well as inhibition of direct lipid peroxidation by antioxidants such as vitamin E and C diminished the anti-proliferative effects of AA as well as EPA. Also, malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation and COX-activity was decreased by addition of vitamin E and partially decreased by indomethacin. These data support the hypothesis that growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of PUFAs with methylene-interrupted double bonds such as AA and EPA are due to peroxidation products that are generated during lipid peroxidation and COX activity. PMID:12663496

Dommels, Yvonne E M; Haring, Merel M G; Keestra, Nynke G M; Alink, Gerrit M; van Bladeren, Peter J; van Ommen, Ben

2003-03-01

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Dietary protein deficiency affects n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids hepatic storage and very low density lipoprotein transport in rats on different diets.  

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Fatty livers and the similarity between the skin lesions in kwashiorkor and those described in experimental essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency have led to the hypothesis that protein and EFA deficiencies may both occur in chronic malnutrition. The relationship between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and hepatic lipid composition was studied after 28 d of protein depletion to determine the interactions between dietary protein levels and EFA availability. Rats were fed purified diets containing 20 or 2% casein and 5% fat as either soybean oil rich in EFA, or salmon oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, or hydrogenated coconut oil poor in EFA. Animals were divided into six groups, SOC (20% casein + 5% soybean oil), SOd (2% casein + 5% soybean oil), COC (20% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), COd (2% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), SAC (20% casein + 5% salmon oil) and SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil). After 28 d, liver steatosis and reduced VLDL-phospholipid contents (P < 0.001) were observed in protein-deficient rats. In protein deficiency, triacylglycerol and phospholipid fatty acid compositions in both liver and VLDL showed a decreased polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio. This ratio was higher with the salmon oil diets and lower with the hydrogenated coconut oil diets. Furthermore, independent of the oil in the diet, protein deficiency decreased linoleic and arachidonic acids in VLDL phospholipids. Conversely, despite decreased proportions of EPA at low protein levels, DHA levels remained higher in rats fed salmon oil diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8177019

Bouziane, M; Prost, J; Belleville, J

1994-04-01

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Ácidos graxos poli-insaturados n-3 e n-6: metabolismo em mamíferos e resposta imune / Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: metabolism in mammals and immune response  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A experimentação animal apresenta uma grande importância para o desenvolvimento da ciência. O uso de camundongos em experimentos ocorre devido à semelhança destes animais com os seres humanos, fácil criação e manutenção e resposta experimental bastante rápida. Esses animais possuem as mesmas enzimas [...] dessaturases e elongases que os humanos, por isso são usados em pesquisas envolvendo incorporação e síntese de ácidos graxos em tecidos. Os ácidos graxos da família ômega-3 e ômega-6 são de suma importância na dieta humana, pois estes não são sintetizados pela síntese de novo e são precursores dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados de cadeia muito longa, como os ácidos eicosapentaenóico, docosahexaenóico e araquidônico. Estes desempenham funções importantes no organismo, como a síntese de eicosanóides que estão envolvidos diretamente no sistema imune e nas respostas inflamatórias. A razão entre o consumo de ácidos graxos n-6 e n-3 na dieta é um importante fator para determinar a ingestão adequada de ácidos graxos bem como prevenir o aparecimento de doenças. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar a incorporação de ácidos graxos em tecidos de animais e discutir a importância dos ácidos da família n-3 e seus metabólitos no sistema imunológico. Abstract in english Experiments with animals are very important for the improvement of science. The use of mice in experiments is due to their similarity with humans, the easy of raising and maintaining them and their very fast response. These animals have the same desaturase and elongase enzymes as humans and so they [...] are used in research involving the incorporation and synthesis of fatty acids in tissues. The fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 are extremely important in the human diet because they are not synthesized de novo and are precursors of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as the eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids. These acids play important roles in animals, such as precursors of eicosanoids, which are directly involved in the immune system and inflammatory response. The dietary n-3:n-6 intake ratio is important for assessing proper fatty acid intake and for preventing the development of diseases. Thus, this article assessed the incorporation of fatty acids in animal tissues and discussed the importance of n-3 fatty acids and its metabolites for the immune system.

João Ângelo De Lima, Perini; Flávia Braidotti, Stevanato; Sheisa Cyléia, Sargi; Jeane Eliete Laguila, Visentainer; Márcia Machado De Oliveira, Dalalio; Makoto, Matshushita; Nilson Evelázio De, Souza; Jesuí Vergílio, Visentainer.

1075-10-01

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Lipid and fatty acid requirements of tilapias  

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Tilapia have been shown to have a dietary requirement for linoleic (n-6) series fatty acids (18:2n-6 or 20:4n-6). The optimum dietary levels of n-6 reported were 0.5 and 1% for redbelly tilapia (Tilapia zillii) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), respectively. Tilapia have been suggested to al...

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Effects of moderate fat intake with different n-3 fatty acid sources and n-6/n-3 ratios on serum and structural lipids in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on serum and membrane lipids in rats fed diets containing moderate levels of fats (6% by weight). Control rats received enough PUFA to prevent any deficiency. Experimental rats were fed linseed oil, salmon oil, or sunflower oil. After 8 weeks of feeding, fasting serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels were not altered in the linseed oil group. In contrast, in the salmon oil group, serum cholesterol was lowered by 58% (P < 0.05) and the specific binding of heterologous LDL to liver plasma membrane was reduced by 31% (P < 0.05). Unexpectedly, serum triacylglycerol levels were not significantly lowered (-14%) whereas they decreased (-32%; P < 0.05) in the sunflower oil group. Oleic acid, which has a stimulating effect on triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion, was less incorporated in serum and liver plasma membrane in rats fed sunflower oil than in rats fed other dietary lipids. This finding suggests that the effect of dietary sunflower oil was partly mediated by the reduction of oleic acid available for triacylglycerol synthesis. PMID:8526980

Frémont, L; Gozzelino, M T; Hojjat, T

1995-01-01

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Association Between Serum Long-Chain n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Profiles and Glomerular Filtration Rate Assessed by Serum Creatinine and Cystatin C Levels in Japanese Community-Dwellers  

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Background Plasma concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to be associated with renal function in Western populations. However, few studies have investigated the association between serum long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFA profiles and renal function in a Japanese population with high marine-derived long-chain n-3 PUFA intake. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 549 Japanese rural community-dwellers aged 40 to 64 years. In adjusted analysis of covariance, we assessed the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and tertiles of serum long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFA profiles ([eicosapentaenoic acid {EPA} + docosahexaenoic acid {DHA}]:arachidonic acid [AA]). GFR was estimated by Japanese specific equations using serum creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcre and eGFRcys). Using multivariate-adjusted linear regression models, we also assessed the relationships between eGFRs and several n-3 and n-6 PUFAs, which have been suggested to be associated with renal function. Results In all participants, higher dietary fish intake as assessed by a semi-quantitative questionnaire was associated with higher serum value of (EPA+DHA):AA. Participants in the higher (EPA+DHA):AA tertiles had non-significantly higher eGFRcre and significantly higher eGFRcys (P = 0.016). In addition, eGFRcys in T2+T3 of (EPA+DHA):AA was significantly higher than that in T1 (adjusted mean eGFRcys, T1: 87 ml/min/1.73 m2, T2+T3: 91 ml/min/1.73 m2; P AA, which reflects an individual’s fish intake, might be associated with eGFRcys in Japanese community-dwellers. PMID:25728619

Higashiyama, Aya; Kubota, Yoshimi; Marumo, Mikio; Konishi, Masami; Yamashita, Yoshiko; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Okamura, Tomonori; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

2015-01-01

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Trabajos de Investigación Increase of plasma fatty acids without changes in n-6/n-3-PUFA ratio in asymptomatic obese subjects  

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Full Text Available La obesidad está asociada con una inflamación de bajo grado que contribuye al desarrollo de la insulino-resistencia y de la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos saturados (AGS), monoinsaturados (AGMI) y poliinsaturados (AGPI) en sujetos o [...] besos asintomáticos y determinar el ratio ácido araquidónico/ácido eicosapentanoico [ARA/EPA] como un posible marcador de inflamación, con su eventual asociación con los niveles de proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (PCRus). Se reclutaron 14 sujetos obesos (34,4 ± 11.1 años; índice de masa corporal: 36,0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) y 12 normopeso (30,6 ± 7.8 años; índice de masa corporal: 23,6 ± 2,4 kg/m2); las concentraciones plasmáticas de ácidos grasos fueron determinados por cromatografía de gases. Los niveles de PCRus fueron más elevadas en los sujetos obesos (p=0,01) y correlacionaron con el contenido de grasa corporal. Los porcentajes relativos de AGS, AGMI, AGPI no se vieron afectados en los sujetos obesos, pero sus concentraciones plasmáticas se incrementaron en comparación con el grupo control. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias en las concentraciones de PUFAs de cadena larga (DHA, EPA y ARA) ni en el ratio ARA/EPA en los sujetos obesos. Estas observaciones no apoyan el uso del ratio ARA/EPA como un marcador de inflamación de bajo grado evaluada por PCRus en este grupo de sujetos obesos asintomáticos. Abstract in english Obesity is associated with a low grade inflammation which contributes to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the total saturated (SFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma from asymptomatic obese subjects and [...] to determine the arachidonic/eicosapentanoic acid ratio [ARA/EPA] as a marker of inflammation, and its eventual association with ultrasensitive CRP. Fourteen obese (34.4 ± 11.1y.; BMI: 36.0 ± 4,5 kg/m2) and 12 normal-weight (30.6 ± 7.8y.; BMI: 23,6± 2,4 kg/m2) subjects were recruited and their plasma fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. usCRP was higher in the obese subjects (p=0,01) and correlates with their body fat content. The percentages of SFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs were not affected in the obese subjects but their concentrations were increased, compared with the control group. However, no differences in the long chain PUFAs (DHA and EPA) concentrations or in the plasmatic ARA/EPA ratio were observed in these subjects. These observations do not support a relation between the ARA/EPA ratio and the presence of low grade inflammation evaluated by plasma usCRP in this group of asymptomatic obese subjects.

Jerusa, Brignardello; Pamela, Morales; Erik, Diaz; Oscar, Brunser; Martin, Gotteland.

2011-06-01

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Targeted alterations in dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids improve life functioning and reduce psychological distress among patients with chronic headache: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial.  

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Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are precursors of bioactive lipid mediators posited to modulate both physical pain and psychological distress. In a randomized trial of 67 subjects with severe headaches, we recently demonstrated that targeted dietary manipulation-increasing omega-3 fatty acids with concurrent reduction in omega-6 linoleic acid (the H3-L6 intervention)-produced major reductions in headache compared with an omega-6 lowering (L6) intervention. Because chronic pain is often accompanied by psychological distress and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL), we used data from this trial to examine whether the H3-L6 intervention favorably impacted these domains. Additionally, we examined the effect of the interventions on the number of cases with substantial physical or mental impairments as defined by cutoff values in the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18), Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms 12 (SF-12), Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), and the number of headache days per month. In the intention-to-treat analysis, participants in the H3-L6 group experienced statistically significant reductions in psychological distress (BSI-18 mean difference: -6.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11.43 to -1.69) and improvements in SF-12 mental (mean difference: 6.01; 95% CI: 0.57 to 11.45) and physical (mean difference: 6.65; 95% CI: 2.14 to 11.16) health summary scores. At 12 weeks, the proportion of subjects experiencing substantial impairment according to cutoff values in the BSI-18, SF-12 physical, HIT-6, and headache days per month was significantly lower in the H3-L6 group. Dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, previously shown to produce major improvements in headache, was found to also reduce psychological distress and improve HRQOL and function. PMID:25790451

Ramsden, Christopher E; Faurot, Keturah R; Zamora, Daisy; Palsson, Olafur S; MacIntosh, Beth A; Gaylord, Susan; Taha, Ameer Y; Rapoport, Stanley I; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M; Mann, J Douglas

2015-04-01

49

Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor ? protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ? expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

Nuernberg Karin

2011-08-01

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Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes  

OpenAIRE

Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of th...

Calder, Philip C.

2010-01-01

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Retroconversion of docosapentaenoic acid (n-6): an alternative pathway for biosynthesis of arachidonic acid in Daphnia magna.  

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The aim of this study was to assess metabolic pathways for arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) biosynthesis in Daphnia magna. Neonates of D. magna were maintained on [(13)C] enriched Scenedesmus obliquus and supplemented with liposomes that contained separate treatments of unlabeled docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6), 20:4n-6, linoleic acid (18:2n-6) or oleic acid (18:1n-9). Daphnia in the control treatment, without any supplementary fatty acids (FA) containing only trace amounts of 20:4n-6 (~0.3% of all FA). As expected, the highest proportion of 20:4n-6 (~6.3%) was detected in Daphnia that received liposomes supplemented with this FA. Higher availability of 18:2n-6 in the diet increased the proportion of 18:2n-6 in Daphnia, but the proportion of 20:4n-6 was not affected. Daphnia supplemented with 22:5n-6 contained ~3.5% 20:4n-6 in the lipids and FA specific stable isotope analyses validated that the increase in the proportion of 20:4n-6 was due to retroconversion of unlabeled 22:5n-6. These results suggest that chain shortening of 22:5n-6 is a more efficient pathway to synthesize 20:4n-6 in D. magna than elongation and desaturation of 18:2n-6. These results may at least partially explain the discrepancies noticed between phytoplankton FA composition and the expected FA composition in freshwater cladocerans. Finally, retroconversion of dietary 22:5n-6 to 20:4n-6 indicates Daphnia efficiently retain long chain n-6 FA in lake food webs, which might be important for the nutritional ecology of fish. PMID:24715497

Strandberg, Ursula; Taipale, Sami J; Kainz, Martin J; Brett, Michael T

2014-06-01

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Efeito dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 na expressão de genes do metabolismo de lipídeos e risco de aterosclerose / Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in the lipid metabolism and risk of atherosclerosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A aterosclerose, principal responsável pela patogênese do infarto miocárdico e cerebral, bem como pela gangrena e por outras doenças vasculares periféricas, permanece como principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade nas populações "ocidentalizadas". Estima-se que 17,5 milhões de pessoas morreram por [...] doenças cardiovasculares em 2005, o que representou 30% das causas de morte nesse ano, e que, em 2015, 20 milhões de pessoas morrerão por doenças cardiovasculares no mundo. Os ácidos graxos n-3, principalmente os de cadeia longa, encontrados nos peixes, têm-se mostrado particularmente úteis na prevenção e tratamento de doenças como dislipidemias, diabetes mellitus e obesidade, apresentando importante efeito cardioprotetor. Nesse contexto, pesquisas têm evidenciado que ao menos parte dos benefícios dos ácidos graxos eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico sobre o risco de doenças cardiovasculares é decorrente da modulação de genes responsivos aos receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomos e envolvidos no metabolismo lipídico. Nesta revisão, pretende-se expor alguns mecanismos de ação dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 sobre o metabolismo de lipídeos e de lipoproteínas. Conclui-se que muitos aspectos que contribuem para o risco de doenças cardiovasculares são afetados pela ingestão de n-3. Além da redução de triglicérides, fatores como o aumento de adiponectina, a redução da concentração de colesterol plasmático e a melhora do transporte reverso de colesterol também são responsáveis pela redução do risco de aterosclerose promovida pelos ácidos graxos n-3. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos adicionais para definir mais claramente os mecanismos celulares e moleculares responsáveis pelo efeito cardioprotetor dos ácidos graxos n-3. Abstract in english Atherosclerosis, the main cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, gangrene and other peripheral vascular diseases, also persists as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Western populations. Roughly 17.5 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2005, representing 30% of the causes [...] of death in that year, and in 2015, another 20 million people will die of cardiovascular diseases around the world. The n-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain n-3 found in fish, have been shown to be particularly effective in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus and obesity, presenting an important cardioprotective effect. In this context, studies have found that at least some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids regard the modulation of genes that respond to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors involved in lipid metabolism. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of some n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In conclusion, many aspects that contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases are affected by n-3 intake. N-3 fatty acids not only reduce triglycerides, but also promote factors that increase adiponectin, reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the reverse cholesterol transport, and all of these contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. However, additional studies are still necessary to elucidate all the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the cardioprotective effect of n-3 fatty acids.

Helena Fonseca, Raposo.

2010-10-01

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Fatty acid metabolism of isolated mammalian cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now clear that a wide variety of differentiated cells in culture exhibit essentially the full spectrum of mammalian fatty acid metabolism. These cells readily incorporate free fatty acids into membrane phosphoglycerides, modify exogenous fatty acids by desaturation and elongation, and store excess fatty acyl groups, primarily as triacylglycerols. Similarly, many different types of cells synthesize cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase derivatives of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, although the fatty acid composition of cellular phospholipids can be modified by medium supplementation, cells in culture exhibit definite fatty acyl specificities for the various steps of fatty acid activation, transesterification and release. As the extensive repertoire of fatty acid metabolism in mammalian cells has been elucidated, and as the ability to grow differentiated cells in culture has increased, new questions have arisen. There is still much to be learned about the enzymes involved in synthesizing and maintaining the unique fatty acid composition of the different cellular phospholipids and the processes which regulate the desaturation, elongation and retroconversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Other areas of great current interest are the mechanisms by which certain long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are made available for conversion to oxygenated, biologically-active derivatives, the metabolic interactions between different polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, the cellular roles of the C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the functions of particular molecular species of phospholipids in membrane-mediated events. Further research in these areas will contribute to unravelling the role of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives in the physiological processes of mammalian cells. PMID:3310011

Rosenthal, M D

1987-01-01

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Hepatic fatty acid partitioning.  

OpenAIRE

Purpose of Review: A net retention of triacylglycerol within the liver is a prerequisite for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The accumulation of liver fat reflects an imbalance between fatty acid input and disposal. Here we summarize recent research into understanding the fate of fatty acids within the hepatocyte. Recent Findings: Several recent studies have elucidated the contribution of different sources of fatty acids to liver fat and to plasma triacylglycerol. Some re...

Hodson, L.; Frayn, Kn

2011-01-01

55

Essential-fatty acid supply of weanling piglets  

OpenAIRE

This thesis describes research on the essential-fatty acid supply of weanling piglets. Vertebrates require dietary sources of essential fatty acids. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) and a-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n-3) are considered the parent compounds of the n-6 and n-3 families of PUFAs, respectively. The products of desaturation and elongation arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4 n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n-3), are the precursors for eicosan...

Schellingerhout, Anneke Beatrix

2002-01-01

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Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Essential fatty acids (EFA are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy.

Bill Lands

2012-09-01

57

The metabolism and distribution of docosapentaenoic acid (n-6) in the liver and testis of growing rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the metabolism and distribution of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6, DPA) in the liver and testis of growing rats, 22:5n-6 was administered to their dams. Newborn rats with a low hepatic arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, AA) level were generated by administrating a diet rich in docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) but n-6 fatty acid (FA) free to pregnant dams. After parturition, 22:5n-6 or linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA) was administered with a high level of 22:6n-3 to the dams until weaning. At weaning, the hepatic 20:4n-6 level was significantly highest in the DPA-DHA but not LA-DHA diet-fed animals. The hepatic delta-6 desaturase (D6D) mRNA abundance was significantly lower in both the LA-DHA and DPA-DHA diet-fed animals, connoted with the 20:4n-6 content recovered by 22:5n-6 that did not involve D6D and supporting the occurrence of retroconversion in the liver of the growing rats. The low D6D level in the 3-week-old testis was not in proportion to the elevated 22:5n-6 level, implying that early testicular 22:5n-6 accumulation might require supply from the circulation system. PMID:18838818

Tam, Phyllis S Y; Sawada, Rumi; Cui, Yan; Matsumoto, Akiyo; Fujiwara, Yoko

2008-10-01

58

Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

Science.gov (United States)

Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

59

Fats and fatty acids  

Science.gov (United States)

The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

60

Trans Fatty Acids  

Science.gov (United States)

Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

Doyle, Ellin

1997-09-01

61

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes  

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Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

Philip C. Calder

2010-03-01

62

Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated [18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)] fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of [1-14C]labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism

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Generation of novel metabolites of dietary linoleic acid (18:2n6) by guinea pig epidermis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the authors have demonstrated the inability of rat and guinea pig (GP) skin enzyme preparations to desaturate 18:2n6 into gammalinolenic acid (18:3n6) using an in vitro microsomal system, the fate of this dietary essential fatty acid in the GP epidermis is unknown. To explore the fate of 18:2n6, intact tissue slices from GP epidermis were incubated with [1-14C]18:2n6. After incubation, the extracted lipids were transesterified using methanolic-HCL. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed using a combination of (i) argentation TLC, scanned using a proportional TLC radioscanner, and (ii) reverse phase HPLC, equipped with a flow through radioscanner. The results indicate that the intact epidermis metabolized 14C-18:2n6 to a group of novel products more polar than 18:2n6. In subsequent experiments, 14C-18:2n6 was either incubated with the 800 xg supernatant, the 105,000 xg pellet or supernatant from GP epidermis. Metabolism of 18:2n6 by the high speed supernatant resulted in the generation of polar products with chromatographic properties of not greater than 2 double bonds. These results indicate that although the GP epidermis lacks the capacity to desaturate 18:2n6 to 18:3n6, it can convert dietary 18:2n6 into a group of novel polar metabolites via a cytosolic mediated process. The function of these metabolites in the GP integumentary system remains to be determined

64

Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammation : Observational and Interventional Studies  

OpenAIRE

Dietary fat quality influences the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A low-grade inflammation is suggested to contribute to the disease development, often accompanied by obesity. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been considered anti-inflammatory, n-6 PUFA have been proposed to act pro-inflammatory. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) act pro-inflammatory in vitro. This thesis aimed to investigate effects of different fatty acids on low-grade inflammation in observ...

Bjermo, Helena

2011-01-01

65

Omega-3 fatty acids (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

66

Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

Ivan?ica Delaš

2005-04-01

67

Fatty acids profiles of some Spanish wild vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in human nutrition, being associated with several health benefits. The analyzed vegetables, in spite of its low fat content, lower than 2%, present a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3, n-6 and n-9 series, such as ?-linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids, respectively. Wild edible plants contain in general a good balance of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The present study tries to contribute to the preservation and valorization of traditional food resources, studying the fatty acids profile of 20 wild vegetables by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection. Results show that species in which leaves are predominant in their edible parts have in general the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios: Rumex pulcher (5.44), Cichorium intybus (5.14) and Papaver rhoeas (5.00). Due to the low n-6/n-3 ratios of the majority of the samples, they can be considered interesting sources of n-3 fatty acids, especially those with higher total fat amount, such as Bryonia dioica, Chondrilla juncea or Montia fontana, with the highest contents of ?-linolenic acid (67.78, 56.27 and 47.65%, respectively). The wild asparaguses of Asparagus acutifolius and Tamus communis stand out for their linoleic acid content (42.29 and 42.45%, respectively). All these features reinforce the interest of including wild plants in diet, as an alternative to the variety of vegetables normally used. PMID:22701061

Morales, P; Ferreira, I C F R; Carvalho, A M; Sánchez-Mata, M C; Cámara, M; Tardío, J

2012-06-01

68

The metabolism and distribution of docosapentaenoic acid (n-6) in rats and rat hepatocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a new marine oil that contains 45% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and 13% docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-6) was administered to rats. The metabolism and distribution of DPA in rats was investigated. In experiment 1, the effects of DHA and n-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid, LA; arachidonic acid, AA; and DPA) on AA contents were investigated in vivo. LA group: LA 25%, DHA 30%; LA-DPA group: LA 15%, DPA 10%, DHA 35%; LA-AA-DPA group: LA 10%, AA 5%, DPA 10%, DHA 35% were administered to rats for 4 wk. In the liver, the AA content in the LA-DPA and LA-AA-DPA groups was significantly higher than in the LA group. The decreased AA contents in the LA group might be caused by DHA administration. Although DHA also was administered in the LA-DPA and LA-AA-DPA groups, the AA contents in these two groups did not decrease. These results suggested that DPA retroconverted to AA, blunting the decrease in AA content caused by DHA administration. To conduct a detailed investigation on DPA metabolism and its relation with AA and DHA, rat hepatocytes were cultured with purified DPA and DHA for 24 h. We discovered the retroconversion of DPA to AA occurred only when AA content was decreased by a high DHA administration; it did not occur when AA content was maintained at a normal level. PMID:10695926

Tam, P S; Umeda-Sawada, R; Yaguchi, T; Akimoto, K; Kiso, Y; Igarashi, O

2000-01-01

69

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic childhood disorders: panacea, promising, or placebo  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA, or LCP) include the essential fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) and linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) as well as a number of metabolites of both, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachid...

70

Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. PMID:25577101

Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

2015-05-15

71

Origin of fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfthe chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be studied. (author). Abstract only

72

Arachidonic acid offsets the effects on mouse brain and behavior of a diet with a low (n-6):(n-3) ratio and very high levels of docosahexaenoic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of varying dietary levels of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on growth, brain fatty acid composition and behavior in mice. Five groups of pregnant and lactating B6D2F1 mice were fed diets with either a very high (n-6):(n-3) ratio of 49 [(n-3) deficient)], a normal ratio of 4.0 or a low ratio of 0.32. The (n-6) fatty acids (FA) were provided either entirely as linoleic acid (LA) or as LA in combination with arachidonic acid (ARA), and the (n-6):(n-3) ratios were adjusted by partial replacement of the (n-6) FA with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Offspring were maintained on these diets after weaning. The diets with the low (n-6): (n-3) ratio had no effect on the birth weights of the pups, but after 15 d resulted in a significant 12% reduction in body weights. This effect persisted to adulthood and was apparent in both brain and body weights unless ARA was substituted partially for LA as the source of (n-6) FA. There were significant effects of diet on brain fatty acid composition. Increasing levels of DHA in the diet increased brain DHA and decreased ARA, and there was also retroconversion of DHA in EPA in the mice fed high levels of DHA. Addition of ARA to the diet increased brain ARA, and, at high levels only, decreased DHA. There were no effects of this wide variation in dietary (n-6):(n-3) ratio on the ability of the mice to learn the place of the hidden platform in the Morris water maze. However, in both the cued and the place learning, the mice fed the low (n-6):(n-3) diet swam more slowly, unless ARA substituted partially for LA as the source of (n-6) FA. There were no effects of diet on activity in the spatial open field. These findings show that the effects of a diet with a low (n-6):(n-3) ratio and (n-3) FA provided as DHA, can be overcome if LA is partially replaced by ARA as the source of (n-6) FA. PMID:9040564

Wainwright, P E; Xing, H C; Mutsaers, L; McCutcheon, D; Kyle, D

1997-01-01

73

Fatty acid profiles of processed chicken egg yolks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty acid compositions of egg yolks subjected to industrial processing treatments, namely, homogenization, pasteurization, drying, and "omega-3-enrichment", were studied. In general, the total contents of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 n-9, and C18:2 n-6 fatty acids accounted for close to 90% of the total fatty acids. Statistical analysis of the data revealed correlations among the fatty acids; significant differences existed depending on the egg source and type of processing. Yolk samples enriched with omega-3 fatty acids clustered together owing to their higher C16:0, C16:1 n-7, C18:3 n-6, and C24:0 contents. Nonpasteurized/non-heat-treated samples formed another cluster because of their higher C18:1 n-11 and C18:1 n-9 contents, and the remaining samples formed another group due to their higher proportions of C18:0, C18:2 n-6, and C20:4 n-6. The relative proportions of essential fatty acids were similar in the four types of samples examined. PMID:16910716

Tesedo, Javier; Barrado, Enrique; Sanz, M Angeles; Tesedo, Angel; de la Rosa, Francisco

2006-08-23

74

Evidence for peroxisomal retroconversion of adrenic acid (22:4(n-6)) and docosahexaenoic acids (22:6(n-3)) in isolated liver cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intracellular localization of the oxidation of [2-14C]adrenic acid (22:4(n-6)) and [1-14C]docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)) was studied in isolated liver cells. The oxidation of 22:4(n-6) was 2-3-times more rapid than the oxidation of 22:6(n-3), [1-14C]arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6)) or [1-14C]oleic acid (18:1). (+)-Decanoylcarnitine and lactate, both known to inhibit mitochondrial beta-oxidation, reduced the oxidation of 18:1 distinctly more efficiently than with 22:4(n-6) and 22:6(n-3). In liver cells from rats fed a diet containing partially hydrogenated fish oil, the oxidation of 22:6(n-6) and 22:6(n-3) was increased by 30-40% compared with cells from rats fed a standard pellet diet. With 18:1 as substrate, the amount of fatty acid oxidized was very similar in cells from animals fed standard pellets or partially hydrogenated fish oil. Shortened fatty acids were not produced from [5,6,8,9,11,12,14,15-3H]arachidonic acid. In hepatocytes from rats starved and refed 20% fructose, a large fraction of 14C from 22:4 was recovered in 14C-labelled C14-C18 fatty acids. Oxidation of 22:4 thus caused a high specific activity of the extramitochondrial pool of acetyl-CoA. The results suggest that 22:4(n-6) and to some extent 22:6(n-3) are oxidized by peroxisomal beta-oxidation and by this are retroconverted to arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. PMID:2935195

Hagve, T A; Christophersen, B O

1986-02-12

75

Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, th? determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

Daniela Belichovska

2015-03-01

76

Polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are necessary for overall health. The two PUFAs families, n-6 and n-3 fatty acid are physiologically and metabolically distinct. Proportion of PUFAs in serum and erythrocyte phospholipids is an important determinant of both health and disease, and depends on endogenous metabolism controlled by genetic polymorphisms and dietary intake. Both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are processed to powerful promoters of eicosanoids synthesis at the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase level. Evidence from observational and intervention studies suggest that n-3 PUFAs are cardioprotective, perhaps through their anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, lipid-lowering, and antihypertensive effects. In contrast, dietary n-6 PUFAs have pro-inflammatory effect. Low n-3 and elevated n-6 PUFAs levels were found in patients with cancer on different sites. The present review will focus on the current knowledge related to PUFAs intake and status in health and disease, with reference to the Serbian population. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41030

Risti?-Medi? Danijela

2013-01-01

77

Fatty acid-producing hosts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

2013-12-31

78

Modification of spleen phospholipid fatty acid composition by dietary fish oil and by n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have compared the effects of diets containing purified ethyl esters of either eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, or a mixture of both of these compounds, with diets containing either purified fish oil or beef tallow on spleen phospholipid fatty acid composition. Autoimmune mice, the (NZB x NZW)F1 strain, were fed with experimental diets for 14 weeks, after which spleen phospholipids were extracted and separated into classes by HPLC, and the alkenylacyl, alkylacyl, and diacyl subclasses of glycerylphosphatidylethanolamine and glycerylphosphatidylcholine were resolved as their benzoyl esters by HPLC. Fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography of their methyl esters. Each of the marine lipid diets suppressed n-6 fatty acids and elevated n-3 fatty acids in all phospholipids. The eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester diets led to high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-3), but little or no increase in docosahexaenoic acid. The docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester diets elevated docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in all phospholipids, indicating that extensive retroconversion of 22 carbon n-3 fatty acids had occurred. These results document changes in the fatty acid composition of mammalian phospholipids that are induced by dietary fish oil triglycerides and by dietary long chain n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters. PMID:8409773

Robinson, D R; Xu, L L; Knoell, C T; Tateno, S; Olesiak, W

1993-08-01

79

Fatty Acid Composition of Rickettsiae  

OpenAIRE

The fatty acid compositions of selected strains of rickettsiae were studied by gas-liquid chromatography. The profiles of all the rickettsiae except Coxiella burnetii were qualitatively similar. The fatty acid composition of C. burnetii was similar to that of certain Legionella species.

Tzianabos, Theodore; Moss, C. Wayne; Mcdade, Joseph E.

1981-01-01

80

Rat testicular lipids and dietary isomeric fatty acids in essential fatty acid deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Weanling rats were fed essential fatty acid-deficient diets, either completely fat-free, or with partially hydrogenated fish oil (PHFO, 28 wt %), or with fractions derived from PHFO containing primarily positional isomers of trans-eicosenoate (20:1, 3 wt %) or trans-docosenoate (22:1, 3 wt %). Control animals were fed a peanut oil-containing diet (28 wt %). After 5 or 15 weeks on the diet, the content of neutral and phosphorus-containing lipids in the testes was determined. The fatty acid distribution in major lipid classes was analyzed for animals fed the diets for 15 weeks. The testicular stage of maturation or degeneration was assessed by histology. The group fed PHFO exhibited signs of complete testicular degeneration, or lack of maturation, already after 5 weeks, whereas the animals on the diets with the very long chain monoenoic acids suffered severe degenerations only after 15 weeks. In the PHFO-fed rats, a sharp decline in the concentration of testicular triacylglycerols was observed. In all of the essential fatty acid-deficient groups, an increase in testicular sphingomyelin was observed. Cholesterol levels were fairly similar among all dietary groups. The total testicular fatty acids of the PHFO-fed animals contained somewhat more eicosadienoic acid than found in the other groups, and somewhat less (n-9)-acids. In all EFA-deficient groups, (n-6)-acids were lowered, in particular in triacylglycerols and phosphatidyl cholines. The PHFO group did not show a lower (n-6)-concentration than the other deficient groups, in spite of the more severe symptoms of deficiency. There was no evidence of a major accumulation of long chain isomeric fatty acids in the degenerated testes of the PHFO-, 20:1-, and 22:1-fed groups. PMID:1263760

Jensen, B

1976-03-01

81

Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

OpenAIRE

1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6), the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune...

Calder P.C.

1998-01-01

82

Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species  

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Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp. five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synechocystis sp..Medium for culture diatoms and green microalgae was F/2, and BG-11 media was used for Cyanophyceae. The microalgae were cultured beneath light intensity 143 ?Em-2s-1, light: dark illustration 12:12 hrs., temperature 28ºC, and salinities 8-30 psu. The microalgae were harvested for analyzing fatty acid by centrivugal machine at 3500 rpm. for 5 min. at temperature 20ºC and stored at -80ºC prior to analysis.Fatty acids composition of microalgae differed from species to species. The majority fatty acids composition of diatoms at the exponential phase and the stationary phase were C16:1n-7 (17.12-31.47% and 28.22-42.02%, C16:0 (13.25-19.61% and 18.83-20.67%, C20:5 n-3 (16.65-26.67% and 11.32-23.68% respectively. The principle fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae, Tetraselmis sp. were C18:3n-3 (16.17-16.67%, C16:0 (15.33-17.45%, C18:1n-9 (12.25-15.43%, C18:2n-6 (9.66-19.97%. The fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Chlorophyceae, were C18:3 n-3 (20.02-26.49% and 15.35- 30.63%, C16:0 (5.76-17.61% and 11.41-20.03%, C18:2n-6 (4.67-17.54% and 7.48-20.61% respectively. The major amounts of fatty acids content of blue green microalgae were C16:1n-7 (9.28-34.91% and 34.48- 35.04%, C14:0 (13.34-25.96% and 26.69-28.24%, C16:0 (5.89-29.15% and 5.70-16.81% except for Anacystis sp.which had a high amount of C18:3 n-3 (23.18-27.98% but low amount of C14:0 (3.66-4.98%.Bacillariophyceae contained the highest amount of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs at both growth phases. Prasinophyceae had a small amount while in Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae they were not detected. Nitzschia cf. ovalis and Thalassiosira sp. had amount of C20:4n-6 (0.08-4.40%,C20:5 n-3 (11.32- 26.67% and C22:6 n-3 (0.80-4.20% respectively. Tetraselmis sp. had amounts of C20:4n-6 and C20:5 n-3 ranging from 0.99-1.13% and 4.18-4.70% respectively. In conclusion, Nitzschia cf. ovalis and Thalassiosira sp. would serve as good nutritional sources of HUFAs for aquaculture animals.

Thidarat Noiraksar

2005-11-01

83

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children

Tetens, Inge

2010-01-01

84

Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk  

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Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

Daniela Pittau

2013-10-01

85

Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds  

OpenAIRE

Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein). Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P

Ivica Kos; Jelena Ramljak; Ante Ivankovi?; Miljenko Konja?i?; Nikolina Kelava

2010-01-01

86

Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis and Elongation  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid elongation are two parts of a critically important pathway in plants. The endproducts are essential components of cell membranes, waxes, and suberin. Two chemical families of herbicide (groups that share similar chemical structures) inhibit fatty acid synthesis, while fatty acid elongation is inhibited by two other families. This lesson will provide an overview of fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and explain where herbicides inhibit the pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to these herbicides will be described.

87

Heart fatty acid uptake is decreased in heart fatty acid-binding protein gene-ablated mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell culture systems have demonstrated a role for cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP) in lipid metabolism, although a similar function in intact animals is unknown. We addressed this issue using heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) gene-ablated mice. H-FABP gene ablation reduced total heart fatty acid uptake 40 and 52% for [1-(14)C]16:0 and [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 compared with controls, respectively. Similarly, the amount of fatty acid found in the aqueous fraction was reduced 40 and 52% for [1-(14)C]16:0 and [1-(14)C]20:4n-6, respectively. Less [1-(14)C]16:0 entered the triacylglycerol pool, with significant redistribution of fatty acid between the triacylglycerol pool and the total phospholipid pool. Less [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 entered each lipid pool measured, but these changes did not alter the distribution of tracer among these pools. In gene-ablated mice, significantly more [1-(14)C]16:0 was targeted to choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, whereas more [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 was targeted to the phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) pool. H-FABP gene ablation significantly increased PtdIns mass 1.4-fold but reduced PtdIns 20:4n-6 mass 30%. Consistent with a reported effect of FABP on plasmalogen mass, ethanolamine plasmalogen mass was reduced 30% in gene-ablated mice. Further, 20:4n-6 mass was reduced in each of the three other major phospholipid classes, suggesting H-FABP has a role in maintaining steady-state 20:4n-6 mass in heart. In summary, H-FABP was important for heart fatty acid uptake and targeting of fatty acids to specific heart lipid pools as well as for maintenance of phospholipid pool mass and acyl chain composition. PMID:15194696

Murphy, Eric J; Barcelo-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Binas, Bert; Glatz, Jan F C

2004-08-13

88

Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficie [...] ntly expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

Meilan, Xue; Yinlin, Ge; Jinyu, Zhang; Qing, Wang; Lin, Hou.

1141-11-01

89

Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

Meilan Xue

2012-12-01

90

Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

2008-01-01

91

Extracellular secretion of free fatty acids by the chrysophyte Ochromonas danica under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, microalgae have gained a lot of attention because of their ability to produce fatty acids in their surrounding environments. The present paper describes the influence of organic carbon on the different fatty acid pools including esterified fatty acids, intracellular free fatty acids and extracellular free fatty acids in Ochromonas danica. It also throws light on the ability of O. danica to secrete free fatty acids in the growth medium under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. Biomass production of photoautotrophically grown O. danica was higher than that of mixotrophically grown, where a cellular biomass formation of 1.8 g L(-1) was observed under photoautotrophic condition which was about five folds higher than that under mixotrophic conditions. Contrary, the esterified fatty acid content reached up to 99 mg g(-1) CDW under photoautotrophic conditions at the late exponential phase, while during mixotrophic conditions a maximum of 212 mg g(-1) CDW was observed at the stationary phase. Furthermore, O. danica cells grown under mixotrophic conditions showed higher intracellular free fatty acid and extracellular free fatty acid contents (up to 51 and 20 mg g(-1) CDW, respectively) than cells grown under photoautotrophic conditions (up to 26 and 4 mg g(-1) CDW, respectively). The intra- and extracellular free fatty acids consisted of a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6. PMID:25212544

Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah; El-Sheekh, Mostafa; Hanelt, Dieter

2014-12-01

92

Polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce Fatty Acid Synthase and Hydroxy-Methyl-Glutaryl CoA-Reductase gene expression and promote apoptosis in HepG2 cell line  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the two major classes of PUFAs encountered in the diet, and both classes of fatty acids are required for normal human health. Moreover, PUFAs have effects on diverse pathological processes impacting chronic disease, such as cardiovascular and immune disease, neurological disease, and cancer. Aim To investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human...

Miccolis Angelica; Tutino Valeria; Refolo Maria G; Messa Caterina; Notarnicola Maria; Caruso Maria G

2011-01-01

93

Dietary lipids and forages interactions on cow and goat milk fatty acid composition and sensory properties  

OpenAIRE

This review summarises the known effects of dietary factors on bovine and caprine milk fatty acid composition, as well as the regulation of cow and goat mammary lipid secretion. Special attention is given to fatty acids that could play a role for human health, such as saturated fatty acids, oleic acid, n-6- or n-3-C18 to C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans isomers of C18:1 and C18:2, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The main dietary factors taken into account are the nature o...

Chilliard, Yves; Ferlay, Anne

2004-01-01

94

Isomeric fatty acids: evaluating status and implications for maternal and child health.  

Science.gov (United States)

"Isomeric fatty acids" is a term that refers to the trans- and positional isomers formed during hydrogenation of naturally occurring oils. The purposes of this paper are as follows: (i) to summarize potential exposure of infants to isomeric fatty acids by reviewing estimates of isomeric fatty acids in the maternal diet, in human milk, and in infant formula/infant foods, and (ii) to evaluate the evidence for adverse effects of isomeric fatty acids on infant development with respect to growth and essential fatty acid status. Estimates of the intake of trans-fatty acids vary widely both within and across populations. Current estimates of trans-fatty acids in the North American population are 4-11% of total fatty acids or 3-13 g/(person x d), whereas in Mediterranean countries in which olive oil is the primary fat and in Far Eastern countries in which little commercially hydrogenated fat is consumed, per capita consumption of trans-fatty acids is trans-fatty acid content of human milk reflects the cross-cultural variation in the maternal diet, with trans-fatty acids in human milk samples ranging from 6 to 7% in North America to Trans-fatty acids are transferred from the maternal diet through the placenta to the developing fetus or through milk to the breast-fed infant. In some studies, plasma trans-fatty acids are inversely related to birth weight and head circumference. The hypothesis that dietary trans-fatty acids could inhibit biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with 20 and 22 carbon atoms and thus affect infant development is supported by studies demonstrating an inverse correlation of plasma trans-fatty acids with n-3 and n-6 longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infants. However, no such relationship has been observed in human milk. A definitive answer concerning a potentially adverse effect of dietary trans-fatty acids on infant development awaits future studies. PMID:11724473

Craig-Schmidt, M C

2001-09-01

95

Fatty acid composition of selected macrophytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The content of total lipids and the fatty acid (FA) profile were determined for eight macroalgae (Cystoseira abies-marina, Fucus spiralis, Chaetomorpha pachynema, Codium elisabethae, Porphyra sp., Osmundea pinnatifida, Pterocladiella capillacea and Sphaeroccoccus coronopifolius). Total lipids were extracted using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform (2/1, v/v) and further derivatised to FA methyl esters (FAME). The analyses of FAME samples were performed by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionisation detector. The total lipid content ranged from 0.06 to 3.54?g (per 100?g). The most abundant saturated FA were palmitic (C16:0) and myristic (C14:0), while oleic (C18:1?n-9) was the dominant monounsaturated acid. All seaweeds contained linoleic FA (C18:2?n-6). The ?-linolenic (C18:3?n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5?n-3) acids were present only in Porphyra sp. (3.34%?±?0.13) and C. pachynema (0.47%?±?0.12), respectively. The n-6/n-3 and h/H ratios were low, suggesting a high nutritional value of the algae studied. PMID:22591127

Patarra, R F; Leite, J; Pereira, R; Baptista, J; Neto, A I

2013-04-01

96

Simulation of Palm based Fatty Acids Distillation  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acids have long been recognized for their commercial value in the absence of glycerol. Chemicals derived from fatty acids are widely used in the formulation of detergents, lubricant, surfactants and in pharmaceutical industries. In addition, fatty acids also play a vital role in human metabolism and are widely used as catalyst in some chemical reactions. Commercially produced fatty acids are derived from naturally occurring fats and oils through the process of hydrolysis. Most of these ...

Chin Peng Jiun; Oh Pin Pin; Awang Bono

2010-01-01

97

The role of essential fatty acids in the control of coronary heart disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Evidence from various research paradigms supports the cardiovascular benefits of a high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the long-chain, marine-derived n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids. The effect of the plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is, however, not clear. Concerns about a high n-6 PUFA intake has been raised, because n-6 PUFA may weaken the effects of n-3 PUFA.

Vedtofte, Mia Sadowa; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

2012-01-01

98

Flagging the fatty acid ferryman.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids made in chloroplasts must be exported into the rest of the cell to be converted into commercially important plant oils. A new study identifies FAX1 as a protein that mediates this crucial transport step. Read the Research Article. PMID:25646782

Roberts, Roland G

2015-02-01

99

Fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat from pastoral yak and Tibetan sheep  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from mature male yak (n=6) and mature Tibetan sheep (n=6) grazed on the same pasture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to characterize fat composition of these species and to evaluate possible differenc...

100

21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the...

2010-04-01

101

Investigation of the constituent fatty acids of some freshwater fishes common in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the constituent fatty acids of some freshwater fish species as well as compare the nutritional quality of freshwater fish with that of marine fish by comparing the levels of essential fatty acids present. The fatty acids profile of freshwater fish species include minor amounts of odd-number, branched-chain, and even-number fatty acids as well as saturated components, the monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major saturated fatty acids were C14:0 and C16:0. The C18:1 is the prominent monounsaturated fatty acids while the C18:2 is the dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids. The essential fatty acids compositions showed prominence in C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6. The overall significance of this study had been its revelation that freshwater fish are good source of omega-6 essential fatty acids. The high percent of saturated fatty acids in freshwater fish gives them an advantage in curing processing.

C. Ugoala

2009-07-01

102

3???????????????? Three Fishes Muscle Fatty Acid Composition Analysis of Lha-sa River  

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Full Text Available ??????(Schizothorax waltoni??????(Ptychobarbus dipogon???????(Shizopygopsis younghusbandi?????????????????????????10??????????????????16:0?18:0????????16:1n-9?18:1n-9?18:1n-7????????18:2n-6?20:4n-6?20:5n-3?22:5n-3?22:6n-3?????????????????????????????????n-3???????????????? The fatty acid composition in muscle of three freshwater fishes Schizothorax waltoni, Ptychobarbus dipogon, Shizopygopsis younghusbandi was analyzed. The most abundant 10 fatty acids are the saturated fatty acids 16:0 and 18:0, the monounsaturated fatty acids 16:1n-9, 18:1n-9 and 18:1n-7, the polyunsaturated fatty acids 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3. The result showed that the pattern of fatty acids in the Tibetan fish resembled that of marine fish, and the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were relatively higher.  

??

2013-02-01

103

Fatty acid composition differences between adipose depot sites in dairy and beef steer breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to compare fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi (LD) and kidney fat (KF) in Holstein steers (HS), Simmental steers (SS) and Chinese LongDong Yellow Cattle steers (CLD). All steers received the same nutrition and management but in different locations. Cattle were harvested at approximately 550 kg and fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi and kidney fat was analyzed in samples taken after 3 days of aging. There was evidence (P?fat sources for n6 in CLD cattle was smaller than the other two breeds. The LD had greater percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and a greater ratio of n6:n3 PUFAs compared to the KF in each breed (P?fat and kidney fat. Further, there was some indication that some of these differences between fatty acid deposition sites were not consistent across breed group. PMID:25745237

Liu, T; Lei, Z M; Wu, J P; Brown, M A

2015-03-01

104

Synthesis and diagnostic use of ?-substituted fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application, evaluation and synthesis are discussed of the radioiodinated ?-substituted fatty acids used as myocardial imaging agents. The possibilities of the synthesis of all modifications of the radiolabelled fatty acids - ?-halogen acids, ?(p-iodophenyl) acids, ?-5-iodothienyl acids, ?-substituted ?- and ?-methyl-branched fatty acids, ?-iodoalkenyl fatty acids and ?-substituted tellurium fatty acids are demonstrated. The iodination methods are also included. (author)

105

Long?chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the pathophysiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome)  

OpenAIRE

Evidence is put forward to suggest that myalgic encephalomyelitis, also known as chronic fatigue syndrome, may be associated with persistent viral infection. In turn, such infections are likely to impair the ability of the body to biosynthesise n?3 and n?6 long?chain polyunsaturated fatty acids by inhibiting the ??6 desaturation of the precursor essential fatty acids—namely, ??linolenic acid and linoleic acid. This would, in turn, impair the proper functioning of cell membranes,...

Puri, B. K.

2006-01-01

106

Proximate Composition and Fatty Acids Profile in Oleaginous Seeds  

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Full Text Available Fatty acids were quantified in oleaginous seeds: pistachio, almonds, European nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, pecan nuts, and macadamia nuts. Three brands of each sample were purchased in three lots (n = 9. The proximate composition, energetic value, and fatty acids (FA were determined by gas chromatography. All seeds had large amounts of total lipids and the highest contents (ca. 70% were found in macadamia, pecan, and European nuts. The samples had significant amounts of crude protein. Pistachio and cashew nuts had the greatest amount (ca. 20%, as well as the largest carbohydrate contents (32%. All seeds were rather energetic, ranging from 600 to 760 Kcal.g-1. From seven to nine FA were identified and quantified, oleic (n-9 and linoleic (n-6 acids were the major acids. Essential fatty acid a-linolenic (n-3 was found in European nuts (except pistachio with an n-6/n-3 ratio (4:1 that is very beneficial to health. Trans FA were also observed in salted roasted cashew nuts. The major saturated FA (SFA was palmitic, stearic, and arachidonic acids, however, their amounts were much lower than those of polyunsaturated acids (PUFA and monounsaturated acids (MUFA. European nuts had the greatest PUFA/SFA ratio (9, followed by almonds (3.6.

Angela Claudia Rodrigues

2012-11-01

107

New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

108

Lipid content and fatty acid composition in foods commonly consumed by nursing Congolese women: incidences on their essential fatty acid intakes and breast milk fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition of nearly 40 foods, currently consumed by 102 nursing Congolese mothers living in Brazzaville, were determined to assess their impact on mothers' essential fatty acid (EFA) intakes and breast milk FA. Data on mothers' milk FA and dietary habits which allowed food selection were recently published (Rocquelin et al., 1998). Most foods were locally produced. Food samples were collected at local markets, bleached if necessary to avoid microbial degradation, and stored at +4 degrees C or -20 degrees C. They were lyophilized upon their arrival in the laboratory before lipid analyses. FA composition of food lipids was determined by capillary gas chromatography. Staple diets included low-fat, high-carbohydrate foods (processed cassava roots, wheat bread) and high-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) foods: soybean oil (high in 18 : 2 n-6 and alpha-18 : 3 n-3), bushbutter (dacryodes edulis), peanuts, avocado (high in fat and 18 : 2 n-6), freshwater and salt-water fish (high in LC n-3 and/or n-6 PUFA), and leafy green vegetables (low in fat but very high in alpha-18 : 3 n-3). Their frequent consumption by nursing mothers provided enough EFA to meet requirements due to lactation. It also explains why mothers' breast milk was rich in C8-C14 saturated FA (26% of total FA) and in n-6, n-3 PUFA (respectively 15.0% and 2.4% of total FA) highly profitable for breastfed infants' development. From this point of view, dietary habits of Congolese mothers have to be sustained for they are more adequate than most Western-type diets. PMID:10367004

Rocquelin, G; Tapsoba, S; Mbemba, F; Gallon, G; Picq, C

1998-09-01

109

Selective incorporation of various C-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three 14C-labeled 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, 7,10,13,16-[14C]docosatetraenoic acid (22:4(n-6)), 7,10,13,16,19-[14C]docosapentaenoic acid (22:5(n-3)), and 4,7,10,13,16,19-[14C]docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)), were compared with [3H]arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6] and [14C]linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)) to characterize their incorporation into the lipids of Ehrlich ascites cells. The relatively rapid incorporation of the labeled 22-carbon acids into phosphatidic acid indicated that substantial amounts of these acids may be incorporated through the de novo pathway of phospholipid synthesis. In marked contrast to 20:4(n-6), the 22-carbon acids were incorporated much less into choline glycerophospholipids (CGP) and inositol glycerophospholipids (IGP). No selective preference was apparent for the (n-3) or (n-6) type of fatty acids. The amounts of the acids incorporated into diacylglycerophosphoethanolamine were in the order of: 22:6(n-3) greater than 20:4(n-6) much greater than 22:5(n-3) greater than or equal to 22:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6), whereas for alkylacylglycerophosphoethanolamine they were in the order of: 22:4(n-6) greater than 22:6(n-3) greater than 22:5(n-3) much greater than 20:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6). Of the mechanisms possibly responsible for the selective entry of 22-carbon acids into ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, the most reasonable explanation was that the cytidine-mediated ethanolamn was that the cytidine-mediated ethanolamine phosphotransferase may have a unique double selectivity: for hexaenoic species of diacylglycerol and for 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing species of alkylacylglycerol. The relative distribution of fatty acids between newly incorporated and already maintained lipid classes suggested that IGP may function in Ehrlich cells as an intermediate pool for the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acids in glycerolipids

110

Sex differences in the relationship of dietary fatty acids to cognitive measures in American children  

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Full Text Available Because the first neurons evolved in an environment high in the n-3 (omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, this fatty acid became a major component of neural structure and function and makes up 10% of the dry weight of the human brain. Since n-3 fatty acids must come from the diet, this suggests a possible positive role for dietary n-3 fatty acids in cognition and a possible negative role for n-6 fatty acids, which compete with n-3 for access to critical enzymes. Because human females must provide DHA for the growth of the unusually large brains of their offspring from maternal fat stored during childhood, their need for DHA is especially great. We used stepwise regression to determine whether particular dietary fatty acids and other nutrients were related to cognitive performance in over 4000 American children aged 6 to 16 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; a variety of possible biological, social and environmental risk factors were statistically controlled. In this context the only dietary factors related to cognitive performance were n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Dietary n-3 fatty acids were positively related to cognitive test scores in male and female children, while n-6 showed the reverse relationship, significantly so in females. In female children the positive effects of n-3 intake were twice as strong as in males and exceeded the negative effects of lead exposure. This suggests that increasing dietary intake of n-3 and decreasing n-6 fatty acids may have cognitive benefits in children, especially in females.

WillLassek

2011-11-01

111

Maternal fatty acid status during pregnancy and lactation and relation to newborn and infant status.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present review of determinants of infant fatty acid status was undertaken as part of a conference on 'Fatty acid status in early life in low-income countries: determinants and consequences'. Emphasis is placed on the essential fatty acids, and particularly the physiologically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) of 20 and 22 carbons. We are unaware of any studies of determinants of infant fatty acid status in populations with a cultural dietary pattern with low amounts of linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and ?-linolenic acid (ALA,18:3n-3). Many reports suggest that there may be adverse health effects related to the increased proportion of LA in relation to ALA, which have occurred worldwide due to the increased availability of vegetable oils high in LA. The issue of dietary n-6 to n-3 balance may apply to infant fatty acid status both during fetal and post-natal life; however, this review focuses on the n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA, in particular, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), which are the predominant n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA found in cell membranes. The evidence that these fatty acids are preferentially transferred from maternal to fetal circulation across the placenta, and the sources and mechanisms for this transfer, are reviewed. We also address the sources of DHA and AA for the newborn including human milk DHA and AA and the factors that influence maternal DHA status and consequently the amount of DHA available for transfer to the fetus and infant via human milk. PMID:21366866

Lauritzen, Lotte; Carlson, Susan E

2011-04-01

112

Newly recognized cytotoxic effect of conjugated trienoic fatty acids on cultured human tumor cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the cytotoxic effect of conjugated trienoic fatty acids on various human tumor cell lines: DLD- 1, colorectal; HepG2, hepatoma; A549, lung; MCF-7, breast; and MKN-7, stomach. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acid were prepared from linoleic acid (18:2, n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3), respectively, by treatment with 6.6% or 21% potassium hydroxide. Spectrophotometric readings at 235 nm for the conjugated diene formation, and at 268 nm for the conjugated triene, were confirmed for the respective conjugated fatty acids. In addition, tung oil (Aleurites fordii) fatty acids consisting principally of a conjugated triene (eleostearic acid, approximately 80% of total fatty acids) were prepared using an alkaline saponification procedure. All tumor cells were incubated for 24 h with 5-100 microM of the conjugated fatty acids, and MTT dye reduction was measured to verify the cell viability. Among the conjugated fatty acids examined, conjugated linolenic acid and tung oil fatty acids exhibited the most intense cytotoxic effects on DLD-1, HepG2, A549, MCF-7 and MKN-7 cells, while CLA was not cytotoxic to the tumor cells. These results demonstrate that conjugated trienoic fatty acids are more cytotoxic to human tumor cells than the conjugated dienoic fatty acid, CLA. PMID:10695994

Igarashi, M; Miyazawa, T

2000-02-01

113

Fatty acid composition of frequently consumed foods in Turkey with special emphasis on trans fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid compositions of frequently consumed foods in Turkey were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with particular emphasis on trans fatty acids. The survey was carried out on 134 samples that were categorized as meat products, chocolates, bakery products and others. The meat products except chicken-based foods have trans fatty acids, arising as a result of ruminant activity, with an average content of 1.45 g/100 g fatty acids. The conjugated linoleic acid content of meat and chicken doner kebabs were found higher than other meat products. Chocolate samples contained trans fatty acids less than 0.17 g/100 g fatty acids, with the exceptional national product of chocolate bars and hazelnut cocoa cream (2.03 and 3.68 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). Bakery products have the highest trans fatty acid contents and ranged from 0.99 to 17.77 g/100 g fatty acids. The average trans fatty acid contents of infant formula and ice-cream, which are milk-based products, were 0.79 and 1.50 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively. Among the analyzed foods, it was found that coffee whitener and powdered whipped topping had the highest saturated fatty acid contents, with an average content of 98.71 g/100 g fatty acids. PMID:17852509

Karabulut, Ihsan

2007-12-01

114

Exploring the Role of Fatty Acid on Transcription Factors Regulating Fatty Acid Metabolism with Emphasis on Trans Fatty Acid  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acids are unique macromolecules as they act as biological modulators of transcription factors and regulate their own metabolism by controlling the activity or abundance of transcription factors of fatty acid metabolism either by RNA processing and RNA stability. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR-?) and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP-1c) are transcription factors expressed primarily in adipose tissue. We have studied the relation of fatty acid including...

Varna Seenu; Lakshmy Ramakrishnan; Vinay Kumar Bahl; Dorairaj Prabhakaran; Rajinder Parshad; Ransi Ann Abraham

2013-01-01

115

Plasma Fatty Acid Profile of Gestating Ewes Supplemented with Fishmeal  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (>18C cannot be adequately synthesized by ruminant tissues to meet their requirements; therefore, their concentration in body depends on the supply through feed. It may be possible to improve the essential fatty acid status of ruminant animals, during gestation by manipulating the maternal diet with Fishmeal (FM. The objectives of this research were to (1 determine the effect of fishmeal supplementation on the plasma fatty acid profile of ewes during late gestation and (2 determine the status of the plasma docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 of lambs born to these ewes. Approach: Eight gestating ewes [Rideau-Arcott, 97±5 kg initial body weight, 100 days of gestation] were used in a completely randomized design. Ewes were individually-housed and fed either a control diet (supplemented with soybean meal or a fishmeal supplemented diet. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture for plasma fatty acids analysis on 100, 114, 128 and 142 days of â??gestationâ?. Blood samples from the lambs were also collected via jugular venipuncture immediately after birth and before receiving their mothersâ?? colostrum. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The ewes from both groups, i.e., control and fishmeal supplemented, had a similar fatty acid profile prior to supplementation (at 100 days, p>0.05. Thereafter, there was an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid, total n3-PUFA and total very long chain n3-PUFA (>C18 contents in plasma for the fishmeal supplemented ewes compared to the control (p0.05 in total saturated fatty acids, total monounsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid, total trans-18:1, total cis-18:1, or total n6-PUFA contents in ewe plasma between control and fishmeal supplemented groups. Lambs born to ewes fed the fishmeal supplemented diet had greater (pConclusion: The ewes supplemented with fishmeal supplementation showed a positive response with the enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and total very long chain n3-PUFA in plasma during gestation and these fatty acids were transferred to the fetus as well.

Mamun M. Or-Rashid

2012-01-01

116

Effects of ambient temperature on lipid and fatty acid composition in the oviparous lizards, Phrynocephalus przewalskii.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to assess the effect of ambient temperature on lipid content, lipid classes and fatty acid compositions of heart, liver, muscle and brain in oviparous lizards, Phrynocephalus przewalskii, caught in the desert area of China. Significant differences could be observed in the contents of the total lipid and fatty acid compositions among different temperatures (4, 25 and 38 degrees C). The study showed that liver and muscle were principal sites of lipid storage. Triacylglycerol (TAG) mainly deposited in the liver, while phospholipids (PL) was identified as the predominant lipid class in the muscle and brain. Palmitic and stearic acid generally occupied the higher proportion in saturated fatty acids (SFA), while monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) consisted mainly of 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 regardless of tissue and temperature. These predominant fatty acids proportion fluctuations caused by temperature affected directly the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids. There was a tendency to increase the degree of unsaturation in the fatty acids of TAG and PL as environmental temperature dropped from 38 to 4 degrees C, although the different extent in different tissues. These results suggested that lipid characteristics of P. przewalskii tissues examined were influenced by ambient temperature. PMID:16140030

Shen, Jian-Min; Li, Ren-De; Gao, Fei-Yun

2005-11-01

117

Simulation of Palm based Fatty Acids Distillation  

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Full Text Available Fatty acids have long been recognized for their commercial value in the absence of glycerol. Chemicals derived from fatty acids are widely used in the formulation of detergents, lubricant, surfactants and in pharmaceutical industries. In addition, fatty acids also play a vital role in human metabolism and are widely used as catalyst in some chemical reactions. Commercially produced fatty acids are derived from naturally occurring fats and oils through the process of hydrolysis. Most of these raw materials result in nature as complex mixtures of triglycerides, alcohols and other esters. Alternatively, common edible oils used are sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, palm and palm kernel oil. Crude fatty acids can be obtained from the process of hydrolysis and will be purified through total distillation. Due to fatty acid market demand, the purity requirement of distillated fatty acid products is increasing greatly. Since desired purity of fatty acid is achievable through the most common and most efficient means of fractionation distillation process, study on simulation of fatty acids distillation has a significant contribution to the oleo chemical industry. In this simulation study, the optimization of the tray specification, feed stream pressure and temperature on the purity performance of the fatty acid composition are investigated. In South East Asia, palm tree fruit ripen continuously and can be harvested all year round. Therefore, palm based fatty acids are selected to be used as the feed components. In the present study, binary and multi-component distillations of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are studied. This simulation model is developed by using HYSYS simulator with suitable thermodynamic package chosen. A shortcut simulation method is built in advanced for preliminary estimations and for determining rigorous operating limits. Eventually, parametric optimization is performed to obtain the optimum operating conditions of the rigorous distillation column.

Chin Peng Jiun

2010-01-01

118

Essential fatty acids and psychiatric disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychiatric disorders are a significant source of disability worldwide. Increasing evidence indicates that disturbances of fatty acids and phospholipid metabolism can play a part in a wide range of psychiatric, neurological, and developmental disorders in adults. Essential fatty acids, ?-3 and ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, play a central role in the normal development and functioning of the brain and central nervous system. The aim of this article is to discuss the overall insight into roles of essential fatty acids in the development of mental disorders (depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) and, in light of the fact that disturbances of fatty acid metabolism can play a part in the above-mentioned disorders, to investigate the current knowledge of lipid abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder. The information in this review was obtained after extensive MEDLINE searching of each topic area through relevant published studies from the past 20 years. References from the obtained studies were also used. This review summarizes the knowledge in terms of essential fatty acids intake and metabolism, as well as evidence pointing to potential mechanisms of essential fatty acids in normal brain functioning and development of neuropsychiatric disorders. The literature shows that ?-3 fatty acids provide numerous health benefits and that changes in their concentration in organisms are connected to a variety of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, including stress, anxiety, cognitive impairment, mood disorders, and schizophrenia. Further studies are necessary to confirm ?-3 fatty acids' supplementation as a potential rational treatment in psychiatric disorders. PMID:21775637

Perica, Marina Mandelsamen; Delas, Ivancica

2011-08-01

119

Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition 1,2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Home parenteral nutrition (HPN), initiated in patients with severe malabsorption or decreased oral intake, may exhaust stores of essential fatty acids and cause clinical manifestations, mainly dermatitis. Plasma fatty acid profiles were measured by gas-liquid chromatography in 37 healthy control subjects and 56 patients receiving HPN. The concentration (% by wt of total fatty acids) of 18:2n-6 was 22.8% and 11.4% (P 200 cm of remaining small intestine, those receiving parenteral lipids had only minor changes in the fatty acids of plasma phospholipids compared with patients not receiving parenteral lipids. In patients with < 100 cm of remaining small intestine, those receiving parenteral lipids had increased concentrations of total n-6 fatty acids; however, these did not reach the concentrations in control subjects. No differences were seen in n-3 fatty acids. Twenty-five of the 56 patients receiving HPN reported skin problems. No differences were found in plasma phospholipid fatty acids, Holman index, or the supply of parenteral lipids between patients with and without skin problems. Patients receiving HPN had biochemical signs of EFAD. Parenteral lipids did not increase the concentration of essential fatty acids to values comparable with those of control subjects, but 500 mt 20% Intralipid once a week was sufficient to prevent an increase in the Holman index above 0.2.

Jeppesen, P. B.; HØy, Carl-Erik

1998-01-01

120

Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets  

OpenAIRE

Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO), acid corn oil (ACO), linseed oil (LO) or coconut fat (CoF). Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA ) x (2 n6:n3 ratios) x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC). Performance responses and...

Am, Kessler; Ds, Lubisco; Mm, Vieira; Aml, Ribeiro; Am, Penz Jr

2009-01-01

121

Centesimal composition and fatty acids of meat from lambs fed diets containing soybean hulls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and fatty acids in meat from animals fed diets containing levels of soybean hulls. The experiment was conducted at UESB in Itapetinga-BA, Brazil. Twenty-five confined Santa Inês rams were used. Treatments consisted of different l [...] evels of substitution of corn by soybean hulls (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) and elephant grass silage as forage. The design was completely randomized. Samples of concentrate and silage were collected to evaluate the fatty acid composition. The experimental period lasted 110 days. After this period, the animals were slaughtered and samples of the longissimus muscle were collected and vacuum-packed for further analysis. The levels of total lipid and protein showed quadratic effect with the increase of soybean hulls in the diet, as the moisture increased linearly with inclusion. There was no effect of treatments on the percentage of ash. The composition of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA/SFA and omega 6 (n-6) did not change, but increases in n-3 and reduction in the n-6:n-3 ratio were observed when the the amount of soybean hulls in the diet increased. The content of fatty acid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ranged from 3.0 to 4.0 g/kg at levels of substitution. The inclusion of soybean hulls in the diet increased CLA, the n-3 and decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio.

Lívia Santos, Costa; Robério Rodrigues, Silva; Fabiano Ferreira da, Silva; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Julliana Izabelle, Simionato; Jair de Araújo, Marques; Vinícius Lopes da, Silva; Cláudia Batista, Sampaio.

1720-17-01

122

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX. : Fatty Acid Synthesis from Enzymically and Chemically Acetylated Rabbit Mammary Gland Fatty Acid Synthetase.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

# 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids. Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles of acetate were bound per mole of fatty acid synthetase, with 20–25 moles being bound to thiol groups per mole of enzyme. Acylation did not inhibit enzyme activity. The majority of the bound acetate was stable to hydrolysis at o °C. Out of the 60 moles of acetate bound per mole of acetylated enzyme, up to 20 moles were incorporated into fatty acids in the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH. # 4. 4. Due to the rapid hydrolysis of acetyl-fatty acid synthetase prepared from both acetyl-CoA and acetic anhydride, direct carboxylation of acetyl-fatty acid synthetase to form malonyl-fatty acid synthetase could not be demonstrated by CO2 fixation under the experimental conditions used. With acetic anhydride as acetyl donor, there was a low rate of incorporation of acetate into fatty acids in the presence of NADPH but absence of added malonyl-CoA. This could be due to direct carboxylation of the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase or, if any CoA were associated with the fatty acid synthetase, to carboxylation of acetyl-CoA formed by chemical acetylation of this CoA.

Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max

1972-01-01

123

Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion mole [...] cule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

C., Pompéia; L.R., Lopes; C.K., Miyasaka; J., Procópio; P., Sannomiya; R., Curi.

1255-12-01

124

Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

Pompéia C.

2000-01-01

125

Four types of fatty acids exert differential impact on pancreatic cancer growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased fatty acids (FAs) regulate pancreatic cancer progression, however, the detailed mechanism is not clear, and different forms of FAs may play diversified roles in pancreatic cancer. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we compared the effects of four major types of FAs on pancreatic cancer growth both in cell culture and in a mouse model. HPAF pancreatic cancer cells were implanted in nude mice for 14 weeks, and the mice were fed with four different high-fat/high-energy diets (15% fat, 4?kcal/g), an iso-caloric diet (5% fat, 4?kcal/g) and a normal diet (4% fat, 3?kcal/g). The high fat diets were rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n6- and n3PUFAs), respectively. While n3PUFA diet decreased tumor viability, the other high fat diets stimulated tumor viability by apparently different mechanisms. For instance, xenografts whose carriers were fed with SFA diet had marked expression of cancer-related proteins and lipid droplets. Although mice that were fed with MUFA- and n6PUFA diets had pancreatic tumors of similar size, liver metastasis occurred more frequently in those with the n6PUFA diet. In experiments in vitro, the HPAF-cell population was increased by SFAs and MUFAs, decreased by n3PUFAs and not changed by n6PUFAs. In conclusion, different fatty acids have different impact on pancreatic cancer cells. The effects of fatty acids on pancreatic cancer cells were consistent in vivo and in vitro except that n6PUFAs only had regulatory effects in vivo. PMID:25676690

Yu, Ming; Liu, Hongyi; Duan, Yijie; Zhang, Dapeng; Li, Shasha; Wang, Feng

2015-05-01

126

Suppressing fatty acid uptake by a fatty acid secreting saccharomyces cerevisiae strain  

OpenAIRE

Biodiesel, in the form of fatty acid esters, produced by oleaginous microorganisms, could represent an attractive alternative of renewable liquid biofuels. Lipid metabolism has been studied extensively in S. cerevisiae and all genes encoding enzymes directly involved in lipid synthesis are known. In this model yeast, exogenous long-chain fatty acids are activated to coenzyme A derivatives prior to metabolic utilization by the fatty acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1p and Faa4p. Free fatty acids are...

Ribeiro, Gabriela; Co?rte-real, Manuela; Dias, Alberto Carlos Pires; Johansson, Bjo?rn

2011-01-01

127

40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). 721.3710 Section...721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as a Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is...

2010-07-01

128

40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. 721.3629 Section 721...3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances...generically as triethanolamine salts of fatty acids (PMN Nos. P-92-156,...

2010-07-01

129

40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721.3627 Section 721.3627...721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid (PMN P-94-422) is...

2010-07-01

130

21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (b) Sucrose fatty acid esters meet the following...method title “Sucrose Fatty Acid Esters, Method of Assay...locations.html. (2) The free sucrose content is not more...method titled “Sucrose Fatty Acid Esters, Method of...

2010-04-01

131

Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6) into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n ?=925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (pmethod, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077

Zhang, Peng; Liu, Peng; Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z

2013-01-01

132

Fatty acid composition of hemp seed oils from different locations in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent interest in hemp seed as a source of food has largely focused on its oil content and fatty acid profile. The oil content and fatty acid composition (15 fatty acids) of twenty one different hemp seed samples of domestic origin from north-western Turkey were monitored. The samples were obtained from seed wholesalers and local spice shops and are of unknown genetic origin. The oil content of the hemp seeds ranged between 29.6 to 36.5%. Out of the 15 detected fatty acids, the omega-6 linoleic acid (18:2n-6) was predominant and fluctuated from 55.4 to 56.9%, while the omega-3 a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid ranged from 16.5 to 20.4% and the omega-9 oleic acid (18:1n-9) ranged from 11.4 to 15.9%. Of the minor fatty acids, the highest concentrations were found for {gamma}-linolenic acid (18:3n-6), range 0.6-1.1%, followed by stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), range 0.3-0.5%. These results show that hemp seed grown in north-western Turkey provides a well balanced and rich source of dietary omega-6 and -3 essential fatty acids and appears to be a potentially valuable source of food. (Author) 31 refs.

Kiralan, M.; Gul, V.; Metin Kara, S.

2010-07-01

133

Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

SHARE WITH WOMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your baby gets most of his or her food from the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important family of building ...

134

Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analysing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type ?-oxidation of fatty acids [acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase] with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three ?-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyse biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

Dibrova, Daria V; Galperin, Michael Y; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

2014-04-01

135

Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus), prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and finfish (Mugil cephalus), that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove. PMID:20527460

Alikunhi, Nabeel M; Narayanasamy, Rajendran; Kandasamy, Kathiresan

2010-06-01

136

Cellular Fatty Acid Metabolism and Cancer  

OpenAIRE

Cancer cells commonly have characteristic changes in metabolism. Cellular proliferation, a common feature of all cancers, requires fatty acids for synthesis of membranes and signaling molecules. Here, we provide a view of cancer cell metabolism from a lipid perspective, and we summarize evidence that limiting fatty acid availability can control cancer cell proliferation.

Currie, Erin; Schulze, Almut; Zechner, Rudolf; Walther, Tobias C.; Farese, Robert V.

2013-01-01

137

Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modes of actions of photosynthetic inhibitors on photosynthesis and fatty acid synthesis were examined. DCMU, an electron transport inhibitor, inhibited fatty acid synthesis and photophosphorylation to the same extent, suggesting dependence of fatty acid synthesis on photosynthesis. The same was also the case with FCCP, a photophosphorylation uncoupler. In contrast, NH4Cl and phlorizin at concentrations completely suppressing ATP formation, only partially inhibited the fatty acid synthesis. These facts suggest that a certain level of high-energy intermediate (state) is responsible for the light enhancement of fatty acid synthesis. This idea is further supported by the fact that the partial inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by NH4Cl was relieved by addition of DCCD at low concentrations suppressing the ATP formation but not completely destroying the high energy intermediate. The lag period in the initial period of fatty acid synthesis was shortened by preillumination of chloroplasts, even in the absence of ADP. This indicates that the light dependent fatty acid synthesis is closely associated with the high-energy intermediate (state), but not directly with ATP formation by photophosphorylation. (author)

138

21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172.862 Section 172.862...Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food...

2010-04-01

139

Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They are presently considered as an attractive target to regulate the human diseases of obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular complications. In this review we discuss the role of fatty acid metabolism and its key players, ACC1 and ACC2, in animal evolution and physiology, as related to health and disease. PMID:19047759

Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.

2009-01-01

140

Fatty acid profile, volatiles and antibacterial screening of lipids of the sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa (Schmidt collected from the Bay of Bengal (Orissa Coast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fatty acid composition as well as the volatiles of a lipophilic extract from the marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa (Schmidt was analysed. The fatty acids (FA were characterized by linear saturated fatty acids (33.05 %, branched saturated fatty acids (9.30 % and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (18.07 %. A significant amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA (30.79 % was found in the total lipid, which included linoleic acid (18:2 n–6, 11.14 %, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid/?-linolenic acid (18:3 n–3, 1.99 %, dihomo-g-linolenic acid (20:3 n–6, 2.03 % and arachidonic acid (20:4 n–3, 0.5 %. An antibacterial assay of the lipid extract of F. cavernosa showed broad-spectrum activity against different human and fish pathogens.

PRAVAT MANJARI MISHRA

2009-11-01

141

Phospholipid and triacylglycerol fatty acid composition of major life stages of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Phospholipid and triacylglycerol fatty acid compositions of whole animals from all life stages of Eurygaster integriceps, including eggs, nymphs, pre-diapausing adults and diapausing adults, were determined. The fatty acid composition of total lipids of their food, wheat, was also determined. The major components of the insects and their food were the expected C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Since fatty acid compositions of third-stadium nymphs were not similar to the profiles of their food, most likely, dietary fatty acids are modified by the insect. The fact is that the food does not provide C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but the insect tissue lipids include these components. We suggest biosynthesis of the C20 components by elongation/desaturation of C18:2n-6, an abundant component of the diets. We also show differences in fatty acid profiles from each of the life stages. PMID:12031463

Bashan, Mehmet; Akbas, Halit; Yurdakoc, Kadir

2002-06-01

142

Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

2003-01-01

143

Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn; T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fat. The lipids from the diets had significantly statistical effects (p<0,05 on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat. Multivariate techniques also showed differences in fatty acid composition within treatments due to sex. The studied dietary lipids affected the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S but had only small effects on the n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio.

SG Rondelli

2004-09-01

144

Fatty acids in bovine milk fat  

OpenAIRE

Milk fat contains approximately 400 different fatty acid, which make it the most complex of all natural fats. The milk fatty acids are derived almost equally from two sources, the feed and the microbial activity in the rumen of the cow and the lipids in bovine milk are mainly present in globules as an oil-in-water emulsion. Almost 70% of the fat in Swedish milk is saturated of which around 11% comprises short-chain fatty acids, almost half of which is butyric acid. Approximately 25% of the fa...

Ma?nsson, Helena Lindmark

2008-01-01

145

Partial replacement of dietary linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Imbalances in the dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been implicated in the increased prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the effects of substitution of linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and hence decreasing n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on inflammatory response in dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis. Male weanling Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets with n-6:n-3 fatty acid in the ratios of 215,50,10 or 5 for 3 months and colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water during last 11 days. Decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio to 10 and 5 significantly attenuated the severity of colitis as evidenced by improvements in clinical symptoms, reversal of shortening of colon length, reduced severity of anemia, preservation of colonic architecture as well as reduced colonic mucosal myeloperoxidase activity. This protection was associated with suppression of colonic mucosal proinflammatory mediators such as TNF?, IL-1? and nitric oxide. These findings suggest that long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 3.0 g/kg diet (n-6:n-3 ratio of 10) prevents dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators. PMID:25451558

Tyagi, Anupama; Kumar, Uday; Santosh, Vadakattu Sai; Reddy, Suryam; Mohammed, Saazida Bhanu; Ibrahim, Ahamed

2014-12-01

146

Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry : a cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. Conclusions Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders

2011-01-01

147

Fatty Acid composition of freshwater wild fish in subalpine lakes: a comparative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the proximate and fatty acid compositions of the muscle tissue of 186 samples of fish belonging to fifteen species of freshwater fish harvested in subalpine lakes (bleak, shad, crucian carp, whitefish, common carp, pike, black bullhead, burbot, perch, Italian roach, roach, rudd, wels catfish, chub and tench) were investigated. Most of the fish demonstrated a lipid content in the fillet lower than 2.0 g 100 g(-1) wet weight (range 0.6-9.7). A strong relationship between feeding behavior and fatty acid composition of the muscle lipids was observed. Planktivorous fish showed the lowest amounts of n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05), but the highest monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents, in particular 18:1n-9. Conversely, carnivorous fish showed the highest amounts of saturated fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05), but the lowest MUFA contents. Omnivorous fish showed substantial proportions of n-3 fatty acids and the highest contents of n-6 fatty acids. Principal component analysis showed a distinct separation between fish species according to their feeding habits and demonstrated that the most contributing trophic markers were 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6. The quantitative amounts n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in muscle tissues varied depending on the fish species, the lipid content and the feeding habits. Some species were very lean, and therefore would be poor choices for human consumption to meet dietary n-3 fatty acid requirements. Nevertheless, the more frequently consumed and appreciated fish, shad and whitefish, had EPA and DHA contents in the range 900-1,000 mg 100 g(-1) fresh fillet. PMID:25519933

Vasconi, Mauro; Caprino, Fabio; Bellagamba, Federica; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Bernardi, Cristian; Puzzi, Cesare; Moretti, Vittorio Maria

2015-03-01

148

Radioiodinated fatty acids for cardiological diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of fatty acids labelled with iodine-123 is reviewed. The variety of methods for producing 123I and introducing radioiodine into the molecule is discussed and the important points of the biochemical background are recalled with the aim of finding a broad application for 123I-labelled fatty acids. The results of the pharmacokinetic studies and biochemical analysis are presented as they prove that both 17-123I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) and 15-(rho-123I-phenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) exhibit analogous behaviour to that of the naturally occurring fatty acids. Clinical applications demonstrated two fields of importance: (i) applications solely for imaging the heart and (ii) assessment of myocardial turnover rates of fatty acids for functional diagnosis. Moreover, very recent studies show that the provision of information about prognosis of myocardial diseases and the applied cardiological therapy appear to be possible. (author)

149

Oxidative decarboxylation of unsaturated fatty acids  

OpenAIRE

Long-chain internal olefins were prepared by silver(II)-catalyzed oxidative decarboxylation of unsaturated fatty acids by sodium peroxydisulfate. Similar to saturated carboxylic acids, 1-alkenes were the major decarboxylation product in the additional presence of copper(II), whereas in the absence of copper(II) alkanes were predominantly formed. In both cases, the internal unsaturation of the fatty acids remained largely intact, although the moderate yields indicated that side reactions occur...

Klis, F.; Hoorn, M. H.; Blaauw, R.; Haveren, J.; Es, D. S.

2011-01-01

150

Ferritin couples iron and fatty acid metabolism  

OpenAIRE

A physiological relationship between iron, oxidative injury, and fatty acid metabolism exists, but transduction mechanisms are unclear. We propose that the iron storage protein ferritin contains fatty acid binding sites whose occupancy modulates iron uptake and release. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, we found that arachidonic acid binds ferritin specifically and with 60 ?M affinity. Arachidonate binding by ferritin enhanced iron mineralization, decreased iron release, and protected the f...

Bu, Weiming; Liu, Renyu; Cheung-lau, Jasmina C.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Loll, Patrick J.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.

2012-01-01

151

Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus americanus) brain where, as in many vertebrate species, neurogenesis persists throughout life. The factors that regulate adult neurogenesis are highly conserved among species, and the crustacean brain has been successfully utilized as a model for investigating this process. In this study, lobsters were fed one of three diets that differed in fatty acid content. These animals were subsequently incubated in 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to detect cells in S-phase of the cell cycle. A quantitative analysis of the resulting BrdU-labeled cells in the projection neuron cluster in the brain shows that short-term augmentation of dietary omega-3 relative to omega-6 fatty acids results in significant increases in the numbers of S phase cells, and that the circadian pattern of neurogenesis is also altered. It is proposed that the ratio of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids may alter neurogenesis via modulatory influences on membrane proteins, cytokines and/or neurotrophins. PMID:17240063

Beltz, Barbara S; Tlusty, Michael F; Benton, Jeanne L; Sandeman, David C

2007-03-26

152

Fatty acyl specificity of the receptor-mediated release of polyunsaturated fatty acids from vascular endothelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Histamine and bradykinin appear to exhibit the same fatty acid specificity as thrombin. Incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with 10 ?M histamine for 10 min in buffered saline containing 50 ?M fat-free albumin stimulates the release of previously incorporated [14C]arachidonate but not [14C]22:4(n-6) or [14C]20:3(n-6). Similarly calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells release [14C]arachidonate but not [14C]22:4(n-6) in response to either bradykinin (1 +g/ml) or histamine (10?M). In both types of endothelial cells, the calcium ionophore A23187 (10 ?M) exhibits the same pattern of fatty acyl specificity as the receptor-mediated agonists. By contrast, mellitin (2-4 ?g/ml) stimulates the release of free 22:4(n-6) and oleate in addition to arachidonate; release of 22:4(n-6) is 30-70% that of arachidonate. These results suggest that histamine, bradykinin and thrombin stimulate a common calcium-dependent fatty acyl-specific phospholipase activity

153

Modulation of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in heart cells by fish oil fatty acids.  

OpenAIRE

The highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids from fish oils, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; C20:5 (n-3)] and docosahexanoic acid [DHA; C22:6 (n-3)], prevent the toxicity of high concentrations of the cardiac glycoside ouabain to isolated neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Arachidonic acid [C20:4 (n-6)] lacks such protective action. The protective effect of the n-3 fatty acids is associated with their ability to prevent high levels of cytosolic free calcium from occurring in response to the ouabain. This i...

Hallaq, H.; Smith, T. W.; Leaf, A.

1992-01-01

154

Fatty acid profiles in tissues of mice fed conjugated linoleic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The incorporation of vaccenic acid (VA, 0.5 and 1.2%), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, mixture of primarily c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA, 1.2%), linoleic acid (LA, 1.2%) and oleic acid (OA, 1.2%) into different tissues of mice was examined. The effects on the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) in kidney, spleen, liver and adipose tissue were investigated. VA and CLA (c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA) were primarily found in TAG, especially in kidney and adipose tissue, respectively. Conversion of VA to c9,t11-CLA was indicated by our results, as both fatty acids were incorporated into all the analyzed tissues when a diet containing VA but not c9,t11-CLA was fed. Most of the observed effects on the fatty acid profiles were seen in the CLA group, whereas only minor effects were observed in the VA groups compared with the CA group. Thus, CLA increased n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PL from kidney and spleen and lowered the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in these tissues. Furthermore, CLA increased C-22 PUFA in the PL fraction of kidney, spleen and liver, but reduced the level of arachiclonic acid in PL of liver and spleen and lowered the Delta(9)-desaturation indexes in all analyzed tissue TAG.

GØttsche, Jesper; Straarup, Ellen Marie

2006-01-01

155

Fatty acid and cholesterol content, chemical composition and sensory evaluation of horsemeat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the fatty acid and chemical composition and cholesterol concentration of horsemeat, and to evaluate its taste acceptability by the Brazilian population. Horsemeat samples (M. longissimus dorsi) were obtained from a Paraná State slaughterhouse. The chemical composition r [...] evealed a low lipid (2.9%) and high protein content (22.5%). The concentrations of the nutritionally important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), were 2.97% and 0.43%, respectively. The polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA) ratio was 0.97, which is within the recommended range. The cholesterol concentration of 40.5 mg/100 g is lower than that of other meat such as chicken, beef, mutton and pork. The sensory evaluation revealed excellent acceptability.

I.B., Tonial; A.C., Aguiar; C.C., Oliveira; E.G., Bonnafé; J.V., Visentainer; N.E., de Souza.

156

Fatty acid composition of Mediterranean buffalo milk fat  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this research was to investigate the variation in fatty acid composition of milk fat from four buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) herds under different feeding management and ration composition. Changes in milk fatty acid composition were monitored on a weekly basis. Saturated fatty acids (65.5%) predominated in buffalo milk fat; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 27.0% and 4.5%, respectively. Of saturated fatty acids, the content of palmitic acid was the highest (30.6...

Proto, V.; Masucci, F.; Romano, R.; Di Francia, A.; Varricchio, M. L.

2010-01-01

157

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SOME LEAFY VEGETABLES OF BANGLADESH  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acid composition of six different leafy vegetables of Bangladesh was investigated. The amount of bound fatty acids was found to be higher than the free fatty acids in all the leafy vegetables. Different fatty acids were identified and their relative proportions were determined by GLC from the leafy vegetables.

Kamal Karmakar, Tanvir Muslim And Md Azizur Rahman

2013-01-01

158

Disorders of fatty acid oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognition of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) disorders is important for the pediatric neurologist as they present with a spectrum of clinical disorders, including progressive lipid storage myopathy, recurrent myoglobinuria, neuropathy, progressive cardiomyopathy, recurrent hypoglycemic hypoketotic encephalopathy or Reye-like syndrome, seizures, and mental retardation. They constitute a critical group of diseases because they are potentially rapidly fatal and a source of major morbidity. There is frequently a family history of sudden infant death syndrome in siblings. Early recognition and prompt institution of therapy and appropriate preventive measures, and in certain cases specific therapy, may be life-saving and may significantly decrease long-term morbidity, particularly with respect to CNS sequelae. All currently known conditions are inherited as autosomal recessive traits. There are now at least 25 enzymes and specific transport proteins in the ?-oxidation pathway and 18 have been associated with human disease. The most common defect is medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, which had an incidence of 1 in 8930 live births in one series. The identification of serum acylcarnitines by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of dried blood spots on filter paper in newborn screening programs has significantly enhanced the early recognition of these disorders. PMID:23622388

Tein, Ingrid

2013-01-01

159

Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

160

Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was <4, regardless of dietary n3:n6. In future studies on wild eel, these measures can be used to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats of individual European eel.

Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

2012-03-01

161

Role and significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in nutrition in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Hyperlipoproteinemia is a key factor in development of atherosclerosis, whereas regression of atherosclerosis mostly depends on decreasing the plasma level of total and LDL-cholesterol. Many studies have reported the hypocholesterolemic effect of linolenic acid. Types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA Linoleic and ?-linolenic acids are essential fatty acids. The main sources of linoleic acid are vegetable seeds and of ?-linolenic acid - green parts of plants. ?-linolenic acid is converted to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid is converted into arachidonic acid competing with eicosapentaenoic acid in the starting point for synthesis of eicosanoids, which are strong regulators of cell functions and as such, very important in physiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular system. Eicosanoids derived from eicosapentaenoic acid have different biological properties in regard to those derived from arachidonic acid, i.e. their global effects result in decreased vasoconstriction platelet aggregation and leukocyte toxicity. Role and significant of PUFA The n-6 to n-3 ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food is very important, and an optimal ratio 4 to 1 in diet is a major issue. Traditional western diets present absolute or relative deficiency of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a ratio 15-20 to 1. In our diet fish and fish oil are sources of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Refined and processed vegetable oils change the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids and obtained derivates have atherogenic properties.

Risti? Vanja I.

2003-01-01

162

Trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease.  

OpenAIRE

Trans unsaturated fatty acids are produced commercially in large quantities by heating vegetable oils in the presence of metal catalysts and hydrogen to form shortening and margarine.1 They are so named because the carbon atoms adjacent to their double bonds are on opposite sides, resulting in a straight configuration and a solid state at room temperature. In contrast, naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids contain double bonds as cis isomers, with adjacent carbons on the same side of th...

Clarke, R.; Lewington, S.

2006-01-01

163

Interaction of Fatty Acid with Myoglobin  

OpenAIRE

Upon titration with palmitate, the 1H NMR spectra of metmyoglobin cyanide (MbCN) reveal a selective perturbation of the 8 heme methyl, consistent with a specific interaction of myoglobin (Mb) with fatty acid. Other detectable hyperfine shifted resonances of the heme group remain unchanged. Mb also enhances fatty acid solubility, as reflected in a more intense methylene peak of palmitate in Mb than in Tris buffer. Ligand binding analysis indicates an apparent palmitate dissociation constant (K...

Sriram, Renuka; Kreutzer, Ulrike; Shih, Lifan; Jue, Thomas

2008-01-01

164

Polyhydroxy Fatty Acids Derived from Sophorolipids  

Science.gov (United States)

Starting from 17-hydroxyoleic acid, which is readily available from acid alcoholysis of sophorolipids, several new polyhydroxy fatty acids have been synthesized. These compounds contain from 2 to 5 hydroxy groups, in some instances combined with other functional groups. The added hydroxy groups ca...

165

Nutritional properties of trans fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of trans fatty acids (TFA) present in partially hydrogenated fats widely consumed in food and their link with coronary heart disease has been examined in this review. Most of the studies carried out have been on the effects of TFA on blood-lipid profile. The perceived effects of TFA intake depend on the fat or oil with which they are compared and appears to be in between that of dietary saturated fats and monounsaturated fatty acids. When compared to saturated fat, TFA intake shows lower levels of total and LDL-cholesterol in blood. But when both TFA and saturated fatty acids are compared with cis fatty acids or native unhydrogenated oil, increase in total and LDL-cholesterol are noted. The effects of TFA on HDL-cholesterol and Lp(a) are not clearly established. The undesirable effects of TFA can be overcome by inclusion of essential fatty acids at a minimum of 2 energy per cent level in the diet. The link between trans fatty acid intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) are not unequivocally established. PMID:10650721

Sambaiah, K; Lokesh, B R

1999-08-01

166

Fetal growth and development: roles of fatty acid transport proteins and nuclear transcription factors in human placenta.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the feto-placental unit, preferential transport of maternal plasma arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:5n-3) across the placenta is of critical importance for fetal growth and development. More than 90 per cent of the fat deposition in the fetus occurs in the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. All of the n -3 and n -6 fatty acid structures acquired by the fetus have to cross the placenta and fetal blood are enriched in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) relative to the maternal supply. Fatty acids cross the placental microvillous and basal membranes by simple diffusion and via the action of membrane bound (FAT, FATP and p-FABPpm) and cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). The direction and magnitude of fatty acid flux is mainly dictated by the relative abundance of available binding sites. The existence of a fatty-acid-transport system comprising multiple binding proteins in human placenta may be essential to facilitate the preferential transport of maternal plasma fatty acids in order to meet the requirements of the growing fetus. The critical importance of long-chain fatty acids in cellular homeostasis demands an efficient uptake system for these fatty acids and their metabolism in tissues. In fact, involvement of several nuclear transcription factors (PPARgamma, LXR, RXR, and SREBP-1) is critical in the expression of genes responsible for fatty acids uptake, placental trophoblast differentiation and hCG production. These indicate that these receptors are potential regulators of placental lipid transfer and homeostasis. This review discusses importance of nuclear receptors and fatty acid binding/transport proteins in placental fatty acid uptake, transport and metabolism. PMID:15573522

Duttaroy, Asim K

2004-08-01

167

Fatty acids in mountain gorilla diets: implications for primate nutrition and health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the fatty acid composition of foods eaten by wild primates. A total of 18 staple foods that comprise 97% of the annual dietary intake of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) were analyzed for fatty acid concentrations. Fruits and herbaceous leaves comprise the majority of the diet, with fruits generally having a higher mean percentage of fat (of dry matter; DM), as measured by ether extract (EE), than herbaceous leaves (13.0%?±?SD 13.0% vs. 2.3?±?SD 0.8%). The mean daily EE intake by gorillas was 3.1% (DM). Fat provided ?14% of the total dietary energy intake, and ?22% of the dietary non-protein energy intake. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 32.4% of the total fatty acids in the diet, while monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for 12.5% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) accounted for 54.6%. Both of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA, n-6) and ?-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3), were found in all of the 17 staple foods containing crude fat and were among the three most predominant fatty acids in the diet: LA (C18:2n-6) (30.3%), palmitic acid (C16:0) (23.9%), and ALA (C18:3n-3) (21.2%). Herbaceous leaves had higher concentrations of ALA, while fruit was higher in LA. Fruits provided high amounts of fatty acids, especially LA, in proportion to their intake due to the higher fat concentrations; despite being low in fat, herbaceous leaves provided sufficient ALA due to the high intake of these foods. As expected, we found that wild mountain gorillas consume a diet lower in EE, than modern humans. The ratio of LA:ALA was 1.44, closer to agricultural paleolithic diets than to modern human diets. PMID:24243235

Reiner, Whitney B; Petzinger, Christina; Power, Michael L; Hyeroba, David; Rothman, Jessica M

2014-03-01

168

Fatty acids composition of erythrocytes in arterial hypertension associated with dyslipidemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studied the fatty acid (FA composition of erythrocyte membranes in patients with arterial hypertension associated with dyslipidemia. The fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes was studied by gaz chromatography. In all hypertensive patients are disturbed lipid FA composition of erythrocytes: increase in saturated fatty acids (15:0, 16:0, monoenic fatty acids (18:1n9, 18:1n7, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA family n6 (20:4n6, decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids family n3:22:5n3, 22:6n3, the total value of n3 PUFA. Cells endogenous deficiency of n3 PUFA leads to the changes of the plasmatic membranes physicochemical properties, activation of eicosanoids synthesis with proinflammatory and vasoconstriction activity, the formation of the systemic inflammatory syndrome and conditions for the atherogenesis. Thus, structural and functional changes in erythrocyte membranes in hypertension developed as a part of the common systemic disorder of lipid metabolism.

Tatyana P. Novgorodtseva

2013-04-01

169

Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition between Farmed and Wild Indian White Shrimps, Fnneropenaeus indicus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is comparison of fatty acid profile between wild and farmed Indian white shrimps. According to the score-plot produced by the principle component analysis the wild Indian white shrimp showed a fatty acid composition clearly different from the farmed Indian white shrimp. In both groups, palmitic acid (16:0 and oleic acid (18: 1n-9 were the main SFA and MUFA, respectively. Based on results, the wild shrimp contained a higher level (P < 0.05 of n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids, whereas farmed shrimp contained a high level of n-6 poly unsaturated fatty (P < 0.05. Arachidonic acid (20: 4n-6, eicosapentaenoic acid (20: 5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (22: 6n-3 were significantly higher in wild shrimps. The n-3/n-6 fatty acids ratio was significantly higher in wild shrimps (P < 0.05. The comparison demonstrated that the nutritional value of wild shrimps is better than farmed shrimp and fatty acid profile of commercial diets should be reformed in order to maintenance of farmed shrimps nutritional value.

Hossein Ouraji

2011-10-01

170

Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids were 49.2 +/- 3.1, 44.9 +/- 1.8, and 37.7 +/- 1.7, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 3.3 +/- 0.7, 5.8 +/- 2.0, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Beef contained 2.1 +/- 0.8 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids, about half that found in veal (4.0 +/- 1.2 g/100 g fatty acids) and lamb (4.5 +/- 0.6 g/100 g fatty acids). Trans C-16:1 was 0.24 +/- 0.01, 0.14 +/- 0.02, and 0.79 +/- 0.02 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Only small variations in trans and other fatty acids could be demonstrated between cuts. The overlap between cis and trans C-18:1 by capillary GLC was verified by argentation-thin-layer chromatography followed by GLC, on three samples of veal and three samples of lamb. In veal 1.0 g, and in lamb 1.4 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids were hidden under the cis C-18:1 peak. The mean intake of trans fatty acids from ruminant meat is estimated at 0.2 g/d.

Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.

1998-01-01

171

Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6). Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substra [...] te for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids) including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

P.C., Calder.

2003-04-01

172

Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6. Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

Calder P.C.

2003-01-01

173

Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[14C]palmitate to 14CO2 and total [14C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ?M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ?M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine

174

Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

1986-09-01

175

Scintigraphy with radioiodinated free fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis several clinical and animal experimental studies of free fatty acids labeled with radioiodine are discussed. These radiolabeled fatty acids are used for cardiac imaging. Besides, the elimination rate of the radioactivity from the myocardium, as observed during a scintigraphic study, is correlated with fatty acid metabolism. Uptake and distribution of I-heptadecanoic acid (I-HDA) and I-phenylpentadecanoic acid (I-PPA) are compared with those of thallium-201 (Tl-201) in the normal and ischemic canine myocardium. For determination of the elimination rate (expressed in terms of halftime values) of the radioactivity from the myocardium, regions of interest have to be drawn over a scintigram. A method is described resulting in more reliable demarcation of normal and abnormal regions within the scintigram. (Auth.)

176

The effects of 2-bromopalmitate on the fatty acid composition in differentiating adipocytes of red sea bream (Pagrus major).  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether external factors affect the adipogenic function of fish adipocytes, the effects of 2-bromopalmitate (a PPAR agonist) on the fatty acid composition in differentiating adipocytes of red sea bream were investigated in vitro. In the presence of 2-bromopalmitate, the red sea bream adipocytes were differentiated and the effects on the fatty acid composition and the adipogenic gene expression were analyzed. With the level of 2-bromopalmitate, the content of 16:1n-7, a delta-9 desaturation product, increased in association with the increase in a stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression level while the triglyceride accumulation was not affected. Subsequently, the effects on the bioconversion of the n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, which are main series of dietary essential fatty acids, were examined. In the presence of 300 microM of 18:3n-3 or 18:2n-6, red sea bream stromal-vascular cells accumulated the lipid in the cytoplasm within 3 days by the fatty acid uptake with the increase of corresponding fatty acid contents. Furthermore, in both the 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 stored cells, the products of delta-6 desaturation (18:4n-3 and 18:3n-6, respectively) and C(18-20) elongation (20:3n-3 and 20:2n-6, respectively) were detected. However, neither the delta-6 desatutration nor C(18-20) elongation of 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 were enhanced by 2-bromopalmitate treatment. In conclusion, the results indicate that the adipocyte function in fish, e.g. adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition, can be modified by external factors and a main effect of 2-bromopalmitate is the increase in the content of delta-9 desaturation product by stimulating the SCD gene expression. PMID:19166960

Oku, Hiromi; Tokuda, Masaharu; Umino, Tetsuya

2009-04-01

177

Synthesis and utilization of fatty acids by wild-type and fatty acid auxotrophs of Caulobacter crescentus.  

OpenAIRE

The fatty acid composition of the dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was found to consist primarily of 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids, both saturated and monounsaturated, in agreement with the findings of Chow and Schmidt (J. Gen. Microbiol. 83:359-373, 1974). In addition, two minor but as yet unidentified fatty acids were detected. Chromatographic mobilities suggested that these fatty acids may be a cyclopropane and a branched-chain fatty acid. In addition, we demonstrated that the fa...

Letts, V.; Shaw, P.; Shapiro, L.; Henry, S.

1982-01-01

178

Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also ...

Rawat Richa; Yu Xiao-Hong; Shanklin John

2011-01-01

179

Delayed fatty acid uptake by a fatty acid secreting yeast strain with modified peroxisomal metabolism  

OpenAIRE

Biodiesel, in the form of fatty acid esters, produced by oleaginous microorganisms, could represent an attractive alternative of renewable liquid biofuels. In the model yeast S. Cerevisiae lipid metabolism has been studied extensively and all genes encoding enzymes directly involved in lipid synthesis are known. In this organism exogenous long-chain fatty acids are activated to coenzyme A derivatives prior to metabolic utilization by the fatty acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1p and Faa4p. We use a...

Ribeiro, Gabriela; Co?rte-real, Manuela; Dias, Alberto Carlos Pires; Johansson, Bjo?rn

2011-01-01

180

Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.  

OpenAIRE

Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

Geis, G.; Leying, H.; Suerbaum, S.; Opferkuch, W.

1990-01-01

181

Involvement of N6 and N3 polyunsaturated faty acids on the lipidic profile in central nervous system of the animals of experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: N-3 and N-6polyunsaturated fatty acids has manyinvolvements in activities within orentering in regulating various physiologicalprocesses and in certain pathologies.Among systemic physiological effects inwhich they are involved we mention thecentral nervous system development andrecall of the retina, regulating plasma lipidlevels, cardiovascular and immune systemfunctions, regulating the activity of insulin.Material and methods: The experimentthere were used 60 male Wistar rats , weight180 ± 20 grams, procured from the animalfarm of the Department ofPathophysiology, University of Medicineand Pharmacy “Gr.T. Popa”, Ia?i.Male Wistar rats were divided into twostudy groups: normal control animals (Mand test animals.Test group was further divided intothree groups - each group being composedof 15 animals.Administration of the substances wasmade for 36 weeks (nine months, afterwhich the animals were evaluated andsubsequently sacrificed.Results: Following statistical analysis, wedetermined the following:• Averages of AGP n3 were significantlyhigher in groups 2 (p <0.001 and 3 (p<0.001 compared with group 4• Averages ratio n6: n3 in nerve cellmembrane were significantly lower ingroups 2 (p <0.001 and 3 (p <0.001compared with group 4Discussions: Our experimentdemonstrates that increased amounts ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids in themembranes of nerve cells which can justifythe positive evolution of animals inassessing the performance of concomitantbehavioral tests.Conclusions: This study brings new lighton the importance of the existence of abalance between PUFA intake and dailydiet.

G. Iamandei1, Veronica Mocanu1, T. Oboroceanu2, Veronica Luca1

2010-11-01

182

Modification of fatty acids composition in erythrocytes lipids in arterial hypertension associated with dyslipidemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Modification of fatty acids (FA composition in erythrocytes lipids as an early indicator of the development of arterial hypertension (AH and lipid disorders. Methods We included 34 patients with arterial hypertension and 11 healthy individuals. Each patient was examined the lipid composition of serum. From erythrocytes by gas chromatography were identified fatty acids. The quantitative composition of the erythrocyte lipids FA in patients with AH presented with saturated and polyunsaturated monoenic acids with carbon chain lengths from C12 to C22. Results In all hypertensive patients is disturbed lipid FA composition of erythrocytes. The patients with a normal level of serum lipids revealed deficiency of polyunsaturated acids n6-linoleic (18:2 n6, arachidonic (20:4 n6, dokozatetraenic 14,4% (22:4 n6. The patients with dislipidemia installed more profound restructuring of the lipid matrix of the membrane of erythrocytes. A decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids family n3: dokozapentaenovoy (22:5 n3, docosahexaenoic PUFA (22:6 n3, the total value of n3 PUFA in 1,3 times was revealed. Conclusion Thus, modification of erythrocyte FA are fairly subtle indicator of pathology of lipid metabolism, which manifest themselves much earlier than changes in the lipoprotein of blood plasma.

Antonyuk Marina V

2011-01-01

183

Cellular Fatty Acid Composition of Legionella longbeachae sp. nov. †  

OpenAIRE

The cellular fatty acid composition of Legionella longbeachae was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. As in other Legionella species, the fatty acids of this new species are characterized by relatively large amounts of branched-chain acids.

Moss, C. Wayne; Karr, D. E.; Dees, S. B.

1981-01-01

184

Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

2011-08-23

185

Methoxylated fatty acids in Blumeria graminis conidia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The total fatty acids (FA) composition of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici conidia, the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew, was analyzed as a function of their age. A total of 19 FA (C12-C24 saturated and unsaturated) and unusual methoxylated fatty acids (mFA) were detected in young, intermediate and old conidia. Two very long chain methoxylated FA were identified by GC-MS as 3-methoxydocosanoic and 3-methoxytetracosanoic acids. Medium chain FA were predominant in young conidia (75%, including 13% of mFA) while very long chain fatty acids constituted the major compounds in old conidia (74%, including 30% of mFA). We have shown for the first time that the total FA composition is strongly correlated with the age of B. graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) conidia. PMID:15797605

Muchembled, Jérôme; Sahraoui, Anissa Lounès-Hadj; Laruelle, Frédéric; Palhol, Fabien; Couturier, Daniel; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Sancholle, Michel

2005-04-01

186

Effect of intravenous omega-3 fatty acid infusion and hemodialysis on fatty acid composition of free fatty acids and phospholipids in patients with end-stage renal disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have been reported to have decreased levels of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ?-3 PUFAs administered intravenously during HD, as well as the effect of HD treatment, on the fatty acid composition of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), plasma phospholipids, and platelet phospholipids.

Madsen, Trine; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup

2011-01-01

187

The Identification of Fatty Acids in Bacteria  

OpenAIRE

The fatty acid composition is probably the most important chemotaxonomic parameter used for the differentiation of prokaryote taxa at the species level because it correlates very well with the accepted DNA:DNA hybridization-based species concept of many groups of bacteria. However, care must be taken to standardize the conditions of growth as well as those of the gas chromatography. If these standardized conditions are followed, valuable information may be acquired from the cellular fatty aci...

Da Costa, Ms; Albuquerque, L.; Nobre, Mf; Wait, R.

2011-01-01

188

The fatty acid composition of muscles and fat depots of ostriches as influenced by genotype  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Three genotypes of ostrich (South African Black, Zimbabwean Blue Necks and crosses between Zimbabwean Blue Neck males x South African Black females) were used to investigate the influence of genotype on the fatty acid composition of the musculus gastrocnemius and musculus iliofibularis, and abdomina [...] l and breast fat depots. Total saturated fatty acids in both the m. gastrocnemius and m. iliofibularis were higher in crosses (36.4% and 35.9%) than in South African Black ostriches (32.9% and 30.4%), whereas mono-unsaturated fatty acids were highest in South African Black ostriches. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids in the m. gastrocnemius were lowest in South African Black ostriches (26.5%) compared with the Zimbabwean Blue Necks (33.2%). Neither the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated (0.73 to 0.99) nor n-6 to n-3 (1.6 to 2.2) fatty acids were influenced by genotype, although the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in Zimbabwean Blue Necks was higher in the m. gastrocnemius (0.99) than in the m. iliofibularis (0.73). Differences in individual fatty acids were prominent in the breast fat, and total saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids differed between genotypes in both breast and abdominal fat. Only the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in the fat depots differed between South African Black (0.48) and Zimbabwean Blue Neck ostriches (0.42). The latter ratio was higher in the breast (0.50) than abdominal (0.42) fat in Zimbabwean Blue Necks. These results indicate that crossbreeding of different genotypes of ostriches reared under similar conditions does influence the overall fatty acid profiles of meat and fat.

L.C., Hoffman; M.M., Brand; S.W.P., Cloete; M., Muller.

189

Fatty acid compositions of six wild edible mushroom species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

2013-01-01

190

Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the consumption of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatizat [...] ion. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid was found in all but one species. Additionally, some species contained docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid of the ?-6 series, was present in all studied macroalgae. Fucus spiralis L. exhibited the highest amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ?-3 and ?-6 series. The ?-6/?-3 ratio in half of the studied species was lower than 1. This information reinforces the potential application of some brown macroalgae as dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Graça, Silva; Renato B., Pereira; Patrícia, Valentão; Paula B., Andrade; Carla, Sousa.

2013-08-01

191

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic...Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic...chemical substance identified as a fatty acid amine condensate,...

2010-07-01

192

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory

193

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

Science.gov (United States)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

2002-10-01

194

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.

2002-01-01

195

Biological study of some labeled C16 fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evolution of myocardial, blood, liver and kidney activity is studied in mice after I.V. injection of some labelled C16 fatty acids. With ? iodo fatty acids, the presence or absence of a double bond and the character Z or E have no influence on the tissue activity. The presence of a triple bond decreases the fixation, modifies the intramyocardial metabolism of the fatty acid and accelerates the rate of decrease of myocardial activity. ? bromo fatty acid have the same maximal fixation as ? iodo fatty acid but a more rapid decrease of myocardial activity. ? iodo fatty acid has a very low myocardial fixation

196

Chain-modified radioiodinated fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several carbon chain manipulations have been studied in terms of their effects on myocardial activity levels and residence time. The manipulations examined included: chain length, chain branching, chain unsaturation, and carbon-iodine bond stabilization. It was found that chain length affects myocardial activity levels for both straight-chain alkyl acids and branched chain alkyl and aryl acids. Similar results have been reported for the straight-chain aryl acids. Generally, the longer chain lengths correlated with higher myocardial activity levels and longer residence times. This behavior is attributed to storage as triglycerides. Branched chain acids are designed to be anti-metabolites but only the aryl ?-methyl acids possessed the expected time course of constant or very slowly decreasing activity levels. The alkyl ?-methyl acids underwent rapid deiodination - a process apparently independent of ?-oxidation. Inhibition of ?-oxidation by incorporation of carbon-carbon double and triple bonds was studied. Deiodination of ?-iodo alkyl fatty acids prevented an assessment of suicide inhibition using an unsaturated alkynoic acid. Stabilization of the carbon-iodine bond by attachment of iodine to a vinylic or aryl carbon was studied. The low myocardial values and high blood values observed for an eleven carbon ?-iodo vinylic fatty acid were not encouraging but ?-iodo aryl fatty acids appear to avoid the problems of rapid deiodination. (Auth.)on. (Auth.)

197

Bioactive fatty acids and coronary heart disease. Mechanisms and clinical effects of dietary fatty acids  

OpenAIRE

Background: A high intake of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), which are potential peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, has been associated with proposed favourable effects related to prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease. The n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are poorly oxidizable and resemble the effects of the modified fatty acid and pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthi...

Strand, Elin

2013-01-01

198

Proximate and fatty acid composition of some commercially important fish species from the Sinop region of the Black Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proximate and fatty acid compositions of the commercially important fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Alosa alosa, Belone belone, Scorpaena porcus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Mullus barbatus) from the Sinop region of the Black Sea were examined. The fat contents ranged from 1.26% (for scorpion fish) to 18.12% (for shad). The protein contents were min 14.54% (for red mullet) and maximum 20.26% (for belone). The fatty acid compositions of the fish ranged from 27.83 to 35.91% for saturated fatty acids, 19.50-33.80% for monounsaturated fatty acids and 15.25-40.02% for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (16:0) (17.75-22.20%) was the dominant fatty acid for all the fish species. As a second saturated fatty acid, myristic acid (14:0) was observed in four of the fish species and its content ranged from 4.72 to 7.31%. Whereas, for the other two fish species, the second saturated fatty acid was stearic acid (18:0) ranging between 4.54 and 10.64%. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, those occurring in the highest proportions were oleic acid (18:1n-9c) (11.67-22.45%) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) (4.50-9.40%). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (5.41-28.52%), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (4.68-11.06) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (1.38-3.49%) were dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. All the species, in particular the belone, the anchovy and the shad had high levels of the n-3 series. PMID:22322400

Kocatepe, Demet; Turan, Hülya

2012-06-01

199

Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus, camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii y peces (Mugil cephalus, que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar.Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus, prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii and finfish (Mugil cephalus, that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2: 577-587. Epub 2010 June 02.

Nabeel M Alikunhi

2010-06-01

200

/ Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lacto [...] bacillus xylosus), camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii) y peces (Mugil cephalus), que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar. Abstract in english Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus), prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macr [...] obrachium rosenbergii) and finfish (Mugil cephalus), that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2): 577-587. Epub 2010 June 02.

Nabeel M, Alikunhi; Rajendran, Narayanasamy; Kathiresan, Kandasamy.

2010-06-01

201

Peroxisomal beta-oxidation of polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids in human fibroblasts. The polyunsaturated and the saturated long chain fatty acids are retroconverted by the same acyl-CoA oxidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolism of the C22 unsaturated fatty acids erucic acid (22:1(n-9)), adrenic acid (22:4(n-6)), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5(n-3)) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)) was studied in cultured fibroblasts from patients with acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency, the Zellweger syndrome, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) and normal controls. [3-14C] 22:4 (n-6) and [3-14C] 22:5 (n-3) were shortened (retroconverted) to [1-14C] 20:4 (n-6) and [1-14C] 20:5 (n-3), respectively, in normal and X-ALD fibroblasts. In Zellweger and acyl-CoA oxidase deficient fibroblasts these reactions were deficient. Since the retroconversion is normal in X-ALD fibroblasts peroxisomal very long chain (lignoceryl) CoA ligase is probably not required for the activation of C22 unsaturated fatty acids. The present work with fibroblasts from patients with a specific acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency, previously shown to have a deficient peroxisomal clofibrate-inducible acyl-CoA oxidase, and which accumulate 24:0 and 26:0 fatty acids, supports the view that this enzyme is responsible for the chain-shortening of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)), erucic acid (22:1(n-9)), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5(n-3)), and adrenic acid (22:4(n-6)) as well. PMID:8327852

Christensen, E; Woldseth, B; Hagve, T A; Poll-The, B T; Wanders, R J; Sprecher, H; Stokke, O; Christophersen, B O

1993-01-01

202

Conversion of ?-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of ?-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (?-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert ?-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time. PMID:23600588

Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

2014-04-01

203

ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MIANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MILK  

OpenAIRE

In this work was analysedquality of raw cow’s milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of t...

Juraj ?ubo?; Klára Vavrišínová; Arpášová Henrieta; Kunová Simona; Miroslava Ka?ániová; Pavelková Adriana; Bebejová Andrea; Hleba Lukáš; Bobko Marek

2013-01-01

204

Composition of fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes and eicosanoids level in patients with metabolic syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances of the fatty acids composition in plasma and red blood cells and eicosanoid synthesis play an important role in the metabolic syndrome (MS formation. Methods The observation group included 61 people with metabolic syndrome (30 patients with MS and normal levels of insulin, 31 people with MS and insulin resistance - IR. The parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in blood serum were examined. The composition of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, fatty acid (FA of red blood cells lipids was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Eicosanoids level in MS patients blood serum was studied by enzyme immunoassay. Results In MS patients in the absence of glucose-insulin homeostasis disturbances and in patients with IR the accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2 n6, 18:3 n3, 22:4 n6 and lower pool of saturated FA (12:0, 14:0, 16: 0, 17:0 in plasma were discovered. A deficit of polyunsaturated FA (18:3 n3, 20:4 n6 with a predominance of on-saturated FA (14:0, 18:0 in erythrocyte membranes was revealed. In MS patients regardless of the carbohydrate metabolism status high levels of leukotriene B4 and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1? in serum were found. The development of IR in MS patients leads to increased synthesis of thromboxane A2. Conclusion The results revealed a disturbance in nonesterified fatty acids of plasma lipids and red blood cells, eicosanoid synthesis in MS patients. The breach of the plasma and cell membranes fatty acids compositions, synthesis of vasoactive and proinflammatory eicosanoids is an important pathogenetic part of the MS development.

Antonyuk Marina V

2011-05-01

205

Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods The fatty acid (FA composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum and two from tropical seas (Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum natans was determined using GCMS. Four independent replicates were taken from each seaweed species. Results Omega-3 (n-3 and omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, were in the concentration range of 2-14 mg/g dry matter (DM, while total lipid content ranged from 7-45 mg/g DM. The n-9 FAs of the selected seaweeds accounted for 3%-56% of total FAs, n-6 FAs for 3%-32% and n-3 FAs for 8%-63%. Red and brown seaweeds contain arachidonic (C20:4, n-6 and/or eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA, C20:5, n-3, the latter being an important "fish" FA, as major PUFAs while in green seaweeds these values are low and mainly C16 FAs were found. A unique observation is the presence of another typical "fish" fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 at ? 1 mg/g DM in S. natans. The n-6: n-3 ratio is in the range of 0.05-2.75 and in most cases below 1.0. Environmental effects on lipid-bound FA composition in seaweed species are discussed. Conclusion Marine macroalgae form a good, durable and virtually inexhaustible source for polyunsaturated fatty acids with an (n-6 FA: (n-3 FA ratio of about 1.0. This ratio is recommended by the World Health Organization to be less than 10 in order to prevent inflammatory, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. Some marine macroalgal species, like P. palmata, contain high proportions of the "fish fatty acid" eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3, while in S. natans also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 was detected.

van Keulen Herman

2011-06-01

206

Long-chain fatty acid perturbations in Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

OpenAIRE

The fatty acid content of Mycoplasma pneumoniae increased 2.5- to 9.6-fold when the growth medium was supplemented with a saturated, unsaturated, or beta-hydroxy fatty acid, the greatest increase occurring with palmitic acid. The amount of each supplemented fatty acid found within this organism was 2.8 to 5.5% of the total fatty acid content; the exception was palmitic acid. Up to 57% of the palmitic acid was utilized from the supplemented medium, whereas only 0.2 to 10% of the other fatty ac...

Leon, O.; Panos, C.

1981-01-01

207

Genetics Home Reference: Fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

... This enzyme modifies fatty acids, which are building blocks used to make fats (lipids). Specifically, fatty acid ... This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in ...

208

Radioiodinated free fatty acids: a clue to myocardial metabolism?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some experiments are discussed which are intended to establish the relation of the externally observed elimination rates of radioactivity originating from radioiodinated fatty acids, with fatty acid metabolism in the myocardium. (Auth.)

209

MITOCHONDRIAL FATTY ACID OXIDATION DISORDERS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES IN MOUSE MODELS  

OpenAIRE

Mouse models have been designed for a number of fatty acid oxidation defects. Studies in these mouse models have demonstrated that different pathogenetic mechanisms play a role in the pathophysiology of defects of fatty acid oxidation.

Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Wood, Philip A.

2010-01-01

210

Fatty Acids as Surfactants on Aerosol Particles  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids (n-alcanoic acids) are common compounds in numerous anthropogenic and natural emissions. According to Rogge et al. (1993), catalyst-equipped automobiles emitted more than 600 ?g km-1 of fatty acids which was over 50% of all identified organics in fine aerosol emissions. Coal burning produces fatty acids ranging from about 1700 mg kg-1 for bituminous coal to over 10000 mg kg-1 for lignite (Oros and Simoneit, 2000). Similarly, biomass burning is an important source for aerosol fatty acids. They are the major identified compound group in deciduous tree smoke, their total emission factor being measured as 1589 mg kg-1 which was 56% of all identified organic compounds (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a). Large amounts of fatty acid are also emitted from burning of conifer trees and grass (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a; Simoneit, 2002). Fatty acids have been reported to be major constituents of marine aerosols in many investigations (Barger and Garrett, 1976; Gagosian et. al, 1981; Sicre et al., 1990; Stephanou, 1992). It has been suggested that as the marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants (Blanchard, 1964; Gill et al., 1983; Middlebrook et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999). Amphiphilic molecules, including lipids, can be assembled as monomolecular layers at air/water interfaces as well as transported to a solid support. Recently, we could show by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the sea-salt aerosol particles (Tervahattu et al., 2002). In their TOF-SIMS studies on the surface composition of atmospheric aerosols, Peterson and Tyler (2002) found fatty acids on the surface of Montana forest fire particles. In this work we have studied by TOF-SIMS the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles emitted from field fires in the Baltic and other East European countries and transported to Finland as well as aerosol particles transported from Russian forest and peat fires. Fatty acids were commonly observed on the surface layer of these particles. The chain length composition was characteristic to each emission source. In our previous work (Tervahattu et al., 2002), fatty acids on sea-salt particles were originated from dead sea plankton organisms with major peaks ranging from C14 to C18 and maximum at C16 (palmitic acid). Major peaks on the surface of forest fire particles ranged from C16 to C30 with the maximum at C24. This composition indicates the involvement of the smoke from both conifer trees and peat (Oros and Simoneit, 2000; 2001b). On the other hand, TOF-SIMS analysis of the surface of field fire particles showed major peaks from C14 to C30 with two maximums at C16 (highest intensity) and C22. It was concluded that the results indicate emissions from both grass burning and fossil fuels (Simoneit, 2002; Oros and Simoneit, 2000). The presence of surface film on aerosol particles may have an impact on their chemical, physical and optical properties and change their role in light scattering and as cloud condensation nuclei as well as interactions with human tissue.

Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Niemi, J.

2003-12-01

211

Vascular Dysfunction Induced in Offspring by Maternal Dietary Fat Involves Altered Arterial Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis  

OpenAIRE

Nutrition during development affects risk of future cardiovascular disease. Relatively little is known about whether the amount and type of fat in the maternal diet affect vascular function in the offspring. To investigate this, pregnant and lactating rats were fed either 7%(w/w) or 21%(w/w) fat enriched in either18:2n-6, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, or fish oil. Their offspring were fed 4%(w/w) soybean oil from weaning until day 77. Type and amount of maternal dietary fat altere...

Kelsall, Christopher J.; Hoile, Samuel P.; Irvine, Nicola A.; Masoodi, Mojgan; Torrens, Christopher; Lillycrop, Karen A.; Calder, Philip C.; Clough, Geraldine F.; Hanson, Mark A.; Burdge, Graham C.

2012-01-01

212

Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

O. O. Santos Junior

2012-01-01

213

Association of plasma insulin concentration to fatty acid distribution between milk fat and membrane synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the association between plasma insulin concentration and fatty acid distribution to milk fat and membrane fractions (triglyceride and phospholipid, respectively) in dairy cows. Thirty-seven Holstein cows at 60 to 70 d postpartum were synchronized by 2 PGF(2?) injections 14 d apart. Plasma samples were taken before morning and evening milkings and milk samples were obtained at morning milking. Plasma insulin concentrations were determined and cows were retrospectively assigned to low insulin (LI; 2.8±0.2 ng/mL, n=6) or high insulin (HI; 5.9±0.6 ng/mL, n=7) experimental groups. Fatty acid analysis of milk samples demonstrated a possible association between plasma insulin concentration and the fatty acid composition in phospholipid and triglyceride fractions. In the HI group, monounsaturated fatty acid concentration tended to be higher in the triglyceride (Tg) fraction than the phospholipids (Pl) fraction. In the LI group, the concentrations of short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (triglyceride fraction than the phospholipid fraction. These results imply that the primary source of saturated fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis, in both HI and LI groups, is the circulation, as reflected by a higher concentration of longer saturated fatty acids (>16 carbon chain length) in the phospholipid fraction. Finally, the phospholipid-to-triglyceride ratio was higher in the HI group than in the LI group. Together, the results indicate that fatty acid distribution between phospholipid (membrane) and triglyceride (fat) synthesis by the mammary gland is associated with fatty acid length, degree of unsaturation, and origin, and might be subject to metabolic hormone regulation. Furthermore, a lower triglyceride-to-phospholipid ratio in the HI group implies that high plasma insulin and low milk fat concentrations are associated with a shift in the size distribution of milk fat globules. PMID:22459825

Mesilati-Stahy, R; Malka, H; Argov-Argaman, N

2012-04-01

214

Variations in fat and fatty acid intakes of adult males from three regions of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fat and fatty acid intakes of 25 healthy adult urban males from Ghaziabad, U.P.; Goa and Kolkata, W.Bengal, respectively were studied. Fat intakes were estimated using dietary records, food frequency questionnaires and chemical analysis of the diets consumed. Fatty acid intakes were estimated by gas chromatography. Total fat intakes ranged from 26.9 g/day to 163.2g/ day. Percent subjects having intakes above the desirable level were 72% in Kolkata, 36% in Ghaziabad, U.P. and only 10% in Goa. Visible fat constituted more than 60 percent of total fat. In all 3 areas, SFA intakes were higher and MUFA lower than desirable levels. Palmitic acid constituted at least 50% of SFA intakes. In Goa, lauric acid, in Ghaziabad and Kolkata, stearic acid and myristic acid were major dietary SFAs, In Kolkata, erucic acid was 17.3+/-8.3%. Overall 60% of subjects had n-6:n-3 intakes close to the desirable ratio. Linoleic acid constituted almost the entire n-6 intake. Alpha linolenic acid constituted most of the n-3 intakes in Ghaziabad, U.P. and Kolkata. The ratios of SFA:MUFA--PUFA vaned widely and percent subjects with intakes close to the desirable ratios were 12% in Goa, 23% in Ghaziabad and 40% in Kolkata. The data highlights the need for limiting fat intakes and modifying diets to provide fatty acids in desirable ratios. PMID:17191405

Udipi, S A; Karandikar, S; Mukherjee, R; Agarwal, S; Ghugre, P S

2006-01-01

215

Essential fatty acids and human brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human brain is nearly 60 percent fat. We've learned in recent years that fatty acids are among the most crucial molecules that determine your brain's integrity and ability to perform. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are required for maintenance of optimal health but they can not synthesized by the body and must be obtained from dietary sources. Clinical observation studies has related imbalance dietary intake of fatty acids to impaired brain performance and diseases. Most of the brain growth is completed by 5-6 years of age. The EFAs, particularly the omega-3 fatty acids, are important for brain development during both the fetal and postnatal period. Dietary decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is needed for the optimum functional maturation of the retina and visual cortex, with visual acuity and mental development seemingly improved by extra DHA. Beyond their important role in building the brain structure, EFAs, as messengers, are involved in the synthesis and functions of brain neurotransmitters, and in the molecules of the immune system. Neuronal membranes contain phospholipid pools that are the reservoirs for the synthesis of specific lipid messengers on neuronal stimulation or injury. These messengers in turn participate in signaling cascades that can either promote neuronal injury or neuroprotection. The goal of this review is to give a new understanding of how EFAs determine our brain's integrity and performance, and to recall the neuropsychiatric disorders that may be influenced by them. As we further unlock the mystery of how fatty acids affect the brain and better understand the brain's critical dependence on specific EFAs, correct intake of the appropriate diet or supplements becomes one of the tasks we undertake in pursuit of optimal wellness. PMID:20329590

Chang, Chia-Yu; Ke, Der-Shin; Chen, Jen-Yin

2009-12-01

216

Why do polyunsaturated fatty acids lower serum cholesterol?  

OpenAIRE

Replacement of saturated by polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet may lower serum very low-density and low-density lipoprotein concentrations because the liver preferentially converts polyunsaturated fatty acids into ketone bodies instead of into very low-density lipoprotein triglycerides. Thus unlike saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids are transported to the tissues for oxidation without leaving a trail of lipoprotein remnants in the form of low-density lipoproteins.

Beynen, A. C.; Katan, M. B.

1985-01-01

217

The glucose-fatty acid cycle: a physiological perspective.  

OpenAIRE

Glucose and fatty acids are the major fuels for mammalian metabolism and it is clearly essential that mechanisms exist for mutual co-ordination of their utilization. The glucose-fatty acid cycle, as it was proposed in 1963, describes one set of mechanisms by which carbohydrate and fat metabolism interact. Since that time, the importance of the glucose-fatty acid cycle has been confirmed repeatedly, in particular by elevation of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations and demonstration...

Frayn, Kn

2003-01-01

218

High affinity esterification of eicosanoid precursor fatty acids by platelets.  

OpenAIRE

We have examined the relative rates of uptake of several fatty acids into washed, human platelets by measuring incorporation into cellular phospholipids. In the presence of 15 microM fatty acid-free albumin and with radioactive fatty acid concentrations of 5-500 nM, esterification into phospholipid was linear with time and platelet concentration and saturable with respect to fatty acid concentration. Two distinct classes of uptake rate were observed. Arachidonate and 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentae...

Neufeld, E. J.; Wilson, D. B.; Sprecher, H.; Majerus, P. W.

1983-01-01

219

Fatty acid analysis of Erwinia amylovora from Serbia and Montenegro  

OpenAIRE

Automated method of fatty acid analysis was used to identify and study heterogeneity of 41 Erwinia amylovora strains, originating from 8 plant species grown in 13 locations in Serbia and one in Montenegro. All strains contained 14:0 3OH fatty acid, characteristic for the “amylovora” group. According to fatty acid composition 39 strains were identified as E. amylovora as the first choice from the database. Due to their specific fatty acid composition, tw...

Milan Ivanovi?; Katarina Gaši?; An?elka ?ali?; Nemanja Kuzmanovi?; Mirko Ivanovi?; Aleksa Obradovi?

2011-01-01

220

Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of Three Phytomonas Species  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-fre...

Celso Vataru Nakamura; Luciana Waldow; Sandra Regina Pelegrinello; Tânia Ueda-Nakamura; Benício Alves de Abreu Filho; Benedito Prado Dias Filho

1999-01-01

221

Vitamin B-6 restriction impairs fatty acid synthesis in cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells  

OpenAIRE

Vitamin B-6 deficiency has been reported to alter n-6 and n-3 fatty acid profiles in plasma and tissue lipids; however, the mechanisms underlying such metabolic changes remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin B-6 restriction on fatty acid profiles and fatty acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Cells were cultured for 6 wk in media with four different vitamin B-6 concentrations (10, 20, 50, and 2,000 nM added pyridoxal, representing deficient, marginal, ad...

Zhao, Mei; Ralat, Maria A.; Da Silva, Vanessa; Garrett, Timothy J.; Melnyk, Stephan; James, S. Jill; Gregory, Jesse F.

2012-01-01

222

Fatty acids composition in South African freshwater fish as indicators of food quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Lipid classes and fatty acid composition of three commercially important freshwater fish species Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia), Clarias gariepinus (African catfish) and Cyprinus carpio (carp) obtained from an aquaculture, different river systems and fish markets from different provinc [...] es in South Africa were investigated. Fatty acids were extracted from the fish fillets through the Folch extraction method (using chloroform: methanol at the ratio of 2:1). Generally, tilapia fish species was found to be the richest in fatty acid composition. In all fish species analysed, palmitic acid (16:0) was found to be the most abundant fatty acid ranging from 18.24 to 21.84%. Appreciable quantities of essential polyunsaturated fatty acid such as docosahexaenoic (DHA) (22:6 n-3, 3.92 to 6.16%), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5 n-3, 1.91 to 2.92%) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6, 7.19 to 8.50%) were also found. Observations show that fish species obtained from Gauteng Province are richer in fatty acids compared to those in Limpopo Province. The study points out that all fish species investigated contain appreciable levels of Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and are therefore suitable for an unsaturated low-fat diet. This is important especially for poor communities who cannot afford to get a balanced diet, rich in some essential fatty acids.Therefore, it is important to determine the nutritional value of local fish, since it significantly contribute to a healthy diet in rural communities.

Erasmus, Chauke; Ewa, Cukrowska; Mary-Jane, Thaela-Chimuka; Luke, Chimuka; Hermogene, Nsengimana; Hlanganani, Tutu.

2008-01-01

223

Extraction of Fatty Acids from Microalgae  

OpenAIRE

Algae are the most often processed as a fast growing biomass with a high proportion of lipids. Their composition is suitable as nutraceuticals owing to the high content of proteins, vitamins, enzymes, fatty acids, pigments with antioxidant effect (especially carotenoids) and other valuable substances.

Rouskova?, Milena

2013-01-01

224

Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different l [...] evels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

Tanja, Hess; Trinette, Ross-Jones.

2014-12-01

225

Extraction of Fatty Acids from Microalgae.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Praha : Orgit, 2013 - (Kalenda, P.; Lubojacký, J.), s. 123-128 ISBN 978-80-86238-55-5. [International Conference on Chemical Technology (ICCT 2013) /1./. Mikulov (CZ), 08.04.2013-10.04.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : extraction * chlorella vulgaris * fatty acids Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

Rousková, Milena; Kohoutková, J.; Veselý, Václav; Kaštánek, František; Šolcová, Olga

226

Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

TRI PRARTONO

2010-12-01

227

?-3 fatty acids effect on wound healing  

OpenAIRE

Physiological events in the initial inflammatory stage of cutaneous wound healing influence subsequent stages. Proinflammatory cytokines coordinate molecular and cellular processes during the inflammatory stage. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) alter proinflammatory cytokine production, but how this phenomenon specifically influences wound healing is not clearly understood. In the present study, effects of marine-derived ?-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic PUFA on proinflammatory cyto...

Mcdaniel, Jodi C.; Belury, Martha; Ahijevych, Karen; Blakely, Wendy

2008-01-01

228

PLANT FATTY ACID (ETHANOL) AMIDE HYDROLASES  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) plays a central role in modulating endogenous N-acylethanolamine (NAE) levels in vertebrates, and, in part, constitutes an “endocannabinoid” signaling pathway that regulates diverse physiological and behavioral processes in animals. Recently, an Arabidopsis FAAH hom...

229

Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil Fatty Acids  

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Full Text Available Epoxidation of palm kernel oil fatty acids using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out effectively using a homogeneous reaction. It was found that epoxidation reaction occurred optimally at a temperature of 40oC and reaction time of 120 minits. The oxirane conversion was the highest at 1.46mol and 0.85mol of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid respectively. It was found that a maximum of 99% relative conversion of ethylenic oxirane was obtained, similar to the conversion of iodine value. The formation of epoxide adduct of palm kernel oil fatty acids (FAPKO was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral analysis showed the disappearance of double bonds and replaced by epoxy group in the EFAPKO.

Michelle Ni Fong Fong

2013-02-01

230

Effects of Long Term Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation on Membrane Lipid Composition and Growth Characteristics in Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of modifying the n-6:n-3 Fatty Acid Ratio (FAR of diets using fish oil, soybean oil and butter on growth performance and the fatty acid profile of rat fed with commercial concentrate diet. Fifty individually housed Sprague-Dawley rats (average of 130±2 g of body weight were fed concentrates at 5% of body weight daily. The treatments consisted of dietary n-6:n-3 FAR of 1.94:1, 5.67:1, 51.82:1 and 61.69:1. After feeding for 20 weeks in individual cages, rats were sacrificed 15 h after feeding and samples of blood were collected. Increasing dietary saturated fatty acid increased the body weight significantly in compared to other treatment groups. Concentrations of n-6:n-3 FAR in plasma increased linearly (p0.05 in rat plasma with different n-6:n-3 FAR. Proportions of oleic acid in plasma were unchanged by diet. The proportion of Arachidonic Acid (AA decreased (p<0.05 in plasma of rat that fed with low level of n-6:n-3 FAR in compare to the diet with higher level. Proportions of all measured long chain n-3 fatty acids were greater in plasma when diets contained more C22:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 from fish oil. By decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 FAR, the proportions of long chain n-3 fatty acids in plasma increased dramatically; specifically, 22:6 n-3 and 22:5 n-3.

Y.M. Goh

2011-01-01

231

21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food and...Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the...

2010-04-01

232

21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573.914...573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food...ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the...

2010-04-01

233

A Review of the Metabolic Origins of Milk Fatty Acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk fat and its fatty acid profile are important determinants of the technological, sensorial, and nutritional properties of milk and dairy products. The two major processes contributing to the presence of fatty acids in ruminant milk are the mammary lipogenesis and the lipid metabolism in the rumen. Among fatty acids, 4:0 to 12:0, almost all 14:0 and about a half of 16:0 in milk fat derive from de novo synthesis within the mammary gland. De novo synthesis utilizes as precursors acetate and butyrate produced through carbohydrates ruminal fermentation and involves acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase as key enzymes. The rest of 16:0 and all of the long-chain fatty acids derive from mammary uptake of circulating lipoproteins and nonesterified fatty acids that originate from digestive absorption of lipids and body fat mobilization. Further, long-chain fatty acids as well as medium-chain fatty acids entering the mammary gland can be desaturated via ?-9 desaturase, an enzyme that acts by adding a cis-9-double bond on the fatty acid chain. Moreover, ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids results in the formation of numerous fatty acids available for incorporation into milk fat. Ruminal biohydrogenation is performed by rumen microbial population as a means of protection against the toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Within the rumen microorganisms, bacteria are principally responsible for ruminal biohydrogenation when compared to protozoa and anaerobic fungi.

Roxana BANC

2013-08-01

234

75 FR 71556 - Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0061; FRL-8852-2] Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption...tolerance for residues of polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters; the mono-, di...oxide, also known as polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters, when used as...

2010-11-24

235

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF TWO DIFFERENT MUSCLES IN RABBITS :ALTERATIONS IN RESPONSE TO SATURATED OR UNSATURATED DIETARY FATTY ACID COMPLEMENTATION  

OpenAIRE

Szabó, A.; Romvári, R.; Fébel, H.; Nagy, I.; Szendrõ, Z. (2001). FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF TWO DIFFERENT MUSCLES IN RABBITS :ALTERATIONS IN RESPONSE TO SATURATED OR UNSATURATED DIETARY FATTY ACID COMPLEMENTATION.

Szabo?, A.; Romva?ri, R.; Fe?bel, H.; Nagy, I.; Szendro?, Zs

2001-01-01

236

Polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of maternal diet and erythrocyte phospholipid status in Chilean pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20-36 years old) in the 3rd-6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

Bascuñán, Karla A; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

2014-11-01

237

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

Karla A. Bascuñán

2014-11-01

238

Serum fatty acid binding protein 4, free fatty acids and metabolic risk markers  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acid binding protein (FABP) 4 chaperones free fatty acids (FFA) in the adipocytes during lipolysis. Serum FFA relates to Metabolic Syndrome (METS) and serum FABP4 is emerging as a novel risk marker. In 36 overweight/obese women, serum FABP4 and FFA were measured hourly during 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin resistance was determined using frequently sampled intravenous GTT (FS-IVGTT). Serum lipids and inflammation markers were measured at fasting.

Karakas, Sidika E.; Almario, Rogelio U.; Kim, Kyoungmi

2009-01-01

239

Liver fatty acid composition in mice with or without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent causes of abnormal liver function. Because fatty acids can damage biological membranes, fatty acid accumulation in the liver may be partially responsible for the functional and morphological changes that are observed in nonalcoholic liver disease. The aim of this study was to use gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate the fatty acid composition of an experimental mouse model of NAFLD induced by ...

Wang Xin; Cao Yuzhen; Fu Yunwei; Guo Guifang; Zhang Xiuying

2011-01-01

240

Incorporation of conjugated linoleic and alpha linolenic fatty acids into Pimedolus maculatus fillets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the fatty acid composition of Pimedolus maculatus fillets of fish fed with different diets. The fish were submitted to an adaptation period (over 30 days) and fed only a control diet (diet I). After this period, the fish were divided into two groups: on [...] e group received a diet enriched with flaxseed oil (diet II), and the other received a diet enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (diet III). Subsequent collections were undertaken after 25 and 50 days. Compared to the control samples, fish fed diet II showed an increase in concentrations of total fatty acid omega-3 (n-3) in the fillets, with an improvement ratio of n-6/n-3. The incorporation of CLA into fish fed diet III was successful. Supplementing the diet of Pimedolus maculatus with CLA and flaxseed oil led to improvements in nutritional quality and fatty acid profile of the fish fillets.

Ana Beatriz, Zanqui; Swami Arêa, Maruyama; Deoclécio José, Barilli; Suellen Andressa Oenning, Ribeiro; Sandra Terezinha Marques, Gomes; Jesuí Vergílio, Visentainer; Nilson Evelázio De, Souza; Wilson Rogério, Boscolo; Makoto, Matsushita.

2013-09-01

241

Cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein facilitates fatty acid utilization by skeletal muscle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intracellular transport of long-chain fatty acids in muscle cells is facilitated to a great extent by heart-type cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP). By virtue of the marked affinity of this 14.5-kDa protein for fatty acids, H-FABP dramatically increases their concentration in the aqueous cytoplasm by non-covalent binding, thereby facilitating both the transition of fatty acids from membranes to the aqueous space and their diffusional transport from membranes (e.g. sarcolemma) to other cellular compartments (e.g. mitochondria). Striking features are the relative abundance of H-FABP in muscle, especially in oxidative muscle fibres, and the modulation of the muscular H-FABP content in concert with the modulation of other proteins and enzymes involved in fatty acid handling and utilization. Newer studies with mice carrying a homozygous or heterozygous deletion of the H-FABP gene show that, in comparison with wild-type mice, hindlimb muscles from heterozygous animals have a markedly lowered (-66%) H-FABP content but unaltered palmitate uptake rate, while in hindlimb muscles from homozygous animals (no H-FABP present) palmitate uptake was reduced by 45%. These findings indicate that H-FABP is present in relative excess and plays a substantial, but merely permissive role in fatty acid uptake by skeletal muscles. PMID:12864741

Glatz, J F C; Schaap, F G; Binas, B; Bonen, A; van der Vusse, G J; Luiken, J J F P

2003-08-01

242

Reduction of hydrogen peroxide stress derived from fatty acid beta-oxidation improves fatty acid utilization in Escherichia coli  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acids are a promising raw material for substance production because of their highly reduced and anhydrous nature, which can provide higher fermentation yields than sugars. However, they are insoluble in water and are poorly utilized by microbes in industrial fermentation production. We used fatty acids as raw materials for l-lysine fermentation by emulsification and improved the limited fatty acid-utilization ability of Escherichia coli. We obtained a fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain ...

Doi, Hidetaka; Hoshino, Yasushi; Nakase, Kentaro; Usuda, Yoshihiro

2013-01-01

243

Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly ?-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

Martemucci Giovanni

2012-09-01

244

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures. No significant interactions with the dietary macronutrient composition were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokineswere not associated with absolute PUFA intake, but the macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) was associated with the n-3/n-6 ratio. CONCLUSION: In humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs, in particular ALA, is beneficially associated with body fatness. The favourable association is, however, not reflected in systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nor is it influenced by macronutrients in the diet.

Lund, Anne-Sofie Q; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

2013-01-01

245

Effect of weight at slaughter and breed on beef intramuscular lipid classes and fatty acid profile.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of slaughter weight and breed on the composition of intramuscular fat (IMF) of seven Spanish cattle breeds was studied. Lipid classes and fatty acids were evaluated in young bulls of seven local Spanish cattle breeds, Asturiana, Avileña, Morucha, Parda Alpina, Pirenaica, Retinta and Rubia Gallega, slaughtered at a live weight of 320 kg (veal type) and 550 kg (yearling bull type). Higher slaughter weight and early maturating breeds produced higher IMF content in the longissimus muscle (P phospholipids, monoglycerides, diglycerides, cholesterol and free-fatty acids content, but an increase in triacylglycerols. Besides, heavier animals displayed a higher percentage of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), but a lower polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage (P triglycerides (TG), saturated fatty acids (SFA) and MUFA illustrates the increasing importance of lipid storage as fattening proceeds and the acquisition of ruminal functionality. The feeding system based on cereals had a strong influence on the fatty acid profile, giving the studied beef a relatively high PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. PMID:22445131

Indurain, G; Beriain, M J; Sarries, M V; Insausti, K

2010-10-01

246

Changes in erythrocyte membrane fatty acids during a clinical trial of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation in schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previously reported double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as supplemental treatment in 40 patients with schizophrenia, we found significant improvement in symptoms as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) compared to placebo (Emsley et al. 2002). Here we report changes in fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes in the same sample (n = 16 in each group). After 12 weeks of receiving EPA, levels of several saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids decreased significantly while levels of n-3 fatty acids increased significantly compared to the placebo group. Increases of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the erythrocyte membranes were greater in subjects who improved more than 20% on overall symptoms. Changes in fatty acids correlated significantly with improvement in PANSS sub-scale scores, more so in females than in males. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3) levels increased less than expected, suggesting a possible defect in synthesis or incorporation of DHA into membranes in schizophrenia. Improvement in dyskinesia correlated significantly with an increase in alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; p = 0.03), and a decrease in 20:1n-9 (p = 0.005). PMID:19826937

van Rensburg, Susan J; Smuts, Cornelius M; Hon, Dinie; Kidd, Martin; van der Merwe, Sulene; Myburgh, Christo; Oosthuizen, Piet; Emsley, Robin

2009-12-01

247

Oil from seeds with a modified fatty acid composition  

OpenAIRE

The invention relates to plant seeds that contain an oil having an oleic acid content of more than 5 % and less than 65 % by weight based upon the total fatty acid content, a linoleic acid content of more than 1 % and less than 65 % by weight based upon the total fatty acid content, a palmitic acid content of more than 20 % and less than 40 % by weight based upon the total fatty acid content, a stearic acid content of more than 3 % and less than 15 % based upont the total fatty acid content, ...

Garce?s Manchen?o, Rafael; Marti?nez-force, Enrique; Pe?rez-vich, Begon?a; Ferna?ndez-marti?nez, Jose? Mari?a

2000-01-01

248

Fatty acid and lipoic acid biosynthesis in higher plant mitochondria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid and lipoic acid biosynthesis were investigated in plant mitochondria. Although the mitochondria lack acetyl-CoA carboxylase, our experiments reveal that they contain the enzymatic equipment necessary to transform malonate into the two main building units for fatty acid synthesis: malonyl- and acetyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP). We demonstrated, by a new method based on a complementary use of high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, that the soluble mitochondrial fatty-acid synthase produces mainly three predominant acyl-ACPs as follows: octanoyl(C8)-, hexadecanoyl(C16)-, and octadecanoyl(C18)-ACP. Octanoate production is of primary interest since it has been postulated long ago to be a precursor of lipoic acid. By using a recombinant H apoprotein mutant as a potential acceptor for newly synthesized lipoic acid, we were able to detect limited amounts of lipoylated H protein in the presence of malonate, several sulfur donors, and cofactors. Finally, we present a scheme outlining the new biochemical pathway of fatty acid and lipoic acid synthesis in plant mitochondria. PMID:10671542

Gueguen, V; Macherel, D; Jaquinod, M; Douce, R; Bourguignon, J

2000-02-18

249

Biosynthesis of the unsaturated 14-carbon fatty acids found on the N termini of photoreceptor-specific proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the vertebrate retina, a number of proteins involved in signal transduction are known to be N-terminal acylated with the unusual 14 carbon fatty acids 14:1n-9 and 14:2n-6. We have explored possible pathways for producing these fatty acids in the frog retina by incubation in vitro with candidate precursor fatty acids bearing radiolabels, including [3H]14:0, [3H]18:1n-9, [3H]18:2n-6, and [3H]18:3n-3. Rod outer segments were prepared from the radiolabeled retinas for analysis of protein-linked fatty acids, and total lipids were extracted from the remaining retinal pellet. Following saponification of extracted lipids, fatty acid phenacyl esters were prepared and analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection by continuous scintillation counting. Transducin, whose alpha-subunit (Gt alpha) is known to bear N-terminal acyl chains, was extracted from the rod outer segments and subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography to detect radiolabeled proteins. Gt alpha was also subjected to methanolysis, and the resulting fatty acyl methyl esters were analyzed by HPLC. The identities of HPLC peaks coinciding with unsaturated species of both phenacyl esters and methyl esters were confirmed by reanalyzing them after catalytic hydrogenation. The results showed that 14:1n-9 can be derived in the retina from 18:1n-9 and 14:2n-6 from 18:2n-6, most likely by two rounds of beta-oxidation, but that neither is produced in detectable amounts from 14:0. Retroconversion of unsaturated 18 carbon fatty acids to the corresponding 14 carbon species showed specificity, in that 18:3n-3 was not converted to 14 carbon fatty acids in detectable amounts. Myristic acid (14:0), 14:1n-9, and 14:2n-6 were all incorporated into Gt alpha. A much less efficient incorporation of 18:1n-9 into Gt alpha was also observed, but no radiolabeling of Gt alpha was observed in retinas incubated with 18:3n-3. Thus, retroconversion by limited beta-oxidation of longer chain unsaturated fatty acids appears to be the most likely metabolic source of the unusual fatty acids found on the N termini of signal transducing proteins in the retina. PMID:8617777

DeMar, J C; Wensel, T G; Anderson, R E

1996-03-01

250

Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fatty acids and total fat in adults and/or the total population using the best available national food consumption data set. Results: A wide variation was observed in the intake of total fat and (clusters) of fatty acids in absolute amounts. The variation in proportion of energy derived from total fat and from clusters of fatty acids was less. Only in Finland, Italy, Norway and Portugal total fat did provide on average less than 35% of energy intake. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) provided on average between 10% and 19% of total energy intake, with the lowest contribution in most Mediterranean countries. TFA intake ranged from 0.5% (Greece, Italy) to 2.1% (Iceland) of energy intake among men and from 0.8% (Greece) to 1.9% among women (Iceland) (1.2-6.7 g/d and 1.7-4.1 g/d, respectively). The TFA intake was lowest in Mediterranean countries (0.5-0.8 en%) but was also below 1% of energy in Finland and Germany. Moderate intakes were seen in Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway and UK and highest intake in Iceland. Trans isomers of C-18:1 were the most TFA in the diet. Monounsaturated fatty acids contributed 9-12% of mean daily energy intake (except for Greece, nearly 18%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids 3-7%. Conclusion: The current intake of TFA in most Western European countries does not appear to be a reason for major concern. In several countries a considerable proportion of energy was derived from SFA. It would therefore be prudent to reduce intake of all cholesterol-raising fatty acids, TFA included. Sponsorship: Commission of the European Communities (AIR 2421); National Funds; European Industries supported the chemical analyses.

Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van

1999-01-01

251

Effect of production system on fatty acid composition of meat from Simmental bulls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study was to asses the effect of the production system on fatty acids (FA composition of intramuscular fat of three muscles (longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, diaphragmae from Simmental bulls. Bulls (n=8 were fattened either with maize silage and concentrates or on pasture. Grazing bulls showed a significant lower percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, but had higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and conjugated linoleic acid. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was significantly lower (P<0.001 and the PUFA/SFA ratio was significantly higher (P<0.001 in muscles of grazing bulls. The lowest SFA percentage was found in semitendinosus (36.5±0.8 followed by longissimus dorsi (44.4±0.8 and diaphragmae (48.2±0.8 muscle. The percentage of PUFA and n-3 PUFA was the highest in semitendinosus muscle, while the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was similar in all three analysed muscles.

Marko Cepon

2010-01-01

252

Effect of dietary replacement of sunflower oil with perilla oil on the absolute fatty acid composition in Nile tilapia (GIFT).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the effect of the dietary replacement of sunflower oil with perilla oil in Nile tilapia (GIFT strain) at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days. There was an increase in total omega 3 fatty acids (n-3) in muscle tissue (from 63.6 to 181.5 mg g(-1)) and a decrease in total concentration of omega 6 fatty acids (n-6) ranging between 255.6 and 196.1 mgg(-1). Amongst the n-3 fatty acids, the concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (20:6n-3) increased by 9.4 and 1.9 times, respectively, after 30 days for the perilla oil-enriched diet. The n-6/n-3, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA), and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (PUFA/MUFA) ratios tended to stabilize after 20 days under the perilla oil-enriched diet. Incorporation of perilla oil as a lipid source in the diet of tilapia for 20 or 30 days resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid composition of the fish muscle tissue, contributing to increase its nutritional value. PMID:24262550

Carbonera, Fabiana; Bonafe, Elton Guntendorfer; Martin, Clayton Antunes; Montanher, Paula Fernandes; Ribeiro, Ricardo Pereira; Figueiredo, Luana Caroline; Almeida, Vitor Cinque; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio

2014-04-01

253

Omega-3 fatty acid biochemistry: perspectives from human nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility that western diets poor in omega-3 and rich in omega-6 fatty acids contribute to the increasing burden of chronic diseases including neurological problems is becoming recognized. Modern, westernized diets provide 80 to 90% of polyunsaturated fatty acids as omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) and are depleted in omega-3 fatty acids, giving a distorted balance of LA to ?-linoleic acid, and to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). LA intakes exceed ?-6 desaturase needs for maximal activity. LA accumulates in blood and tissue lipids with increasing intake, and this exacerbates competition between LA and limited omega-3 fatty acids for metabolism and acylation into tissue lipids. Increasing EPA and DHA intake decreases tissue omega-6 fatty acids while also providing EPA and DHA. However, strategies for EPA and DHA supplementation do not address potential underlying problems of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid imbalance in the food supply. PMID:25373090

Innis, Sheila M

2014-11-01

254

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the pathophysiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome).  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence is put forward to suggest that myalgic encephalomyelitis, also known as chronic fatigue syndrome, may be associated with persistent viral infection. In turn, such infections are likely to impair the ability of the body to biosynthesise n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids by inhibiting the delta-6 desaturation of the precursor essential fatty acids--namely, alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. This would, in turn, impair the proper functioning of cell membranes, including cell signalling, and have an adverse effect on the biosynthesis of eicosanoids from the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. These actions might offer an explanation for some of the symptoms and signs of myalgic encephalomyelitis. A potential therapeutic avenue could be offered by bypassing the inhibition of the enzyme delta-6-desaturase by treatment with virgin cold-pressed non-raffinated evening primrose oil, which would supply gamma-linolenic acid and lipophilic pentacyclic triterpenes, and with eicosapentaenoic acid. The gamma-linolenic acid can readily be converted into dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and thence arachidonic acid, while triterpenes have important free radical scavenging, cyclo-oxygenase and neutrophil elastase inhibitory activities. Furthermore, both arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid are, at relatively low concentrations, directly virucidal. PMID:16935966

Puri, B K

2007-02-01

255

Long?chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the pathophysiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome)  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence is put forward to suggest that myalgic encephalomyelitis, also known as chronic fatigue syndrome, may be associated with persistent viral infection. In turn, such infections are likely to impair the ability of the body to biosynthesise n?3 and n?6 long?chain polyunsaturated fatty acids by inhibiting the ??6 desaturation of the precursor essential fatty acids—namely, ??linolenic acid and linoleic acid. This would, in turn, impair the proper functioning of cell membranes, including cell signalling, and have an adverse effect on the biosynthesis of eicosanoids from the long?chain polyunsaturated fatty acids dihomo???linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. These actions might offer an explanation for some of the symptoms and signs of myalgic encephalomyelitis. A potential therapeutic avenue could be offered by bypassing the inhibition of the enzyme ??6?desaturase by treatment with virgin cold?pressed non?raffinated evening primrose oil, which would supply ??linolenic acid and lipophilic pentacyclic triterpenes, and with eicosapentaenoic acid. The ??linolenic acid can readily be converted into dihomo???linolenic acid and thence arachidonic acid, while triterpenes have important free radical scavenging, cyclo?oxygenase and neutrophil elastase inhibitory activities. Furthermore, both arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid are, at relatively low concentrations, directly virucidal. PMID:16935966

Puri, B K

2007-01-01

256

Uncoupling protein 3 as a mitochondrial fatty acid anion exporter.  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast to UCP1, the primary function of UCP3 is not the dissipation of energy. Rather, several lines of evidence suggest that UCP3 is related to cellular long-chain fatty acid homeostasis. If long-chain fatty acids enter the mitochondrial matrix in their non-esterified form, they cannot be metabolized and may exert deleterious effects. To test the feasibility that UCP3 exports fatty acid anions, we systematically interfered at distinct steps in the fatty acid metabolism pathway, thereby creating conditions in which the entry of (non-esterified) fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix is enhanced. First, reducing the cellular fatty acid binding capacity, known to increase cytosolic concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, up-regulated UCP3 5.3-fold. Second, inhibition of mitochondrial entry of esterified long-chain fatty acids up-regulated UCP3 by 1.9-fold. Third, high-fat diets, to increase mitochondrial supply of non-esterified long-chain fatty acids exceeding oxidative capacity, up-regulated UCP3 twofold. However, feeding a similar amount of medium-chain fatty acids, which can be oxidized inside the mitochondrial matrix and therefore do not need to be exported from the matrix, did not affect UCP3 protein levels. These data are compatible with a physiological function of UCP3 in facilitating outward transport of long-chain fatty acid anions, which cannot be oxidized, from the mitochondrial matrix. PMID:14525936

Schrauwen, Patrick; Hoeks, Joris; Schaart, Gert; Kornips, Esther; Binas, Bert; Van De Vusse, Ger J; Van Bilsen, Marc; Luiken, Joost J F P; Coort, Susan L M; Glatz, Jan F C; Saris, Wim H M; Hesselink, Matthijs K C

2003-12-01

257

Effect of Sunflower Seed on Fatty Acid Profiles in Pork Ham  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of sunflower seeds on the fatty acid composition of lipid fraction from pork ham muscle has been studied. Forty-eight Landrace pigs being twenty-four castrated males and twenty-four females were assigned in groups of twelve to four diets. Muscles are obtained from animals fed on diets with the same ingredients excepted addition of sunflower seed (SS (diet without SS, 5%, 10% and diet with 20% of SS in substitution of corn and soybean meal (control in feeds. The ratio polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA in pork ham for fat in muscle tissue was markedly modified by dietary sunflower seeds administration, which was due to the increase in the C18:2n-6 and the decrease in the C16:0 and C18:0. The content of C18:2n-6 increased from 11.7% in control group to 29.5% in the 20% sunflower seeds group. The content of saturated fatty acids, C16:0 and C18:0 decreased from 23.5% and 11.6% in control group to 16.8% and 9.3% in the 20% sunflower seeds group, respectively. The addition of sunflower seeds produced a significantly (P<0.05 lower proportion of oleic acid (C18:1n-9 from 47.0% in control group to 39.7% in the 20% sunflower seeds group. Incorporation of sunflower seeds of 5%, 10% and 20% in a swine diet markedly decreased the proportion of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and increased polyunsaturated fatty acids in pork ham (P<0.05.

M. Matsushitaa

2005-01-01

258

The biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids  

OpenAIRE

The author focuses on the biological significance of ?-oxidation of fatty acids. Early studies revealed that there is a subsidiary pathway for ?-oxidation of fatty acids when ?-oxidation is blocked. Many studies demonstrated that the ?-oxidation serves to provide succinyl-CoA for the citric acid cycle and for gluconeogenesis under conditions of starvation and diabetes. Acylglucosylceramides which are composed of linoleic acid, long chain ?-hydroxy fatty acids, eicosasphingenine (or trihy...

Miura, Yoshiro

2013-01-01

259

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF POULTRY MEAT FROM FREE RANGE REARING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two provenances of broiler chickens (Ross and Prelux-bro were (50 males and 50 females were subjected to an extensive indoor rearing followed by a free-range rearing for a half of the population during the first 28 days. The age of chickens when slaughtered was 56 days. The fatty acid composition of breasts with skin (white meat and legs with skin (dark meat was analysed. Analyses of the fatty acid composition were performed with an in situ transesterification and a capilary column Gas -Liguid chromatography. Chickens reared outdoors have a more favourable fatty acid composition than those of the extensive indoor rearing: the share of essential fatty acids (the linoleic a., the a-linolenic a. as well as polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids is greater. The Prelux-bro provenance has a favourable ratio of fatty acids in both types of rearing. Breasts have a better fatty acid composition than legs.

Božidar Žlender

2000-06-01

260

Fatty acid utilisation and metabolism in caecal enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed dietary fish or copepod oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined fatty acid metabolism assay was employed to determine fatty acid uptake and relative utilisation in enterocytes isolated from the pyloric caeca of rainbow trout. In addition, the effect of a diet high in long-chain monoenoic fatty alcohols present as wax esters in oil derived from Calanus finmarchicus, compared to a standard fish oil diet, on caecal enterocyte fatty acid metabolism was investigated. The diets were fed for 8 weeks before caecal enterocytes from each dietary group were isolated and incubated with [1-14C]fatty acids: 16:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:1n-9, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3. Uptake was measured over 2 h with relative utilisation of different [1-14C]fatty acids calculated as a percentage of uptake. Differences in uptake were observed, with 18:1n-9 and 18:2n-6 showing the highest rates. Esterification into cellular lipids was highest with 16:0 and C18 fatty acids, accounting for over one-third of total uptake, through predominant incorporation in triacylglycerol (TAG). The overall utilisation of fatty acids in phospholipid synthesis was low, but highest with 16:0, the most prevalent fatty acid recovered in intracellular phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), although exported PC exhibited higher proportions of C20/C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Other than 16:0, incorporation into PC and PI was highest with C20/C22 PUFA and 20:4n-6 respectively. Recovery of labelled 18:1n-9 in exported TAG was 3-fold greater than any other fatty acid which could be due to multiple esterification on the glycerol 'backbone' and/or increased export. Approximately 20-40% of fatty acids taken up were beta-oxidised, and was highest with 20:4n-6. Oxidation of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was also surprisingly high, although 22:6n-3 oxidation was mainly attributed to retroconversion to 20:5n-3. Metabolic modification of fatty acids by elongation-desaturation was generally low at <10% of [1-14C]fatty acid uptake. Dietary copepod oil had generally little effect on fatty acid metabolism in enterocytes, although it stimulated the elongation and desaturation of 16:0 and elongation of 18:1n-9, with radioactivity recovered in longer n-9 monoenes. The monoenoic fatty acid, 20:1n-9, abundant in copepod oil as the homologous alcohol, was poorly utilised with 80% of uptake remaining unesterified in the enterocyte. However, the fatty acid composition of pyloric caeca was not influenced by dietary copepod oil. PMID:16257262

Oxley, Anthony; Tocher, Douglas R; Torstensen, Bente E; Olsen, Rolf E

2005-12-15

261

UVB radiation variably affects n-3 fatty acids but elevated temperature reduces n-3 fatty acids in juvenile Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB 290-320 nm) are inextricably linked to global climate change. These two variables may act separately, additively, or synergistically on specific aspects of fish biochemistry. We raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) parr for 54 days in outdoor tanks held at 12 and 19 °C and, at each temperature, we exposed them to three spectral treatments differing in UV radiation intensity. We quantified individual fatty acid (FA) mass fractions in four tissues (dorsal muscle, dorsal and ventral skin, and ocular tissue) at each temperature × UV combination. FA composition of dorsal muscle and dorsal and ventral skin was not affected by UV exposure. Mass fractions of 16:0, 18:0, and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were greater in dorsal muscle of warm-reared fish whereas 18:3n-3, 20:2, 20:4n-6, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3, n-3, n-6, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and total FA were significantly higher in cold-reared fish. Mass fractions of most of the FA were greater in the dorsal and ventral skin of warm-reared fish. Cold-reared salmon exposed to enhanced UVB had higher ocular tissue mass fractions of 20:2, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, n-3, n-6, and PUFA compared to fish in which UV had been removed. These observations forecast a host of ensuing physiological and ecological responses of juvenile Atlantic Salmon to increasing temperatures and UVB levels in native streams and rivers where they mature before smolting and returning to the sea. PMID:23108959

Arts, Michael T; Palmer, Michelle E; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Jokinen, Ilmari E; Browman, Howard I

2012-12-01

262

Content and composition of fatty acids in marine oil omega-3 supplements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine oil omega-3 supplements are among the most frequently consumed dietary supplements in the United States. However, few studies have evaluated the overall fatty acid composition of these products. We investigated the content and composition of fatty acids in 46 commercially available marine oil omega-3 supplements by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection using the 200 m SLB-IL111 ionic liquid column. Seventy-three fatty acid isomers were quantified, including n-6, n-4, n-3, and n-1 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans isomers of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3), the chromatographic separations of which we report for the first time on the 200 m SLB-IL111 column. Contents of EPA and DHA met their respective label declarations in more than 80% of the products examined. Eleven of the products (24%) carried the Food and Drug Administration's qualified health claim for EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:25003526

Srigley, Cynthia Tyburczy; Rader, Jeanne I

2014-07-23

263

Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissue of beef cattle  

OpenAIRE

The fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle and adipose tissue was investigated in intensively fed beef cattle. Heifers had more intramuscular fat with higher proportion of monounsaturated FA, while bulls had higher proportion of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). The same was found in adipose tissue accompanied by higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA) in bulls. The PUFA/SFA ratio was close to recommendation for human diet only in bulls’ muscle, while n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios were generally higher t...

Ivan Juri?; Krešimir Salajpal; Marija ?iki?; Danijel Karolyi

2010-01-01

264

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH{sub 2}O{sub 2}), acetic acid (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}), propionic acid (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}), butyric acid (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}O{sub 2}), n-hexanoic acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}O{sub 2}), n-caprylic acid (C{sub 8}H{sub 16}O{sub 2}), lauric acid (C{sub 12}H{sub 24}O{sub 2}), myristic acid (C{sub 14}H{sub 28}O{sub 2}), palmitic acid (C{sub 16}H{sub 32}O{sub 2}), oleic acid (C{sub 18}H{sub 34}O{sub 2}) and stearic acid (C{sub 18}H{sub 36}O{sub 2}), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Gerward, L. E-mail: gerward@fysik.dtu.dk

2002-10-01

265

Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids  

CERN Document Server

Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd sup 3 sup + glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations.

Ghelmez-Dumitru, M; Piscureanu, M; Sterian, A

2003-01-01

266

Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adolescents: A case-control study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies of Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have focused on either young children or older adults. The current study compared 11 ADHD adolescents with 12 age-matched controls. The purpose was to examine differences in dietary intake, particularly of essential fatty acids, and determine whether this could explain the typical abnormalities in red blood cell fatty acids observed in previous studies of young children. A secondary purpose was to determine if there were relationships between circulating concentrations of essential fatty acids and specific ADHD behaviours as measured by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-L. Methods Eleven ADHD adolescents and twelve age-matched controls were recruited through newspaper ads, posters and a university website. ADHD diagnosis was confirmed by medical practitioners according to DSM-IV criteria. Blood, dietary intake information as well as behavioural assessments were completed. Results Results showed that ADHD adolescents consumed more energy and fat than controls but had similar anthropometry. ADHD children consumed equivalent amounts of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids to controls, however they had significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 and total omega-3 fatty acids, higher omega-6 fatty acids and a lower ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids than control subjects. In addition, low omega-3 status correlated with higher scores on several Conners' behavioural scales. Conclusion These data suggest that adolescents with ADHD continue to display abnormal essential fatty acid profiles that are often observed in younger children and distinctly different from normal controls of similar age. Further these red blood cell fatty acid differences are not explained by differences in intake. This suggests that there are metabolic differences in fatty acid handling between ADHD adolescents and normal controls. The value of omega-3 supplements to improve fatty acid profiles and possibly behaviours associated with ADHD, need to be examined.

Meckling Kelly

2008-02-01

267

Trans fatty acids and coronary artery disease  

OpenAIRE

Jocelyne R BenatarGreen Lane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: There has been a significant increased consumption of trans fats in the developed world as we have embraced processed and take away foods in our diet in the last 40 years. These fatty acids are not essential for human nutrition and are hazardous to health. They increase the risk of cardiovascular disease more than any other macronutrient including saturated fat, through multiple mechani...

Benatar, Jocelyne R.

2010-01-01

268

Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease  

OpenAIRE

Trans fats, unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration (Figure 1), are formed during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats for use in margarines, commercial cooking, and manufacturing processes. From the perspective of the food industry, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are attractive because of their long shelf life, their stability during deep-frying, and their semisolidity, which ca...

Mozaffarian, D.; Katan, M. B.; Ascherio, A.; Stampfer, M. J.; Willett, W. C.

2006-01-01

269

Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ..mu..mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ..mu..Ci (/sup 14/C)acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest (/sup 14/C)acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total /sup 14/C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1(BSA).

Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

1987-05-01

270

Regional myocardial free fatty acid metabolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental evidence to date has confirmed the potential value of radioactive labelled free fatty acid (FFA) and their analogs for the assessment of regional myocardial FFA metabolism despite a number of current limitations. It is emphasized that with these agents only one specific aspect of myocardial metabolism, that of FFA, can be tested and that with these compounds information on the overall metabolic state cannot always be obtained. (WU)

271

Energetics of syntrophic fatty acid oxidation  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acids are key intermediates in methanogenic degradation of organic matter in sediments as well as in anaerobic reactors. Conversion of butyrate or propionate to acetate, (CO2), and hydrogen is endergonic under standard conditions, and becomes possible only at low hydrogen concentrations (10 4--10-5 bar). A model of energy sharing between fermenting and methanogenic bacteria attributes a maximum amount of about 20 kJ per mol reaction to each partner in this syntrophic cooperation system....

Schink, Bernhard; Friedrich, Michael

1994-01-01

272

The use of radioactive fatty acids for evaluation of fatty acid ?-oxidation in the animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pharmacokinetics and metabolic features of I-radionuclide labelled derivatives of aliphatic carboxylic acid were studied in experiment. The authors show the possibilities of nuclear medicine in deriving information on the activity of fatty acid ?-oxidation in the animal liver and body using compounds with C4=C11 aliphatic chain locus

273

Fatty acids dynamics during embryonic development in genus Uca (Brachyura: Ocypodidae), from the mangroves of Inhaca Island, Mozambique  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in egg volume and fatty acid (FA) content through embryogenesis were evaluated in Uca species from Inhaca island, Mozambique. Egg volume increased 96.1%, 93.3%, 84.2%, 92.9%, 96.3%, respectively, in Uca annulipes, Uca inversa, Uca urvillei, Uca chlorophthalmus and Uca vocans ( p Fatty acid content decreased through embryogenesis, showing its importance as fuel during embryonic development. Major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, 18:1 n-7, 18:2 n-6, 20:5 n-3 and 20:4 n-3. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were used up at a similar rate for U. annulipes and U. inversa contrarily to the other three species. Within the UFA, MUFA were more consumed than PUFA for all species except U. chlorophthalmus. The high values detected for fatty acid trophic markers (essential C 18 and C 20 PUFAs) and odd-numbered fatty acid suggest that Uca species occupy medium trophic level, primarily omnivores and scavengers/detritivores consuming algae common in the intertidal habitats. The fatty acid consumption pattern during embryonic development was essentially similar between species with some variation as expected, as FA content varies within species mainly due to female feeding ecology, nutritional and physiological conditions, differential demands on resource allocation and geographic and seasonal variations in embryonic development.

Torres, Paulo; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Narciso, Luís; Macia, Adriano; Paula, José

2008-11-01

274

Ageing, adipose tissue, fatty acids and inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A common feature of ageing is the alteration in tissue distribution and composition, with a shift in fat away from lower body and subcutaneous depots to visceral and ectopic sites. Redistribution of adipose tissue towards an ectopic site can have dramatic effects on metabolic function. In skeletal muscle, increased ectopic adiposity is linked to insulin resistance through lipid mediators such as ceramide or DAG, inhibiting the insulin receptor signalling pathway. Additionally, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased with elevated visceral adipose distribution. In ageing, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, with the pathway of differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes becoming impaired; this results in dysfunctional adipocytes less able to store fat and subsequent fat redistribution to ectopic sites. Low grade systemic inflammation is commonly observed in ageing, and may drive the adipose tissue dysfunction, as proinflammatory cytokines are capable of inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. Beyond increased ectopic adiposity, the effect of impaired adipose tissue function is an elevation in systemic free fatty acids (FFA), a common feature of many metabolic disorders. Saturated fatty acids can be regarded as the most detrimental of FFA, being capable of inducing insulin resistance and inflammation through lipid mediators such as ceramide, which can increase risk of developing atherosclerosis. Elevated FFA, in particular saturated fatty acids, maybe a driving factor for both the increased insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation in older adults. PMID:25367746

Pararasa, Chathyan; Bailey, Clifford J; Griffiths, Helen R

2015-04-01

275

Nitro-fatty acids: novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Nitro-fatty acids are formed and detected in human plasma, cell membranes, and tissue, modulating metabolic as well as inflammatory signaling pathways. Here we discuss the mechanisms of nitro-fatty acid formation as well as their key chemical and biochemical properties. The electrophilic properties [...] of nitro-fatty acids to activate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways are discussed in detail. A critical issue is the influence of nitroarachidonic acid on prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases, redirecting arachidonic acid metabolism and signaling. We also analyze in vivo data supporting nitro-fatty acids as promising pharmacological tools to prevent inflammatory diseases.

H., Rubbo.

2013-09-06

276

Reduction of hydrogen peroxide stress derived from fatty acid beta-oxidation improves fatty acid utilization in Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids are a promising raw material for substance production because of their highly reduced and anhydrous nature, which can provide higher fermentation yields than sugars. However, they are insoluble in water and are poorly utilized by microbes in industrial fermentation production. We used fatty acids as raw materials for L-lysine fermentation by emulsification and improved the limited fatty acid-utilization ability of Escherichia coli. We obtained a fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain by laboratory evolution and demonstrated that it expressed lower levels of an oxidative-stress marker than wild type. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) concentration of a fatty acid-utilizing wild-type E. coli strain was higher than that of a glucose-utilizing wild-type E. coli strain. The novel mutation rpsA(D210Y) identified in our fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain enabled us to promote cell growth, fatty-acid utilization, and L-lysine production from fatty acid. Introduction of this rpsA(D210Y) mutation into a wild-type strain resulted in lower H?O? concentrations. The overexpression of superoxide dismutase (sodA) increased intracellular H?O? concentrations and inhibited E. coli fatty-acid utilization, whereas overexpression of an oxidative-stress regulator (oxyS) decreased intracellular H?O? concentrations and promoted E. coli fatty acid utilization and L-lysine production. Addition of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger thiourea promoted L-lysine production from fatty acids and decreased intracellular H?O? concentrations. Among the ROS generated by fatty-acid ?-oxidation, H?O? critically affected E. coli growth and L-lysine production. This indicates that the regression of ROS stress promotes fatty acid utilization, which is beneficial for fatty acids used as raw materials in industrial production. PMID:24169950

Doi, Hidetaka; Hoshino, Yasushi; Nakase, Kentaro; Usuda, Yoshihiro

2014-01-01

277

Total cellular fatty acid composition of cultured Pneumocystis carinii.  

OpenAIRE

Oleic acid makes up > 50% of the total fatty acids of Pneumocystis carinii grown on WI-38 cells. Oleic acid levels increased in parallel with increasing trophozoites over 7 days in culture. The fatty acid composition of P. carinii resembles that of certain fungi but differs from those of lung surfactant lipid, host cells, and fetal bovine serum.

Paulsrud, J. R.; Queener, S. F.; Bartlett, M. S.; Smith, J. W.

1993-01-01

278

Eccentric contractions affect muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated if prior eccentric contractions, and thus mechanical strain and muscle damage, exert an effect on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats, and whether a possible effect could be attenuated by dietary supplements. Twenty-three rats were randomised to three groups who received chow with added fish oil (n = 8), vitamin C (n = 8) or no supplement (n = 7). After 3 weeks of feeding, calf muscles on one side were stimulated electrically during anaesthesia causing eccentric contractions. Two days later the white gastrocnemius, a part of the stimulated calf muscle, was excised from both legs. In the muscles stimulated to contract eccentrically, compared to the control muscles, the proportion of arachidonic acid, C20:4,n-6 (17.7 +/- 0.6; 16.4 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) and docosapentanoeic acid, C22:5,n-3 (2.9 +/- 0.1 and 2.7 +/- 0.1% of total fatty acids, respectively) was uniformly higher across groups (P <0.02) with no differences between diet groups.The proportion of long chain polyunsaturates was also significantly higher in the eccentrically contracted (39.9 +/- 0.6% of total fatty acids) compared to the control leg (38.2 +/- 0.6% of total fatty acids; P <0.01). In contrast no differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols stored within the muscle. Thus one severe bout of eccentric contractions modulates the fatty acid composition of the muscle membrane phospholipids when compared to a control leg, and supplemental intake of fish oil or vitamin C did not attenuate this effect.

Helge, JØrn Wulff; Therkildsen, K J

2001-01-01

279

Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and gastric mucosa: is there a relation with gastric ulceration?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Both in vitro and epidemiological studies indicate that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may play a protective role against peptic ulcer in humans. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition is thought to reflect dietary fatty acid intake. The aim of the present study is to investigate adipose and gastric mucosa fatty acid levels in relation to gastric ulceration status. Methods Fifty two adult outpatients undergoing upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy participated in the study. Adipose tissue samples were taken from the abdomen and buttock during the endoscopy procedure and samples from gastric tissue were taken from a subsample of 30 subjects. The presence of Helicobacter pylori was determined using the CLO test. Capillary gas chromatography was used for the extraction of 36 and 42 adipose tissue and gastric mucosa lipids respectively. Results The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs C18:1n-12c, C16:1n-5, C16:4n-1 and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs C16:3n-4, C20:3n-3, C20:4n-6, C21:5n-3 and C18:2n-9c,12t of the gastric mucosa were present in higher proportions in ulcer negative patients. These unsaturated fatty acids, however, each contributed less than 1% on average to total fatty acid content. In addition, higher average levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA C22:6n-3 were detected in abdominal and buttock samples in CLO negative controls, compared to CLO positive controls. Adipose tissue and gastric mucosa n-6 and trans fatty acid levels were positively linearly correlated (r = 0.37 and 0.41 for n-6 and trans fatty acids respectively. Conclusion Certain minor MUFAs and PUFAs of the gastric mucosa appear to be present in higher proportions in ulcer negative patients. Overall, the findings provide only weak evidence of an association between the gastric mucosal fatty acids and the presence of gastric ulceration. The higher average levels of EPA and DHA in abdominal and buttock adipose tissue in CLO negative controls could be an indicator that dietary FAs inhibit Helicobacter pylori growth. Larger studies are necessary to provide evidence of a biologically relevant effect.

Kafatos Anthony

2009-01-01

280

TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS  

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Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

K. Leshukov

2012-03-01

281

Biotechnological production of oil: fatty acid composition of microbial oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty acid profile and the fatty acid composition of microbial lipids obtained from molds revealed that oil from Aspergillus sydowii, Fusarium oxysporum and F. equisetti had a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly oleic acid, and had a similarity to the edible oils, groundnut and palm oil. This study sheds light on the possibilities of exploring the use of these oils as supplement to other edible fats and for other non-edible industrial purposes. PMID:10540990

Azeem, A; Neelagund, Y F; Rathod, V

1999-01-01

282

A vertebrate fatty acid desaturase with ?5 and ?6 activities  

OpenAIRE

?5 and ?6 fatty acid desaturases are critical enzymes in the pathways for the biosynthesis of the polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids. They are encoded by distinct genes in mammals and Caenorhabditis elegans. This paper describes a cDNA isolated from zebrafish (Danio rerio) with high similarity to mammalian ?6 desaturase genes. The 1,590-bp sequence specifies a protein that, in common with other fatty acid des...

Hastings, Nicola; Agaba, Morris; Tocher, Douglas R.; Leaver, Michael J.; Dick, James R.; Sargent, John R.; Teale, Alan J.

2001-01-01

283

Comparative evaluation of essential fatty acid composition of mothers' milk of some urban and suburban regions of West Bengal, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the fatty acid composition of lipid present in breast milk of mothers residing in urban and suburban regions of West Bengal with special emphasis on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which played a crucial role in the growth and development of neonates. Milk samples collected from 135 mothers of middle income group (average monthly income around 'Rs 10,000/-') were analysed by gas liquid chromatography after extraction and transmethylation to determine fatty acid composition. Information about the dietary intake of individual mothers was obtained through food frequency questionnaire. The fractions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids available in milk of urban mothers were 13.59 ± 0.94 and 3.65 ± 0.49, respectively, and in suburban mothers 12.74 ± 0.89 and 4.36 ± 0.39, respectively. The green leafy vegetables, fishes and vegetable oils were the major sources of essential fatty acids in the diet of the experimental groups of Bengali mothers. This study revealed a relationship between the alimentary habits of mothers and the concentration of essential fatty acids in breast milk of Bengali mothers. PMID:22575018

Roy, Susmita; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath

2012-12-01

284

Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (?-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

2013-01-01

285

Regulation of the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The object of the present work has been to assess some aspects of the control of the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In these studies we have used isolated cells; hepatocytes and cardiac myocytes from rat, and lymphocytes and fibroblasts from humans. Attention has focused on the importance of dietary and hormonal factors which can exert an effect shortly after activation of fatty acid, and thus may determine whether the fatty acid will be desaturated, chain-elongated, directly esterified or oxidized. Both the short-term and long-term regulation excerted by dietary fat have been studied in both rat and human. Profound sex-differences exist in fatty acid esterification, oxidation and fatty acid composition in lipoproteins. It is suggested that these differences, at least in part are due to a different content of intracellular fatty acid binding proteins in female and male liver. The peroxisomal retroconversion of C22-unsaturated fatty acids to their C20-homologues is probably involved in the regulation of fatty acid composition in membrane phospholipids, being a sort of "overflow valve". In several somewhat different diseases the patients have no peroxisomes or their peroxisomes are defective. In these peroxisomal diseases the beta-oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids is deficient. In this present work we show that fibroblast from patients with the peroxisomal diseases, Zellweger disease, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy differ in their ability to shorten C22-fatty acids. PMID:3073521

Hagve, T A; Christensen, E; Grønn, M; Christophersen, B O

1988-01-01

286

ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MIANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MILK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work was analysedquality of raw cow’s milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of the favourable effect on cholesterol, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat was 36.76 % of which 32.77 % were monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 4.0 %. A high proportion of milk fat formed monounsaturated oleic acid 30.92 %. The proportion of linoleic acid in milk fat was 3.48 % and 0.31 % linoleic acid.

Juraj ?ubo?

2013-02-01

287

Effects of fatty acids on lysis of Streptococcus faecalis.  

OpenAIRE

Palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids at concentrations of 200 nmol/ml all inhibited autolysin activity 80% or more in whole cells or cell-free extracts. This concentration of the saturated fatty acids palmitic acid and stearic acid had little or no effect on the growth of whole cells or protoplasts. However, the unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid induced lysis in both situations. This lytic effect is apparently not related to any uncoupling activity or inhibition of ...

Carson, D. D.; Daneo-moore, L.

1980-01-01

288

Oleic Acid Prevents Detrimental Effects of Saturated Fatty Acids on Bovine Oocyte  

OpenAIRE

Mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue during metabolic stress will increase the amount of free fatty acids in blood and follicular fluid and, thus, may affect oocyte quality. In this in vitro study, the three predominant fatty acids in follicular fluid (saturated palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated oleic acid) were presented to maturing oocytes to test whether fatty acids can affect lipid storage of the oocyte and developmental competence postfertilization...

Aardema, H.; Vos, P. L. A. M.; Lolicato, F.; Roelen, B. A. J.; Knijn, H. M.; Vaandrager, A. B.; Helms, J. B.; Gadella, B. M.

2011-01-01

289

Incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine or vegetable origin into rat enterocyte phospholipids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We examined time related effects of an intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the fatty acid profiles of rat enterocyte phospholipids. Three diets containing 20 wt% fat with similar levels of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6), approximately 11 wt% of the fatty acids, were prepared. The diets were: Palm oil diet (PD), 0.6 wt% n-3 PUFA; fish oil diet (FD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C20-C22); and linseed oil diet (LD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C18:3n-3). Forty weanling male Wistar rats were fed PD for 34 days and then divided into three groups. Two groups of sixteen rats each were then fed FD or LD, respectively, and eight rats remained on PD as a control group. At 6, 12, 18, 24, 72, 144, and 288 hours following the change of diets rats were killed, the enterocytes were isolated and the fatty acid profiles of the intestinal phospholipids were examined. During the first 12 hours following the change from PD to FD, the content of n-3 PUFA in the intestinal phospholipids increased from less than 1 mol% to approximately 20 mol%,whereas the contents of n-6 PUFA and of monoenes were reduced from 40 mol% to 28 mol% and from 19 mol% to 12 mol%, respectively. The fatty acid profiles were then largely constant during the remaining experimental period. In the LD group, the n-3 PUFA contents rose from less than 1 mol% to 10 mol% during the first 144 hours, and the content of n-6 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acids were reduced from 40 mol% to 36 mol% and from 19 mol% to 14 mol%, respectively. Desaturation and elongation products of C18:3n-3, such as C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3, were observed following intake of LD. All three groups contained approximately 40 mol% of saturated fatty acids in the intestinal phospholipids. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Inc.

Poulsen, Christian; Christensen, Michael SØberg

1997-01-01

290

Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in humans have similar triacylglycerol-lowering effects but divergent effects on serum fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

To compare the effects of highly purified ethyl ester concentrates of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and serum phospholipid fatty acids in humans, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design intervention study. Healthy nonsmoking men (n = 234) aged 36-56 y were randomly assigned to dietary supplementation with 3.8 g EPA/d, 3.6 g DHA/d, or 4.0 g corn oil/d (placebo) for 7 wk. Serum triacylglycerols decreased 26% (P retroconversion of DHA to EPA. In the EPA group, serum phospholipid EPA increased by 297% whereas DHA decreased by 15%, suggesting that EPA is not elongated to DHA in humans. The serum phospholipid ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids increased in both groups, whereas the relative changes in n-6 fatty acids suggested possible alterations in liver desaturation activity in the DHA group. We conclude that both DHA and EPA decrease serum triacylglycerols, but have differential effects on lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism in humans. PMID:9280188

Grimsgaard, S; Bonaa, K H; Hansen, J B; Nordøy, A

1997-09-01

291

Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthesis Type II: More than Just Fatty Acids*  

OpenAIRE

Eukaryotes harbor a highly conserved mitochondrial pathway for fatty acid synthesis (FAS), which is completely independent of the eukaryotic cytosolic FAS apparatus. The activities of the mitochondrial FAS system are catalyzed by soluble enzymes, and the pathway thus resembles its prokaryotic counterparts. Except for octanoic acid, which is the direct precursor for lipoic acid synthesis, other end products and functions of the mitochondrial FAS pathway are still largel...

Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Schonauer, Melissa S.; Autio, Kaija J.; Mittelmeier, Telsa M.; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.; Dieckmann, Carol L.

2009-01-01

292

Polyunsaturated fatty acids production by Schizochytrium sp. isolated from mangrove  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five Schizochytrium strains (N-1, N-2, N-5, N-6, and N-9 were isolated from fallen, senescent leaves of mangrove tree (Kandelia candel in Hong Kong. The fungi were cultivated in glucose yeast extract medium containing 60 g of glucose, 10 g of yeast extract and 1 L of 15‰ artificial seawater, initial pH 6.0, with shaking for 52 hr at 25ºC. Biomass yields of 5 isolates ranged from 10.8 to 13.2 g/l. Isolate N-2 yielding the highest dried cell mass at 13.2 g/l and isolate N-9 grew poorly with 10.8 g/l of biomass. EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3 yield was low in most strains, while DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3 was high on the same medium. The contents of DHA in biomass varied: 174.9, 203.6, 186.1, 171.3 and 157.9 mg/g of dried-biomass for Schizochytrium isolate N-1, N-2, N-5, N-6, and N-9, respectively. Isolate N-2 had the highest proportion of DHA in fatty acid profile with 15:0, 28.7%; 16:0, 21.3%; 18:0, 0.9%; 18:3, 0.2%; 20:4, 0.3%; 20:5, 0.9%; 22:4, 6.7%; 22:6, 36.1%; and others, 9.3%. The salinity range for growth of Schizochytrium isolates was from 0-30‰ with optimum salinity for growth between 20-30‰.

K.W. Fan

2003-09-01

293

Modification of rat platelet fatty acid composition by dietary lipids of animal and vegetable origin.  

Science.gov (United States)

There were no statistically significant differences in final body weight or in food intake among groups of rats fed for 7 wk various fats of animal origin (lard fat and cod liver oil) or vegetable origin (corn, soybean and canola oils); the fats were fed as 10% of the diet (by wt) and were of varied fatty acid composition. Nevertheless, the mean weights of the kidneys from cod liver oil-fed animals were significantly higher than those of all other dietary groups. Platelets of rats from the groups receiving the animal fat contained significantly lower levels of linoleic acid, 18:2(n-6) [a precursor of arachidonic acid, 20:4(n-6)], than did platelets from rats receiving the fat of vegetable origin. Although the soybean-, canola- and cod liver oil-fed animals received substantial quantities of (n-3) fatty acids [alpha-linolenic acid, 18:3(n-3); eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5(n-3); and docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6(n-3)], only the platelets of the latter two groups contained detectable levels of these fatty acids along with their products of elongation/desaturation/retroconversion. Platelets of the cod liver oil-fed group contained significantly less arachidonic acid, a major precursor of eicosanoids, than did those from all other dietary groups. However, platelet arachidonic levels also varied markedly among the other dietary groups. Diet-induced fatty acid changes observed in platelets of various dietary groups may influence platelet responses, including secretion, aggregation and biosynthesis of eicosanoids. PMID:2111377

Piché, L A; Mahadevappa, V G

1990-05-01

294

Chain elongation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by vascular endothelial cells: studies with arachidonate analogues.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study has utilized radiolabeled analogues of arachidonic acid to study the substrate specificity of elongation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated for 2-72 hr in medium supplemented with 0.9-2.6 microM [14C]fatty acid, and cellular glycerolipids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography with radioactivity detection. Elongation of naturally occurring C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred with eicosapentaenoate (20:5(n-3] greater than Mead acid (20:3(n-9] greater than arachidonate (20:4(n-6]. Chain length markedly influenced the extent of elongation of 5,8,11,14-tetraenoates (18:4 greater than 19:4 greater than 20:4 greater than 21:4); effects of initial double bond position were also observed (6,9,12,15-20:4 greater than 4,7,10,13-20:4. Neither 5,8,14- nor 5,11,14-20:3 was elongated to the extent of 5,8,11-20:3. Differences between polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed both in the initial rates and in the maximal percentages of elongation, suggesting that the content of cellular C20 and C22 fatty acids may represent a balance between chain elongation and retroconversion. Umbilical vein endothelial cells do not exhibit significant desaturation of either 22:4(n-6) or 22:5(n-3). By contrast, incubation with 5,8,11,14-[14C]18:4(n-4) resulted in formation of both [14C]20:5(n-4) and [14C]22:5(n-4). The respective time courses for the appearances of [14C]22:5(n-4) and [14C]20:5(n-5) suggests delta 6 desaturation of [14C]22:4(n-4) rather than delta 4 desaturation of [14C]20:4(n-4). PMID:2345494

Garcia, M C; Sprecher, H; Rosenthal, M D

1990-04-01

295

Consumption vs. deposition of essential fatty acids in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae fed semi-purified diets  

OpenAIRE

Semi-purified diets were used to feed gilthead sea bream larvae as first food from mouth opening until day 17. Four diets were formulated on the basis of a previous one used as control (D1). Three experimental diets differed only by the lipids added. One diet contained n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) plus arachidonic acid (D2), one diet n-3 HUFA without arachidonic acid (D3) and one diet without n-3 and n-6 HUFA (D4). The three experimental diets contained 18:3n-6 in order to fo...

Robin, Jean; Peron, Alexandre

2004-01-01

296

The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. Methods GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA, DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (74–77% linoleic acid. Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 8–12 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR-? and retinoid × receptor-? (RXR-? were determined in a set of 18 animals per group. Results DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-? or RXR-? expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression.

Abdi Khosro

2008-11-01

297

Saturated Long Chain Fatty acids Activate Inflammatory Signaling in Astrocytes  

OpenAIRE

This study describes the effects of long-chain fatty acids on inflammatory signaling in cultured astrocytes. Data show that the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid, as well as lauric acid and stearic acid, trigger the release of TNF? and IL-6 from astrocytes. Unsaturated fatty acids were unable to induce cytokine release from cultured astrocytes. Furthermore, the effects of palmitic acid on cytokine release require TLR4 rather than CD36 or TLR2, and do not depend on palmitic acid metabolism t...

Gupta, Sunita; Knight, Alecia G.; Gupta, Shruti; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Bruce-keller, Annadora J.

2012-01-01

298

Fatty Acid Profiles of Western Canadian Bison (Bison bison Meat  

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Full Text Available Western Canadian bison meat is renowned for its natural healthfulness; however, studies on the dietary effects on the fatty acid (FA profile are limited. Herein, we evaluated the FA profiles of retail bison (longissimus dorsi representing grain-fed (Grain, grass-fed (Grass and grass-fed plus oat and pea screening supplement from early (Early-con or late (Late-con season harvested finishing regimes. Bison meat contained less than 30 mg fat/g meat, and was lowest for Early-con bison. Proportions of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA were greatest in Early-con and lowest for Late-con bison. Early-con bison had the greatest proportion of omega-6 (n-6 FA and Late-con bison the lowest, yet as mg/g meat, total n-6 content did not differ. In contrast, Grass and Early-con bison had greater proportions of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3 and total omega-3 (n-3 FA. The n-3 content for Grain, Grass, Early-con and Late-con bison were 38, 90, 69 and 69 mg/100 g meat, respectively. The 3:1 n-6/n-3 ratios of Grass, Early-con and Late-con bison were superior to the 7:1 ratio of Grain bison. Proportions of potentially beneficial biohydrogenation intermediates (BI, including t11-18:1 and c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid, were greater for Early-con and Late-con bison. Proportions of cis-monounsaturated FA were similar for both Grain and Grass bison; however, Late-con was greater than Early-con bison. Cumulatively, Grass, Early-con and Late-con bison were more desirable compared to Grain on account of greater proportions of n-3 FA and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio. Furthermore, seasonal supplementation enhanced the BI proportions with potential beneficial bioactivity in Early-con and Late-con bison.

Tyler D. Turner

2014-07-01

299

Opposite Regulation of CD36 Ubiquitination by Fatty Acids and Insulin: EFFECTS ON FATTY ACID UPTAKE*  

OpenAIRE

FAT/CD36 is a membrane scavenger receptor that facilitates long chain fatty acid uptake by muscle. Acute increases in membrane CD36 and fatty acid uptake have been reported in response to insulin and contraction. In this study we have explored protein ubiquitination as one potential mechanism for the regulation of CD36 level. CD36 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) or HEK 293 cells was found to be polyubiquitinated via a process involving both lysines 48 and 63 of ubiquitin. Using CHO c...

Smith, Jill; Su, Xiong; El-maghrabi, Raafat; Stahl, Philip D.; Abumrad, Nada A.

2008-01-01

300

Cholesterol changes the fatty acid composition of rat enterocytes  

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Full Text Available The effect of free cholesterol on the fatty acid composition and growth of rat fetal enterocytes was investigated in the absence and presence of 10% (v/v fetal calf serum. Cholesterol caused a significant reduction of cell number after 6 and 12 h in culture. The fatty acid composition of enterocytes cultured in the presence of serum was also changed by the presence of 20 µM cholesterol. The fatty acid profile was determined by HPLC using fluorescence detection (325 nm excitation and 395 nm emission. Cholesterol (20 µM increased the proportion (given in percentage of the total fatty acids of the following fatty acids in cultured cells: lauric (by 42%, oleic (by 34%, linoleic (by 44% and gamma-linolenic (by 20% acids and reduced the proportion of palmitic (by 12%, stearic (by 20%, arachidonic (by 21% and docosahexaenoic (by 44% acids. In addition to modifying the content of individual fatty acids, cholesterol increased the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio from 0.48 to 0.67 and the unsaturation index from 67.12 to 75.30. This is the first evidence that cholesterol modifies fatty acid composition possibly via de novo fatty acid synthesis and desaturation.

J. Gazzola

2003-01-01

301

Cholesterol changes the fatty acid composition of rat enterocytes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of free cholesterol on the fatty acid composition and growth of rat fetal enterocytes was investigated in the absence and presence of 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum. Cholesterol caused a significant reduction of cell number after 6 and 12 h in culture. The fatty acid composition of enterocyte [...] s cultured in the presence of serum was also changed by the presence of 20 µM cholesterol. The fatty acid profile was determined by HPLC using fluorescence detection (325 nm excitation and 395 nm emission). Cholesterol (20 µM) increased the proportion (given in percentage of the total fatty acids) of the following fatty acids in cultured cells: lauric (by 42%), oleic (by 34%), linoleic (by 44%) and gamma-linolenic (by 20%) acids and reduced the proportion of palmitic (by 12%), stearic (by 20%), arachidonic (by 21%) and docosahexaenoic (by 44%) acids. In addition to modifying the content of individual fatty acids, cholesterol increased the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio from 0.48 to 0.67 and the unsaturation index from 67.12 to 75.30. This is the first evidence that cholesterol modifies fatty acid composition possibly via de novo fatty acid synthesis and desaturation.

J., Gazzola; E.F., Martins; C.K., Miyasaka; A.C., Palanch; M.G., Vecchia; R., Curi.

2003-01-01

302

Potential Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae  

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Full Text Available Currently, public awareness of healthcare importance increase. Polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential nutrition for us, such arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The need of Polyunsaturated fatty acid generally derived from fish oil, but fish oil has a high risk chemical contamination. Microalgae are single cell microorganism, one of Phaeodactylum tricornutum which have relatively high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (29,8%. Biotechnology market of Polyunsaturated fatty acid is very promising for both foods and feeds, because the availability of abundant raw materials and suitable to develop in the tropics. This literature review discusses about the content of Polyunsaturated fatty acid in microalgae, omega-3, omega-6, Polyunsaturated fatty acid production processes, and applications in public health

Hady Hadiyanto

2011-07-01

303

Evolution of fatty acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L. mesocarp at different stages of ripening  

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Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of medlar (Mespilus germanica L. varied significantly among the ripening stages sampled at 157, 172 and 187 DAFs (days after full bloom. Twenty-one different fatty acids were detected in preclimacteric fruit and 17 when the climacteric began. Principal fatty acids, determined in medlar fruit harvested from October (157 and 172 DAFs to November (187 DAF were mainly palmitic acid (16:0, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, and a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. While the content of saturated fatty acids [palmitic acid (16:0 and stearic acid (18:0] increased, the content of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and linolenic acid (18:3n-3] decreased through ripening, in parallel with pulp darkening. The percentage of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in ripe, hard fruits was 60.0 and 13.5 % of dry wt at 157 DAF which decreased throughout ripening, remaining at 28.7 and 5.6 % of dry wt, respectively, in the fully softened and darkened pulp. A marked decreases in the double bond index, percentage of unsaturation and the ratio of unsaturation/saturation were also seen throughout the medlar ripening. The contribution of unsaturated fatty acid to the total fatty acid content decreased markedly as the medlar fruit became progressively softer and darkened.La composición en ácidos grasos del níspero (Mespilus germanica L. varió significativamente entre los estados de maduración muestreados a los 157, 172 y 187 DAFs (días después de la floración. Veinte y un ácidos grasos diferentes fueron detectados en el fruto preclimatérico y 17 cuando comenzó el climaterio. Los ácidos grasos principales encontrados en nísperos, recolectados desde Octubre (157 y 172 DAFs hasta Noviembre (187 DAF, fueron principalmente ácido palmítico (16:0, ácido linoléico (18:2n-6, y ácido a-linolénico (18:3n-3. En tanto que el contenido en ácidos grasos saturados (ácido palmítico (16:0 y ácido esteárico (18:0 aumentó, el contenido en ácidos grasos esenciales (ácido linoleico (18:2n-6 y ácido linolénico (18:3n-6 disminuyó durante la maduración, en paralelo con el oscurecimiento de la pulpa. El porcentaje de ácido linoleico y de ácido a-linolénico en frutos maduros sin reblandecer fue de 60.0 y 13.5 % del peso seco a 157 DAF, disminuyendo durante la maduración, y permaneciendo a 28.7 y 56 % del peso seco, respectivamente, en la pulpa completamente blanda y oscura. También se observó durante la maduración del níspero una marcada disminución en el número de dobles enlaces, en el tanto por ciento de instauración y en la relación instauración / saturación. La contribución de los ácidos grasos insaturados al contenido de ácidos grasos totales disminuyó marcadamente cuando el níspero comenzó progresivamente a reblandecerse y oscurecerse.

Strnad, M.

2002-09-01

304

Characteristics of lipid and fatty acid of marine gastropod Turbo cornutus: high levels of arachidonic and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine were major components in the foot lipids of the turban shell Turbo cornutus, while triacylglycerol was the major one in its viscera, which demonstrate the high level of lipid in all specimens. The major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the major lipid classes of T. cornutus were 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid; ARA), 20:5n-3 (ecosapentaenoic acid; EPA), 22:4n-6, and 22:5n-3 (docosapentaenoic acid; n-3 DPA), with very low levels of 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid; DHA). The unusual high levels of ARA, 22:4n-6, and n-3 DPA found in both the triacylglycerols and phospholipids of all specimens suggest the influence of dietary algae on its tissue lipids. In the polar lipids, the total PUFA content was consistently high, with n-6 PUFA compensating for the fluctuation in the total n-3 PUFA levels. T. cornutus concentrated high levels of ARA in the visceral lipids from the dietary algae whose lipid content were very low. The viscera may effectively serve as a source of ARA for infant formulas. High levels of ARA, EPA, and n-3 DPA in the phospholipids of T. cornutus were observed. T. cornutus is a healthful marine food containing high levels of n-3 DPA. PMID:24128459

Saito, Hiroaki; Aono, Hideaki

2014-02-15

305

Characterization of the fatty acid synthetase system of Curtobacterium pusillum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Curtobacterium pusillum contains 11-cyclohexylundecanoic acid as a major component of cellular fatty acids. A trace amount of 13-cyclohexyltridecanoic acid is also present. Fatty acids other than omega-cyclohexyl fatty acids present are 13-methyltetradecanoic, 12-methyltetradecanoic, n-pentadecanoic, 14-methylpentadecanoic, 13-methylpentadecanoic, n-hexadecanoic, 15-methylhexadecanoic, 14-methylhexadecanoic, and n-heptadecanoic acids. The fatty acid synthetase system of this bacterium was studied. Various 14C-labeled precursors were added to the growth medium and the incorporation of radioactivity into cellular fatty acids was analyzed. Sodium [14C]acetate and [14C]glucose were incorporated into almost all species of cellular fatty acids, the incorporation into 11-cyclohexylundecanoic acid being predominant. [14C]Isoleucine was incorporated into 12-methyltetradecanoic and 14-methylhexadecanoic acids: [14C]leucine into 13-methyltetradecanoic and 15-methylhexadecanoic acids; and [14C]valine into 14-methylpentadecanoic acid. [14C]-Shikimic acid was incorporated almost exclusively into omega-cyclohexyl fatty acids. The fatty acid synthetase activity of the crude enzyme preparation of C. pusillum was reconstituted on the addition of acyl carrier protein. This synthetase system required NADPH and preferentially utilized cyclohexanecarbonyl-CoA as a primer. The system was also able to use branched- and straight-chain acyl-CoAs with 4 to 6 carbon atoms effectively as primers but was unable to use acetyl-CoA. However, if acetyl acyl carrier protein was used as the priming substrate, the system produced straight-chain fatty acids. The results imply that the specificity of the initial acyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein acyltransferase dictates the structure of fatty acids synthesized and that the enzymes catalyzing the subsequent chain-elongation reactions do not have the same specificity restriction. PMID:3528138

Kawaguchi, A; Uemura, N; Okuda, S

1986-06-01

306

Fatty acid ethanolamides modulate CD36-mRNA through dietary fatty acid manipulation in Syrian Golden hamsters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids convert to fatty acid ethanolamides which associate with lipid signalling, fat oxidation, and energy balance; however, the extent to which dietary fatty acids manipulation can impact such control processes through fatty acid ethanolamides-related mechanisms remains understudied. The objective was to examine the impact of diets containing 6% corn oil, high oleic canola oil, docosahexaenoic acid + high oleic canola oil, and fish oil on plasma and organ levels of fatty acid ethanolamides, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? regulatory targets, and lipid metabolism in Syrian Golden hamsters. After 29 days, in plasma, animals that were fed fish oil showed greater (p palmitoylethanolamide levels compared with other groups, while animals fed canola oil showed higher (p palmitoylethanolamid, which were accompanied by changes in gene expression, lipogenesis, and energy expenditure, suggesting mechanisms through which dietary fatty acids influence disease risk. PMID:23855275

Lin, Lin; Rideout, Todd; Yurkova, Natalia; Yang, Haifeng; Eck, Peter; Jones, Peter J H

2013-08-01

307

Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool

308

Feedlot lamb meat fatty acids profile characterization employing gas chromatography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fat is an important constituent in diet, not only as an energy source, but for its essential fatty acids associated to fats in foods, considering that some polyunsaturated fatty acids like linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic cannot be synthesized by superior animals like humans. Scientific evidence show that the fatty acids ingest can affect the thrombotic tendency, cardiac rhythm, endothelial function systematic inflammation, insulin sensibility and oxidative stress. Samples from 21 ovine crossbreds from Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper and Katahadin (40 kg average weight feed with corn based balanced diets were taken from loin area 18 h after refrigeration. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results in this work showed that the healthy fatty acids levels are higher as compared to saturated fatty acids levels, indicating that this meat can influence consumer’s buying choice decision regarded to their health.

M.I. Cruz-Gonzalez

2014-06-01

309

Substituting fish oil with crude palm oil in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects muscle fatty acid composition and hepatic fatty acid metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supplies of marine fish oils (FO) are limited and continued growth in aquaculture production dictates that substitutes must be found that do not compromise fish health and product quality. In this study the suitability of crude palm oil (PO) as a replacement for FO in diets of Atlantic salmon was investigated. Duplicate groups of Atlantic salmon post-smolts were fed four practical-type diets in which the added lipid was either 100% FO and 0% crude PO (0% PO); 75% FO and 25% PO (25% PO); 50% FO and 50% PO (50% PO); and 100% PO, for 30 wk. There were no effects of diet on growth rate or feed conversion ratio nor were any histopathological lesions found in liver, heart or muscle. Lipid deposition was greatest in fish fed 0% PO and was significantly greater than in fish fed 50% and 100% PO. Fatty acid compositions of muscle total lipid were correlated with dietary PO inclusion such that the concentrations of 16:0, 18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), total saturated fatty acids and total monoenoic fatty acids increased linearly with increasing dietary PO. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5(n-3)] was reduced significantly with increasing levels of dietary PO but the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3)] was significantly reduced only in fish fed 100% PO, compared with the other three treatments. Similar diet-induced changes were seen in liver total lipid fatty acid compositions. Hepatic fatty acid desaturation and elongation activities were approximately 10-fold greater in fish fed 100% PO than in those fed 0% PO. This study suggests that PO can be used successfully as a substitute for FO in the culture of Atlantic salmon in sea water. However, at levels of PO inclusion above 50% of dietary lipid, significant reductions in muscle 20:5(n-3), 22:6(n-3) and the (n-3):(n-6) PUFA ratio occur, resulting in reduced availability of these essential (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids to the consumer. PMID:11823582

Bell, J Gordon; Henderson, R James; Tocher, Douglas R; McGhee, Fiona; Dick, James R; Porter, Allan; Smullen, Richard P; Sargent, John R

2002-02-01

310

Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of fatty acids against phytopathogenic fungi. Two pot experiments were conducted by mixing palmitic and oleic acids in the soil in which poor plant growth was observed. In addition, the antifungal activities of nine fatty acids (butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid) against four phytopathogenic fungi: Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, were assessed by measuring mycelial growth and spore germination via Petri dish assay. The results of the pot experiments showed that the mixture of palmitic and oleic acids enhanced the growth of the seedlings of continuous-tomato and continuous-cucumber. Except for oleic acid, in the Petri dish assay, the fatty acids tested were observed to inhibit the mycelial growth of one or more tested fungi. In addition to the suppression of mycelial growth, butyric acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, and palmitic acid showed an inhibitory effect against spore germination and the extent of inhibition varied with both the type of fatty acids, and the fungi. In particular, capric acid displayed strong inhibitory effect against C. lagenarium on the mycelial growth and spore germination. The saturated fatty acids, i.e. palmitic acids, showed stronger antifungal activity than the unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. oleic acid. It suggests that fatty acids might be applicable to exploring for alternative approaches to integrated control of phytopathogens. PMID:18443921

Liu, Siyun; Ruan, Weibin; Li, Jing; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jingan; Gao, Yubao; Wang, Jingguo

2008-08-01

311

An alternative n-3 fatty acid elongation pathway utilising 18:3n-3 in barramundi (Lates calcarifer).  

Science.gov (United States)

Desaturase and elongase are two key enzyme categories in the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) pathway that convert dietary ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). The ?6 desaturase is considered as rate limiting in the conversion. In a previous study in barramundi we demonstrated that the desaturase had a low ?6 activity but noted that the enzyme also possessed ?8 ability that utilised 20-carbon fatty acids. This observation suggests that an alternative pathway may exist in the barramundi via elongases to form 20-carbon metabolites from 18:3n-3 to 20:3n-3 and then ?6/8 desaturase to 20:4n-3. Cloning of the barramundi elongation of very long-chain fatty acid gene (ELOVL) and heterologous expression of the corresponding elongase were performed to examine activity with regard to time course, substrate concentration and substrate preference. Results revealed that the barramundi elongase showed a broad range of substrate specificity including 18-carbon PUFA (including 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6), 20- and 22-carbon LCPUFA, with greater activity towards omega-3 (n-3) than n-6 fatty acids. The findings from this study provide molecular evidence for an alternative n-3 fatty acid elongation pathway utilising 18:3n-3 in barramundi. PMID:22640739

Tu, Wei-Chun; Mühlhäusler, Beverly S; James, Michael J; Stone, David A J; Gibson, Robert A

2012-06-22

312

Fatty acids and oxidative stability of meat from lambs fed carob-containing diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male Comisana lambs were individually stalled and, for 56days, were fed concentrates with 60% barley (n=8 lambs), or concentrates in which barley was partially replaced by 24% or 35% carob pulp (n=9 lambs in each group). The intramuscular fatty acids were analyzed and the color stability, lipid and protein oxidation were measured in fresh meat overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film at 0, 3 or 6days of storage at 4°C in the dark. Carob pulp increased the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle, including the rumenic acid (Pfatty acids (P<0.01) and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (P=0.01). The meat did not undergo extensive oxidative deterioration and the diet did not affect the oxidative stability parameters. Therefore, carob in lamb diet could increase PUFA in muscle without compromising meat oxidative stability. PMID:25842304

Gravador, Rufielyn S; Luciano, Giuseppe; Jongberg, Sisse; Bognanno, Matteo; Scerra, Manuel; Andersen, Mogens L; Lund, Marianne N; Priolo, Alessandro

2015-09-01

313

Adipose tissue and fatty acid metabolism in humans.  

OpenAIRE

It is now clear that there are major regional differences in adipose tissue function as regards the uptake and release of fatty acids. Visceral adiposity is a good predictor of abnormal regulation of adipose tissue fuel export, but it is not the source of excess systemic FFA in humans. Regional differences in adipose tissue uptake of fatty acids may be an important determinant of body fat distribution, which in turn appears to predict abnormalities of fatty acid metabolism.

Jensen, Michael D.

2002-01-01

314

Effect of fatty acids on action of polyene antibiotics.  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acids cause a decrease in the absorption spectra of the antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics nystatin, filipin, candicidin, and amphotericin B. For nystatin, filipin, and candicidin, this decrease in absorption could be correlated with the activity of the fatty acids in protecting the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against the action of these antibiotics. With amphotericin B a correlation was observed between the decrease in absorption caused by certain derivatives of fatty acids an...

Iannitelli, R. C.; Ikawa, M.

1980-01-01

315

TRPA1 Is a Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Sensor in Mammals  

OpenAIRE

Fatty acids can act as important signaling molecules regulating diverse physiological processes. Our understanding, however, of fatty acid signaling mechanisms and receptor targets remains incomplete. Here we show that Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a cation channel expressed in sensory neurons and gut tissues, functions as a sensor of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in vitro and in vivo. PUFAs, containing at least 18 carbon atoms and three unsaturated bonds, activate TRP...

Motter, Arianne L.; Ahern, Gerard P.

2012-01-01

316

Long chain fatty acids and dietary fats in fetal nutrition  

OpenAIRE

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for a healthy diet. The different kinds consumed by the mother during gestation and lactation may influence pregnancy, fetal and also neonatal outcome. The amount of fatty acids transferred from mother to fetus depends not only on maternal metabolism but also on placental function, i.e. by the uptake, metabolism and then transfer of fatty acids to the fetus. The third trimester of gestation is characterized by an increase of long...

Cetin, Irene; Alvino, Gioia; Cardellicchio, Manuela

2009-01-01

317

Fatty acid binding receptors in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology  

OpenAIRE

Free fatty acids are essential dietary components and recognized as important molecules in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In the last decade, the molecular pathways for free fatty acid sensing in the gastrointestinal tract have been further elucidated by molecular identification and functional characterization of fatty acid binding receptors. These sensing molecules belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. In the intestine, four important receptors have been described so...

Elke Kaemmerer, Patrick Plum

2010-01-01

318

Fatty acid methyl esters production: chemical process variables  

OpenAIRE

The advantages of fatty acid methyl esters as basic oleochemicals over fatty acids, the seventies world energy crisis and the use of those oleochemicals as fuels, have increased research interest on fats and oils trans-esterification. In this document, a review about basic aspects, uses, process variables and problems associated to the production process of fatty acid methyl esters is presented. A global view of recent researches, most of them focused in finding a new catalyst with same activ...

Paulo César Narváez Rincón; Francisco José Sánchez Castellanos; Jesús Alfonso Torres; Luisa Fernanda Ponce de León

2010-01-01

319

Dietary Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Appear Not to Provide Cardioprotection  

OpenAIRE

Dietary interventions have been consistently proposed as a part of a comprehensive strategy to lower the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD), in the process providing long-term cardioprotection. Replacement of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been reported to be inversely associated with risk of CHD. The observed lower incidence of CHD among populations consuming a Medite...

Degirolamo, Chiara; Rudel, Lawrence L.

2010-01-01

320

Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetable oils such as soybean oil and corn oil are cheap raw materials. Various value-added oxygenated fatty acids have been produced from unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acid by biotransformation. Lipase from the non-pathogenic yeast Candida cylindracea is another important va...

321

The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat and blood plasma in pruritic dogs and dogs without skin problems.  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in subcutaneous fat and the relative amounts of PUFAs in plasma in two groups of dogs. Group 1 included dogs with a good skin and coat condition. Group 2 was comprised of dogs with pruritus and compatible clinical signs of atopy. The fatty acid composition of the total lipid fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography. In subcutaneous fat, the concentration of adrenic acid (22:4n-6) was lower...

Taugbøl, O.; Baddaky-taugbøl, B.; Saarem, K.

1998-01-01

322

Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures, a suitable system for polyunsaturated fatty acid studies and production  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic and health promoting role of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs from fish, i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 are well known. These same benefits may however be shared by some of their precursors, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3. In order to obtain alternative sources for the large-scale production of PUFAs, new searches are being conducted focusing on higher plants oils which can contain these n-3 and n-6 C18 precursors, i.e. SDA and GLA (18:3n-6, ?-linolenic acid. Results The establishment of the novel Echium acanthocarpum hairy root cultures represents a powerful tool in order to research the accumulation and metabolism of fatty acids (FAs in a plant particularly rich in GLA and SDA. Furthermore, this study constitutes the first example of a Boraginaceae species hairy root induction and establishment for FA studies and production. The dominant PUFAs, 18:2n-6 (LA, linoleic acid and 18:3n-6 (GLA, accounted for about 50% of total FAs obtained, while the n-3 PUFAs, 18:3n-3 (ALA, ?-linolenic acid and 18:4n-3 (SDA, represented approximately 5% of the total. Production of FAs did not parallel hairy root growth, and the optimal productivity was always associated with the highest biomass density during the culture period. Assuming a compromise between FA production and hairy root biomass, it was determined that sampling times 4 and 5 gave the most useful FA yields. Total lipid amounts were in general comparable between the different hairy root lines (29.75 and 60.95 mg/g DW, with the major lipid classes being triacylglycerols. The FAs were chiefly stored in the hairy roots with very minute amounts being released into the liquid nutrient medium. Conclusions The novel results presented here show the utility and high potential of E. acanthocarpum hairy roots. They are capable of biosynthesizing and accumulating a large range of polyunsaturated FAs, including the target GLA and SDA fatty acids in appreciable quantities.

Ravelo Ángel G

2011-04-01

323

Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae  

OpenAIRE

High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this res...

TRI PRARTONO; MUJIZAT KAWAROE; DAHLIA WULAN SARI; DINA AUGUSTINE

2010-01-01

324

Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking  

OpenAIRE

We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0900 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass?1·min?1) clamp (0800–1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-13C]...

Kanaley, Jill A.; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T.; Guo, Zengkui; Jensen, Michael D.

2013-01-01

325

Fatty acid and stable carbon isotope characterization of Camelina sativa oil: implications for authentication.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of authenticity characterization is an increasing and pressing requirement for all foods. Vegetable oil is one of the most studied foods because of its nutritional and medicinal properties in a correct diet. In this study, a total of 53 Camelina sativa samples, from all known growing areas, were chemically and isotopically characterized. The fatty acid content of camelina oil was determined by gas chromatography (GC), and the ratios of stable carbon isotopes ((13)C/(12)C) of individual fatty acids and seed/bulk oil were determined by gas chromatography-combustion-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) and elemental analysis-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). A total of 17 different fatty acids were detected by GC, with omega3 R-linolenic acid (C(18:3n3)) being the most abundant (29.7-40.0 wt %). Oleic acid (C(18:1n9)), linoleic acid (C(18:2n6)) and eicosenoic acid (C(20:1n9)) all belong to the second group of major fatty acids. The stable carbon isotopic values (delta(13)C) fell into a range typical for C(3) plants. The use of delta(13)C(18:2n6) vs delta(13)C(18:3n3) correlation could show cases where impurity or adulteration is suspected, whereas principal component analysis clearly separates oil samples from different continents. Preliminary results on the camelina oil authentication procedure provide a basis for the investigation of geographical origin and the further distinction between camelina and camelina refined or other, less expensive oils. PMID:19123821

Hrastar, Robert; Petrisic, Marinka G; Ogrinc, Nives; Kosir, Iztok Joze

2009-01-28

326

A review of nutritional effects on fat composition of animal products with special emphasis on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty acid composition of animal products (eggs, milk and meat) is the reflect of both the tissue fatty acid biosynthesis and the fatty acid composition of ingested lipids. This relationship is stronger in monogastrics (pigs, poultry and rabbits) than in ruminants, where dietary fatty acids are hydrogenated in the rumen. There is an increasing recognition of the health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), because these fatty acids are essential for humans. In addition, the ratio n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the human diet is important. This ratio by far exceeds the recommended value of 5. Therefore, inclusion of fish meals, or n-3 PUFA rich oils, or linseed in animal diets is a valid means of meeting consumer demand for animal products that are nutritionally beneficial. The studies that are undertaken on animals mainly use diets supplemented with linseed, as a source of n-3 fatty acids. The use of linseed diets generally leads to an increased n-3 fatty acid content in animal products (egg, meat, milk) in ruminants and monogastrics. Recent studies have also demonstrated that neither the processing nor the cooking affects the PUFA content of pork meat or meat products. The ability of unsaturated fatty acids, especially those with more than two double bonds, to rapidly oxidise, is important in regulating the shelf life of animal products (rancidity and colour deterioration); however, a good way to avoid such problems is to use antioxidant products (such as vitamin E) in the diet. Some studies also show that it is not necessary to feed animals with linseed-supplemented diets for a long time to have the highest increase in PUFA content of the products. So, short-term diet manipulation can be a practical reality for industry. As the market for n-3 PUFA enriched products is today limited in most countries, other studies must be undertaken to develop this kind of production. PMID:20188790

Kouba, Maryline; Mourot, Jacques

2011-01-01

327

Acylation of cellular proteins with endogenously synthesized fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of cellular proteins contain covalently bound fatty acids. Previous studies have identified myristic acid and palmitic acid covalently linked to protein, the former usually attached to proteins by an amide linkage and the latter by ester or thio ester linkages. While in a few instances specific proteins have been isolated from cells and their fatty acid composition has been determined, the most frequent approach to the identification of protein-linked fatty acids is to biosynthetically label proteins with fatty acids added to intact cells. This procedure introduces possible bias in that only a selected fraction of proteins may be labeled, and it is not known whether the radioactive fatty acid linked to the protein is identical with that which is attached to the protein when the fatty acid is derived from endogenous sources. We have examined the distribution of protein-bound fatty acid following labeling with [3H]acetate, a general precursor of all fatty acids, using BC3H1 cells (a mouse muscle cell line) and A431 cells (a human epidermoid carcinoma). Myristate, palmitate, and stearate account for essentially all of the fatty acids linked to protein following labeling with [3H]acetate, but at least 30% of the protein-bound palmitate in these cells was present in amide linkage. In BC3H1 cells, exogenous palmitate becomes covalently bound to protein such that less than 10% of the fatty acid is present in amide linkage. These dataid is present in amide linkage. These data are compatible with multiple protein acylating activities specific for acceptor protein fatty acid chain length and linkage

328

Dietary fatty acids. Effects on the risk of cardiovascular diseases  

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Full Text Available The world publications data about the impact of consumption and the fatty acids ratio in consumed fats on the development of cardiovascular diseases and acute complications due to atherothrombosis is presented. The role of some fat characteristics is discussed: hydrogenous saturation with different number of double bonds, various lengths of hydrocarbonic chains and molecule geometry, etc. Fat structure is more crucial for cardiovascular risk than total amount of consumed saturated fat. Favorable fat structure should include physiologic amounts of saturated fatty acids (8-10%, polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 long-chain, a significant amount (up to 20% of calories of monounsaturated fatty acids, a very small amount of trans fatty acid form. Such a fatty product is useful in antiatherogenic diets.

N.V. Perova

2011-01-01

329

Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS, have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

Gao Qianqian

2012-03-01

330

The fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of Egyptian goose meat as affected by season, gender, and portion.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the current absence of scientific information on the nutritive aspects it is essential to investigate the fatty acid, mineral, and amino acid composition of Egyptian geese as well as the factors of influence. The forage vs. grain based diets of Egyptian geese during certain periods of the yr leads to variation in the content of the key fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, and ?-linolenic acid. The differences in these fatty acids results in variation between the n-6/n-3 ratios of the seasons; the portions from winter (July) are within the recommendations (ratio acids. No substantial differences were found in the mineral composition of the breast portion on account of season and gender; however there were some variation in certain amino acids such as lysine and arginine due to season/diet. This research provides essential information that should be considered not only regarding the everyday consumption of Egyptian goose meat but the potential utilization and ultimate consistency of this meat product. PMID:25810407

Geldenhuys, Greta; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Muller, Nina

2015-05-01

331

Total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed catla catla fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This experimental work was aimed to study the moisture content, total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed freshwater major carp Catla catla of three different weight categories designated as W{sub 1} (601-900g), W{sub 2} (901- 1200)g and W{sub 3} (1201-1500g). Seven fish specimens of each of the three weight categories of wild and farmed Catla catla were obtained from Trimu Head, Jhang and Fish Hatchery, Satiana Road and Faisalabad, respectively. The fish were dissected to remove the liver and after weighing, liver samples were prepared and subjected to chemical analysis. Wild Catla catla liver had a significantly (p <0.05) higher moisture content as compared to the farmed species. Farmed Catla catla deposited significantly (p < 0.05) higher lipid contents in liver. Proportions of saturated fatty acids varied irregularly in the lipids of the liver from both wild and farmed Catla catla. Saturated fatty acids C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:0 and C22:0 were identified with considerable percentages in the liver of Catla catla from both habitats and monounsaturated fatty acid C18:1 was found in considerable amounts in the liver of both major carp. Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as C18:3 (n-6) and C20: 2 (n-6) were detected in the liver of the wild fish of W{sub 2} and W{sub 3} and was similar in the W{sub 3} weight category of the farmed species. (Author) 22 refs.

Hassan, M.; Shaihid chatha, S. A.; Tahira, I.; Hussain, B.

2010-07-01

332

Effects of different cooking methods on fatty acid profiles in four freshwater fishes from the Laurentian Great Lakes region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish is often promoted as a healthy part of the human diet due its high content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Previous studies have shown that cooked fish can have different fatty acid profiles than raw fillets, depending on the cooking method and fish species. In this study, the fatty acid content of broiled, baked or fried skinless, boneless fillets of four fish species from the tributaries of the Great Lakes, or connecting rivers, was compared to fatty acid profiles in raw sections from the same fillet. Cooking treatments had little effect on n-3 fatty acid content; however, fried treatments generally had higher n-6 and MUFA content, which is likely a result of the cooking oil used (canola). Broiling or baking is generally the most healthy option presented in this study, as these methods result in lower levels of less-favourable fatty acids; however, the choice of cooking oil may also influence the overall fatty acid content in cooked fish. PMID:24996368

Neff, Margaret R; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Braekevelt, Eric; Arts, Michael T

2014-12-01

333

Thiamine and fatty acid content of walleye tissue from three southern U.S. reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined the thiamine concentration in egg, muscle, and liver tissues of walleyes Sander vitreus and the fatty acid content of walleye eggs from three southern U.S. reservoirs. In two Tennessee reservoirs (Dale Hollow and Center Hill), in which there were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the forage base, natural recruitment of walleyes was not occurring; by contrast in Lake James Reservoir, North Carolina, where there were no alewives, the walleye population was sustained via natural recruitment. Female walleye tissues were collected and assayed for thiamine (vitamin B1) and fatty acid content. Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be the predominant form of thiamine in walleye eggs. In 2000, mean total egg thiamine concentrations were similar among Center Hill, Dale Hollow, and Lake James reservoirs (2.13, 3.14, and 2.77 nmol thiamine/g, respectively). Egg thiamine concentration increased as maternal muscle (r 2 = 0.73) and liver (r2 = 0.68) thiamine concentration increased. Walleye egg thiamine does not appear to be connected to poor natural reproduction in Tennessee walleyes. Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, which are found in all three reservoirs, had higher thiaminase activity than alewives. Six fatty acids differed among the walleye eggs for the three reservoirs. Two were physiologically important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6[n-3]), which are important eicosanoid precursors involved in the regulation of biological functions, such as immune response and reproduction. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Honeyfield, D.C.; Vandergoot, C.S.; Bettoli, P.W.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Zajicek, J.L.

2007-01-01

334

Thiamine and fatty acid content of walleye tissue from three southern U.S. reservoirs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined the thiamine concentration in egg, muscle, and liver tissues of walleyes Sander vitreus and the fatty acid content of walleye eggs from three southern U.S. reservoirs. In two Tennessee reservoirs (Dale Hollow and Center Hill), in which there were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the forage base, natural recruitment of walleyes was not occurring; by contrast in Lake James Reservoir, North Carolina, where there were no alewives, the walleye population was sustained via natural recruitment. Female walleye tissues were collected and assayed for thiamine (vitamin B1) and fatty acid content. Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be the predominant form of thiamine in walleye eggs. In 2000, mean total egg thiamine concentrations were similar among Center Hill, Dale Hollow, and Lake James reservoirs (2.13, 3.14, and 2.77 nmol thiamine/g, respectively). Egg thiamine concentration increased as maternal muscle (r2 = 0.73) and liver (r2 = 0.68) thiamine concentration increased. Walleye egg thiamine does not appear to be connected to poor natural reproduction in Tennessee walleyes. Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, which are found in all three reservoirs, had higher thiaminase activity than alewives. Six fatty acids differed among the walleye eggs for the three reservoirs. Two were physiologically important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6[n-3]), which are important eicosanoid precursors involved in the regulation of biological functions, such as immune response and reproduction. PMID:18201048

Honeyfield, Dale C; Vandergoot, Christopher S; Bettoli, Phillip W; Hinterkopf, Joy P; Zajicek, James L

2007-06-01

335

Polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce Fatty Acid Synthase and Hydroxy-Methyl-Glutaryl CoA-Reductase gene expression and promote apoptosis in HepG2 cell line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are the two major classes of PUFAs encountered in the diet, and both classes of fatty acids are required for normal human health. Moreover, PUFAs have effects on diverse pathological processes impacting chronic disease, such as cardiovascular and immune disease, neurological disease, and cancer. Aim To investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and arachidonic acid (ARA on the proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma cell line HepG2 after exposure to increasing concentrations of EPA or ARA for 48 h. Moreover, in the same cells the gene expression of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS and 3-Hydroxy-3-Methyl-Glutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (HMG-CoAR was also investigated. Method Cell growth and apoptosis were assayed by MTT and ELISA test, respectively after cell exposure to increasing concentrations of EPA and ARA. Reverse-transcription and real-time PCR was used to detect FAS and HMG-CoAR mRNA levels in treated cells. Results Our findings show that EPA inhibits HepG2 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, starting from 25 ?M (P Conclusion Our results demonstrate that EPA and ARA inhibit HepG2 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. The down-regulation of FAS and HMG-CoAR gene expression by EPA and ARA might be one of the mechanisms for the anti-proliferative properties of PUFAs in an in vitro model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Miccolis Angelica

2011-01-01

336

Fatty acid biosynthesis VII. Substrate control of chain-length of products synthesised by rat liver fatty acid synthetase  

OpenAIRE

- 1. Gas-liquid and paper chromatography have been used to determine the chain-lengths of fatty acids synthesised by purified rat liver fatty acid synthetase from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA, [1,3-14C2]malonyl-CoA and from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA plus partially purified rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase. - 2. A wide range (C4:0–C18:0) of fatty acids was synthesised and the proportions were modified by substrate concentrations in the same manner as for purified rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase. - 3...

Hansen, Heinz Johs Max; Carey, E. M.; Dils, R.

2011-01-01

337

Influence of specific fatty acids on the asymmetric distribution of saturated fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) triacylglycerols.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1,3-random-2-random theory was proposed several years ago to explain the fatty acid distribution in vegetable oil triacylglycerols. However, by demonstrating an asymmetry between positions sn-1 and sn-3 in olive oil, cocoa butter, sunflower oil, etc., a number of studies have shown that this theory does not hold true for some oils and fatty acids. Accordingly, the distribution of fatty acids in sunflower triacylglycerols has been studied, calculating the alpha coefficient of asymmetry in several combinations of standard linoleic, high-oleic, and high-stearic sunflower oils. The results obtained from the oils of these lines and from single seed oil samples indicate that the asymmetry for saturated fatty acids is greater in high-oleic than in standard linoleic backgrounds. Hence, the distribution of the fatty acids within the triacylglycerol molecule appears to depend not only on the fatty acid under study but also on the other fatty acids in the oil. Thus, it is demonstrated for the first time that certain fatty acids can influence the distribution of other fatty acids within triacylglycerols. PMID:19166295

Martínez-Force, Enrique; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Garcés, Rafael

2009-02-25

338

Coordinated regulation and inositol-mediated and fatty acid-mediated repression of fatty acid synthase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

OpenAIRE

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, FAS1, FAS2, and FAS3 are the genes involved in saturated fatty acid biosynthesis. The enzymatic activities of both fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase are reduced 2- to 3-fold when yeast cells are grown in the presence of exogenous fatty acids. The mRNA levels of the FAS genes are correspondingly lower under repressive conditions. Expression of the FAS-lacZ reporter gene is also regulated by fatty acids. When a FAS2 multicopy plasmid is present in...

Chirala, S. S.

1992-01-01

339

Fatty acids, lipid emulsions and the immune and inflammatory systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids modulate the responses of cells of the immune system. Inflammatory and immune responses in patients receiving parenteral nutrition may be modulated by the type of lipid used, which may influence clinical outcomes. Lipid emulsions based solely upon soybean oil may not be optimal because of the role of n-6 fatty acids in promoting inflammation and suppressing immune responses. Lipid emulsions with soybean oil in various combinations with medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), olive oil and fish oil are available. Some early studies have suggested better immune function with MCT-soybean oil than with soybean oil alone, but the differences were small, and more recent studies suggested little difference between soybean oil, MCT-soybean oil and soybean oil-olive oil regarding markers of inflammation and immunity. The inclusion of fish oil in combination with one or more other oils (i.e. soybean, MCT, olive) in the parenteral regimen administered to patients following major gastrointestinal surgery reduces the post-surgery rise in inflammatory markers and the fall in cell-mediated immune markers. These changes are associated with improvements in clinical outcomes. Whether similar effects of intravenous fish oil occur in critically ill patients is not clear at present because of the small number, small size and variable findings of existing studies. The lipid component of parenteral nutrition may modify inflammatory and immune processes in ways that influence patient outcome. The inclusion of fish oil in parenteral nutrition for post-surgical patients is associated with benefits. The situation regarding critically ill patients is not clear. PMID:25471799

Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C

2015-01-01

340

Effects of unsaturated fatty acids on torpor frequency and diet selection in Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to play a beneficial role in hibernating mammals. High amounts of dietary PUFA led to an earlier hibernation onset, deeper and longer hibernation bouts and a higher proportion of hibernating animals in several species. In contrast, the relevance of dietary PUFA for daily heterotherms exhibiting only brief and shallow torpor bouts is less well studied. Therefore, diets differing in PUFA composition were used to examine the effects on the frequency of spontaneous daily torpor in Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). In contrast to earlier studies, we were interested in whether the ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA affects torpor expression, and in comparison with a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Although we found a positive effect on torpor frequency in hamsters fed a diet rich in n-6 PUFA compared with the groups fed diets either rich in n-3 PUFA or MUFA, the latter two groups did not show unusually low torpor frequencies. The results of the additional diet choice experiment indicated that hamsters in short photoperiod select food with only a slight excess of n-6 PUFA compared with n-3 PUFA (ratio of 1 to 1.5). However, there was no significant difference in torpor frequency between the diet choice group and hamsters fed on standard chow with a sevenfold excess of n-6 PUFA. In summary, the present data strongly indicate that the dietary composition of unsaturated fatty acids plays a minor role in the occurrence of spontaneous daily torpor in Djungarian hamsters. PMID:25359932

Diedrich, Victoria; Steinlechner, Stephan; Scherbarth, Frank

2014-12-15

341

Fatty Acid Profiles and Cholesterol Composition of Venison from Farmed Deer  

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Full Text Available It is important to evaluate venison characteristics as a new high quality red meat in the meat marketing system. This information is vital to ensure their commercial success and dietary benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the venison quality from farmed deer according to cuts or muscles based on fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content and to do comparative study on venison quality between species of farmed deer (rusa, sambar, fallow and imported red deer and feeding regimens, i.e., grass-fed vs concentrate-fed venison. The samples of venison were derived from javan rusa (Cervus timorensis russa, moluccan rusa (Cervus timorensis moluccensis, sambar (Cervus unicolor brookei, fallow (Dama dama and imported red deer (Cervus elaphus. Moluccan rusa and red deer were grass-fed deer. Javan rusa, sambar and fallow deer were concentrate-fed deer. Cholesterol content in Longissimus Dorsi (LD muscles of sambar, fallow and rusa deer were 75.36, 76.61 and 77.58 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Cholesterol content in Biceps Femoris (BF muscles of moluccan rusa, sambar, fallow and red deer were 56.61, 59.26, 86.37 and 98.44 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Concentrate-fed deer LD and Psoas Major (PM muscles show higher C18:2 (n-6 than grass-fed deer. Grass-fed rusa deer shows the highest C18:3 (n- 3 percentages in PM muscle. Grass-fed rusa and red deer gave an ideal n-6:n-3 ratio of less than 5. Species of deer did not influence n-6:n-3 ratio and fatty acid composition in venison. Feeding regimens (grass-fed vs concentrate-fed significantly (p< 0.05 influence n-6:n-3 ratio, fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content in the venison of farmed deer in this study.

N.A. Norfarizan-Hanoon

2007-01-01

342

Males and females gonad fatty acids of the sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula (Echinodermata)  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to analyze male and female gonad fatty acids of two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, from the south coast of Spain. Additionally, we investigated possible differences between two locations. The ovaries of both species showed higher percentages of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and 18:4n-3 than testes and lower levels of 18:0, 22:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-3. In P. lividus but not in A. lixula, the level of 20:5n-3 was higher in testes than in ovaries. These differences between sexes probably indicate different requirements of males and females during gametogenesis although the presence of a large number of gametes in the mature gonad may also have influences on fatty acid composition. Significant differences in gonad fatty acid profiles where also found when individuals of P. lividus collected at a location of the Mediterranean region were compared with specimens collected at the Atlantic coast. The most remarkable changes were the lower levels of 14:0, 18:1n-7, 20:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 and the higher values of 20:1n-11, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 found in males and females of the Mediterranean specimens compared to those of the Atlantic coast. These differences probably reflect the differences in potential food sources at each location.

Martínez-Pita, Inés; García, Francisco J.; Pita, María-Luisa

2010-06-01

343

Changes in serum and lipoprotein fatty acids of growing rats fed protein-deficient diets with low or adequate linolenic acid concentrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of a protein-deficient diet associated with sunflower oil [adequate in 18:2(n-6), poor in 18:3(n-3)] or soybean oil [adequate in both 18:2(n-6) and 18:3(n-3)] on lipid serum and lipoprotein compositions were studied in growing rats. Four groups of rats were fed different diets: SFC (20% casein + 5% sunflower oil); SFd (2% casein + 5% sunflower oil); SC (20% casein + 5% soybean oil); Sd (2% casein + 5% soybean oil). After 28 d, both protein-deficient groups exhibited low concentrations of protein, phospholipid, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol in serum and VLDL. Compared with rats fed 20% casein diets, those fed low protein diets had lower 18:2(n-6) and 20:4(n-6) in phospholipids of serum, VLDL and HDL2-3, and the 20:4(n-6)/18:2(n-6) ratio was twofold higher in triacylglycerols of serum and VLDL. In the SFd-fed group, 22:5(n-6) was higher than in the SFC-fed group for both triacylglycerols and phospholipids in overall lipoprotein fractions studied. In addition, the 20:3(n-9)/20:4(n-6) ratio was 0.1 in HDL2-3 phospholipids of the SFd-fed group. Sunflower oil-fed rats compared with soybean oil-fed rats had greater monounsaturated fatty acids and lower total (n-3) fatty acids in both triacylglycerols and phospholipids of serum, VLDL and HDL2-3, as well as lower total (n-6) fatty acids in serum and VLDL triacylglycerols. Apolipoproteins (apo) of VLDL were drastically depressed in rats fed protein-deficient diets, whereas apo-AI of HDL2-3 showed a particular resistance. Likewise, sunflower oil-fed rats had enhanced apo-B48 of VLDL and apo-C, apo-AII and apo-AIV of HDL2-3. The present findings show that some effects of protein malnutrition were enhanced by alpha-linolenic acid deficiency, in particular reduced (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acid bioavailability. PMID:1527644

Bouziane, M; Prost, J; Belleville, J

1992-10-01

344

Meat quality, fatty acid composition of tissue and gastrointestinal content, and antioxidant status of lamb fed seed of a halophyte (Suaeda glauca).  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-four Merino lambs were randomly assigned to four treatments: control diet (CT) consisting of 300g concentrates with ad libitum Leymus chinensis hay; C with 150g (T150), 300g (T300) and 450g (T450) Suaeda glauca seed, respectively. Meat quality, fatty acid composition of meat and lipid tissue and antioxidant status of lamb were evaluated. Inclusion of S. glauca seeds significantly increased selenium (Se) concentrations of muscle. The proportions of C18:1 trans-11 in muscle, C18:2 n-6, PUFA, n-6 series fatty acids, and the ratios of P:S in rumen contents, as well as the ratios of n-6:n-3 in adipose tissue, rumen and duodenum content have been significantly (Pseeds to lamb diets. No significant effect was found on antioxidant status. The results suggest that S. glauca seed supplementation in lamb diets may change fatty acid composition in tissues and content of digestive tract. PMID:25282041

Sun, H X; Zhong, R Z; Liu, H W; Wang, M L; Sun, J Y; Zhou, D W

2015-02-01

345

Cellular distribution and linkage of D-(-)-3-hydroxy fatty acids in Bacteroides species.  

OpenAIRE

Two strains of Bacteroides asaccharolyticus and two strains of Bacteroides fragilis were analyzed for total fatty acid, total lipid fatty acid, and total bound fatty acid profiles. Extracted lipids and defatted cell residues were subjected to sequential alkaline and acid methanolyses to distinguish ester- and amide-linked fatty acids in each fraction. In the lipid fractions, all the ester-linked fatty acids were nonhydroxylated, whereas all of the amide-linked fatty acids were hydroxylated. I...

Mayberry, W. R.

1980-01-01

346

The development of radioiodinated fatty acids for myocardial imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since free fatty acids are the principal energy source for the normally oxygenated myocardium, the use of iodine-123-labeled fatty acid analogues is an attractive approach for myocardial imaging. Interest in the use of these substances results from divergent fatty acid metabolic pathways in ischemic (triglyceride storage) versus normoxic tissue (?-oxidative clearance), following flow-dependent delivery. Iodine-123-labeled fatty acids may offer a unique opportunity to identity myocardial viability using single photon emission tomography. The development of structurally-modified fatty acids became of interest because of the relatively long acquisition periods required for SPECT. The significant time required by early generation single- or dual-head SPECT systems for data acquisition requires minimal redistribution during the acquisition period to ensure accurate evaluation of the regional fatty acid distribution pattern after re-construction. Research has focussed on the evaluation of structural modifications which can be introduced into the fatty acid chain which would inhibit the subsequent ?-oxidative catabolism which normally results in rapid myocardial clearance. Introduction of a methyl group in position-3 of the fatty acid carbon chain has been shown to significantly delay myocardial clearance and iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3- R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is a new tracer based on this strategy

347

Genetic variability of fatty acids in bovine milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of bovine milk influences the technological properties of butterfat and also presents some potential benefits for human health. Impact of feeding on fat composition is well described in the literature; less information is available about the impact of genetics. Based on few studies, essentially conducted to isolate some feeding effect, the breed seemed to influence the fatty acids composition. The variation in the activity of ?-9 desaturase, key enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk, could explain these differences. Very few studies have been focussing on the estimation of genetic parameters of fatty acids composition. However, the moderate heritability estimates observed by these studies for the major fatty acids could suggest a potential genetic effect.

Soyeurt H.

2008-01-01

348

Influence of monochromatic light on quality traits, nutritional, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicken meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P IBL increased the n-3 and sulfur-containing amino acids but reduced the n-6:n-3 nonessential amino acids. The WL improved the concentration of most of the essential amino acids (P IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat. PMID:24135586

Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C

2013-11-01

349

Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6, the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

P.C. Calder

1998-04-01

350

Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Most vegetable oils are ri [...] ch in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6), the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor) and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

P.C., Calder.

1998-04-01

351

40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200...acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and...fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

2010-07-01

352

Recent developments in altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increasing evidence to indicate that nutrition is an important factor involved in the onset and development of several chronic human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type II diabetes and obesity. Clinical studies implicate excessive consumption of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans-fatty acids (TFA) as risk factors for CVD, and in the aetiology of other chronic conditions. Ruminant-derived foods are significant sources of medium-chain SFA and TFA in the human diet, but also provide high-quality protein, essential micronutrients and several bioactive lipids. Altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods offers the opportunity to align the consumption of fatty acids in human populations with public health policies without the need for substantial changes in eating habits. Replacing conserved forages with fresh grass or dietary plant oil and oilseed supplements can be used to lower medium-chain and total SFA content and increase cis-9 18:1, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to a variable extent in ruminant milk. However, inclusion of fish oil or marine algae in the ruminant diet results in marginal enrichment of 20- or 22-carbon PUFA in milk. Studies in growing ruminants have confirmed that the same nutritional strategies improve the balance of n-6/n-3 PUFA, and increase CLA and long-chain n-3 PUFA in ruminant meat, but the potential to lower medium-chain and total SFA is limited. Attempts to alter meat and milk fatty acid composition through changes in the diet fed to ruminants are often accompanied by several-fold increases in TFA concentrations. In extreme cases, the distribution of trans 18:1 and 18:2 isomers in ruminant foods may resemble that of partially hydrogenated plant oils. Changes in milk fat or muscle lipid composition in response to diet are now known to be accompanied by tissue-specific alterations in the expression of one or more lipogenic genes. Breed influences both milk and muscle fat content, although recent studies have confirmed the occurrence of genetic variability in transcript abundance and activity of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and identified polymorphisms for several key lipogenic genes in lactating and growing cattle. Although nutrition is the major factor influencing the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods, further progress can be expected through the use of genomic or marker-assisted selection to increase the frequency of favourable genotypes and the formulation of diets to exploit this genetic potential. PMID:23031638

Shingfield, K J; Bonnet, M; Scollan, N D

2013-03-01

353

77 FR 65834 - Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated Propoxylated; Tolerance Exemption  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9365-4] Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated Propoxylated...of a tolerance for residues of fatty acids, tall-oil, ethoxylated propoxylated...of a tolerance for residues of fatty acids, tall-oil, ethoxylated...

2012-10-31

354

40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines...Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines...identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with...

2010-07-01

355

21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856...mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely used in food,...

2010-04-01

356

40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. 721...6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. ...generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols...

2010-07-01

357

40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...  

Science.gov (United States)

...polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800...polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical...polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct (PMN...

2010-07-01

358

40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700...3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical...generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct...

2010-07-01

359

40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol. 721.3680 Section...3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol. (a) Chemical...generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN...

2010-07-01

360

21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. 172.850... Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food...additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol may be...

2010-04-01

361

Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes by exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids is caused by lipid peroxidation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rat hepatocyte long-term cultures were utilized to investigate the impact of different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the insulin-induced de novo fatty acid synthesis in vitro. The addition of 0.5 mM albumin-complexed oleic, linoleic, columbinic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid resulted in a marked suppression of fatty acid synthesis. By evaluation of cell viability (determined as the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) it turned our, that the antioxidant used (50 µM a-tocopherol phosphate) had a low antioxidant activity, resulting in cytotoxic effects by the peroxidized PUFA. Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid showed a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Two other antioxidants: 50 µM a-tocopherol acid succinate and 1 µM N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, both proved more efficient than a-tocopherol phosphate. There was a significant correlation between LDH-leakage and inhibition of fatty acid synthesis. Lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, also showed a significant correlation with the degree of inhibition of fatty acid synthesis. Furthermore, PUFA had no inhibitory effect on fatty acid synthesis when peroxidation was minimized by the use of proper antioxidants. These data indicate that PUFA in vitro inhibit the insulin-induced de novo fatty acid synthesis in hepatocytes from starved rats, due to cytotoxic effects caused by lipid peroxidation.

Mikkelsen, L.; Hansen, Harald S.

1993-01-01

362

Oxygenated fatty acids isolated from wheat bran slurries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxygenated fatty acids are classified as secondary metabolites in wheat, produced by oxidation of free fatty acids (FFAs). Oxygenated fatty acids have significant impact on the organoleptic and sensory properties of food products and participate in regulation of defense and developmental processes in plants. The objective of this study was to identify oxygenated fatty acids from wheat flour slurries. Wheat bran/water slurries were incubated for 4?h and freeze dried. Total lipids were extracted in chloroform/methanol/water; and methylated and silylated FFAs were analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Seven oxygenated fatty acids were identified, (A) 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid, (B) 9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid, (C) 13-hydroxy-9cis,11trans-octadecadienoic acid, (D) 9,10,13-trihydroxy-11trans-octadecenoic acid, (E) 9,12,13-trihydroxy-10trans,15cis-octadecadienoic acid, (F) 10-oxo-13-hydroxy-11trans-octadecenoic acid and (G) 12-oxo-13-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid, in wheat bran slurries. Our results are important for whole wheat food applications since oxygenated fatty acids can result in bitter flavors in the final product. PMID:24934850

Simsek, Senay; Doehlert, Douglas C

2014-11-01

363

Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

2013-01-01

364

Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. Results In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing ‘TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3 improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn’t strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-‘tesA-?fadL produced 4.8 g?L?1 extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g?h?1 g?1dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-‘tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired product. The strain pACY-‘tesA could also be chosen as the original strain for the next genetic manipulations. Conclusions The general strategy of metabolic engineering for the extracellular fatty acid production should be the cyclic optimization between cultivation performance and strain improvements. On the basis of our cultivation process optimization, strain improvements should be further carried out for the effective and cost-effective production process.

Liu Hui

2012-04-01

365

Fatty Acids Composition in Germinating Cotton Seedlings Affected by High Temperature Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of fatty acids analysis suggested that greater unsaturation occurred with increasing germination time. High temperature had a marked effect on fatty acid composition and caused significant changes especially in neutral lipid and glycollpid fatty acids. Small changes were also observed in phophollpid fatty acids. A large increase in free fatty acid was also found, since free fatty acids are known to be damaging to cells.

Saghir Ahmed Sheikh

2002-01-01

366

Fatty Acids Composition in Germinating Cotton Seedlings Affected by High Temperature Stress  

OpenAIRE

The results of fatty acids analysis suggested that greater unsaturation occurred with increasing germination time. High temperature had a marked effect on fatty acid composition and caused significant changes especially in neutral lipid and glycollpid fatty acids. Small changes were also observed in phophollpid fatty acids. A large increase in free fatty acid was also found, since free fatty acids are known to be damaging to cells.

Saghir Ahmed Sheikh; Muhammad Ibrahim Keerio; Maqsood Anwar Rustamani; Noor-u-Nisa Memon

2002-01-01

367

Halogenated fatty acids : I. Formation and occurrence in lipids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids. However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their determination.

Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas

1997-01-01

368

Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term ?3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ?3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ?3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ?3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ?3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (?3 or sunflower oil (?9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ?3-PUFAs. Plasma of ?3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of ?3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ?3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ?9 myocytes. In the ?9 myocytes, but not in the ?3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ?3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ?3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ?3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ?3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

HesterMDen Ruijter

2010-11-01

369

Fatty acid profiles indicate the habitat of mud snails Hydrobia ulvae within the same estuary: Mudflats vs. seagrass meadows  

Science.gov (United States)

Mud snails Hydrobia ulvae occupy different habitats in complex estuarine ecosystems. In order to determine if fatty acid profiles displayed by mud snails can be used to identify the habitat that they occupy within the same estuary, fatty acids of H. ulvae from one mudflat and one seagrass meadow in the Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) were analyzed and compared to those displayed by microphytobenthos (MPB), the green leaves (epiphyte-free) of Zostera noltii, as well as those exhibited by the epiphytic community colonizing this seagrass. MPB and epiphytic diatom-dominated samples displayed characteristic fatty acids, such as 16:1 n-7 and 20:5 n-3, while 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3 were the dominant fatty acids in the green leaves of Z. noltii. Significant differences between the fatty acid profiles of H. ulvae specimens sampled in the mudflat and the seagrass meadow could be identified, with those from the mudflat displaying higher levels of fatty acids known to be characteristic of MPB. This result points towards the well known existence of grazing activity on MPB by mud snails. The fatty acid profiles displayed by H. ulvae inhabiting the seagrass meadows show no evidence of direct bioaccumulation of the two most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids of Z. noltii (18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3) in the mud snails, which probably indicates that either these compounds can be metabolized to produce energy, used as precursors for the synthesis of essential fatty acids, or that the snails do not consume seagrass leaves at all. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles of mud snails inhabiting the seagrass meadows revealed the existence of substantial inputs from microalgae, suggesting that the epiphytic community colonizing the leaves of Z. noltii displays an important role on the diet of these organisms. This assumption is supported by the high levels of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 recorded in mud snails sampled from seagrass meadows. In conclusion, fatty acid analyses of H. ulvae can be successfully used to identify the habitat occupied by these organisms within the same estuary (e.g. mudflats and seagrass meadows) and reveal the existence of contrasting dietary regimes.

Coelho, Helena; Lopes da Silva, Teresa; Reis, Alberto; Queiroga, Henrique; Serôdio, João; Calado, Ricardo

2011-03-01

370

Fatty acids composition in fruits of wild rose species  

OpenAIRE

The oil content and fatty acids profile of a number of Polish wild species of rose fruits were examined by GC. The total fatty acid contents ranged from 6.5% to 12.9% of dry mass in fruits. The composition of oils was similar in the investigated species. 17 components were identified. An average composition was estimated as follows: linoleic acid (44.4-55.7%), a-linolenic acid (18.6-31.4%), oleic acid (13.5-20.3%), palmitic acid (2.3-3.3%), stearic acid (1-2.5%), octadecenoic acid (0.38-0.72%...

Renata Nowak