WorldWideScience

Sample records for mosquito control

  1. Controlling Mosquitoes Outside

    2016-08-09

    Mosquitoes can carry viruses, like West Nile, Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. In this podcast, Mr. Hubbard will teach you and his neighbor, Laura, ways to help reduce the number of mosquitoes outside your home. Tips include eliminating areas of standing water where mosquitoes lay eggs and using larvicides to kill young mosquitoes.  Created: 8/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/9/2016.

  2. Controlling Mosquitoes Indoors

    2016-08-23

    Mosquitoes can carry viruses, like West Nile and Zika. In this podcast, Mr. Hubbard teaches his neighbors, the Smith family, ways to help reduce the number of mosquitoes inside their home.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  3. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Gabrielle E. Sakolsky-Hoopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.

  4. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    Namita Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag and gold (Au nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl. Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs. The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito.

  5. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    Ernst-Jan Scholte

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis.

  6. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: a review.

    Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Knols, Bart G J; Samson, Robert A; Takken, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti) curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis. PMID:15861235

  7. Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies

    André Barretto Bruno Wilke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  8. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal g...

  9. Symbiotic control of mosquito borne disease.

    Ricci, Irene; Valzano, Matteo; Ulissi, Ulisse; Epis, Sara; Cappelli, Alessia; Favia, Guido

    2012-11-01

    It is well accepted that the symbiotic relationships insects have established with several microorganisms have had a key role in their evolutionary success. Bacterial symbiosis is also prevalent in insects that are efficient disease vectors, and numerous studies have sought to decrypt the basic mechanisms of the host-symbiont relationships and develop ways to control vector borne diseases. 'Symbiotic control', a new multifaceted approach that uses symbiotic microorganisms to control insect pests or reduce vector competence, seems particularly promising. Three such approaches currently at the cutting edge are: (1) the disruption of microbial symbionts required by insect pests; (2) the manipulation of symbionts that can express anti-pathogen molecules within the host; and (3) the introduction of endogenous microbes that affect life-span and vector capacity of the new hosts in insect populations. This work reviews current knowledge on microbial symbiosis in mosquitoes that holds promise for development of symbiotic control for mosquito borne diseases. PMID:23265608

  10. Does polyandrous impede mosquito control by autocidal?

    Jayaprakash, K.; Karthikeyan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Vector mosquito control by releasing genetically altered males has been attempted under the presumption that the females are monandrous. The present observation was through the sex–linked inheritance pattern of eye-colour and the estimation of polyandrous in in-vitro mating. A small proportion (18.2%) of the female Anopheles stephensi population exhibited polyandrous on examination of 850 F1 adults when two types of males (white and black eyed) where allowed to mate with homozygous white eyed...

  11. International forum for surveillance and control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases

    This manuscript provides highlights of presentations given at the 1st International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Disease in Beijing, China. Topics covered in this 4-day forum included: diseases, surveillance, insecticides, physiology and ecology, behavior, inv...

  12. Does polyandrous impede mosquito control by autocidal?

    K.Jayaprakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vector mosquito control by releasing genetically altered males has been attempted under the presumption that the females are monandrous. The present observation was through the sex–linked inheritance pattern of eye-colour and the estimation of polyandrous in in-vitro mating. A small proportion (18.2% of the female Anopheles stephensi population exhibited polyandrous on examination of 850 F1 adults when two types of males (white and black eyed where allowed to mate with homozygous white eyed females. The above results were discussed with relation to the consequences of the polyandrous trait in sterile insect technique, genetic control programmes.

  13. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  14. Mathematical model in controlling dengue transmission with sterile mosquito strategies

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose a mathematical model for controlling dengue disease transmission with sterile mosquito techniques (SIT). Sterile male introduced from lab in to habitat to compete with wild male mosquito for mating with female mosquito. Our aim is to displace gradually the natural mosquito from the habitat. Mathematical model analysis for steady states and the basic reproductive ratio are performed analytically. Numerical simulation are shown in some different scenarios. We find that SIT intervention is potential to controlling dengue spread among humans population

  15. Modelling the requirements and benefits of mosquito control interventions in the presence of mosquito dispersal

    Lutambi Angelina M; Chitnis Nakul; Smith Tom; Penny Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Vector control methods are widely used as a means to control malaria, however, the role of spatial arrangement when deploying these interventions is not well known. Understanding the effects of spatial distribution and clustering of interventions on mosquito populations can provide a guide to strategically deploying interventions to effectively maximize benefits. A recently developed discrete-space continuous-time mathematical model of mosquito population dynamics and dispersal was extended t...

  16. Control methods against invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Europe : a review

    Baldacchino, F; Caputo, B.; Chandre, Fabrice; Drago, A.; A. Della Torre; Montarsi, F.; Rizzoli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Five species of invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently become established in Europe: Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. japonicus japonicus, Ae. koreicus and Ae. atropalpus. These mosquitoes are a serious nuisance for people and are also competent vectors for several exotic pathogens such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. As they are a growing public health concern, methods to control these mosquitoes need to be implemented to reduce their biting and their potential for disease transmission. ...

  17. Adult vector control, mosquito ecology and malaria transmission.

    Brady, OJ; Godfray, HC; Tatem, AJ; Gething, PW; Cohen, JM; McKENZIE, FE; Alex Perkins, T.; Reiner, RC; Tusting, LS; Scott, TW; Lindsay, SW; Hay, SI; Smith, DL

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Standard advice regarding vector control is to prefer interventions that reduce the lifespan of adult mosquitoes. The basis for this advice is a decades-old sensitivity analysis of 'vectorial capacity', a concept relevant for most malaria transmission models and based solely on adult mosquito population dynamics. Recent advances in micro-simulation models offer an opportunity to expand the theory of vectorial capacity to include both adult and juvenile mosquito stages in the model...

  18. Mass mosquito trapping for malaria control in western Kenya

    Hiscox, Alexandra; Homan, Tobias; Mweresa, Collins K.; Maire, Nicolas; Pasquale, Di Aurelio; Masiga, Daniel; Oria, Prisca A.; Alaii, Jane; Leeuwis, Cees; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Takken, Willem; Smith, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing levels of insecticide resistance as well as outdoor, residual transmission of malaria threaten the efficacy of existing vector control tools used against malaria mosquitoes. The development of odour-baited mosquito traps has led to the possibility of controlling malaria thr

  19. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    Ernst-Jan Scholte; Knols, Bart G. J.; Samson, Robert A.; Willem Takken

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito...

  20. Mosquito Control in Poland: Pro- and Anti-Environmental Activities

    Gliniewicz Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito control in Poland is still dominated by the use of chemicals. Although it has been 13 years since the flood of the century, only in few cities and towns (Wroclaw, Gorzow Wielkopolski and Torun various methods of mosquito control such as mapping of larvae development and setting time limits for the imagines occur-rence were developed. The problem of mosquito control is not only limited to adult insects, it is also much more a complex issue due to the use of insecticides in the environment that we would rather like to keep unchanged, with a diversity of co-existing species of plants and animals. In addition to eradication of larvae and adult insects, we should also: carry out actions modifying environment so that it becomes less friendly to mosquitoes (e.g. drying wet mead-ows as a result of land reclamation, protect places where people reside - with the use of insecticide lamps and spatial repellents, as well as catchers for aggressive female mosquitoes. Increasing the share of environmental management methods and public education on preventing to form and eliminating existing places of mosquito larvae development in urban green areas (parks, river overflow areas and drainage ditches are still an undervalued element of integrated mosquito control in Poland.

  1. Research in mosquito control: current challenges for a brighter future.

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites. In this scenario, vector control is crucial. Mosquito larvae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment and induce resistance in a number of vectors. Newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance control of mosquitoes. Here, I focus on some crucial challenges about eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, mainly the improvement of behavior-based control strategies (sterile insect technique ("SIT") and "boosted SIT") and plant-borne mosquitocidals, including green-synthesized nanoparticles. A number of hot areas that need further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and behavioral ecologists are highlighted. PMID:26093499

  2. Help Control Mosquitoes that Spread Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses

    Help Control Mosquitoes that Spread Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses B Z Z Z Z . Aside from being ... or Aedes albopictus ) can spread dengue, chikungunya, or Zika viruses. People become infected with dengue, chikungunya, or Zika ...

  3. Post-hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance and the efficacy of Air Force aerial applications for mosquito control in east Texas.

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Walker, Wes W; Sanders, David M

    2008-06-01

    Post-Hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance was carried out in 4 east Texas counties to determine mosquito abundance, species composition, and need for mosquito control. Subsequently, aerial applications of naled (Dibrom) for mosquito control were made by the Air Force Aerial Spray Flight, while continued surveillance documented the efficacy of the applications. Psorophora columbiae was the predominant species in landing counts. Twenty-two mosquito species were represented in light trap collections with Aedes atlanitcus/tormentor, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. vexans, and Ps. columbiae making up 91% of the total. A total of 102,001 ha (252,052 acres) were aerially treated based on high mosquito abundance, exposure of first responders and residents to nuisance biting, and local interruption of electric utilities. A significant 90% decline in mosquito abundance was observed posttreatment. PMID:18666545

  4. Novel acetylcholinesterase target site for malaria mosquito control.

    Yuan-Ping Pang

    Full Text Available Current anticholinesterase pesticides were developed during World War II and are toxic to mammals because they target a catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterases (AChEs in insects and in mammals. A sequence analysis of AChEs from 73 species and a three-dimensional model of a malaria-carrying mosquito (Anopheles gambiae AChE (AgAChE reported here show that C286 and R339 of AgAChE are conserved at the opening of the active site of AChEs in 17 invertebrate and four insect species, respectively. Both residues are absent in the active site of AChEs of human, monkey, dog, cat, cattle, rabbit, rat, and mouse. The 17 invertebrates include house mosquito, Japanese encephalitis mosquito, African malaria mosquito, German cockroach, Florida lancelet, rice leaf beetle, African bollworm, beet armyworm, codling moth, diamondback moth, domestic silkworm, honey bee, oat or wheat aphid, the greenbug, melon or cotton aphid, green peach aphid, and English grain aphid. The four insects are house mosquito, Japanese encephalitis mosquito, African malaria mosquito, and German cockroach. The discovery of the two invertebrate-specific residues enables the development of effective and safer pesticides that target the residues present only in mosquito AChEs rather than the ubiquitous serine residue, thus potentially offering an effective control of mosquito-borne malaria. Anti-AgAChE pesticides can be designed to interact with R339 and subsequently covalently bond to C286. Such pesticides would be toxic to mosquitoes but not to mammals.

  5. Control methods against invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Europe: a review.

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Caputo, Beniamino; Chandre, Fabrice; Drago, Andrea; della Torre, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2015-11-01

    Five species of invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently become established in Europe: Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. japonicus japonicus, Ae. koreicus and Ae. atropalpus. These mosquitoes are a serious nuisance for people and are also competent vectors for several exotic pathogens such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. As they are a growing public health concern, methods to control these mosquitoes need to be implemented to reduce their biting and their potential for disease transmission. There is a crucial need to evaluate methods as part of an integrated invasive mosquito species control strategy in different European countries, taking into account local Aedes infestations and European regulations. This review presents the control methods available or in development against invasive Aedes mosquitoes, with a particular focus on those that can be implemented in Europe. These control methods are divided into five categories: environmental (source reduction), mechanical (trapping), biological (e.g. copepods, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, Wolbachia), chemical (insect growth regulators, pyrethroids) and genetic (sterile insect technique and genetically modified mosquitoes). We discuss the effectiveness, ecological impact, sustainability and stage of development of each control method. PMID:26037532

  6. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    Scholte, E.J.; Knols, B.G.J.; Samson, R.A.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito pop

  7. Controle los mosquitos que están en el exterior (Controlling Mosquitoes Outside)

    2016-07-11

    Los mosquitos pueden transmitir virus como el del zika. En este podcast, el Sr. Francisco le enseñará a usted y a su vecina Adriana diferentes maneras para ayudar a reducir la cantidad de mosquitos fuera de su casa. Los consejos incluyen eliminar áreas de agua estancada donde los mosquitos ponen sus huevos, usar larvicidas para matar mosquitos jóvenes, y reparar grietas y cubrir las ventilaciones de los pozos sépticos. También aprenderá cómo se usan los aviones que ayudan a rociar insecticida para los mosquitos.  Created: 7/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/11/2016.

  8. Fighting Arbovirus Transmission: Natural and Engineered Control of Vector Competence in Aedes Mosquitoes

    Joy Kean; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Melanie McFarlane; Donald, Claire L.; Esther Schnettler; Alain Kohl; Emilie Pondeville

    2015-01-01

    Control of aedine mosquito vectors, either by mosquito population reduction or replacement with refractory mosquitoes, may play an essential role in the fight against arboviral diseases. In this review, we will focus on the development and application of biological approaches, both natural or engineered, to limit mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. The study of mosquito antiviral immunity has led to the identification of a number of host response mechanisms and proteins that are requi...

  9. Legal and policy options to minimize adverse effects of mosquito control pesticides on Florida's saltwater fisheries

    Tucker, John C.

    1992-01-01

    This report examines the regulation of mosquito control activities in Florida and makes legal and institutional recommendations to improve protection of non-target estuarine and marine organisms. Some of the more important recommendations for modification of mosquito control in Florida include: clarification of ambiguous mosquito control pesticide labels; strengthening of surveillance and reporting requirements; strengthening of enforcement efforts and authority; increased u...

  10. USDA Mosquito Control Product Research for the US Military

    New techniques that were developed at the USDA to protect deployed military troops from the threat of vector-borne diseases and are also applicable for use by civilian mosquito control program use are described. Techniques to be illustrated include: (1) novel military personal protection methods, (2...

  11. Novel Selective and Irreversible Mosquito Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors for Controlling Malaria and Other Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    Dou, Dengfeng; Park, Jewn Giew; Rana, Sandeep; Madden, Benjamin J.; Jiang, Haobo; Pang, Yuan-Ping

    2013-01-01

    We reported previously that insect acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) could be selectively and irreversibly inhibited by methanethiosulfonates presumably through conjugation to an insect-specific cysteine in these enzymes. However, no direct proof for the conjugation has been published to date, and doubts remain about whether such cysteine-targeting inhibitors have desirable kinetic properties for insecticide use. Here we report mass spectrometric proof of the conjugation and new chemicals that irreversibly inhibited African malaria mosquito AChE with bimolecular inhibition rate constants (kinact/KI) of 3,604-458,597 M-1sec-1 but spared human AChE. In comparison, the insecticide paraoxon irreversibly inhibited mosquito and human AChEs with kinact/KI values of 1,915 and 1,507 M-1sec-1, respectively, under the same assay conditions. These results further support our hypothesis that the insect-specific AChE cysteine is a unique and unexplored target to develop new insecticides with reduced insecticide resistance and low toxicity to mammals, fish, and birds for the control of mosquito-borne diseases.

  12. Controle de vetores utilizando mosquitos geneticamente modificados Control de vectores utilizando mosquitos genéticamente modificados Control of vector populations using genetically modified mosquitoes

    André Barreto Bruno Wilke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Formas químicas de controle de mosquitos vetores são ineficazes, levando ao desenvolvimento de novas estratégias. Assim, foi realizada revisão das estratégias de controle genético de populações de mosquitos vetores baseada na técnica do inseto estéril. Uma delas consiste na liberação de machos esterilizados por radiação, a outra, na integração de um gene letal dominante associado a um promotor específico de fêmeas imaturas. Entre as vantagens sobre outras técnicas biológicas e químicas de controle de vetores estão: alta especificidade, não prejudicial ao meio ambiente, baixo custo de produção e alta eficácia. O uso desta técnica de modificação genética pode vir a ser uma importante ferramenta do manejo integrado de vetores.Formas químicas de control de mosquitos vectores son ineficaces, llevando al desarrollo de nuevas estrategias. Así, fue realizada revisión de las estrategias de control genético de poblaciones de mosquitos vectores basada en la técnica del insecto estéril. Una de ellas consiste en la liberación de machos esterilizados por radiación, la otra, en la integración de un gen letal dominante asociado a un promotor específico de hembras inmaduras. Entre las ventajas sobre otras técnicas biológicas y químicas de control de vectores están: la alta especificidad, no prejudicial al ambiente, bajo costo de producción y alta eficiencia. El uso de esta técnica de modificación genética puede ser una importante herramienta del manejo integrado de vectores.The ineffectiveness of current strategies for chemical control of mosquito vectors raises the need for developing novel approaches. Thus, we carried out a literature review of strategies for genetic control of mosquito populations based on the sterile insect technique. One of these strategies consists of releasing radiation-sterilized males into the population; another, of integrating a dominant lethal gene under the control of a specific

  13. Willingness to Pay for Mosquito Control in Key West, Florida and Tucson, Arizona.

    Dickinson, Katherine L; Hayden, Mary H; Haenchen, Steven; Monaghan, Andrew J; Walker, Kathleen R; Ernst, Kacey C

    2016-04-01

    Mosquito-borne illnesses like West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue are growing threats to the United States. Proactive mosquito control is one strategy to reduce the risk of disease transmission. In 2012, we measured the public's willingness to pay (WTP) for increased mosquito control in two cities: Key West, FL, where there have been recent dengue outbreaks, and Tucson, AZ, where dengue vectors are established and WNV has been circulating for over a decade. Nearly three quarters of respondents in both cities (74% in Tucson and 73% in Key West) would be willing to pay $25 or more annually toward an increase in publicly funded mosquito control efforts. WTP was positively associated with income (both cities), education (Key West), and perceived mosquito abundance (Tucson). Concerns about environmental impacts of mosquito control were associated with lower WTP in Key West. Expanded mosquito control efforts should incorporate public opinion as they respond to evolving disease risks. PMID:26903603

  14. Tidal circulation alteration for salt marsh mosquito control

    Resh, Vincent H.; Balling, Steven S.

    1983-01-01

    Mosquito control ditches designed to increase tidal circulation are widely used as a physical control alternative to insecticidal applications The impact of such ditching on Pacific Coast marshlands was largely unknown before this five-year study of impact in two types of San Francisco Bay salt marshes, a Salicornia virginica (pickleweed) monoculure and a mixed vegetation marsh Results of our studies suggest that ditches cause less environmental disturbance than insecticidal applications The article describes the following environmental consequences of ditching for mosquito control: increased tidal flushing of soils occurs adjacent to ditches compared with that in the open marsh, thereby reducing ground water and soil surface salinities and water table height; primary productivity of S. virginica, as determined by both the harvest method and infrared photographic analysis, is higher directly adjacent to ditches than in the open marsh, distribution of selected arthropod populations is similar at ditches and natural channels, although arthropod community response differs seasonally; aquatic invertebrate biomass is similar within ditched and natural ponds, but diversity is lower in ditched habitats, ditching increases fish diversity and density by improving fish access from tidal channels; ditches provide additional salt marsh song sparrow habitat, although ditches are less preferred than natural channels or sloughs. Management criteria can be used to design ditches that provide effective mosquito control and reduced environmental impact

  15. Challenges and Approaches for Mosquito Targeted Malaria Control

    Ramirez, José L.; Garver, Lindsey S.; Dimopoulos, George

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is one of today’s most serious diseases with an enormous socioeconomic impact. While anti-malarial drugs have existed for some time and vaccines development may be underway, the most successful malaria eradication programs have thus far relied on attacking the mosquito vector that spreads the disease causing agent Plasmodium. Here we will review past, current and future perspectives of malaria vector control strategies and how these approaches have taken a promising turn thanks recent...

  16. Symbiotic control of mosquito borne disease

    Ricci, Irene; Valzano, Matteo; Ulissi, Ulisse; Epis, Sara; Cappelli, Alessia; Favia, Guido

    2012-01-01

    It is well accepted that the symbiotic relationships insects have established with several microorganisms have had a key role in their evolutionary success. Bacterial symbiosis is also prevalent in insects that are efficient disease vectors, and numerous studies have sought to decrypt the basic mechanisms of the host–symbiont relationships and develop ways to control vector borne diseases. ‘Symbiotic control’, a new multifaceted approach that uses symbiotic microorganisms to control insect pe...

  17. Indoor application of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB in combination with mosquito nets for control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes.

    Zachary P Stewart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB sprayed onto vegetation has been successful in controlling Anopheles mosquitoes outdoors. Indoor application of ATSB has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ATSB stations positioned indoors have the potential to kill host-seeking mosquitoes and constitute a new approach to control of mosquito-borne diseases. METHODS: Insecticides were mixed with dyed sugar solution and tested as toxic baits against Anopheles arabiensis, An. Gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus in feeding bioassay tests to identify suitable attractant-insecticide combinations. The most promising ATSB candidates were then trialed in experimental huts in Moshi, Tanzania. ATSB stations were hung in huts next to untreated mosquito nets occupied by human volunteers. The proportions of mosquitoes killed in huts with ATSB treatments relative to huts with non-insecticide control treatments huts were recorded, noting evidence of dye in mosquito abdomens. RESULTS: In feeding bioassays, chlorfenapyr 0.5% v/v, boric acid 2% w/v, and tolfenpyrad 1% v/v, mixed in a guava juice-based bait, each killed more than 90% of pyrethroid-susceptible An. Gambiae s.s. and pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In the hut trial, mortality rates of the three ATSB treatments ranged from 41-48% against An. arabiensis and 36-43% against Cx. quinquefasciatus and all were significantly greater than the control mortalities: 18% for An. arabiensis, 7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus (p<0.05. Mortality rates with ATSB were comparable to those with long lasting insecticidal nets previously tested against the same species in this area. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor ATSB shows promise as a supplement to mosquito nets for controlling mosquitoes. Indoor ATSB constitute a novel application method for insecticide classes that act as stomach poisons and have not hitherto been exploited for mosquito control. Combined with LLIN, indoor

  18. Mosquito Surveillance for Prevention and Control of Emerging Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Portugal — 2008–2014

    Osório, Hugo C.; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program—REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)—has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes—collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2—and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs. PMID:25396768

  19. Community aerial mosquito control and naled exposure.

    Duprey, Zandra; Rivers, Samantha; Luber, George; Becker, Alan; Blackmore, Carina; Barr, Dana; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Kieszak, Stephanie; Flanders, W Dana; Rubin, Carol

    2008-03-01

    In October 2004, the Florida Department of Health (FLDOH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assessed human exposure to ultra-low volume (ULV) aerial application of naled. Teams administered activity questionnaires regarding pesticide exposure and obtained baseline urine samples to quantify prespray naled metabolite levels. Following the spray event, participants were asked to collect postspray urine specimens within 12 h of the spray event and at 8-h intervals for up to 40 h. Upon completion, a postspray activity questionnaire was administered to study participants. Two hundred five (87%) participants completed the study. The urine analysis showed that although 67% of prespray urine samples had detectable levels of a naled metabolite, the majority of postspray samples were below the limit of detection ( 40 h) following exposure, the number of samples with detectable levels exceeded 50%. There was a significant decrease in naled metabolites from prespray to postspray (= .02), perhaps associated with a significant reduction (naled does not result in increased levels of naled in humans, provided the naled is used according to label instructions. PMID:18437813

  20. Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control

    Famenini Shannon; Traore Mohamed M; Touré Mahamoudou B; Marshall John M; Taylor Charles E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives ...

  1. Fighting Arbovirus Transmission: Natural and Engineered Control of Vector Competence in Aedes Mosquitoes

    Joy Kean

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Control of aedine mosquito vectors, either by mosquito population reduction or replacement with refractory mosquitoes, may play an essential role in the fight against arboviral diseases. In this review, we will focus on the development and application of biological approaches, both natural or engineered, to limit mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. The study of mosquito antiviral immunity has led to the identification of a number of host response mechanisms and proteins that are required to control arbovirus replication in mosquitoes, though more factors influencing vector competence are likely to be discovered. We will discuss key aspects of these pathways as targets either for selection of naturally resistant mosquito populations or for mosquito genetic manipulation. Moreover, we will consider the use of endosymbiotic bacteria such as Wolbachia, which in some cases have proven to be remarkably efficient in disrupting arbovirus transmission by mosquitoes, but also the use of naturally occurring insect-specific viruses that may interfere with arboviruses in mosquito vectors. Finally, we will discuss the use of paratransgenesis as well as entomopathogenic fungi, which are also proposed strategies to control vector competence.

  2. Sterile-Insect Methods for Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases: An Analysis

    Alphey, Luke; Benedict, Mark; Bellini, Romeo; Clark, Gary G.; Dame, David A; Service, Mike W.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    Effective vector control, and more specifically mosquito control, is a complex and difficult problem, as illustrated by the continuing prevalence (and spread) of mosquito-transmitted diseases. The sterile insect technique and similar methods control certain agricultural insect pest populations in a species-specific, environmentally sound, and effective manner; there is increased interest in applying this approach to vector con...

  3. Large-scale control of mosquito vectors of disease

    By far the most important vector borne disease is malaria transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes causing an estimated 300-500 million clinical cases per year and 1.4-2.6 million deaths, mostly in tropical Africa (WHO 1995). The second most important mosquito borne disease is lymphatic filariasis, but there are now such effective, convenient and cheap drugs for its treatment that vector control will now have at most a supplementary role (Maxwell et al. 1999a). The only other mosquito borne disease likely to justify large-scale vector control is dengue which is carried in urban areas of Southeast Asia and Latin America by Aedes aegypti L. which was also the urban vector of yellow fever in Latin America. This mosquito was eradicated from most countries of Latin America between the 1930s and 60s but, unfortunately in recent years, it has been allowed to re-infest and cause serious dengue epidemics, except in Cuba where it has been held close to eradication (Reiter and Gubler 1997). In the 1930s and 40s, invasions by An. gambiae Giles s.l., the main tropical African malaria vector, were eradicated from Brazil (Soper and Wilson 1943) and Egypt (Shousha 1947). It is surprising that greatly increased air traffic has not led to more such invasions of apparently climatically suitable areas, e.g., of Polynesia which has no anophelines and therefore no malaria. The above mentioned temporary or permanent eradications were achieved before the advent of DDT, using larvicidal methods (of a kind which would now be considered environmentally unacceptable) carried out by rigorously disciplined teams. MALARIA Between the end of the Second World War and the 1960s, the availability of DDT for spraying of houses allowed eradication of malaria from the Soviet Union, southern Europe, the USA, northern Venezuela and Guyana, Taiwan and the Caribbean Islands, apart from Hispaniola. Its range and intensity were also greatly reduced in China, India and South Africa and, at least temporarily, in

  4. Cómo controlar los mosquitos en interiores (Controlling Mosquitoes Indoors)

    2016-08-23

    Los mosquitos pueden portar virus como el del Nilo Occidental o del Zika. En este podcast, Don Francisco le muestra a sus vecinos formas en las que pueden reducir el número de mosquitos dentro de su casa.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  5. Mosquito fauna and perspectives for integrated control of urban vector-mosquito populations in Southern Benin (West Africa).

    Lingenfelser, Andre; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Kaiser, Achim; Becker, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at an integrated vector management (IVM) concept of implementing biological control agents against vector mosquito larvae as a cost-effective and scalable control strategy. In the first step, the mosquito species composition fauna of southern Benin was studied using standard entomological procedures in natural and man-made habitats. Altogether, 24 species belonging to 6 genera of mosquitoes Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Ficalbia were recorded. Five species, Cx. thalassius, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. pocilipes and Fi. mediolineata are described the first time for Benin. The local mosquito species showed high susceptibility to a Bacillus sphaericus formulation (VectoLex(R) WDG ) in a standardized field test. A dosage of 1 g/m(2) was effective to achieve 100 percent mortality rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus late instar larvae in a sewage habitat, with a residual effect of up to 7 days. After more than 1 year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and B. sphaericus was commenced in 2006 in selected areas. Microbial insecticides products for larval control show great potential within IVM programmes and may augment control efforts against adult insects, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets or indoor wall spraying in many parts of Africa. PMID:20684480

  6. Malaria mosquito control using edible fish in western Kenya: preliminary findings of a controlled study

    Omlin Francois X

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological control methods are once again being given much research focus for malaria vector control. This is largely due to the emerging threat of strong resistance to pesticides. Larvivorous fish have been used for over 100 years in mosquito control and many species have proved effective. In the western Kenyan highlands the larvivorous fish Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes: Cichlidae (formerly Tilapia nilotica is commonly farmed and eaten but has not been previously tested in the field for malaria mosquito control. Methods This fish was introduced into abandoned fishponds at an altitude of 1,880 m and the effect measured over six months on the numbers of mosquito immatures. For comparison an untreated control pond was used. During this time, all ponds were regularly cleared of emergent vegetation and fish re-stocking was not needed. Significant autocorrelation was removed from the time series data, and t-tests were used to investigate within a pond and within a mosquito type any differences before and after the introduction of O. niloticus. Mulla's formula was also used on the raw data to calculate the percentage reduction of the mosquito larvae. Results After O. niloticus introduction, mosquito densities immediately dropped in the treated ponds but increased in the control pond. This increase was apparently due to climatic factors. Mulla's formula was applied which corrects for that natural tendency to increase. The results showed that after 15 weeks the fish caused a more than 94% reduction in both Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae in the treated ponds, and more than 75% reduction in culicine mosquitoes. There was a highly significantly reduction in A. gambiae s.l. numbers when compared to pre-treatment levels. Conclusion This study reports the first field trial data on O. niloticus for malaria mosquito control and shows that this species, already a popular food fish in western Kenya

  7. Annual Anastasia Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Control Workshops: Summary of the Past 11 Years

    Realizing the needs of local mosquito control workers for advance training and education the Anastasia Mosquito Control District (AMCD) and the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary entomology (CMAVE) developed a regional workshop to address these needs. Since 2004 the AMCD and CM...

  8. Late-acting dominant lethal genetic systems and mosquito control

    Scaife Sarah

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduction or elimination of vector populations will tend to reduce or eliminate transmission of vector-borne diseases. One potential method for environmentally-friendly, species-specific population control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT. SIT has not been widely used against insect disease vectors such as mosquitoes, in part because of various practical difficulties in rearing, sterilization and distribution. Additionally, vector populations with strong density-dependent effects will tend to be resistant to SIT-based control as the population-reducing effect of induced sterility will tend to be offset by reduced density-dependent mortality. Results We investigated by mathematical modeling the effect of manipulating the stage of development at which death occurs (lethal phase in an SIT program against a density-dependence-limited insect population. We found late-acting lethality to be considerably more effective than early-acting lethality. No such strains of a vector insect have been described, so as a proof-of-principle we constructed a strain of the principal vector of the dengue and yellow fever viruses, Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti, with the necessary properties of dominant, repressible, highly penetrant, late-acting lethality. Conclusion Conventional SIT induces early-acting (embryonic lethality, but genetic methods potentially allow the lethal phase to be tailored to the program. For insects with strong density-dependence, we show that lethality after the density-dependent phase would be a considerable improvement over conventional methods. For density-dependent parameters estimated from field data for Aedes aegypti, the critical release ratio for population elimination is modeled to be 27% to 540% greater for early-acting rather than late-acting lethality. Our success in developing a mosquito strain with the key features that the modeling indicated were desirable demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for

  9. Rationalizing Historical successes of malaria control in Africa in terms of mosquito resource availabilty management

    Killeen, G.F.; Seyoum, A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental management of mosquito resources is a promising approach with which to control malaria, but it has seen little application in Africa for more than half a century. Here we present a kinetic model of mosquito foraging for aquatic habitats and vertebrate hosts that allows estimation of ma

  10. Transfer of toxin genes to alternate bacterial hosts for mosquito control

    Sergio Orduz

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vector of serious human and animal diseases, such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, among others. The use of biological control agents has provide an environmentally safe and highly specific alternative to the use of chemical insecticides in the control of vector borne diseases. Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus produce toxic proteins to mosquito larvae. Great progress has been made on the biochemical and molecular characterization of such proteins and the genes encoding them. Nevertheless, the low residuality of these biological insecticides is one of the major drawbacks. This article present some interesting aspects of the mosquito larvae feeding habits and review the attempts that have been made to genetically engineer microorganisms that while are used by mosquito larvae as a food source should express the Bacillus toxin genes in order to improve the residuality and stability in the mosquito breeding ponds.

  11. Biology and behaviour of male mosquitoes in relation to new approaches to control disease transmitting mosquitoes

    Lees, R S; Knols, B.; Bellini, R; M. Q. Benedict; Bheecarry, A.; Bossin, H.C.; Chadee, D.D.; Charlwood, J.; Dabiré, R.K.; Djogbenou, L.; Eyir-Yawson, A.; Gato, R.; Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Hassan, M.M.; Khan, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The enormous burden placed on populations worldwide by mosquito-borne diseases, most notably malaria and dengue, is currently being tackled by the use of insecticides sprayed in residences or applied to bednets, and in the case of dengue vectors through reduction of larval breeding sites or larviciding with insecticides thereof. However, these methods are under threat from, amongst other issues, the development of insecticide resistance and the practical difficulty of maintaining long-term co...

  12. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: endemics and emerging outbreaks

    Seirin Lee, S.; Baker, R. E.; Gaffney, E.A.; White, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem,and can result in food shortages and disease endemics.Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods,the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pestresistance still remain,and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries,infecting over100 million worldwide in 2010.One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile...

  13. Biological control of mosquitoes in scrap tires in Brownsville, Texas, USA and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Uejio, Christopher K; Hayden, Mary H; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Lopez, Jose Luis Robles; Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Thompson, Gregory; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-06-01

    Dengue periodically circulates in southern Texas and neighboring Tamaulipas, Mexico; thus, a closer examination of human and vector ecology at the northern limits of North American transmission may improve prevention activities. Scrap tires produce large mosquito populations and increase the risk of dengue transmission. Some households choose not to pay tire disposal fees, and many tires are illegally dumped in residential areas. Biological control may provide low-cost and environmentally friendly mosquito control. This pilot study evaluated the ability of Mesocyclops longisetus to reduce mosquito populations in existing residential scrap tire piles. Mosquito populations were measured by the number of all mosquito pupae within tires or adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus near piles. Mesocyclops longisetus treated piles did not significantly reduce total mosquito pupae (P = 0.07) in Matamoros, Mexico. The study also evaluated the efficacy of native Toxorhynchites moctezuma which preferentially colonized tire piles under vegetation cover in Brownsville, TX. Toxorhynchites moctezuma larvae significantly reduced total mosquito pupae, but the strength of control diminished over time. PMID:25102598

  14. A blinded, controlled trial of an ultrasound device as mosquito repellent.

    Sylla el-H, K; Lell, B; Kremsner, P G

    2000-05-19

    Ultrasound emitting devices are used to repel mosquitoes. We tested the repelling properties of a commercially available ultrasound device in a domestic setting in Gabon. Devices emitting three different block frequencies ranging from 3 to 11 kHz were tested in a paired, cross-over blinded and placebo controlled trial during eighteen nights in nine pairs of houses. A total of 7485 mosquitoes (10% Anopheles, 62% Culex, 27% Mansonia and 1% Aedes) were caught, 23 per house per night. There was no significant difference in landing rate between the houses with ultrasound device and the houses with placebo for any species of mosquito. Thus the ultrasound device used was not effective against mosquitoes in this strictly controlled trial. PMID:10890136

  15. Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Shoo Bryson; Govella Nicodem J; Chaki Prosper P; Hemed Abdullah; Tanner Marcel; Fillinger Ulrike; Killeen Gerry F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP) in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs) to detect mosquito...

  16. High-throughput sorting of mosquito larvae for laboratory studies and for future vector control interventions

    Marois Eric

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito transgenesis offers new promises for the genetic control of vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Genetic control strategies require the release of large number of male mosquitoes into field populations, whether they are based on the use of sterile males (sterile insect technique, SIT or on introducing genetic traits conferring refractoriness to disease transmission (population replacement. However, the current absence of high-throughput techniques for sorting different mosquito populations impairs the application of these control measures. Methods A method was developed to generate large mosquito populations of the desired sex and genotype. This method combines flow cytometry and the use of Anopheles gambiae transgenic lines that differentially express fluorescent markers in males and females. Results Fluorescence-assisted sorting allowed single-step isolation of homozygous transgenic mosquitoes from a mixed population. This method was also used to select wild-type males only with high efficiency and accuracy, a highly desirable tool for genetic control strategies where the release of transgenic individuals may be problematic. Importantly, sorted males showed normal mating ability compared to their unsorted brothers. Conclusions The developed method will greatly facilitate both laboratory studies of mosquito vectorial capacity requiring high-throughput approaches and future field interventions in the fight against infectious disease vectors.

  17. Interplay of population genetics and dynamics in the genetic control of mosquitoes

    Alphey, Nina; Bonsall, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Some proposed genetics-based vector control methods aim to suppress or eliminate a mosquito population in a similar manner to the sterile insect technique. One approach under development in Anopheles mosquitoes uses homing endonuclease genes (HEGs)—selfish genetic elements (inherited at greater than Mendelian rate) that can spread rapidly through a population even if they reduce fitness. HEGs have potential to drive introduced traits through a population without large-scale sustained releases...

  18. An optimal control model of mosquito reduction management in a dengue endemic region

    Wijaya, Karunia Putra; Goetz, Thomas; Soewono, Edy

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is known as the responsible vector in transmitting dengue flavivirus. Unavailability of medication to cure the transmission in human blood becomes a global health issue in recent decades. World epidemiologists are encouraged to focus on inves- tigation toward an effective and inexpensive way to prevent dengue transmission, i.e. mosquito control. In this paper, we present a model depicting the dynamics of mosquito population based on indoor-outdoor life cycle classification. The ...

  19. Human exposure to mosquito-control pesticides--Mississippi, North Carolina, and Virginia, 2002 and 2003.

    2005-06-01

    Public health officials weigh the risk for mosquito-borne diseases against the risk for human exposure to pesticides sprayed to control mosquitoes. Response to outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases has focused on vector control through habitat reduction and application of pesticides that kill mosquito larvae. However, in certain situations, public health officials control adult mosquito populations by spraying ultra-low volume (ULV) (naled, permethrin, and d-phenothrin. These ULV applications generate aerosols of fine droplets of pesticides that stay aloft and kill mosquitoes on contact while minimizing the risk for exposure to persons, wildlife, and the environment. This report summarizes the results of studies in Mississippi, North Carolina, and Virginia that assessed human exposure to ULV naled, permethrin, and d-phenothrin used in emergency, large-scale MC activities. The findings indicated ULV application in MC activities did not result in substantial pesticide exposure to humans; however, public health interventions should focus on the reduction of home and workplace exposure to pesticides. PMID:15931155

  20. Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control

    Famenini Shannon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically-modified (GM mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. Methods The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. Results Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was

  1. Evaluation of biological control agents for mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places

    Salim Abadi Yaser; Vatandoost Hassan; Rassi Yavar; Abai Mohammad Reza; Sanei Dehkordi Ali Reza; Paksa Azim

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the entomological impact of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places.Methods:A Latin square design with 4 replicates was performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on larva. The larvicide was applied at the dosage of 100 mg a.h/ha,Bacillus thuringiensis at the recommended dosage and 10 fishes per m2 were applied at 1í1 m2 artificial breeding sites. The larval densities for both anopheline and culicine were counted according to larvae /10 dippers prior and 24 h after application.Results:All three control agents are effective for mosquito density reduction, and the difference between the three agents and the control is significant (P<0.05). There is also significant difference among chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis andGambusia affinis.Bacillus thuringiensisexhibited more reduction on mosquito larval density than fish and larvicide (P<0.05).Conclusions:Bacillus thuringiensis in comparison with two other agents is the appropriate method for larviciding in the breeding places. Although long term assessing for biological activities as well as monitoring and mapping of resistance is required.

  2. The use of remote sensing in mosquito control

    1973-01-01

    The technology of remote sensing, developed by the space program for identification of surface features from the vantage point of an aircraft or satellite, has substantial application in precisely locating mosquito breeding grounds. Preliminary results of the NASA technology working cooperatively with a city government agency in solving this problem are discussed.

  3. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas

    Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo,Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M.; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; GAD, ADEL M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discu...

  4. The effects of zooprophylaxis and other mosquito control measures against malaria in Nouna, Burkina Faso

    Sié Ali

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of large scale, organized vector control programmes, individual protective measures against mosquitoes are essential for reducing the transmission of diseases like malaria. Knowledge of the types and effectiveness of mosquito control methods used by households can aid in the development and promotion of preventive measures. Methods A matched, population-based case control study was carried out in the semi-urban region of Nouna, Burkina Faso. Surveys and mosquito captures were conducted for each participating household. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression and Pearson's product-moment correlations. Results In Nouna, Burkina Faso, the main types of reported mosquito control measures used included sleeping under bed nets (insecticide-treated and untreated and burning mosquito coils. Most of the study households kept animals within the compound or house at night. Insecticide house sprays, donkeys, rabbits and pigs were significantly associated with a reduced risk of malaria only in univariate analyses. Conclusion Given the conflicting results of the effects of zooprophylaxis from previous studies, other community-based preventive measures, such as bed nets, coils and insecticide house-spraying, may be of more benefit.

  5. Spread of Zika virus:The key role of mosquito vector control

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and ani-mals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemi-sphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chikungunya. Since there are no specific treatments for Zika virus and the other arboviruses mentioned above, it should be highlighted that the eco-friendly and effective control of mosquito vectors is of pivotal importance. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in presence of ultra-low quantities of green-synthesized nano-particles, which magnify their predation efficiency. Furthermore, behaviour-based control tools relying on the employ of swarming behaviour manipulation (i.e. the“lure and kill”approach), pheromone traps, sound traps need further research attention. In particular, detailed basic information on the physical and chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is urgently required.

  6. The use of bacterial larvicides in mosquito and black fly control programmes in Brazil

    Regis Lêda

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus spp. based larvides are increasingly replacing, with numerous advantages, chemical insecticides in programmes for controlling black fly and mosquito populations. Brazil was among the pioneers in adopting Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i to control black flies. However, the major current mosquito control programme in Brazil, the Programme for Eradication of Aedes aegypti launched in 1997, only recently decided to replace temephos by B.t.i based larvicides, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. In the last decade, works developed by research groups in Brazilian institutions have generated a significant contribution to this subject through the isolation of B. sphaericus new strains, the development of new products and the implementation of field trials of Bacillus efficacy against mosquito species under different environmental conditions.

  7. Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control.

    Smith, David L; Perkins, T Alex; Reiner, Robert C; Barker, Christopher M; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M; George, Dylan B; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummings, Derek A T; Garcia, Andres J; Gatton, Michelle L; Gething, Peter W; Hartley, David M; Johnston, Geoffrey; Klein, Eili Y; Michael, Edwin; Lloyd, Alun L; Pigott, David M; Reisen, William K; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Singh, Brajendra K; Stoller, Jeremy; Tatem, Andrew J; Kitron, Uriel; Godfray, H Charles J; Cohen, Justin M; Hay, Simon I; Scott, Thomas W

    2014-04-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that identifies key vulnerabilities in the transmission cycle. That framework, especially Macdonald's formula for R0 and its entomological derivative, vectorial capacity, are now used to study dynamics and design interventions for many mosquito-borne diseases. A systematic review of 388 models published between 1970 and 2010 found that the vast majority adopted the Ross-Macdonald assumption of homogeneous transmission in a well-mixed population. Studies comparing models and data question these assumptions and point to the capacity to model heterogeneous, focal transmission as the most important but relatively unexplored component in current theory. Fine-scale heterogeneity causes transmission dynamics to be nonlinear, and poses problems for modeling, epidemiology and measurement. Novel mathematical approaches show how heterogeneity arises from the biology and the landscape on which the processes of mosquito biting and pathogen transmission unfold. Emerging theory focuses attention on the ecological and social context for mosquito blood feeding, the movement of both hosts and mosquitoes, and the relevant spatial scales for measuring transmission and for modeling dynamics and control. PMID:24591453

  8. Evaluation of nontarget effects of methoprene applied to catch basins for mosquito control

    Butler, Mari; Ginsberg, Howard S.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Gettman, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The mosquito larvicide methoprene is a juvenile growth hormone mimic that is widely used to control mosquito larvae in stormwater catch basins. This study addresses two concerns pertaining to methoprene's use for mosquito control. First, measurements of methoprene concentrations were made from water in catch basins that had been treated with methoprene and from an adjoining salt pond near where the treated catch basins emptied. The concentrations of methoprene in catch basins and at drainage outlets after application at the rates currently used for mosquito control in southern Rhode Island were 0.5 ppb and lower, orders of magnitude below what has been determined as detrimental to organisms other than mosquitoes. Second, the effects of methoprene on the communities that live in catch basins were evaluated both in simulated catch basins in the laboratory and in actual catch basins in the field. We found no evidence of declines in abundances of any taxa attributable to the application. Furthermore, we found no consistent changes in community-level parameters (e.g., taxonomic richness, and dominance-diversity relationships) related to methoprene application in either field or laboratory trials.

  9. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    Seirin Lee, S.

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America - a 24th symposium

    The 24th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 80th Annual Meeting in Seattle, WA in February 2014. The principal objective, as for the previous 23 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control spe...

  11. Web mapping GIS: GPS under the GIS umbrella for Aedes species dengue and chikungunya vector mosquito surveillance and control

    M. Palaniyandi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito nuisance and the mosquito borne diseases have become major important challenging public health problems in India especially in the fast developing city like Pondicherry urban agglomeration. The Pondicherry government has been implemented full-fledged mosquito control measures, however, dengue and chikungunya epidemics was accelerating trend in Pondicherry for the recent years, and therefore, the directorate of public health, Pondicherry was requested vector control research centre (VCRC, to conduct a mosquito control evaluation survey. A team of field staff of VCRC headed by the author, Pondicherry, have conducted a detailed reconnaissance survey for collecting the site specifications of houses and the streetwise mosquito data for analyzing the density of vector mosquitoes in the wards / blocks and delineating the areas vulnerable to disease epidemics in the urban areas. The GPS GARMIN 12 XL was used to collect the field data. The ARC GIS 10.0 software was used to map the site locations (houses with mosquito’s data. The digital map of block boundary of Pondicherry was used for mapping purpose. A systematic grid sampling was applied to conduct a rapid survey for mapping Aedes species mosquito genic condition in the urban areas and the coordinates of sites of house information with breeding habitats positive in the grid sectors was collected using GPS, and the mean value of positive habitats was analyzed by quintiles method for mapping. The four blocks were selected for Aedes mosquito survey where the mosquito problem was identified as comparatively high, four numbers of wards were selected from each block, and the 40 number of houses was selected with 100 meter interval distance for mosquito breeding survey in the domestic and peripheral domestic areas in each wards. The problematic areas were identified, highlighted and recommended for web mapping GIS for Aedes mosquito surveillance continuously for monitoring the mosquito control

  12. Prevention and control of Zika fever as a mosquito-borne and sexually transmitted disease

    GAO, DAOZHOU; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C.; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic poses a major global public health emergency. It is known that ZIKV is spread by \\textit{Aedes} mosquitoes, recent studies show that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact and cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV have been confirmed in the U.S., France, and Italy. How sexual transmission affects the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We presented a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual ...

  13. Study of mosquito control using larvivorous ifsh Danio rerio Hamilton andOreochromis mossambicus Peters

    Subramanian Arivoli; Rajan Maheswaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larval consumption rate ofDanio rerio (D. rerio) and Oreochromis mossambicus (O. mossambicus) for the control of filarial vector mosquitoCulex quinquefasciatus(Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: The fishesD. rerio andO. mossambicus were tested by feeding assay againstCx. quinquefasciatus for 24 h. Results: After 24 h of feeding assay the fishesD. rerio andO. mossambicus exhibited potential reduction rate ofCx. quinquefasciatus larvae. Conclusions:The present research work demonstrates that theD. rerio andO. mossambicus can be used for integrated mosquito management, which is simple and safe to non target organisms.

  14. Mosquito development and biological control in a macrophyte-based wastewater treatment plant.

    Kengne Noumsi, I M; Akoa, A; Atangana Eteme, R; Nya, J; Ngniado, P; Fonkou, T; Brissaud, F

    2005-01-01

    A one-year study of the proliferation of mosquito in a Pistia stratiotes-based waste stabilization ponds in Cameroon revealed that Mansonia and Culex were the main breeding genera with about 55% and 42% of the total imagoes respectively. Though the ponds represent a favorable breeding ground for mosquitoes, only 0.02% of captured imagoes was Anopheles gambiae, suggesting that this wastewater treatment plant does not significantly contribute to the development of the malaria vector in the area. Gambusia sp. introduced to control mosquito population in the ponds acclimatized relatively well in most of the ponds (B3-B7) and their feeding rate without any diet ranged from 15.0 to 50.2 larvae/day for a single fish. PMID:16114683

  15. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in a rural community in northwestern Tanzania

    Nnko, Soori; Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Geissler, Wenzel;

    2012-01-01

    in Mwanza region, North-Western Tanzania. The study explores reasons for scepticism and low uptake of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) that were promoted through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of long lasting nets (LLN). The paper breaks from...

  16. Design and development of aqueous nanoformulations for mosquito control.

    Montefuscoli, Antonela Rita; Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Palma, Santiago Daniel; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2014-02-01

    Microemulsions (ME) are thermodynamically stable isotropic mixtures of oil, water, and surfactant; they would also be attractive as potential insecticidal products due to the high bioviability of the active ingredient, attributable to the small sizes of the oil drops. A laboratory study was conducted in order to compare the biological effect of oil in water (o/w) geranium essential oil (EO) and geraniol MEs and emulsions, against Culex pipiens pipiens mosquito larvae. The systems were based on three nonionic surfactants (Cremophor EL, Brij 35, Tween 80). The MEs showed dispersed phase diameters in the range of 8 to 14 nm and had low PDI values (management program for the C. pipiens pipiens. PMID:24292544

  17. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Cassia roxburghii-a most potent power for mosquito control.

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Cassia roxburghii plant leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were determined. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extracts (60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 μg/mL) for 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Compare to aqueous extracted synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values that were 26.35, 28.67, 31.27 and 48.81, 53.24, and 58.11 μg/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of C. roxburghii to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach, and the AgNPs formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. Therefore, this study proves that C. roxburghii is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent. This is the first report on the larvicidal activity of the plant extract and AgNPs. PMID:26276645

  18. Biorational insecticides for control of mosquitoes and black flies in Sinaloa

    Cipriano García Gutiérrez; Rosa Luz Gómez Peraza; Claudia E. López Aguilar; Arturo León Váldez

    2012-01-01

    In Sinaloa Mexico the presence of mosquitoes is a important health problem, and each spring-summer season appear several species which include: Aedes aegypti (Linneus), Anopheles albimanus (Wiedemann), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and black flies of the Simulidae family. The control of larvae and adults of these insects are usually performed with chemical insecticides, so the use of biorational insecticides for control of these insects is novel, due to that have low environment impact. The ob...

  19. Interplay between insecticide-treated bed-nets and mosquito demography: implications for malaria control.

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal; Zhao, Ruijun; Prosper, Olivia

    2016-05-21

    Although malaria prevalence has witnessed a significant reduction within the past decade, malaria still constitutes a major health and economic problem, especially to low-income countries. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) remain one of the primary measures for preventing the malignant disease. Unfortunately, the success of ITN campaigns is hampered by improper use and natural decay in ITN-efficacy over time. Many models aimed at studying malaria transmission and control fail to account for this decay, as well as mosquito demography and feeding preferences exhibited by mosquitoes towards humans. Omitting these factors can misrepresent disease risk, while understanding their effects on malaria dynamics can inform control policy. We present a model for malaria dynamics that incorporates these factors, and a systematic analysis, including stability and sensitivity analyses of the model under different conditions. The model with constant ITN-efficacy exhibits a backward bifurcation emphasizing the need for sustained control measures until the basic reproduction number, R0, drops below a critical value at which control is feasible. The infectious and partially immune human populations and R0 are highly sensitive to the probability that a mosquito feeds successfully on a human, ITN coverage and the maximum biting rate of mosquitoes, irrespective of whether ITN-efficacy is constant or declines over time. This implies that ITNs play an important role in disease control. When ITN-efficacy wanes over time, we identify disease risks and corresponding ITN coverage, as well as feeding preference levels for which the disease can be controlled or eradicated. Our study leads to important insights that could assist in the design and implementation of better malaria control strategies. We conclude that ITNs that can retain their effectiveness for longer periods will be more appropriate in the fight against malaria and that making more ITNs available to highly endemic regions is

  20. Optimal strategies for Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: endemics and emerging outbreaks

    Seirin Lee, S.; Baker, R. E.; Gaffney, E.A.; White, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the...

  1. Persistent oscillations and backward bifurcation in a malaria model with varying human and mosquito populations: implications for control.

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Teboh-Ewungkem, Miranda I; Ngwa, Gideon A

    2015-06-01

    We derive and study a deterministic compartmental model for malaria transmission with varying human and mosquito populations. Our model considers disease-related deaths, asymptomatic immune humans who are also infectious, as well as mosquito demography, reproduction and feeding habits. Analysis of the model reveals the existence of a backward bifurcation and persistent limit cycles whose period and size is determined by two threshold parameters: the vectorial basic reproduction number Rm, and the disease basic reproduction number R0, whose size can be reduced by reducing Rm. We conclude that malaria dynamics are indeed oscillatory when the methodology of explicitly incorporating the mosquito's demography, feeding and reproductive patterns is considered in modeling the mosquito population dynamics. A sensitivity analysis reveals important control parameters that can affect the magnitudes of Rm and R0, threshold quantities to be taken into consideration when designing control strategies. Both Rm and the intrinsic period of oscillation are shown to be highly sensitive to the mosquito's birth constant λm and the mosquito's feeding success probability pw. Control of λm can be achieved by spraying, eliminating breeding sites or moving them away from human habitats, while pw can be controlled via the use of mosquito repellant and insecticide-treated bed-nets. The disease threshold parameter R0 is shown to be highly sensitive to pw, and the intrinsic period of oscillation is also sensitive to the rate at which reproducing mosquitoes return to breeding sites. A global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveals that the ability of the mosquito to reproduce and uncertainties in the estimations of the rates at which exposed humans become infectious and infectious humans recover from malaria are critical in generating uncertainties in the disease classes. PMID:24992885

  2. QTL Mapping of Genome Regions Controlling Temephos Resistance in Larvae of the Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Guadalupe Del Carmen Reyes-Solis; Karla Saavedra-Rodriguez; Adriana Flores Suarez; Black, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever flaviviruses. Temephos is an organophosphate insecticide used globally to suppress Ae. aegypti larval populations but resistance has evolved in many locations. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) controlling temephos survival in Ae. aegypti larvae were mapped in a pair of F3 advanced intercross lines arising from temephos resistant parents from Solidaridad, México and temephos s...

  3. Pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes

    NANNAN LIU; QIANG XU; FANG ZHU; LEE ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Repeated blood feedings throughout their life span have made mosquitoes ideal transmitters of a wide variety of disease agents. Vector control is a very important part of the current global strategy for the control of mosquito-associated diseases and insecticide application is the most important component in this effort. Pyrethroids, which account for 25% of the world insecticide market, are currently the most widely used insecticides for the indoor control of mosquitoes and are the only chemical recommended for the treatment of mosquito nets, the main tool for preventing malaria in Africa. However, mosquito-borne diseases are now resurgent, largely because of insecticide resistance that has developed in mosquito vectors and the anti-parasite drug resistance of parasites. This paper reviews our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing metabolic detoxification and the development of target site insensitivity that leads to pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes.

  4. Characteristics of mangrove swamps managed for mosquito control in eastern Florida, USA

    Middleton, B.; Devlin, D.; Proffitt, E.; McKee, K.; Cretini, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulations of the vegetation and hydrology of wetlands for mosquito control are common worldwide, but these modifications may affect vital ecosystem processes. To control mosquitoes in mangrove swamps in eastern Florida, managers have used rotational impoundment management (RIM) as an alternative to the worldwide practice of mosquito ditching. Levees surround RIM swamps, and water is pumped into the impoundment during the summer, a season when natural swamps have low water levels. In the New World, these mosquito-managed swamps resemble the mixed basin type of mangrove swamp (based on PCA analysis). An assessment was made of RIM, natural (control), and breached-RIM (restored) swamps in eastern Florida to compare their structural complexities, soil development, and resistance to invasion. Regarding structural complexity, dominant species composition differed between these swamps; the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle occurred at a higher relative density in RIM and breached-RIM swamps, and the black mangrove Avicennia germinans had a higher relative density in natural swamps. Tree density and canopy cover were higher and tree height lower in RIM swamps than in natural and breached-RIM swamps. Soil organic matter in RIM swamps was twice that in natural or breached-RIM swamps. RIM swamps had a lower resistance to invasion by the Brazilian pepper tree Schinus terebinthifolius, which is likely attributable to the lower porewater salinity in RIM swamps. These characteristics may reflect differences in important ecosystem processes (primary production, trophic structure, nutrient cycling, decomposition). Comparative assessments of managed wetlands are vital for land managers, so that they can make informed decisions compatible with conservation objectives. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  5. Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control.

    Benelli, Giovanni; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-05-01

    The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, and RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America and the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations and even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps and the

  6. Risk and Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Southeast Asian Rubber Plantations.

    Tangena, Julie-Anne A; Thammavong, Phoutmany; Wilson, Anne L; Brey, Paul T; Lindsay, Steve W

    2016-05-01

    Unprecedented economic growth in Southeast Asia (SEA) has encouraged the expansion of rubber plantations. This land-use transformation is changing the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. Mature plantations provide ideal habitats for the mosquito vectors of malaria, dengue, and chikungunya. Migrant workers may introduce pathogens into plantation areas, most worryingly artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites. The close proximity of rubber plantations to natural forest also increases the threat from zoonoses, where new vector-borne pathogens spill over from wild animals into humans. There is therefore an urgent need to scale up vector control and access to health care for rubber workers. This requires an intersectoral approach with strong collaboration between the health sector, rubber industry, and local communities. PMID:26907494

  7. CLONING AND EXPRESSING TRYPSIN MODULATING OOSTATIC FACTOR IN Chlorella desiccata TO CONTROL MOSQUITO LARVAE.

    Borovsky, Dov; Sterner, Andeas; Powell, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    The insect peptide hormone trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), a decapeptide that is synthesized by the mosquito ovary and controls the translation of the gut's trypsin mRNA was cloned and expressed in the marine alga Chlorella desiccata. To express Aedes aegypti TMOF gene (tmfA) in C. desiccata cells, two plasmids (pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA) were engineered with pKYLX71 DNA (5 Kb) carrying the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter 35S(2) and the kanamycin resistant gene (neo), as well as, a 8 Kb nitrate reductase gene (nit) from Chlorella vulgaris. Transforming C. desiccata with pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA show that the engineered algal cells express TMOF (20 ± 4 μg ± SEM and 17 ± 3 μg ± SEM, respectively in 3 × 10(8) cells) and feeding the cells to mosquito larvae kill 75 and 60% of Ae. aegypti larvae in 4 days, respectively. Southern and Northern blots analyses show that tmfA integrated into the genome of C. desiccata by homologous recombination using the yeast 2 μ circle of replication and the nit in pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA, respectively, and the transformed algal cells express tmfA transcript. Using these algal cells it will be possible in the future to control mosquito larvae in the marsh. PMID:26440910

  8. Monitoring the aquatic toxicity of mosquito vector control spray pesticides to freshwater receiving waters.

    Phillips, Bryn M; Anderson, Brian S; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Siegler, Katie; Denton, Debra; TenBrook, Patti; Larsen, Karen; Isorena, Philip; Tjeerdema, Ron S

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides are applied to state and local waterways in California to control insects such as mosquitoes, which are known to serve as a vector for West Nile Virus infection of humans. The California State Water Resources Control Board adopted a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System General Permit to address the discharge to waters of the United States of pesticides resulting from adult and larval mosquito control. Because pesticides used in spray activities have the potential to cause toxicity to nontarget organisms in receiving waters, the current study was designed to determine whether toxicity testing provides additional, useful environmental risk information beyond chemical analysis in monitoring spray pesticide applications. Monitoring included a combination of aquatic toxicity tests and chemical analyses of receiving waters from agricultural, urban, and wetland habitats. The active ingredients monitored included the organophosphate pesticides malathion and naled, the pyrethroid pesticides etofenprox, permethrin, and sumithrin, pyrethrins, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Approximately 15% of the postapplication water samples were significantly toxic. Toxicity of half of these samples was attributed to the naled breakdown product dichlorvos. Toxicity of 2 other water samples likely occurred when PBO synergized the effects of pyrethroid pesticides that were likely present in the receiving system. Four of 43 postapplication sediment samples were significantly more toxic than their corresponding pre-application samples, but none of the observed toxicity was attributed to the application events. These results indicate that many of the spray pesticides used for adult mosquito control do not pose significant acute toxicity risk to invertebrates in receiving systems. In the case of naled in water, analysis of only the active ingredient underestimated potential impacts to the receiving system, because toxicity was attributed to the breakdown product, dichlorvos

  9. Ecology and control of dengue vector mosquitoes in Taiwan.

    Chen, Y R; Hwang, J S; Guo, Y J

    1994-12-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and social changes in recent years, the use of packing materials and tires has dramatically increased in the Taiwan area. What is more is that some parts of southern Taiwan are short of water resources and water preservation with huge containers becomes part of custom in those areas. Storage water containers, waste vessels and tires are good habitats for Aedes. Meanwhile, some persons traveling to dengue endemic countries bring the dengue disease back to Taiwan. Surveys taken since 1988 show that dengue occurs mainly in the urban and coastal areas where Aedes aegypti is prevalent. This species is the most important, if not the only, vector of dengue in Taiwan. It appears that the types of Aedes breeding have changed quickly. In dengue fever epidemic areas, the most popular breeding sites are ornamental containers (38.8%), storage water containers (30.1%), discarded containers (25.4%), receptacles (3.3%) and water collection in the basement (2.2%). In dengue fever epidemic areas, those building basements, huge water containers, waste vessels and waste tires in open fields are most difficult to clean up and manage and become the most popular Aedes habitats. We established a waste recycling system and promoted a breeding site reduction campaign for waste management, including the application of Temephos in containers to kill larvae. For the drinking water management, fish were released in water containers to prevent larval breeding. It should be mentioned that with the integrated pest control and regular inspections of Aedes larvae in Taiwan the density figures 1, 2-5, and 6 or above for Aedes aegypti were 38.7%, 42.9%, and 18.4%, respectively, in 1988, and in 1993 were 90.8%, 9.2% and 0%. The incidence of dengue fever cases has 98% decreased since 1988. In 1990 and 1993, there was no indigenous cases. We have concluded that integrated pest control is the best and most effective method for dengue fever control, including

  10. Cost-effectiveness of novel system of mosquito surveillance and control, Brazil.

    Pepin, Kim M; Marques-Toledo, Cecilia; Scherer, Luciano; Morais, Maira M; Ellis, Brett; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2013-04-01

    Of all countries in the Western Hemisphere, Brazil has the highest economic losses caused by dengue fever. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a novel system of vector surveillance and control, Monitoramento Inteligente da Dengue (Intelligent Dengue Monitoring System [MID]), which was implemented in 21 cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Traps for adult female mosquitoes were spaced at 300-m intervals throughout each city. In cities that used MID, vector control was conducted specifically at high-risk sites (indicated through daily updates by MID). In control cities, vector control proceeded according to guidelines of the Brazilian government. We estimated that MID prevented 27,191 cases of dengue fever and saved an average of $227 (median $58) per case prevented, which saved approximately $364,517 in direct costs (health care and vector control) and $7,138,940 in lost wages (societal effect) annually. MID was more effective in cities with stronger economies and more cost-effective in cities with higher levels of mosquito infestation. PMID:23628282

  11. Declining Malaria, Rising of Dengue and Zika virus: Insights for Mosquito Vector Control.

    Benelli, Giovanni; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve a...

  12. Distribution and migration of pesticide residues in mosquito control impoundments St. Lucie County, Florida, USA

    Parkinson, R. W.; Wang, T. C.; White, J. R.; David, J. R.; Hoffman, M. E.

    1993-09-01

    This project was designed to: (1) document the distribution and migration of organochlorine pesticide residues within marsh substrates of 18 St. Lucie County mosquito control impoundments located along the Indian River Lagoon estuary, and (2) evaluate the impact of water management techniques on residue mobility. Our results indicate that detectible concentrations of organochlorine compounds, applied between the late 1940s and early 1950s, are present in 16 of the 18 St. Lucie County mosquito control impoundments. These compounds are primarily restricted to the surficial, organic-rich wetland sediment, which, based upon geotechnical analysis, was exposed to the atmosphere at a time when the impoundments were subjected to pesticide treatment. Contaminated sediments are present below the surficial, organic-rich layer, suggesting that some vertical migration of pesticides has occurred. It is unlikely that leaching associated with the downward percolation of impounded water was responsible for this migration as pesticide residues were never detected within the in situ pore waters. An alternative explanation is that biological processes (e.g., rooting, burrowing) facilitated the downward flux of organochlorine compounds into sediment horizons not subjected to direct treatment. Eighty-eight surface water samples obtained from two impoundments subjected to contrasting water management techniques were analyzed for pesticide content. None of the surficial water samples collected in association with these impoundments contained detectible concentrations of organochlorine compounds. These samples were unfiltered and contained as much as 25 mg/1 of particulate organic matter. This suggests that the currently preferred management technique (RIM), which is designed to maintain water quality, limit mosquito production, and provide for ecological continuity, does not hydraulically mobilize pesticide residues into the Indian River Lagoon estuary.

  13. Mosquito Control

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  14. Mosquito Immunity against Arboviruses

    Shuzhen Sim; Natapong Jupatanakul; George Dimopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundam...

  15. Aerial and tidal transport of mosquito control pesticides into the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    This project was undertaken as the initial monitoring program to determine if mosquito adulticides applied along the Florida Keys cause adverse ecological effects in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS). The study monitored the distribution and persistente of two mosquito adulticides, permethrin and dibrom (naled), during three separate routine applications by the Florida Keys Mosquito Control District. The approach was to determine if toxic concentrations of the pesticides entered the FKNMS by aerial drift or tidal transport. The amount of pesticide entering the FKNMS by way of aerial drift was monitored by collection on glass fiber filter pads, set on floats in a grid pattern on either side of the FKNMS. Permethrin was recovered from filter pads on the leeward side for each of the three applications, ranging from 0.5 to 50.1 μg/m2 throughout the study. Tidal current transport was monitored by collection of surface and subsurface water samples at each grid site. Tidal transport of naled and dichlorvos (naled degradation product) was apparent in the adjacent waters of the FKNMS. These compounds were detected in subsurface, offshore water at 0.1 to 0.6 gg/l, 14 hr after application. Permethrin was not detected in offshore water samples; however, concentrations ranging from 5.1 to 9.4 μg/1 were found in surface water from the canal system adjacent to the application route. Comparison of the observed environmental concentrations with toxicity data (permethrin LC-50, 96 hr for Mysidopsis bahia = 0.02 μg/1) indicated a potential hazard to marine invertebrates in the canals with possible tidal transport to other areas

  16. Aerial and tidal transport of mosquito control pesticides into the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary.

    Pierce, R H; Henry, M S; Blum, T C; Mueller, E M

    2005-05-01

    This project was undertaken as the initial monitoring program to determine if mosquito adulticides applied along the Florida Keys cause adverse ecological effects in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS). The study monitored the distribution and persistence of two mosquito adulticides, permethrin and dibrom (naled), during three separate routine applications by the Florida Keys Mosquito Control District. The approach was to determine if toxic concentrations of the pesticides entered the FKNMS by aerial drift or tidal transport. The amount of pesticide entering the FKNMS by way of aerial drift was monitored by collection on glass fiber filter pads, set on floats in a grid pattern on either side of the FKNMS. Permethrin was recovered from filter pads on the leeward side for each of the three applications, ranging from 0.5 to 50.1 microg/m(2) throughout the study. Tidal current transport was monitored by collection of surface and subsurface water samples at each grid site. Tidal transport of naled and dichlorvos (naled degradation product) was apparent in the adjacent waters of the FKNMS. These compounds were detected in subsurface, offshore water at 0.1 to 0.6 microg/1, 14 hr after application. Permethrin was not detected in offshore water samples; however, concentrations ranging from 5.1 to 9.4 microg/l were found in surface water from the canal system adjacent to the application route. Comparison of the observed environmental concentrations with toxicity data (permethrin LC-50, 96 hr for Mysidopsis bahia = 0.02 microg/l) indicated a potential hazard to marine invertebrates in the canals with possible tidal transport to other areas. PMID:17465151

  17. Modeling the Spread and Control of the Asian Tiger Mosquito in Los Angeles

    Barker, C.; Montecino, D.; Marcantonio, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is among the world's most invasive species. Its spread has been facilitated by rapid global transport of cargo and potentially by the warming of climate, and it is now established on every continent except Antarctica. This species represents a "triple threat" to human health, being a day-biting pest, a competent vector of globally important dengue and chikungunya viruses, and a potential bridge vector of several zoonotic arboviruses. As a result of its importance, the biology of Ae. albopictus is also well-studied, but the fine-scale processes by which it becomes established in a given location are poorly understood. This is because even intensive surveillance systems yield limited information during the early phase of invasions when densities are low, and detection often occurs after populations are relatively widespread. Fine-scale spatial models for mosquito dynamics and movement offer a way forward, marrying our understanding of Ae. albopictus biology with surveillance paradigms and detailed data on the real landscapes where invasions occur. This presentation will consider the impacts of climate on the biology of Ae. albopictus and explore their implications for the ongoing invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Los Angeles since 2011. We have used hierarchical modeling to account for heterogeneities in household-level suitability, then we modeled the stochastic dynamics of Ae. albopictus on this landscape using the suitability surface and a temperature-dependent, dynamical model for reproduction and spread. I will discuss the modeling approach and use the model results to answer policy-relevant questions related to our ability to detect and control these highly invasive mosquitoes.

  18. Door to Door Survey and Community Participation to Implement a New County Mosquito Control Program in Wayne County, North Carolina, USA

    Grantham, Amanda; Anderson, Alice L.; Kelley, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Community involvement in mosquito management programs provides more sustainable and effective organization and service. A door to door survey in Wayne County, NC carried out by student volunteers, resulted in 60 household responses. Residents had not previously experienced outreach from the county (88%), and 95% of them thought the student door to door survey was an effective form of outreach. One third of the residents thought mosquitoes were severe where they lived, but only 9% thought they had any containers in their yard that might breed mosquitoes. Only 15% of the residents were concerned about mosquito borne diseases. These responses provide evidence that outreach and education on mosquito control and diseases were necessary steps for future mosquito control community planning. PMID:19742152

  19. The Importance of Age Dependent Mortality and the Extrinsic Incubation Period in Models of Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission and Control

    Bellan, Steve E.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all mathematical models of vector-borne diseases have assumed that vectors die at constant rates. However, recent empirical research suggests that mosquito mortality rates are frequently age dependent. This work develops a simple mathematical model to assess how relaxing the classical assumption of constant mortality affects the predicted effectiveness of anti-vectorial interventions. The effectiveness of mosquito control when mosquitoes die at age dependent rates was also compared acr...

  20. A global assembly of adult female mosquito mark-release-recapture data to inform the control of mosquito-borne pathogens

    Guerra, C.A.; Reiner Jr, R.C.; Perkins, T.A.; Lindsay, S.W.; Midega, J.T.; Brady, O.J.; Barker, C.M.; Reisen, W.K.; Harrington, L.C.; Takken, W.; Kitron, U.; Lloyd, A.L.; Hay, S.I.; Scott, T.W.; Smith, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathogen transmission by mosquitos is known to be highly sensitive to mosquito bionomic parameters. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a standard method for estimating such parameters including dispersal, population size and density, survival, blood feeding frequency a

  1. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8B: Mosquito Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    Schulze, Terry L., Ed.; Kriner, Ray R., Ed.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the mimimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the mosquito control category. The text discusses the aspects of mosquito biology and control by biological, mechanical, and integrated measures. A study guide with sample and study questions is included.…

  2. Wolbachia-Based Population Control Strategy Targeting Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes Proves Efficient under Semi-Field Conditions : Wolbachia-Based Control of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Julien Cattel; Cyrille Lebon; Olivier Flores; Jean-Sébastien Dehecq; Mylène Weill; Louis Clément Gouagna; Pablo Tortosa

    2015-01-01

    In mosquitoes, the maternally inherited bacterial Wolbachia induce a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). This property can be used to reduce the density of mosquito field populations through inundative releases of incompatible males in order to sterilize females (Incompatible Insect Technique, or IIT, strategy). We have previously constructed the LR[wPip(Is)] line representing a good candidate for controlling field populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mos...

  3. Biorational insecticides for control of mosquitoes and black flies in Sinaloa

    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa Mexico the presence of mosquitoes is a important health problem, and each spring-summer season appear several species which include: Aedes aegypti (Linneus, Anopheles albimanus (Wiedemann, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say and black flies of the Simulidae family. The control of larvae and adults of these insects are usually performed with chemical insecticides, so the use of biorational insecticides for control of these insects is novel, due to that have low environment impact. The objective of this work is to give known to the different biorational insecticides and their biological effects (inhibitor, insect repellent, larvicide, adulticide, that can be used to combat to different development stages of these insects. As well as show the progress of a study on the effectiveness of neem extracts, garlic, cinnamon, albahaca and cypermethrin at low doses (0.25,0.5 and 1ml/L, for control of larvae and adults of black flies in the unicipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa. By the mode of action, the biorational that can doing use for the control of theseinsects were: Spinosad, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner var. israeliensis for larvae control, Spinosad and Beauveria bassiana (Vuill. for adults; as well as extracts of neem, garlic, cinnamon and albahaca for both stages. The preliminary results of the study showed that the effectiveness application in tourist sites, through aerial spraying of cypermethrin at low doses and the plants extracts, allow low the index of larvae and infestation of mosquitoes and blackflies, decreasing the discomfort caused by these insects in the place of study.

  4. 电子驱灭蚊蝇技术的研究%Electronic technology of mosquitoes control and repelling

    王钧; 陈明媛

    2013-01-01

      蚊蝇等害虫对人类的健康构成了危害。蚊香、灭蚊剂等传统的驱灭蚊子方法不仅使它们产生了抗药性,而且会造成环境污染[1]。本文通过分析蚊子的生活特性,利用现代电子技术、仿生学和物理技术等非化学方法实现了绿色驱灭蚊子。经实验研究,该方法比传统的方法更加环保、高效。%Pests such as mosquitoes are harm to human's health. Driving and killing mosquitoes by mosquito-repellent incense and anopheline in the traditional ways not only cause their developed resistance, and will cause environmental pollution [1]. Through analysis of the characteristics of mosquitoes, the modern electronic technology, bionics and physical technology, not chemical methods, have been realized controlling and repelling mosquitoes. After experimental research, the idea is better than the traditional method, with more environmental protection, high efficiency.

  5. Successful human infection with P. falciparum using three aseptic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes: a new model for controlled human malaria infection.

    Matthew B Laurens

    Full Text Available Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI is a powerful method for assessing the efficacy of anti-malaria vaccines and drugs targeting pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the parasite. CHMI has heretofore required the bites of 5 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf sporozoite (SPZ-infected mosquitoes to reliably induce Pf malaria. We reported that CHMI using the bites of 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically in compliance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP was successful in 6 participants. Here, we report results from a subsequent CHMI study using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to validate the initial clinical trial. We also compare results of safety, tolerability, and transmission dynamics in participants undergoing CHMI using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to published studies of CHMI using 5 mosquitoes. Nineteen adults aged 18-40 years were bitten by 3 Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with the chloroquine-sensitive NF54 strain of Pf. All 19 participants developed malaria (100%; 12 of 19 (63% on Day 11. The mean pre-patent period was 258.3 hours (range 210.5-333.8. The geometric mean parasitemia at first diagnosis by microscopy was 9.5 parasites/µL (range 2-44. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR detected parasites an average of 79.8 hours (range 43.8-116.7 before microscopy. The mosquitoes had a geometric mean of 37,894 PfSPZ/mosquito (range 3,500-152,200. Exposure to the bites of 3 aseptically-raised, PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes is a safe, effective procedure for CHMI in malaria-naïve adults. The aseptic model should be considered as a new standard for CHMI trials in non-endemic areas. Microscopy is the gold standard used for the diagnosis of Pf malaria after CHMI, but qPCR identifies parasites earlier. If qPCR continues to be shown to be highly specific, and can be made to be practical, rapid, and standardized, it should be considered as an alternative for diagnosis

  6. Mosquito RNAi is the major innate immune pathway controlling arbovirus infection and transmission

    Carol D. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses cause serious diseases in humans that are increasingly becoming public health problems, yet arbovirus infections cause minimal pathology in the mosquito vector, allowing persistent infections and lifelong virus transmission. The principal mosquito innate immune response to virus infections, RNAi, differs substantially from the human immune response and this difference could be the basis for the disparate outcomes of infection in the two hosts. Understanding the mosq...

  7. Genetics as a component of vector mosquito control in East Africa

    Among the proposed genetic control methods that have been tested with a degree of success are the release of sterile males, cytoplasmically incompatible strains and strains carrying chromosomal aberrations. In East Africa, the most important mosquitoes are Anopheles gambiae sensu strictu, which transmits malaria, filariasis and the O'nyong-nyong virus; An. arabiensis, which transmits malaria, filariasis and the Tatguine virus; and An. funestus, which transmits malaria, filariasis and the O'nyong-nyong and Tanga viruses. Other important vectors are Aedes simpsoni, which transmits yellow fever, and Ae. africanus, which is responsible for the forest cycle of the disease among monkeys. Cytological examination of specimens of An. gambiae sensu lato resulted in 804 positive identifications of the XB type chromosome only, indicating that An. arabiensis is the most abundant, and probably the only, member of the complex present, and constitutes close to 65.7% of the total mosquito population. Blood meal analysis of 1024 specimens showed its marked preference for bovid (51.9%) and human (28.1%) blood. Sporozoite rating by dissection and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay averaged 0.02%. Control methods tried in the past include chemical spraying and environmental management in the Kisumu area. A trial against An. arabiensis is suggested at Karima village, in Mwea, whereby an integrated approach incorporating environmental, chemical and genetic measures could be undertaken. This would take advantage of the low population during the dry season from mid-December to mid-April and would involve biological larviciding, mass pyrethrum spraying and the release of sterile males. There is a lack of adequate genetic knowledge of this species, especially genetic markers and linkage relationships, even though chromosome maps are available and inversion polymorphism is better understood. Notice should be taken of the reportedly discouraging results of genetic control trials, where failure

  8. Immatures of Lutzia fuscanus (Wiedemann,1820)(Dipter-a:Culicidae)in ricefields:implications for biological con-trol of vector mosquitoes

    Mihir Kumar Pramanik; Gautam Aditya

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Rice fields are dynamic mosquito larval habitats with assemblage of different predator taxa,inclu-ding the larva of the mosquitoes Lutzia.Entomological surveillance in the ricefields is essential to evaluate the potential of these predators as biological resource to regulate vector mosquito population.In view of this,a sur-vey of ricefields for immatures of different mosquito species including Lutzia was conducted.Methods:Survey of selected ricefields was carried out to evaluate the species composition of mosquitoes.Laboratory evaluation of the immatures of Lutzia mosquitoes was carried out to assess its predation potential using mosquitoes and chi-ronomid as preys.Results:The survey revealed the presence of five mosquito species belonging to the genera Anopheles and Culex and the predatory immatures of the mosquito Lutzia fuscana (Wiedemann,1820).The ra-tio of prey and predatory larva ranged between 1.46 and 4.78 during the study period,with a significant corre-lation on the relative abundance of the larval stages of Lt.fuscanus and Anopheles and Culex larvae.Under la-boratory conditions,a single IV instar larvae of Lt.fuscanus was found to consume on an average 5 to 15 equiv-alent instars of Anopheles sp.and Culex sp.larvae per day depending on its age.The prey consumption re-duced with the larval stage approaching pupation.When provided with equal numbers of chironomid and A-nopheles or Culex larvae,larva of Lt.fuscanus consumed mosquito larvae significantly more compared to chi-ronomids.Conclusion:The survey results and the preliminary study on predation are suggestive of the role of Lt.fuscanus in the regulation of vector mosquito populations naturally in the ricefields.Since Lt.fuscanus is common in many Asian countries,further studies on bioecology will be helpful to justify their use in mosquito control programme.

  9. An analysis of diet quality, how it controls fatty acid profiles, isotope signatures and stoichiometry in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis.

    Rebecca Hood-Nowotny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowing the underlying mechanisms of mosquito ecology will ensure effective vector management and contribute to the overall goal of malaria control. Mosquito populations show a high degree of population plasticity in response to environmental variability. However, the principle factors controlling population size and fecundity are for the most part unknown. Larval habitat and diet play a crucial role in subsequent mosquito fitness. Developing the most competitive insects for sterile insect technique programmes requires a "production" orientated perspective, to deduce the most effective larval diet formulation; the information gained from this process offers us some insight into the mechanisms and processes taking place in natural native mosquito habitats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fatty acid profiles and de-novo or direct assimilation pathways, of whole-individual mosquitoes reared on a range of larval diets were determined using pyrolysis gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. We used elemental analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure individual-whole-body carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous values and to assess the impact of dietary quality on subsequent population stoichiometry, size, quality and isotopic signature. Diet had the greatest impact on fatty acid (FA profiles of the mosquitoes, which exhibited a high degree of dietary routing, characteristic of generalist feeders. De-novo synthesis of a number of important FAs was observed. Mosquito C:N stoichiometry was fixed in the teneral stage. Dietary N content had significant influence on mosquito size, and P was shown to be a flexible pool which limited overall population size. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Direct routing of FAs was evident but there was ubiquitous de-novo synthesis suggesting mosquito larvae are competent generalist feeders capable of survival on diet with varying characteristics. It was concluded that nitrogen availability in the larval diet

  10. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis.

    Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523-6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123-45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes. PMID:27312324

  11. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis

    Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; He, Daihai; Porco, Travis C.; Kuang, Yang; Chowell, Gerardo; Ruan, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We introduce a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV and calibrate the model to ZIKV epidemic data from Brazil, Colombia, and El Salvador. Parameter estimates yielded a basic reproduction number 0 = 2.055 (95% CI: 0.523–6.300), in which the percentage contribution of sexual transmission is 3.044% (95% CI: 0.123–45.73). Our sensitivity analyses indicate that 0 is most sensitive to the biting rate and mortality rate of mosquitoes while sexual transmission increases the risk of infection and epidemic size and prolongs the outbreak. Prevention and control efforts against ZIKV should target both the mosquito-borne and sexual transmission routes. PMID:27312324

  12. Impact of Educational Intervention Regarding Mosquito Borne Diseases and Their Control Measures among The Link Workers of Urban Health Centers (UHCs of Ahmedabad City

    Fancy Manish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In urban area link workers are playing key role in implementing anti-larval measures and behaviour change communication at community level to prevent and control mosquito borne diseases. Objectives: To check baseline knowledge of link workers regarding mosquito borne diseases and control measures and assess their knowledge 14 days after single educational interventional training. Methodology: All 274 link workers of 17 selected UHCs out of total 57 UHCs were taken as study population and their baseline knowledge regarding mosquito borne diseases and mosquito control measures was assessed by questionnaire. Single educational training for 45 minutes was given to groups of link workers and their post– intervention knowledge for same was assessed after 14 days. Mean, Wilcoxon sign-rank test were applied. Results: Mean age of link workers was 31.3 + 4.8 years. The knowledge regarding Chikungunya, Dengue and Malaria was mosquito borne diseases was respectively 55.5%, 87.9% and 95.5% which was increase after intervention to 100%. But 14.4% did not know filariasis is mosquito borne disease even after training. All link workers know about the chemical (Temephos used for mosquito control (100% but knowledge of proper temephos dose for different volume of water containers was significantly improved after intervention. The overall knowledge regarding mosquito & mosquito control measures was significantly improved after intervention (p value <0.05. Conclusion: Even though link workers were involved in anti-larval activities since from many years, many link workers had poor knowledge regarding the mosquito borne diseases and control measures.

  13. Controle de mosquitos com base em larvicidas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: a escolha do agente de controle Mosquito control based on larvicides in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: choice of the control agent

    Antônio L. Ruas-Neto

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se neste estudo uma comparação entre larvicidas químicos e biológicos usados em programas de controle de mosquitos no Rio Grande do Sul. Em bioensaios de laboratório contra Culex quinquefasciatus constatou-se que as formulações biológicas líquidas Vectobac 12 AS e Teknar 3000 (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, ABG 6262 líquido e em pó (B. sphaericus 2362, foram altamente eficazes. Também as formulações experimentais de B. thuringiensis israelensis produzidas em laboratórios brasileiros foram consideradas adequadas. Entre as formulações químicas, os compostos piretróides Pirisa e K-Othrine produziram resultados melhores do que os organo-fosforados Lebaycid e Abate. Estes últimos produziram respostas dez vezes mais fracas do que o previsto em outros estudos. Em condições de campo, a dose de 1250 mg/m² para as formulações biológicas foi considerada adequada para a rotina das aplicações, porque permite superar as influências físicas do meio sobre os resultados. Somente as formulações de B. sphaericus produziram interrupções nas reinfestações dos focos de culicídeos observados. Períodos de até 39 semanas sem reinfestações foram observados em focos naturais e de um mês sem sobrevivência foi observado em tanques, onde procedia-se a reinfestação artificial. Este estudo sugere que as alternativas biológicas devem ser consideradas em programas de controle de mosquitos. Elas podem superar os problemas de resistência e eliminação, bem como da ausência de efeito residual nas aplicações de larvicidas.A comparison between chemical and biological larvicides in routine operations against mosquitoes in Rio Grande do Sul State was carried out in this study. In laboratory bioassays against Culex quinquefasciatus, biological formulations Vectobac 12 AS and Teknar 3000 (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis as well as ABG 6262 (B. sphaericus 2362, both in liquid and powder form, were highly effective

  14. Responses of salt marsh ecosystems to mosquito control management practices along the Atlantic Coast (U.S.A.)

    James-Pirri, Mary-Jane; Erwin, R. Michael; Prosser, Diann J.; Taylor, Janith D.

    2012-01-01

    Open marsh water management (OMWM) of salt marshes modifies grid-ditched marshes by creating permanent ponds and radial ditches in the high marsh that reduce mosquito production and enhance fish predation on mosquitoes. It is preferable to using pesticides to control salt marsh mosquito production and is commonly presented as a restoration or habitat enhancement tool for grid-ditched salt marshes. Monitoring of nekton, vegetation, groundwater level, soil salinity, and bird communities before and after OMWM at 11 (six treatment and five reference sites) Atlantic Coast (U.S.A.) salt marshes revealed high variability within and among differing OMWM techniques (ditch-plugging, reengineering of sill ditches, and the creation of ponds and radial ditches). At three marshes, the dominant nekton shifted from fish (primarily Fundulidae species) to shrimp (Palaemonidae species) after manipulations and shrimp density increased at other treatment sites. Vegetation changed at only two sites, one with construction equipment impacts (not desired) and one with a decrease in woody vegetation along existing ditches (desired). One marsh had lower groundwater level and soil salinity, and bird use, although variable, was often unrelated to OMWM manipulations. The potential effects of OMWM manipulations on non-target salt marsh resources need to be carefully considered by resource planners when managing marshes for mosquito control.

  15. Effects of mosquito control pesticides on competent queen conch (Strombus gigas) larvae.

    Delgado, Gabriel A; Glazer, Robert A; Wetzel, Dana

    2013-10-01

    Pesticides are applied seasonally in the Florida Keys to control nuisance populations of mosquitoes that pose a health threat to humans. There is, however, a need to investigate the effects of these pesticides on non-target marine organisms. We tested naled and permethrin, two mosquito adulticides used in the Keys, on a critical early life-history stage of queen conch (Strombus gigas). We conducted 12-h exposure experiments on competent (i.e., capable of undergoing metamorphosis) queen conch larvae using environmentally relevant pesticide concentrations. We found that there was little to no mortality and that the pesticides did not induce or interfere with metamorphosis. However, after introduction of a natural metamorphic cue (extract of the red alga Laurencia potei), a significantly greater proportion of larvae underwent metamorphosis in the pesticide treatments than in those with the alga alone. In addition to the morphogenetic pathway that induces metamorphosis when stimulated, there thus appears to be a regulatory pathway that enhances the response to metamorphic triggers, as suggested by the increased sensitivity of the queen conch larvae to the algal cue after pesticide exposure (i.e., the pesticides stimulated the regulatory pathway). The regulatory pathway probably plays a role in the identification of high-quality habitat for metamorphosis, as the increased response to the algal cue suggests. Aerial drift and runoff can carry these pesticides into nearshore waters, where they may act as a false signal of favorable conditions and facilitate metamorphosis in suboptimal habitat, thus adversely affecting recruitment in nearshore queen conch populations. PMID:24243960

  16. The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control

    Adrias Araceli Q

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently

  17. Two step male release strategy using transgenic mosquito lines to control transmission of vector-borne diseases.

    Carvalho, Danilo Oliveira; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Capurro, Margareth Lara

    2014-04-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of pathogens that cause devastating human diseases such as malaria and dengue. The current increase in mean global temperature and changing sea level interfere with precipitation frequency and some other climatic conditions which, in general, influence the rate of development of insects and etiologic agents causing acceleration as the temperature rises. The most common strategy employed to combat target mosquito species is the Integrated Vector Management (IVM), which comprises the use of multiple activities and various approaches to preventing the spread of a vector in infested areas. IVM programmes are becoming ineffective; and the global scenario is threatening, requiring new interventions for vector control and surveillance. Not surprisingly, there is a growing need to find alternative methods to combat the mosquito vectors. The possibility of using transgenic mosquitoes to fight against those diseases has been discussed over the last two decades and this use of transgenic lines to suppress populations or to replace them is still under investigation through field and laboratory trials. As an alternative, the available transgenic strategies could be improved by coupling suppression and substitution strategies. The idea is to first release a suppression line to significantly reduce the wild population, and once the first objective is reached a second release using a substitution line could be then performed. Examples of targeting this approach against vectors of malaria and dengue are discussed. PMID:24513036

  18. QTL mapping of genome regions controlling temephos resistance in larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Guadalupe Del Carmen Reyes-Solis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever flaviviruses. Temephos is an organophosphate insecticide used globally to suppress Ae. aegypti larval populations but resistance has evolved in many locations.Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL controlling temephos survival in Ae. aegypti larvae were mapped in a pair of F3 advanced intercross lines arising from temephos resistant parents from Solidaridad, México and temephos susceptible parents from Iquitos, Peru. Two sets of 200 F3 larvae were exposed to a discriminating dose of temephos and then dead larvae were collected and preserved for DNA isolation every two hours up to 16 hours. Larvae surviving longer than 16 hours were considered resistant. For QTL mapping, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified at 23 single copy genes and 26 microsatellite loci of known physical positions in the Ae. aegypti genome. In both reciprocal crosses, Multiple Interval Mapping identified eleven QTL associated with time until death. In the Solidaridad×Iquitos (SLD×Iq cross twelve were associated with survival but in the reciprocal IqxSLD cross, only six QTL were survival associated. Polymorphisms at acetylcholine esterase (AchE loci 1 and 2 were not associated with either resistance phenotype suggesting that target site insensitivity is not an organophosphate resistance mechanism in this region of México.Temephos resistance is under the control of many metabolic genes of small effect and dispersed throughout the Ae. aegypti genome.

  19. Why do we need alternative tools to control mosquito-borne diseases in Latin America?

    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this opinion paper, we discuss the potential and challenges of using the symbiont Wolbachia to block mosquito transmitted diseases such as dengue, malaria and chikungunya in Latin America.

  20. A device for monitoring and control of mosquitoes by behaviour manipulation.

    Vartak, P H; Tungikar, V B; Sharma, R N

    1994-09-01

    A trap was designed and fabricated for capturing mosquito larvae based on their behavioural responses to food and light. The larvae upon entering the trap died ultimately due to asphyxiation. Maximum success was achieved with Aedes aegypti larvae in lesser water volumes. The usefulness of the device for studying the response of mosquito larvae and aquatic organisms to chemicals, baits, light, various stimuli and possible pest/vector monitoring and management in aquatic eco-system is discussed. PMID:7814048

  1. Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review

    Márcia Aparecida Sperança

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, are not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

  2. Assessing key safety concerns of a Wolbachia-based strategy to control dengue transmission by Aedes mosquitoes

    Jean Popovici

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue fever, chikungunya or malaria affect millions of people each year and control solutions are urgently needed. An international research program is currently being developed that relies on the introduction of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis into Aedes aegypti to control dengue transmission. In order to prepare for open-field testing releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, an intensive social research and community engagement program was undertaken in Cairns, Northern Australia. The most common concern expressed by the diverse range of community members and stakeholders surveyed was the necessity of assuring the safety of the proposed approach for humans, animals and the environment. To address these concerns a series of safety experiments were undertaken. We report in this paper on the experimental data obtained, discuss the limitations of experimental risk assessment and focus on the necessity of including community concerns in scientific research.

  3. Review: Improving our knowledge of male mosquito biology in relation to genetic control programmes.

    Lees, Rosemary Susan; Knols, Bart; Bellini, Romeo; Benedict, Mark Q; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Bossin, Hervé Christophe; Chadee, Dave D; Charlwood, Jacques; Dabiré, Roch K; Djogbenou, Luc; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Gato, René; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Lemperiere, Guy; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Pitts, R Jason; Simard, Frederic; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-04-01

    The enormous burden placed on populations worldwide by mosquito-borne diseases, most notably malaria and dengue, is currently being tackled by the use of insecticides sprayed in residences or applied to bednets, and in the case of dengue vectors through reduction of larval breeding sites or larviciding with insecticides thereof. However, these methods are under threat from, amongst other issues, the development of insecticide resistance and the practical difficulty of maintaining long-term community-wide efforts. The sterile insect technique (SIT), whose success hinges on having a good understanding of the biology and behaviour of the male mosquito, is an additional weapon in the limited arsenal against mosquito vectors. The successful production and release of sterile males, which is the mechanism of population suppression by SIT, relies on the release of mass-reared sterile males able to confer sterility in the target population by mating with wild females. A five year Joint FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project brought together researchers from around the world to investigate the pre-mating conditions of male mosquitoes (physiology and behaviour, resource acquisition and allocation, and dispersal), the mosquito mating systems and the contribution of molecular or chemical approaches to the understanding of male mosquito mating behaviour. A summary of the existing knowledge and the main novel findings of this group is reviewed here, and further presented in the reviews and research articles that form this Acta Tropica special issue. PMID:24252487

  4. Prevention and Control of Zika as a Mosquito-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis

    Daozhou Gao; Yijun Lou; Daihai He; Porco, Travis C.; Yang Kuang; Gerardo Chowell; Shigui Ruan

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas poses a major global public health emergency. While ZIKV is transmitted from human to human by bites of Aedes mosquitoes, recent evidence indicates that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact with cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV reported in Argentina, Canada, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, and the USA. Yet, the role of sexual transmission on the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. W...

  5. Impact of Educational Intervention Regarding Mosquito Borne Diseases and Their Control Measures among The Link Workers of Urban Health Centers (UHCs) of Ahmedabad City

    Fancy Manish; Parikh Sonal,; Prajapati Arpit; Bala DV

    2012-01-01

    Background: In urban area link workers are playing key role in implementing anti-larval measures and behaviour change communication at community level to prevent and control mosquito borne diseases. Objectives: To check baseline knowledge of link workers regarding mosquito borne diseases and control measures and assess their knowledge 14 days after single educational interventional training. Methodology: All 274 link workers of 17 selected UHCs out of total 57 UHCs were taken as study populat...

  6. Methods for Control of Vector Mosquitoes and the Possible Role of SIT

    a) China, Vietnam and Singapore. Approximately 10 million bednets are treated with insecticide in China and Vietnam annually. The nets are privately owned but treatment is provided by health authorities who also carry out house spraying in the same areas. Artesunate (from Artemesia) was shown to be effective against P. falciparun but it is resistant to other drugs; however, the combined use of artesunate and treated bednets has greatly reduced malaria burden in Vietnam in the last 10 years. Despite a sophisticated Aedes control programme, Singapore remains endemic for dengue. The use of SIT for routine control or to eradicate Ae. aegypti and Ae. albipictus from the island and nearby parts of Malaysia has been suggested. b) Indian sub-continent. Though the number of malaria cases is less than what it used to be in the 1930s, it rose in the 1960s at the height of house spraying campaigns when India used 18,000 tonnes of DDT annually. Sri Lanka switched from DDT in 1970s and India has stated that it intends to do so. Rural malaria is mainly transmitted by An. culicifacies and other species whilst urban malaria is transmitted by An. stephensi. If An. stephensi exists as 'urban islands' it should be possible to control or eradicate by SIT; however, this needs to be confirmed. In the 1970s SIT trials with Culex and Aedes showed that moderately competitive sterile males could be produced but village to village movement of Culex pointed to the fact that urban populations could be better targets. Sex separation in culicine mosquitoes can be done on the basis of pupal size. c) An. arabiensis in north east Africa and Red Sea coast. It is the only man-biting member of the An. gambiae complex in central and northern Sudan, Ethiopia and the Arabian Red Sea coast. An. arabiensis invaded Upper Egypt in 1942 and caused a malaria epidemic as it is a much more efficient vector than A. pharoensis but it was eradicated using arsenical larvicide (and some DDT) by 1945. The creation of

  7. Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bauhinia variegata: a recent eco-friendly approach for mosquito control.

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito vectors are responsible for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects, in addition to high operational cost. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has been proposed as an alternative to traditional control tools. In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia variegata by reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The bioreduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against the larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to aqueous extract, synthesized AgNPs showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 and LC90 values of 41.96, 46.16, and 51.92 μg/mL and 82.93, 89.42, and 97.12 μg/mL, respectively. Overall, this study proves that B. variegata is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis and may be proposed as an efficient mosquito control agent. PMID:26490683

  8. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed. PMID:22278732

  9. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  10. Eficiencia del extracto de Ricinus communis para el control del mosquito Culex

    Diego Tomás Corradine Mora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo evaluó el efecto insecticida del extracto de Ricinus communis sobre larvas de mosquitos Culex. A las 24 h la mortalidad es de 8.33 % con dosis de 1 mL del extracto en una concentración de 500 ppm; 35 % en dosis de 1 mL de una concentración de 1000 ppm; 65 % en dosis de 5 mL de una concentración de 1000 ppm; 98.33 % con 10 mL en concentración de 1000 ppm; testigos 3.3 %. Cuando se evaluó el efecto insecticida del extracto aplicado por aspersión en concentraciones de 500, 750 y 1000 ppm, se consiguieron mortalidades de 18.33, 36.66 y 48.32 %, respectivamente. Ninguna de las concentraciones evaluadas alcanzó el cien por ciento de letalidad. En la prueba de semicampo, solo se logró una mortalidad de 9 %. Se evidenció que el extracto tiene un mejor efecto insecticida para el control de ejemplares inmaduros en estado larvario que sobre los adultos.

  11. Life-table analysis of Anopheles malaria vectors: generational mortality as tool in mosquito vector abundance and control studies

    Godwin Ray Anugboba Okogun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Vector control will for sometime remain a primary weapon in the waragainst vector borne diseases. Malaria is of paramount importance in this with its associated highmorbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This study on generational mortality associatedfactors in Anopheles mosquitoes life-table analysis was designed to investigate the fecundity,levels of mortality and mortality associated factors at the aquatic stages of anopheline malaria vectors.Methods: Mortality associated factors were investigated at the eggs, I and II instar larval, III and IVinstar larval and pupal stages of two anopheline species— Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Theobaldand An. gambiae life-cycles in screen cages. Adult male and female mosquitoes were membrane filterfedand algae in culture medium formed the bulk of food substances for the larval stage. Environmentaltemperature of culture media, pH and some associated physio-chemical factors were also determined.Results: Results showed significant mortality rates at various aquatic stages. Infertility, cannibalismand environmental factors were the major factors responsible for mortality at the egg, larval and pupalstages respectively.Interpretation & conclusion: The aquatic stages of Anopheles mosquito mortality factor K and themortality factors at the various stages investigated k1, k2, k3 and k4 are discussed. Our recommendationsinclude further studies on the possible genetic modification of predacious An. pseudopunctipennislarvae and/or its modification for the production of sterile/infertile eggs as possible alternativesin the reduction and control of anopheline malaria burden.

  12. Controlling Malaria in Western Pacific with Mosquito Nets Treated with Pyrethroids in Village Communities, 1979-1999.

    Self, Lee

    2016-07-01

    Insecticide-treated mosquito nets were first put to practical use in the Western Pacific Region. Less than a decade after conducting workshops and other promotional activities, millions of people were protected by 1989. This occurred before the availability of commercially produced pretreated nets and before global funding for mass net distribution. This paper describes the sequence of steps leading to regional control success. The beginning stages in 1979 recognized that treating torn mosquito nets was a viable control option. Basic net treatment procedures were established by 1983 and workshops were held the next 2 years in China, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Vietnam. Malaria staff became convinced of net benefits and were motivated to impart their knowledge to others. Village inhabitants soaked the nets in washbasins containing permethrin or deltamethrin solution, then dried them horizontally on mats. By the 1990s, the population protected by nets had appreciably increased, and regional malaria cases confirmed by microscopy were markedly reduced. This coincided with commercial interest to mass-produce pretreated mosquito nets for worldwide use. PMID:26880771

  13. Plants traditionally used as mosquito repellents and the implication for their use in vector control.

    Tisgratog, Rungarun; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Grieco, John P; Ngoen-Kluan, Ratchadawan; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2016-05-01

    Numerous plants with insect repelling properties are native to the tropics where they are produced for a wide range of medicinal purposes. In Thailand, these native plant species have a history of use for personal protection against biting insects. From our investigation we identified 37 plant species within 14 plant families that showed some mosquito repellent properties. Of these, 9 plant species were characterized using an excito-repellency test system against several Thai mosquito species. Results from these studies revealed that five essential oils extracted from plants demonstrated promising insect repellent activity. These active ingredients show promise for further development into formulations that may serve as alternatives to DEET or possibly be used as natural bio-pesticides to kill mosquitoes. PMID:26826392

  14. Role of cytochrome P450s in insecticide resistance: impact on the control of mosquito-borne diseases and use of insecticides on Earth

    David, J.-P.; Ismail, H M; Chandor-Proust, A.; Paine, M. J. I.

    2013-01-01

    The fight against diseases spread by mosquitoes and other insects has enormous environmental, economic and social consequences. Chemical insecticides remain the first line of defence but the control of diseases, especially malaria and dengue fever, is being increasingly undermined by insecticide resistance. Mosquitoes have a large repertoire of P450s (over 100 genes). By pinpointing the key enzymes associated with insecticide resistance we can begin to develop new tools to aid the implementat...

  15. The Potential for Genetic Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes. Report of a Consultants Group Meeting. Working Material

    Since the beginning of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division Programme on the research and development of insect pest control methodology, emphasis has been placed on the basic and applied aspects of implementing the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Special emphasis has always been directed at the assembly of technological progress into workable systems that can be implemented in developing countries. The general intention is to solve problems associated with insect pests that have an adverse impact on public health and the production of food and fibre. For certain insects, SIT has proven to be a powerful method for control, but for a variety of reasons this technology has not been tried on an operational scale for most of the pest species of insects that exact a toll on the endeavors of humans. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division convened a Consultants Group Meeting to examine 'The Potential for Genetic Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes', with emphasis to be placed on the SIT. A group of five scientists met, 26-30 April 1993, to examine the current status and the future potential of genetic control for malaria mosquitoes. In most of the tropical, developing countries, and to some extent in temperate regions of the world, Anopheles mosquitoes cause havoc by transmitting malaria, a dreaded disease that causes high mortality amongst children and diminishes productivity of adults. The importance of malaria as a deterrent to further economic growth in a large part of the world cannot be over-emphasized. Malaria is a severe problem because there are inadequacies in the technology available for control. As a result of the deliberations at the meeting, the consultants prepared a list of recommendations concerning the consensus opinions about the development of genetic control for malaria vector control. This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Consultants Group Meeting.

  16. Wolbachia-based population control strategy targeting Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes proves efficient under semi-field conditions.

    Célestine M Atyame

    Full Text Available In mosquitoes, the maternally inherited bacterial Wolbachia induce a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI. This property can be used to reduce the density of mosquito field populations through inundative releases of incompatible males in order to sterilize females (Incompatible Insect Technique, or IIT, strategy. We have previously constructed the LR[wPip(Is] line representing a good candidate for controlling field populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean. The main purpose of the present study was to fill the gap between laboratory experiments and field implementation, i.e. assessing mating competitiveness of these incompatible males under semi-field conditions. In a first set of experiments, we analyzed crossing relationships between LR[wPip(Is] males and La Réunion field females collected as larvae in 19 distinct localities throughout the island. This investigation revealed total embryonic mortality, confirming the strong sterilizing capacity of LR[wPip(Is] males. Subsequently, mating competitiveness of LR[wPip(Is] males was assessed under semi-field conditions in the presence of field males and females from La Réunion. Confrontations were carried out in April and December using different ratios of LR[wPip(Is] to field males. The results indicated that the LR[wPip(Is] males successfully compete with field males in mating with field females, displaying even higher competitiveness than field males in April. Our results support the implementation of small-scale field tests in order to assess the feasibility of IIT against Cx. quinquefasciatus in the islands of southwestern Indian Ocean where this mosquito species is a proven competent vector for human pathogens.

  17. Wolbachia-based population control strategy targeting Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes proves efficient under semi-field conditions.

    Atyame, Célestine M; Cattel, Julien; Lebon, Cyrille; Flores, Olivier; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Weill, Mylène; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Tortosa, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    In mosquitoes, the maternally inherited bacterial Wolbachia induce a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). This property can be used to reduce the density of mosquito field populations through inundative releases of incompatible males in order to sterilize females (Incompatible Insect Technique, or IIT, strategy). We have previously constructed the LR[wPip(Is)] line representing a good candidate for controlling field populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean. The main purpose of the present study was to fill the gap between laboratory experiments and field implementation, i.e. assessing mating competitiveness of these incompatible males under semi-field conditions. In a first set of experiments, we analyzed crossing relationships between LR[wPip(Is)] males and La Réunion field females collected as larvae in 19 distinct localities throughout the island. This investigation revealed total embryonic mortality, confirming the strong sterilizing capacity of LR[wPip(Is)] males. Subsequently, mating competitiveness of LR[wPip(Is)] males was assessed under semi-field conditions in the presence of field males and females from La Réunion. Confrontations were carried out in April and December using different ratios of LR[wPip(Is)] to field males. The results indicated that the LR[wPip(Is)] males successfully compete with field males in mating with field females, displaying even higher competitiveness than field males in April. Our results support the implementation of small-scale field tests in order to assess the feasibility of IIT against Cx. quinquefasciatus in the islands of southwestern Indian Ocean where this mosquito species is a proven competent vector for human pathogens. PMID:25768841

  18. Control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes with chlorfenapyr in Benin

    N'Guessan, R.; Boko, P.; Odjo, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Akogbeto, M.; Rowland, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of chlorfenapyr applied on mosquito nets and as an indoor residual spray against populations of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in an area of Benin that shows problematic levels of pyrethroid resistance. Method Eight-week trial conducted in experimental

  19. Water management for controlling the breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in rice irrigation schemes in Kenya

    Mutero, C M; Blank, H; Konradsen, F;

    2000-01-01

    . Intermittent irrigation was carried out on a weekly schedule, with flooded conditions from Saturday through Tuesday morning. Larval sampling at each plot was conducted every Monday and prior to draining of intermittently irrigated subplots on Tuesday. All the adult anopheline mosquitoes emerging from larvae...

  20. Mosquito Control Techniques Developed for the US Military and an Update on the AMCA

    Scientists at the USDA Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology developed and field tested novel techniques to protect deployed military troops from diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and sand flies. Methods that proved to be very effective included (1) novel military personal prot...

  1. Using global information technology to detect, monitor, and control mosquito pest and disease vector populations.

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS), image analysis, and remote sensing comprise global information technologies that are used to characterize pest and vector populations of mosquitoes. At this national meeting, scientists from ARS and McNeese State University organized and convened a half-day sym...

  2. Efficacy of extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis for the control of mosquito vectors.

    More than 1 million human cases of Chikungunya were recently reported in India. Aedes aegypti (the yellow fever mosquito) is an important disease vector in India where it transmits Chikungunya, dengue, and yellow fever viruses to humans. In this study, scientists from Bharathiar University in Coim...

  3. The Eye of the Tiger, the Thrill of the Fight: Effective Larval and Adult Control Measures Against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), in North America.

    Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive container-inhabiting species with a global distribution. This mosquito, similar to other Stegomyia species such as Aedes aegypti (L.), is highly adapted to urban and suburban areas, and commonly oviposits in artificial containers, which are ubiquitous in these peridomestic environments. The increase in speed and amount of international travel and commerce, coupled with global climate change, have aided in the resurgence and expansion of Stegomyia species into new areas of North America. In many parts of their range, both species are implicated as significant vectors of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika. Although rapid and major advances have been made in the field of biology, ecology, genetics, taxonomy, and virology, relatively little has changed in the field of mosquito control in recent decades. This is particularly discouraging in regards to container-inhabiting mosquitoes, because traditional integrated mosquito management (IMM) approaches have not been effective against these species. Many mosquito control programs simply do not possess the man-power or necessary financial resources needed to suppress Ae. albopictus effectively. Therefore, control of mosquito larvae, which is the foundation of IMM approaches, is exceptionally difficult over large areas. This review paper addresses larval habitats, use of geographic information systems for habitat preference detection, door-to-door control efforts, source reduction, direct application of larvicides, biological control agents, area-wide low-volume application of larvicides, hot spot treatments, autodissemination stations, public education, adult traps, attractive-toxic sugar bait methods, lethal ovitraps, barrier-residual adulticides, hand-held ultra-low-volume adulticides, area-wide adulticides applied by ground or air, and genetic control methods. The review concludes with future

  4. Mosquito Defense Strategies against Viral Infection.

    Cheng, Gong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Penghua; Xiao, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne viral diseases are a major concern of global health and result in significant economic losses in many countries. As natural vectors, mosquitoes are very permissive to and allow systemic and persistent arbovirus infection. Intriguingly, persistent viral propagation in mosquito tissues neither results in dramatic pathological sequelae nor impairs the vectorial behavior or lifespan, indicating that mosquitoes have evolved mechanisms to tolerate persistent infection and developed efficient antiviral strategies to restrict viral replication to nonpathogenic levels. Here we provide an overview of recent progress in understanding mosquito antiviral immunity and advances in the strategies by which mosquitoes control viral infection in specific tissues. PMID:26626596

  5. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    Takken Willem

    2011-02-01

    a suitable carrier are a promising tool for control of larval populations of malaria mosquitoes. Additional studies are required to identify the best delivery method (where, when and how to make use of the entomopathogenic potential of these fungi against anopheline larvae.

  6. First Planning Meeting on Development of the Sterile Insect Techniques for Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes

    At the request of Member States a series of consultant's reports were commisioned over the past 10 years to assess the potential of developing and using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) for the control of vectors of malaria. The experts reports recommended that the Agency proceed with such an evaluation. The rationale for the possible inclusion of SIT into malaria vector control were detailed in these reports. All the reports emphasized that significant R and D would be required to develop and evaluate the SIT technology for mosquitoes before operational pilot projects could be initiated. Following the last of these meetings a document was prepared in which the essential R and D components were identified. This plan also included the collection of baseline data from a potential field site in Africa and the proposal that the target species should be Anopheles arabiensis. On the basis of these activities a Technical Co-operation (TC) project was developed which focused on the identification of a potential field site and provided funds for initiation of the collection of epidemiological and entomological data from the site. The R and D requirements for mosquito SIT were addressed in two ways. Firstly by undertaking limited R and D activities at the Agency's Laboratories in Seibersdorf and secondly by elaborating a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). The first planning meeting was thus held in Vienna from 5-8 June 2001 with representatives from Ethiopia, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Sudan; as well as experts from the UK and the USA; and a representative from the World Health Organisation (WHO). The meeting provided a forum for the participants to summarize the current malaria situation, its control and the importance of An. arabiensis in their respective countries. The outside experts complemented these presentations by dealing with specific issues. The objectives of the meeting were to: Review the status of the control of malaria

  7. Advantages of larval control for African malaria vectors: Low mobility and behavioural responsiveness of immature mosquito stages allow high effective coverage

    Knols Bart GJ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on sensitivity analysis of the MacDonald-Ross model, it has long been argued that the best way to reduce malaria transmission is to target adult female mosquitoes with insecticides that can reduce the longevity and human-feeding frequency of vectors. However, these analyses have ignored a fundamental biological difference between mosquito adults and the immature stages that precede them: adults are highly mobile flying insects that can readily detect and avoid many intervention measures whereas mosquito eggs, larvae and pupae are confined within relatively small aquatic habitats and cannot readily escape control measures. Presentation of the hypothesis We hypothesize that the control of adult but not immature mosquitoes is compromised by their ability to avoid interventions such as excito-repellant insecticides. Testing the hypothesis We apply a simple model of intervention avoidance by mosquitoes and demonstrate that this can substantially reduce effective coverage, in terms of the proportion of the vector population that is covered, and overall impact on malaria transmission. We review historical evidence that larval control of African malaria vectors can be effective and conclude that the only limitations to the effective coverage of larval control are practical rather than fundamental. Implications of the hypothesis Larval control strategies against the vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa could be highly effective, complementary to adult control interventions, and should be prioritized for further development, evaluation and implementation as an integral part of Rolling Back Malaria.

  8. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Donald S Shepard

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY. The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008 and the intervention years (2009-2011 declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  9. A five-year integrated mosquito control project in Kavala (N. Greece)

    Full text: The plain of the Nestos River is a coastal area of 25,000 ha of agricultural land irrigated by the day-regulated waters of the Nestos River. Rice fields (600 individual parcels of 1,900 ha of total surface) represent the most important breeding sites during summer (five larvicide applications on average). Abandoned agricultural land (over 200 fields of 900 ha) receiving occasionally irrigation water constitutes the second most productive mosquito-breeding site (1-2 applications). Approximately 1-2% of the total surface of 6,500 ha of corn cultivation fields is poorly drained and thus about 100 ha produce at least one generation of mosquitoes during the summer. Along its 25 kilometers of seashore, the area of Nestos comprises the lagoons of Kavala (extensive aquaculture), and the last part of the delta of the Nestos River, 11,500 ha of protected wetlands under the Ramsar convention. About 2,000 ha of these wetlands harbours plants such as Arthr. fruticosum, Sal. europea, Ael. littoralis, Ju. maritimus, Sc. maritimus, representing highly productive mosquito breeding sites (1-2 generations during the summer). Ecological mapping involved 3,200 individual vegetation polygons organised in 311 different sampling stations. Larvae sampling protocol was followed on a weekly basis for the individual and/or groups of parcels in the agricultural and natural environment. All the above information was systematically monitored and transferred to an ArcView (8.3)-GIS (Geographical Information System) database for further exploitation. In addition, mosquito breeding sites were recorded in the urban environment: within 9 villages, 2,300 individual residences were monitored and 1,070 cesspools were recorded, out of which more than 50% were producing mosquitoes (1-2 applications). In total 8,500 ha were treated with larvicides by using temephos and diflubenzuron (agricultural land), Bti (natural environment) and MMF-Agnique (urban environment). 70% of the applications were

  10. History of Mosquito Releases for Control and Potential of New Molecular Capabilities

    Ten different field trials, of varying sizes, have been carried out with sterile mosquitoes, the majority being in the 1970's. The major trials were in India, Burma and El Salvador. The major biological problems encountered were the failure of the sterile males to mate with the wild females and density dependent larval survival. There were also several problems associated with the technology, e.g. failures in mass rearing, inappropriate release technologies and immigration into the treatment area. New transgenic developments may offer some improvements but the above constraints will still need to be solved. Systems to genetically sterilize insects in the field are being evaluated in mosquitoes and have been shown to be successful in Drosophila. The genetic constructs used in Drosophila may well function in Anopheles.

  11. Mosquito control pesticides and sea surface temperatures have differential effects on the survival and oxidative stress response of coral larvae.

    Ross, Cliff; Olsen, Kevin; Henry, Michael; Pierce, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The declining health of coral reefs is intensifying worldwide at an alarming rate due to the combined effects of land-based sources of pollution and climate change. Despite the persistent use of mosquito control pesticides in populated coastal areas, studies examining the survival and physiological impacts of early life-history stages of non-targeted marine organisms are limited. In order to better understand the combined effects of mosquito pesticides and rising sea surface temperatures, we exposed larvae from the coral Porites astreoides to selected concentrations of two major mosquito pesticide ingredients, naled and permethrin, and seawater elevated +3.5 °C. Following 18-20 h of exposure, larvae exposed to naled concentrations of 2.96 µg L(-1) or greater had significantly reduced survivorship compared to controls. These effects were not detected in the presence of permethrin or elevated temperature. Furthermore, larval settlement, post-settlement survival and zooxanthellae density were not impacted by any treatment. To evaluate the sub-lethal stress response of larvae, several oxidative stress endpoints were utilized. Biomarker responses to pesticide exposure were variable and contingent upon pesticide type as well as the specific biomarker being employed. In some cases, such as with protein carbonylation and catalase gene expression, the effects of naled exposure and temperature were interactive. In other cases pesticide exposure failed to induce any sub-lethal stress response. Overall, these results demonstrate that P. astreoides larvae have a moderate degree of resistance against short-term exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of pesticides even in the presence of elevated temperature. In addition, this work highlights the importance of considering the complexity and differential responses encountered when examining the impacts of combined stressors that occur on varying spatial scales. PMID:25527297

  12. Dispersal of the parasitic ciliate Lambornella clarki: implications for ciliates in the biological control of mosquitoes.

    Egerter, D E; Anderson, J R; Washburn, J O

    1986-01-01

    Lambornella clarki (Ciliophora: Tetrahymenidae), an endoparasite of Aedes sierrensis (Diptera: Culicidae), is dispersed by infected adult mosquitoes. Invasion of the ovaries induces parasitically castrated females to exhibit oviposition behavior and thereby actively disperse ciliates through deposition into water. Oviposition behavior of infected females is prolonged and mimics that of normal gravid females in their first gonotropic cycle. Adults of both sexes also passively disperse ciliates...

  13. Dynamics of the "popcorn" Wolbachia infection in outbred Aedes aegypti informs prospects for mosquito vector control.

    Yeap, H L; Mee, P; Walker, T; Weeks, A R; O'Neill, S L; Johnson, P; Ritchie, S A; Richardson, K M; Doig, C; Endersby, N M; Hoffmann, A A

    2011-02-01

    Forty percent of the world's population is at risk of contracting dengue virus, which produces dengue fever with a potentially fatal hemorrhagic form. The wMelPop Wolbachia infection of Drosophila melanogaster reduces life span and interferes with viral transmission when introduced into the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue virus. Wolbachia has been proposed as an agent for preventing transmission of dengue virus. Population invasion by Wolbachia depends on levels of cytoplasmic incompatibility, fitness effects, and maternal transmission. Here we characterized these traits in an outbred genetic background of a potential target population of Ae. aegypti using two crossing schemes. Cytoplasmic incompatibility was strong in this background, and the maternal transmission rate of Wolbachia was high. The infection substantially reduced longevity of infected adult females, regardless of whether adults came from larvae cultured under high or low levels of nutrition or density. The infection reduced the viability of diapausing and nondiapausing eggs. Viability was particularly low when eggs were laid by older females and when diapausing eggs had been stored for a few weeks. The infection affected mosquito larval development time and adult body size under different larval nutrition levels and densities. The results were used to assess the potential for wMelPop-CLA to invade natural populations of Ae. aegypti and to develop recommendations for the maintenance of fitness in infected mosquitoes that need to compete against field insects. PMID:21135075

  14. A Manual of Mosquito Control Projects and Committee Assignments for 4-H and Scouts Biology Class Projects, Organized Community Service Programs, and Individuals Interested in Environmental Management.

    Hart, Richard A.

    The mosquito control projects presented in this manual were prepared from an educational viewpoint and are intended for use by students in 4-H and Scouts and as a supplement to high school and college biology course work. The major emphasis of the projects is on integrated pest management, an approach utilizing cost-effective control methods which…

  15. One-pot fabrication of silver nanocrystals using Nicandra physalodes: A novel route for mosquito vector control with moderate toxicity on non-target water bugs.

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Khater, Hanem F; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) as vectors for important diseases and parasites causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic pesticides against Culicidae leads to resistance and environmental concerns. Therefore, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. In this research, Nicandra physalodes-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was conducted, in order to control larval populations of three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Biofabricated Ag NPs were characterized using UV-vis spectrophotometry, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, and TEM analyses. Ag NPs were highly toxic against the three mosquito vectors. Maximum efficacy was detected against A. stephensi (LC50=12.39μg/mL), followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50=13.61μg/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=14.79μg/mL). Interestingly, Ag NPs were safer for the non-target aquatic organism Diplonychus indicus sharing the same aquatic habitats of mosquito larvae. LC50 and LC90 values were 1032.81 and 19,076.59μg/mL, respectively. Overall, our results highlight that N. physalodes-fabricated Ag NPs are a promising for development of eco-friendly larvicides against mosquito vectors, with negligible toxicity against non-target aquatic water bugs. PMID:27473981

  16. Characterizing the Aedes aegypti population in a Vietnamese village in preparation for a Wolbachia-based mosquito control strategy to eliminate dengue.

    Jason A L Jeffery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A life-shortening strain of the obligate intracellular bacteria Wolbachia, called wMelPop, is seen as a promising new tool for the control of Aedes aegypti. However, developing a vector control strategy based on the release of mosquitoes transinfected with wMelPop requires detailed knowledge of the demographics of the target population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Tri Nguyen village (611 households on Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam, we conducted nine quantitative entomologic surveys over 14 months to determine if Ae. aegypti populations were spatially and temporally homogenous, and to estimate population size. There was no obvious relationship between mosquito (larval, pupal or adult abundance and temperature and rainfall, and no area of the village supported consistently high numbers of mosquitoes. In almost all surveys, key premises produced high numbers of Ae. aegypti. However, these premises were not consistent between surveys. For an intervention based on a single release of wMelPop-infected Ae. aegypti, release ratios of infected to uninfected adult mosquitoes of all age classes are estimated to be 1.8-6.7ratio1 for gravid females (and similarly aged males or teneral adults, respectively. We calculated that adult female mosquito abundance in Tri Nguyen village could range from 1.1 to 43.3 individuals of all age classes per house. Thus, an intervention could require the release of 2-78 wMelPop-infected gravid females and similarly aged males per house, or 7-290 infected teneral female and male mosquitoes per house. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the variability we encountered, this study highlights the importance of multiple entomologic surveys when evaluating the spatial structure of a vector population or estimating population size. If a single release of wMelPop-infected Ae. aegypti were to occur when wild Ae. aegypti abundance was at its maximum, a preintervention control program would be necessary to ensure that

  17. An experimental quality control related to the regional monitoring plan against Aedes albopticus (tiger-mosquito

    Samantha Morelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the epidemic disease caused by the Chikungunya virus detected in the Provinces of Romagna during 2007, a specific monitoring-plan against the bug-vector Aedes albopticus was set up by the Agenzia Regionale Prevenzione e Ambiente dell’Emilia Romagna (ARPA in the he Emilia-Romagna region (Italy. The analytical method consisted in the simple enumeration of the mosquitoes eggs spawned on a appropriate substratum, using an optic microscope.The aim of this study was to guarantee data comparability among the several laboratories involved in the project. Using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, homogeneous and comparable analytical data were emphasised.

  18. An analysis of two island groups as potential sites for trials of transgenic mosquitoes for malaria control

    Marsden, Clare D; Cornel, Anthony; Lee, Yoosook; Sanford, Michelle R; Norris, Laura C; Goodell, Parker B; Nieman, Catelyn C; Han, Sarah; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Denis, Joao; Ouledi, Ahmed; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2013-01-01

    Considerable technological advances have been made towards the generation of genetically modified mosquitoes for vector control. In contrast, less progress has been made towards field evaluations of transformed mosquitoes which are critical for evaluating the success of, and hazards associated with, genetic modification. Oceanic islands have been highlighted as potentially the best locations for such trials. However, population genetic studies are necessary to verify isolation. Here, we used a panel of genetic markers to assess for evidence of genetic isolation of two oceanic island populations of the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. We found no evidence of isolation between the Bijagós archipelago and mainland Guinea-Bissau, despite separation by distances beyond the known dispersal capabilities of this taxon. Conversely, the Comoros Islands appear to be genetically isolated from the East African mainland, and thus represent a location worthy of further investigation for field trials. Based on assessments of gene flow within and between the Comoros islands, the island of Grande Comore was found to be genetically isolated from adjacent islands and also exhibited local population structure, indicating that it may be the most suitable site for trials with existing genetic modification technologies. PMID:23789035

  19. The Potential of the Sterile Insect Technique and other Genetic Methods for Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes. Report of a Consultants Meeting

    This report updates information provided by a 1993 consultant group on the use of genetic methods for control of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Human malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium are exclusively transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Where these two groups co-exist, the transmission of the parasite to humans can create a major health problem. Malaria currently causes 2 million deaths world-wide and approximately 400 million clinical cases annually. There are ca. 15 major vector species and 30-40 vectors of lesser importance. This report considers the practicality of developing the sterile insect technique (SIT) or other genetic mechanisms in order to eradicate mosquito vectors from specific areas. This would interrupt transmission and eliminate malaria in those areas.

  20. Mosquito Consumption by Insectivorous Bats: Does Size Matter?

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlate...

  1. Genetically Modified Mosquito: Myth and Reality

    Teh Su Yean

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been applied successfully in some agricultural pest control programs in the past, but in many cases, success has not been sustainable in the long run. Various attempts have been made to duplicate this limited success SIT application in agriculture to other areas of applications, particularly in vector control. For example, a recent mosquito control program has been initiated in Malaysia to eliminate dengue-mosquitoes Aedes aegypti by releasing large amount of genetically modified GM male mosquitoes into the field to outcompete the wild male mosquitoes. Field experimental data that has been made available in the literature is limited, rendering it difficult to make independent assessment on its short-term efficacy and long-term sustainability of this GM control strategy. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of GM mosquito in controlling dengue mosquito population by means of model simulations via DEER (Dengue Encephalitis Eradication Routines. Preliminary results indicate negative conclusion regarding the effectiveness of GM mosquitoes in controlling wild A. aegypti population over the long-term. Essentially, significant reduction of wild mosquito population is possible only if large over-flooding ratios are applied. Further, repeated releases must be maintained over an infinite time horizon to continue to sustain low population of mosquitoes. Major difficulty remains to be resolved. In particular, in-depth costbenefit analysis on this control program is essential to ensure long-term institutional and social support.

  2. Deltamethrin:Promising mosquito control agent against adult stage of Aedes aegypti L

    Sarita Kumar; Anita Thomas; Pillai MKK

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of deltamethrin against field-collected adults of Aedes aegypti L. (Ae. aegypti). Methods: The adults were selected with 0.025%deltamethrin for 40 successive generations. The selected adults were tested with 4%DDT and the emerging larvae were tested with various insecticides to study the cross-resistance spectrum. The knockdown and irritability studies were carried out in adult mosquitoes to investigate their behavioural response to deltamethrin. Results:Forty generations of selection with deltamethrin resulted in only 3.8-fold resistance in the adults of Ae. aegypti. The adults of parent (PS) and selected strains (DAS) exhibited only 0.8-fold cross resistance to 4%DDT. The larvae emerging from the PS and DAS strains did not develop appreciable levels of resistance to various insecticides tested. The knockdown studies revealed KT50 of 14.4 min in PS adults with no signs of recovery even after 24 h. The DAS strains could develop only 1.2 to 1.3-fold knockdown resistance (KDR). The knockdown response of DDT was though 5-6 times slower than deltamethrin but the continued response in deltamethrin-selected adults caused only 1.2-fold KDR. The PS and DAS strains exhibited significant irritability response towards deltamethrin and DDT. The DAS strains showed 5-6 fold increased irritability to deltamethrin as compared to the PS strain. Conclusions:The above results suggest the prolonged effective use of deltamethrin against Ae. aegypti as an adulticide.

  3. 2009年深圳市龙岗区蚊类监测报告%Mosquito surveillance and control strategy in Longgang district, Shenzhen in 2009

    董建; 林琳; 刘渠; 张起文; 刘凤仁; 王文玲; 沈培林; 吴崧霖

    2012-01-01

    目的 对龙岗区蚊虫种群和密度进行监测,为深圳大运会期间有效控制蚊媒传播疾病奠定基础.方法 2009年3-12月,在龙岗区10个街道中,每月中旬布放诱蚊灯,对医院、绿化地和居民区等环境进行成蚊密度监测.结果 龙岗区10个街道共布放诱蚊灯98个,诱蚊诱卵器600个,入户调查369户,检测室内外容器730个,监测到3属6种1 082只成蚊,平均成蚊密度为1.4只/h.其中,致倦库蚊为优势蚊种(71.3%),容器指数为25.8,布雷图指数达50.7.结论 龙岗区蚊虫密度及布雷图指数大大超过国家标准,提示有蚊媒传播疾病如登革热、乙型脑炎等流行的可能.%Objective To provide scientific evidence for prevention and control program on mosquito-borne disease through monitoring mosquito species and density in Longgang district, Shenzhen. Method During March to December, 2009,mosquito-traps were set in hospitals, greenbelt and residential areas in third week of each month. Results We had set 98 mosquito-traps, 720 ovi-traps during the monitoring period.Three hundred and sixty-nine households were surveyed,and 730 containers were examined. The average mosquito density was 1.4 mosquitoes per hour. Culex pipiens fatiganss was the dominant species, accounting for 71.3%,with Breteau index soared at 50.7. Conclusions Breteau index exceeded the national standard.lt indicated that there may be an epidemic of mosquito-borne diseases, such as Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis.

  4. Risk associated with the release of Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes into the environment in an effort to control Dengue.

    Justine V Murray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In an effort to eliminate dengue, a successful technology was developed with the stable introduction of the obligate intracellular bacteria Wolbachia pipientis into the mosquito Aedes aegypti to reduce its ability to transmit dengue fever due to life shortening and inhibition of viral replication effects. An analysis of risk was required before considering release of the modified mosquito into the environment.Methods: Expert knowledge and a risk assessment framework was used to identify risk associated with the release of the modified mosquito. Individual and group expert elicitation was performed to identify potential hazards. A Bayesian network (BN was developed to capture the relationship between hazards and the likelihood of events occurring. Risk was calculated from the expert likelihood estimates populating the BN and the consequence estimates elicited from experts.Results: The risk model for ‘Don’t Achieve Release’ provided an estimated 46% likelihood that the release would not occur by a nominated time, but generated an overall risk rating of very low. The ability to obtain compliance had the greatest influence on the likelihood of release occurring. The risk model for ‘Cause More Harm’ provided a 12.5% likelihood that more harm would result from the release, but the overall risk was considered negligible. The efficacy of mosquito management had the most influence, with the perception that the threat of dengue fever had been eliminated, resulting in less household mosquito control, was scored as the highest ranked individual hazard (albeit low risk.Conclusions: The risk analysis was designed to incorporate the interacting complexity of hazards that may affect the release of the technology into the environment. The risk analysis was a small but important implementation phase in the success of this innovative research introducing a new technology to combat dengue transmission in the environment.

  5. Investigation of mosquito oviposition pheromone as lethal lure for the control of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Ong, Song-Quan; Jaal, Zairi

    2015-01-01

    Background The trend in chemical insecticide development has focused on improving the efficacy against mosquitoes while reducing the environmental impact. Lethal lures apply an “attract-and-kill” strategy that draws the insect to the killing agent rather than bringing the killing agent to the insect. Methods In this study, the mosquito oviposition pheromone was extracted from the eggs of Aedes aegypti (L.) and further investigated with a combination of pheromone and granular temephos as a let...

  6. Environmental assessment: Perform open marsh water management on the former popular point mosquito control impoundment and adjacent salt marsh: Barnegat National Wildlife Refuge [now a division of the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This environmental assessment evaluates a proposal by the Ocean County Mosquito Control Extermination Commission to restore a tidal salt marsh on the Barnegat...

  7. Cytoplasmic Incompatibility as a Means of Controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Mosquito in the Islands of the South-Western Indian Ocean

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Nicole Pasteur; Emilie Dumas; Pablo Tortosa; Michaël Luciano Tantely; Nicolas Pocquet; Séverine Licciardi; Ambicadutt Bheecarry; Betty Zumbo; Mylène Weill; Olivier Duron

    2011-01-01

    The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific...

  8. Contrasting genetic structure between mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the dengue fever mosquito from Rio de Janeiro: implications for vector control

    Rašić, Gordana; Schama, Renata; Powell, Rosanna; Maciel-de Freitas, Rafael; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy M; Filipović, Igor; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Máspero, Renato C; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent global arboviral disease that affects over 300 million people every year. Brazil has the highest number of dengue cases in the world, with the most severe epidemics in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Rio). The effective control of dengue is critically dependent on the knowledge of population genetic structuring in the primary dengue vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. We analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism markers generated via...

  9. Biodistribution and trafficking of hydrogel nanoparticles in adult mosquitoes

    Phanse, Yashdeep; Dunphy, Brendan M.; Perry, Jillian L.; Airs, Paul M.; Paquette, Cynthia C. H.; Carlson, Jonathan O; Xu, Jing; Luft, J. Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M.; Beaty, Barry J.; Bartholomay, Lyric C

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases continue to remain major threats to human and animal health and impediments to socioeconomic development. Increasing mosquito resistance to chemical insecticides is a great public health concern, and new strategies/technologies are necessary to develop the next-generation of vector control tools. We propose to develop a novel method for mosquito control that employs nanoparticles (NPs) as a platform for delivery of mosquitocidal dsRNA molecules to silence mosquito gene...

  10. Naturally occurring incompatibilities between different Culex pipiens pallens populations as the basis of potential mosquito control measures.

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases remain a threat to public health, especially in tropical countries. The incompatible insect technique has been explored as a potential control strategy for several important insect vectors. However, this strategy has not been tested in Culex pipiens pallens, the most prevalent mosquito species in China. Previous works used introgression to generate new strains that matched the genetic backgrounds of target populations while harboring a new Wolbachia endosymbiont, resulting in mating competitiveness and cytoplasmic incompatibility. The generation of these incompatible insects is often time-consuming, and the long-term stability of the newly created insect-Wolbachia symbiosis is uncertain. Considering the wide distribution of Cx. pipiens pallens and hence possible isolation of different populations, we sought to test for incompatibilities between natural populations and the possibility of exploiting these incompatibilities as a control strategy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three field populations were collected from three geographic locations in eastern China. Reciprocal cross results showed that bi-directional patterns of incompatibility existed between some populations. Mating competition experiments indicated that incompatible males could compete with cognate males in mating with females, leading to reduced overall fecundity. F1 offspring from incompatible crosses maintained their maternal crossing types. All three populations tested positive for Wolbachia. Removal of Wolbachia by tetracycline rendered matings between these populations fully compatible. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that naturally occurring patterns of cytoplasmic incompatibility between Cx. pipiens pallens populations can be the basis of a control strategy for this important vector species. The observed incompatibilities are caused by Wolbachia. More tests including field trials are warranted to evaluate the feasibility

  11. The urban mosquitoes of Suva, Fiji: seasonal incidence and evaluation of environmental sanitation and ULV spraying for their control.

    Goettel, M S; Toohey, M K; Pillai, J S

    1980-08-01

    Larval surveys and oviposition traps were used to monitor urban mosquito populations in two adjacent transects in Suva, Fiji between May 1978 and August 1979. Populations of Aedes aegypti and Ae. pseudoscutellaris fluctuated seasonally with changes in rainfall, the latter species being most prevalent throughout the year. Populations of these two species were highest between December and July and lowest between August and October. Larval populations of Culex quinquefasciatus did not show a seasonal variation and larval populations of Cx. annulirostris were too low for any conclusions to be made. All species were found breeding most often in miscellaneous containers, with tyres, plant containers and flower vases also being important sources for Ae. aegypti breeding. Through environmental sanitation the Breteau Index for all species was reduced by 88%; Premise Index by 72% and the Container Index by 83%, when compared to a control area. ULV applied malathion was effective in temporarily reducing Ae. pseudoscutellaris populations from 50--100%. Effects on Ae. aegypti were inconclusive. It is concluded that through enforcement of the existing laws and strict monthly surveillance during the periods of highest seasonal density, urban Aedes and Culex populations can be maintained at an acceptable level. PMID:7411679

  12. O aproveitamento do resíduo da indústria do sisal no controle de larvas de mosquitos

    Pizarro Ana Paula B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se o aproveitamento do resíduo do desfibramento das folhas de Agave sisalana, como um larvicida para o combate a mosquitos transmissores de doenças tropicais. Durante 24 horas, larvas de Aedes aegypti e Culex quinquefasciatus foram expostas a concentrações diferentes do extrato da planta para determinar as concentrações letais. Para A. aegypti foi constatada a CL50 em 322ppm e para C. quinquefasciatus em 183ppm. Foi investigada a ação de saponinas existentes na planta, ficando evidenciado que o resíduo de A. sisalana é ativo através da interação de vários dos seus componentes. Este extrato poderá ser utilizado em campo, na concentração de 100ppm para C. quinquefasciatus com um aumento do tempo de exposição para três dias, obtendo-se uma mortalidade de 100% das larvas. Este produto, porém, não é recomendado para o controle de A. aegypti, devido à necessidade de uma alta concentração para a obtenção de 100% de mortalidade das larvas e ao fato destas se desenvolverem preferencialmente em água potável.

  13. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Govella Nico J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs. New vector surveillance, larviciding and management systems were designed and evaluated in 15 city wards to allow timely collection, interpretation and reaction to entomologic monitoring data using practical procedures that rely on minimal technology. After one year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis commenced in March 2006 in three selected wards. Results The procedures and staff management systems described greatly improved standards of larval surveillance relative to that reported at the outset of this programme. In the first year of the programme, over 65,000 potential Anopheles habitats were surveyed by 90 CORPs on a weekly basis. Reaction times to vector surveillance at observations were one day, week and month at ward, municipal and city levels, respectively. One year of community-based larviciding reduced transmission by the primary malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., by 31% (95% C.I. = 21.6–37.6%; p = 0.04. Conclusion This novel management, monitoring and evaluation system for implementing routine larviciding of malaria vectors in African cities has shown considerable potential for sustained, rapidly responsive, data-driven and affordable application. Nevertheless, the true programmatic value of larviciding in urban Africa can only be established through longer-term programmes which are stably financed and allow the operational teams and management infrastructures to mature by learning from experience.

  14. Adsorption of Toxic Metals and Control of Mosquitos-borne Disease by Lysinibacillus sphaericus:Dual Benefits for Health and Environment

    Javier Edo.Vargas; Jenny Dussán

    2016-01-01

    Objective Assessment of the bacteriumL. sphaericusas a dual-action candidate for biological control of mosquito-borne diseases and bioremediation of toxic metals. Methods Larvae of the mosquito,C. quinquefasciatus, were first evaluated for metal tolerance and then exposed to 5 ppm cadmium, chromium, arsenic, and lead in assays together with seven strains of L. sphaericus. A probit regression analysis was used to estimate the LC50 of Cd, Cr, As, and Pb toC. quinquefasciatus.An analysis of covariance and multifactorial ANOVA examined the metal biosorption and larvicidal properties of the seven strains of L. sphaericus. Results We found that L. sphaericus adsorbed the toxic metal ions and was toxic against mosquito larvae. The L. sphaericus strain Ⅲ(3)7 resulted in a larvae mortality of over 80% for all the tested metals. This strain also exhibited the capacity to adsorb 76% of arsenic, 32% of lead, 25% of chromium, and 7%of cadmium. Conclusion This study found combined metal adsorption and larval toxicity associated with three strains ofL. sphaericus[Ⅲ(3)7, OT4b.31, and CBAM5]. This suggests that a combination of these strains shows strong dual potential forbiological control of mosquitosin heavy metal-contaminated areas and remediate the heavy metal contamination as well.

  15. Parasite sources and sinks in a patched Ross-Macdonald malaria model with human and mosquito movement: Implications for control.

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Smith, David L; De Leenheer, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    We consider the dynamics of a mosquito-transmitted pathogen in a multi-patch Ross-Macdonald malaria model with mobile human hosts, mobile vectors, and a heterogeneous environment. We show the existence of a globally stable steady state, and a threshold that determines whether a pathogen is either absent from all patches, or endemic and present at some level in all patches. Each patch is characterized by a local basic reproduction number, whose value predicts whether the disease is cleared or not when the patch is isolated: patches are known as "demographic sinks" if they have a local basic reproduction number less than one, and hence would clear the disease if isolated; patches with a basic reproduction number above one would sustain endemic infection in isolation, and become "demographic sources" of parasites when connected to other patches. Sources are also considered focal areas of transmission for the larger landscape, as they export excess parasites to other areas and can sustain parasite populations. We show how to determine the various basic reproduction numbers from steady state estimates in the patched network and knowledge of additional model parameters, hereby identifying parasite sources in the process. This is useful in the context of control of the infection on natural landscapes, because a commonly suggested strategy is to target focal areas, in order to make their corresponding basic reproduction numbers less than one, effectively turning them into sinks. We show that this is indeed a successful control strategy-albeit a conservative and possibly expensive one-in case either the human host, or the vector does not move. However, we also show that when both humans and vectors move, this strategy may fail, depending on the specific movement patterns exhibited by hosts and vectors. PMID:27436636

  16. Mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito

  17. A dietary risk assessment of the pyrethroid insecticide resmethrin associated with its use for West Nile Virus mosquito vector control in California

    Wesley C. Carr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of human illnesses associated with West Nile Virus (WNV occurred in New York City in 1999. Since then, it has gradually spread westwards, reaching northern California for the first time in 2005. WNV is transmitted by several mosquito species and birds serve as the main reservoir. Several control measures have been used, targeting both the aquatic larvae and the adult mosquitoes. In the latter case, roosting birds in trees are sprayed with pyrethroid insecticides because these are highly toxic to mosquitoes, but have low avian toxicity. A request was made to use a resmethrin-containing insecticide during the month of October 2005 in California. Because resmethrin was not registered for use on growing crops, concerns were raised about potential crop contamination. Therefore, an expedited dietary risk assessment was conducted on resmethrin. Developmental toxicity in the rat (NOELs of 25 or 40 mg/kg/day was used as the acute endpoint and dietary exposure was assessed using the DEEM-FCIDTM computer program. Only crops growing above ground during October were considered. Margins of Safety (MOS were found to be above 100, the level generally considered to be sufficient to protect public health when using an animal NOEL.

  18. Mosquito Bite Prevention For Travelers

    Mosquito Bite Prevention for Travelers Mosquitoes spread many types of viruses and parasites that can cause diseases ... be available. Protect yourself and your family from mosquito bites. Here’s how: Keep mosquitoes out of your ...

  19. PRELIMINARY DATA ON USE OF THE INLAND SILVERSIDE, 'MENIDIA BERYLLINA', TO CONTROL MOSQUITO LARVAE

    A study of procedures for spawning and culture of the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, was conducted. The control efficacy of young Menidia, 21 to 37 days old, was determined in the laboratory with the 1st and 2nd instars of Aedes taeniorhynchus and Anopheles quadrimaculatus...

  20. Heterologous expression in transgenic mosquitoes

    Santhosh P K; Yu hua Deng; Weidong Gu; Xiaoguang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue virus afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Control of such pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. The failure of these conventional approaches due to emergence of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites demonstrate the need of novel and efficacious control strategies to combat these diseases. Genetic modification(GM) of mosquito vectors to impair their ability to be infected and transmit pathogens has emerged as a new strategy to reduce transmission of many vector-borne diseases and deliver public health gains. Several advances in developing transgenic mosquitoes unable to transmit pathogens have gained support, some of them attempt to manipulate the naturally occurring endogenous refractory mechanisms, while others initiate the identification of an exogenous foreign gene which disrupt the pathogen development in insect vectors. Heterologous expression of transgenes under a native or heterologous promoter is important for the screening and effecting of the transgenic mosquitoes. The effect of the transgene on mosquito fitness is a crucial parameter influencing the success of this transgenic approach. This review examines these two aspects and describes the basic research work that has been accomplished towards understanding the complex relation between the parasite and its vector and focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to vector-borne disease transmission.

  1. Restoring coastal wetlands that were ditched for mosquito control: a preliminary assessment of hydro-leveling as a restoration technique

    Smith, Thomas J., III; Tiling, Ginger; Leasure, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    The wetlands surrounding Tampa Bay, Florida were extensively ditched for mosquito control in the 1950s. Spoil from ditch construction was placed adjacent to the wetlands ditches creating mound-like features (spoil-mounds). These mounds represent a loss of 14% of the wetland area in Tampa Bay. Spoil mounds interfere with tidal flow and are locations for non-native plants to colonize (e.g., Schinus terebinthifolius). Removal of the spoil mounds to eliminate exotic plants, restore native vegetation, and re-establish natural hydrology is a restoration priority for environmental managers. Hydro-leveling, a new technique, was tested in a mangrove forest restoration project in 2004. Hydro-leveling uses a high pressure stream of water to wash sediment from the spoil mound into the adjacent wetland and ditch. To assess the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted vegetation surveys in areas that were hydro-leveled and in non-hydro-leveled areas 3 years post-project. Adult Schinus were reduced but not eliminated from hydro-leveled mounds. Schinus seedlings however were absent from hydro-leveled sites. Colonization by native species was sparse. Mangrove seedlings were essentially absent (≈2 m−2) from the centers of hydro-leveled mounds and were in low density on their edges (17 m−2) in comparison to surrounding mangrove forests (105 m−2). Hydro-leveling resulted in mortality of mangroves adjacent to the mounds being leveled. This was probably caused by burial of pneumatophores during the hydro-leveling process. For hydro-leveling to be a useful and successful restoration technique several requirements must be met. Spoil mounds must be lowered to the level of the surrounding wetlands. Spoil must be distributed further into the adjacent wetland to prevent burial of nearby native vegetation. Finally, native species may need to be planted on hydro-leveled areas to speed up the re-vegetation process.

  2. Urban Agriculture and Operational Mosquito Larvae Control: Mitigating Malaria Risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Dongus, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Global commitment, political will and financial support to reduce the burden of malaria, a disease which kills about one million people each year, have reached an unprecedented level. Although global malaria eradication appears to be a distant goal, there are promising efforts towards regional control and local elimination of the disease. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region with the world’s highest malaria burden, as well as the world’s fastest growing cities. Rapid urbanisation brings eno...

  3. Urban agriculture and operational mosquito larvae control. mitigating malaria risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Dongus, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Global commitment, political will and financial support to reduce the burden of malaria, a disease which kills about one million people each year, have reached an unprecedented level. Although global malaria eradication appears to be a distant goal, there are promising efforts towards regional control and local elimination of the disease. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region with the world’s highest malaria burden, as well as the world’s fastest growing cities. Rapid urbanisation brings eno...

  4. Circadian control of permethrin-resistance in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Yang, Y.-Y.; Liu, Y.; Teng, H.-J.; Šauman, Ivo; Sehnal, František; Lee, H.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 9 (2010), s. 1219-1223. ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032 Grant ostatní: Centers for Disease Control, Department of Health(TW) DOH96-DC-1206; National Science Council(TW) NSC 95-2313-B-002-084 MY3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insecticide resistence * median knock-down time * clock gene Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2010

  5. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    Christensen Jamie; Harrison Stanley; Birney Ian; Wilkerson Richard C; Foley Desmond H; Rueda Leopoldo M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Result...

  6. Cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means of controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean.

    Atyame, Célestine M; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. PMID:22206033

  7. Cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means of controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean.

    Célestine M Atyame

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s. Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT, a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte. The wPip(Is strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands.

  8. 某军事演习区域蚊虫综合防治措施的研究%Integrated mosquito control in a military maneuver field

    陆年宏; 曹勇平; 钱万红; 韩招久; 谭伟龙; 郑剑; 贾德胜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To control the density of mosquitoes, prevent vector-borne disease and ensure the army power. Methods Investigating breeding sites, environment improvement, chemical control, individual protection and integrated control. Results The density of mosquitoes decreased by 96. 1% one hour after ultralow volume spraying and constant spraying outdoors. The number of mosquitoes lighting on the nets decreased from 6.70 to 0 -0.43 pieces per net,blood sucking rate reduced from 26. 68% to 0 -4. 17% , and the protection was up to 95% forty days after the treatment of net with insecticides. The soldiers on duty could be protected for 6 h after the application of repellent. Conclusion Environment improvement should be the basic measure for mosquitoes control. Chemical control is still important when quick control is in need.%目的 控制蚊虫密度,防止虫媒传染病的发生,保障部队战斗力.方法 查清演习场所周围10 km以内蚊虫孳生地的状况,采取环境治理、化学防治和个体防护相结合的综合措施.结果 室外场所用超低容量喷雾和常量喷雾后1h蚊虫密度下降率达96.1%;野营帐篷内用蚊帐浸泡剂处理蚊帐,在40 d观察期间,蚊虫停落数由试验前6.70只/帐降为0~0.43只/帐,吸血率由26.68%降为0~4.17%,对人的保护率达95%以上;值勤单兵用长效驱避剂涂抹裸露部位,100%保护时间为6h.结论 蚊虫防治必须以环境治理为主,但在蚊虫肆虐地区,化学防治仍是快速控制蚊虫密度的重要手段,必须因地制宜,不同场所采用不同的药剂.

  9. Play the Mosquito Game

    ... Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games ... that is transmitted to humans by a female mosquito's bite. Read More » The Nobel Prize The 1902 ...

  10. Mosquito, adult (image)

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  11. Bioactivity of citrus seed for mosquito-borne diseases larval control.

    Sumroiphon, Suchada; Yuwaree, Chumporn; Arunlertaree, Chumlong; Komalamisra, Narumon; Rongsriyam, Yupha

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the activity of citrus-seed extract against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The results indicated that ethanol citrus-seed extract showed the best killing effect on Ae. aegypti larvae, followed by local liquor, and water, with LC50 of 2,267.71, 6,389.22, and 135,319.40 ppm, respectively, whereas against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae, the LC50 were 2,639.27, 5,611.66, and 127,411.88 ppm, respectively. Temephos was tested against Ae. aegypti larvae; the LC50 was 0.00057 ppm, which was nearly 4,000,000 times less than ethanol citrus-seed extract. When ethanol citrus-seed extract and temephos were tested with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a standard environmental organism, using LC50 of Ae. aegypti larvae at 2,267 and 0.00057 ppm, respectively, fish mortality was 0%. The results suggested that ethanol citrus-seed extract had no harmful effect on the fish, and that temephos, which is recommended by WHO, was safe for use in drinking water. However, when the LC50 dose that killed Ae. aegypti larvae for local liquor (6,389 ppm) and water extract (135,319 ppm) were tested with fish, the mortality rates were 35% and 100%, respectively. On the whole, the results suggested that ethanol citrus-seed extract is environmentally friendly and can be used in the control of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. PMID:17547066

  12. Interactive effects of mosquito control insecticide toxicity, hypoxia, and increased carbon dioxide on larval and juvenile eastern oysters and hard clams.

    Garcia, R N; Chung, K W; Key, P B; Burnett, L E; Coen, L D; Delorenzo, M E

    2014-04-01

    Mosquito control insecticide use in the coastal zone coincides with the habitat and mariculture operations of commercially and ecologically important shellfish species. Few data are available regarding insecticide toxicity to shellfish early life stages, and potential interactions with abiotic stressors, such as low oxygen and increased CO2 (low pH), are less understood. Toxicity was assessed at 4 and 21 days for larval and juvenile stages of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, using two pyrethroids (resmethrin and permethrin), an organophosphate (naled), and a juvenile growth hormone mimic (methoprene). Acute toxicity (4-day LC50) values ranged from 1.59 to >10 mg/L. Overall, clams were more susceptible to mosquito control insecticides than oysters. Naled was the most toxic compound in oyster larvae, whereas resmethrin was the most toxic compound in clam larvae. Mortality for both species generally increased with chronic insecticide exposure (21-day LC50 values ranged from 0.60 to 9.49 mg/L). Insecticide exposure also caused sublethal effects, including decreased swimming activity after 4 days in larval oysters (4-day EC50 values of 0.60 to 2.33 mg/L) and decreased growth (shell area and weight) in juvenile clams and oysters after 21 days (detected at concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10 mg/L). Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and a combination of hypoxia and hypercapnia caused mortality in larval clams and increased resmethrin toxicity. These data will benefit both shellfish mariculture operations and environmental resource agencies as they manage the use of mosquito control insecticides near coastal ecosystems. PMID:24531857

  13. No association between the use of Bti for mosquito control and the dynamics of non-target aquatic invertebrates in French coastal and continental wetlands.

    Lagadic, Laurent; Schäfer, Ralf B; Roucaute, Marc; Szöcs, Eduard; Chouin, Sébastien; de Maupeou, Jérôme; Duchet, Claire; Franquet, Evelyne; Le Hunsec, Benoit; Bertrand, Céline; Fayolle, Stéphanie; Francés, Benoît; Rozier, Yves; Foussadier, Rémi; Santoni, Jean-Baptiste; Lagneau, Christophe

    2016-05-15

    The environmental safety of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is still controversial, mainly because most of the previous field studies on its undesired effects were spatially limited and did not address the relationship between community similarity and application time and frequency. No general statement can therefore be drawn on the usage conditions of Bti that insure protection of non-target organisms. The present study was conducted in eight sites distributed over the main geographical sectors where mosquito control is implemented in mainland France and Corsica. Changes in non-target aquatic invertebrates were followed at elapsed time after repeated applications of two Bti formulations (VectoBac® WDG or 12AS) up to four consecutive years. We examined the influence of both larvicide treatments and environmental variables on community dynamics and dissimilarity between treated and control areas. As it can be argued that chironomids are the most vulnerable group of non-target invertebrates, we scrutinised potential Bti-related effects on the dynamics of their community. The use of VectoBac® WDG and 12AS in coastal and continental wetlands had no immediate or long-term detectable effect on the taxonomic structure and taxa abundance of non-target aquatic invertebrate communities, including chironomids. This applied to the main habitats where mosquito larvae occur, regardless of their geographic location. Flooding, whose frequency and duration depend on local meteorological and hydrological conditions, was identified as the main environmental driver of invertebrate community dynamics. Our findings add support to the environmental safety of currently available Bti formulations when following recommended application rates and best mosquito control practices. PMID:26930319

  14. Free flight of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Iams, S M

    2012-01-01

    High speed video observations of free flying male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the dengue and yellow fever vector, along with custom measurement methods, enable measurement of wingbeat frequency, body position and body orientation of mosquitoes during flight. We find these mosquitoes flap their wings at approximately 850 Hz. We also generate body yaw, body pitch and wing deviation measurements with standard deviations of less than 1 degree and find that sideways velocity and acceleration are important components of mosquito motion. Rapid turns involving changes in flight direction often involve large sideways accelerations. These do not correspond to commensurate changes in body heading, and the insect's flight direction and body heading are decoupled during flight. These findings call in to question the role of yaw control in mosquito flight. In addition, using orientation data, we find that sideways accelerations are well explained by roll-based rotation of the lift vector. In contrast, the insect's body pitch...

  15. Genetically Modified Mosquito: Myth and Reality

    Teh Su Yean; Koh Hock Lye; Yeap Kiew Lee

    2013-01-01

    Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been applied successfully in some agricultural pest control programs in the past, but in many cases, success has not been sustainable in the long run. Various attempts have been made to duplicate this limited success SIT application in agriculture to other areas of applications, particularly in vector control. For example, a recent mosquito control program has been initiated in Malaysia to eliminate dengue-mosquitoes Aedes aegypti by releasing large amount o...

  16. 蚊虫的共生菌及其在媒介控制中的应用%Symbiosis in mosquitoes and its role in vector control

    Akinkurolere Rotimi Oluwafemi; 张宏宇

    2007-01-01

    Many insects have established a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms they harbour either externally on their body or intracellular within their gut. Insects such as bugs, aphids or triatomines feed on sub-optimal diets due to their restriction to a particular living environment and the symbionts harboured in their body help them to synthesize and make up for other nutritional requirements lacking in their food. Mosquito also has an association with vast array of symbiotic bacteria in its gut. Adult mosquito is attracted to pool water with high bacteria load for oviposition while the bacteria later serve as source of food for the mosquito larvae. With bacteria being indispensable for normal larval growth in Aedes and Culex species, mosquito and other insects either fail to develop to full maturity or are unable to transmit diseases that are lethal to human or livestock when they are raised under sterile conditions. This paper reviews symbiosis in mosquitoes and its application under the following subtopics: ( 1 ) isolation and identification of bacteria from mosquito (aposymbiotic insect), (2)acquisition and transmission of symbionts, (3) localization of symbionts, and it also discusses potential application of genetically transformed symbionts in control of mosquitoes and insect borne diseases like malaria, etc.%许多昆虫与寄生在昆虫体表或肠道细胞中的微生物建立了共生关系.臭虫、蚜虫、猎蝽等昆虫可以依靠非最佳食物为生,这一是由于其特殊的生存环境,还由于其体内的共生微生物可以帮助合成和补充其食物中所缺乏的必需营养物质.蚊虫也与其肠道中共生细菌有着密切的联系.成蚊喜产卵于富含细菌的水体中,水体细菌成为蚊虫幼虫的重要食物来源.伊蚊和库蚊幼虫正常生长发育不可缺少细菌,在无菌条件下饲养,蚊虫或其他媒介昆虫不能正常发育至成熟或不能传播人畜疾病.该文对蚊虫与细菌的共生现象

  17. Review of semiochemicals that mediate the oviposition of mosquitoes: a possible sustainable tool for the control and monitoring of Culicidae Revisão dos semioquímicos que mediam a oviposição em mosquitos: uma possível ferramenta sustentável para o monitoramento e controle de Culicidae

    Mario A. Navarro-Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice for suitable places for female mosquitoes to lay eggs is a key-factor for the survival of immature stages (eggs and larvae. This knowledge stands out in importance concerning the control of disease vectors. The selection of a place for oviposition requires a set of chemical, visual, olfactory and tactile cues that interact with the female before laying eggs, helping the localization of adequate sites for oviposition. The present paper presents a bibliographic revision on the main aspects of semiochemicals in regard to mosquitoes' oviposition, aiding the comprehension of their mechanisms and estimation of their potential as a tool for the monitoring and control of the Culicidae.A seleção de locais adequados pelas fêmeas de mosquitos para depositarem seus ovos é um fator chave para a sobrevivência de seus imaturos (ovos e larvas. O conhecimento das relações ecológicas implicadas neste processo é de grande importância quando se refere a vetores de agentes patogênicos. A determinação do local de oviposição pelas fêmeas grávidas envolve uma rede de mensagens químicas, visuais, olfativas e táteis que facilitam a localização de lugares adequados para depositarem seus ovos. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma revisão bibliográfica dos principais aspectos relacionados com semioquímicos presentes na oviposição dos mosquitos auxiliando no entendimento dos mecanismos de atuação dos mesmos e potencializando a aplicação destes semioquímicos como uma possível ferramenta de monitoramento e controle de Culicidae.

  18. Contrasting genetic structure between mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the dengue fever mosquito from Rio de Janeiro: implications for vector control.

    Rašić, Gordana; Schama, Renata; Powell, Rosanna; Maciel-de Freitas, Rafael; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy M; Filipović, Igor; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Máspero, Renato C; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-10-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent global arboviral disease that affects over 300 million people every year. Brazil has the highest number of dengue cases in the world, with the most severe epidemics in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Rio). The effective control of dengue is critically dependent on the knowledge of population genetic structuring in the primary dengue vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. We analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism markers generated via Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing, as well as traditional microsatellite markers in Ae. aegypti from Rio. We found four divergent mitochondrial lineages and a strong spatial structuring of mitochondrial variation, in contrast to the overall nuclear homogeneity across Rio. Despite a low overall differentiation in the nuclear genome, we detected strong spatial structure for variation in over 20 genes that have a significantly altered expression in response to insecticides, xenobiotics, and pathogens, including the novel biocontrol agent Wolbachia. Our results indicate that high genetic diversity, spatially unconstrained admixing likely mediated by male dispersal, along with locally heterogeneous genetic variation that could affect insecticide resistance and mosquito vectorial capacity, set limits to the effectiveness of measures to control dengue fever in Rio. PMID:26495042

  19. Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its control of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and blood sucking mosquito larvae

    Vijayakumar, S.; Vinoj, G.; Malaikozhundan, B.; Shanthi, S.; Vaseeharan, B.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles were biologically synthesized using the leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Pam-ZnO NPs). The synthesized Pam-ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, TEM and XRD analysis. TEM analysis of Pam-ZnO NPs showed the average size of about 20-50 nm. Pam-ZnO NPs control the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (MRSA ATCC 33591) at the concentration of 8-10 μg/ml. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) images revealed that Pam-ZnO NPs strongly inhibited the biofilm forming ability of S. aureus. In addition, Pam-ZnO NPs showed 100% mortality of fourth instar mosquito larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus at the concentration of 8 and 10 μg/ml. The histopathological studies of Pam-ZnO NPs treated A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus larvae revealed the presence of damaged cells and tissues in the mid-gut. The damaged tissues suffered major changes including rupture and disintegration of epithelial layer and cellular vacuolization. The present study conclude that Pam-ZnO NPs showed effective control of S. aureus biofilms and mosquito larvae by damaging the mid gut cells.

  20. EFFECTS OF MOSQUITO REPELLENTS ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS

    Venkatesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito bite transmits diseases like Malaria, Filaria, Dengue etc. and usage of repellents is very common and has been in use for a long time. The smoke contains Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons, Aldehydes and Ketones. Review of literature has shown ill effects of this smoke. Hence we intended to study the effect of mosquito repellents on lung functions. This study would be important to create awareness regarding usage of mosquito repellent and to adapt to non-harmful methods of preventing mosquito bites. PFT parameters FVC, FEV1, FEV1/ FVC %, FEF 25-75 and PEFR were recorded in mosquito coil users, liquidator’s users and controls that used neither. It was found that FVC and FEV1 were significantly less in coil and liquidators users compared to controls (P < 0.05. Also it was found that in both coil users and liquidator users FVC, FEV1, FEF 25 -75 and PEFR and showed progressive decline with increased duration of usage (P < 0.05. Hence it was concluded that mosquito coils and liquidators can cause progressive decline in lung functions. Alternative methods to combat mosquito menace, like personal and environmental hygiene and non-chemical methods of protection are therefore recommended.

  1. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Mosquito ... español ¡Ay! ¡Me picó un mosquito! What's a Mosquito? A mosquito (say: mus-KEE-toe) is an ...

  2. Susceptibility of the leaf-eating beetle, Galerucella calmariensis, a biological control agent for purple loosestrife (Lythrum salcaria), to three mosquito control larvicides

    Lowe, T.P.; Hershberger, T.D.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of Galerucella calmariensis, a species used to control purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), to three mosquito control larvicides. Larvae and adults were fed loosestrife cuttings dipped in Abate? (3.75 g?L-1) was reduced significantly and survival was significantly lower among larvae and adults eating cuttings dipped in Abate (>0.17 g?L-1 and >2.27 g?L-1, respectively). Hatching success of eggs dipped in Altosid (>2.52 g?L-1) was reduced significantly. With exposure to Altosid, larval survival to pupation and adult emergence was reduced significantly at concentrations of >2.92 g?L-1 and >0.63 g?L-1, respectively. Altosid (>0.23 g?L-1) also delayed the onset of pupation and adult emergence among larvae that survived to pupate. Larvae that survived with exposure to Altosid (>1.72 g?L-1) grew to 70% larger than those exposed to lower concentrations. Pupal survival was unaffected with exposure to Abate and Altosid and adult survival was unaffected with exposure to Altosid. Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis did not adversely affect any life stage of G. calmariensis. The mean Abate concentration on cuttings exposed to operational spraying was in the range that reduced egg hatchability and adult survival but was higher than concentrations that caused complete mortality of larvae. The mean Altosid concentration on cuttings exposed to operational spraying was in the range that reduced hatching success in eggs and delayed pupation and adult emergence of larvae.

  3. Outdoor host seeking behaviour of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes following initiation of malaria vector control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Reddy Vamsi P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor-based anti-vector interventions remain the preferred means of reducing risk of malaria transmission in malaria endemic areas around the world. Despite demonstrated success in reducing human-mosquito interactions, these methods are effective solely against endophilic vectors. It may be that outdoor locations serve as an important venue of host seeking by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l. mosquitoes where indoor vector suppression measures are employed. This paper describes the host seeking activity of anopheline mosquito vectors in the Punta Europa region of Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. In this area, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s. is the primary malaria vector. The goal of the paper is to evaluate the importance of An gambiae s.l. outdoor host seeking behaviour and discuss its implications for anti-vector interventions. Methods The venue and temporal characteristics of host seeking by anopheline vectors in a hyperendemic setting was evaluated using human landing collections conducted inside and outside homes in three villages during both the wet and dry seasons in 2007 and 2008. Additionally, five bi-monthly human landing collections were conducted throughout 2009. Collections were segregated hourly to provide a time distribution of host-seeking behaviour. Results Surprisingly high levels of outdoor biting by An. gambiae senso stricto and An. melas vectors were observed throughout the night, including during the early evening and morning hours when human hosts are often outdoors. As reported previously, An. gambiae s.s. is the primary malaria vector in the Punta Europa region, where it seeks hosts outdoors at least as much as it does indoors. Further, approximately 40% of An. gambiae s.l. are feeding at times when people are often outdoors, where they are not protected by IRS or LLINs. Repeated sampling over two consecutive dry-wet season cycles indicates that this result is independent of seasonality. Conclusions

  4. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes

    Dua Virendra K; Pandey Akhilesh C; Raghavendra Kamaraju; Gupta Ashish; Sharma Trilochan; Dash Aditya P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the l...

  5. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts

    N.G. Das, D. Goswami & B. Rabha

    2007-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most important single group ofinsects in terms of public health importance, whichtransmit a number of diseases, such as malaria, filariasis,dengue, Japanese encephalitis, etc. causing millionsof deaths every year. Repeated use of syntheticinsecticides for mosquito control has disrupted naturalbiological control systems and led to resurgencesin mosquito populations. It has also resulted in thedevelopment of resistance1, undesirable effects onnon-target organisms and fostered...

  6. Ecology of mosquitoes of Midwestern Nigeria

    Godwin R.A. Okogun, Jude C. Anosike, Anthony N. Okere & Bethran E.B. Nwoke

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The ecology and distribution of various mosquito species is important inthe determination of mosquito vector abundance and associated diseases prevalence. The distributionof various mosquito genera in natural and artificial habitats and their relative species abundancewas studied between August 2002 and July 2003 in three foci (Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi comprisingthe Esan and Etsako regions of Midwestern Nigeria.Methods: Sampling was carried out by the method of Hopkins (1952 by dipping using a pipette orladle depending on container types. Pooled contents of smaller containers were sampled with a pondnet. All breeding sources of mosquito larvae were grouped into five (5 depending on their nature,constitution and the physiochemical properties. Artificial mosquito cultures were also carried out infour different container types; plastics, metal cans, earthenware pots and bamboo strips, in parts oftwo different macro habitats subdivided into area of high human activities (AHHA and areas ofderived/secondary vegetation (ADSV. Environmental temperatures, rainfall and relative humiditywere monitored during the study.Results: The present study revealed 17 mosquito species belonging to three genera (Anopheles,Culex and Aedes which are potential vectors of four human diseases in the areas surveyed. A total of736 mosquito larvae were encountered in artificial sources and 568 larvae were harvested from naturalsources. Pools, plastics and metal cans were the predominant artificial sources of mosquito larvae.Conclusion: The contribution of human activities and increasing environmental modification to thebreeding of human disease vector mosquitoes is of importance and selective vector control measuresincluding larviciding are recommended particularly before onset of rainy season

  7. Introduction of a new facility for mosquito control research in field%一种现场防控蚊虫装置的研究

    Ritchie; 郑卫青; 姜志宽

    2012-01-01

    Novel vector control strategies require validation in ihe field before they can be widely accepted. Semi-field system(SFS) containment facilities are an intermediate step between laboratory and field trials that offer a safe, controlled environment that replicates field conditions, a SFS laboratory and cage complex simulates an urban house and yard which is the primary habitat for mosquito. The SFS consists of a Quarantine Insectary Level-2 (QIC-2) labo-ratory, containing 3 constant temperature rooms,that is connected to two Q1S-2 cages for housing released mosquitoes. Each cage contains the understory of a timber house and associated yard. An automated air conditioning system keeps temperature and humidity to within 1℃ and 5% RH of ambient conditions, respectively. Survival of released mosquito is high, especially for females.%一种好的蚊虫防治方法需要在现场确认效果后,才能得到推广.现场模拟系统封闭设施根据现场环境特点设计,具有在室内操作现场试验的优点,它安全有效,并能达到温控的效果.现场模拟系统的实验室和蚊笼装置模拟住户房屋和庭院结构设计,利于蚊虫孳生.现场模拟系统由1个二级检疫昆虫饲养实验室组成,该实验室有3个恒温室,实验室紧连着2个二级检验检疫局蚊笼,蚊笼用于释放蚊虫.每个蚊笼内部有木屋和庭院.自控式空调系统能将蚊笼环境温湿度分别控制在1(C)和5%范围内波动.蚊笼中的蚊虫成活率高,雌蚊成活率更高.

  8. The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes

    Karyn N. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection and transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.

  9. The influence of mosquito control recirculation ditches on plant biomass, production and composition in two San Francisco Bay salt marshes

    Balling, Steven S.; Resh, Vincent H.

    1983-02-01

    Vegetation of two San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A. tidal marshes was examined to determine the effects of recirculation ditches designed to eliminate mosquito-breeding. Salicornia virginica L. biomass and production in Petaluma Marsh and plant species composition in Suisun Marsh were measured with respect to distance from ditches and natural channels. In Petaluma Marsh, both annual above-ground production estimates and infrared aerial photographs indicated that S. virginica growth rates were higher near ditches than in the open marsh. In the floristically diverse, less saline Suisun Marsh, there was a displacement of the more salt tolerant S. virginica by the less tolerant Juncus balticus Willd. and a significantly greater number of species near the ditches. Results in both marshes are correlated with low groundwater salinities near ditches and suggest that tidal circulation within ditches locally ameliorates extremes in soil conditions.

  10. Esterases as biomarkers in Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor exposed to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis used for mosquito control in coastal wetlands of Morbihan (Brittany, France).

    Fourcy, D; Jumel, A; Heydorff, M; Lagadic, L

    2002-01-01

    Since 1998, a biomonitoring programme has been implemented to assess the potential impact of chemical mosquito control on macroinvertebrates of the coastal wetlands of Morbihan (Brittany, France). Acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterases were used as biomarkers to assess the effects of Abate 500e (a.i. temephos) and Vectobac 12 AS (a.i. endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, Bti) in Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor. Esterase inhibition revealed a marked impact of temephos, suggesting preferential contamination of the worms through the food. In Bti-exposed N. diversicolor, random variations of esterase activities were observed, that could not be attributed to the larvicide. However, esterases only reflected indirect physiological effects of Bti, and further investigations are needed to identify biomarkers more specific of Bti endotoxins. PMID:12408646

  11. How Mosquitoes Detect People

    ... mosquito-borne diseases are endemic,” Ray says. — by Carol Torgan, Ph.D. Related Links Targeting the Mosquito's ... Assistant Editors: Vicki Contie, Tianna Hicklin, Ph.D., Carol Torgan, Ph.D. NIH Research Matters is a ...

  12. Mosquito control insecticides: a probabilistic ecological risk assessment on drift exposures of naled, dichlorvos (naled metabolite) and permethrin to adult butterflies.

    Hoang, T C; Rand, G M

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive probabilistic terrestrial ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted to characterize the potential risk of mosquito control insecticide (i.e., naled, it's metabolite dichlorvos, and permethrin) usage to adult butterflies in south Florida by comparing the probability distributions of environmental exposure concentrations following actual mosquito control applications at labeled rates from ten field monitoring studies with the probability distributions of butterfly species response (effects) data from our laboratory acute toxicity studies. The overlap of these distributions was used as a measure of risk to butterflies. The long-term viability (survival) of adult butterflies, following topical (thorax/wings) exposures was the environmental value we wanted to protect. Laboratory acute toxicity studies (24-h LD50) included topical exposures (thorax and wings) to five adult butterfly species and preparation of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). The ERA indicated that the assessment endpoint of protection, of at least 90% of the species, 90% of the time (or the 10th percentile from the acute SSDs) from acute naled and permethrin exposures, is most likely not occurring when considering topical exposures to adults. Although the surface areas for adulticide exposures are greater for the wings, exposures to the thorax provide the highest potential for risk (i.e., SSD 10th percentile is lowest) for adult butterflies. Dichlorvos appeared to present no risk. The results of this ERA can be applied to other areas of the world, where these insecticides are used and where butterflies may be exposed. Since there are other sources (e.g., agriculture) of pesticides in the environment, where butterfly exposures will occur, the ERA may under-estimate the potential risks under real-world conditions. PMID:25261815

  13. Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei

    Glinwood Robert; Ghebru Maedot; Ignell Rickard; Dekker Teun; Hopkins Richard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry plants. We verified whether active repellent compounds could be identified using gas-chromatography coupled electroantennogram recordings (GC-EAD) with headspace extracts of crushed plants. Results EAD active compounds inclu...

  14. Mosquito population regulation and larval source management in heterogeneous environments.

    David L Smith

    Full Text Available An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM. We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats' carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%. Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides.

  15. 云南省蚊媒传播性疾病的控制问题%VECTOR OF MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASE CONTROL PROBLEMS IN YUNNAN PROVINCE OF CHINA

    周红宁; 董学书; Chris Curtis

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mosquito-borne diseases in Yunnan, mainly consist of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falcipurium) [1,2] and Japanese encephalitis (JE).No clinic dengue fever and filariasis patients were reported in Yunnan.But in neighboring region Guangxi, these two diseases occur [3,4].In Yunnan, some Aedes mosquitoes such as Aedes albopitus have been detected carrying dengue virus[5].

  16. Assessing the Health Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Nets in the Control of Malaria in Endemic Regions

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a protozoan disease caused in humans by the genus Plasmodium of which four species are known: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. It is transmitted through the bite of infected female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Malaria is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high fever, sweating, shaking chills, and anemia. Approximately 40% of the world's population, mostly those living in the poorest nations, are at risk. Much of the deaths due to malaria occur in Africa, mostly among children. The search for prevention and control interventions that are effective and sustainable remains an abiding challenge for national governments and international health agencies. To this end, the World Health Organization and several nongovernmental organizations are investing in the use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITMNs as a viable option. Trials of ITMNs in the 1980s and 1990s showed that they reduce deaths in young children by an average of 20% and multilateral agencies, spearheaded by Roll Back Malaria (RBM, seek to have 60% of the populations at risk sleeping under ITMNs by 2005. All pesticides are toxic by nature and present risks of adverse effects that depend on toxicity of the chemical and the degree of exposure. While there is agreement that ITMNs can be effective in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality under field trials, a number of factors relating to their sustainability and contribution to health improvement in less-developed countries have yet to be determined. In particular, the adverse effects associated with their long-term use and misuse has yet to be fully evaluated. Although this paper examines potential neurotoxic and neurobehavioral effects of long-term use of ITMNs and discusses priority public health actions for protecting the health of users, it forms the basis for further research.

  17. DsRed2 transient expression in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

    Andre Barretto Bruno Wilke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes have been successfully genetically modified only once, despite the efforts of several laboratories to transform and establish a stable strain. We have developed a transient gene expression method, in Culex, that delivers plasmid DNA directly to the mosquito haemolymph and additional tissues. We were able to express DsRed2 fluorescent protein in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes by injecting plasmids directly into their thorax. The expression of DsRed2 in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes is an important stepping stone to genetic transformation and the potential use of new control strategies and genetic interactions.

  18. Arbovirus Prevalence in Mosquitoes, Kenya

    LaBeaud, A. Desiree; Sutherland, Laura J.; Muiruri, Samuel; Muchiri, Eric M.; Gray, Laurie R; Zimmerman, Peter A; Hise, Amy G.; King, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the many mosquito species that harbor arboviruses in Kenya. During the 2006–2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in North Eastern Province, Kenya, exophilic mosquitoes were collected from homesteads within 2 affected areas: Gumarey (rural) and Sogan-Godud (urban). Mosquitoes (n = 920) were pooled by trap location and tested for Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. The most common mosquitoes trapped belonged to the genus Culex (75%). Of 105 mosquito pools teste...

  19. 具有不育控制的埃及伊蚊种群模型的全局动态%Global Dynamics of a Mathematical Model for the Control of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes by the Sterile Insect Release Technique

    聂玉稳; 刘贤宁; 宋杨

    2012-01-01

    给出了一个描述具有不育雄蚊作为生物控制的埃及伊蚊种群动力系统的模型.研究了边界平衡点及正平衡点存在和稳定的条件,得到了当正平衡点不存在时,边界平衡点全局渐近稳定的条件,即投放不育雄蚊使得野生蚊子种群灭亡的充分条件.%In this paper, a mathematical model is presented describing the dynamics of mosquito population with biological control by sterile male mosquito releasing. The existence and stability of the boundary and positive equilibria are investigated. We obtain the conditions for the global asymptotical stability of the boundary equilibrium when the positive equilibria do not exist, that is, the threshold for making wild mosquito population extinct by releasing sterile male mosquitoes.

  20. Efficacy of a mermithid nematode Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in controlling tree hole-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rubber plantation area of Kerala, India.

    Paily, K P; Chandhiran, K; Vanamail, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Jambulingam, P

    2013-03-01

    In rubber plantations, tree holes are one of the major types of breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes which transmit dengue and chikungunya. A mermithid nematode, Romanomermis iyengari, was evaluated in tree holes for its efficacy in controlling Aedes albopictus. Infection of mosquito larvae by the nematode was determined through microscopic examination on the next day of application, and evaluation of immature density of mosquito was done on the seventh day. After application of the infective stage of the nematode in a host-parasite ratio of 1:3 or 1:4, the infection rates on the different larval instars of mosquito were similar, 85.7-95.8 % in first to third instars and 79.3 % in fourth instar larvae or 100 and 92.9 %, respectively. Parasite burden varied from 1.1 to 2.4, respectively, among first and third instar larvae applied at 1:3. At 1:4, the parasite burden was between 1.6 (fourth instar) and 4 (second instar). The increase in parasite burden due to parasite density was significant in all the larval instars (P < 0.05). High parasite burden is detrimental to parasite recycling as it can cause premature mortality of the host. Hence, the dosage of 1:3 could be considered as suitable for rubber tree hole habitats. In the nematode-applied tree holes, there was a significant level (P < 0.05) of reduction in the immature density of A. albopictus, especially late instars and pupae, confirming the efficacy of R. iyengari in infecting the mosquito and controlling pupal emergence. PMID:23306387

  1. - Vigilancia y control en criaderos temporales y permanentes de culícidos en Villa Clara (Vigilance and control in temporal and permanent breeding ground of mosquitoes in Villa Clara

    Janhad L. Rodríguez Mendieta

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la Unidad Provincial de Vigilancia y Lucha Antivectorial de la provincia de Villa Clara, en el período comprendido entre el primero de julio al primero de noviembre del 2005. Para el mismo se representaron gráficamente los 304 criaderos permanentes y 218 temporales de culícidos; distribuidos en los 13 municipios de dicha provincia. Se tomaron muestras de cuerpos de agua (28 criaderos existentes en los 13 municipios de la provincia para detectar la Densidad Larvaria según la metodología del cucharón. Se determinaron las principales especies de culícidos que habitan en la provincia y se compararon dos métodos (Temephos al 2% y peces de control para estos vectores, determinándose el costo – riesgo del Temephos al 2%, el Bacillus thurigiensis y los peces como métodos de control de mosquitos mediante una ponderización. Los datos primarios se procesaron en el sistema computarizado Excel del paquete Office XP y para el procesamiento estadístico de la efectividad de cada tratamiento se empleó la prueba de comparación de proporciones del paquete Statgraphics plus 4.1, ambos sistemas sustentados en WindowsÒ. Los resultados muestran que las especies de mosquitos más difundidas en la provincia son: el Anopheles albimanus, el Aedes mediovitatus, el Aedes scapularis, el Aedes confinis, el Culex quinquefasciatus, el Culex nigripalpus y el Culex corniger; además, los resultados demuestran la superioridad del control con peces sobre el control con Temephos ya que es más eficiente (99% versus 87% para p < 0.01 en el control de culícidos. La vigilancia con peces (no gastos en divisas y $ 1 035.08 MN es más económica que el Temephos (847 500 CUC y $ 12 490.96 MN y que el Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc y $ 8 280.64 MN. Se concluye que los peces constituyen un efectivo control para las poblaciones de culícidos, recomendando el uso de los mismos por todos los beneficios que estos representan This work was

  2. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. PMID:21309017

  3. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells.

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Sumitani, Megumi; Kasashima, Katsumi; Sezutsu, Hideki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control. PMID:27598328

  4. Predicting mosquito infection from Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte density and estimating the reservoir of infection

    Churcher, T.S.; Bousema, Jan Teun; Walker, M.; Drakeley, C.; Schneider, P.; Ouedraogo, A.L.; Basanez, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Transmission reduction is a key component of global efforts to control and eliminate malaria; yet, it is unclear how the density of transmission stages (gametocytes) influences infection (proportion of mosquitoes infected). Human to mosquito transmission was assessed using 171 direct mosquito feedin

  5. Rapid selection against arbovirus-induced apoptosis during infection of a mosquito vector

    O’Neill, Katelyn; Olson, Bradley J. S. C.; Huang, Ning; Unis, Dave; Clem, Rollie J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that cause mosquitoes to resist arbovirus infection could lead to new strategies to control disease transmission. One antiviral response that may play a role in mosquito immunity is apoptosis, a type of cell suicide that is often induced by virus infection. However, apoptosis is rarely seen in arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. To understand why, we infected mosquitoes with an arbovirus that expresses a proapoptotic gene called reaper and found that the Reaper-expressing...

  6. Environmental Assessment - Proposed Application of Aerially Applied Ultra Low Volume Naled for the Control of Adult Mosquitoes within the Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge in Lacombe, Louisiana

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document assesses the effects that aerially applied ultra low volume Naled would have on adult mosquito populations. It also offers alternatives.

  7. Spatial occurrence and hatch of field eggs of the tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Notostraca: Triopsidae), a potential biological control agent of immature mosquitoes.

    Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S

    2002-06-01

    The tadpole shrimp (TPS), Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae) is a potential biological control agent for immature mosquitoes breeding in ephemeral habitats. The occurrence of TPS eggs in soil and their hatch were investigated in 11 flood-irrigated date gardens in the Coachella Valley of southern California in 1999. Each garden was sampled several times after the rows were recently irrigated. All these date gardens harbored from very few to a large number of eggs in the soil. Overall, the average density of total eggs on ranches with clay loam soil was significantly higher than that on ranches with silt loam soil. The average densities of total eggs were significantly lower on the ranches that were disked compared to those on the ranches that were undisked before sampling. Two types of eggs were found and designated as "fresh" (yellowish to brownish) and "old" (blackish) eggs. This is the first time that these dimorphic eggs have been reported. The density of fresh eggs was lower than that of old eggs in most soil samples. The date gardens with high egg densities were sampled for determination of vertical occurrence, where soil was sampled up to 38.5 cm deep. Fresh eggs were recovered from soil in depths up to 25.6 cm, but the densities progressively declined with depth. The old eggs, however, were recovered from all soil depths studied, and there was no obvious relationship between soil depth and their density. This pattern of vertical occurrence of TPS eggs is the result of frequent disking for weed control and fruit harvest. Hatch of TPS eggs in surface soil samples ranged from 0 to 7.2 per 100 g dried soil. Hatch of viable eggs had an inverse relationship with soil depth. No TPS hatched out from the soil samples taken deeper than 15.4 cm. Fresh and old eggs distinguished by color were subjected to hatching tests. Fresh eggs exhibited high hatch, with hatching rates of 35.5-45.0% and 40.2-60.3% for the 1st and 1st plus the 2nd hydrations

  8. Safety and comparability of controlled human Plasmodium falciparum infection by mosquito bite in malaria-naive subjects at a new facility for sporozoite challenge.

    Angela K Talley

    Full Text Available Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI studies which recapitulate mosquito-borne infection are a critical tool to identify protective vaccine and drug candidates for advancement to field trials. In partnership with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, the CHMI model was established at the Seattle Biomedical Research Institute's Malaria Clinical Trials Center (MCTC. Activities and reagents at both centers were aligned to ensure comparability and continued safety of the model. To demonstrate successful implementation, CHMI was performed in six healthy malaria-naïve volunteers.All volunteers received NF54 strain Plasmodium falciparum by the bite of five infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes under controlled conditions and were monitored for signs and symptoms of malaria and for parasitemia by peripheral blood smear. Subjects were treated upon diagnosis with chloroquine by directly observed therapy. Immunological (T cell and antibody and molecular diagnostic (real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction [qRT-PCR] assessments were also performed.All six volunteers developed patent parasitemia and clinical malaria. No serious adverse events occurred during the study period or for six months post-infection. The mean prepatent period was 11.2 days (range 9-14 days, and geometric mean parasitemia upon diagnosis was 10.8 parasites/µL (range 2-69 by microscopy. qRT-PCR detected parasites an average of 3.7 days (range 2-4 days earlier than blood smears. All volunteers developed antibodies to the blood-stage antigen merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1, which persisted up to six months. Humoral and cellular responses to pre-erythrocytic antigens circumsporozoite protein (CSP and liver-stage antigen 1 (LSA-1 were limited.The CHMI model was safe, well tolerated and characterized by consistent prepatent periods, pre-symptomatic diagnosis in 3/6 subjects and adverse event profiles as reported at established centers. The MCTC

  9. Auditory Efferent System Modulates Mosquito Hearing.

    Andrés, Marta; Seifert, Marvin; Spalthoff, Christian; Warren, Ben; Weiss, Lukas; Giraldo, Diego; Winkler, Margret; Pauls, Stephanie; Göpfert, Martin C

    2016-08-01

    The performance of vertebrate ears is controlled by auditory efferents that originate in the brain and innervate the ear, synapsing onto hair cell somata and auditory afferent fibers [1-3]. Efferent activity can provide protection from noise and facilitate the detection and discrimination of sound by modulating mechanical amplification by hair cells and transmitter release as well as auditory afferent action potential firing [1-3]. Insect auditory organs are thought to lack efferent control [4-7], but when we inspected mosquito ears, we obtained evidence for its existence. Antibodies against synaptic proteins recognized rows of bouton-like puncta running along the dendrites and axons of mosquito auditory sensory neurons. Electron microscopy identified synaptic and non-synaptic sites of vesicle release, and some of the innervating fibers co-labeled with somata in the CNS. Octopamine, GABA, and serotonin were identified as efferent neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that affect auditory frequency tuning, mechanical amplification, and sound-evoked potentials. Mosquito brains thus modulate mosquito ears, extending the use of auditory efferent systems from vertebrates to invertebrates and adding new levels of complexity to mosquito sound detection and communication. PMID:27476597

  10. Door to Door Survey and Community Participation to Implement a New County Mosquito Control Program in Wayne County, North Carolina, USA

    Timothy Kelley; Amanda Grantham; Anderson, Alice L.

    2009-01-01

    Community involvement in mosquito management programs provides more sustainable and effective organization and service. A door to door survey in Wayne County, NC carried out by student volunteers, resulted in 60 household responses. Residents had not previously experienced outreach from the county (88%), and 95% of them thought the student door to door survey was an effective form of outreach. One third of the residents thought mosquitoes were severe where they lived, but only 9% thought they...

  11. Efficacy of Mosquito Traps for Collecting Potential West Nile Mosquito Vectors in a Natural Mediterranean Wetland

    Roiz, David; Roussel, Marion; Muñoz, Joaquin;

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance, research, and control of mosquito-borne diseases such asWest Nile virus require efficient methods for sampling mosquitoes. We compared the efficacy of BG-Sentinel and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-CO2 traps in terms of the abundances of host-seeking and blood......-fed female mosquitoes and the origin of mosquito bloodmeals. Our results indicate that BG-Sentinel traps that use CO2 and attractants are as effective as CDC-CO2 traps for Culex mosquito species, Ochlerotatus caspius, and they are also highly efficient at capturing Anopheles atroparvus host-seeking and blood......-fed females with or without CO2. The CDC-CO2 trap is the least efficient method for capturing blood-fed females. BG-Sentinel traps with attractants and CO2 were significantly better at capturing mosquitoes that had fed on mammals than the unbaited BG-Sentinel and CDC-CO2 traps in the cases of An. atroparvus...

  12. Median knock-down time as a new method for evaluating insecticide-treated textiles for mosquito control

    Pigeon Olivier

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide treated bed nets are major tools for the Roll Back Malaria campaign. There are two types of Long-Lasting Insecticide-treated Nets (LNs on the market: coated nets and insecticide-incorporated nets. Nets provided to this market need a recommendation from the World Health Organization to be purchased by donors and NGOs. During laboratory study (phase I, the first step consists in evaluating the wash resistance of a new LN product. When insecticide-incorporated nets are washed, it takes time to regenerate the insecticidal activity, i.e. insecticide must migrate to the net surface to be accessible to mosquitoes. The interval of time required for regeneration must be carefully determined to ensure the accuracy of further results. WHOPES procedures currently recommend the determination of the regeneration time by using mortality data. However, as mortality cannot exceed 100%, a LN that regenerates a surface concentration exceeding the dosage for 100% mortality, will have its regeneration time underestimated. Methods The Median Knock Down Time (MKDT was determined as function of insecticide dosage on an inert surface, glass, and on polyester nettings using an acetone solution or a simple emulsion. Dosage response was also established for mortality data. The same method was then applied to a commercially polyethylene netting, currently under WHOPES evaluation, to determine the dynamics of regeneration as function of repeated washings. The deltamethrin content of these nets was estimated by Capillary Gas Chromatography (GC-ECD. Results MKDT was a linear function of log insecticide dosage on glass as on nettings. Mortality data were either 0 or 100% for most concentrations except for a narrow range. MKDT was log linear function of total deltamethrin content in a commercial polyethylene net exposed to washings. The regeneration time of this net increased with the number of washes and MKDT became higher. A new, easy and rapid

  13. [The recurring necessity of mosquito surveillance and research].

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2015-10-01

    Hematophagous arthropods and the diseases associated with them represent a growing threat to human and animal health in Europe. After the eradication of endemic malaria from Europe in the middle of the last century, there has been a resurgence of mosquitoes as significant vectors of disease agents under the influence of continuing globalisation, as exotic species and mosquito-borne pathogens are being introduced with increasing frequency. At present, southern Europe is particularly affected by disease outbreaks and cases, but invasive mosquito species, including efficient vectors, have also emerged in Germany. While there is considerable knowledge on the vector potential of many tropical and subtropical mosquito species, corresponding data on the indigenous mosquito species are scarce. Exceptions are the Anopheles species, which were already vectors of malaria parasites in historic Europe. It must be assumed, however, that many further indigenous species are able to transmit pathogens under certain conditions and will by all means gain vector competence under a scenario of climate warming. Thus, the permanent surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease agents is paramount for the purposes of conducting risk analyses and modelling, in addition to research work addressing the conditions of the spread of vectors and pathogens and of pathogen transmission. Only ample data can facilitate taking appropriate prophylactic action and designing control strategies. International health organizations have realised this and started to promote data collection on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the EU. At a national levels, authorities are more reluctant, although, similar to other fields of health, it has been shown for mosquito-borne diseases that preventive measures are more cost-saving than disease case management and the coverage of follow-up costs. The present article is intended to illustrate the necessity of the re-intensification of mosquito

  14. Mosquito repellents in frog skin

    Williams, C. R.; Smith, B.P.C; Best, S.M.; Tyler, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin secretions to confirm the existence of mosquito repellent properties. Litoria caerulea secretions were assessed for mosquito repellency by topical a...

  15. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.

    Sara M Erickson

    Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8. The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed, including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions. To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed.

  16. Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions

    Yan-Jang S. Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations.

  17. Application of genetic pest management in the control of mosquito-borne diseases%遗传不育技术在蚊媒疾病防控中的应用

    王玉生; 李建伟; 张桂芬; 严盈; 李昕玥; 万方浩

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue fever and malaria, are global problems and pose a serious threat to public health. An estimated 2.5 billion people live in areas at the risk of epidemic transmission. For now, no vaccines are available against the pathogens respnsible for these diseases, and the mosquito control is considered as one of the most effective ways to reduce trans-mission. Mass application of pesticides could reduce the mosquito population but it also brings problems like insect resistance and environmental pollution. The release of insects with dominant lethality ( RIDL) technology and other genetic control systems based on the traditional sterile insect technique ( SIT) provide new strategies to control disease vector mosquitos, such as Aedes aegypti and A-nopheles gambiae. Those new version of genetic control methods are species-specific and environment-friendly, and now being devel-oped and tested worldwide. Here the principle and recent progress of mosquito genetic control are reviewed. The history of mosquito SIT is introduced, and the genetic control strategies including self-limiting and self-sustaining populations are also illustrated. The development, as well as laboratory and field trials of RIDL strains are described. It is suggested that genetic control strategies such as RIDL are promising methods to fight against mosquitoes carrying human diseases.%疟疾、登革热等重大传染性蚊媒疾病严重危害人类健康,且目前缺乏有效的药物和疫苗,防治埃及伊蚊、冈比亚按蚊等媒介昆虫是控制和消除这些疾病的有效手段。化学杀虫剂的大规模使用在一定程度上控制了疾病的传播,但其抗药性和环境污染等问题也随之而来。分子生物学的飞速发展为昆虫不育技术( SIT)的更新及害虫防治提供了新的策略,由此发展起来的以释放携带显性致死基因昆虫( RIDL)为代表的一系列遗传不育技术为蚊虫种群防控提供了更

  18. Radiation biology of mosquitoes

    Knols Bart GJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi- field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators.

  19. 加强我国寨卡病毒病等蚊媒传染病的预防控制%Strengthen the prevention and control of Zika virus disease and other mosquito-borne infectious diseases in China

    朱翠云; 卢洪洲

    2016-01-01

    寨卡病毒病是一种主要通过伊蚊叮咬传播的蚊媒传染病。伊蚊除了可以传播寨卡病毒外,还可以传播黄热病、登革热等多种疾病。近年来,随着旅行和贸易全球化、气候变暖等,蚊媒传染病相关疫情在全球多地暴发。该文主要介绍寨卡病毒病、黄热病等在我国首次输入的蚊媒传染病的流行情况,并对预防控制实施的重点措施进行了总结。%Zika virus disease is a mosquito-borne disease with aedes as a potential viral vector. Besides Zika virus, aedes can also serve as a vector for other viruses such as yellow fever virus and dengue virus.With the impact of globalization and climate changes, many regions in the world are experiencing outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases in recently years.This paper focuses on the epidemic, prevention and control measures of mosquito-borne infectious diseases such as Zika virus disease and yellow fever which are firstly imported to China.

  20. Design, synthesis and bioassay of new mosquito insecticides and repellents

    New compounds and classes of compounds are needed to protect deployed military personnel from diseases transmitted by medically important arthropods. Historically, the synthetic insecticides and repellents have been effective tools for mosquito control. To develop new synthetic insecticides and repe...

  1. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    Christensen Jamie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Results A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. Conclusion MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases.

  2. Mosquito Bites are Bad!

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of mosquito bites and how to prevent getting them.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  3. UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further investigation to know in which condition they can affect the efficacy of insecticide-based vector control strategies in the field

  4. UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Tetreau, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.tetreau@gmail.com [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France); Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud’homme, Sophie M.; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

    2014-01-15

    mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further investigation to know in which condition they can affect the efficacy of insecticide-based vector control strategies in the field.

  5. Fungal infection counters insecticide resistance in African malaria mosquitoes

    Farenhorst, M.; J. C. Mouatcho; Kikankie, C.K.; Brooke, B.D.; Hunt, R. H.; M. B. Thomas; Koekemoer, L.L.; Knols, B.G.J.; M. Coetzee

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes is threatening the effectiveness and sustainability of malaria control programs in various parts of the world. Through their unique mode of action, entomopathogenic fungi provide promising alternatives to chemical control. However, potential interactions between fungal infection and insecticide resistance, such as cross-resistance, have not been investigated. We show that insecticide-resistant Anopheles mosquitoes remain susceptible to inf...

  6. Attractive toxic sugar baits: Control of mosquitoes with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran and potential impacts on non-target organisms in Morocco

    We evaluated the efficacy of ATSB in the laboratory and the field with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran against mosquito populations. Assays indicated that dinotefuran in solution with the sugar baits was ingested and resulted in high mortality of female Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes a...

  7. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

    Banerjee Siddhartha S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m., and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m. phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito immatures. In the control tanks, mean larval density did not differ (p > 0.05 throughout the study period. Conclusion the larvae of the dytiscid beetle A. sulcatus proved to be an efficient predator of mosquito immatures and may be useful in biocontrol of medically important mosquitoes.

  8. Swarming mechanisms in the yellow fever mosquito: aggregation pheromones involved in the mating behavior of Aedes aegypti

    Mosquitoes of various species mate in swarms comprised of tens to thousands flying males. Yet little information is known about mosquito swarming mechanism. Discovering chemical cues involved in mosquito biology leads to better adaptation of disease control interventions. In this study, we aimed ...

  9. Diel activity patterns of major species of adult mosquitoes and ULV spraying impacts in St. John's County, Florida

    Knowledge of daily activity patterns in adult mosquitoes can be used to determine the best time to apply adulticides for mosquito control. Many factors influence these activity patterns, including migration, hormonal cycles in the mosquito, hunger, and the need to lay eggs. In this study, FL scien...

  10. Assessing the efficacy of candidate mosquito repellents against the background of an attractive source that mimics a human host

    Menger, D.J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito repellents are used around the globe to protect against nuisance biting and disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of repellents as tools to control the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. We present a new bioassay for the accurate

  11. Strategies for introducing Wolbachia to reduce transmission of mosquito-borne diseases.

    Penelope A Hancock

    Full Text Available Certain strains of the endosymbiont Wolbachia have the potential to lower the vectorial capacity of mosquito populations and assist in controlling a number of mosquito-borne diseases. An important consideration when introducing Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes into natural populations is the minimisation of any transient increase in disease risk or biting nuisance. This may be achieved by predominantly releasing male mosquitoes. To explore this, we use a sex-structured model of Wolbachia-mosquito interactions. We first show that Wolbachia spread can be initiated with very few infected females provided the infection frequency in males exceeds a threshold. We then consider realistic introduction scenarios involving the release of batches of infected mosquitoes, incorporating seasonal fluctuations in population size. For a range of assumptions about mosquito population dynamics we find that male-biased releases allow the infection to spread after the introduction of low numbers of females, many fewer than with equal sex-ratio releases. We extend the model to estimate the transmission rate of a mosquito-borne pathogen over the course of Wolbachia establishment. For a range of release strategies we demonstrate that male-biased release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes can cause substantial transmission reductions without transiently increasing disease risk. The results show the importance of including mosquito population dynamics in studying Wolbachia spread and that male-biased releases can be an effective and safe way of rapidly establishing the symbiont in mosquito populations.

  12. A Possible Mechanism for the Suppression of Plasmodium berghei Development in the Mosquito Anopheles gambiae by the Microsporidian Vavraia culicis

    Bargielowski, Irka; Koella, Jacob C

    2009-01-01

    Background Microsporidian parasites of mosquitoes offer a possible way of controlling malaria, as they impede the development of Plasmodium parasites within the mosquito. The mechanism involved in this interference process is unknown. Methodology We evaluated the possibility that larval infection by a microsporidian primes the immune system of adult mosquitoes in a way that enables a more effective anti-Plasmodium response. To do so, we infected 2-day old larvae of the mosquito Anopheles gamb...

  13. Reproduction of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Santa Cruz, Santiago island, Cape Verde Islands

    Duarte, Elves Heleno; Correia, Edson Eugénio; Varela, Caetano Eane; Varela, António

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are dipterous insects with an important role in the transmission of diseases like malaria and dengue. During a dengue fever outbreak in the Cape Verde Islands in 2009, several studies were undertaken to support vector control. The present study was carried out in the district of Santa Cruz, Santiago island, to evaluate previous measures taken to control mosquito populations. Results show that mosquitoes use domestic water containers to breed. Barrels, drums and pots were all used. ...

  14. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control. PMID:27373794

  15. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control.

  16. The Knowledge and Experience of Dengue Mosquitoes among Housewives.

    Atik Triratnawati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF prevention programs in Semarang, were focused through controlling mosquito breeding sites (PSN, but the implementation of PSN was not become a habit in every household. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and experience of dengue mosquitoes among housewives in the endemic villages.The research was using qualitative methods. Subjects of the study were 17 housewives which selected by purposive sampling. The data collection was carried in Sendangmulyo village, Semarang, through observation, focus groups discussions, and indepth interviews. The techniques used to test data validity were triangulation and member checking method. Data were analyzed using content analysis approached. The results showed that housewives classifying mosquito based on time occurrence whether the presence of mosquito in environment was perceived naturally. Unoptimalized PSN behavior was based on the lack of housewives knowledge on larvae development stages. Mosquito was not considered as a threatening because night mosquito biting was directly more disturbing rather than day mosquitoes’. Health promotion program could increase dasa wisma cadres knowledge and skill, particularly on mosquito life cycle and the correct stages of PSN behavior. This study did not distinguish the demographic characteristics of informants. Further reserch could explore it or develop media based on local knowledge and experience.

  17. Towards the genetic manipulation of mosquito disease vectors

    Our research is aimed at developing the technologies necessary to undertake the genetic manipulation of insect vector genomes. In the longer term, we wish to explore the potential that this technology may have for developing novel strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases. The focus of our current research has been to: i) identify and characterise endogenous transposable elements in the genomes of mosquito vectors -research has focussed on identifying both Class I and Class 11 elements and determining their structure and distribution within mosquito genomes; ii) develop and use transfection systems for mosquito cells in culture as a test bed for transformation vectors and promoters - transfection techniques, vector constructs and different promoters driving reporter genes have been utilised to optimise the transformation of both Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae cells in culture; iii) identify putative promoter sequences which are induced in the female mosquito midgut when it takes a blood meal - the Anopheles gambiae trypsin gene locus has been cloned and sequenced and the intergenic regions assessed for their ability to induce reporter gene expression in mosquito gut cells. The progress we have made in each of these areas will be described and discussed in the context of our longer term aim which is to introduce genes coding for antiparasitic agents into mosquito genomes in such a way that they are expressed in the mosquito midgut and disrupt transmission of the malaria parasite. (author)

  18. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim;

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero......, whereas the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the...

  19. Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant base...

  20. Highly evolvable malaria vectors : the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes

    Neafsey, Daniel E; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Abai, Mohammad R.; Aganezov, Sergey S.; Alekseyev, Max A.; Allen, James E.; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A.; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W.; Blandin, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning similar to 100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromos...

  1. UV light and urban pollution: bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species-ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further

  2. Density surveillance and effect of control measures on mosquitoes and flies in Quzhou city%衢州市蚊蝇密度监测及防治效果分析

    余樟有; 王小林; 胡晓龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate effect of control measures on mosquito and fly populationsin urban Quzhou based on the monitoring of their species and density. Methods The mosquito and fly density was monitored using lamp traps and cage traps, respectively. Results There were 4 species and 3 genera of mosquitoes in urban areas, predominated by Culex pipiens pollens, which accounted for 96.82% of the total population. The annual average adult density was 5.28 per lamp-hour, which peaked from June to August. There were 6 genera and 4 families of flies in this area, predominated by Lucilia and Musca, which accounted for 68.22% and 23.82%, respectively. The annual average adult density was 39.74 per cage, which peaked from June to August. Conclusion As a result of comprehensive control strategies, diminishing breeding grounds in the city have lead to a significant decrease in mosquito and fly population densities.%目的 通过对衢州市城区蚊、蝇种群和密度监测,分析衢州市蚊、蝇防治效果.方法 采用诱蚊灯法监测蚊密度,笼诱法监测蝇密度.结果 衢州市城区蚊类有3属4种,淡色库蚊为优势种,占捕蚊总数的96.82%,年平均成蚊密度为5.28只/(灯·h),6-8月为高峰期.城区蝇类有4科6属,绿蝇属和家蝇属为优势种群,分别占68.22%和23.82%,年平均蝇密度39.74只/笼,蝇密度高峰在6-8月.结论 2005-2010年衢州市城区采用综合防治措施,有效地控制了蚊、蝇孳生地,密度指数明显下降,达到预期效果.

  3. Dispersal of Engineered Male Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Peter Winskill; Carvalho, Danilo O.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Luke Alphey; Donnelly, Christl A.; McKemey, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever, have been genetically engineered for use in a sterile insect control programme. To improve our understanding of the dispersal ecology of mosquitoes and to inform appropriate release strategies of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti detailed knowledge of the dispersal ability of the released insects is needed.The dispersal ability of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti at a field site in Brazil has been estimated. Dispersa...

  4. Dispersal of Engineered Male Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    Peter Winskill; Carvalho, Danilo O.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Luke Alphey; Donnelly, Christl A.; McKemey, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever, have been genetically engineered for use in a sterile insect control programme. To improve our understanding of the dispersal ecology of mosquitoes and to inform appropriate release strategies of ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti detailed knowledge of the dispersal ability of the released insects is needed. Methodology/Principal Findings The dispersal ability of released ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti at a field ...

  5. 植物源杀虫剂和驱避剂在蚊虫防制中的研究进展%Plant origin insecticides and repellents in mosquito control

    杨频; 盛慧锋

    2010-01-01

    With more and more attentions being paid to environmental protection, greater and greater pressure has been faced to use the traditional chemical insecticides. It is a research hot spot in mosquito control to exploit some plant origin insecticides/repellents with high effectiveness, low toxicity and less easiness to e-merge resistance. This paper summarized the research progress on plant origin insecticides/repellents in mos-quito control.%随着人们环保意识的提高,使用化学杀虫剂面临的压力越来越大,开发高效、低毒或无毒、不易产生抗性的植物源杀虫剂和驱避剂已成为蚊虫化学防制的热点.该文综述了近5年植物源杀虫剂和驱避剂在蚊虫防制中的研究进展.

  6. Gametocytes infectiousness to mosquitoes: variable selection using random forests, and zero inflated models

    Genuer, Robin; Morlais, Isabelle; Toussile, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Malaria control strategies aiming at reducing disease transmission intensity may impact both oocyst intensity and infection prevalence in the mosquito vector. Thus far, mathematical models failed to identify a clear relationship between Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and their infectiousness to mosquitoes. Natural isolates of gametocytes are genetically diverse and biologically complex. Infectiousness to mosquitoes relies on multiple parameters such as density, sex-ratio, maturity, parasit...

  7. Mosquito repellent action of Blumea lacera (Asteraceae) against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Singh, S.P.; MITTAL, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum ether extract of Blumea lacera was screened under laboratory conditions for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The repellent activity of Blumea lacera extract was tested against mosquitoes in comparison with the DEET, which was used as a positive control. Results obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the extract was effective against mosquito vectors even at a low dose. A direct rel...

  8. Potency of Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium as Aedes albopictus Mosquito Repellent

    Rina Marina; Endang Puji Astuti

    2012-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes being the vector of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF). Various effort have been done to control the mosquitoes, including using plant extract as repellent. Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium leaf were known to posses repellent activity for mosquito species. The study aimed to examine efJectiveness of P. amaryllifolius and N. scutellarium leaves as repellent for Ae. albopictus. The result study on 1 hr treatment showed that power prote...

  9. Mosquito biting activity on humans & detection of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Anopheles stephensi in Goa, India

    Korgaonkar, Nandini S.; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Rajpal S.; Kabadi, Dipak; Dash, Aditya P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Knowledge of the bionomics of mosquitoes, especially of disease vectors, is essential to plan appropriate vector avoidance and control strategies. Information on biting activity of vectors during the night hours in different seasons is important for choosing personal protection measures. This study was carried out to find out the composition of mosquito fauna biting on humans and seasonal biting trends in Goa, India. Methods: Biting activities of all mosquitoes includ...

  10. Global stability of a delayed mosquito-transmitted disease model with stage structure

    B. G. Sampath Aruna Pradeep; Wanbiao Ma

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new eco-epidemiological deterministic delay differential equation model considering a biological controlling approach on mosquitoes, for endemic dengue disease with variable host (human) and variable vector (Aedes aegypti) populations, and stage structure for mosquitoes. In this model, predator-prey interaction is considered by using larvae as prey and mosquito-fish as predator. We give a complete classification of equilibria of the model, ...

  11. Preliminary Analysis of Several Attractants and Spatial Repellents for the Mosquito, Aedes albopictus using an Olfactometer

    Hao, Huiling; Sun, Jingcheng; Dai, Jianqing

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito attractants and spatial repellents hold great promise in controlling mosquito pests. In assessing the effectiveness of mosquito attractants and repellents, a good olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions, are essential. In this research, we demonstrated the usefulness of an olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). We found no significant difference in the biting activity of the insect between 8:00 and 22:00. Further...

  12. Seasonal abundance and potential of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes at the nesting colony of ardeid birds, Thailand

    Tanasak Changbunjong; Thekhawet Weluwanarak; Namaoy Taowan; Parut Suksai; Tatiyanuch Chamsai; Poonyapat Sedwisai

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the abundance and seasonal dynamics of mosquitoes, and to detect Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in these mosquitoes at the nesting colony of ardeid birds. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected bimonthly from July 2009 to May 2010 by Centers for Disease Control. Light traps and dry ice, as a source of CO2, were employed to attract mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were first identified, pooled into groups of upto 50 mosquitoes by species, and tested for JEV infection by viral isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results:A total of 20 370 mosquitoes comprising 14 species in five genera were collected. The five most abundant mosquito species collected were Culex tritaeniorhynchus (95.46%), Culex vishnui (2.68%), Culex gelidus (0.72%), Anopheles peditaeniatus (0.58%) and Culex quinquefasciatus (0.22%). Mosquito peak densities were observed in July. All of 416 mosquito pools were negative for JEV. Conclusions: This study provides new information about mosquito species and status of JEV infection in mosquitoes in Thailand. Further study should be done to continue a close survey for the presence of this virus in the ardeid birds.

  13. Adult survivorship of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti varies seasonally in central Vietnam.

    Leon E Hugo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April and dry/hot (May-August seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d, respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle.

  14. Mosquitoes: A Resource Book for the Classroom.

    Gillmor, Mary S.; And Others

    This booklet was written for anyone interested in growing mosquitoes and experimenting with them. There are three major sections: (1) rationale for studying mosquitoes, (2) raising mosquitoes, and (3) some scientific findings. The first section describes basic information about mosquitoes. The second section includes information about materials,…

  15. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals. PMID:27171195

  16. Culex Flavivirus and West Nile Virus Mosquito Coinfection and Positive Ecological Association in Chicago, United States

    Newman, Christina M.; Cerutti, Francesco; Anderson, Tavis K.; Hamer, Gabriel L.; Walker, Edward D.; Kitron, Uriel D.; Ruiz, Marilyn O.; Brawn, Jeffery D.; GOLDBERG, TONY L.

    2011-01-01

    Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus globally distributed in mosquitoes of the genus Culex. CxFV was positively associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infection in a case–control study of 268 mosquito pools from an endemic focus of WNV transmission in Chicago, United States. Specifically, WNV-positive Culex mosquito pools were four times more likely also to be infected with CxFV than were spatiotemporally matched WNV-negative pools. In addition, mosquito pools from resident...

  17. The Role of Innate Immunity in Conditioning Mosquito Susceptibility to West Nile Virus

    Abhishek N. Prasad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses represent an emerging threat to human and livestock health globally. In particular, those transmitted by mosquitoes present the greatest challenges to disease control efforts. An understanding of the molecular basis for mosquito innate immunity to arbovirus infection is therefore critical to investigations regarding arbovirus evolution, virus-vector ecology, and mosquito vector competence. In this review, we discuss the current state of understanding regarding mosquito innate immunity to West Nile virus. We draw from the literature with respect to other virus-vector pairings to attempt to draw inferences to gaps in our knowledge about West Nile virus and relevant vectors.

  18. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  19. Structure, expression, and hormonal control of genes from the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which encode proteins similar to the vitelline membrane proteins of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Lin, Y; Hamblin, M T; Edwards, M J; Barillas-Mury, C; Kanost, M R; Knipple, D C; Wolfner, M F; Hagedorn, H H

    1993-02-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones of a gene expressed after a blood meal in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, were identified as having significant similarity to the vitelline membrane protein genes of Drosophila melanogaster. The predicted protein had unusually high contents of alanine, histidine, and proline and contained a region of hydrophobic amino acids that was highly conserved in the predicted protein of the D. melanogaster vitelline membrane protein genes. The 15a gene was expressed from 5 to 40 hr after a blood meal. It was expressed only in the follicle cells of the ovary, particularly in the cells surrounding the oocyte. The 15a gene was expressed in ovaries of the blood-fed, decapitated female in response to an injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone, and in ovaries from non-blood-fed females incubated with the hormone, even in the presence of cycloheximide. A second gene, with weaker homology to 15a, is presumably another member of a family of related genes, as is the case with D. melanogaster vitelline membrane protein genes. This second gene contained a coding sequence similar to a decapeptide recently isolated from mosquito ovaries as an "oostatic factor" (Borovsky et al., FASEB J. 4, 3015-3020, 1990). PMID:8432405

  20. Botanicals as Mosquito Larvicides

    D.R. Nath,

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts of 19 indigenous plants were evaluated as mosquito larvicide. Amongthese, pericarp of Zanthoxylum limonella was found to have the most promising larvicidalproperties against Aedes(s albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC90 values at 0.47 ppmand 0.73 ppm, respectively. The extract of Piper nigrum was also found very effective (LC90on the larvae of both the species at 6.8 ppm and 8.4 ppm, respectively. The extracts of theremaining plant parts showed LC90 values at above 100 ppm concentration. Extract of Calotropisgigantea was found to be the least effective ( LC90 values at 962.8 ppm and 1091.8 ppm againstthe larvae of both the species. However, plant extracts were found more effective against Aedes(salbopictus larvae than against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

  1. Mosquito Management on National Wildlife Refuges, Ecosystem Effects Study. Phase II, Part 1 - Effects of Ultra Low Volume Applications of Pyrethrin, Malathion and Permethrin on Macro-Invertebrates in the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, California

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mosquito control districts often use ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of insecticides to control adult mosquitoes. Few field studies have tested the effects of...

  2. A push-pull system to reduce house entry of malaria mosquitoes

    Menger, D.J.; Otieno, B.; Rijk, de M.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mosquitoes are the dominant vectors of pathogens that cause infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and filariasis. Current vector control strategies often rely on the use of pyrethroids against which mosquitoes are increasingly developing resistance. Here, a push-pull

  3. Transgenic mosquitoes and the fight against malaria: managing technology push in a turbulent GMO world

    Knols, B.G.J.; Bossin, H.C.; Mukabana, W.R.; Robinson, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic modification (GM) of mosquitoes (which renders them genetically modified organisms, GMOs) offers opportunities for controlling malaria. Transgenic strains of mosquitoes have been developed and evaluation of these to 1) replace or suppress wild vector populations and 2) reduce transmission an

  4. Use of geographic information systems to depict and analyze mosquito population trends.

    Mosquitoes transmit (vector) disease agents that cause malaria, yellow fever, dengue, West Nile fever, and encephalitis. Spread of these diseases is controlled by the management of mosquito population levels, changes in which are monitored in vector surveillance programs by the use of mechanical tr...

  5. Don't Let the Bugs Bite: Preventing Dengue and Other Diseases Spread by Mosquitoes

    2007-12-10

    This year (2007) CDC is receiving a great many reports of cases of Dengue fever, which is spread by mosquitoes. This podcast discusses ways travelers to the tropics can protect themselves from mosquito bites.  Created: 12/10/2007 by National Center for the Prevention, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 12/10/2007.

  6. Response of the mosquito protein interaction network to dengue infection

    Pike Andrew D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two fifths of the world's population is at risk from dengue. The absence of effective drugs and vaccines leaves vector control as the primary intervention tool. Understanding dengue virus (DENV host interactions is essential for the development of novel control strategies. The availability of genome sequences for both human and mosquito host greatly facilitates genome-wide studies of DENV-host interactions. Results We developed the first draft of the mosquito protein interaction network using a computational approach. The weighted network includes 4,214 Aedes aegypti proteins with 10,209 interactions, among which 3,500 proteins are connected into an interconnected scale-free network. We demonstrated the application of this network for the further annotation of mosquito proteins and dissection of pathway crosstalk. Using three datasets based on physical interaction assays, genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screens and microarray assays, we identified 714 putative DENV-associated mosquito proteins. An integrated analysis of these proteins in the network highlighted four regions consisting of highly interconnected proteins with closely related functions in each of replication/transcription/translation (RTT, immunity, transport and metabolism. Putative DENV-associated proteins were further selected for validation by RNAi-mediated gene silencing, and dengue viral titer in mosquito midguts was significantly reduced for five out of ten (50.0% randomly selected genes. Conclusions Our results indicate the presence of common host requirements for DENV in mosquitoes and humans. We discuss the significance of our findings for pharmacological intervention and genetic modification of mosquitoes for blocking dengue transmission.

  7. Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence

    Walter J. Tabachnick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses. Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature and environmental (nurture factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

  8. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

    A.F.V. Howard; R. N'Guessan; C.J.M. Koenraadt; A. Asidi; M. Farenhorst; M. Akogbeto; M.B. Thomas; B.G.J. Knols; W. Takken

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show tha

  9. Transient population dynamics of mosquitoes during sterile male releases : modelling mating behaviour and perturbations of life history parameters

    Christopher M Stone

    2013-01-01

    The release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elast...

  10. Male reproductive biology of Aedes mosquitoes.

    Oliva, Clelia F; Damiens, David; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-04-01

    Among Aedes mosquitoes are species responsible for transmission of serious pathogens to humans. To cope with the current threats to long-term effectiveness of the traditional vector control methods, non-conventional control strategies are being developed. These include autocidal control such as the release of sterile males (sterile insect technique) and the release of Wolbachia-infected males to induce sexual sterility (incompatible insect technique) and pathogen-refractory strain replacement variations using Wolbachia. Sterile male types of techniques particularly depend on released males' ability to successfully mate with wild females. For that reason, a good understanding of male mating biology, including a thorough understanding of the reproductive system and mating capacity, increases the likelihood of success of such genetic vector control programmes. Here we review the literature concerning the reproduction of Aedes mosquitoes with an emphasis on the male biology. We consider sexual maturation, mate finding, insemination, male reproductive capacity, and the occurrence of multiple matings. We also discuss which parameters are of greatest importance for the successful implementation of autocidal control methods and propose questions for future research. PMID:24308996

  11. Alternativas biológicas para el control de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens : Transmisores de enfermedades en la ciudad de La Plata

    Tranchida, María Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Los mosquitos son insectos conocidos por las molestias que causan sus picaduras y porque mediante ellas transmiten importantes enfermedades a los humanos y a otros mamíferos. Esta capacidad de transmitir enfermedades, es conocida como capacidad vectorial. Debido a esta capacidad de actuar como vectores, es que nace la necesidad de controlar a los mosquitos, manteniendo las poblaciones en bajas densidades.

  12. Larvicidal and Adulticidal Activity of Chroman and Chromene Analogues against Susceptible and Permethrin-Resistant Mosquito Strains.

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Estep, Alden S; Becnel, James J

    2016-06-22

    Mosquitoes play a major role as vectors that transmit parasitic and viral diseases worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Mosquito borne diseases not only affect humans but they also affect livestock in many parts of the world. They carry diseases that are lethal to dogs and horses. Dog heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic disease spread through mosquitoes. This disease is not limited to dogs, but it can affect other animals and humans as well. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and West Nile virus (WNV) are also mosquito borne diseases that affect the central nervous system of horses and cause severe complications and death. Emergence of resistance among mosquitoes to current pesticides has increased the importance of the search for alternate compounds that are effective and environmentally benign with diverse modes of actions than those that are commercially available. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the primary vector for transmission of Zika viral fever, yellow fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Mosquito control is currently the best strategy to prevent mosquito borne diseases. There are numerous approaches for control of potentially dangerous mosquito populations. These approaches include the use of adulticides (insecticides), larvicides, and, to a limited extent, the use of repellents. Our previous studies have shown the mosquito repellent activity of chromenes. In the present study, we demonstrate larvicidal and adulticidal activity of chroman and chromene analogues against a permethrin susceptible laboratory strain as well as activity against a permethrin-resistant strain of Aedes aegypti. PMID:27249182

  13. Mosquito Surveillance Revealed Lagged Effects of Mosquito Abundance on Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission: A Retrospective Study in Zhejiang, China

    Song Guo; Feng Ling; Juan Hou; Jinna Wang; Guiming Fu; Zhenyu Gong

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008-2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence...

  14. Limited dengue virus replication in field-collected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia.

    Francesca D Frentiu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. The causative agent, dengue virus (DENV, is primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a species that has proved difficult to control using conventional methods. The discovery that A. aegypti transinfected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia showed limited DENV replication led to trial field releases of these mosquitoes in Cairns, Australia as a biocontrol strategy for the virus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Field collected wMel mosquitoes that were challenged with three DENV serotypes displayed limited rates of body infection, viral replication and dissemination to the head compared to uninfected controls. Rates of dengue infection, replication and dissemination in field wMel mosquitoes were similar to those observed in the original transinfected wMel line that had been maintained in the laboratory. We found that wMel was distributed in similar body tissues in field mosquitoes as in laboratory ones, but, at seven days following blood-feeding, wMel densities increased to a greater extent in field mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that virus-blocking is likely to persist in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes after their release and establishment in wild populations, suggesting that Wolbachia biocontrol may be a successful strategy for reducing dengue transmission in the field.

  15. A portable approach for the surveillance of dengue virus-infected mosquitoes.

    Muller, David A; Frentiu, Francesca D; Rojas, Alejandra; Moreira, Luciano A; O'Neill, Scott L; Young, Paul R

    2012-07-01

    Dengue virus is the most significant human viral pathogen spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. With no vaccine or antiviral therapy currently available, disease prevention relies largely on surveillance and mosquito control. Preventing the onset of dengue outbreaks and effective vector management would be considerably enhanced through surveillance of dengue virus prevalence in natural mosquito populations. However, current approaches to the identification of virus in field-caught mosquitoes require relatively slow and labor intensive techniques such as virus isolation or RT-PCR involving specialized facilities and personnel. A rapid and portable method for detecting dengue virus-infected mosquitoes is described. Using a hand held battery operated homogenizer and a dengue diagnostic rapid strip the viral protein NS1 was detected as a marker of dengue virus infection. This method could be performed in less than 30 min in the field, requiring no downstream processing, and is able to detect a single infected mosquito in a pool of at least 50 uninfected mosquitoes. The method described in this study allows rapid, real-time monitoring of dengue virus presence in mosquito populations and could be a useful addition to effective monitoring and vector control responses. PMID:22575689

  16. Modified mosquito landing boxes dispensing transfluthrin provide effective protection against Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes under simulated outdoor conditions in a semi-field system.

    Andrés, Marta; Lorenz, Lena M; Mbeleya, Edgar; Moore, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Efforts to control malaria vectors have primarily focused on scaling-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying. Although highly efficient against indoor-biting and indoor-resting vectors, these interventions have lower impact on outdoor-biting mosquitoes. Innovative vector control tools are required to prevent outdoor human–mosquito contacts. In this work, the potential of spatial repellents, delivered in an active system that requires minim...

  17. Mosquito genomics. Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Neafsey, Daniel E; Waterhouse, Robert M; Abai, Mohammad R; Aganezov, Sergey S; Alekseyev, Max A; Allen, James E; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W; Blandin, Stephanie A; Brockman, Andrew I; Burkot, Thomas R; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L M; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M; Hall, Andrew B; Han, Mira V; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S T; Jenkins, Adam M; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K N; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A; Naumenko, Anastasia N; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A; Peery, Ashley N; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J; Rinker, David C; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V; Shea, Terrance; Simão, Felipe A; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J; Thomas, Gregg W C; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, José M C; Unger, Maria F; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K; Collins, Frank H; Cornman, Robert S; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J; Emrich, Scott J; Fontaine, Michael C; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W; Hansen, Immo A; Howell, Paul I; Kafatos, Fotis C; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A T; Ribeiro, José M; Riehle, Michael A; Sharakhov, Igor V; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Besansky, Nora J

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts. PMID:25554792

  18. TRANSMISSION OF FOWL-POX BY MOSQUITOES

    Kligler, I. J.; Muckenfuss, R. S.; Rivers, T. M.

    1929-01-01

    Culex and Aëdes mosquitoes are capable of transmitting fowl-pox from diseased to healthy susceptible chickens. The mosquitoes remain infectious for at least 14 days following a meal on diseased fowls. PMID:19869570

  19. Mosquito species geographical distribution in Iraq 2009

    Haidar A. Hantosh, Hameeda M. Hassan, Bushra Ahma & Ali Al-fatlawy

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills threemillion persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species.In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomologicalsurvey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009.Methods: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi...

  20. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    Mehta, D.; Anand GARG; Naveen K. MEHTA

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. Th...

  1. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culiciadae) potential vectors of arbovirus in the Urabá region, Northwest of Colombia Mosquitos (Díptera: Culicidae) vectores potenciales de arbovirus en la región de Urabá, noroccidente de Colombia

    Laura Suárez; Gabriel Parra-Henao

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Studies directed to investigate ecological parameters of sylvatic mosquitoes populations allows to establish the risk of arbovirus transmission and to bring recommendations for health authorities about prevention, surveillance and control.
    Objective. To establish the diversity and abundance of arbovirus mosquitoes vectors of in rural areas of Apartado and Turbo, Antioquia.
    Materials and methods. Quarterly sampling was done. For mosquito catching in forest f...

  2. BIOACTIVIDAD DE ACEITES ESENCIALES DE Minthostachys mollis CONTRA MOSQUITOS

    Gleiser, Raquel M.; María A. Bonino; Zygadlo, Julio A.

    2007-01-01

    El control químico de vectores es una herramienta principal de prevención de enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos. Los aceites esenciales (AE) de plantas pueden ser una alternativa a los compuestos sintéticos. Se extrajeron por arrastre con vapor AE de Minthostachys mollis y se evaluó su actividad insecticida contra larvas, pupas y adultos de mosquitos, según protocolos estándar de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se evaluaron concentraciones entre 10 y 160 ppm del AE y se registró la ...

  3. European Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Mosquito Populations

    Nicholas Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in Europe or through risk of introduction. Prominent among these is West Nile virus (WNV, primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. Endemic outbreaks of West Nile fever have been reported in Italy, Greece, France, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Spain, with further spread expected. Most outbreaks in Western Europe have been due to infection with WNV Lineage 1. In Eastern Europe WNV Lineage 2 has been responsible for human and bird mortality, particularly in Greece, which has experienced extensive outbreaks over three consecutive years. Italy has experienced co-circulation with both virus lineages. The ability to manage this threat in a cost-effective way is dependent on early detection. Targeted surveillance for pathogens within mosquito populations offers the ability to detect viruses prior to their emergence in livestock, equine species or human populations. In addition, it can establish a baseline of mosquito-borne virus activity and allow monitoring of change to this over time. Early detection offers the opportunity to raise disease awareness, initiate vector control and preventative vaccination, now available for horses, and encourage personal protection against mosquito bites. This would have major benefits through financial savings and reduction in equid morbidity/mortality. However, effective surveillance that predicts virus outbreaks is challenged by a range of factors including limited resources, variation in mosquito capture rates (too few or too many, difficulties in mosquito identification, often reliant on specialist entomologists, and the sensitive, rapid detection of viruses in mosquito pools. Surveillance for WNV and other arboviruses within mosquito populations varies between European countries in the extent and focus of the surveillance. This study reviews the

  4. Using bacteria to express and display anti-Plasmodium molecules in the mosquito midgut.

    Riehle, Michael A; Moreira, Cristina K; Lampe, David; Lauzon, Carol; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2007-05-01

    Bacteria capable of colonizing mosquito midguts are attractive vehicles for delivering anti-malaria molecules. We genetically engineered Escherichia coli to display two anti-Plasmodium effector molecules, SM1 and phospholipase-A(2), on their outer membrane. Both molecules significantly inhibited Plasmodium berghei development when engineered bacteria were fed to mosquitoes 24h prior to an infective bloodmeal (SM1=41%, PLA2=23%). Furthermore, prevalence and numbers of engineered bacteria increased dramatically following a bloodmeal. However, E. coli survived poorly in mosquitoes. Therefore, Enterobacter agglomerans was isolated from mosquitoes and selected for midgut survival by multiple passages through mosquitoes. After four passages, E. agglomerans survivorship increased from 2 days to 2 weeks. Since E. agglomerans is non-pathogenic and widespread, it is an excellent candidate for paratransgenic control strategies. PMID:17224154

  5. Potency of Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium as Aedes albopictus Mosquito Repellent

    Rina Marina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes being the vector of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF. Various effort have been done to control the mosquitoes, including using plant extract as repellent. Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium leaf were known to posses repellent activity for mosquito species. The study aimed to examine efJectiveness of P. amaryllifolius and N. scutellarium leaves as repellent for Ae. albopictus. The result study on 1 hr treatment showed that power protection of pandan leaves (N. scutellarium was 93.55%, while mangkokan leaves (P. amaryllifolius was 87.5%. Based on ANOVA analysis, there was not significantly different of power protection between N. scutellarium leaves and P. amaryllifolius leaves extracts against Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Both of these test, plants has showed the potential to be a repellent and eliminate the emergence of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, so it may effectively reduce contact between host and dengue vector.

  6. Diversity and distribution of tree hole mosquitoes in Puducherry Union Territory, India

    Periyasamy Senthamarai Selvan; Arulsamy Jebanesan; Chinnusamy Makesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study diversity and distribution of tree hole mosquitoes at Puducherry Union Territory. Methods:Random collections were carried out in tree holes at collection sites by using suction tube. Mosquitoes are identified by standard entomological procedures. Results: A total of 235 mosquitoes were collected from tree holes, comprising 3 genera and 12 species. They are,Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes stokesi, Aedes simpsoni, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culiciformis, Anopheles maculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pseudovishnui, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and Culex decens. The results reveal thatAedes species is the dominant species in tree holes. Simpson’s dominance index and Shanon-Wiener diversity index of 0.182 7 and 0.833 6 were respectively recorded for all tree hole mosquitoes. Conclusions:The diversity studies of tree hole mosquitoes in the study area are necessary for the implementation of appropriate control strategies.

  7. Diversity and distribution of tree hole mosquitoes in Puducherry Union Territory, India

    Periyasamy Senthamarai Selvan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study diversity and distribution of tree hole mosquitoes at Puducherry Union Territory. Methods: Random collections were carried out in tree holes at collection sites by using suction tube. Mosquitoes are identified by standard entomological procedures. Results: A total of 235 mosquitoes were collected from tree holes, comprising 3 genera and 12 species. They are, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes stokesi, Aedes simpsoni, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culiciformis, Anopheles maculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pseudovishnui, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and Culex decens. The results reveal that Aedes species is the dominant species in tree holes. Simpson’s dominance index and Shanon-Wiener diversity index of 0.182 7 and 0.833 6 were respectively recorded for all tree hole mosquitoes. Conclusions: The diversity studies of tree hole mosquitoes in the study area are necessary for the implementation of appropriate control strategies.

  8. Climate-based models for West Nile Culex mosquito vectors in the Northeastern US

    Gong, Hongfei; Degaetano, Arthur T.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2011-05-01

    Climate-based models simulating Culex mosquito population abundance in the Northeastern US were developed. Two West Nile vector species, Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were included in model simulations. The model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. Mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. The results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population increases (as early warning of West Nile virus risk) and decreases in late summer. Simulated abundance was highly correlated with actual mosquito capture in New Jersey light traps and validated with field data. This climate-based model simulates the population dynamics of both the adult and immature mosquito life stage of Culex arbovirus vectors in the Northeastern US. It is expected to have direct and practical application for mosquito control and West Nile prevention programs.

  9. PERCEPTIONS REGARDING MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASES IN AN URBAN AREA OF RAJKOT CITY

    Amul B. Patel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquito borne diseases is a growing urban problem because of unplanned urbanization, industrialization and excessive population growth coupled with rural to urban migration. For developing a suitable and effective health education strategy, it is inevitable to understand the level of knowledge of the community, their attitude and practices regarding mosquito borne diseases. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in an urban field practice area of Urban Health Centre in Rajkot city. Total 500 houses were selected for study by systematic random sampling. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire during transmission season of vector borne diseases. The results were analyzed using the SPSS 17 software. Results: 90% respondents agreed that mosquitoes are a problem. 30.4% didn’t know breeding sites of mosquitoes. Only 11.6% of people associated clean water collections with mosquito breeding. Regarding diseases transmitted by mosquito, 62% answered malaria, 37.4% were not aware and 8.8% people mentioned about Filariasis, Dengue or Japanese encephalitis. 4.7% granted mosquito control as responsibility of community. 61.4 % were using repellents for prevention against mosquito bites and 39% not taking any preventive measure. 67.8% consulted private practitioner for treatment. Conclusion: Intensified efforts towards creating public awareness and mobilizing the community regarding the preventive measures they can take are needed. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 45-47

  10. Using a near-infrared spectrometer to estimate the age of anopheles mosquitoes exposed to pyrethroids.

    Maggy T Sikulu

    Full Text Available We report on the accuracy of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to predict the age of Anopheles mosquitoes reared from wild larvae and a mixed age-wild adult population collected from pit traps after exposure to pyrethroids. The mosquitoes reared from wild larvae were estimated as <7 or ≥7 d old with an overall accuracy of 79%. The age categories of Anopheles mosquitoes that were not exposed to the insecticide papers were predicted with 78% accuracy whereas the age categories of resistant, susceptible and mosquitoes exposed to control papers were predicted with 82%, 78% and 79% accuracy, respectively. The ages of 85% of the wild-collected mixed-age Anopheles were predicted by NIRS as ≤8 d for both susceptible and resistant groups. The age structure of wild-collected mosquitoes was not significantly different for the pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes (P = 0.210. Based on these findings, NIRS chronological age estimation technique for Anopheles mosquitoes may be independent of insecticide exposure and the environmental conditions to which the mosquitoes are exposed.

  11. Genome of a mosquito-killing bacterium decoded

    2008-01-01

    @@ Researchers with the CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology (WHIOV) recently completed the genome sequencing of a mosquitocidal bacterium Bacillus shaericus C3-41. The feat, first of its kind in China, is expected to further promote the bio-control studies of mosquitoes.

  12. Application of biogenic carbon dioxide produced by yeast with different carbon sources for attraction of mosquitoes towards adult mosquito traps.

    Sukumaran, D; Ponmariappan, S; Sharma, Atul K; Jha, Hemendra K; Wasu, Yogesh H; Sharma, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    Surveillance is a prime requisite for controlling arthropod vectors like mosquitoes that transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue and chikungunya. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main cues from vertebrate breath that attracts mosquitoes towards the host. Hence, CO2 is used as an attractant during surveillance of mosquitoes either from commercial cylinders or dry ice for mosquito traps. In the present study, the biogenic carbon dioxide production was optimized with different carbon sources such as glucose, simple sugar and jaggery with and without yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) media using commercial baker's yeast. The results showed that yeast produced more biogenic CO2 with simple sugar as compared to other carbon sources. Further substrate concentration was optimized for the continuous production of biogenic CO2 for a minimum of 12 h by using 10 g of baker's yeast with 50 g of simple sugar added to 1.5 l distilled water (without YPD media) in a 2-l plastic bottle. This setup was applied in field condition along with two different mosquito traps namely Mosquito Killing System (MKS) and Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap. Biogenic CO2 from this setup has increased the trapping efficiency of MKS by 6.48-fold for Culex quinquefasciatus, 2.62-fold for Aedes albopictus and 1.5-fold for Anopheles stephensi. In the case of BGS, the efficiency was found to be increased by 3.54-fold for Ae. albopictus, 4.33-fold for An. stephensi and 1.3-fold for Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes. On the whole, plastic bottle setup releasing biogenic CO2 from sugar and yeast has increased the efficiency of MKS traps by 6.38-fold and 2.74-fold for BGS traps as compared to traps without biogenic CO2. The present study reveals that, among different carbon sources used, simple sugar as a substance (which is economical and readily available across the world) yielded maximum biogenic CO2 with yeast. This setup can be used as an alternative to CO2 cylinder and dry ice in any adult mosquito traps to

  13. Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2013-09-15

    Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes. PMID:23911355

  14. Sustained reduction in prevalence of lymphatic filariasis infection in spite of missed rounds of mass drug administration in an area under mosquito nets for malaria control

    Shimada Masaaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF was established by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2000 with the goal of eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF as a public health problem globally by 2020. Mass drug administration (MDA of antifilarial drugs is the principal strategy recommended for global elimination. Kenya launched a National Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (NPELF in Coast Region in 2002. During the same year a longitudinal research project to monitor trends of LF infection during MDA started in a highly endemic area in Malindi District. High coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs in the coastal region has been associated with dramatic decline in hospital admissions due to malaria; high usage of ITNs is also expected to have an impact on LF infection, also transmitted by mosquitoes. Results Four rounds of MDA with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC and albendazole were given to 8 study villages over an 8-year period. Although annual MDA was not administered for several years the overall prevalence of microfilariae declined significantly from 20.9% in 2002 to 0.9% in 2009. Similarly, the prevalence of filarial antigenaemia declined from 34.6% in 2002 to 10.8% in 2009. All the examined children born since the start of the programme were negative for filarial antigen in 2009. Conclusions Despite the fact that the study villages missed MDA in some of the years, significant reductions in infection prevalence and intensity were observed at each survey. More importantly, there were no rebounds in infection prevalence between treatment rounds. However, because of confounding variables such as insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, it is difficult to attribute the reduction to MDA alone as ITNs can lead to a significant reduction in exposure to filariasis vectors. The results indicate that national LF elimination programmes should be encouraged to continue provision of MDA albeit

  15. Multitasking roles of mosquito labrum in oviposition and blood feeding

    Young-Moo eChoo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reception of odorants by two main head appendages, antennae and maxillary palps, is essential for insects’ survival and reproduction. There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that the proboscis is also an olfactory appendage and its function as an additional antenna has been previously proposed. We surmised that movements of the labrum towards blood vessel might be chemically oriented and, if so, there should be odorant receptors expressed in the labrum. To test this hypothesis, we first compared by quantitative PCR expression of odorant receptors (OR from the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus in antennae and proboscis and, subsequently compared OR expression in various proboscis parts. Our data suggested that a receptor for the oviposition attractant, skatole, CquiOR21, was not expressed in proboscis, whereas a receptor for another oviposition attractant, 4EP (4-ethylphenol, CquiOR99, and a receptor for the insect repellent DEET, CquiOR136, were expressed in the stylet of the proboscis, particularly in the tip of the labrum. In a dual-choice olfactometer, mosquitoes having the stylet coated with nail polish were attracted to 4EP in the same manner as the untreated mosquitoes. By contrast, in an oviposition assay, the stylet-treated mosquitoes did not discriminate 4EP from control oviposition cups, whereas the untreated mosquitoes (as well as mosquitoes having the labella coated laid significantly more egg rafts in cups treated with 4EP. Ablation experiments confirmed that 4EP was sensed by the labrum where CquiOR99 is highly expressed. Stylet-coated, labella-coated, and untreated mosquitoes laid significantly more egg rafts in skatole-treated cups than in control cups. Likewise, coating of proboscis structures with nail polish had no effect on DEET-mediated oviposition deterrence. In a behavioral arena designed to mimic a human arm, mosquitoes showed significantly reduced probing time when blood was impregnated

  16. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    D. MEHTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. That is why it has been necessary to understand the various aspects of selected rural areas and consumption pattern for such a fast growing market i.e. mosquito repellants and rural buyers’ perception towards such urban products. The present paper aims to find out the factors influencing the purchase decisions of rural buyers for mosquito repellants and to study the perceptions of present and potential rural buyers' of selected mosquito repellant brands.

  17. Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.

    Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C

    2013-02-01

    Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species. PMID:23092689

  18. Changes in host orientation behavior of female mosquitoes treated with a sublethal pyrethroid exposure

    Adult mosquito control consists of barrier treatments and areal spraying often using pyrethroids, however not all host seeking insects contacting insecticides are killed. Sublethal exposure to neurotoxic compounds can negatively affect sensory organs reducing their efficiency for locating hosts. Fe...

  19. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  20. Inhibition of luciferase expression in transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by Sindbis virus expression of antisense luciferase RNA.

    Johnson, B W; Olson, K E; Allen-Miura, T; Rayms-Keller, A; Carlson, J O; Coates, C J; Jasinskiene, N; James, A A; Beaty, B J; Higgs, S

    1999-11-01

    A rapid and reproducible method of inhibiting the expression of specific genes in mosquitoes should further our understanding of gene function and may lead to the identification of mosquito genes that determine vector competence or are involved in pathogen transmission. We hypothesized that the virus expression system based on the mosquito-borne Alphavirus, Sindbis (Togaviridae), may efficiently transcribe effector RNAs that inhibit expression of a targeted mosquito gene. To test this hypothesis, germ-line-transformed Aedes aegypti that express luciferase (LUC) from the mosquito Apyrase promoter were intrathoracically inoculated with a double subgenomic Sindbis (dsSIN) virus TE/3'2J/anti-luc (Anti-luc) that transcribes RNA complementary to the 5' end of the LUC mRNA. LUC activity was monitored in mosquitoes infected with either Anti-luc or control dsSIN viruses expressing unrelated antisense RNAs. Mosquitoes infected with Anti-luc virus exhibited 90% reduction in LUC compared with uninfected and control dsSIN-infected mosquitoes at 5 and 9 days postinoculation. We demonstrate that a gene expressed from the mosquito genome can be inhibited by using an antisense strategy. The dsSIN antisense RNA expression system is an important tool for studying gene function in vivo. PMID:10557332

  1. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  2. Susceptibility of Aedes flavopictus miyarai and Aedes galloisi mosquito species in Japan to dengue type 2 virus

    Raweewan Srisawat; Ikuo Takashima; Tomohiko Takasaki; Ichiro Kurae; Narihiro Narita; Takashi Kobayashi; Yuki Eshita; Thipruethai Phanitchat; Narumon Komalamisra; Naoki Tamori; Lucky Runtuwene; Kaori Noguchi; Kyoko Hayashida; Shinya Hidano; Naganori Kamiyama

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential of local mosquitoes to act as vectors for dengue transmission in Japan. Methods: Serotype 2 ThNH28/93 was used to test the dengue susceptibility profiles of Aedes flavopictus miyarai (Ae. f. miyarai), Aedes galloisi (Ae. galloisi) and Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus), which were collected in Japan. We used Aedes aegypti from Thailand as a positive control. The mosquitoes were infected with the virus intrathoracically or orally. At 10 or 14 days post infection, the mosquitoes were dissected and total RNA was extracted from their abdomens, thoraxes, heads and legs. Mosquito susceptibility to dengue virus was evaluated using RT-PCR with dengue virus-specific primers. Differences in the infection and mortality rates of the different mosquito species were tested using Fisher's exact probability test. Results: The infection rates for dengue virus administered intrathoracically to Ae. f. miyarai, Ae. galloisi and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were identical by RT-PCR on Day 10 post infection. All of the body parts we tested were RT-PCR-positive for dengue virus. For the orally admin-istered virus, the infection rates in the different body parts of the Ae. f. miyarai mosquitoes were slightly higher than those of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but were similar to the control mosquitoes (P>0.05). The mortality rates for Ae. f. miyarai and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were similar (P=0.19). Our data indicated that dengue virus was able to replicate and disseminate to secondary infection sites in all of the four mosquito species (Japanese and Thai). Conclusions: Ae. albopictus is a well-known candidate for dengue transmission in Japan. However, our data suggest that Ae. f. miyarai from Ishigaki Island (near Okinawa Island) and Ae. galloisi from Hokkaido (Northern Japan) should also be regarded as potential vectors for dengue transmission in these regions. Further studies on these mosquitoes should be conducted.

  3. Preventing the Spread of Malaria and Dengue Fever Using Genetically Modified Mosquitoes

    James, Anthony A.

    2007-01-01

    In this candid interview, Anthony A. James explains how mosquito genetics can be exploited to control malaria and dengue transmission. Population replacement strategy, the idea that transgenic mosquitoes can be released into the wild to control disease transmission, is introduced, as well as the concept of genetic drive and the design criterion for an effective genetic drive system. The ethical considerations of releasing genetically-modified organisms into the wild are also discussed.

  4. Larvicidal activity of methanolic leaf extracts of plant, Chromolaena odorata L. (Asteraceae) against vector mosquitoes

    Jagruti H. Sukhthankar; Hemanth Kumar; M. H. S. Godinho; Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Mosquitoes transmit malaria, filariasis, dengue, chikungunya, etc. Repeated use of insecticides for mosquito control has caused development of resistance, adverse effects on non-target organisms and serious environmental concerns. Hence alternative control measures are being explored inter alia plant based insecticides. We carried out larvicidal bioassays with methanolic extract of leaves of Chromolaena odorata (family Asteraceae) against late instar larvae of disease vectors Anopheles stephe...

  5. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  6. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    Kristen Healy

    Full Text Available Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical

  7. Olfactory Responses of Southern House Mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, to Human Odorants.

    Ye, Zi; Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito control is essential to protect humans from mosquito-borne diseases. The host recognition between mosquitoes and humans is achieved by the mosquito olfactory system. Antennal sensilla, which house olfactory receptor neurons, are responsible for detecting chemical cues from hosts. To deepen our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the host seeking behavior of mosquitoes, we conducted an electrophysiological study to investigate the response profile of each type of antennal sensilla to human odorants using single sensillum recording. In this study, more than 100 human odorants have been applied as stimuli to 5 morphological types of sensilla, long sharp trichoid (LST), short sharp trichoid (SST), short blunt trichoid I (SBTI), short blunt trichoid II (SBTII), and grooved peg (GP). Different types of sensilla present distinctive response profiles to the human odorants tested. In particular, SST, SBTI, and SBTII sensilla responded to more than 1 category of human odorants, while GP and LST were narrowly tuned to amines and methyl nonanoate, respectively. The dose-dependent patterns and odorant-specific/chemical structure-specific temporal dynamics of SBTI and SBTII antennal sensilla to human odorants had been further detected. Taken together, our study provides the new information on the olfactory physiology of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to human odorants, leading to a better understanding of mosquito-host recognition and being important for future development of new reagents in the mosquito control. PMID:26969630

  8. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    Keller, Matthew D.; Leahy, David J.; Norton, Bryan J.; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-02-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild.

  9. Approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the EU

    Kampen, H.; Medlock, J.M.; Vaux, A.G.C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Bartumeus, F.; Oltra, A.; Sousa, C.A.; Chouin, S.; Werner, D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order

  10. Mosquito species geographical distribution in Iraq 2009

    Haidar A. Hantosh, Hameeda M. Hassan, Bushra Ahma & Ali Al-fatlawy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills threemillion persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species.In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomologicalsurvey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009.Methods: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi provinces werecollected and speciated. Five to 10 villages were selected randomly in each province and in each village 10houses were selected randomly to collect mosquitoes and the density of mosquitoes per room was calculated.Kits for entomological investigation were used and the collected mosquitoes were sent to the vector bornedisease section laboratory for classification using the Naval Medical Research Unit 3 standard classificationkey.Results: A total of 29,156 mosquitoes were collected, representing two genera: Anopheles (n=13,268, or 46%of the total collected and Culex (n=15,888, or 54% of the total collected. Four Anopheles (An. pulcherrimus,An. stephensi, An. superpictus, and An. sacharovi and one Culex (Cx. pipiens species were identified. Anophelespulcherrimus was found in 11 provinces, An. stephensi in 7, An. superpictus in 2 and An. sacharovi in oneprovince, while Cx. pipiens was found in all the 12 provinces. Two peaks of mosquito density were found: thefirst from April–June and the other from September–October.Interpretation & conclusion: There are clear differences in Anopheles mosquito species geographical distributionand density among Iraqi provinces, while Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are distributed all over Iraq. All mosquitogenera show clear seasonal density variation. The study highlights that the manual mosquito classification isnot enough to identify all the species of mosquitoes in Iraq

  11. Global stability of a delayed mosquito-transmitted disease model with stage structure

    B. G. Sampath Aruna Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new eco-epidemiological deterministic delay differential equation model considering a biological controlling approach on mosquitoes, for endemic dengue disease with variable host (human and variable vector (Aedes aegypti populations, and stage structure for mosquitoes. In this model, predator-prey interaction is considered by using larvae as prey and mosquito-fish as predator. We give a complete classification of equilibria of the model, and sufficient conditions for global stability/global attractivity of some equilibria are given by constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals and using Lyapunov-LaSalle invariance principle. Also, numerical simulations are presented to show the validity of our results.

  12. A new resting trap to sample fungus-infected mosquitoes, and the pathogenicity of Lecanicillium muscarium to culicid adults

    Luz, C.; Mnyone, L.L.; Sangusangu, R.; Lyimo, I.N.; Rocha, L.F.N.; Humber, R.A.; Russell, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Some soil-dwelling entomopathogenic fungi that are widely used in pest control are also able to reduce the survival of adult mosquito vectors under laboratory conditions. However, there is still little information about the naturally occurring fungal pathogens affecting culicid mosquitoes. As such,

  13. Reduction of mosquito biting-pressure: spatial repellents or mosquito traps? A field comparison of seven commercially available products in Israel.

    Revay, Edita E; Kline, Daniel L; Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Ghattas, Nina; Pstygo, Irina; Müller, Günter C

    2013-07-01

    The present study assessed the personal protection efficiency of seven commercially available mosquito control devices (MCD) under field conditions in Israel. Trials were performed in a high biting-pressure area inhabited by large populations of mosquito and biting midge species, using human volunteers as bait in landing catch experiments. Results show that under minimal air-movement, three spatial repellent based products (ThermaCELL(®) Patio Lantern, OFF!(®) PowerPad lamp, and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR Tabletop Mosquito Repeller) significantly reduced the biting-pressure (t-test - Prepelled significantly more mosquitoes then the Terminix ALLCLEAR Tabletop Mosquito Repeller (t-test, Pmosquito traps using attracting cues to bait mosquitoes (Dynatrap(®), Vortex(®) Electronic Insect Trap, Blue Rhino(®) SV3100) either significantly increased or had no effect on the biting-pressure at short distances compared with the unprotected control. Trials conducted over large areas showed that only the Blue Rhino trap was able to significantly reduce the biting-pressure (40.1% reduction), but this was only when operating four units at the corners of an intermediate sized area. PMID:23545129

  14. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    N. Lukwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.

  15. Population dynamics and spatial structure of human-biting mosquitoes, inside and outside of houses, in the Chockwe irrigation scheme, southern Mozambique

    Derek Charlwood, J.; Gracieta A. Macia; Maria Manhaca; Bruno de Sousa; Nelson Cuamba; Mauro Bragança

    2013-01-01

    Focal control of malaria vectors, a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional control, requires a spatio-temporal understanding of the mosquitoes. Trapping of African malaria vectors has generally been limited to inside houses making distribution estimates dependent on the location of dwellings. The development of tent-traps to sample outdoor biting mosquitoes has enabled more independent estimates. Here we describe both temporal and spatial variation in mosquito movements in an ...

  16. Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    Hsu, Wey-Shin; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 μL, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 μL; 42.5%, 18% with 400 μL; and 19%, 23% with 1000 μL). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 μL), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti. PMID:23998314

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes in Taiwan during 2005-2012.

    Chien-Ling Su

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV. Pigs and water birds are the main amplifying and maintenance hosts of the virus. In this study, we conducted a JEV survey in mosquitoes captured in pig farms and water bird wetland habitats in Taiwan during 2005 to 2012. A total of 102,633 mosquitoes were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most common mosquito species found in the pig farms and wetlands. Among the 26 mosquito species collected, 11 tested positive for JEV by RT-PCR, including Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. annulus, Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, and Cx. fuscocephala. Among those testing positive, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the predominant vector species for the transmission of JEV genotypes I and III in Taiwan. The JEV infection rate was significantly higher in the mosquitoes from the pig farms than those from the wetlands. A phylogenetic analysis of the JEV envelope gene sequences isolated from the captured mosquitoes demonstrated that the predominant JEV genotype has shifted from genotype III to genotype I (GI, providing evidence for transmission cycle maintenance and multiple introductions of the GI strains in Taiwan during 2008 to 2012. This study demonstrates the intense JEV transmission activity in Taiwan, highlights the importance of JE vaccination for controlling the epidemic, and provides valuable information for the assessment of the vaccine's efficacy.

  18. Biodistribution and trafficking of hydrogel nanoparticles in adult mosquitoes.

    Cynthia C H Paquette

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers great potential for molecular genetic investigations and potential control of medically important arthropods. Major advances have been made in mammalian systems to define nanoparticle (NP characteristics that condition trafficking and biodistribution of NPs in the host. Such information is critical for effective delivery of therapeutics and molecules to cells and organs, but little is known about biodistribution of NPs in mosquitoes.PRINT technology was used to construct a library of fluorescently labeled hydrogel NPs of defined size, shape, and surface charge. The biodistribution (organ, tissue, and cell tropisms and trafficking kinetics of positively and negatively charged 200 nm x 200 nm, 80 nm x 320 nm, and 80 nm x 5000 nm NPs was determined in adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes as a function of the route of challenge (ingestion, injection or contact using whole body imaging and fluorescence microscopy. Mosquitoes readily ingested NPs in sugar solution. Whole body fluorescence imaging revealed substantial NP accumulation (load in the alimentary tracts of the adult mosquitoes, with the greatest loads in the diverticula, cardia and foregut. Positively and negatively charged NPs differed in their biodistribution and trafficking. Following oral challenge, negatively charged NPs transited the alimentary tract more rapidly than positively charged NPs. Following contact challenge, negatively charged NPs trafficked more efficiently in alimentary tract tissues. Following parenteral challenge, positively and negatively charged NPs differed in tissue tropisms and trafficking in the hemocoel. Injected NPs were also detected in cardia/foregut, suggesting trafficking of NPs from the hemocoel into the alimentary tract.Herein we have developed a tool box of NPs with the biodistribution and tissue tropism characteristics for gene structure/function studies and for delivery of vector lethal cargoes for mosquito control.

  19. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    Lukwa, N; A. Makuwaza; T. Chiwade; S.L. Mutambu; M. Zimba; P. Munosiyei

    2013-01-01

    The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU) mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes) and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites) properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up t...

  20. Antibiotics in ingested human blood affect the mosquito microbiota and capacity to transmit malaria.

    Gendrin, Mathilde; Rodgers, Faye H; Yerbanga, Rakiswendé S; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Cohuet, Anna; Christophides, George K

    2015-01-01

    Malaria reduction is most efficiently achieved by vector control whereby human populations at high risk of contracting and transmitting the disease are protected from mosquito bites. Here, we identify the presence of antibiotics in the blood of malaria-infected people as a new risk of increasing disease transmission. We show that antibiotics in ingested blood enhance the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to malaria infection by disturbing their gut microbiota. This effect is confirmed in a semi-natural setting by feeding mosquitoes with blood of children naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Antibiotic exposure additionally increases mosquito survival and fecundity, which are known to augment vectorial capacity. These findings suggest that malaria transmission may be exacerbated in areas of high antibiotic usage, and that regions targeted by mass drug administration programs against communicable diseases may necessitate increased vector control. PMID:25562286

  1. A possible mechanism for the suppression of Plasmodium berghei development in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae by the microsporidian Vavraia culicis.

    Irka Bargielowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microsporidian parasites of mosquitoes offer a possible way of controlling malaria, as they impede the development of Plasmodium parasites within the mosquito. The mechanism involved in this interference process is unknown. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated the possibility that larval infection by a microsporidian primes the immune system of adult mosquitoes in a way that enables a more effective anti-Plasmodium response. To do so, we infected 2-day old larvae of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae with one of 4 isolates of the microsporidian Vavraia culicis and reared one group as an uninfected control. Within each treatment, we fed half the adult females on a mix of P. berghei ookinetes and blood and inoculated the other half with a negatively charged CM-25 Sephadex bead to evaluate the mosquitoes' melanisation response. CONCLUSIONS: The microsporidian-infected mosquitoes were less likely to harbour oocysts (58.5% vs. 81.8%, harboured fewer oocysts (8.9 oocysts vs. 20.7 oocysts if the malaria parasite did develop and melanised the Sephadex bead to a greater degree (73% vs. 35% than the controls. While the isolates differed in the number of oocysts and in the melanisation response, the stimulation of the immune response was not correlated with either measure of malaria development. Nevertheless, the consistent difference between microsporidian-infected and -uninfected mosquitoes--more effective melanisation and less successful infection by malaria--suggests that microsporidians impede the development of malaria by priming the mosquito's immune system.

  2. EFFECTS OF MOSQUITO REPELLENTS ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS

    Venkatesh,; Puneeth

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito bite transmits diseases like Malaria, Filaria, Dengue etc. and usage of repellents is very common and has been in use for a long time. The smoke contains Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons, Aldehydes and Ketones. Review of literature has shown ill effects of this smoke. Hence we intended to study the effect of mosquito repellents on lung functions. This study would be important to create awareness regarding usage of mosquito repellent and to adapt to non-harmful methods of...

  3. Rainfall triggered dynamics of Aedes mosquito aggressiveness

    P.I. Ndiaye; Bicout, D J; Mondet, Bernard; Sabatier, P.

    2006-01-01

    Inspired by Davidson method of estimating daily survivals of a structureless population of mosquitoes, we present a model which describes the behavior of floodwater mosquitoes in terms of emergence functions following a rainfall event, blood feeding frequency and parous stages, and survival at various stages. As a generalization of the Davidson formula, we have developed an approach for dealing with the dynamics of structured population of mosquitoes, and derived various formulas allowing ass...

  4. Environmental fate of mosquito adulticides and effects on non-target invertebrates in wetlands of the Sacramento Valley

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is a synergist of pyrethroid pesticides found in many products for structural pest control, mosquito control, and home and garden uses....

  5. Effectiveness of Mosquito Trap with Sugar Fermented Attractant to the Vector of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue fever that is still become health problem in the world. Various control efforts has been done at several areas through chemically or naturally control. Developing mosquitoes trapping tool is an alternative method to control mosquitoes besides insecticides utilization. This laboratorium research utilize sugar fermented process to yield CO2 as one of attractan to mosquito. Production of ethanol and CO2 can be yielded from anaerob sugar fermentation proccess (without O2 by khamir Saccharomyces cerevisiae activities. The trapped mosquitoes was observed up to 48 hours exposure, the highest average of mosquito trapped is on solution treatment with yeast 1 gram (43.2% and 40 gr sugar (48.4%. The highest effectivity of trapping tool both inside or outside was on the 14th day. There were declained amount of trapped mosquitos on 16th and 18th days. This laboratorium research has described that trapping tool with sugar fermented solution were effective to control population of dengue vector.

  6. Effects of a botanical larvicide derived from Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) on oviposition behaviour in Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes

    Howard, A.F.V.; Adongo, E.A.; Vulule, J.; Githure, J.

    2011-01-01

    More focus is given to mosquito larval control due to the necessity to use several control techniques together in integrated vector management programmes. Botanical products are thought to be able to provide effective, sustainable and cheap mosquito larval control tools. However, bio-larvicides like

  7. Studies on Deltamethrin Treated Mosquito Net

    Tyagi, A.; Sharma, T; M Singh; K. Fatma; V. S. Rawat; Aggarwal, M; Khandal, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of the present studies is to characterize mosquito net for its material of construction and qualitative as well as quantitative determination of the mosquito repellent chemical deltamethrin present in it. Further, the assessment of the mode of incorporation of the deltamethrin in the fabric of the mosquito net was done, i.e. whether the deltamethrin was present as a coating on the surface of the mosquito net or it was incorporated in the bulk of the material of construction of the m...

  8. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of metropolitan Hamburg, Germany.

    Krüger, A; Börstler, J; Badusche, M; Lühken, R; Garms, R; Tannich, E

    2014-08-01

    In Europe, mosquito-related public health concerns are growing due to the increasing spread of invasive mosquito species and the recent emergence of mosquito-borne arboviruses. A vital backbone in the assessment of these issues is detailed knowledge of the mosquito fauna, i.e. regional mosquito inventories. It was therefore decided to intensify nationwide investigations on the occurrence and distribution of mosquitoes in Germany in order to update old records and to detect possible faunal changes. This paper is focussing on a densely populated metropolitan region, the federal state of Hamburg and its adjacent environs, taking two historical baseline inventories into consideration, spanning almost 100 years of mosquito research in Hamburg. In the period between 2010 and 2014, more than 10,000 juvenile, neonate and adult mosquito specimens were sampled and trapped at 105 sites in Hamburg and its environs, of which about 60% have been identified to species level, resulting in a total of 33 recorded species. Of these, Anopheles algeriensis, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus nigrinus and Ochlerotatus sticticus are new to the area. The most common species in Hamburg are Culex pipiens/torrentium and Ochlerotatus annulipes/cantans. In contrast, two previously common species, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus excrucians, were not detected. Despite substantial environmental changes due to reconstruction, urbanisation and renaturation in the Hamburg metropolitan region in recent decades, there has been remarkably little change within the mosquito fauna during the last century. PMID:24870250

  9. Mosquito gut antiparasitic and antiviral immunity.

    Saraiva, Raúl G; Kang, Seokyoung; Simões, Maria L; Angleró-Rodríguez, Yesseinia I; Dimopoulos, George

    2016-11-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of diseases with a serious impact on global human health, such as malaria and dengue. All mosquito-transmitted pathogens complete part of their life cycle in the insect gut, where they are exposed to mosquito-encoded barriers and active factors that can limit their development. Here we present the current understanding of mosquito gut immunity against malaria parasites, filarial worms, and viruses such as dengue, Chikungunya, and West Nile. The most recently proposed immune mediators involved in intestinal defenses are discussed, as well as the synergies identified between the recognition of gut microbiota and the mounting of the immune response. PMID:26827888

  10. Mosquito and Fly Control Research by the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) in the Deployed War-Fighter Protection (DWFP) Program

    Despite existing measures to prevent and control arthropod-borne diseases in military units, these diseases continue to be serious threats to deployed troops. Due to a shrinking list of safe, cost-effective pesticides for control of disease vectors, new and improved toxicants and methods for deliver...

  11. Direct PCR of indigenous and invasive mosquito species: a time- and cost-effective technique of mosquito barcoding.

    Werblow, A; Flechl, E; Klimpel, S; Zittra, C; Lebl, K; Kieser, K; Laciny, A; Silbermayr, K; Melaun, C; Fuehrer, H-P

    2016-03-01

    Millions of people die each year as a result of pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes. However, the morphological identification of mosquito species can be difficult even for experts. The identification of morphologically indistinguishable species, such as members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae), and possible hybrids, such as Culex pipiens pipiens/Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae), presents a major problem. In addition, the detection and discrimination of newly introduced species can be challenging, particularly to researchers without previous experience. Because of their medical importance, the clear identification of all relevant mosquito species is essential. Using the direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method described here, DNA amplification without prior DNA extraction is possible and thus species identification after sequencing can be achieved. Different amounts of tissue (leg, head; larvae or adult) as well as different storage conditions (dry, ethanol, -20 and -80 °C) and storage times were successfully applied and showed positive results after amplification and gel electrophoresis. Overall, 28 different indigenous and non-indigenous mosquito species were analysed using a gene fragment of the COX1 gene for species differentiation and identification by sequencing this 658-bp fragment. Compared with standard PCR, this method is time- and cost-effective and could thus improve existing surveillance and control programmes. PMID:26663040

  12. A push-pull system to reduce house entry of malaria mosquitoes

    Menger, D.J.; Otieno, B.; Rijk, De; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van, J.J.W.A.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mosquitoes are the dominant vectors of pathogens that cause infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and filariasis. Current vector control strategies often rely on the use of pyrethroids against which mosquitoes are increasingly developing resistance. Here, a push-pull system is presented, that operates by the simultaneous use of repellent and attractive volatile odorants. Method/Results. Experiments were carried out in a semi-field set-up: a traditional house wh...

  13. Experimental investigation of the susceptibility of Italian Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus infection.

    Boccolini, Daniela; Toma, Luciano; Di Luca, Marco; Severini, Francesco; Romi, R; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sabbatucci, Michela; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Fortuna, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the susceptibility of an Italian population of Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, tested in parallel with Aedes aegypti, as a positive control. We analysed mosquitoes at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 20 and 24 days after an infectious blood meal. Viral RNA was detected in the body of Cx. pipiens up to three days post-infection, but not at later time points. Our results indicate that Cx. pipiens is not susceptible to ZIKV infection. PMID:27605056

  14. Perceptions and recommendations by scientists for a potential release of genetically modified mosquitoes in Nigeria

    Okorie, Patricia N.; Marshall, John M; Akpa, Onoja M.; Ademowo, Olusegun G

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) for the control of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases has been proposed in malaria-endemic countries, such as Nigeria, which has the largest burden in Africa. Scientists are major stakeholders whose opinions and perceptions can adversely affect the success of the trials of GMMs if they are not involved early. Unfortunately, information on the awareness of Nigerians scientists and their overall perception of the GMMs is practi...

  15. Studies on mosquitoes breeding in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria, northern Nigeria

    David A. Adebote; Sonnie J. Oniye; Yunus A. Muhammed

    2008-01-01

    Background & objectives: Rainwater often collects in depressions on rocks to form pools that are ideal breeding sites of mosquito vectors of diseases. Knowledge on the existence of disease vectors in these remote and relatively inaccessible locations could improve epidemiologic understanding and control capabilities. This study identifies mosquito species, their relative abundance and physicochemical characteristics of breeding microhabitats in rock pools on four inselbergs in northern Nigeri...

  16. Cytochrome B Analysis of Mosquito Blood Meals: Identifying Wildlife Hosts of West Nile Virus Mosquito Vectors in Wyoming, USA

    Female mosquitoes commonly exhibit patterns of blood feeding from vertebrate hosts, a behavior that strongly influences mosquito pathogen infection and transmission. The vertebrate host dynamics of the mosquito transmitted arbovirus, West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in sa...

  17. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  18. Do topical repellents divert mosquitoes within a community? Health equity implications of topical repellents as a mosquito bite prevention tool.

    Marta Ferreira Maia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Repellents do not kill mosquitoes--they simply reduce human-vector contact. Thus it is possible that individuals who do not use repellents but dwell close to repellent users experience more bites than otherwise. The objective of this study was to measure if diversion occurs from households that use repellents to those that do not use repellents. METHODS: The study was performed in three Tanzanian villages using 15%-DEET and placebo lotions. All households were given LLINs. Three coverage scenarios were investigated: complete coverage (all households were given 15%-DEET, incomplete coverage (80% of households were given 15%-DEET and 20% placebo and no coverage (all households were given placebo. A crossover study design was used and coverage scenarios were rotated weekly over a period of ten weeks. The placebo lotion was randomly allocated to households in the incomplete coverage scenario. The level of compliance was reported to be close to 100%. Mosquito densities were measured through aspiration of resting mosquitoes. Data were analysed using negative binomial regression models. FINDINGS: Repellent-users had consistently fewer mosquitoes in their dwellings. In villages where everybody had been given 15%-DEET, resting mosquito densities were fewer than half that of households in the no coverage scenario (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]=0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.25-0.60; p<0.001. Placebo-users living in a village where 80% of the households used 15%-DEET were likely to have over four-times more mosquitoes (IRR=4.17; 95% CI: 3.08-5.65; p<0.001 resting in their dwellings in comparison to households in a village where nobody uses repellent. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that high coverage of repellent use could significantly reduce man-vector contact but with incomplete coverage evidence suggests that mosquitoes are diverted from households that use repellent to those that do not. Therefore, if repellents are to be considered for

  19. Can Wolbachia be used to control malaria?

    Thomas Walker

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites transmitted by the infectious bite of Anopheles mosquitoes. Vector control of malaria has predominantly focused on targeting the adult mosquito through insecticides and bed nets. However, current vector control methods are often not sustainable for long periods so alternative methods are needed. A novel biocontrol approach for mosquito-borne diseases has recently been proposed, it uses maternally inherited endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria transinfected into mosquitoes in order to interfere with pathogen transmission. Transinfected Wolbachia strains in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the primary vector of dengue fever, directly inhibit pathogen replication, including Plasmodium gallinaceum, and also affect mosquito reproduction to allow Wolbachia to spread through mosquito populations. In addition, transient Wolbachia infections in Anopheles gambiae significantly reduce Plasmodium levels. Here we review the prospects of using a Wolbachia-based approach to reduce human malaria transmission through transinfection of Anopheles mosquitoes.

  20. Mosquito repellent action of Blumea lacera (Asteraceae against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    S.P. Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether extract of Blumea lacera was screened under laboratory conditions for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. The repellent activity of Blumea lacera extract was tested against mosquitoes in comparison with the DEET, which was used as a positive control. Results obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the extract was effective against mosquito vectors even at a low dose. A direct relationship was observed with concentrations of Blumea lacera extract and the repellent activity. Percent repellency obtained at 6% concentration of theextract against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 97and 98% at 0 hour and 78.8 and 76.2% after 6 hrs. DEET-2% however showed 100% repellency against An. stephensi and against Cx. quinquefasciatus up to 4 hours and 1 hour, respectively. These results show that Blumea lacera extract has the potential as an effective mosquito repellent.

  1. Gametocytes infectiousness to mosquitoes: variable selection using random forests, and zero inflated models

    Genuer, Robin; Toussile, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Malaria control strategies aiming at reducing disease transmission intensity may impact both oocyst intensity and infection prevalence in the mosquito vector. Thus far, mathematical models failed to identify a clear relationship between Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and their infectiousness to mosquitoes. Natural isolates of gametocytes are genetically diverse and biologically complex. Infectiousness to mosquitoes relies on multiple parameters such as density, sex-ratio, maturity, parasite genotypes and host immune factors. In this article, we investigated how density and genetic diversity of gametocytes impact on the success of transmission in the mosquito vector. We analyzed data for which the number of covariates plus attendant interactions is at least of order of the sample size, precluding usage of classical models such as general linear models. We then considered the variable importance from random forests to address the problem of selecting the most influent variables. The selected covariates were ...

  2. Mosquito surveillance revealed lagged effects of mosquito abundance on mosquito-borne disease transmission: a retrospective study in Zhejiang, China.

    Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008-2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue fever (DF) and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu). We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008-2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0-2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008-2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008-2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0-2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs. PMID:25393834

  3. Mosquito surveillance revealed lagged effects of mosquito abundance on mosquito-borne disease transmission: a retrospective study in Zhejiang, China.

    Song Guo

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008-2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE, dengue fever (DF and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu. We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008-2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0-2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008-2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008-2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0-2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs.

  4. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes

    Dua Virendra K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding

  5. New protective battle-dress impregnated against mosquito vector bites

    Pennetier Cédric; Chabi Joseph; Martin Thibaud; Chandre Fabrice; Rogier Christophe; Hougard Jean-Marc; Pages Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mixing repellent and organophosphate (OP) insecticides to better control pyrethroid resistant mosquito vectors is a promising strategy developed for bed net impregnation. Here, we investigated the opportunity to adapt this strategy to personal protection in the form of impregnated clothes. Methods We compared standard permethrin impregnated uniforms with uniforms manually impregnated with the repellent KBR3023 alone and in combination with an organophosphate, Pirimiphos-Me...

  6. Genome engineering and gene drive in the mosquito aedes aegypti

    St John, Oliver Tudor Lockhart; Sinkins, Steven; Alphey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Genetic control strategies are a novel method for reducing populations of pest insects such as the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, a major vector of several important arboviral diseases. This thesis describes efforts to develop new tools to engineer the Ae. aegypti genome and to better understand existing tools, and furthermore to use these to engineer a gene drive system in Ae. aegypti. The piggyBac transposon was found to be extremely stable in the germline of Ae. aegypti, and transpos...

  7. Microsporidian isolates from mosquitoes of Argentina

    Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...

  8. In a warmer Arctic, mosquitoes avoid increased mortality from predators by growing faster.

    Culler, Lauren E; Ayres, Matthew P; Virginia, Ross A

    2015-09-22

    Climate change is altering environmental temperature, a factor that influences ectothermic organisms by controlling rates of physiological processes. Demographic effects of warming, however, are determined by the expression of these physiological effects through predator-prey and other species interactions. Using field observations and controlled experiments, we measured how increasing temperatures in the Arctic affected development rates and mortality rates (from predation) of immature Arctic mosquitoes in western Greenland. We then developed and parametrized a demographic model to evaluate how temperature affects survival of mosquitoes from the immature to the adult stage. Our studies showed that warming increased development rate of immature mosquitoes (Q10 = 2.8) but also increased daily mortality from increased predation rates by a dytiscid beetle (Q10 = 1.2-1.5). Despite increased daily mortality, the model indicated that faster development and fewer days exposed to predators resulted in an increased probability of mosquito survival to the adult stage. Warming also advanced mosquito phenology, bringing mosquitoes into phenological synchrony with caribou. Increases in biting pests will have negative consequences for caribou and their role as a subsistence resource for local communities. Generalizable frameworks that account for multiple effects of temperature are needed to understand how climate change impacts coupled human-natural systems. PMID:26378217

  9. Insilico modeling of Wolbachia and its potentials in combating mosquito borne diseases Chikungunya and Dengue

    N.M.Guruprasad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito borne diseases are major health burden both in tropical and subtropical regions. The enormous use of insecticides to control mosquitoes causes biomagnification of chemicals in environment and mosquitoes have developed resistance to insecticides. The inefficiency of insecticides to combat mosquitoes prompted researchers to develop efficient alternative methods. Wolbachia endosymbiont is a one of efficient new approach to control mosquitoes. Wolbachia strain invade mosquitoes biology by reducing host lifespan, phenotype and inhibit virus replication. In the present study, insilico modeling and docking of Wolbachia and human pathogens Chikungunya (CHIK and Dengue (DEN virus was done. Docking is the method to find the binding affinity of protein and ligand complex molecules for finding potential inhibitor. Using Hex, we obtained energy total (e-total values in kcal/mol for all docked complex. In the contest of overall analyzing the docking E-total values of docked complexes reveals that WSP-B has show strong binding affinity than WSP-A to both DEN and CHIK. Based on obtained result, we suggest WSP-B has potential inhibitor for both DEN and CHIK virus. Further, biophysical characterization of Wolbachia will help to develop a drug to combat CHIK and DEN viruses.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

    Ageep, T.B.; Cox, J; M.M. Hassan; Knols, B.G.J.; Benedict, M.Q.; Malcolm, C. A.; Babiker, A.; Sayed, El, B.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT). To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carrie...

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

    Malcolm Colin A; Benedict Mark Q; Knols Bart GJ; Hassan M'oawia M; Cox Jonathan; Ageep Tellal B; Babiker Ahmed; El Sayed Badria B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT). To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were...

  12. A systematic review of mosquito coils and passive emanators: defining recommendations for spatial repellency testing methodologies

    Ogoma Sheila B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosquito coils, vaporizer mats and emanators confer protection against mosquito bites through the spatial action of emanated vapor or airborne pyrethroid particles. These products dominate the pest control market; therefore, it is vital to characterize mosquito responses elicited by the chemical actives and their potential for disease prevention. The aim of this review was to determine effects of mosquito coils and emanators on mosquito responses that reduce human-vector contact and to propose scientific consensus on terminologies and methodologies used for evaluation of product formats that could contain spatial chemical actives, including indoor residual spraying (IRS, long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs and insecticide treated materials (ITMs. PubMed, (National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, U.S. National Library of Medicine, NIH, MEDLINE, LILAC, Cochrane library, IBECS and Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System search engines were used to identify studies of pyrethroid based coils and emanators with key-words “Mosquito coils” “Mosquito emanators” and “Spatial repellents”. It was concluded that there is need to improve statistical reporting of studies, and reach consensus in the methodologies and terminologies used through standardized testing guidelines. Despite differing evaluation methodologies, data showed that coils and emanators induce mortality, deterrence, repellency as well as reduce the ability of mosquitoes to feed on humans. Available data on efficacy outdoors, dose–response relationships and effective distance of coils and emanators is inadequate for developing a target product profile (TPP, which will be required for such chemicals before optimized implementation can occur for maximum benefits in disease control.

  13. History of Aedes mosquitoes in Hawaii.

    Winchester, Jonathan C; Kapan, Durrell D

    2013-06-01

    As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands. PMID:23923330

  14. Evaluation of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB)-barrier for control of vector and nuisance mosquitoes and its effect on non-target organisms in sub-tropical environments in Florida

    We evaluated the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) in the laboratory and the field with the Environmental Protection Agency exempt active ingredient eugenol against vector and nuisance mosquitoes. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high...

  15. Eliciting renal failure in mosquitoes with a small-molecule inhibitor of inward-rectifying potassium channels.

    Rene Raphemot

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever take a large toll on global health. The primary chemical agents used for controlling mosquitoes are insecticides that target the nervous system. However, the emergence of resistance in mosquito populations is reducing the efficacy of available insecticides. The development of new insecticides is therefore urgent. Here we show that VU573, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian inward-rectifying potassium (Kir channels, inhibits a Kir channel cloned from the renal (Malpighian tubules of Aedes aegypti (AeKir1. Injection of VU573 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti disrupts the production and excretion of urine in a manner consistent with channel block of AeKir1 and renders the mosquitoes incapacitated (flightless or dead within 24 hours. Moreover, the toxicity of VU573 in mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti is exacerbated when hemolymph potassium levels are elevated, suggesting that Kir channels are essential for maintenance of whole-animal potassium homeostasis. Our study demonstrates that renal failure is a promising mechanism of action for killing mosquitoes, and motivates the discovery of selective small-molecule inhibitors of mosquito Kir channels for use as insecticides.

  16. Control of pyrethroid and DDT-resistant Anopheles gambiae by application of indoor residual spraying or mosquito nets treated with a long-lasting organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos-methyl

    Chabi Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS with support from the Global Fund and President's Malaria Initiative is providing increased opportunities for malaria control in Africa. The most cost-effective and longest-lasting residual insecticide DDT is also the most environmentally persistent. Alternative residual insecticides exist, but are too short-lived or too expensive to sustain. Dow Agrosciences have developed a microencapsulated formulation (CS of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos methyl as a cost-effective, long-lasting alternative to DDT. Methods Chlorpyrifos methyl CS was tested as an IRS or ITN treatment in experimental huts in an area of Benin where Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasiactus are resistant to pyrethroids, but susceptible to organophosphates. Efficacy and residual activity was compared to that of DDT and the pyrethroid lambdacyalothrin. Results IRS with chlorpyrifos methyl killed 95% of An. gambiae that entered the hut as compared to 31% with lambdacyhalothrin and 50% with DDT. Control of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed a similar trend; although the level of mortality with chlorpyrifos methyl was lower (66% it was still much higher than for DDT (14% or pyrethroid (15% treatments. Nets impregnated with lambdacyhalothrin were compromized by resistance, killing only 30% of An. gambiae and 8% of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Nets impregnated with chlorpyrifos methyl killed more (45% of An gambiae and 15% of Cx. quinquefasciatus, but its activity on netting was of short duration. Contact bioassays on the sprayed cement-sand walls over the nine months of monitoring showed no loss of activity of chlorpyrifos methyl, whereas lambdacyhalothrin and DDT lost activity within a few months of spraying. Conclusion As an IRS treatment against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes chlorpyrifos methyl CS outperformed DDT and lambdacyhalothrin. In IRS campaigns, chlorpyrifos methyl CS should

  17. A reverse transcriptase-PCR assay for detecting filarial infective larvae in mosquitoes.

    Sandra J Laney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Existing molecular assays for filarial parasite DNA in mosquitoes cannot distinguish between infected mosquitoes that contain any stage of the parasite and infective mosquitoes that harbor third stage larvae (L3 capable of establishing new infections in humans. We now report development of a molecular L3-detection assay for Brugia malayi in vectors based on RT-PCR detection of an L3-activated gene transcript. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Candidate genes identified by bioinformatics analysis of EST datasets across the B. malayi life cycle were initially screened by PCR using cDNA libraries as templates. Stage-specificity was confirmed using RNA isolated from infected mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were collected daily for 14 days after feeding on microfilaremic cat blood. RT-PCR was performed with primer sets that were specific for individual candidate genes. Many promising candidates with strong expression in the L3 stage were excluded because of low-level transcription in less mature larvae. One transcript (TC8100, which encodes a particular form of collagen was only detected in mosquitoes that contained L3 larvae. This assay detects a single L3 in a pool of 25 mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This L3-activated gene transcript, combined with a control transcript (tph-1, accession # U80971 that is constitutively expressed by all vector-stage filarial larvae, can be used to detect filarial infectivity in pools of mosquito vectors. This general approach (detection of stage-specific gene transcripts from eukaryotic pathogens may also be useful for detecting infective stages of other vector-borne parasites.

  18. Book review: Mosquito eradication: The story of killing Campto

    Lapointe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In 1826, the paradise that was the Hawaiian Islands was changed forever when the first mosquito species was accidentally introduced to the island of Maui. Though it has not lived up to its potential as a vector of human disease in the islands, Culex quinquefasciatus and the avian pathogens it transmits laid waste to perhaps the world's most remarkable insular avifauna. Today the lowland native forests, once deafening with birdsong, are largely devoid of native birds and Cx. quinquefasciatus has become an inextricable part of our natural areas. In the Hawaiian Islands, the conservation community struggles to keep invasive species out and to control a number of species that have become naturalized. Despite the millions of dollars spent, these efforts never seem enough to slow the erosion of our native biota. The restoration and long-term preservation of Hawaiian forest birds depend on the nearly complete control of mosquito-borne avian disease, an obstacle that to many land managers appears insurmountable. To rally hope in Hawai`i, the conservation community needs to see a success. As a Pacific island, Hawai`i shares similar conservation problems with New Zealand and has often looked to that nation for innovation and inspiration. Mosquito Eradication: The Story of Killing Campto may be our latest inspiration.

  19. Simulating the spread of malaria using a generic transmission model for mosquito-borne infectious diseases

    Kon, Cynthia Mui Lian; Labadin, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is a critical infection caused by parasites which are spread to humans through mosquito bites. Approximately half of the world's population is in peril of getting infected by malaria. Mosquito-borne diseases have a standard behavior where they are transmitted in the same manner, only through vector mosquito. Taking this into account, a generic spatial-temporal model for transmission of multiple mosquito-borne diseases had been formulated. Our interest is to reproduce the actual cases of different mosquito-borne diseases using the generic model and then predict future cases so as to improve control and target measures competently. In this paper, we utilize notified weekly malaria cases in four districts in Sarawak, Malaysia, namely Kapit, Song, Belaga and Marudi. The actual cases for 36 weeks, which is from week 39 in 2012 to week 22 in 2013, are compared with simulations of the generic spatial-temporal transmission mosquito-borne diseases model. We observe that the simulation results display corresponding result to the actual malaria cases in the four districts.

  20. The behaviour of mosquitoes in relation to humans under holed bednets: the evidence from experimental huts

    Seth R Irish

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical integrity of bednets is a concern of national malaria control programs, as it is a key factor in determining the rate of replacement of bednets. It is largely assumed that increased numbers of holes will result in a loss of protection of sleepers from potentially infective bites. Experimental hut studies are valuable in understanding mosquito behaviour indoors, particularly as it relates to blood feeding and mortality. This review summarises findings from experimental hut studies, focusing on two issues: (i the effect of different numbers or sizes of holes in bednets and (ii feeding behaviour and mortality with holed nets as compared with unholed nets. As might be expected, increasing numbers and area of holes resulted in increased blood feeding by mosquitoes on sleepers. However, the presence of holes did not generally have a large effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Successfully entering a holed mosquito net does not necessarily mean that mosquitoes spend less time in contact with the net, which could explain the lack in differences in mortality. Further behavioural studies are necessary to understand mosquito behaviour around nets and the importance of holed nets on malaria transmission.

  1. Artificial Selection for Different Host Preferences in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    Yu, Jing; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    Most mosquito species display host preferences that are a crucial determinant of the transmission rate of mosquito-borne pathogens. Although a transgenic approach, based on driving genes for zoophily into vector populations, has been advocated as a malaria control strategy by the World Health Organization since 1982, the genes involved in mosquito host choice remain poorly understood. Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet mosquitoes were artificially selected for two different host preferences in a specially designed experimental enclosure. Of 3,035 mosquitoes obtained from larvae and pupae collected from the wild (the F0 generation), 27% preferentially fed on pigeons and 16% fed on mice. Following artificial selection for these host preferences over successive generations, the percentage of mosquitoes that preferred to feed on pigeons or mice gradually increased, eventually stabilizing at ∼55 and 34%, respectively, after the sixth generation. Intergenerational differences in host preferences were significant (P pigeons and those selected to prefer mice were both significant and consistent over almost six generations. PMID:26336219

  2. Application of X-ray imaging techniques for studying the morphology of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes

    The X-ray phase contrast tomography technique was applied to examine the morphology of malaria transmitting mosquitoes in support of the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). The aim of the experiment was to detect possible damage induced by the sample preparation procedures, to perform X-ray phase-contrast imaging on freshly prepared (not fixed) and live mosquito species, and to test the new beam line set up, which was not yet fully commissioned at the time of the experiment. The ability to perform X-ray phase-contrast imaging of live mosquito specimens was confirmed. The collected still images provided data on a relatively large population of mosquitoes. The CT data were very useful to compare selected mosquito species. They confirmed that the sample preparation procedures are critical for examining the morphological details. The procedures must be further optimized in order to stabilize the sample without inducing significant damage. The most interesting results should be obtained with the high-resolution (∼ 0.5 micrometer) set up using the FReloN camera to be commissioned at the TOPO beam line in the 3rd quarter of 2007. If there are differences between the control and irradiated populations of mosquitoes they should show up first at the tissue level. Using the high-resolution setup it should be possible to detect such differences, if present

  3. Wolbachia infection reduces blood-feeding success in the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Andrew P Turley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti was recently transinfected with a life-shortening strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop as the first step in developing a biocontrol strategy for dengue virus transmission. In addition to life-shortening, the wMelPop-infected mosquitoes also exhibit increased daytime activity and metabolic rates. Here we sought to quantify the blood-feeding behaviour of Wolbachia-infected females as an indicator of any virulence or energetic drain associated with Wolbachia infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a series of blood-feeding trials in response to humans, we have shown that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes do not differ in their response time to humans, but that as they age they obtain fewer and smaller blood meals than Wolbachia-uninfected controls. Lastly, we observed a behavioural characteristic in the Wolbachia infected mosquitoes best described as a "bendy" proboscis that may explain the decreased biting success. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together the evidence suggests that wMelPop infection may be causing tissue damage in a manner that intensifies with mosquito age and that leads to reduced blood-feeding success. These behavioural changes require further investigation with respect to a possible physiological mechanism and their role in vectorial capacity of the insect. The selective decrease of feeding success in older mosquitoes may act synergistically with other Wolbachia-associated traits including life-shortening and viral protection in biocontrol strategies.

  4. Adulticidal efficacy of Delonix elata against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the adulticidal activity and toxicity of different solvent crude extracts of Delonix elata (D. elata) against filariasis vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: The adulticidal activities of crude hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol leaf and seed extracts of D. elata were assayed for their toxicity against vector mosquitoCx. quinquefasciatus. Bioassay was carried out by WHO method for determination of adulticidal activity against mosquitoes. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Results: All extracts showed moderate adulticidal effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of D. elata leaf against the adults of Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values at 197.28 and 347.45mg/L, respectively.Conclusions:These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This study provides first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity of D. elata plant extracts against filariasis vector mosquito, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  5. Historical applications of induced sterilisation in field populations of mosquitoes

    Knols Bart GJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on sterile mosquito technology from 1955 to the 1980s provided a substantial body of knowledge on propagation and release of sterile mosquitoes. Radiation sterilisation and chemosterilisation have been used effectively to induce dominant lethality and thereby sterilise important mosquito vectors in the laboratory. Experimental releases of chemosterilised males provided complete control of Anopheles albimanus in a small breeding population (14-15 sq km in El Salvador. Releases of radiation sterilised males failed to control either Aedes aegypti or Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the USA. Releases of radiation-sterilised and chemosterilised male Culex quinquefasciatus in the USA and India were successful in some instances. Development of genetic sexing systems for Anopheles and improved physical separation methods for Culex have made it possible to rear and release males almost exclusively (> 99% minimizing the release of potential vectors, the females. Factors that affected efficacy in some field programmes included reduction of competitiveness by radiation, immigration of fertilized females from outside the release zones, and inability of laboratory-bred males to perform in the wild. Despite significant progress, institutional commitments to carry the process further were generally lacking in the late 1970s and until recently. Now, with renewed interest and support for further assessment of this technology, this paper summarizes the current knowledge base, prioritizes some areas of investigation, and challenges scientists and administrators to maintain an awareness of progress, remain realistic about the interpretation of new findings, and make decisions about the sterile insect technique on the basis of informed scientific documentation. Areas recommended for priority research status include the establishment of genetic sexing mechanisms that can be transferred to other mosquito species, re-examination of radiation sterilisation

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

    Malcolm Colin A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT. To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carried out to provide key data on spatial and seasonal dynamics of local vector populations. Methods Monthly cross-sectional larval surveys were carried out between March 2005 and May 2007 in two localities (Dongola and Merowe adjacent to the river Nile. A stratified random sampling strategy based on the use of Remote Sensing (RS, Geographical Information Systems (GIS and the Global Positioning System (GPS was used to select survey locations. Breeding sites were mapped using GPS and data on larval density and breeding site characteristics were recorded using handheld computers. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify breeding site characteristics associated with increased risk of presence of larvae. Seasonal patterns in the proportion of breeding sites positive for larvae were compared visually to contemporaneous data on climate and river height. Results Of a total of 3,349 aquatic habitats sampled, 321 (9.6% contained An. arabiensis larvae. The frequency with which larvae were found varied markedly by habitat type. Although most positive sites were associated with temporary standing water around the margins of the main Nile channel, larvae were also found at brickworks and in areas of leaking pipes and canals – often far from the river. Close to the Nile channel, a distinct seasonal pattern in larval populations was evident and appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the river level. These patterns were not

  7. Can mosquitoes fly in the rain?

    Dickerson, Andrew; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

    2011-01-01

    Collisions with raindrops are one of many obstacles insects face during flight. In this fluid dynamics video, we present a series of high-speed films of impacts between mosquitoes and raindrops. We also present drop impacts upon insect mimics, which are unsupported styrofoam balls of the same mass as mosquitoes. High-speed videography and particle tracking during collision are employed to determine the insect position versus time. We determine the magnitude of acceleration by considering the momentum transfer and impact duration. Experiments with live mosquitoes indicate a surprising ability to quickly recover flight post-collision, despite accelerations of 30-300 gravities over durations of 1 ms.

  8. Silencing the buzz: a new approach to population suppression of mosquitoes by feeding larvae double-stranded RNAs

    Whyard, Steve; Erdelyan, Cassidy NG; Partridge, Alison L; Singh, Aditi D; Beebe, Nigel W.; Capina, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne diseases threaten over half the world’s human population, making the need for environmentally-safe mosquito population control tools critical. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a biological control method that can reduce pest insect populations by releasing a large number of sterile males to compete with wild males for female mates to reduce the number of progeny produced. Typically, males are sterilized using radiation, but such methods can reduce their mating c...

  9. Foraging ranges of insectivorous bats shift relative to changes in mosquito abundance.

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    The need to develop effective management strategies for insectivorous bat populations requires an understanding of factors influencing habitat use. Availability of pest prey, such as mosquitoes is likely to be one such factor. To assess whether this is the case, we radio-tracked Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas (little forest bat), a predator of Aedes vigilax Skuse (saltmarsh mosquito), in saltmarsh and adjacent coastal swamp forest during periods of high and low Ae. vigilax abundance. When mosquito abundance in structurally-open saltmarsh was similar to the more cluttered coastal swamp forest, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was disproportionately greater than its availability, with saltmarsh selected preferentially for foraging. However, at times of low Ae. vigilax abundance in saltmarsh, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was reduced and all habitats were used in proportion to availability in the study area. This is the first radio-tracking study to demonstrate a shift in foraging range by an insectivorous bat species correlated with fluctuations in the distribution and abundance of a particular prey resource. The shift in foraging range by V. vulturnus, corresponding with a spatio-temporal variation in abundance of Ae. vigilax highlights the importance of mosquitoes as a dietary item. Broadscale pest control of Ae. vigilax may have ecological implications for the diet and habitat use of V. vulturnus. An adaptive management approach is proposed, whereby careful monitoring of insectivorous bat populations is recommended before and after any application of broadscale mosquito control measures. We also suggest a precautionary approach is taken such that broadscale control of mosquitoes avoids the lactation period of bats, a time when their energetic demands are greatest and when there is reduced risk of contracting mosquito-borne diseases transmitted by Ae. vigilax. PMID:23667699

  10. Foraging ranges of insectivorous bats shift relative to changes in mosquito abundance.

    Leroy Gonsalves

    Full Text Available The need to develop effective management strategies for insectivorous bat populations requires an understanding of factors influencing habitat use. Availability of pest prey, such as mosquitoes is likely to be one such factor. To assess whether this is the case, we radio-tracked Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas (little forest bat, a predator of Aedes vigilax Skuse (saltmarsh mosquito, in saltmarsh and adjacent coastal swamp forest during periods of high and low Ae. vigilax abundance. When mosquito abundance in structurally-open saltmarsh was similar to the more cluttered coastal swamp forest, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was disproportionately greater than its availability, with saltmarsh selected preferentially for foraging. However, at times of low Ae. vigilax abundance in saltmarsh, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was reduced and all habitats were used in proportion to availability in the study area. This is the first radio-tracking study to demonstrate a shift in foraging range by an insectivorous bat species correlated with fluctuations in the distribution and abundance of a particular prey resource. The shift in foraging range by V. vulturnus, corresponding with a spatio-temporal variation in abundance of Ae. vigilax highlights the importance of mosquitoes as a dietary item. Broadscale pest control of Ae. vigilax may have ecological implications for the diet and habitat use of V. vulturnus. An adaptive management approach is proposed, whereby careful monitoring of insectivorous bat populations is recommended before and after any application of broadscale mosquito control measures. We also suggest a precautionary approach is taken such that broadscale control of mosquitoes avoids the lactation period of bats, a time when their energetic demands are greatest and when there is reduced risk of contracting mosquito-borne diseases transmitted by Ae. vigilax.

  11. Quantifying the impact of mosquitoes on quality of life and enjoyment of yard and porch activities in New Jersey.

    Yara A Halasa

    Full Text Available The recent expansion of Aedes albopictus, a day-biting mosquito, to densely inhabited areas in the northeastern Atlantic states of the USA has dramatically increased the problem that mosquitoes create for urban and suburban residents. We quantified the impact of mosquitoes on residents' quality of life within the context of a comprehensive area-wide integrated pest management program to control Ae. albopictus in two counties (Mercer and Monmouth in New Jersey. We interviewed residents of 121 randomly selected households in both counties between October and November 2010. We asked residents about their experience with mosquitoes in their neighborhood and the importance of the ability to relax outdoors without mosquitoes compared to other neighborhood characteristics (1 = not important, 5 = extremely important. We rated residents' utility based on paired comparisons to known states from the EuroQol health description system. The majority (54.6% of respondents considered mosquitoes to be a problem. Respondents reported an average of 7.1 mosquito bites in a typical week during that summer. Mosquitoes prevented 59.5% of residents from enjoying their outdoor activities at least to some extent. Residents rated the mosquito acceptability (mean ± standard deviation during that summer on a scale of 0 (mosquito invasion to 100 (no mosquitoes at 56.7±28.7, and their overall utility at 0.87±0.03. This is comparable to living with up to two risk factors for diabetes (i.e., abdominal obesity, body mass index of 28 or more, reported cholesterol problems, diagnosis of hypertension, or history of cardiovascular disease or women experiencing menstrual disorders. Respondents rated the importance of enjoying outdoor activities without mosquitoes (4.69±0.80 comparable to that of neighborhood safety (4.74±0.80 and higher than that of a clean neighborhood (4.59±0.94. In conclusion, New Jersey residents reported that mosquitoes decreased their utility by 0

  12. Fog spontaneously folds mosquito wings

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Liu, Xing; Zhu, Ting; Hu, David L.

    2015-02-01

    The flexibility of insect wings confers aerodynamic benefits, but can also present a hazard if exposed to fog or dew. Fog can cause water to accumulate on wings, bending them into tight taco shapes and rendering them useless for flight. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use high-speed video to film the spontaneous folding of isolated mosquito wings due to the evaporation of a water drop. We predict shapes of the deformed wing using two-dimensional elastica theory, considering both surface tension and Laplace pressure. We also recommend fold-resistant geometries for the wings of flapping micro-aerial vehicles. Our work reveals the mechanism of insect wing folding and provides a framework for further study of capillarity-driven folding in both natural and biomimetic systems at small scales.

  13. Pteridine fluorescence for age determination of Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Wu, D; Lehane, M J

    1999-02-01

    The age structure of mosquito populations is of great relevance to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and in monitoring the success of control operations. Unfortunately, the ovarian dissection methods currently available for determining the age of adult mosquitoes are technically difficult, slow and may be of limited value, because the proportion of diagnostic ovarioles in the ovary declines with age. By means of reversed-phase HPLC this study investigated the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and An. stephensi to see if changes in fluorescent pteridine pigments, which have been used in other insects to determine the age of field-caught individuals, may be useful for age determination in mosquitoes. Whole body fluorescence was inversely proportional to age (P 91%) up to 30 days postemergence, with the regression values: y = 40580-706x for An. gambiae, and y = 52896-681x for An. stephensi. In both species the main pteridines were 6-biopterin, pterin-6-carboxylic acid and an unidentified fluorescent compound. An. gambiae had only 50-70% as much fluorescence as An. stephensi, and fluorescent compounds were relatively more concentrated in the head than in the thorax (ratios 1:0.8 An. gambiae; 1:0.5 An. stephensi). The results of this laboratory study are encouraging. It seems feasible that this simpler and faster technique of fluorescence quantification could yield results of equivalent accuracy to the interpretation of ovarian dissection. A double-blind field trial comparing the accuracy of this technique to marked, released and recaptured mosquitoes is required to test the usefulness of the pteridine method in the field. PMID:10194749

  14. Molecular identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southeastern Australia.

    Batovska, Jana; Blacket, Mark J; Brown, Karen; Lynch, Stacey E

    2016-05-01

    DNA barcoding is a modern species identification technique that can be used to distinguish morphologically similar species, and is particularly useful when using small amounts of starting material from partial specimens or from immature stages. In order to use DNA barcoding in a surveillance program, a database containing mosquito barcode sequences is required. This study obtained Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) sequences for 113 morphologically identified specimens, representing 29 species, six tribes and 12 genera; 17 of these species have not been previously barcoded. Three of the 29 species ─ Culex palpalis, Macleaya macmillani, and an unknown species originally identified as Tripteroides atripes ─ were initially misidentified as they are difficult to separate morphologically, highlighting the utility of DNA barcoding. While most species grouped separately (reciprocally monophyletic), the Cx. pipiens subgroup could not be genetically separated using COI. The average conspecific and congeneric p-distance was 0.8% and 7.6%, respectively. In our study, we also demonstrate the utility of DNA barcoding in distinguishing exotics from endemic mosquitoes by identifying a single intercepted Stegomyia aegypti egg at an international airport. The use of DNA barcoding dramatically reduced the identification time required compared with rearing specimens through to adults, thereby demonstrating the value of this technique in biosecurity surveillance. The DNA barcodes produced by this study have been uploaded to the 'Mosquitoes of Australia-Victoria' project on the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD), which will serve as a resource for the Victorian Arbovirus Disease Control Program and other national and international mosquito surveillance programs. PMID:27217948

  15. Reducing risk of mosquito-borne infections.

    2016-06-29

    Mosquitoes transmit a number of infections around the globe. Vaccines or chemoprophylaxis protect against few of these diseases, and current outbreaks of Zika and chikungunya viruses are causing significant concern. PMID:27353794

  16. Mosquito, adult feeding on the skin (image)

    There are many different species of mosquito, which can carry some of the world's most common and significant infectious diseases, including West Nile, Malaria, yellow fever, viral encephalitis, and ...

  17. Slow Death by Many Mosquito Bites

    Redner, S

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a single diffusing particle (a "man") with diffusivity $D_M$ that is attacked by another diffusing particle (a "mosquito") with fixed diffusivity $D_m$. Each time the mosquito meets and bites the man, the diffusivity of the man is reduced by a fixed amount, while the diffusivity of the mosquito is unchanged. The mosquito is also displaced by a small distance $\\pm a$ with respect to the man after each encounter. The man is defined as dead when $D_M$ reaches zero. At the moment when the man dies, his probability distribution of displacements $x$ is given by a Cauchy form, which asymptotically decays as $x^{-2}$, while the distribution of times $t$ when the man dies asymptotically decays as $t^{-3/2}$, which has the same form as the one-dimensional first-passage probability.

  18. Promising new tools to fight Aedes mosquitoes.

    2016-08-01

    Two new tools for suppressing Aedes aegypti mosquito populations have been recommended for pilot testing. Carefully designed trials will be needed to see whether they actually reduce disease as well. Andréia Azevedo Soares reports. PMID:27516632

  19. Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies

    André Barretto Bruno Wilke; Mauro Toledo Marrelli

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field u...

  20. Odorant-Binding Proteins of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles funestus sensu stricto

    Xu, Wei; Cornel, Anthony J.; Leal, Walter S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The mosquito Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vector species in sub-Saharan Africa. Olfaction is essential in guiding mosquito behaviors. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are highly expressed in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception. An improved understanding of the function of malaria mosquito OBPs may contribute to identifying new attractants/repellents and assist in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly mosquito controlling strategies. Methodology In this study, a large screening of over 50 ecologically significant odorant compounds led to the identification of 12 ligands that elicit significant electroantennographic (EAG) responses from An. funestus female antennae. To compare the absolute efficiency/potency of these chemicals, corrections were made for differences in volatility by determining the exact amount in a stimulus puff. Fourteen AfunOBP genes were cloned and their expression patterns were analyzed. AfunOBP1, 3, 7, 20 and 66 showed olfactory tissue specificity by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that among olfactory-specific OBPs, AfunOBP1 and 3 are the most enriched OBPs in female antennae. Binding assay experiments showed that at pH 7, AfunOBP1 significantly binds to 2-undecanone, nonyl acetate, octyl acetate and 1-octen-3-ol but AfunOBP3, which shares 68% identify with AfunOBP1 at amino acid level, showed nearly no binding activity to the selected 12 EAG-active odorant compounds. Conclusion This work presents for the first time a study on the odorants and OBPs of the malaria vector mosquito An. funestus, which may provide insight into the An. funestus olfactory research, assist in a comparative study between major malaria mosquitoes An. gambiae and An. funestus olfactory system, and help developing new mosquito control strategies to reduce malaria transmission. PMID:21042539

  1. Bacteria as a source of oviposition attractant for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Arbaoui, A A; Chua, T H

    2014-03-01

    Since a safe and effective mass vaccination program against dengue fever is not presently available, a good way to prevent and control dengue outbreaks depends mainly on controlling the mosquito vectors. Aedes aegypti mosquito populations can be monitored and reduced by using ovitraps baited with organic infusions. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted which demonstrated that the bacteria in bamboo leaf infusion produce volatile attractants and contact chemical stimulants attractive to the female mosquitoes. The results showed that the female mosquitoes laid most of their eggs (59.9 ± 8.1 vs 2.9 ± 2.8 eggs, P<0.001) in bamboo leaf infusions when compared to distilled water. When the fresh infusion was filtered with a 0.45 μm filter membrane, the female mosquitoes laid significantly more eggs (64.1 ± 6.6 vs 4.9 ± 2.6 eggs, P<0.001) in unfiltered infusion. However when a 0.8 μm filter membrane was used, the female laid significantly more eggs (62.0 ± 4.3 vs 10.1 ± 7.8 eggs, P<0.001) in filtrate compared to a solution containing the residue. We also found that a mixture of bacteria isolated from bamboo leaf infusion serve as potent oviposition stimulants for gravid Aedes mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti laid significantly more eggs (63.3 ± 6.5 vs 3.1 ± 2.4 eggs, P<0.001) in bacteria suspension compared to sterile R2A medium. Our results suggest microbial activity has a role in the production of odorants that mediate the oviposition response of gravid mosquitoes. PMID:24862053

  2. Mosquito immune responses to arbovirus infections

    Carol D. Blair; Olson, Ken E

    2014-01-01

    The principal mosquito innate immune response to virus infections, RNA interference (RNAi), differs substantially from the immune response to bacterial and fungal infections. The exo-siRNA pathway constitutes the major anti-arboviral RNAi response and its essential genetic components have been identified. Recent research has also implicated the Piwi-interacting RNA pathway in mosquito anti-arboviral immunity, but Piwi gene-family components involved are not well-defined. Arboviruses must evad...

  3. 世博园区基建期间蚊虫种群动态特点和防控策略研究%Mosquito population dynamics and its prevention and control strategy during the construction of Shanghai Expo area

    曹晖; 冷培恩; 周毅彬; 丁志伟; 楼菊萍; 束惠慧

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the influence of engineering construction to mosquito population dynamics change. Methods Using C02 trap surveiling the mosquitoes three times a month in Huangpu district of 2010 Shanghai Expo area from March to November in 2007 and 2008. Results In 2007 and 2008, the mosquito density peak were in July and October; number of Culex pipiens pattens of adult caught in 2008 was 54. 5% lower than in 2007 constitution of moquitoes dropped to 43. 5% . The number of Aedes albopictus of adult was 47. 3% higher than in 2007, constitution of moquitoes was up to 54. 5% ; number of Culex tritaeniorhynchus in 2008 was 400% higher than in 2007; the peak density of mosquitoes in 2008 was obviously lower than in 2007, only 2/3 of the peak density in 2007. Conclusion The kinds of mosquitoes within the region are still same as before, but the constitution of moquitoes changed. The seasonal fluctuation of mosquito dose not change. It shows that the environment change affects the peak density of mosquitoes.%目的 比较和分析世博工程建设对蚊虫种群动态变化的影响.方法 2007年和2008年的3-11月间开展每旬一次的CO2诱捕法成蚊监测.结果 2007年和2008年蚊虫的密度高峰均为7月和10月;2008年监测到的淡色库蚊数量较2007年下降了54.5%,构成降至43.5%;白纹伊蚊的数量上升了47.3%,构成比上升至54.5%;三带喙库蚊2008年比2007年上升了400%;2008年蚊虫消长最高峰值明显低于2007年,仅为2007年峰值的2/3.结论 工程建设的开展和环境的改变未影响该区域蚊虫的种群构成,但3种蚊虫的数量构成发生了明显的变化;对蚊虫密度的高峰期没有影响,蚊虫的平均密度和消长变化的最高峰值受到了影响.

  4. Evolution determines how global warming and pesticide exposure will shape predator-prey interactions with vector mosquitoes.

    Tran, Tam T; Janssens, Lizanne; Dinh, Khuong V; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2016-07-01

    How evolution may mitigate the effects of global warming and pesticide exposure on predator-prey interactions is directly relevant for vector control. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we addressed how 4°C warming and exposure to the pesticide endosulfan shape the predation on Culex pipiens mosquitoes by damselfly predators from replicated low- and high-latitude populations. Although warming was only lethal for the mosquitoes, it reduced predation rates on these prey. Possibly, under warming escape speeds of the mosquitoes increased more than the attack efficiency of the predators. Endosulfan imposed mortality and induced behavioral changes (including increased filtering and thrashing and a positional shift away from the bottom) in mosquito larvae. Although the pesticide was only lethal for the mosquitoes, it reduced predation rates by the low-latitude predators. This can be explained by the combination of the evolution of a faster life history and associated higher vulnerabilities to the pesticide (in terms of growth rate and lowered foraging activity) in the low-latitude predators and pesticide-induced survival selection in the mosquitoes. Our results suggest that predation rates on mosquitoes at the high latitude will be reduced under warming unless predators evolve toward the current low-latitude phenotype or low-latitude predators move poleward. PMID:27330557

  5. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia

    Pérez-Castro, Rosalía; Castellanos, Jaime E; Olano, Víctor A; Matiz, María Inés; Jaramillo, Juan F; Vargas, Sandra L; Sarmiento, Diana M; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV) has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50%) and DENV-1 (35%). Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models. PMID:27074252

  6. MOSQUITO IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR XENOMONITORING OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN SELECTED ENDEMIC AREAS IN GIZA AND QUALIOUBIYA GOVERNORATES, EGYPT.

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoeib, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Edmardash, Yusuf; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2016-04-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne health problem that has been focally endemic in Egypt for centuries. The chief vectors of transmission are Culicinae species. Control measures in the form of mass drug administration of DEC citrate treatment have been implemented in Nile delta for almost a decade. This study aimed to identify the prevalent mosquito species in endemic areas in Giza and Qualioubiya governorates and to monitor Wuchereria bancrofti infection by detecting the parasite DNA in collected mosquitoes. Adult mosquitoes were collected using light traps hung indoors. Microscopic examination was performed to identify and examine the morphologic characters of mosquitoes. Female Culex mosquitoes were subjected to semi-nested PCR to detect filarial DNA targeting repetitive DNA sequences (pWbl2 repetitive region) specific for W. bancrofti. The results revealed 3 species of mosquitoes Culex pipiens, Culex pusillus and Culex quinquefasciatus with the predominance of Culex pipiens (85.7%). Wuchereria bancrofti DNA was not detected in any of the collected mosquito pools. With progress of elimination programme in Nile Delta, follow up studies with larger sample size are recommended as the predominance of Culex pipiens the main lymphatic filariasis vector remains a risk of transmission in such areas. PMID:27363044

  7. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia

    Rosalía Pérez-Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50% and DENV-1 (35%. Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models.

  8. Oviposition strategies of temporary pool mosquitoes in relation to weather, tidal regime and land use in a temperate wetland.

    Cardo, M V; Vezzani, D; Carbajo, A E

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands have traditionally been associated with harbouring mosquitoes, a well-known nuisance and vectors of diseases. Within mosquito life cycle, oviposition is a determinant event by shaping their individual fitness and vectorial capacity. The study was conducted in one of the main temperate wetlands in South America. We used Generalized Linear Models to study the relation between temperature, precipitation, tidal regime, land use, microenvironment, and the occurrence of floodwater (Ochlerotatus and Psorophora spp.) and raft-laying (Culex and Uranotaenia spp.) mosquitoes using temporary pools as larval habitats. Pool occurrence was negatively associated with temperature, and positively related to precipitation and high tides. As regards the land use, it was lowest in domestic areas and plantations, intermediate in secondary forests, and highest in marshes. Each oviposition strategy was best modelled as a function of different environmental factors. The occurrence of floodwater mosquitoes was positively associated with high cumulative precipitation and low tide records. Raft-laying mosquitoes were related to low temperature records, while the effect of flooding varied with the land use. In view of these results, physical (water inputs and movement), chemical, and biological (egg and larval flushing, and predatory interactions) considerations are given to provide insight in the oviposition patterns of mosquitoes occurring in this complex wetland. We finally propose the generation of a tidal flow as a control measure against floodwater mosquitoes, which are the most anthropophilic in the study area. PMID:22647341

  9. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles: A newer and safer tool against mosquito-borne diseases?

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases is a key challenge of huge public health importance. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has recently gained attention as a cheap, rapid and eco-friendly method to control mosquito vector populations, with special reference to young instars. Furthermore, plant-fabricated nanoparticles have been successfully employed as dengue virus growth inhibitors. In this Editorial, parasitologists, entomologists and researchers in drug nanosynthesis are encouraged to deal with a number of crucial challenges of public health importance.

  10. Combining Synthetic Human Odours and Low-Cost Electrocuting Grids to Attract and Kill Outdoor-Biting Mosquitoes: Field and Semi-Field Evaluation of an Improved Mosquito Landing Box.

    Nancy S Matowo

    Full Text Available On-going malaria transmission is increasingly mediated by outdoor-biting vectors, especially where indoor insecticidal interventions such as long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs are widespread. Often, the vectors are also physiologically resistant to insecticides, presenting major obstacles for elimination. We tested a combination of electrocuting grids with synthetic odours as an alternative killing mechanism against outdoor-biting mosquitoes.An odour-baited device, the Mosquito Landing Box (MLB, was improved by fitting it with low-cost electrocuting grids to instantly kill mosquitoes attracted to the odour lure, and automated photo switch to activate attractant-dispensing and mosquito-killing systems between dusk and dawn. MLBs fitted with one, two or three electrocuting grids were compared outdoors in a malaria endemic village in Tanzania, where vectors had lost susceptibility to pyrethroids. MLBs with three grids were also tested in a large semi-field cage (9.6 × 9.6 × 4.5m, to assess effects on biting-densities of laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis on volunteers sitting near MLBs.Significantly more mosquitoes were killed when MLBs had two or three grids, than one grid in wet and dry seasons (P<0.05. The MLBs were highly efficient against Mansonia species and malaria vector, An. arabiensis. Of all mosquitoes, 99% were non-blood fed, suggesting host-seeking status. In the semi-field, the MLBs reduced mean number of malaria mosquitoes attempting to bite humans fourfold.The improved odour-baited MLBs effectively kill outdoor-biting malaria vector mosquitoes that are behaviourally and physiologically resistant to insecticidal interventions e.g. LLINs. The MLBs reduce human-biting vector densities even when used close to humans, and are insecticide-free, hence potentially antiresistance. The devices could either be used as surveillance tools or complementary mosquito control interventions to accelerate malaria elimination where

  11. Aedes mosquito salivary immune peptides: boost or block dengue viral infections

    Natthanej Luplertlop

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus, one of the most important arthropod-borne viruses, infected to human can severely cause dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. There are expected about 50 million dengue infections and 500 000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue hemorrhagic fever, mainly in Southeast Asia, Pacific, and in Americas reported each year. The rapid expansion of global dengue is one of a major public health challenge, together with not yet successful solutions of dengue epidemic control strategies. Thus, these dynamic dengue viral infections exhibited high demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure impacts on human. This review aimed to highlight the current understanding of dengue mosquito immune responses and role of mosquito salivary glands on dengue infection. These information may provide a valuable knowledge of disease pathogenesis, especially in mosquito vector and dengue virus interaction, which may help to control and prevent dengue distribution.

  12. Factors influencing the predation rates of Anisops breddini (Hemiptera: Notonectidae feeding on mosquito larvae

    R. Weterings

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Notonectidae are a family of water bugs that are known to be important predators of mosquito larvae and have great potential in the biological control of vector mosquitoes. An experiment was conducted to assess mosquito larvae predation by Anisops breddini, a species common to Southeast Asia. The predation rates were recorded in context of prey density, predator density, predator size and prey type. Predation rates were strongly affected by prey type and less by prey density and predator density. They ranged between 1.2 prey items per day for pupae of Aedes aegeypti and Armigeres moultoni to 5.9 for Ae. aegypti larvae. Compared with studies on other Notonectidae species, the predation rates appear low, which is probably caused by the relative small size of the specimens used in this study. An. breddini is very common in the region and often found in urban areas; therefore, the species has potential as a biological control agent.

  13. Aedes mosquito salivary immune peptides:boost or block dengue viral infections

    Natthanej Luplertlop

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus, one of the most important arthropod-borne viruses, infected to human can severely cause dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. There are expected about 50 million dengue infections and 500 000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue hemorrhagic fever, mainly in Southeast Asia, Pacific, and in Americas reported each year. The rapid expansion of global dengue is one of a major public health challenge, together with not yet successful solutions of dengue epidemic control strategies. Thus, these dynamic dengue viral infections exhibited high demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure impacts on human. This review aimed to highlight the current understanding of dengue mosquito immune responses and role of mosquito salivary glands on dengue infection. These information may provide a valuable knowledge of disease pathogenesis, especially in mosquito vector and dengue virus interaction, which may help to control and prevent dengue distribution.

  14. Wolbachia Blocks Currently Circulating Zika Virus Isolates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Mansur, Simone Brutman; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2016-06-01

    The recent association of Zika virus with cases of microcephaly has sparked a global health crisis and highlighted the need for mechanisms to combat the Zika vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Wolbachia pipientis, a bacterial endosymbiont of insect, has recently garnered attention as a mechanism for arbovirus control. Here we report that Aedes aegypti harboring Wolbachia are highly resistant to infection with two currently circulating Zika virus isolates from the recent Brazilian epidemic. Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes displayed lower viral prevalence and intensity and decreased disseminated infection and, critically, did not carry infectious virus in the saliva, suggesting that viral transmission was blocked. Our data indicate that the use of Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes could represent an effective mechanism to reduce Zika virus transmission and should be included as part of Zika control strategies. PMID:27156023

  15. Dispersal of Engineered Male Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Peter Winskill

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever, have been genetically engineered for use in a sterile insect control programme. To improve our understanding of the dispersal ecology of mosquitoes and to inform appropriate release strategies of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti detailed knowledge of the dispersal ability of the released insects is needed.The dispersal ability of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti at a field site in Brazil has been estimated. Dispersal kernels embedded within a generalized linear model framework were used to analyse data collected from three large scale mark release recapture studies. The methodology has been applied to previously published dispersal data to compare the dispersal ability of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti in contrasting environments. We parameterised dispersal kernels and estimated the mean distance travelled for insects in Brazil: 52.8 m (95% CI: 49.9 m, 56.8 m and Malaysia: 58.0 m (95% CI: 51.1 m, 71.0 m.Our results provide specific, detailed estimates of the dispersal characteristics of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti in the field. The comparative analysis indicates that despite differing environments and recapture rates, key features of the insects' dispersal kernels are conserved across the two studies. The results can be used to inform both risk assessments and release programmes using 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti.

  16. An epidemiologically successful Escherichia coli sequence type modulates Plasmodium falciparum infection in the mosquito midgut.

    Tchioffo, Majoline T; Abate, Luc; Boissière, Anne; Nsango, Sandrine E; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Berry, Antoine; Oswald, Eric; Dubois, Damien; Morlais, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Malaria transmission relies on the successful development of Plasmodium parasites in the Anopheles mosquito vector. Within the mosquito midgut, malaria parasites encounter a resident bacterial flora and parasite-bacteria interactions modulate Plasmodium development. The mechanisms by which the bacteria interact with malaria parasites are still unknown. The intestinal microbiota could regulate immune signaling pathways or produce bacterial compounds that block Plasmodium development. In this study, we characterized Escherichia coli strains previously isolated from the Anopheles mosquito midgut and investigated the putative role of two E. coli clones, 444ST95 and 351ST73, on parasite development. Sporogonic development was significantly impacted by exposure to clone 444ST95 whereas prevalence and intensity of infection were not different in mosquitoes challenged with 351ST73 as compared to control mosquitoes. This result indicates midgut bacteria exhibit intra-specific variation in their ability to inhibit Plasmodium development. Expression patterns of immune genes differed between mosquitoes challenged with 444ST95 and 351ST73 and examination of the luminal midgut surface by transmission electron microscopy revealed distinct effects of bacterial exposure on midgut epithelial cells. The 444ST95 clone strongly affected mosquito survival and parasite development and this could be associated to the Hemolysin F or other toxins released by the bacteria. Further studies will be needed to decipher the virulence factors and to determine their contribution to the observed phenotype of the 444ST95E. coli strain that belongs to the epidemiological ST95 clonal group responsible for extra intestinal infections in human and other animals. PMID:27154329

  17. Larvicidal and repellent properties of Adansonia digitata against medically important human malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    K. Krishnappa , K. Elumalai , S. Dhanasekaran & J. Gokulakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Development of plant-based alternative compounds for mosquito control has gainedimportance now-a-days, in view of increasing resistance in mosquito vectors to existing insecticides. The larvicidaland repellent activities of benzene, chloroform, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plant,Adansonia digitata were investigated against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi.Methods: In all, 25 III instar larvae of An. stephensi were exposed to various concen...

  18. Mosquito Repellent Activity and Phytochemical Characterization of Essential Oils From Striga hermonthica, Hyptis spicigera and Ocimum basilicum Leaf Extracts

    Gabi Baba; A.O. Lawal; Hauwa B. Sharif

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to screen the phytochemicals and compare the mosquito repellent activities of essential oils from Hyptis spicigera, Striga hermonthica and Ocimum basilicum (Basil) against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. The global threat of malaria to human race and the need to control its advances is on the focus. Mosquito is the target being the primary host in the spread of malaria. Alkaloids, saponnins, steroids, tannins and terpenoi...

  19. An elaborated feeding cycle model for reductions in vectorial capacity of night-biting mosquitoes by insecticide-treated nets

    Harris Anthony; Perisse Andre; McKenzie F Ellis; Takala Shannon; Le Menach Arnaud; Flahault Antoine; Smith David L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) are an important tool for malaria control. ITNs are effective because they work on several parts of the mosquito feeding cycle, including both adult killing and repelling effects. Methods Using an elaborated description of the classic feeding cycle model, simple formulas have been derived to describe how ITNs change mosquito behaviour and the intensity of malaria transmission, as summarized by vectorial capacity and EIR. The predicted change...

  20. Detection of arboviruses and other micro-organisms in experimentally infected mosquitoes using massively parallel sequencing.

    Sonja Hall-Mendelin

    Full Text Available Human disease incidence attributed to arbovirus infection is increasing throughout the world, with effective control interventions limited by issues of sustainability, insecticide resistance and the lack of effective vaccines. Several promising control strategies are currently under development, such as the release of mosquitoes trans-infected with virus-blocking Wolbachia bacteria. Implementation of any control program is dependent on effective virus surveillance and a thorough understanding of virus-vector interactions. Massively parallel sequencing has enormous potential for providing comprehensive genomic information that can be used to assess many aspects of arbovirus ecology, as well as to evaluate novel control strategies. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, we analyzed Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus experimentally infected with dengue, yellow fever or chikungunya viruses. Random amplification was used to prepare sufficient template for sequencing on the Personal Genome Machine. Viral sequences were present in all infected mosquitoes. In addition, in most cases, we were also able to identify the mosquito species and mosquito micro-organisms, including the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Importantly, naturally occurring Wolbachia strains could be differentiated from strains that had been trans-infected into the mosquito. The method allowed us to assemble near full-length viral genomes and detect other micro-organisms without prior sequence knowledge, in a single reaction. This is a step toward the application of massively parallel sequencing as an arbovirus surveillance tool. It has the potential to provide insight into virus transmission dynamics, and has applicability to the post-release monitoring of Wolbachia in mosquito populations.

  1. LARVICIDAL POTENTIAL AND MOSQUITO REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF CASSIA MIMOSOIDES EXTRACTS.

    Alayo, M A; Femi-Oyewo, M N; Bakre, L G; Fashina, A O

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate larvicidal activities of extracts of Cassia mimosoides leaves and pods as a potential agent in vector control of malaria and to evaluate repellent effect against Anopheles gambiae mosquito of the extract formulated in an aqueous cream base. Petroleum spirit, ethanol, water and dichloromethane extracts were tested against third and fourth instar Anopheles gambiae larvae. The petroleum extract was formulated in an aqueous cream base and repellency determined using N-N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) as control. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, steroids, and flavonoids but absence of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids in powdered C. mimosoides. A dose related response was observed in the mortality rate of the extracts, with 2 mg/ml petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts achieving 100 % mortality. Larvicidal activity of extracts based on LC50 values was petroleum ether > dichloromethane > ethanol > water. The formulated petroleum ether extract cream had a characteristic odor, hard and smooth texture, skin feeling of smoothness, ease of application by rubbing, easy removal using soap and water, non-irritating effect on skin and an acceptable pH value. The cream containing 2%-6% (w/w) extract and control achieved 100% repellency against mosquitoes after an exposure time of 5 minutes. There was a linear relationship between percent concentration of plant extract in the cream samples and repellent activity. These results suggest that crude extracts of C. mimosoides can be developed as eco-friendly larvicide and mosquito repellent and encourage further effort to investigate the bioactive compounds in the extracts. PMID:26867378

  2. Development of biodegradable aluminium carboxymethylcellulose matrices for mosquito larvicides.

    Mathew, Nisha; Kalyanasundaram, Muthuswami

    2004-07-01

    The use of ecofriendly biodegradable controlled-release formulations of mosquito larvicides could reduce the frequency of application and losses due to degradation of the insecticide compared with conventional formulations. Among the 20 matrices developed by entrapping the organophosphorus mosquito larvicide, fenthion, in carboxymethylcellulose ionotropically cross-linked with aluminium ions which were studied for release profiles, two matrices, CRF3b and CRF5b, were found to be stable for 16 and 14 weeks under simulated field conditions. The average concentration of fenthion released per week ranged from 0.06 to 3.5 mg litre(-1) for CRF3b and 0.09 to 2.72 mg litre(-1) for CRF5b. Of these two formulations, CRF3b was the more stable, maintaining the concentration of the active ingredient at the level required to effect mosquito control. The cumulative release of fenthion per pellet was 80% from CRF3b and 72% from CRF5b. Based on the study with fenthion, two similar matrices for triflumuron, a benzoylphenylurea insect growth regulator, STAR3b and STAR5b were developed. These matrices were stable up to 16 weeks with the average concentration of triflumuron released per week ranging from 0.05 to 3.44 mg litre(-1) for STAR3b and 0.07 to 2.71 mg litre(-1) for STARSb. The cumulative release of triflumuron per pellet was 75% from STAR3b and 76% from STAR5b. From the results of this study under simulated conditions, it is estimated that the application of four pellets of either fenthion or triflumuron per square metre of the breeding surface may play a useful role in controlling Culex quinquefasciatus Say in larval habitats for about 4 months. PMID:15260300

  3. Antimicrobial activity of mosquito cecropin peptides against Francisella.

    Kaushal, Akanksha; Gupta, Kajal; Shah, Ruhee; van Hoek, Monique L

    2016-10-01

    Francisella tularensis is the cause of the zoonotic disease tularemia. In Sweden and Scandinavia, epidemiological studies have implicated mosquitoes as a vector. Prior research has demonstrated the presence of Francisella DNA in infected mosquitoes but has not shown definitive transmission of tularemia from a mosquito to a mammalian host. We hypothesized that antimicrobial peptides, an important component of the innate immune system of higher organisms, may play a role in mosquito host-defense to Francisella. We established that Francisella sp. are susceptible to two cecropin antimicrobial peptides derived from the mosquito Aedes albopictus as well as Culex pipiens. We also demonstrated induced expression of Aedes albopictus antimicrobial peptide genes by Francisella infection C6/36 mosquito cell line. We demonstrate that mosquito antimicrobial peptides act against Francisella by disrupting the cellular membrane of the bacteria. Thus, it is possible that antimicrobial peptides may play a role in the inability of mosquitoes to establish an effective natural transmission of tularemia. PMID:27235883

  4. Zika's Delivery Via Mosquito Bite May Boost Its Effect

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159484.html Zika's Delivery Via Mosquito Bite May Boost Its Effect ... The inflammation caused by a mosquito bite helps Zika and other viruses spread through the body more ...

  5. 3 Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes Found in Florida

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160740.html 3 Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes Found in Florida A first for continental U.S.; 95 other tested mosquitoes Zika-free, officials say To use the sharing features ...

  6. Just Spraying Adult Mosquitoes Won't Curb Zika

    ... html Just Spraying Adult Mosquitoes Won't Curb Zika: Study Lab work suggests larvicide also needed to ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Female mosquitoes can transmit the Zika virus to their eggs and offspring, and this ...

  7. Repellent Action Of Neem (Azadiracta India Seed Oil Against Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes

    Hati A K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadiracta India seed oil in appropriate amount when smeared on the surface of the hand showed excellent repellent action against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. When 1 ml of oil was spread on the hand, with an approximate area of 160 sq cm the percentage of alighting and blood fed mosquitoes in the experimental cages varied from 14 to 78 and 4 to 46 respectively. This percentage decreased to 6 to 18 and 0 to 16 respectively when the amount of oil applied was 1.5 ml. Only 0-4% of the mosquitoes alighted on the skin of which 2% only took the blood meal when 2 ml of the oil was used to cover the hand. In the control cages cent percent of the mosquitoes alighted and sucked blood. The repellent action was directly proportional to the hour of exposure to the oil. It was also observed that even after alighting on a oil- smeared skin a sizeable proportion of mosquitoes were not able to imbibe blood meal. Neem seed oil was non-toxic, non- irritating to skin.

  8. Role of fish as predators of mosquito larvae on the floodplain of the Gambia River.

    Louca, Vasilis; Lucas, Martyn C; Green, Clare; Majambere, Silas; Fillinger, Ulrike; Lindsay, Steve W

    2009-05-01

    We examined the potential of using native fish species in regulating mosquitoes in the floodplain of the Gambia River, the major source of mosquitoes in rural parts of The Gambia. Fishes and mosquito larvae were sampled along two 2.3-km-long transects, from the landward edge of the floodplain to the river from May to November 2005 to 2007. A semifield trial was used to test the predatory capacity of fish on mosquito larvae and the influence of fish chemical cues on oviposition. In the field, there was less chance of finding culicine larvae where Tilapia guineensis, the most common floodplain fish, were present; however, the presence of anophelines was not related to the presence or absence of any fish species. In semifield trials, both T. guineensis and Epiplatys spilargyreius were effective predators, removing all late-stage culicine and anopheline larvae within 1 d. Fewer culicines oviposited in sites with fish, suggesting that ovipositing culicine females avoid water with fish. In contrast, oviposition by anophelines was unaffected by fish. Our studies show that T. guineensis is a potential candidate for controlling mosquitoes in The Gambia. PMID:19496426

  9. Risk of Buruli ulcer and detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans in mosquitoes in southeastern Australia.

    Caroline J Lavender

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is a destructive skin condition caused by infection with the environmental bacterium, Mycobacterium ulcerans. The mode of transmission of M. ulcerans is not completely understood, but several studies have explored the role of biting insects. In this study, we tested for an association between the detection of M. ulcerans in mosquitoes and the risk of BU disease in humans in an endemic area of southeastern Australia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult mosquitoes were trapped in seven towns on the Bellarine Peninsula in Victoria, Australia, from December 2004 to December 2009 and screened for M. ulcerans by real-time PCR. The number of laboratory-confirmed cases of BU in permanent residents of these towns diagnosed during the same period was tallied to determine the average cumulative incidence of BU in each location. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r was calculated for the proportion of M. ulcerans-positive mosquitoes per town correlated with the incidence of BU per town. We found a strong dose-response relationship between the detection of M. ulcerans in mosquitoes and the risk of human disease (r, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99; p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study strengthen the hypothesis that mosquitoes are involved in the transmission of M. ulcerans in southeastern Australia. This has implications for the development of intervention strategies to control and prevent BU.

  10. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF MOSQUITO BIOCONTROL EFFICIENCY BETWEEN GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA AND PANCHAX MINNOW (APLOCHEILUS PANCHAX

    Sandipan Gupta and Samir Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was designed to compare the mosquito biocontrol efficiency of guppy and panchax minnow, the two popular fish species which so far have been used for mosquito biocontrol here in India. Study of the predation efficiency in relation to fish size and larval size has revealed significant better predation efficiency of panchax minnow over guppy in all size groups except for pupae in small size group fishes. Study of the comparative predation efficiency under vegetative cover has revealed significant (P<0.01 higher predation efficiency for panchax minnow over guppy. Study of the comparative predation efficiency under different depth of water has revealed superior predation efficiency of guppy under shallow water depth whereas panchax minnow has shown significantly better predation efficiency with increasing water depth. So, panchax minnow is a better mosquito biocontrol agent in waterbodies with vegetative covering and in comparatively deep water bodies whereas guppy can be used for mosquito control in very shallow water depth. But overall the study has depicted the superiority of panchax minnow over guppy as mosquito biocontrol agent.

  11. A systematic review of mathematical models of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission: 1970-2010.

    Reiner, Robert C; Perkins, T Alex; Barker, Christopher M; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M; George, Dylan B; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummings, Derek A T; Garcia, Andres J; Gatton, Michelle L; Gething, Peter W; Hartley, David M; Johnston, Geoffrey; Klein, Eili Y; Michael, Edwin; Lindsay, Steven W; Lloyd, Alun L; Pigott, David M; Reisen, William K; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Singh, Brajendra K; Tatem, Andrew J; Kitron, Uriel; Hay, Simon I; Scott, Thomas W; Smith, David L

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical models of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission originated in the early twentieth century to provide insights into how to most effectively combat malaria. The foundations of the Ross-Macdonald theory were established by 1970. Since then, there has been a growing interest in reducing the public health burden of mosquito-borne pathogens and an expanding use of models to guide their control. To assess how theory has changed to confront evolving public health challenges, we compiled a bibliography of 325 publications from 1970 through 2010 that included at least one mathematical model of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and then used a 79-part questionnaire to classify each of 388 associated models according to its biological assumptions. As a composite measure to interpret the multidimensional results of our survey, we assigned a numerical value to each model that measured its similarity to 15 core assumptions of the Ross-Macdonald model. Although the analysis illustrated a growing acknowledgement of geographical, ecological and epidemiological complexities in modelling transmission, most models during the past 40 years closely resemble the Ross-Macdonald model. Modern theory would benefit from an expansion around the concepts of heterogeneous mosquito biting, poorly mixed mosquito-host encounters, spatial heterogeneity and temporal variation in the transmission process. PMID:23407571

  12. Preliminary analysis of several attractants and spatial repellents for the mosquito, Aedes albopictus using an olfactometer.

    Hao, Huiling; Sun, Jingcheng; Dai, Jianqing

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito attractants and spatial repellents hold great promise in controlling mosquito pests. In assessing the effectiveness of mosquito attractants and repellents, a good olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions, are essential. In this research, we demonstrated the usefulness of an olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). We found no significant difference in the biting activity of the insect between 8:00 and 22:00. Furthermore, 5-10 day old mosquitoes were relatively strongly attracted, with bloodsucking rate 75.8%. The random capture rate (entered trap in absence of odor) was less than 20% for the 20-40 tested insects. Capture rates and systematic errors increased as the number of testing insects increased. Wind speed affected the capture rate significantly, whereas variations in temperature between 25-28°C did not result in significant difference. The wind speed of 0.2 m/s exhibited a higher capture rate, which was significantly different from those at either 0.1 m/s or 0.4 m/s (P mosquitoes to successfully trace human odor or 1% of L-lactic acid in dichloromethane. The results of these two tests indicate that the L-lactic acid/dichloromethane mixture may be used as an effective attractant to evaluate the effect of possible spatial repellents on Ae. albopictus. PMID:23418948

  13. On the analysis of effectiveness in mass application of mosquito repellent for dengue disease prevention

    Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.; Nuraini, N.

    2012-05-01

    Dengue disease has been known as one of dangerous vector-borne diseases and become serious threat in many tropical countries. With no vaccine and antiviral available until nowadays, and frequent appearance of extraordinary dengue outbreaks, many governments are forced to declare national problem for dengue. At this moment, the only method available to prevent dengue disease transmission is to combat the disease-carrying mosquitoes as well as to reduce the contact between human and mosquitoes. The fast growing dengue transmission in many countries in recent years indicates that the mosquito control programs are far from successful. The use of mosquito repellent is one possible instrument which could be used as an effective mass treatment to prevent the dengue outbreak during endemic period. Here in this paper a Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (S-I-R) dengue transmission model with repellent mass treatment is being applied to portions of children and adult compartments. Analysis of the basic reproductive ratio (Ro) of the model is done. It is shown, with reasonable choices of portions of treated children and adults, in combination with reduction of mosquito population, the basic reproductive ratio can be significantly reduced and occurrence of endemic can be avoided. Numerical simulations are shown for various treatment scenarios.

  14. Load-bearing ability of the mosquito tarsus on water surfaces arising from its flexibility

    X. Q. Kong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes possess a remarkable ability to stand effortlessly and walk freely on water surfaces because their six legs provide a large force to support the body weight. This study is focused on the role of the tarsus (the distal segment of the mosquito leg because it was observed that normally only the tarsi make contact with water. The maximum value of the supporting force of the tarsus (6 mm long in contact with water is estimated as 492 ± 5 μN, nearly 20 times the body weight of the mosquito, whereas the value for the whole leg (11 mm is about 23 times the body weight. We demonstrate that the huge force provided by the tarsus originates from its flexibility, which ensures that the leg does not easily pierce the water. Adjustment of the initial stepping angle of the tarsus assists the mosquito to control the supporting force. These findings help to illustrate how mosquitoes stand or walk on water with only their tarsi in nearly horizontal contact with the water surface. Besides enhancing our understanding of mechanisms underlying “walking on water” by semi-aquatic insects, these investigations could provide inspiration for the biomimetic design of miniature robotics.

  15. An insight into the sialotranscriptome of the West Nile mosquito vector, Culex tarsalis

    Olson Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saliva of adult female mosquitoes help sugar and blood feeding by providing enzymes and polypeptides that help sugar digestion, control microbial growth and counteract their vertebrate host hemostasis and inflammation. Mosquito saliva also potentiates the transmission of vector borne pathogens, including arboviruses. Culex tarsalis is a bird feeding mosquito vector of West Nile Virus closely related to C. quinquefasciatus, a mosquito relatively recently adapted to feed on humans, and the only mosquito of the genus Culex to have its sialotranscriptome so far described. Results A total of 1,753 clones randomly selected from an adult female C. tarsalis salivary glands (SG cDNA library were sequenced and used to assemble a database that yielded 809 clusters of related sequences, 675 of which were singletons. Primer extension experiments were performed in selected clones to further extend sequence coverage, allowing for the identification of 283 protein sequences, 80 of which code for putative secreted proteins. Conclusion Comparison of the C. tarsalis sialotranscriptome with that of C. quinquefasciatus reveals accelerated evolution of salivary proteins as compared to housekeeping proteins. The average amino acid identity among salivary proteins is 70.1%, while that for housekeeping proteins is 91.2% (P Aedes genus have been identified in C. tarsalis. Interestingly, a protein family so far unique to C. quinquefasciatus, with 30 genes, is also found in C. tarsalis, indicating it was not a specific C. quinquefasciatus acquisition in its evolution to optimize mammal blood feeding.

  16. Comparative susceptibility to permethrin of two Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Southern Benin, regarding mosquito sex, physiological status, and mosquito age

    Nazaire Azoun; Rock Akpon; Roseric Azondekon; Alex Asidi; Martin Akogbto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate what kind of mosquito sample is necessary for the determination of insecticide susceptibility in malaria vectors. Methods:Larvae and pupae of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (An. gambiae) mosquitoes were collected from the breeding sites in Littoral and Oueme departments. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) susceptibility tests were conducted on unfed male and female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old. CDC susceptibility tests were also conducted on unfed, blood fed and gravid female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old. These susceptibility tests were also conducted on unfed and blood fed female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old and 20 days old. CDC biochemical assay using synergist was also carried out to detect any increase in the activity of enzyme typically involved in insecticide metabolism. Results:Female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations were more susceptible than the males when they were unfed and aged 2-5 days old. The mortality rates of blood fed female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations aged 2-5 days old were lower than those obtained when females were unfed. In addition, the mortality rates of gravid female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations aged 2-5 days old were lower than those obtained when they were unfed. The mortality rate obtained when female An. gambiae Sekandji populations were unfed and aged 20 days old was higher than the one obtained when these populations were unfed and aged 2-5 days old. The results obtained after effects of synergist penicillin in beeswax on F1 progeny of An. gambiae Ladji populations resistant to permethrin showed that mono-oxygenases were involved in permethrin resistant F1 progeny from Ladji. Conclusions: The resistance is a hereditary and dynamic phenomenon which can be due to metabolic mechanisms like overproduction of detoxifying enzymes activity. Many factors influence vector susceptibility to insecticide. Among these factors, there are mosquito sex, mosquito age, its

  17. Into the environment of mosquito-borne disease: A spatial analysis of vector distribution using traditional and remotely sensed methods

    Brown, Heidi E.

    mosquito and human disease surveillance data by providing spatially explicit, line resolution information about environmental factors relevant to vector-borne disease processes. Together, surveillance and remotely sensed environmental data facilitate improved description and modeling of disease transmission. Remote sensing can be used to develop predictive maps of mosquito distribution in relation to disease risk. This has implications for increased accuracy of mosquito control efforts. The projects presented in this dissertation enhance current public health capacities by examining the applications of spatial modeling with respect to mosquito-borne disease.

  18. Insecticide resistance and malaria transmission: infection rate and oocyst burden in Culex pipiens mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium relictum

    Rivero Ana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of most vectors of malaria is threatened by the spread of insecticide resistance. One factor that has been hitherto largely overlooked is the potential effects of insecticide resistance on the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria: are insecticide-resistant mosquitoes as good vectors of Plasmodium as susceptible ones? The drastic physiological changes that accompany the evolution of insecticide resistance may indeed alter the ability of vectors to transmit diseases, a possibility that, if confirmed, could have major epidemiological consequences. Methods Using a novel experimental system consisting of the avian malaria parasite (Plasmodium relictum and its natural vector (the mosquito Culex pipiens, two of the most common mechanisms of insecticide resistance (esterase overproduction and acetylcholinesterase modification were investigated for their effect on mosquito infection rate and parasite burden. For this purpose two types of experiments were carried out using (i insecticide-resistant and susceptible laboratory isogenic lines of Cx. pipiens and (ii wild Cx. pipiens collected from a population where insecticide resistant and susceptible mosquitoes coexist in sympatry. Results The isogenic line and wild-caught mosquito experiments were highly consistent in showing no effect of either esterase overproduction or of acetylcholinesterase modification on either the infection rate or on the oocyst burden of mosquitoes. The only determinant of these traits was blood meal size, which was similar across the different insecticide resistant categories in both experiments. Conclusions Insecticide resistance was found to have no effect on Plasmodium development within the mosquito. This is the first time this question has been addressed using a natural mosquito-Plasmodium combination, while taking care to standardize the genetic background against which the insecticide resistance genes operate. Infection rate and oocyst

  19. Current Status of Deltabaculoviruses, Cypoviruses and Chloriridoviruses Pathogenic for Mosquitoes

    James J. Becnel

    2007-01-01

    There are a variety of viral pathogens that cause disease in mosquitoes with most belonging to three major groups. The most common viruses of mosquitoes are the baculoviruses (DBVs) (Baculoviridae: Deltabaculovirus), cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPVs) (Reoviridae: Cypovirus) and the iridoviruses (MIVs) (Iridoviridae: Chloriridovirus). Baculoviruses and iridoviruses are DNA viruses while cypoviruses are the main RNA viruses in mosquitoes. This review presents an overview of the current status and recent advancements in understanding the biology and molecular features of mosquito pathogenic viruses.

  20. The role of mosquito behaviour on parasite transmission

    Ma, Brian Oh-Bong

    2010-01-01

    I use a combination of theory and experiments to explore the role of various aspects of mosquito behaviour on the ability of mosquitoes to transmit parasites. Special focus is given to the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s., the principal vector for Plasmodium falciparum, a parasite that causes human malaria. Female mosquitoes require host blood for egg production, but also use sugar from nectar sources; however, the extent of sugar use is poorly understood. Sugar can be used to fuel somatic mai...

  1. A microfluidic two-pump system inspired by liquid feeding in mosquitoes

    Marino, Andrew; Goad, Angela; Stremler, Mark; Socha, John; Jung, Sunghwan

    Mosquitoes feed on nectar and blood using a two-pump system in the head-a smaller cibarial pump in line with a larger a pharyngeal pump, with a valve in between. To suck, mosquitoes transport the liquid (which may be a multi-component viscous fluid, blood) through a long micro-channel, the proboscis. In the engineering realm, microfluidic devices in biomedical applications, such as lab-on-a-chip technology, necessitate implementing a robust pump design to handle clogging and increase flow control compared to a single-pump system. In this talk, we introduce a microfluidic pump design inspired by the mosquito's two-pump system. The pumping performance (flow rate) in presence of impurities (air bubbles, soft clogs) is quantified as a function of phase difference and volume expansion of the pumps, and the elasticity of the valve.

  2. Ammonium sulphate fertiliser increases larval populations of Anopheles arabiensis and culicine mosquitoes in rice fields

    Mutero, C M; Ng'ang'a, P N; Wekoyela, P;

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in central Kenya, to study the effect of ammonium sulphate fertiliser ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) on mosquito larval populations in rice fields. The experiments used a complete randomised block design having four blocks with two experimental ponds per block, and the...... populations of An. arabiensis (P<0.01) and culicine mosquitoes (P<0.05), after ponds were treated with the fertiliser. Significantly more fourth instar larvae of An. arabiensis were collected in fertiliser than control plots (P<0.001). An. arabiensis data indicated that the first fertiliser application had...... water in rice fields, thereby making them visually more attractive for egg-laying by An. arabiensis and culicine mosquitoes....

  3. Relationship between exposure to vector bites and antibody responses to mosquito salivary gland extracts.

    Albin Fontaine

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study of antibody levels against several mosquito salivary gland extracts from southeastern French individuals living in three areas with distinct ecological environments and, by implication, distinct Aedes caspius mosquito densities were compared using ELISA. A positive association was observed between the average levels of IgG responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts and spatial Ae. caspius densities. Additionally, the average level of IgG responses increased significantly during the peak exposure to Ae. caspius at each site and returned to baseline four months later, suggesting short-lived IgG responses. The species-specificity of IgG antibody responses was determined by testing antibody responses to salivary gland extracts from Cx. pipiens, a mosquito that is present at these three sites at different density levels, and from two other Aedes species not present in the study area (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The IgG responses observed against these mosquito salivary gland extracts contrasted with those observed against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts, supporting the existence of species-specific serological responses. By considering different populations and densities of mosquitoes linked to environmental factors, this study shows, for the first time, that specific IgG antibody responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts may be related to the seasonal and geographical variations in Ae. caspius density. Characterisation of such

  4. Measurement, analysis, and depiction of activity in adult mosquito populations

    Globalization, open trading practices, and climate change increase the likelihood of introduction of exotic mosquito species. These mosquitoes may harbor disease agents that threaten public and animal health. Successful containment and eradication of exotic mosquito species and (in the case of exo...

  5. Plasmodium ookinetes coopt mammalian plasminogen to invade the mosquito midgut

    Ghosh, Anil K; Coppens, Isabelle; Gårdsvoll, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Ookinete invasion of the mosquito midgut is an essential step for the development of the malaria parasite in the mosquito. Invasion involves recognition between a presumed mosquito midgut receptor and an ookinete ligand. Here, we show that enolase lines the ookinete surface. An antienolase antibo...

  6. Tools for delivering entomopathogenic fungi to malaria mosquitoes: effects of delivery surfaces on fungal efficacy and persistence

    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi infection on malaria vectors increases daily mortality rates and thus represents a control measure that could be used in integrated programmes alongside insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS. Before entomopathogenic fungi can be integrated into control programmes, an effective delivery system must be developed. Methods The efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 and Beauveria bassiana I93-825 (IMI 391510 (2 × 1010 conidia m-2 applied on mud panels (simulating walls of traditional Tanzanian houses, black cotton cloth and polyester netting was evaluated against adult Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Mosquitoes were exposed to the treated surfaces 2, 14 and 28 d after conidia were applied. Survival of mosquitoes was monitored daily. Results All fungal treatments caused a significantly increased mortality in the exposed mosquitoes, descending with time since fungal application. Mosquitoes exposed to M. anisopliae conidia on mud panels had a greater daily risk of dying compared to those exposed to conidia on either netting or cotton cloth (p B. bassiana conidia on mud panels or cotton cloth had similar daily risk of death (p = 0.14, and a higher risk than those exposed to treated polyester netting (p Conclusion Both fungal isolates reduced mosquito survival on immediate exposure and up to 28 d after application. Conidia were more effective when applied on mud panels and cotton cloth compared with polyester netting. Cotton cloth and mud, therefore, represent potential substrates for delivering fungi to mosquitoes in the field.

  7. Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes

    N.G. Das, I. Baruah, P.K. Talukdar & S.C. Das

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Repellent properties of three plant extracts—essential oil (steam distillate of Zanthoxylumlimonella (fruits, Citrus aurantifolia (leaf and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruitswere evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S. albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara and coconut(Parachute oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations—10, 20 and 30% of therepellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against thebites of Aedes (S. albopictus mosquitoes than those in coconut oil. At 30% concentration, 296–304 min protection time was achieved by the test repellents in mustard oil base while repellents incoconut oil exhibited 223.5–245 min protection time at the same concentration. Oil of Z. limonellagave the highest protection time against the bites of Aedes (S. albopictus mosquitoes at all theconcentrations than other herbal repellents tested both in mustard and coconut oil.

  8. Molecular Perspectives on the Genetics of Mosquitoes

    Mosquitoes have been a focus of scientific study since the turn of the century, when they were first linked with human diseases. This review concentrates on the three most intensely studied genera, Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes. These genera include the principal vectors of three major groups of human pathogens: malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium, filarial worms of the genera Wuchereria and Brugia, and numerous arboviruses. Anophelines are the only mosquitoes known to transmit human malaria parasites, a group of organisms that may be responsible for more morbidity and mortality worldwide than any other human pathogen. Anophelines also transmit filarial worms, as do Culex and Aedes species. Among the 14 or more different mosquito genera known to harbor arboviruses (Mattingly, 1973), the most important are Culex and Aedes, which include the principal vectors of yellow fever, dengue, and most encephalitis-causing arboviruses.

  9. Identification and genetic characterization of chikungunya virus from Aedes mosquito vector collected in the Lucknow district, North India.

    Nyari, N; Maan, H S; Sharma, S; Pandey, S N; Dhole, T N

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease caused by the infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The CHIKV has been rarely detected in mosquito vectors from Northern India, since vector surveillance is an effective strategy in controlling and preventing CHIKV transmission. Thus, virological investigation for CHIKV among mosquitoes of Aedes (A.) species was carried out in the Lucknow district during March 2010 to October 2011. We collected adult mosquitoes from areas with CHIKV positive patients. The adult Aedes mosquito samples were pooled, homogenized, clarified and tested for CHIKV by nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total 91 mosquito pools comprising of adult A. aegypti and A. albopictus were tested for CHIKV. The partial envelope protein (E1) gene sequences of mosquito-borne CHIKV strains were analyzed for genotyping. Of 91 pools, 6 pools of A. aegypti; and 2 pools of A. albopictus mosquitoes were identified positive for CHIKV by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of CHIKV strains in two sub-lineages within the monophyletic East-Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Novel amino acid changes at the positions 294 (P294L) and 295 (S295F) were observed during analysis of amino acid sequence of the partial E1 gene. This study demonstrates the genetic diversity of circulating CHIKV strains and reports the first detection of CHIKV strains in Aedes vector species from the state of Uttar Pradesh. These findings have implication for vector control strategies to mitigate vector population to prevent the likelihood of CHIKV epidemic in the near future. PMID:26943997

  10. Multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne RNA viruses using an oligonucleotide microarray.

    Nathan D Grubaugh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne viruses are important emerging pathogens world-wide. Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, such as dengue, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, infect hundreds of millions of people and animals each year. Global surveillance of these viruses in mosquito vectors using molecular based assays is critical for prevention and control of the associated diseases. Here, we report an oligonucleotide DNA microarray design, termed ArboChip5.1, for multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae, Alphavirus (Togaviridae, Orthobunyavirus (Bunyaviridae, and Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The assay utilizes targeted PCR amplification of three genes from each virus genus for electrochemical detection on a portable, field-tested microarray platform. Fifty-two viruses propagated in cell-culture were used to evaluate the specificity of the PCR primer sets and the ArboChip5.1 microarray capture probes. The microarray detected all of the tested viruses and differentiated between many closely related viruses such as members of the dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and Semliki Forest virus clades. Laboratory infected mosquitoes were used to simulate field samples and to determine the limits of detection. Additionally, we identified dengue virus type 3, Japanese encephalitis virus, Tembusu virus, Culex flavivirus, and a Quang Binh-like virus from mosquitoes collected in Thailand in 2011 and 2012. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that the described assay can be utilized in a comprehensive field surveillance program by the broad-range amplification and specific identification of arboviruses from infected mosquitoes. Furthermore, the microarray platform can be deployed in the field and viral RNA extraction to data analysis can occur in as little as 12 h. The information derived from the ArboChip5.1 microarray can help to establish

  11. Using Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen to Mark Wild Populations of Anopheles and Aedes Mosquitoes in South-Eastern Tanzania

    Opiyo, Mercy A.; Hamer, Gabriel L.; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Auckland, Lisa D.; Majambere, Silas; Okumu, Fredros O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Marking wild mosquitoes is important for understanding their ecology, behaviours and role in disease transmission. Traditional insect marking techniques include using fluorescent dyes, protein labels, radioactive labels and tags, but such techniques have various limitations; notably low marker retention and inability to mark wild mosquitoes at source. Stable isotopes are gaining wide spread use for non-invasive marking of arthropods, permitting greater understanding of mosquito dispersal and responses to interventions. We describe here a simple technique for marking naturally-breeding malaria and dengue vectors using stable isotopes of nitrogen (15N) and carbon (13C), and describe potential field applications. Methods We created man-made aquatic mosquito habitats and added either 15N-labelled potassium nitrate or 13C-labelled glucose, leaving non-adulterated habitats as controls. We then allowed wild mosquitoes to lay eggs in these habitats and monitored their development in situ. Pupae were collected promptly as they appeared and kept in netting cages. Emergent adults (in pools of ~4 mosquitoes/pool) and individually stored pupae were desiccated and analysed using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS). Findings Anopheles gambiae s.l and Aedes spp. from enriched 13C and enriched 15N larval habitats had significantly higher isotopic levels than controls (P = 0.005), and both isotopes produced sufficient distinction between marked and unmarked mosquitoes. Mean δ15N for enriched females and males were 275.6±65.1 and 248.0±54.6, while mean δ15N in controls were 2.1±0.1 and 3.9±1.7 respectively. Similarly, mean δ13C for enriched females and males were 36.08±5.28 and 38.5±6.86, compared to -4.3±0.2 and -7.9±3.6 in controls respectively. Mean δ15N and δ13C was significantly higher in any pool containing at least one enriched mosquito compared to pools with all unenriched mosquitoes, P<0.001. In all cases, there were variations in standardized

  12. Push-pull tactics to disrupt the host-seeking behaviour of malaria mosquitoes

    Menger, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains a major health burden, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The efficacy of the main vector control tools, insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), is compromised by the development of physiological and behavioural resistance in the target mosquito species

  13. Mosquito Vector Biting and Community Protection in a Malarious Area, Siahoo District, Hormozgan, Iran

    KH Shahandeh

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Study subjects were aware of an association between mosquito bite and malaria transmission. Health work­ers at different levels of the health care delivery system should disseminate relevant information about self-protection to help community members to be involved more in malaria control.

  14. Selection of mosquito life-histories: a hidden weapon against malaria?

    Ferguson, H.M.; Maire, N.; Takken, W.; Lyimo, I.N.; Briet, O.; Lindsay, S.W.; Smith, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background There has recently been a substantial decline in malaria incidence in much of Africa. While the decline can clearly be linked to increasing coverage of mosquito vector control interventions and effective drug treatment in most settings, the ubiquity of reduction raises the possibility tha

  15. NO BUG: biobased mosquitoes repellent textiles

    Ciera, Lucy Wanjiru; Nierstrasz, Vincent; De Clerck, Karen; Van Langenhove, Lieva

    2011-01-01

    This research work is part of the FP7 No-Bug project (Novel release system and biobased utilities for insect repellent textiles). The main interest of the project is personal protective textiles against insects (mosquitoes) for application not only in tropical areas where vector borne diseases are a major threat to the public health but also in European countries where the presence of mosquitoes can be nuisance. Malaria and dengue fever are well known diseases that cause a lot of deaths in th...

  16. Efectos de la competencia larval en los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales, Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae en condiciones semi-controladas Effects of larval competition between the container mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae in semi-controlled conditions

    Analía Francia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti (Linneo y Culex pipiens Linneo pueden criar conjuntamente en pequeños contenedores artificiales de agua, se genera así una competencia interespecífica y/o intraespecífica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la magnitud relativa de la competencia intra e interespecífica en A. aegypti y C. pipiens, generada durante el desarrollo larval en contenedores artifi ciales. Las variables medidas como respuesta fueron la supervivencia y el tiempo de desarrollo larval, y la biomasa total producida en estado de pupa. Se criaron larvas de ambos mosquitos en neumáticos de automóvil con agua declorinada y hojarasca. Se introdujeron larvas recién eclosionadas de acuerdo a la densidad (5 estimada según un censo previo de A. aegypti y C. pipiens. Serealizaron los siguientes tratamientos agregando larvas de: (1 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar δ A. aegypti determinada según el censo previo, (2 C. pipiens hasta δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (3 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (4 C. pipiens hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo y (5 A. aegypti y C. pipiens hasta δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo. Las tres variables medidas fueron afectadas por los tratamientos, excepto la supervivencia y la biomasa producida por C. pipiens. Aedes aegypti fue más alterada por la competencia intraespecífica que por la competencia interespecífica. En C. pipiens, la competencia interespecífica superó en sus efectos a la competencia intraespecífica. Existió asimetría competitiva, ya que C. pipiens fue más afectada por A. aegypti que lo contrario.Larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linneo and Culex pipiens Linneo may develop together in small artificial water containers, promoting inter- and/or intra-specific competition. Our aim was to compare the relative importance of interspecific and intraspecific competition in both species during

  17. Transient population dynamics of mosquitoes during sterile male releases: modelling mating behaviour and perturbations of life history parameters.

    Christopher M Stone

    Full Text Available The release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elasticity analysis of transient dynamics during sterile-male releases was performed to provide insight on which vector control methods are likely to be most synergistic. The results suggest that high mating competitiveness and mortality costs of released males are required before the sterile-release method becomes ineffective. Additionally, if released males suffer a mortality cost, older males should be released due to their increased mating capacity. If released males are of a homogenous size and size-assortative mating occurs in nature, this can lead to an increase in the abundance of large females and reduce the efficacy of the population-suppression effort. At a high level of size-assortative mating, the disease transmission potential of the vector population increases due to male releases, arguing for the release of a heterogeneously-sized male population. The female population was most sensitive to perturbations of density-dependent components of larval mortality and female survivorship and fecundity. These findings suggest source reduction might be a particularly effective complement to mosquito control based on the sterile insect technique (SIT. In order for SIT to realize its potential as a key component of an integrated vector-management strategy to control mosquito-transmitted pathogens, programme design of sterile-male release programmes must account for the ecology, behaviour and life history of mosquitoes. The model used here takes a step in this

  18. Modelling releases of sterile mosquitoes with different strategies.

    Li, Jia; Yuan, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    To prevent the transmissions of malaria, dengue fever, or other mosquito-borne diseases, one effective weapon is the sterile insect technique in which sterile mosquitoes are released to reduce or eradicate the wild mosquito population. To study the impact of the sterile insect technique on disease transmission, we formulate discrete-time mathematical models, based on difference equations, for the interactive dynamics of the wild and sterile mosquitoes, incorporating different strategies in releasing sterile mosquitoes. We investigate the model dynamics and compare the impact of the different release strategies. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate rich dynamical features of the models. PMID:25377433

  19. Spatial model for transmission of mosquito-borne diseases

    Kon, Cynthia Mui Lian; Labadin, Jane

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a generic model which takes into account spatial heterogeneity for the dynamics of mosquito-borne diseases is proposed. The dissemination of the disease is described by a system of reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. Host human and vector mosquito populations are divided into susceptible and infectious classes. Diffusion is considered to occur in all classes of both populations. Susceptible humans are infected when bitten by infectious mosquitoes. Susceptible mosquitoes bite infectious humans and become infected. The biting rate of mosquitoes is considered to be density dependent on the total human population in different locations. The system is solved numerically and results are shown.

  20. Mosquito management in the face of natural selection.

    Agusto, Folashade B; Bewick, Sharon; Parshad, Rana D

    2012-09-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an appealing method for managing mosquito populations while avoiding the environmental and social costs associated with more traditional control strategies like insecticide application. Success of SIT, however, hinges on sterile males being able to compete for females. As a result, heavy and/or continued use of SIT could potentially diminish its efficacy if prolonged treatments result in selection for female preference against sterile males. In this paper we extend a general differential equation model of mosquito dynamics to consider the role of female choosiness in determining the long-term usefulness of SIT as a management option. We then apply optimal control theory to our model and show how natural selection for female choosiness fundamentally alters management strategies. Our study calls into question the benefits associated with developing SIT as a management strategy, and suggests that effort should be spent studying female mate choice in order to determine its relative importance and how likely it is to impact SIT treatment goals. PMID:22617381

  1. Mosquito management in the face of natural selection

    Agusto, Folashade B.

    2012-09-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an appealing method for managing mosquito populations while avoiding the environmental and social costs associated with more traditional control strategies like insecticide application. Success of SIT, however, hinges on sterile males being able to compete for females. As a result, heavy and/or continued use of SIT could potentially diminish its efficacy if prolonged treatments result in selection for female preference against sterile males. In this paper we extend a general differential equation model of mosquito dynamics to consider the role of female choosiness in determining the long-term usefulness of SIT as a management option. We then apply optimal control theory to our model and show how natural selection for female choosiness fundamentally alters management strategies. Our study calls into question the benefits associated with developing SIT as a management strategy, and suggests that effort should be spent studying female mate choice in order to determine its relative importance and how likely it is to impact SIT treatment goals. © 2012.

  2. Susceptibility of field-collected mosquitoes in central New Jersey to organophosphates and a pyrethroid.

    Sun, Debin; Indelicato, Nick; Petersen, Jack; Williges, Eric; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary

    2014-06-01

    Chemical insecticides are the primary means to control mosquitoes, and mosquito control programs must regularly monitor for resistance of mosquito vectors to commonly used insecticides to ensure the efficacy and sustainability of active ingredients. We performed insecticide resistance bioassays to test the susceptibility of field-collected mosquitoes in central New Jersey to 1 larvicide (temephos) and 2 adulticides (malathion and sumithrin). Larval susceptibility of Culex pipiens pipiens to temephos provided median concentration (LC50) and 95% lethal concentration (LC95) values of 1.108 microg/l and 2.02 microg/l, respectively. Bottle bioassays of adult Aedes albopictus showed that 100% mortality was achieved at 35-min exposure to sumithrin and at 40-min to malathion. Baseline values were obtained using both temephos and sumithrin. Our bioassays indicate satisfactory susceptibility to temephos and sumithrin in Ae. albopictus and Cx. p. pipiens field populations in central New Jersey. Despite constant field use, both products are still effective and can be used adequately for control of the test species. However, the susceptibility of target insects to various formulations should be closely monitored periodically to ensure continual efficacy. PMID:25102600

  3. Inter-epidemic abundance and distribution of potential mosquito vectors for Rift Valley fever virus in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania

    Clement N. Mweya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. Objective: To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mosquitoes were sampled both outdoors and indoors using the Centre for Disease Control (CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnets baited with attractants. Outdoor traps were placed in proximity with breeding sites and under canopy in banana plantations close to the sleeping places of animals. Results: A total of 1,823 mosquitoes were collected, of which 87% (N=1,588 were Culex pipiens complex, 12% (N=226 Aedes aegypti, and 0.5% (N=9 Anopheles species. About two-thirds (67%; N=1,095 of C. pipiens complex and nearly 100% (N=225 of A. aegypti were trapped outdoors using Mosquito Magnets. All Anopheles species were trapped indoors using CDC light traps. There were variations in abundance of C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti among different ecological and vegetation habitats. Over three quarters (78% of C. pipiens complex and most (85% of the A. aegypti were trapped in banana and maize farms. Both C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti were more abundant in proximity with cattle and in semi-arid thorn bushes and lower Afro-montane. The highest number of mosquitoes was recorded in villages that were most affected during the RVF epidemic of 2007. Of the tested 150 pools of C. pipiens complex and 45 pools of A. aegypti, none was infected with RVF virus. Conclusions: These results provide insights into unique habitat characterisation relating to mosquito abundances and distribution in RVF epidemic-prone areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania.

  4. Feasibility of Using the Mosquito Blood Meal for Rapid and Efficient Human and Animal Virus Surveillance and Discovery.

    Yang, Yu; Garver, Lindsey S; Bingham, Karen M; Hang, Jun; Jochim, Ryan C; Davidson, Silas A; Richardson, Jason H; Jarman, Richard G

    2015-12-01

    Mosquito blood meals taken from humans and animals potentially represent a useful source of blood for the detection of blood-borne pathogens. In this feasibility study, Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were fed with blood meals spiked with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) and harvested at serial time points. These mosquitoes are not competent vectors, and the virus is not expected to replicate. Ingested blood was spotted on Whatman FTA cards and stored at room temperature. Mosquito abdomens were removed and stored at -80°C. Control blood meal aliquots were stored in vials or applied onto FTA cards. After 4 weeks of storage, the samples were extracted using beadbeating and QIAamp Viral RNA kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, MD). Recovered viral RNA was analyzed by DENV-2 TaqMan RT-PCR assay and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Overall viral RNA recovery efficiency was 15% from the directly applied dried blood spots and approximately 20% or higher for dried blood spots made by blotting mosquito midgut on FTA cards. Viral RNA in mosquito-ingested blood decreases over time, but remains detectable 24 hours after blood feeding. The viral sequences in FTA-stored specimens can be maintained at room temperature. The strategy has the potential utility in expedited zoonotic virus discovery and blood-borne pathogen surveillance. PMID:26416112

  5. "Singing in the Tube"--audiovisual assay of plant oil repellent activity against mosquitoes (Culex pipiens).

    Adams, Temitope F; Wongchai, Chatchawal; Chaidee, Anchalee; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a promising alternative to the established mosquito repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide). Searching for an assay with generally available equipment, we designed a new audiovisual assay of repellent activity against mosquitoes "Singing in the Tube," testing single mosquitoes in Drosophila cultivation tubes. Statistics with regression analysis should compensate for limitations of simple hardware. The assay was established with female Culex pipiens mosquitoes in 60 experiments, 120-h audio recording, and 2580 estimations of the distance between mosquito sitting position and the chemical. Correlations between parameters of sitting position, flight activity pattern, and flight tone spectrum were analyzed. Regression analysis of psycho-acoustic data of audio files (dB[A]) used a squared and modified sinus function determining wing beat frequency WBF ± SD (357 ± 47 Hz). Application of logistic regression defined the repelling velocity constant. The repelling velocity constant showed a decreasing order of efficiency of plant essential oils: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemon (Citrus limon), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), DEET, cedar wood (Cedrus atlantica). In conclusion, we suggest (1) disease vector control (e.g., impregnation of bed nets) by eight plant essential oils with repelling velocity superior to DEET, (2) simple mosquito repellency testing in Drosophila cultivation tubes, (3) automated approaches and room surveillance by generally available audio equipment (dB[A]: ISO standard 226), and (4) quantification of repellent activity by parameters of the audiovisual assay defined by correlation and regression analyses. PMID:26412058

  6. The influence of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate for malaria risk

    Thomas Matthew B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of the mosquito and parasite life-history traits that combine to determine malaria transmission intensity are temperature sensitive. In most cases, the process-based models used to estimate malaria risk and inform control and prevention strategies utilize measures of mean outdoor temperature. Evidence suggests, however, that certain malaria vectors can spend large parts of their adult life resting indoors. Presentation of hypothesis If significant proportions of mosquitoes are resting indoors and indoor conditions differ markedly from ambient conditions, simple use of outdoor temperatures will not provide reliable estimates of malaria transmission intensity. To date, few studies have quantified the differential effects of indoor vs outdoor temperatures explicitly, reflecting a lack of proper understanding of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate. Testing the hypothesis Published records from 8 village sites in East Africa revealed temperatures to be warmer indoors than outdoors and to generally show less daily variation. Exploring the effects of these temperatures on malaria parasite development rate suggested indoor-resting mosquitoes could transmit malaria between 0.3 and 22.5 days earlier than outdoor-resting mosquitoes. These differences translate to increases in transmission risk ranging from 5 to approaching 3,000%, relative to predictions based on outdoor temperatures. The pattern appears robust for low- and highland areas, with differences increasing with altitude. Implications of the hypothesis Differences in indoor vs outdoor environments lead to large differences in the limits and the intensity of malaria transmission. This finding highlights a need to better understand mosquito resting behaviour and the associated microclimate, and to broaden assessments of transmission ecology and risk to consider the potentially important role of endophily.

  7. Potential negative impacts and low effectiveness in the use of African annual killifish in the biocontrol of aquatic mosquito larvae in temporary water bodies

    Reichard Martin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Commentary and discussion on a recent paper promoting the use of Nothobranchius guentheri, a small African annual fish from the Island of Zanzibar as a tool to control mosquito larvae in temporary bodies of freshwater throughout Africa is presented. Arguments on major points; (1 expected low success of annual fish introductions, (2 low success of mosquito control in the field, (3 ecological threats, and (4 ethical issues are detailed. Despite serious problems with mosquito-borne diseases in tropical Africa and elsewhere, we encourage responsible means of biological control of parasite vectors. We show that effectiveness of Nothobranchius translocations is low (the previous attempts failed, likelihood of effective mosquito larvae control under field condition is negligible and ecological threats from Nothobranchius translocations from within and outside the naturally occurring range are serious. We advocate against the proposed next step of the project, i.e. field trials in Tanzania.

  8. Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets

    2014-09-23

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets about the art of James Whistler and the transmission of vector borne diseases.  Created: 9/23/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2014.

  9. Influence of trap construction on mosquito capture

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Peško, Juraj; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2012), s. 209-215. ISSN 1934-7391 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : CDC miniature light traps * baited lard-can traps * mosquitoes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  10. Mosquito repellency of novel Trifluoromethylphenyl amides

    Human diseases caused by mosquito-transmitted pathogens include malaria, dengue and yellow fever and are responsible for several million human deaths every year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Our current research projects focus on the development of new insecticides and repellent...

  11. Mode of action of mosquito repellents

    The mode of action of mosquito repellents remains a controversial topic. However, electrophysiological studies and molecular approaches have provided a better understanding of how repellents exert their effects. Here, we briefly discuss various notions of repellent action and present the current sta...

  12. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  13. "Bird biting" mosquitoes and human disease: a review of the role of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes in epidemiology.

    Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M; Kramer, Laura D; Marm Kilpatrick, A

    2011-10-01

    The transmission of vector-borne pathogens is greatly influenced by the ecology of their vector, which is in turn shaped by genetic ancestry, the environment, and the hosts that are fed on. One group of vectors, the mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex, play key roles in the transmission of a range of pathogens including several viruses such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.), and filarial worms. The Cx. pipiens complex includes Culex pipiens pipiens with two forms, pipiens and molestus, Culex pipiens pallens, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex australicus, and Culex globocoxitus. While several members of the complex have limited geographic distributions, Cx. pipienspipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus are found in all known urban and sub-urban temperate and tropical regions, respectively, across the world, where they are often principal disease vectors. In addition, hybrids are common in areas of overlap. Although gaps in our knowledge still remain, the advent of genetic tools has greatly enhanced our understanding of the history of speciation, domestication, dispersal, and hybridization. We review the taxonomy, genetics, evolution, behavior, and ecology of members of the Cx. pipiens complex and their role in the transmission of medically important pathogens. The adaptation of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes to human-altered environments led to their global distribution through dispersal via humans and, combined with their mixed feeding patterns on birds and mammals (including humans), increased the transmission of several avian pathogens to humans. We highlight several unanswered questions that will increase our ability to control diseases transmitted by these mosquitoes. PMID:21875691

  14. A maleness gene in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Krzywinska, Elzbieta; Dennison, Nathan J; Lycett, Gareth J; Krzywinski, Jaroslaw

    2016-07-01

    The molecular pathways controlling gender are highly variable and have been identified in only a few nonmammalian model species. In many insects, maleness is conferred by a Y chromosome-linked M factor of unknown nature. We have isolated and characterized a gene, Yob, for the M factor in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Yob, activated at the beginning of zygotic transcription and expressed throughout a male's life, controls male-specific splicing of the doublesex gene. Silencing embryonic Yob expression is male-lethal, whereas ectopic embryonic delivery of Yob transcripts yields male-only broods. This female-killing property may be an invaluable tool for creation of conditional male-only transgenic Anopheles strains for malaria control programs. PMID:27365445

  15. 黑箱法应用于蚊虫监测的效果研究%Mosquito-trapping effects of black box method for mosquito surveillance

    任文军; 熊建菁; 冷培恩; 刘洪霞; 黄瑾; 陈天民; 陈仁朝; 张锦生

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the mosquito-trapping effects of black boxes with different opening directions, and to explore the operation guidelines for black box method in mosquito surveillance. Methods The black boxes with different opening directions were used, and 24 h night-and-day observation method was adopted. Results There were significant differences in trapped mosquito number among the black boxes with different opening directions (f2=44.82, P0.05), but there was significant difference in mosquito sex (f2= 121.13, P<0.05). Conclusion The black box toward the west is the best for trapping mosquitoes, and can be used for regular mosquito surveillance and the evaluation of mosquito control in special areas.%目的 比较不同开口方向放置黑箱的捕蚊效果,探讨蚊虫黑箱法的操作规范.方法 不同开口朝向放置法以及24h昼夜观察法.结果 不同开口朝向黑箱的捕蚊数差异有统计学意义(f2=44.82,P<0.05),开口朝西的黑箱捕蚊最多;24 h昼夜观察捕获结果表明,蚊虫入箱高峰主要出现在清晨(05:00--07:00)和傍晚(18:00--20:00),各个时段均以开口朝西的黑箱捕获蚊虫最多,且差异有统计学意义(f2=259.56,P<0.05);人工小时法和黑箱法成蚊季节消长趋势一致,具有相关性和一致性(r=0.696,P<0.01);黑箱法和人工小时法监测的蚊种构成差异无统计学意义(f2=4.54,P>0.05),蚊虫性别比差异有统计学意义(f2=121.13,P<0.05).结论 黑箱开口朝西具有较好的诱捕效果,可适用于常规蚊虫监测以及特定场所蚊虫控制评估.

  16. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond the 'proof of concept' stage and to design suitable intervention tools. Methods Here we tested whether oil-formulations of the two fungi could be detected and avoided by adult Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bioassays used a glass chamber divided into three compartments (each 250 × 250 × 250 mm: release, middle and stimulus compartments. Netting with or without fungus was fitted in front of the stimulus compartment. Mosquitoes were released and the proportion that entered the stimulus compartment was determined and compared between treatments. Treatments were untreated netting (control 1, netting with mineral oil (control 2 and fungal conidia formulated in mineral oil evaluated at three different dosages (2 × 1010, 4 × 1010 and 8 × 1010 conidia m-2. Results Neither fungal strain was repellent as the mean proportion of mosquitoes collected in the stimulus compartment did not differ between experiments with surfaces treated with and without fungus regardless of the fungal isolate and mosquito species tested. Conclusion Our results indicate that mineral-oil formulations of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana were not repellent against the mosquito species tested. Therefore, both fungi are suitable candidates for the further development of tools that aim to control host-seeking or resting mosquitoes using entomopathogenic fungi.

  17. Seasonal mosquito larval abundance and composition in Kibwezi, lower eastern Kenya

    Joseph M. Mwangangi

    2009-02-01

    . Furthermore, mosquito control measures targeting both the mosquito immatures and adults should be enhanced especially during the rainy season to ensure maximum protection of the inhabitants.

  18. Dengue in Java, Indonesia: Relevance of Mosquito Indices as Risk Predictors.

    Siwi P M Wijayanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available No vaccine is currently available for dengue virus (DENV, therefore control programmes usually focus on managing mosquito vector populations. Entomological surveys provide the most common means of characterising vector populations and predicting the risk of local dengue virus transmission. Despite Indonesia being a country strongly affected by DENV, only limited information is available on the local factors affecting DENV transmission and the suitability of available survey methods for assessing risk.We conducted entomological surveys in the Banyumas Regency (Central Java where dengue cases occur on an annual basis. Four villages were sampled during the dry and rainy seasons: two villages where dengue was endemic, one where dengue cases occurred sporadically and one which was dengue-free. In addition to data for conventional larvae indices, we collected data on pupae indices, and collected adult mosquitoes for species identification in order to determine mosquito species composition and population density. Traditionally used larval indices (House indices, Container indices and Breteau indices were found to be inadequate as indicators for DENV transmission risk. In contrast, species composition of adult mosquitoes revealed that competent vector species were dominant in dengue endemic and sporadic villages.Our data suggested that the utility of traditional larvae indices, which continue to be used in many dengue endemic countries, should be re-evaluated locally. The results highlight the need for validation of risk indicators and control strategies across DENV affected areas here and perhaps elsewhere in SE Asia.

  19. Transgenic mosquitoes and the fight against malaria: managing technology push in a turbulent GMO world.

    Knols, Bart G J; Bossin, Hervé C; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Robinson, Alan S

    2007-12-01

    Genetic modification (GM) of mosquitoes (which renders them genetically modified organisms, GMOs) offers opportunities for controlling malaria. Transgenic strains of mosquitoes have been developed and evaluation of these to 1) replace or suppress wild vector populations and 2) reduce transmission and deliver public health gains are an imminent prospect. The transition of this approach from confined laboratory settings to open field trials in disease-endemic countries (DECs) is a staged process that aims to maximize the likelihood of epidemiologic benefits while minimizing potential pitfalls during implementation. Unlike conventional approaches to vector control, application of GM mosquitoes will face contrasting expectations of multiple stakeholders, the management of which will prove critical to safeguard support and avoid antagonism, so that potential public health benefits can be fully evaluated. Inclusion of key stakeholders in decision-making processes, transfer of problem-ownership to DECs, and increased support from the wider malaria research community are important prerequisites for this. It is argued that the many developments in this field require coordination by an international entity to serve as a guiding coalition to stimulate collaborative research and facilitate stakeholder involvement. Contemporary developments in the field of modern biotechnology, and in particular GM, requires competencies beyond the field of biology, and the future of transgenic mosquitoes will hinge on the ability to govern the process of their introduction in societies in which perceived risks may outweigh rational and responsible involvement. PMID:18165498

  20. Relationships between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java, Indonesia

    Ndoen Ermi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. Mosquito control is one aspect of an integrated malaria management programme. To focus resources on priority areas, information is needed about the vectors and their habitats. This research aimed to identify the relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java. Methods Study areas were selected in three topographic types in West Timor and Java. These were: coastal plain, hilly (rice field and highland. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans identified to species level and counted. Results Eleven species were recorded, four of which were significant for malaria transmission: Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles sundaicus. Each species occupied different topographies, but only five were significantly associated: Anopheles annularis, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles subpictus (Java only with hilly rice fields; Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles subpictus (West Timor only with coastal areas. Conclusion Information on significant malaria vectors associated with specific topography is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management.

  1. Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    Ishida, Yuko; Chen, Angela M.; Tsuruda, Jennifer M.; Cornel, Anthon J.; Debboun, Mustapha; Leal, Walter S.

    2004-09-01

    Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine spacing pattern and sequence. Two of the isolated proteins have a total of eight cysteine residues. The similarity of the spacing pattern of the cysteine residues and amino acid sequence to those of previously identified olfactory proteins suggests that one of the cysteine-rich proteins (AaegOBP2) is an OBP. The other (AaegASP1) did not belong to any group of known OBPs. Structural analyses indicate that six of the cysteine residues in AaegOBP2 are linked in a similar pattern to the previously known cysteine pairing in OBPs, i.e., Cys-24 Cys-55, Cys-51 Cys-104, Cys-95 Cys-113. The additional disulfide bridge, Cys-38 Cys-125, knits the extended C-terminal segment of the protein to a predicted α2-helix. As indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, the extra rigidity seems to prevent the predicted formation of a C-terminal α-helix at low pH.

  2. Bioefficacy of crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (Family:Cyperaceae) cultured cells, against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes

    Fatemeh Kamiabi; Zairi Jaal; Chan Lai Keng

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the growth inhibition activity of the crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (C. aromaticus) cultured cells against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Ae. albopictus) under laboratory conditions, and determine the sublethal effects (EI50) of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells on some biological and morphological parameters of both Aedes mosquito species during two generations as well. Methods:The cell suspension cultures of C. aromaticus were activated from five callus lines (P4, Pa, Z1, Z6 and Ml) derived from the root explants of in vitro plantlets. The cultured cells were extracted in chloroform and used as plant material for the present study. For detection of juvenile hormone III, the crude extracts were analyzed by HPLC. Then the crude extracts of the three C. aromaticus cultured cell lines which contained varied amounts of juvenile hormone III [high level (P4 cell line), medium level (Z1 cell line) and low level (Ml cell line)] were tested against Aedes mosquito species. Laboratory evaluation was performed against late third instar larvae of the Vector Control Research Unit strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus using the standard WHO method. The effects of EI50 of the C. aromaticus cultured P4 cells on fecundity, fertility, growth period, sex ratio, adult size and longevity of Aedes mosquitoes were assessed. Results:Bioassay tests presented the remarkable growth inhibition activity of the crude extracts of C. aromaticus cultured cells against the two Aedes mosquitoes. Between the two mosquito species, Ae. albopictus was more susceptible to the crude extracts with lower EI50 values. EI50 of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells (P4) increased the sterility indices in the parental generation females in both Aedes mosquito species. A significant delay in the pupal formation and adult emergence were observed in the parental generation of the both mosquito species. The sex

  3. A low-cost microfluidic chip for rapid genotyping of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes.

    Changchun Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vector control is one of the most effective measures to prevent the transmission of malaria, a disease that causes over 600,000 deaths annually. Around 30-40 Anopheles mosquito species are natural vectors of malaria parasites. Some of these species cannot be morphologically distinguished, but have behavioral and ecological differences. Emblematic of this is the Anopheles gambiae species complex. The correct identification of vector species is fundamental to the development of control strategies and epidemiological studies of disease transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An inexpensive, disposable, field-deployable, sample-to-answer, microfluidic chip was designed, constructed, and tested for rapid molecular identification of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis. The chip contains three isothermal amplification reactors. One test reactor operates with specific primers to amplify Anopheles gambiae DNA, another with specific primers for Anopheles arabiensis DNA, and the third serves as a negative control. A mosquito leg was crushed on an isolation membrane. Two discs, laden with mosquito tissue, were punched out of the membrane and inserted into the two test chambers. The isolated, disc-bound DNA served as a template in the amplification processes. The amplification products were detected with intercalating fluorescent dye that was excited with a blue light-emitting diode. The emitted light was observed by eye and recorded with a cell-phone camera. When the target consisted of Anopheles gambiae, the reactor containing primers specific to An. gambiae lit up while the other two reactors remained dark. When the target consisted of Anopheles arabiensis, the reactor containing primers specific to An. arabiensis lit up while the other two reactors remained dark. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The microfluidic chip provides a means to identify mosquito type through molecular analysis. It is suitable for field work, allowing one to

  4. The Insect Growth Regulator Pyriproxyfen Terminates Egg Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Suman, Devi S; Wang, Yi; Gaugler, Randy

    2015-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito species that transmits chikungunya and dengue. This species overwinters as diapausing eggs in temperate climates. Early diapause termination may be a beneficial strategy for winter mosquito control; however, a mechanism to terminate the diapause process using chemicals is not known. We tested the hypothesis that a hormonal imbalance caused by the administration of juvenile hormone analog would terminate egg diapause in A. albopictus. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on all developmental stages to identify a susceptible stage for diapause termination. We found that pyriproxyfen treatment of mosquito eggs terminated embryonic diapause. The highest rates of diapause termination were recorded in newly deposited (78.9%) and fully embryonated (74.7%) eggs at 0.1 and 1 ppm, respectively. Hatching was completed earlier in newly deposited eggs (25-30 days) compared to fully embryonated eggs (71-80 days). The combined mortality from premature diapause termination and ovicidal activity was 98.2% in newly deposited and >98.9% in fully embryonated eggs at 1 ppm. The control diapause eggs did not hatch under diapausing conditions. Pyriproxyfen exposure to larvae, pupae and adults did not prevent the females from ovipositing diapausing eggs. There was no effect of pyriproxyfen on diapausing egg embryonic developmental time. We also observed mortality in diapausing eggs laid by females exposed to pyriproxyfen immediately after blood feeding. There was no mortality in eggs laid by females that survived larval and pupal exposures. In conclusion, diapausing eggs were the more susceptible to pyriproxyfen diapause termination compared to other life stages. This is the first report of diapause termination in A. albopictus with a juvenile hormone analog. We believe our findings will be useful in developing a new control strategy against overwintering mosquito populations. PMID:26090954

  5. The Insect Growth Regulator Pyriproxyfen Terminates Egg Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Devi S Suman

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito species that transmits chikungunya and dengue. This species overwinters as diapausing eggs in temperate climates. Early diapause termination may be a beneficial strategy for winter mosquito control; however, a mechanism to terminate the diapause process using chemicals is not known. We tested the hypothesis that a hormonal imbalance caused by the administration of juvenile hormone analog would terminate egg diapause in A. albopictus. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on all developmental stages to identify a susceptible stage for diapause termination. We found that pyriproxyfen treatment of mosquito eggs terminated embryonic diapause. The highest rates of diapause termination were recorded in newly deposited (78.9% and fully embryonated (74.7% eggs at 0.1 and 1 ppm, respectively. Hatching was completed earlier in newly deposited eggs (25-30 days compared to fully embryonated eggs (71-80 days. The combined mortality from premature diapause termination and ovicidal activity was 98.2% in newly deposited and >98.9% in fully embryonated eggs at 1 ppm. The control diapause eggs did not hatch under diapausing conditions. Pyriproxyfen exposure to larvae, pupae and adults did not prevent the females from ovipositing diapausing eggs. There was no effect of pyriproxyfen on diapausing egg embryonic developmental time. We also observed mortality in diapausing eggs laid by females exposed to pyriproxyfen immediately after blood feeding. There was no mortality in eggs laid by females that survived larval and pupal exposures. In conclusion, diapausing eggs were the more susceptible to pyriproxyfen diapause termination compared to other life stages. This is the first report of diapause termination in A. albopictus with a juvenile hormone analog. We believe our findings will be useful in developing a new control strategy against overwintering mosquito populations.

  6. Synthetic predator cues impair immune function and make the biological pesticide Bti more lethal for vector mosquitoes.

    Op De Beeck, Lin; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-03-01

    The control of vector mosquitoes is one of the biggest challenges facing humankind with the use of chemical pesticides often leading to environmental impact and the evolution of resistance. Although to a lesser extent, this also holds for Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), the most widely used biological pesticide to control mosquito populations. This raises the need for the development of integrated pest management strategies that allow the reduction of Bti concentrations without loss of the mosquito control efficiency. To this end, we tested in a laboratory experiment the combined effects of larval exposure to a sublethal Bti concentration and predation risk cues on life history and physiology of larval and adult Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Besides natural predator kairomones and prey alarm cues, we also tested synthetic kairomones of Notonecta predators. Neither Bti nor predation risk cues affected mortality, yet when both stressors were combined mortality increased on average by 133% compared to the treatment with only predation risk cues. This synergistic interaction was also present when Bti was combined with synthetic kairomones. This was further reflected in changes of the composite index of population performance, which suggested lowered per capita growth rates in mosquitoes exposed to Bti but only when Bti was combined with synthetic kairomones. Furthermore, predation risk cues shortened larval development time, reduced mass at metamorphosis in males, and had an immunosuppressive effect in larval and adult mosquitoes which may affect the mosquito vector competence. We provide the first demonstration that synthetic kairomones may generate similar effects on prey as natural kairomones. The identified immunosuppressive effect of synthetic kairomones and the novel lethal synergism type between a biological pesticide and synthetic predator kairomones provide an important proof of principle illustrating the potential of this combination for integrated

  7. The Potential Use of Wolbachia-Based Mosquito Biocontrol Strategies for Japanese Encephalitis.

    Claire L Jeffries

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is a zoonotic pathogen transmitted by the infectious bite of Culex mosquitoes. The virus causes the development of the disease Japanese encephalitis (JE in a small proportion of those infected, predominantly affecting children in eastern and southern Asia. Annual JE incidence estimates range from 50,000-175,000, with 25%-30% of cases resulting in mortality. It is estimated that 3 billion people live in countries in which JEV is endemic. The virus exists in an enzootic transmission cycle, with mosquitoes transmitting JEV between birds as reservoir hosts and pigs as amplifying hosts. Zoonotic infection occurs as a result of spillover events from the main transmission cycle. The reservoir avian hosts include cattle egrets, pond herons, and other species of water birds belonging to the family Ardeidae. Irrigated rice fields provide an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes and attract migratory birds, maintaining the transmission of JEV. Although multiple vaccines have been developed for JEV, they are expensive and require multiple doses to maintain efficacy and immunity. As humans are a "dead-end" host for the virus, vaccination of the human population is unlikely to result in eradication. Therefore, vector control of the principal mosquito vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, represents a more promising strategy for reducing transmission. Current vector control strategies include intermittent irrigation of rice fields and space spraying of insecticides during outbreaks. However, Cx. Tritaeniorhynchus is subject to heavy exposure to pesticides in rice fields, and as a result, insecticide resistance has developed. In recent years, significant advancements have been made in the potential use of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia for mosquito biocontrol. The successful transinfection of Wolbachia strains from Drosophila flies to Aedes (Stegomyia mosquitoes has resulted in the generation of "dengue-refractory" mosquito

  8. Simulation modelling of population dynamics of mosquito vectors for rift valley Fever virus in a disease epidemic setting.

    Clement N Mweya

    Full Text Available Rift Valley Fever (RVF is weather dependent arboviral infection of livestock and humans. Population dynamics of mosquito vectors is associated with disease epidemics. In our study, we use daily temperature and rainfall as model inputs to simulate dynamics of mosquito vectors population in relation to disease epidemics.Time-varying distributed delays (TVDD and multi-way functional response equations were implemented to simulate mosquito vectors and hosts developmental stages and to establish interactions between stages and phases of mosquito vectors in relation to vertebrate hosts for infection introduction in compartmental phases. An open-source modelling platforms, Universal Simulator and Qt integrated development environment were used to develop models in C++ programming language. Developed models include source codes for mosquito fecundity, host fecundity, water level, mosquito infection, host infection, interactions, and egg time. Extensible Markup Language (XML files were used as recipes to integrate source codes in Qt creator with Universal Simulator plug-in. We observed that Floodwater Aedines and Culicine population continued to fluctuate with temperature and water level over simulation period while controlled by availability of host for blood feeding. Infection in the system was introduced by floodwater Aedines. Culicines pick infection from infected host once to amplify disease epidemic. Simulated mosquito population show sudden unusual increase between December 1997 and January 1998 a similar period when RVF outbreak occurred in Ngorongoro district.Findings presented here provide new opportunities for weather-driven RVF epidemic simulation modelling. This is an ideal approach for understanding disease transmission dynamics towards epidemics prediction, prevention and control. This approach can be used as an alternative source for generation of calibrated RVF epidemics data in different settings.

  9. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Matthew T Aliota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria

  10. Sampling of adult mosquito vectors with Mosquito Magnet Pro in Panaji, Goa, India.

    Korgaonkar, Nandini S; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Rajpal S; Kabadi, Dipak; Dash, Aditya P

    2008-12-01

    For mosquito vector population monitoring, a new commercial trap, Mosquito Magnet Pro (MM-PRO), was tested for its usefulness in Goa, India. Anopheles stephensi was tested for the presence of Plasmodium sporozoite infection in the salivary glands. Using the MM-PRO 24 h a day for 34 days, 2,329 mosquitoes belonging to 16 species were collected. These included 6 species each of the genera Anopheles and Culex, 2 species of Aedes, and 1 each of Mansonia and Armigeres. Most (91%) of the mosquitoes caught were females. Among these the number and percentage of each species were Anopheles stephensi 59 (2.78%), Culex quinquefasciatus 1013 (47.78%), Culex vishnui 551 (26.0%), Mansonia uniformis 216 (10.19%), and Aedes albopictus 1 (0.04%). Of the 54 An. stephensi females tested for the presence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) by an ELISA technique, 1 was found to be Plasmodium falciparum CSP positive. The MM-PRO device was found useful for mosquito population sampling in the urban setting of Goa. PMID:19181075

  11. In silico evidence for the species-specific conservation of mosquito retroposons: implications as a molecular biomarker

    Byarugaba Wilson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes are the transmissive vectors for several infectious pathogens that affect man. However, the control of mosquitoes through insecticide and pesticide spraying has proved difficult in the past. We hypothesized that, by virtue of their reported vertical inheritance among mosquitoes, group II introns – a class of small coding ribonucleic acids (scRNAs – may form a potential species-specific biomarker. Structurally, introns are a six-moiety complex. Depending on the function of the protein encoded within the IV moiety, the highly mobile class of group II introns or retroposons is sub-divided into two: Restriction Endonuclease (REase-like and Apurinic aPyramydinic Endonuclease (APE-like. REase-like retroposons are thought to be the ancestors of APE retroposons. Our aim in this study was to find evidence for the highly species-specific conservation of the APE subclass of mosquito retroposons. Methods and Results In silico targeted sequence alignments were conducted across a 1,779-organism genome database (1,518 bacterial, 59 archeal, 201 eukaryotic, and the human, using three mosquito retroposon sequence tags (RST as BLASTN queries [AJ970181 and AJ90201 of Culex pipien origin and AJ970301 of Anoplese sinensis origin]. At a calibration of E = 10, A & D = 100, default filtration and a homology cut-off of >95% identity, no hits were found on any of the 1,518 bacterial genomes. Eleven (100% and 15 (100% hits obtained on the 201-eukaryote genome database were homologs (>95% score of C.pipien quinquefasciatus JHB retroposons, but none of An. sinensis. Twenty and 221 low score (30–43% identity spurious hits were found at flanking ends of genes and contigs in the human genome with the C.pipien and An. sinensis RSTs respectively. Functional and positional inference revealed these to be possible relatives of human genomic spliceosomes. We advance two models for the application of mosquito RST: as precursors for developing

  12. Existing Infection Facilitates Establishment and Density of Malaria Parasites in Their Mosquito Vector.

    Laura C Pollitt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about how vector-borne pathogens interact within their vector and how this impacts transmission. Here we show that mosquitoes can accumulate mixed strain malaria infections after feeding on multiple hosts. We found that parasites have a greater chance of establishing and reach higher densities if another strain is already present in a mosquito. Mixed infections contained more parasites but these larger populations did not have a detectable impact on vector survival. Together these results suggest that mosquitoes taking multiple infective bites may disproportionally contribute to malaria transmission. This will increase rates of mixed infections in vertebrate hosts, with implications for the evolution of parasite virulence and the spread of drug-resistant strains. Moreover, control measures that reduce parasite prevalence in vertebrate hosts will reduce the likelihood of mosquitoes taking multiple infective feeds, and thus disproportionally reduce transmission. More generally, our study shows that the types of strain interactions detected in vertebrate hosts cannot necessarily be extrapolated to vectors.

  13. ELISA as an alternative tool for epidemiological surveillance for dengue in mosquitoes: a report from Thailand

    Mayuna Srisuphanunt, Ratana Sithiprasasna, Somboon Patpoparn, Watcharee Attatippaholkun & Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Dengue fever (DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shocksyndrome (DSS are the re-emerging infectious diseases caused by the four serotypes of dengue(DEN virus, type 1 to 4, belonging to the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. In the absenceof a safe and effective mass immunisation, the prevention and control of dengue outbreaks dependupon the surveillance of cases and mosquito vector. The aim of this work is to test enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA tool for the virological surveillance of dengue.Methods: Virus-infected Aedes mosquitoes were collected from the field in order to serve as anearly warning monitoring tool for dengue outbreaks. In a prospective field study conducted fromApril to September 2000, female adult Aedes mosquitoes were caught from selected dengue-sensitivearea in Chombung district, Ratchaburi province and assayed by ELISA.Result: Approximately 18.3% were found positive for dengue virus.Conclusion: This can imply that ELISA can be an alternative tool for epidemiological surveillancefor dengue in mosquitoes.

  14. Di-rhamnolipid is a mosquito pupicidal metabolite from Pseudomonas fluorescens (VCRC B426).

    Prabakaran, G; Hoti, S L; Rao, H Surya Prakash; Vijjapu, Satish

    2015-08-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula (VCRC B426) produces a secondary metabolite, which was found to be active against pupae of vector mosquitoes namely Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. The mosquito pupicidal metabolite from P. fluoescens was mass produced and separated by ethyl acetate extraction and purified further by silica gel column chromatography, FPLC, HPLC and TLC. The purified metabolite was characterized by NMR, FT-IR, LC-MS and MALDI-TOF. The FT-IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR results showed that it is a rhamnolipid (di-rhamnolipid). The matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization-time-of-flight spectrum of the sample showed predominant pupicidal component produced by P. fluorescens was the molecule mass of 673.40 Da. Owing to its high toxicity to mosquito pupae, especially Anopheles sp., and Aedes sp., the di-rhamnolipd has potential in the control of the vectors of dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and malaria. This is the first report of mosquito pupicidal di-rhamnolipid from P. fluorescens. PMID:25912083

  15. Existing Infection Facilitates Establishment and Density of Malaria Parasites in Their Mosquito Vector.

    Pollitt, Laura C; Bram, Joshua T; Blanford, Simon; Jones, Matthew J; Read, Andrew F

    2015-07-01

    Very little is known about how vector-borne pathogens interact within their vector and how this impacts transmission. Here we show that mosquitoes can accumulate mixed strain malaria infections after feeding on multiple hosts. We found that parasites have a greater chance of establishing and reach higher densities if another strain is already present in a mosquito. Mixed infections contained more parasites but these larger populations did not have a detectable impact on vector survival. Together these results suggest that mosquitoes taking multiple infective bites may disproportionally contribute to malaria transmission. This will increase rates of mixed infections in vertebrate hosts, with implications for the evolution of parasite virulence and the spread of drug-resistant strains. Moreover, control measures that reduce parasite prevalence in vertebrate hosts will reduce the likelihood of mosquitoes taking multiple infective feeds, and thus disproportionally reduce transmission. More generally, our study shows that the types of strain interactions detected in vertebrate hosts cannot necessarily be extrapolated to vectors. PMID:26181518

  16. [Biological factors influencing infectious diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes].

    Boštíková, Vanda; Pasdiorová, Markéta; Marek, Jan; Prášil, Petr; Salavec, Miloslav; Sleha, Radek; Střtítecká, Hana; Blažek, Pavel; Hanovcová, Irena; Šošovičková, Renáta; Špliňo, Milan; Smetana, Jan; Chlíbek, Roman; Hytych, Václav; Kuča, Kamil; Boštík, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Studies focused on arbovirus diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes have become increasingly significant in recent years, due to the fact that these vectors have successfully migrated to Europe and become established in the region. Mosquitoes, represented by more than 3 200 species, occur naturally worldwide, except in Antarctica. They feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals and by this route, they are capable of transmitting dangerous diseases. Some species can travel a distance of 10 km per night and can fly continuously for up to 4 hours at a speed of 1-2 km/h. Most species are active at night, in the evening or morning. It usually takes a mosquito female about 50 seconds to penetrate the skin of mammals and the subsequent blood meal usually takes about 2.5 minutes. Mosquitoes live for several weeks or months, depending on the environmental conditions. The VectorNet project is a European network of information exchange and sharing of data relating to the geographical distribution of arthropod vectors and transmission of infectious agents between human populations and animals. It aims at the development of strategic plans and vaccination policies which are the main tasks of this time, as well as the development and application of new disinfectants to control vector populations. PMID:27450526

  17. Studies on mosquitoes breeding in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria, northern Nigeria

    David A. Adebote

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Rainwater often collects in depressions on rocks to form pools that are ideal breeding sites of mosquito vectors of diseases. Knowledge on the existence of disease vectors in these remote and relatively inaccessible locations could improve epidemiologic understanding and control capabilities. This study identifies mosquito species, their relative abundance and physicochemical characteristics of breeding microhabitats in rock pools on four inselbergs in northern Nigeria.Methods: Soup ladle dipper was used to obtain representative samples of larval mosquitoes breeding in 141 rock pools on four inselbergs. Physicochemical parameters (depth, electrical conductivity, pH, surface area, temperature and total dissolved solids of the pools were determined. Larvae were preserved in 70% alcohol and identified microscopically to species using taxonomic keys. Statistical correlation analysis and ANOVA were used to test the associations between physicochemical parameters and mosquito abundance, and for differences amongst inselbergs. Results: Of 2991 larvae, five species of mosquito distributed in three genera (Anopheles, Aedes and Culex including Ae. vittatus (92.88%, An. ardensis (0.13%, An. distinctus (1.67%, An. wilsoni (0.13% and Cx. ingrami (5.18% bred in the rock pools, Up to five species occurred per pool in various conspecific and heterogeneric combinations. Except for Ae. vittatus, the physicochemical parameters of the pools correlate significantly with species abundance. Conclusion: Ae. vittatus, a potential vector of yellow fever in Nigeria breeds profusely in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria. For comprehensive vector implication and control, rock pools should be amongst the habitats of focus in yellow fever epidemiology.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Mosquito Adulticide in Houston during Spraying Season

    Usenko, S.; Clark, A. E.; Yoon, S.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    It is a common practice for urban areas in the south to control the mosquito population through the routine spraying of pesticides utilizing ultra-low volume (ULV) foggers, either aerially or from trucks. Adult mosquitoes are known disease-borne vectors, including, but not limited to, West Nile Virus. Common mosquito adulticides include Permethrin (a pyrethroid) which is a neurotoxin. The EPA has labelled this pesticide good for mosquito treatment due to low cost, high effectiveness and low pest resistance. Permethrin is released directly into the atmosphere during active ULV fogger spraying, resulting in potentially significantly elevated atmospheric concentrations for hours to days after spray event. The metropolitan area of Houston, TX has a population of nearly 6 million people, making it the fourth most populous city in the U.S., and covers over 9000 square miles. During the DISCOVER-AQ sampling campaign in September 2013, nearly 300 atmospheric particular matter samples were collected during the month-long sampling campaign at four different locations in the Houston metropolitan area. Both total suspended particle (TSP) and particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) samples were collected, the latter of which is more readily inhaled and presents a greater risk to human health. Harris County, the main county of the Houston metropolitan area, controls mosquito for ~4-7 months, annually, covering the summer months. During 2013, Harris County utilized Permethrin as one of two pesticides in a weekly rotation from April to October. Proposed daily ULV treatment plans are published online on a neighborhood scale (Zip Code). Preliminary atmospheric concentrations show that Permethrin has been detected coinciding with days when treatment was proposed by the county. During or directly after use, atmospheric concentration of Permethrin were measuring at typically >10 ng m-3, but as high as 90 ng m-3. Atmospheric concentrations were also

  19. Biodistribution and Toxicity Studies of PRINT Hydrogel Nanoparticles in Mosquito Larvae and Cells.

    Phanse, Yashdeep; Dunphy, Brendan M; Perry, Jillian L; Airs, Paul M; Paquette, Cynthia C H; Carlson, Jonathan O; Xu, Jing; Luft, J Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M; Beaty, Barry J; Bartholomay, Lyric C

    2015-05-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases continue to remain major threats to human and animal health and impediments to socioeconomic development. Increasing mosquito resistance to chemical insecticides is a great public health concern, and new strategies/technologies are necessary to develop the next-generation of vector control tools. We propose to develop a novel method for mosquito control that employs nanoparticles (NPs) as a platform for delivery of mosquitocidal dsRNA molecules to silence mosquito genes and cause vector lethality. Identifying optimal NP chemistry and morphology is imperative for efficient mosquitocide delivery. Toward this end, fluorescently labeled polyethylene glycol NPs of specific sizes, shapes (80 nm x 320 nm, 80 nm x 5000 nm, 200 nm x 200 nm, and 1000 nm x 1000 nm) and charges (negative and positive) were fabricated by Particle Replication in Non-Wetting Templates (PRINT) technology. Biodistribution, persistence, and toxicity of PRINT NPs were evaluated in vitro in mosquito cell culture and in vivo in Anopheles gambiae larvae following parenteral and oral challenge. Following parenteral challenge, the biodistribution of the positively and negatively charged NPs of each size and shape was similar; intense fluorescence was observed in thoracic and abdominal regions of the larval body. Positively charged NPs were more associated with the gastric caeca in the gastrointestinal tract. Negatively charged NPs persisted through metamorphosis and were observed in head, body and ovaries of adults. Following oral challenge, NPs were detected in the larval mid- and hindgut. Positively charged NPs were more efficiently internalized in vitro than negatively charged NPs. Positively charged NPs trafficked to the cytosol, but negatively charged NPs co-localized with lysosomes. Following in vitro and in vivo challenge, none of the NPs tested induced any cytotoxic effects. PMID:25996390

  20. Climate change and mosquito-borne disease.

    Reiter, P.

    2001-01-01

    Global atmospheric temperatures are presently in a warming phase that began 250--300 years ago. Speculations on the potential impact of continued warming on human health often focus on mosquito-borne diseases. Elementary models suggest that higher global temperatures will enhance their transmission rates and extend their geographic ranges. However, the histories of three such diseases--malaria, yellow fever, and dengue--reveal that climate has rarely been the principal determinant of their pr...