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1

HERBAL CONTROL OF MOSQUITO LARVAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquitoes are the vectors for the dreadful diseases of mankind. For control of larval stages of mosquito, herbal plant extracts/ botanical insecticides are being tried. In the present study aqueous extract of some traditional medicinal herbal plants i.e. Neem (Azadirechta indica), Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Tulasi (Ocimum santum), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) were tested for their Larvicidal activity. The successful attempt is made to kill the larvae, the premature stage of mosquitoes by using safe and socio-economical herbal plant extract mixtures. Ginger+Tobacco, Neem+Tobbaco and Ginger Neem, Turmeric, Tobacco and Tulasi showed highest larvicidal activity. The results obtained show that this plant material exhibited larvicidal activity and could be considered as potent natural larvicidal agent without any toxic effects.

Chaudhari Priyanka S, Chaudhari SV* Jangam Sampada, Shinde JS, Wankhede Sneha

2013-01-01

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Genetic control of Aedes mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. Genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. In this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. We focus particularly on those methods that are already being tested in the field, including RIDL and Wolbachia-based approaches.

Alphey L; McKemey A; Nimmo D; Neira Oviedo M; Lacroix R; Matzen K; Beech C

2013-06-01

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Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti) curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis.

Ernst-Jan Scholte; Bart G.J. Knols; Robert A. Samson; Willem Takken

2004-01-01

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Mosquito Modifications: New Approaches to Controlling Malaria  

Science.gov (United States)

This article from the November 2007 issue of BioScience examines the historical and current methods to control Malaria.Malaria kills about one million people each year, but efforts to destroy disease-carrying mosquitoes have succeeded only in breeding tougher bugs. Researchers have begun to look for ways to create malaria-resistant mosquitoes. One approach is to bioengineer transgenic mosquitoes that, when released into the wild, would lead to a new race of malaria-proof young. Another approach uses mosquitoes' natural resistance to Plasmodium infection.

Sharon Levy (;)

2007-11-01

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Aquatic insect predators and mosquito control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes are serious biting pests and obligate vectors of many vertebrate pathogens. Their immature larval and pupal life stages are a common feature in most tropical and many temperate water bodies and often form a significant proportion of the biomass. Control strategies rely primarily on the use of larvicides and environmental modification to reduce recruitment and adulticides during periods of disease transmission. Larvicides are usually chemical but can involve biological toxins, agents or organisms. The use of insect predators in mosquito control has been exploited in a limited fashion and there is much room for further investigation and implementation. Insects that are recognized as having predatorial capacity with regard to mosquito prey have been identified in the Orders Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera (primarily aquatic predators), and Hemiptera (primarily surface predators). Although their capacity is affected by certain biological and physical factors, they could play a major role in mosquito control. Furthermore, better understanding for the mosquitoes-predators relationship(s) could probably lead to satisfactory reduction of mosquito-borne diseases by utilizing either these predators in control programs, for instance biological and/or integrated control, or their kairomones as mosquitoes' ovipoisting repellents. This review covers the predation of different insect species on mosquito larvae, predator-prey-habitat relationships, co-habitation developmental issues, survival and abundance, oviposition avoidance, predatorial capacity and integrated vector control.

Shaalan EA; Canyon DV

2009-12-01

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MICROBIAL CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES AND BLACK FLIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis serovariety israelensis (Bti) and mosquitocidal isolates of Bacillus sphaericus have become the predominant non-chemical means employed for control of mosquito larvae at several locations in the United States and other countries. An overview of developments in the...

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Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies/ Controle genético de mosquitos: estratégias de supressão de populações  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Ao longo das duas últimas décadas, morbidade e mortalidade da malária e dengue e outros patógenos tem se tornado cada vez mais um problema de Saúde Pública. O aumento na distribuição geográfica de seus respectivos vetores é acompanhada pela emergência de doenças em novas áreas. Não estão disponíveis drogas específicas suficientes e não há vacinas específicas para imunizar as populações alvo. As medidas de controle de mosquitos atuais falharam em atin (more) gir os objetivos propostos, principalmente devido à grande capacidade reprodutiva dos mosquitos e alta flexibilidade genômica. O controle químico se torna cada vez mais restrito devido a sua potencial toxicidade aos seres humanos, mortalidade de organismos não alvos, resistência a inseticida além de outros impactos ambientais. Novas estratégias de controle são necessárias. A técnica do inseto estéril (SIT) é um método de supressão populacional espécie específico e ambientalmente amigável, baseia-se na criação em massa, esterilização mediante irradiação e liberação de um grande número de insetos machos. Liberar insetos carregando um gene letal dominante (RIDL) oferece uma solução a muitas limitações impostas pela técnica do inseto estéril (SIT) que limitaram sua aplicação em mosquitos e ainda assim mantém suas características de ambientalmente amigável e espécie específica. A natureza auto-limitante de mosquitos estéreis tende a deixar alguns empecilhos para uso no campo, de certa forma, menos desafiadores quando comparados a sistemas auto-propagação, característicos de estratégias de substituição de população. Sistemas auto-limitantes estão mais próximos para uso no campo, portanto pode ser apropriado considerá-lo primeiro. A perspectiva de métodos de controle genéticos contra mosquitos vetores de doenças que acometem humanos está rapidamente se tornando uma realidade, muitas decisões terão de ser tomadas em âmbito nacional, regional e internacional com relação a aspectos étnicos, sociais, culturais e de biossegurança para o uso e liberação destes métodos de controle de vetores. Abstract in english Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its developme (more) nt and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the bi

Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

2012-10-01

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Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies Controle genético de mosquitos: estratégias de supressão de populações  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.Ao longo das duas últimas décadas, morbidade e mortalidade da malária e dengue e outros patógenos tem se tornado cada vez mais um problema de Saúde Pública. O aumento na distribuição geográfica de seus respectivos vetores é acompanhada pela emergência de doenças em novas áreas. Não estão disponíveis drogas específicas suficientes e não há vacinas específicas para imunizar as populações alvo. As medidas de controle de mosquitos atuais falharam em atingir os objetivos propostos, principalmente devido à grande capacidade reprodutiva dos mosquitos e alta flexibilidade genômica. O controle químico se torna cada vez mais restrito devido a sua potencial toxicidade aos seres humanos, mortalidade de organismos não alvos, resistência a inseticida além de outros impactos ambientais. Novas estratégias de controle são necessárias. A técnica do inseto estéril (SIT) é um método de supressão populacional espécie específico e ambientalmente amigável, baseia-se na criação em massa, esterilização mediante irradiação e liberação de um grande número de insetos machos. Liberar insetos carregando um gene letal dominante (RIDL) oferece uma solução a muitas limitações impostas pela técnica do inseto estéril (SIT) que limitaram sua aplicação em mosquitos e ainda assim mantém suas características de ambientalmente amigável e espécie específica. A natureza auto-limitante de mosquitos estéreis tende a deixar alguns empecilhos para uso no campo, de certa forma, menos desafiadores quando comparados a sistemas auto-propagação, característicos de estratégias de substituição de população. Sistemas auto-limitantes estão mais próximos para uso no campo, portanto pode ser apropriado considerá-lo primeiro. A perspectiva de métodos de controle genéticos contra mosquitos vetores de doenças que acometem humanos está rapidamente se tornando uma realidade, muitas decisões terão de ser tomadas em âmbito nacional, regional e internacional com relação a aspectos étnicos, sociais, culturais e de biossegurança para o uso e libera

André Barretto Bruno Wilke; Mauro Toledo Marrelli

2012-01-01

9

Transgenic mosquitoes for malaria control: progresses and challenges/ Mosquitos transgênicos para o controle da malária: progressos e desafios  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A malária mata milhões de pessoas a cada ano e as estratégias atuais de controle da doença, como inseticidas e drogas não têm sido tão eficientes. Por este motivo, novos meios para o combate à malária são de extrema importância. Avanços no estudo do mosquito vetor e sua interação com o parasito da malária fizeram os cientistas pensarem que é possível a manipulação genética dos mosquitos para torná-los vetores ineficientes. Neste artigo, revisamos os a (more) vanços na introdução de genes exógenos na linhagem germinativa de mosquitos, a caracterização de promotores específicos de certos tecidos, a identificação de produtos gênicos que bloqueiam o parasita no mosquito, bem como discutimos a recente geração de mosquitos transgênicos, menos eficientes na transmissão de malária. Enquanto muitos progressos foram obtidos, muitos anos de pesquisa são ainda necessários para que mosquitos transgênicos possam ser utilizados na natureza. Abstract in english Malaria kills millions of people every year and the current strategies to control the disease, such as insecticides and drugs have not been completely efficient. Because of that, novel means to fight against malaria are of utmost importance. Advances in the study of the mosquito vector and its interactions with the malaria parasite made scientists think that it is possible to genetically manipulate the mosquitoes to make them inefficient vectors. Here we review the advanc (more) es on the introduction of foreign genes into the mosquito germ line, the characterization of tissue-specific promoters, the identification of gene products that block development of the parasite in the mosquito, and we discuss the recent generation of transgenic mosquitoes impaired for malaria transmission. While much progress has been made, many years of research are still needed before transgenic mosquitoes can be used in the field.

Moreira, Luciano A.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

2003-12-01

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Wolbachia and the biological control of mosquito-borne disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and filariasis cause an enormous health burden to people living in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Despite years of intense effort to control them, many of these diseases are increasing in prevalence, geographical distribution and severity, and options to control them are limited. The transinfection of mosquitos with the maternally inherited, endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia is a promising new biocontrol approach. Fruit fly Wolbachia strains can invade and sustain themselves in mosquito populations, reduce adult lifespan, affect mosquito reproduction and interfere with pathogen replication. Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have been released in areas of Australia in which outbreaks of dengue fever occur, as a prelude to the application of this technology in dengue-endemic areas of south-east Asia. PMID:21546911

Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Walker, Thomas; O' Neill, Scott L

2011-05-06

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Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 studies; four cluster-RCTs, eight controlled before-and-after trials, and one randomized cross-over trial. The included studies evaluated habitat modification (one study), habitat modification with larviciding (two studies), habitat manipulation (one study), habitat manipulation plus larviciding (two studies), or larviciding alone (seven studies) in a wide variety of habitats and countries. Malaria incidenceIn two cluster-RCTs undertaken in Sri Lanka, larviciding of abandoned mines, streams, irrigation ditches, and rice paddies reduced malaria incidence by around three-quarters compared to the control (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.31, 20,124 participants, two trials, moderate quality evidence). In three controlled before-and-after trials in urban and rural India and rural Kenya, results were inconsistent (98,233 participants, three trials, very low quality evidence). In one trial in urban India, the removal of domestic water containers together with weekly larviciding of canals and stagnant pools reduced malaria incidence by three quarters. In one trial in rural India and one trial in rural Kenya, malaria incidence was higher at baseline in intervention areas than in controls. However dam construction in India, and larviciding of streams and swamps in Kenya, reduced malaria incidence to levels similar to the control areas. In one additional randomized cross-over trial in the flood plains of the Gambia River, where larval habitats were extensive and ill-defined, larviciding by ground teams did not result in a statistically significant reduction in malaria incidence (2039 participants, one trial). Parasite prevalenceIn one cluster-RCT from Sri Lanka, larviciding reduced parasite prevalence by almost 90% (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.22, 2963 participants, one trial, moderate quality evidence). In five controlled before-and-after trials in Greece, India, the Philippines, and Tanzania, LSM resulted in an average reduction in parasite prevalence of around two-thirds (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.55, 8041 participants, five trials, mod

Tusting LS; Thwing J; Sinclair D; Fillinger U; Gimnig J; Bonner KE; Bottomley C; Lindsay SW

2013-01-01

12

Some naturally occurring phytophototoxins for mosquito control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alpha-terthiophene (alpha-T) and erythrosin-B, the naturally occurring plant secondary metabolites, were tried for their phototoxic properties against Anopheles and Culex larvae under dark, ordinary tube light (1.9-2.4 w/m2) and sun light (680-840 w/m2). LC50 values of alpha-T for Anopheles larvae (4th instar) were found to be 154, 92 and 11 ppb under dark, tube light and sunlight, respectively. For Culex larvae corresponding LC50 values under different light conditions were 129, 97 and 22 ppb. Erythrosin-B under all photoregimens was found to be less toxic to larvae of both Anopheles and Culex sps. Also, the susceptibility of the mosquito species decreased with age, towards alpha-T and erythrosin-B. Cumulative effects in terms of delay in metamorphosis were also observed among survivors of such exposures. The effects of these compounds were also seen on the adults and developing unhatched embryos of a common aquatic snail (Lymnaea sps). The LC50 values of alpha-T for adults were found to be 39, 23 ppm and 77 ppb under dark, tube light and sunlight and for developing unhatched embryos the corresponding values were 620, 41 and 13 ppb. Erythrosin-B was found to be much less toxic under sunlight and dark, to both adults and embryos as compared to the toxicity of alpha-T. Potential use of such biodegradable and eco-friendly compounds of natural origin in mosquito control is discussed.

Sharma A; Goel HC

1994-10-01

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Production of wetland Chironmidae (Diptera) and the effects of using Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis for mosquito control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Massive mosquito nuisance problems, caused by the flood-water mosquito Aedes sticticus, occur after floods in the flood plains of the River Dalälven, central Sweden. Since 2002, the biological mosquito larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) has been used to control these mosquitoes....

Lundström, J.O.; Schäfer, M.L.; Petersson, E.; Persson Vinnersten, T.Z.; Landin, Jan; Brodin, Y.

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Controle de vetores utilizando mosquitos geneticamente modificados Control de vectores utilizando mosquitos genéticamente modificados Control of vector populations using genetically modified mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Formas químicas de controle de mosquitos vetores são ineficazes, levando ao desenvolvimento de novas estratégias. Assim, foi realizada revisão das estratégias de controle genético de populações de mosquitos vetores baseada na técnica do inseto estéril. Uma delas consiste na liberação de machos esterilizados por radiação, a outra, na integração de um gene letal dominante associado a um promotor específico de fêmeas imaturas. Entre as vantagens sobre outras técnicas biológicas e químicas de controle de vetores estão: alta especificidade, não prejudicial ao meio ambiente, baixo custo de produção e alta eficácia. O uso desta técnica de modificação genética pode vir a ser uma importante ferramenta do manejo integrado de vetores.Formas químicas de control de mosquitos vectores son ineficaces, llevando al desarrollo de nuevas estrategias. Así, fue realizada revisión de las estrategias de control genético de poblaciones de mosquitos vectores basada en la técnica del insecto estéril. Una de ellas consiste en la liberación de machos esterilizados por radiación, la otra, en la integración de un gen letal dominante asociado a un promotor específico de hembras inmaduras. Entre las ventajas sobre otras técnicas biológicas y químicas de control de vectores están: la alta especificidad, no prejudicial al ambiente, bajo costo de producción y alta eficiencia. El uso de esta técnica de modificación genética puede ser una importante herramienta del manejo integrado de vectores.The ineffectiveness of current strategies for chemical control of mosquito vectors raises the need for developing novel approaches. Thus, we carried out a literature review of strategies for genetic control of mosquito populations based on the sterile insect technique. One of these strategies consists of releasing radiation-sterilized males into the population; another, of integrating a dominant lethal gene under the control of a specific promoter into immature females. Advantages of these approaches over other biological and chemical control strategies include: highly species-specific, environmentally safety, low production cost, and high efficacy. The use of this genetic modification technique will constitute an important tool for integrated vector management.

André Barreto Bruno Wilke; Almério de Castro Gomes; Delsio Natal; Mauro Toledo Marrelli

2009-01-01

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Silica nanoparticle: a potential new insecticide for mosquito vector control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Presently, there is a need for increased efforts to develop newer and effective methods to control mosquito vectors as the existing chemical and biological methods are not as effective as in earlier period owing to different technical and operational reasons. The use of nanomaterial products in various sectors of science including health increased during the last decade. We tested three types of nanosilica, namely lipophilic, hydrophilic and hydrophobic, to assess their larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitor properties and also their influence on oviposition behaviour (attraction/deterrence) of mosquito species that transmit human diseases, namely malaria (Anopheles), yellow fever, chickungunya and dengue (Aedes), lymphatic filariasis and encephalitis (Culex and Aedes). Application of hydrophobic nanosilica at 112.5 ppm was found effective against mosquito species tested. The larvicidal effect of hydrophobic nanosilica on mosquito species tested was in the order of Anopheles stephensi > Aedes aegypti > Culex quinquefasciatus, and the pupicidal effect was in the order of A. stephensi > C. quinquefasciatus > Ae. aegypti. Results of combined treatment of hydrophobic nanosilica with temephos in larvicidal test indicated independent toxic action without any additive effect. This is probably the first report that demonstrated that nanoparticles particularly nanosilica could be used in mosquito vector control.

Barik TK; Kamaraju R; Gowswami A

2012-09-01

16

BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SEROVARIETY ISRAELENSIS AND BACILLUS SPHAERICUS FOR MOSQUITO CONTROL  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis serovariety israelensis (Bti) and mosquitocidal isolates of Bacillus sphaericus have become the predominant non-chemical means employed for control of mosquito larvae at several locations in the United States and other countries. An overview of developments in the...

17

Environmental Factors Affecting Efficacy of Bifenthrin-Treated Vegetation for Mosquito Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of pesticide-treated vegetation as a barrier for control of nuisance and disease-bearing mosquitoes has become an option for mosquito management for home owners and public health and mosquito control professionals. Potted wax myrtle and azalea pla...

D. L. Kline S. A. Allan T. Walker

2009-01-01

18

Genetic methods for control of mosquitoes and biting flies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The earliest research efforts on using genetic methods for the control of mosquitoes and biting flies concentrated on the evaluation of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Several successful, but generally small scale, research efforts with mosquitoes clearly documented that either chemosterilized or radiation sterilized males were effective in causing a level of genetic load that would be sufficient for the reduction or eradication of natural populations of several species. Genetic sexing strains of several species of mosquitoes have been assembled, and this aspect of breeding specialty strains is not a limiting factor in the implementation of SIT. In the largest field experiment, conducted with Anopheles albimanus in El Salvador during the 1970s, a genetic sexing strain was used operationally in a factory that produced one million sterile males per day over a one year period. Technical problems that would require extensive research of a practical nature before the implementation of SIT for mosquito control involve primarily better means for the rearing, sterilization and distribution of the insects. A successful experiment was conducted to eliminate the stable fly on the island of St. Croix, the United States Virgin Islands, and since this work in the 1970s, genetic sexing strains have been developed. A considerable amount of effort was expended on the synthesis of chromosome aberrations for the control of mosquitoes. Although the results of experimental trials indicated that aberration bearing insects could effectively inject a genetic load into the natural population, no large scale tests have ever been conducted to evaluate fully the real effectiveness of induced chromosomal aberrations. More recently, most of the research work in genetic control has been aimed at the use of recombinant DNA techniques for the development of new technology. All of these topics and an assessment of their value are discussed. (author). 30 refs

1988-01-01

19

A list of the mosquitoes housed in the mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The establishment of a mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India, is reported. The collection at present contains more than 14,800 adult mosquitoes, including 8,426 that are individually pinned. The collection also includes some 1,048 male and female genitalia preparations, and 815 larval and 444 pupal exuviae on microscope slides. Mosquitoes of 19 genera, 37 subgenera, and 181 species are housed in the museum, representing about 50% of the known species from India. A list of the species is provided.

Rajavel AR; Natarajan R; Vaidyanathan K; Soniya VP

2005-09-01

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A list of the mosquitoes housed in the mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The establishment of a mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India, is reported. The collection at present contains more than 14,800 adult mosquitoes, including 8,426 that are individually pinned. The collection also includes some 1,048 male and female genitalia preparations, and 815 larval and 444 pupal exuviae on microscope slides. Mosquitoes of 19 genera, 37 subgenera, and 181 species are housed in the museum, representing about 50% of the known species from India. A list of the species is provided. PMID:16252513

Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K; Soniya, V P

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Tidal circulation alteration for salt marsh mosquito control  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito control ditches designed to increase tidal circulation are widely used as a physical control alternative to insecticidal applications The impact of such ditching on Pacific Coast marshlands was largely unknown before this five-year study of impact in two types of San Francisco Bay salt marshes, a Salicornia virginica (pickleweed) monoculure and a mixed vegetation marsh Results of our studies suggest that ditches cause less environmental disturbance than insecticidal applications The article describes the following environmental consequences of ditching for mosquito control: increased tidal flushing of soils occurs adjacent to ditches compared with that in the open marsh, thereby reducing ground water and soil surface salinities and water table height; primary productivity of S. virginica, as determined by both the harvest method and infrared photographic analysis, is higher directly adjacent to ditches than in the open marsh, distribution of selected arthropod populations is similar at ditches and natural channels, although arthropod community response differs seasonally; aquatic invertebrate biomass is similar within ditched and natural ponds, but diversity is lower in ditched habitats, ditching increases fish diversity and density by improving fish access from tidal channels; ditches provide additional salt marsh song sparrow habitat, although ditches are less preferred than natural channels or sloughs. Management criteria can be used to design ditches that provide effective mosquito control and reduced environmental impact

Resh, Vincent H.; Balling, Steven S.

1983-01-01

22

Recent developments in methods of mosquito control*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since residual insecticide spraying in domiciles does not sufficiently control some species of anophelines to halt malaria transmission, alternate methods of control have been investigated. These include ultra-low-volume (ULV) sprays or aerosols, the release of sterile males to suppress or eradicate...

Lofgren, Clifford S.

23

Remote-controlled electric-shock mosquito eradicating lamp  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a remote control and electric shock mosquito killing lamp which comprises a lamp tube, a high voltage electric shock net and a seat frame. The utility model is characterized in that the mosquito killing lamp also comprises an infrared remote controller which comprises a transmitting device and a receiving device, wherein the transmitting device comprises a switch K, a capacitance C2, a power supply E1 and an oscillator which is composed of a triode T1, a triode T2, a resistance R1, a resistance R2, a capacitance C1 and an infrared transmitting tube IR. The receiving device comprises an infrared receiving head, a D trigger, an optical coupling bidirectional thyristor, a resistance R3, a resistance R4, a capacitance C3 and a coupling capacitance C4. The 3 end and the 4 end of the optical coupling bidirectional thyristor are connected with the positive pole wire of a power supply wire. A user can control the connection or disconnection through the button switch of the transmitting device of the infrared remote controller. Thereby, the utility model can prevent a human body from being irradiated and the operation is convenient.

WANG TAICAI

24

Large-scale control of mosquito vectors of disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By far the most important vector borne disease is malaria transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes causing an estimated 300-500 million clinical cases per year and 1.4-2.6 million deaths, mostly in tropical Africa (WHO 1995). The second most important mosquito borne disease is lymphatic filariasis, but there are now such effective, convenient and cheap drugs for its treatment that vector control will now have at most a supplementary role (Maxwell et al. 1999a). The only other mosquito borne disease likely to justify large-scale vector control is dengue which is carried in urban areas of Southeast Asia and Latin America by Aedes aegypti L. which was also the urban vector of yellow fever in Latin America. This mosquito was eradicated from most countries of Latin America between the 1930s and 60s but, unfortunately in recent years, it has been allowed to re-infest and cause serious dengue epidemics, except in Cuba where it has been held close to eradication (Reiter and Gubler 1997). In the 1930s and 40s, invasions by An. gambiae Giles s.l., the main tropical African malaria vector, were eradicated from Brazil (Soper and Wilson 1943) and Egypt (Shousha 1947). It is surprising that greatly increased air traffic has not led to more such invasions of apparently climatically suitable areas, e.g., of Polynesia which has no anophelines and therefore no malaria. The above mentioned temporary or permanent eradications were achieved before the advent of DDT, using larvicidal methods (of a kind which would now be considered environmentally unacceptable) carried out by rigorously disciplined teams. MALARIA Between the end of the Second World War and the 1960s, the availability of DDT for spraying of houses allowed eradication of malaria from the Soviet Union, southern Europe, the USA, northern Venezuela and Guyana, Taiwan and the Caribbean Islands, apart from Hispaniola. Its range and intensity were also greatly reduced in China, India and South Africa and, at least temporarily, in Sri Lanka. In several Latin American countries much progress was made, but this has been reversed following the abandonment of DDT without any replacement being brought into use (Roberts et al. 1997). After eradication from the Soviet Union in the 1960s, malaria epidemics are now returning to Azerbaijan and Tadjikistan following the collapse of the health system and the descent into civil war (Nikolaeva 1996). In a few instances, unlooked-for eradication has been claimed to have occurred locally as a result of DDT house spraying of species which are strongly endophilic, i.e., with a strong tendency to rest in houses. There was much enthusiasm for SIT for mosquitoes in the 1960s and early 70s but it went into eclipse, largely for political reasons (Anonymous 1975). In the 70s, it was shown in various species of mosquito that chemically sterilised males, or males carrying translocations and a meiotic drive factor or cytoplasmically incompatible with the local population, could compete reasonably well for mates as shown by induction of sterility in the eggs laid by wild females (Lofgren et al. 1974, Grover et al. 1976a, b)

1998-06-02

25

Malaria mosquito control using edible fish in western Kenya: preliminary findings of a controlled study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological control methods are once again being given much research focus for malaria vector control. This is largely due to the emerging threat of strong resistance to pesticides. Larvivorous fish have been used for over 100 years in mosquito control and many species have proved effective. In the western Kenyan highlands the larvivorous fish Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes: Cichlidae) (formerly Tilapia nilotica) is commonly farmed and eaten but has not been previously tested in the field for malaria mosquito control. Methods This fish was introduced into abandoned fishponds at an altitude of 1,880 m and the effect measured over six months on the numbers of mosquito immatures. For comparison an untreated control pond was used. During this time, all ponds were regularly cleared of emergent vegetation and fish re-stocking was not needed. Significant autocorrelation was removed from the time series data, and t-tests were used to investigate within a pond and within a mosquito type any differences before and after the introduction of O. niloticus. Mulla's formula was also used on the raw data to calculate the percentage reduction of the mosquito larvae. Results After O. niloticus introduction, mosquito densities immediately dropped in the treated ponds but increased in the control pond. This increase was apparently due to climatic factors. Mulla's formula was applied which corrects for that natural tendency to increase. The results showed that after 15 weeks the fish caused a more than 94% reduction in both Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the treated ponds, and more than 75% reduction in culicine mosquitoes. There was a highly significantly reduction in A. gambiae s.l. numbers when compared to pre-treatment levels. Conclusion This study reports the first field trial data on O. niloticus for malaria mosquito control and shows that this species, already a popular food fish in western Kenya, is an apparently sustainable mosquito control tool which also offers a source of protein and income to people in rural areas. There should be no problem with acceptance of this malaria control method since the local communities already farm this fish species.

Howard Annabel FV; Zhou Guofa; Omlin Francois X

2007-01-01

26

Beta-cyfluthrin, a synthetic pyrethroid for mosquito control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beta-cyfluthrin (OMS 3051), a new synthetic pyrethroid and one of the stereoisomers of cyfluthrin, was studied for insecticidal activity against eight mosquito species. Its larvicidal activity with LC50 values of 5.62 x 10(-5) and 1.19 x 10(-4) mg/l respectively for Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was comparable with that of deltamethrin. This pyrethroid was more effective against the larvae of Armigeres subalbatus (LC50 - 7.76 x 10(-7)) and the adults of Anopheles culicifacies LT50 - 27.76 min at 2.0 mu/cm2) than the other species tested. Residual efficacy at 50 mg(ai)/m2 was more persistent (for 14-25 weeks) on thatch and asbestos among the four treated surfaces. This compound also elicited oviposition deterrent activity at 0.001 mg/l against Cx.quinquefasciatus. beta-cyfluthrin is a good insecticide for mosquito control. However, care should be exercised while using it as a larvicide in breeding habitats considering its toxicity to fish. PMID:1359650

Vasuki, V; Rajavel, A R

1992-06-01

27

Beta-cyfluthrin, a synthetic pyrethroid for mosquito control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Beta-cyfluthrin (OMS 3051), a new synthetic pyrethroid and one of the stereoisomers of cyfluthrin, was studied for insecticidal activity against eight mosquito species. Its larvicidal activity with LC50 values of 5.62 x 10(-5) and 1.19 x 10(-4) mg/l respectively for Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was comparable with that of deltamethrin. This pyrethroid was more effective against the larvae of Armigeres subalbatus (LC50 - 7.76 x 10(-7)) and the adults of Anopheles culicifacies LT50 - 27.76 min at 2.0 mu/cm2) than the other species tested. Residual efficacy at 50 mg(ai)/m2 was more persistent (for 14-25 weeks) on thatch and asbestos among the four treated surfaces. This compound also elicited oviposition deterrent activity at 0.001 mg/l against Cx.quinquefasciatus. beta-cyfluthrin is a good insecticide for mosquito control. However, care should be exercised while using it as a larvicide in breeding habitats considering its toxicity to fish.

Vasuki V; Rajavel AR

1992-06-01

28

Simulations to compare efficacies of tetravalent dengue vaccines and mosquito vector control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY Infection with dengue, the most prevalent mosquito-borne virus, manifests as dengue fever (DF) or the more fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). DHF occurs mainly when an individual who has acquired antibodies to one serotype is inoculated with another serotype. It was reported that mosquito control may have increased the incidence of DF and DHF due to age-dependency in manifesting these illnesses or an immunological mechanism. Tetravalent dengue vaccine is currently being tested in clinical trials. However, seroconversions to all four serotypes were achieved only after three doses. Therefore, vaccines may predispose vaccinees to the risk of developing DHF in future infections. This study employed an individual-based computer simulation, to emulate mosquito control and vaccination, incorporating seroconversion rates reported from actual clinical trials. It was found that mosquito control alone would have increased incidence of DF and DHF in areas of high mosquito density. A vaccination programme with very high coverage, even with a vaccine of suboptimal seroconversion rates, attenuated possible surges in the incidence of DF and DHF which would have been caused by insufficient reduction in mosquito abundance. DHF cases attributable to vaccine-derived enhancement were fewer than DHF cases prevented by a vaccine with considerably high (although not perfect) seroconversion rates. These predictions may justify vaccination programmes, at least in areas of high mosquito abundance. In such areas, mosquito control programmes should be conducted only after the vaccination programme with a high coverage has been initiated.

Thavara U; Tawatsin A; Nagao Y

2013-08-01

29

Use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) and Shredded Waste Polystyrene (SWAP) Beads for Control of Mosquitoes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases to human. There are several measures for control of larvae. As part of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) program, the utility of floating layers of polystyrene beads (EPS) is a po­ten­tial alternative in habitats of mosquito larva. EPS bead...

A Soltani; H Vatandoost; H Jabbari; AR Mesdaghinia; AH Mahvi; M Younesian; AA Hanafi-Bojd

30

Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus-group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site's biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying "best practices" for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission.

Impoinvil DE; Ahmad S; Troyo A; Keating J; Githeko AK; Mbogo CM; Kibe L; Githure JI; Gad AM; Hassan AN; Orshan L; Warburg A; Calderón-Arguedas O; Sánchez-Loría VM; Velit-Suarez R; Chadee DD; Novak RJ; Beier JC

2007-10-01

31

Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus-group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site's biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying "best practices" for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:17316882

Impoinvil, Daniel E; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I; Gad, Adel M; Hassan, Ali N; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D; Novak, Robert J; Beier, John C

2007-02-20

32

Transfer of toxin genes to alternate bacterial hosts for mosquito control  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Mosquitoes are vector of serious human and animal diseases, such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, among others. The use of biological control agents has provide an environmentally safe and highly specific alternative to the use of chemical insecticides in the control of vector borne diseases. Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus produce toxic proteins to mosquito larvae. Great progress has been made on the biochemical and molecular characterization of such proteins a (more) nd the genes encoding them. Nevertheless, the low residuality of these biological insecticides is one of the major drawbacks. This article present some interesting aspects of the mosquito larvae feeding habits and review the attempts that have been made to genetically engineer microorganisms that while are used by mosquito larvae as a food source should express the Bacillus toxin genes in order to improve the residuality and stability in the mosquito breeding ponds.

Orduz, Sergio; Restrepo, Nora; Patiño, Maria M; Rojas, William

1995-02-01

33

Method for Dispensing Planaria (Dugesia dorotocephala) for Mosquito Control,  

Science.gov (United States)

Predation studies of mosquitoes by the planarian dugesia dorotocephala have since shown that D. dorotocephala is an effective predator on all larval stages of mosquitoes. Densities of 25 planaria/m2 have been cited as sufficient to effect significant cont...

W. M. Darby L. R. Boobar M. R. Sardelis

1988-01-01

34

Mosquitoes Associated with Ditch-Plugged and Control Tidal Salt Marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November) ditches were plugged near their outlets in two (‘experimental’) marshes with the aim to restore their natural tidal hydrology. The three other marshes were not plugged. Marshes were sampled from July to September in 2009 by using standard dip count method. A total of 2,457 mosquito larvae representing six species were collected on 15.4% (86/557) of all sample occasions and 399 adults representing four mosquito species were collected from landing counts. Aedes sollicitans, Anopheles bradleyi and Culex salinarius were the most common species collected in larval habitats, and Ae. sollicitans was the most common adult collected. Wooded habitats had more total mosquitoes, were also more frequently occupied by mosquitoes and had higher densities of mosquitoes than marsh habitats. Almost all larvae collected from marshes were from one experimental and one control site. The majority of larvae at the control site were Ae. sollicitans in marsh pannes while Cx. salinarius, An. bradleyi, Ae. cantator, and Ae. sollicitans were collected in high numbers from ditches at the experimental site. We found a difference in the proportion of marsh pannes occupied by Ae. sollicitans but not total mosquitoes sampled 4–5 days after spring tide events than on other occasions. Salinity measures of 42 larval habitats showed lower median salinity in mosquito-occupied habitats (11.5 ppt) than unoccupied habitats (20.1 ppt), and in habitats in wooded areas followed by ditches and pannes in marsh areas. The results of this study suggest that wooded areas adjacent to salt marshes may be a substantial source of biting adult mosquitoes usually associated with salt marsh habitats and that ditch plugging may alter the productivity of mosquitoes on some marshes. We recommend future studies consider mosquito productivity from habitats surrounding salt marshes, and if assessments of marsh alterations are a goal, compare multiple experimental and control areas before and after treatments to determine if alterations have a consistent impact on regional mosquito production.

Paul T. Leisnham; Sarah Sandoval-Mohapatra

2011-01-01

35

Abundance of water bodies is critical to guide mosquito larval control interventions and predict risk of mosquito-borne diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Characterization of mosquito breeding habitats is often accomplished with the goal of guiding larval control interventions as well as the goal of identifying areas with higher disease risk. This characterization often relies on statistical measures of association (e.g., regression coefficients) between covariates and presence/absence or abundance of larva. Here we contend that these measures of association are not enough; researchers should also study the spatial and temporal distribution of water bodies. We provide recommendations on how current methodology may be improved to adequately take into account the distribution of water bodies.

Valle D; Zaitchik B; Feingold B; Spangler K; Pan W

2013-01-01

36

Diffusion Model On The Efficacy Of Larvicide In Antilarval Operation Of Mosquito Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito control is being performed under chemical, biological and genetic and altogether it is called integrated vector control. In developing countries like India, chemical control has been given priority. Chemicals used as adulticide is becoming resistance among mosquitoes compared to larvicide. Further, the destruction of immature (larvae) stages of mosquitoes is as effective as its distribution is limited whereas adult mosquitoes turned to terrestrial mode of life and its distribution is based on its flight range, habitat, aggregation of man and animals. In this research paper, selective spray treatment over larvae of mosquitoes of a semi-infinite pool is analyzed using diffusion model. Spray chemical is conceived to spread on the surface with time and in space. A critical concentration of spray chemical is envisaged for assumed death of mosquito larvae. Diffusion is modeled Fick' law. Spray losses are lumped into a first order term. Analytical solution of the resulting partial differential equation for various values of diffusivity and loss rate constant are plotted and interpreted. The model would be useful to appraise beforehand how far and for how long spray would be effective and how much of spray chemical is required for effectiveness within specified distance and time.

Basker, P.; Kumar, T. Ramesh; Prabu, S. Milton; Hemalatha, S.; Elango, S.; Padmanabhan, P.; Asokan, R.

2008-01-01

37

Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. METHODS: The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. RESULTS: Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was preferred; however a transgenic release that satisfied certain requirements was usually acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Although there were some dissenters, the majority of participants were pragmatic towards a release of GM mosquitoes. An array of social and cultural issues associated with malaria, mosquitoes and genetic engineering became apparent. If these can be successfully addressed, then social acceptance among the populations surveyed seems promising.

Marshall JM; Touré MB; Traore MM; Famenini S; Taylor CE

2010-01-01

38

The use of bacterial larvicides in mosquito and black fly control programmes in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacillus spp. based larvides are increasingly replacing, with numerous advantages, chemical insecticides in programmes for controlling black fly and mosquito populations. Brazil was among the pioneers in adopting Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i) to control black flies. However, the major current mosquito control programme in Brazil, the Programme for Eradication of Aedes aegypti launched in 1997, only recently decided to replace temephos by B.t.i based larvicides, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. In the last decade, works developed by research groups in Brazilian institutions have generated a significant contribution to this subject through the isolation of B. sphaericus new strains, the development of new products and the implementation of field trials of Bacillus efficacy against mosquito species under different environmental conditions.

Regis Lêda; Silva Sinara B da; Melo-Santos Maria Alice V

2000-01-01

39

The use of bacterial larvicides in mosquito and black fly control programmes in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Bacillus spp. based larvides are increasingly replacing, with numerous advantages, chemical insecticides in programmes for controlling black fly and mosquito populations. Brazil was among the pioneers in adopting Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i) to control black flies. However, the major current mosquito control programme in Brazil, the Programme for Eradication of Aedes aegypti launched in 1997, only recently decided to replace temephos by B.t.i based larvicide (more) s, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. In the last decade, works developed by research groups in Brazilian institutions have generated a significant contribution to this subject through the isolation of B. sphaericus new strains, the development of new products and the implementation of field trials of Bacillus efficacy against mosquito species under different environmental conditions.

Regis, Lêda; Silva, Sinara B da; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice V

2000-01-01

40

Expression of mosquito-larvicidal toxin genes under the control of a native promoter in Enterobacter amnigenus An11.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterobacter amnigenus An11, that can colonize the gut of mosquito larva, is an alternative toxin-producing host to be used as a mosquito control since it is able to float in the feeding zone of mosquito larvae. To produce mosquito-larvicidal toxins in this bacterium, a native promoter has been identified from its genomic DNA. The promoter exhibited consensus sequences for -35 and -10 regions of bacterial promoters and constitutively drove the expression of gfp. This promoter was inserted into recombinant plasmids upstream of promoter-free cyt2Aa2 from Bacillus thuringiensis and mtx2 from Bacillus sphaericus. Results demonstrated that Cyt2Aa2 and Mtx2 are constitutively produced without induction. The recombinant E. amnigenus showed toxicity against mosquito larvae, demonstrating a potential to be applied in a mosquito control program. PMID:23609231

Toopaang, Wachiraporn; Jongsareejit, Boonsri; Soonsanga, Sumarin; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang

2013-04-23

 
 
 
 
41

Expression of mosquito-larvicidal toxin genes under the control of a native promoter in Enterobacter amnigenus An11.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enterobacter amnigenus An11, that can colonize the gut of mosquito larva, is an alternative toxin-producing host to be used as a mosquito control since it is able to float in the feeding zone of mosquito larvae. To produce mosquito-larvicidal toxins in this bacterium, a native promoter has been identified from its genomic DNA. The promoter exhibited consensus sequences for -35 and -10 regions of bacterial promoters and constitutively drove the expression of gfp. This promoter was inserted into recombinant plasmids upstream of promoter-free cyt2Aa2 from Bacillus thuringiensis and mtx2 from Bacillus sphaericus. Results demonstrated that Cyt2Aa2 and Mtx2 are constitutively produced without induction. The recombinant E. amnigenus showed toxicity against mosquito larvae, demonstrating a potential to be applied in a mosquito control program.

Toopaang W; Jongsareejit B; Soonsanga S; Promdonkoy B

2013-08-01

42

Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: endemics and emerging outbreaks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. PMID:23608633

Seirin Lee, S; Baker, R E; Gaffney, E A; White, S M

2013-04-19

43

Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: endemics and emerging outbreaks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes.

Seirin Lee S; Baker RE; Gaffney EA; White SM

2013-08-01

44

MOSQUITO VECTOR CONTROL AND BIOLOGY IN LATIN AMERICA- An 18TH SYMPOSIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The 18th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 74th Annual Meeting in Sparks, NV, in March 2008. The principal objective, as for the previous 17 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control speci...

45

Ross, macdonald, and a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ronald Ross and George Macdonald are credited with developing a mathematical model of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission. A systematic historical review suggests that several mathematicians and scientists contributed to development of the Ross-Macdonald model over a period of 70 years. Ross developed two different mathematical models, Macdonald a third, and various "Ross-Macdonald" mathematical models exist. Ross-Macdonald models are best defined by a consensus set of assumptions. The mathematical model is just one part of a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens that also includes epidemiological and entomological concepts and metrics for measuring transmission. All the basic elements of the theory had fallen into place by the end of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP, 1955-1969) with the concept of vectorial capacity, methods for measuring key components of transmission by mosquitoes, and a quantitative theory of vector control. The Ross-Macdonald theory has since played a central role in development of research on mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and the development of strategies for mosquito-borne disease prevention.

Smith DL; Battle KE; Hay SI; Barker CM; Scott TW; McKenzie FE

2012-01-01

46

Laboratory evaluation of the bioinsecticide Spinosad for mosquito control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinosad, a naturally occurring product of the fermentation of the bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa, is a highly effective bioinsecticide against a broad range of agriculturally important insect pests, and this agent has an excellent environmental and mammalian toxicological profile. In this study the efficacy of a Spinosad-based product (Laser 4.8% emulsifiable concentrate) was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against laboratory-reared mosquito strains of 3 species of medical importance: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex pipiens. Spinosad was particularly effective against larval Aedes and Culex, with a less marked activity against anophelines (24-h median lethal concentration = 0.0096, 0.0064, and 0.039 mg/liter, respectively), showing a persistence of the insecticide action of about 6 wk in laboratory containers. The activity of the Spinosad-based product against adult mosquitoes (toxicity by ingestion and a possible irritant or repellent effect on gravid females) also was evaluated. Results are discussed and compared with those available in the literature. PMID:16646328

Romi, R; Proietti, S; Di Luca, M; Cristofaro, M

2006-03-01

47

Laboratory evaluation of the bioinsecticide Spinosad for mosquito control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spinosad, a naturally occurring product of the fermentation of the bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa, is a highly effective bioinsecticide against a broad range of agriculturally important insect pests, and this agent has an excellent environmental and mammalian toxicological profile. In this study the efficacy of a Spinosad-based product (Laser 4.8% emulsifiable concentrate) was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against laboratory-reared mosquito strains of 3 species of medical importance: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex pipiens. Spinosad was particularly effective against larval Aedes and Culex, with a less marked activity against anophelines (24-h median lethal concentration = 0.0096, 0.0064, and 0.039 mg/liter, respectively), showing a persistence of the insecticide action of about 6 wk in laboratory containers. The activity of the Spinosad-based product against adult mosquitoes (toxicity by ingestion and a possible irritant or repellent effect on gravid females) also was evaluated. Results are discussed and compared with those available in the literature.

Romi R; Proietti S; Di Luca M; Cristofaro M

2006-03-01

48

Use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) and Shredded Waste Polystyrene (SWAP) Beads for Control of Mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases to human. There are several measures for control of larvae. As part of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) program, the utility of floating layers of polystyrene beads (EPS) is a po­ten­tial alternative in habitats of mosquito larva. EPS beads prevent oviposition of mosquito as well as killing the im­ma­ture stages by forming a tick layer on the water surface.  They are cheap, environmentally safe and do not need fre­quent application and remain on the surface of water for long time. The objective of the current study was to asses the effectiveness of two types of polystyrene beads of (EPS) and (SWAP) for control of mosquito larvae under labo­ra­tory conditions."nMethods: Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were used for experimental purposes. In each tray 250 lar­vae of late 3rd and early 4th instars were introduced. The experiment was conducted on 4 replicates for An. ste­phensi, Cu. quinquefasciatus and combination of both. Emerging of adult mosquitoes were calculated every day until the end of experiments."nResults: Mortality rate and Inhibition of Emerge (IE) for Cu. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and combination of both spe­cies was 97.8%, 100% and 99.07%, respectively using EPS. In average, EPS was able to kill 98.9% of lar­vae. The fig­ures with SWAP were 63%, 91.05% and 72.65%, respectively. The average mortality for mosquitoes was 75.57%"nConclusion: EPS and SWAP beads can be very effective and practical for elimination of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefas­ciatus under the laboratory conditions.

A Soltani; H Vatandoost; H Jabbari; AR Mesdaghinia; AH Mahvi; M Younesian; AA Hanafi-Bojd; S Bozorgzadeh; MR Abai; A Pakari; H Shabkhiz

2008-01-01

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Knowledge of mosquitos in relation to public and domestic control activities in the cities of Dar es Salaam and Tanga.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study of community awareness of mosquitos and related subjects in the residential areas of two Tanzanian cities (Dar es Salaam and Tanga) showed that residents were well aware of mosquitos. Almost all claimed to use some form of domestic mosquito control product for their personal protection, and many spend a significant portion of the household income on this. The problems of nuisance-biting and malaria transmission are usually not separated and are considered to be the result of poor environmental hygiene, for which both residents and local authorities are responsible. Although Culex mosquitos are not a primary target of the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP), the persistence of nuisance-biting has made residents sceptical and dissatisfied with insecticide spraying. The residents' priorities are evidently not the same as those of the health authorities, yet mutual cooperation is essential. In order to maintain community support, campaigns aimed at malaria vectors should consider the need for additional measures to control Culex mosquitos, such as those now being tried by the UMCP. Mosquito breeding sites are non-specifically associated with rubbish and standing water of all kinds, and so the actions that the community considers necessary for mosquito source reduction tend to be poorly targeted. Residents do not recognize that some sources produce malaria mosquitos while others produce nuisance mosquitos. The environmental anti-mosquito measures currently promoted by health education and other forms of propaganda are also poorly targeted. While some of them are directed at important Culex breeding sites, others are aimed at sites of little importance for mosquitos of any kind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Stephens C; Masamu ET; Kiama MG; Keto AJ; Kinenekejo M; Ichimori K; Lines J

1995-01-01

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A theoretical approach to predicting the success of genetic manipulation of malaria mosquitoes in malaria control  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that have been genetically modified to better encapsulate the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are being considered as a possible tool in the control of malaria. Hopes for this have been raised with the identification of genes involved in the encapsulation response and with advances in the tools required to transform mosquitoes. However, we have only very little understanding of the conditions that would allow such genes to spread in natural populations. Methods We present here a theoretical model that combines population genetical and epidemiological processes, thereby allowing one to predict not only these conditions (intensity of transmission, evolutionary cost of resistance, tools used to drive the genes) but also the impact of the spread of refractoriness on the prevalence of the disease. Results The main conclusions are 1) that efficient transposons will generally be able to drive genes that confer refractoriness through populations even if there is a substantial (evolutionary) cost of refractoriness, but 2) that this will decrease malaria prevalence in the human population substantially only if refractoriness is close to 100% effective. Conclusions If refractoriness is less than 100% effective (because of, for example, environmentally induced variation in the effectiveness of the mosquito's immune response), control programmes based on genetic manipulation of mosquitoes will have very little impact on the epidemiology of malaria, at least in areas with intense transmission.

Boëte Christophe; Koella Jacob C

2002-01-01

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Wetland management strategies that enhance waterfowl habitats can also control mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two studies in California wetlands and a third in Minnesota wetlands indicate that management practices designed to enhance habitat quality for waterfowl can concurrently reduce mosquito problems. In a seasonally flooded pickleweed wetland in Suisun Marsh, Solano Co., CA, we demonstrated that reducing plant-cover by 50% increased benthic densities of chironomid midge and dytiscid beetle larvae; these insects can be important in waterfowl diets. This manipulation also concentrated Aedes melanimon and Culiseta inornata mosquito larvae along wetland perimeters; thus, the need for control measures was greatly restricted spatially. A study in 9 experimental ponds in Suisun Marsh demonstrated that higher water levels could enhance populations of the macroinvertebrates important in waterfowl diets; general macroinvertebrate densities were higher at 60 cm depths than 20 cm or 40 cm depths. In contrast, Cs. inornata densities were lowest at 60 cm depths and highest at 20 cm depths. A study conducted in a perennial-water cattail wetland in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, demonstrated that a temporary water-level drawdown, designed to enhance waterfowl habitat quality of perennial-water wetlands, also reduced densities of Coquillettidia perturbans mosquito larvae. These mosquitoes disappeared immediately after the drawdown, but even after water depths were restored to pre-drawdown levels, significant numbers did not reappear until 4 years post-drawdown. Studies in 202 other Minnesota wetlands also demonstrated the susceptibility of Cq. perturbans populations to drawdown, but the impact of drawdown was greater in stands of emergent cattail than in floating cattail.

Batzer DP; Resh VH

1992-06-01

52

Wetland management strategies that enhance waterfowl habitats can also control mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two studies in California wetlands and a third in Minnesota wetlands indicate that management practices designed to enhance habitat quality for waterfowl can concurrently reduce mosquito problems. In a seasonally flooded pickleweed wetland in Suisun Marsh, Solano Co., CA, we demonstrated that reducing plant-cover by 50% increased benthic densities of chironomid midge and dytiscid beetle larvae; these insects can be important in waterfowl diets. This manipulation also concentrated Aedes melanimon and Culiseta inornata mosquito larvae along wetland perimeters; thus, the need for control measures was greatly restricted spatially. A study in 9 experimental ponds in Suisun Marsh demonstrated that higher water levels could enhance populations of the macroinvertebrates important in waterfowl diets; general macroinvertebrate densities were higher at 60 cm depths than 20 cm or 40 cm depths. In contrast, Cs. inornata densities were lowest at 60 cm depths and highest at 20 cm depths. A study conducted in a perennial-water cattail wetland in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, demonstrated that a temporary water-level drawdown, designed to enhance waterfowl habitat quality of perennial-water wetlands, also reduced densities of Coquillettidia perturbans mosquito larvae. These mosquitoes disappeared immediately after the drawdown, but even after water depths were restored to pre-drawdown levels, significant numbers did not reappear until 4 years post-drawdown. Studies in 202 other Minnesota wetlands also demonstrated the susceptibility of Cq. perturbans populations to drawdown, but the impact of drawdown was greater in stands of emergent cattail than in floating cattail. PMID:1431852

Batzer, D P; Resh, V H

1992-06-01

53

Availability and utility of local fishes of Shahjahanpur for mosquito control.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of fishes in Shahjahanpur in different aquatic habitats revealed 35 indigenous fish species. Out of 35 fish species, 24 were found feeding on mosquito larvae of which 6 species, viz. Chela bacaila, Puntius stigma, Rasbora daniconius, Esomus danricus, Colisa fasciatus and Danio sp., had good larvivorous potential. Most of the fish species preferred to feed on III and IV instar larvae. In the presence of planktonic food, the consumption capacity of fishes for mosquito larvae was lesser on third day (D3) of observation than on first day (D1). The difference in the consumption of mosquito larvae between D1 and D3 was significant (P < 0.01). Similarly, difference in the feeding capacity of fishes in the months of September and January was highly significant (P < 0.001). But there was no seasonal variation in the preference of instar-wise consumption. Indigenous fish species such as C. fasciatus, E. danricus, P. stigma, R. daniconius and Danio sp. could therefore play a significant role in controlling mosquito breeding in this area. PMID:8100538

Haq, S; Prasad, H; Prasad, R N; Sharma, T

1993-03-01

54

Environmental factors affecting efficacy of bifenthrin-treated vegetation for mosquito control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of pesticide-treated vegetation as a barrier for control of nuisance and disease-bearing mosquitoes has become an option for mosquito management for home owners and public health and mosquito control professionals. Potted wax myrtle and azalea plants were treated with bifenthrin (0.79% AI) at maximum label rate using backpack and electrostatic sprayers and exposed to various treatments that could affect the residual degradation of the applied pesticides. Treatments included leaf aspect, simulated rainfall, shade, and natural sun exposure with the residual effectiveness of leaves examined in tarsal contact Petri dish assays using laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the adaxial (top) or abaxial (bottom) surfaces of electrostatically or backpack-treated leaves. Significant differences existed between application method, plant species, and exposure with most significant effects between weeks 1 and 4. Simulated heavy rainfalls applied 3 times weekly reduced knockdown by leaves treated with electrostatic and backpack methods with reductions seen as soon as 1 wk after treatment. Reductions were seen with both wax myrtle and azalea leaves and after 1, 4, and 24 h contact of mosquitoes to leaves. Placement of plants with full exposure to sunlight also significantly reduced efficacy compared to plants placed in the shade. Differences were observed most often for 4 and 24 h knockdown counts, and significant decreases were seen from week 4 onwards. Clearly factors such as rain and exposure to sun impact degradation of efficacy of bifenthrin-treated vegetation in the field. Degradation of bifenthrin efficacy was slowest in sites protected from rain and sun, which coincide with preferred resting site locations for many mosquito species.

Allan SA; Kline DL; Walker T

2009-09-01

55

Sustainable control of mosquito larvae in the field by the combined actions of the biological insecticide Bti and natural competitors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Integrated management of mosquitoes is becoming increasingly important, particularly in relation to avoiding recolonization of ponds after larvicide treatment. We conducted for the first time field experiments that involved exposing natural populations of the mosquito species Culex pipiens to: a) application of the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), b) the introduction of natural competitors (a crustacean community composed mainly of Daphnia spp.), or c) a combined treatment that involved both introduction of a crustacean community and the application of Bti. The treatment that involved only the introduction of crustaceans had no significant effect on mosquito larval populations, while treatment with Bti alone caused only a significant reduction in the abundance of mosquito larvae in the short-term (within 3-10 days after treatment). In contrast, the combined treatment rapidly reduced the abundance of mosquito larvae, which remained low throughout the entire observation period of 28 days. Growth of the introduced crustacean communities was favored by the immediate reduction in the abundance of mosquito larvae following Bti administration, thus preventing recolonization of ponds by mosquito larvae at the late period (days 14-28 after treatment). Both competition and the temporal order of establishment of different species are hence important mechanisms for efficient and sustainable mosquito control.

Kroeger I; Liess M; Dziock F; Duquesne S

2013-06-01

56

Quantifying the mosquito's sweet tooth: modelling the effectiveness of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) for malaria vector control  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Current vector control strategies focus largely on indoor measures, such as long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS); however mosquitoes frequently feed on sugar sources outdoors, inviting the possibility of novel control strategies. Attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB), either sprayed on vegetation or provided in outdoor bait stations, have been shown to significantly reduce mosquito densities in these settings. Methods Simple models of mosquito sugar-feeding behaviour were fitted to data from an ATSB field trial in Mali and used to estimate sugar-feeding rates and the potential of ATSB to control mosquito populations. The model and fitted parameters were then incorporated into a larger integrated vector management (IVM) model to assess the potential contribution of ATSB to future IVM programmes. Results In the Mali experimental setting, the model suggests that about half of female mosquitoes fed on ATSB solution per day, dying within several hours of ingesting the toxin. Using a model incorporating the number of gonotrophic cycles completed by female mosquitoes, a higher sugar-feeding rate was estimated for younger mosquitoes than for older mosquitoes. Extending this model to incorporate other vector control interventions suggests that an IVM programme based on both ATSB and LLINs may substantially reduce mosquito density and survival rates in this setting, thereby substantially reducing parasite transmission. This is predicted to exceed the impact of LLINs in combination with IRS provided ATSB feeding rates are 50% or more of Mali experimental levels. In addition, ATSB is predicted to be particularly effective against Anopheles arabiensis, which is relatively exophilic and therefore less affected by IRS and LLINs. Conclusions These results suggest that high coverage with a combination of LLINs and ATSB could result in substantial reductions in malaria transmission in this setting. Further field studies of ATSB in other settings are needed to assess the potential of ATSB as a component in future IVM malaria control strategies.

2013-01-01

57

Investigating preferences for mosquito-control technologies in Mozambique with latent class analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: It is common practice to seek the opinions of future end-users during the development of innovations. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate latent classes of users in Mozambique based on their preferences for mosquito-control technology attributes and covariates of these classes, as well as to explore which current technologies meet these preferences. METHODS: Surveys were administered in five rural villages in Mozambique. The data were analysed with latent class analysis. RESULTS: This study showed that users' preferences for malaria technologies varied, and people could be categorized into four latent classes based on shared preferences. The largest class, constituting almost half of the respondents, would not avoid a mosquito-control technology because of its cost, heat, odour, potential to make other health issues worse, ease of keeping clean, or inadequate mosquito control. The other three groups are characterized by the attributes which would make them avoid a technology; these groups are labelled as the bites class, by-products class, and multiple-concerns class. Statistically significant covariates included literacy, self-efficacy, willingness to try new technologies, and perceived seriousness of malaria for the household. CONCLUSIONS: To become widely diffused, best practices suggest that end-users should be included in product development to ensure that preferred attributes or traits are considered. This study demonstrates that end-user preferences can be very different and that one malaria control technology will not satisfy everyone.

Smith RA; Barclay VC; Findeis JL

2011-01-01

58

Insecticide substitutes for DDT to control mosquitoes may be causes of several diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria continues to be a public health problem in Bangladesh, despite efforts in the 1960s to eradicate the vectors through the use of DDT. At one point, eradication of malaria was acclaimed but later on it reappeared. The use of DDT is no more legally allowed in Bangladesh, which has been officially replaced by a number organophosphates and/or synthetic pyrethroids and their combinations in addition to the integrated vector management (IVM) package. IVM being a community approach is still to go a long way to be mass popular. Adulticides, larvicides, residual sprays, mosquito coil, insecticide-impregnated curtain, aerosol, etc. still serve as the major weapons of mosquito control. Thus, mosquito control still mostly depends on chemical insecticides. Although the use of DDT is banned in Bangladesh, there are reports on its illegal use in different forms. Moreover, there is tons of leftover DDT in Bangladesh, which is likely to cause several diseases. As per one report, about 500 MTs of DDT stockpiles are lying in the Medical Sub-Depots at Chittagong for over a period of 26 years. DDT is a persistent organic pollutant pesticide, which can cause diseases like cancer, endocrine disorder, disruption of immune system, embryonic abnormality, reproductive disorder, etc. Other chemical insecticides, which are replacing DDT, are also not free of hazardous impacts. IVM thus appears to be a wise approach requiring concerted efforts for the management of mosquito to control malaria. Such an IVM comprises use of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. israelensis, methoprene, biocontrol agents, cleaning of breeding sites, pyrethroid-impregnated curtain, etc. Therefore, a wise effort should be adopted to completely stop the use of DDT, eliminate its stockpiles wherever they are in Bangladesh and to popularise the IVM, not the chemicals-based alternatives throughout the country.

Rahman MM

2013-04-01

59

AREA SCALE EVALUATION OF SUMITHION (OMS-43) FOR CONTROL OF ADULT ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES IN SOUTHERN IRAN  

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Full Text Available A field trial evaluation of Sumithion (OMS-43) was carried out (1972) in the Mamasani area, Kazeroun, Southern Iran, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this insecticide for the control of adult anopheline mosquitoes.The technical difficulties encountered in the area and related to malaria were the resistance of A. stephensi to DDT and Dieldrin, the exophilic and exophagic habits of A. d’thali, A. superpictus and A. fluviatilos and the ecology of the inhabitants.Sumithion spraying, wdp, 2 g/m2, covered 57 villages with a population of 11,445.One round of spraying was implemented in August at the peak of activity of A. stephensi. The effectiveness of Sumition was evaluated by pyrethrum spray, exit trap, night bait and outdoor ollections, as well as by age determination of female mosquitoes and biological evaluation.Pyrethrum spray catches showed a remarkable reduction in indoor resting density of A. stephensi. Exit trap observations indicated 100% mortality within a 24- hour recovery period. The man biting rate was reduced during the course of collection. On the basis of the results obtained, it was concluded that Sumithion is an effective insecticide against anopheline mosquitoes and controls A. stephensi, under the conditions of this experiment, for about two months.

N.Eshghy; A.Mesghali; Gh. Behbahani; M.Motabar

1973-01-01

60

Mosquito-borne disease surveillance by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

For a few years, a series of traditionally tropical mosquito-borne diseases, such as chikungunya fever and dengue, have posed challenges to national public health authorities in the European region. Other diseases have re-emerged, e.g. malaria in Greece, or spread to other countries, e.g. West Nile fever. These diseases are reportable within the European Union (EU), and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control collects information in various ways to provide EU member states with topical assessments of disease threats, risks and trends for prompt and appropriate public health action. Using disease-specific expert networks, the European Surveillance System (TESSy) collects standardized comparable information on all statutory communicable diseases in a database. In addition, the event-based surveillance aims to detect potential public health threats early, and to allow timely response and support to blood deferral decisions for pathogens that can be transmitted through blood donation. Laboratory capacity for early detection is implemented through external quality assessments. Other activities include the development of guidelines for the surveillance of mosquito vectors, and the production of regularly updated maps on the currently known occurrence of mosquito vector species. PMID:23607415

Zeller, H; Marrama, L; Sudre, B; Van Bortel, W; Warns-Petit, E

2013-04-22

 
 
 
 
61

Mosquito-borne disease surveillance by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For a few years, a series of traditionally tropical mosquito-borne diseases, such as chikungunya fever and dengue, have posed challenges to national public health authorities in the European region. Other diseases have re-emerged, e.g. malaria in Greece, or spread to other countries, e.g. West Nile fever. These diseases are reportable within the European Union (EU), and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control collects information in various ways to provide EU member states with topical assessments of disease threats, risks and trends for prompt and appropriate public health action. Using disease-specific expert networks, the European Surveillance System (TESSy) collects standardized comparable information on all statutory communicable diseases in a database. In addition, the event-based surveillance aims to detect potential public health threats early, and to allow timely response and support to blood deferral decisions for pathogens that can be transmitted through blood donation. Laboratory capacity for early detection is implemented through external quality assessments. Other activities include the development of guidelines for the surveillance of mosquito vectors, and the production of regularly updated maps on the currently known occurrence of mosquito vector species.

Zeller H; Marrama L; Sudre B; Van Bortel W; Warns-Petit E

2013-08-01

62

Quantitative trait loci mapping of genome regions controlling permethrin resistance in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever flaviviruses. Permethrin is an insecticide used to suppress Ae. aegypti adult populations but metabolic and target site resistance to pyrethroids has evolved in many locations worldwide. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling permethrin survival in Ae. aegypti were mapped in an F(3) advanced intercross line. Parents came from a collection of mosquitoes from Isla Mujeres, México, that had been selected for permethrin resistance for two generations and a reference permethrin-susceptible strain originally from New Orleans. Following a 1-hr permethrin exposure, 439 F(3) adult mosquitoes were phenotyped as knockdown resistant, knocked down/recovered, or dead. For QTL mapping, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at 22 loci with potential antixenobiotic activity including genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYP), esterases (EST), or glutathione transferases (GST) and at 12 previously mapped loci. Seven antixenobiotic genes mapped to chromosome I, six to chromosome II, and nine to chromosome III. Two QTL of major effect were detected on chromosome III. One corresponds with a SNP previously associated with permethrin resistance in the para sodium channel gene and the second with the CCEunk7o esterase marker. Additional QTL but of relatively minor effect were also found. These included two sex-linked QTL on chromosome I affecting knockdown and recovery and a QTL affecting survival and recovery. On chromosome II, one QTL affecting survival and a second affecting recovery were detected. The patterns confirm that mutations in the para gene cause target-site insensitivity and are the major source of permethrin resistance but that other genes dispersed throughout the genome contribute to recovery and survival of mosquitoes following permethrin exposure.

Saavedra-Rodriguez K; Strode C; Flores Suarez A; Fernandez Salas I; Ranson H; Hemingway J; Black WC 4th

2008-10-01

63

Occupational exposure to DDT among mosquito control sprayers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DDT, a broad action insecticide whose use is restricted or banned in most industrialized countries is still often used for vector control in many tropical and developing countries. Despite the fact that DDT is accumulative and persistant in the ecosystem use of such substitutes as malathion or propoxur is not popular because these increases costs by 3.4 to 8.5 fold. As such DDT is economically attractive to poorer countries. As far as can be ascertained no systemic poisoning has resulted from occupational exposure to DDT. Due to the large particle size, the amount of DDT inhaled by workers is far less than the amount reaching exposed portions of skin. As such occupational exposure is mainly dermal or tropical. Occupational exposure to DDT studies have been done before. The present study is an analysis of some characteristics, (i.e. age, body size, relationship between plasma vitamin A and DDE levels, and smoking habits), of occupational exposure to DDT among spraymen in a Zimbabwe population.

Nhachi, C.F.B.; Kasilo, O.J. (Univ. of Zimbabwe, Harare (Zimbabwe))

1990-08-01

64

Emergency mosquito control associated with Hurricane Andrew--Florida and Louisiana, 1992.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hurricane Andrew crossed south Florida on August 24, 1992 entered the Gulf of Mexico, and struck the Louisiana coast on August 26. In Florida, an estimated 25,000 housing units were destroyed and 37,000 severely damaged in a 200,000-acre area in the southern portion of Dade County; in Louisiana, an estimated 25,000 housing units were destroyed or severely damaged by the storm, primarily in the coastal sections of the 36-parish disaster area. Initial assessment of the disaster areas indicated a need for vector surveillance and control (1). This report summarizes actions to assess and alleviate mosquito-related problems in Florida and Louisiana.

1993-04-01

65

INSECTICIDAL COMPOSITION FOR CONTROLLING MOSQUITOES, ANTS, TICKS, COCKROACH AND THE LIKE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Provided is an insecticidal composition for controlling mosquitoes, ants, ticks, cockroach and the like, which composition contains plant essence-oil extracted from plants having excellent insecticidal action. CONSTITUTION: An insecticidal composition is characterized by containing plant essence-oil extracted from plants including Salvia officinalis, Pogostemon patchouli, Citrus aurantifilia, Citrus paradisi, Salvia sclerea, Origanum vulgare, Citrus reticulata, Eucalyptus citriodora, Boswellia carterii, Piper nigrum, Cymbopogon martini, Abies alba, Cymbopogon citratus, Mentha pulegium, Vetivera zizanoides, Citrus limonum, Mentha spicata, Capsicum annuum var. angulosum, Zinger officinalis, Citrus aurantium, Citrus sinensis, Cupressus sempervirens, and Ocimum basilicum.

AHN YONG JUN; KIM EUN HUI; KIM HYEON GYEONG; KIM SUN IL; LEE EUN HAE; LEE GYU SEOK

66

Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America--a 20th symposium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 20th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 76th Annual Meeting in Lexington, KY, in March 2010. The principal objective, as for the previous 19 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 40 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by participants from 5 countries in Latin America, the United Kingdom, and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium included: surveillance, chemical and biological control, and insecticide resistance associated with Aedes aegypti; distribution, behavior, and control of Culex; bionomics, ecology, and chemical and biological control of Anopheles vectors of malaria; insecticide resistance; and studies of dengue, West Nile virus, and Triatoma.

Clark GG; Rubio-Palis Y

2010-09-01

67

Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America--a 20th symposium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 20th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 76th Annual Meeting in Lexington, KY, in March 2010. The principal objective, as for the previous 19 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 40 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by participants from 5 countries in Latin America, the United Kingdom, and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium included: surveillance, chemical and biological control, and insecticide resistance associated with Aedes aegypti; distribution, behavior, and control of Culex; bionomics, ecology, and chemical and biological control of Anopheles vectors of malaria; insecticide resistance; and studies of dengue, West Nile virus, and Triatoma. PMID:21033058

Clark, Gary G; Rubio-Palis, Yasmin

2010-09-01

68

Controle de mosquitos com base em larvicidas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: a escolha do agente de controle Mosquito control based on larvicides in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: choice of the control agent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se neste estudo uma comparação entre larvicidas químicos e biológicos usados em programas de controle de mosquitos no Rio Grande do Sul. Em bioensaios de laboratório contra Culex quinquefasciatus constatou-se que as formulações biológicas líquidas Vectobac 12 AS e Teknar 3000 (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis), ABG 6262 líquido e em pó (B. sphaericus 2362), foram altamente eficazes. Também as formulações experimentais de B. thuringiensis israelensis produzidas em laboratórios brasileiros foram consideradas adequadas. Entre as formulações químicas, os compostos piretróides Pirisa e K-Othrine produziram resultados melhores do que os organo-fosforados Lebaycid e Abate. Estes últimos produziram respostas dez vezes mais fracas do que o previsto em outros estudos. Em condições de campo, a dose de 1250 mg/m² para as formulações biológicas foi considerada adequada para a rotina das aplicações, porque permite superar as influências físicas do meio sobre os resultados. Somente as formulações de B. sphaericus produziram interrupções nas reinfestações dos focos de culicídeos observados. Períodos de até 39 semanas sem reinfestações foram observados em focos naturais e de um mês sem sobrevivência foi observado em tanques, onde procedia-se a reinfestação artificial. Este estudo sugere que as alternativas biológicas devem ser consideradas em programas de controle de mosquitos. Elas podem superar os problemas de resistência e eliminação, bem como da ausência de efeito residual nas aplicações de larvicidas.A comparison between chemical and biological larvicides in routine operations against mosquitoes in Rio Grande do Sul State was carried out in this study. In laboratory bioassays against Culex quinquefasciatus, biological formulations Vectobac 12 AS and Teknar 3000 (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis) as well as ABG 6262 (B. sphaericus 2362), both in liquid and powder form, were highly effective. Locally produced B.thuringiensis israelensis, formulations also yielded good results. Among chemical larvicides, pyrethroid compounds Pirisa and K-Othrine yielded better results than the organophosphates Lebaycid and Abate. These last formulations yielded responses ten weaker than predicted in other studies. Under field conditions, a dose of 1250 mg/m² for biological formulations was considered adequate for routine application because at this level it is possible to overcome physical influences on results. Only B.sphaericus preparations caused important disruption of mosquito colonization in active breeding sites. Up to 39 weeks were tabulated without complete colonization in natural conditions and one month in artificially colonized tanks. This study suggests that biological alternatives should be considered in mosquito control programs. They may be a solution to such problems as resistance to larvicides, elimination of natural enemies, and short-lasting effects of applications.

Antônio L. Ruas-Neto; Sydnei M. Silveira; Evandro Ricardo da C. Colares

1994-01-01

69

Door to door survey and community participation to implement a new county mosquito control program in Wayne County, North Carolina, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community involvement in mosquito management programs provides more sustainable and effective organization and service. A door to door survey in Wayne County, NC carried out by student volunteers, resulted in 60 household responses. Residents had not previously experienced outreach from the county (88%), and 95% of them thought the student door to door survey was an effective form of outreach. One third of the residents thought mosquitoes were severe where they lived, but only 9% thought they had any containers in their yard that might breed mosquitoes. Only 15% of the residents were concerned about mosquito borne diseases. These responses provide evidence that outreach and education on mosquito control and diseases were necessary steps for future mosquito control community planning. PMID:19742152

Grantham, Amanda; Anderson, Alice L; Kelley, Timothy

2009-07-31

70

Aerial and Tidal Transport of Mosquito Control Pesticides into the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project was undertaken as the initial monitoring program to determine if mosquito adulticides applied along the Florida Keys cause adverse ecological effects in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS).The study monitored the distribution and persistence of two mosquito adulticides,permethrin and dibrom (naled),during three separate routine applications by the Florida Keys Mosquito Control District.The approach was to determine if toxic concentrations of the pesticides entered the FKNMS by aerial drift or tidal transport.The amount of pesticide entering the FKNMS by way of aerial drift was monitored by collection on glass fiber filter pads,set on floats in a grid pattern on either side of the FKNMS.Permethrin was recovered from filter pads on the leeward side for each of the three applications,ranging from 0.5 to 50.1 µg/m² throughout the study.Tidal current transport was monitored by collection of surface and subsurface water samples at each grid site.Tidal transport of naled and dichlorvos (naled degradation product)was apparent in the adjacent waters of the FKNMS.These compounds were detected in subsurface,offshore water at 0.1 to 0.6 µg/l,14 hr after application.Permethrin was not detected in offshore water samples; however, concentrations ranging from 5.1 to 9.4 µg/l were found in surface water from the canal system adjacent to the application route.Comparison of the observed environmental concentrations with toxicity data (permethrin LC-50,96 hr for Mysidopsis bahia =0.02 µg/l)indicated a potential hazard to marine invertebrates in the canals with possible tidal transport to other areas.Para determinar si los adulticidas de mosquitos,aplicados en los Cayos de la Florida,causan efectos ecológicos adversos en el Santuario Marino Nacional de los Cayos de la Florida,se monitoreó la distribución y persistencia de dos adulticidas de mosquitos.Estos fueron permetrina y dibrom (naled).Se trabajó durante tres aplicaciones rutinarias hechas por la Unidad de Control de Mosquitos de los Cayos de la Florida.La finalidad era determinar si concentraciones tóxicas de los plaguicidas llegaban al santuario por transporte aéreo o por las corrientes de marea.La cantidad de plaguicida que entra por vía aérea fue monitoreada utilizando filtros de fibra de vidrio,montados en flotadores dispuestos sistemáticamente a ambos lados del FKNMS. La Permetrina fue recuperada en filtros a sotavento del santuario durante tres aplicaciones,con un ámbito entre 0.5 y 50.1 µg/m² durante todo el estudio.El transporte por corrientes de marea fue monitoreado recolectando muestras de agua superficiales y subsuperficiales en puntos definidos.Se notó el transporte por mareas de naled y diclorvos (producto degradado de naled)en aguas adyacentes al santuario.Estos compuestos fueron detectados en muestras subsuperficiales en aguas fuera de la costa con concentraciones de 0.1 a 0.6 µg/l,14 hr después de la aplicación.La Permetrina no fue detectada en muestras de agua fuera de la costa;sin embargo,hubo concentraciones de 5.1 a 9.4 µg/l en aguas superficiales del sistema de canales adyacente a la ruta de aplicación. Comparaciones de las concentraciones observadas con información toxicológica (permetrina LC-50,96 hr para Mysidopsis bahia =0.02 µg/l)indican un peligro potencial para invertebrados marinos en los canales y la posibilidad de transporte por mareas a otras áreas.

R.H Pierce; M.S Henry; T.C Blum; E.M Mueller

2005-01-01

71

Aerial and Tidal Transport of Mosquito Control Pesticides into the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Para determinar si los adulticidas de mosquitos,aplicados en los Cayos de la Florida,causan efectos ecológicos adversos en el Santuario Marino Nacional de los Cayos de la Florida,se monitoreó la distribución y persistencia de dos adulticidas de mosquitos.Estos fueron permetrina y dibrom (naled).Se trabajó durante tres aplicaciones rutinarias hechas por la Unidad de Control de Mosquitos de los Cayos de la Florida.La finalidad era determinar si concentraciones tóxicas (more) de los plaguicidas llegaban al santuario por transporte aéreo o por las corrientes de marea.La cantidad de plaguicida que entra por vía aérea fue monitoreada utilizando filtros de fibra de vidrio,montados en flotadores dispuestos sistemáticamente a ambos lados del FKNMS. La Permetrina fue recuperada en filtros a sotavento del santuario durante tres aplicaciones,con un ámbito entre 0.5 y 50.1 µg/m² durante todo el estudio.El transporte por corrientes de marea fue monitoreado recolectando muestras de agua superficiales y subsuperficiales en puntos definidos.Se notó el transporte por mareas de naled y diclorvos (producto degradado de naled)en aguas adyacentes al santuario.Estos compuestos fueron detectados en muestras subsuperficiales en aguas fuera de la costa con concentraciones de 0.1 a 0.6 µg/l,14 hr después de la aplicación.La Permetrina no fue detectada en muestras de agua fuera de la costa;sin embargo,hubo concentraciones de 5.1 a 9.4 µg/l en aguas superficiales del sistema de canales adyacente a la ruta de aplicación. Comparaciones de las concentraciones observadas con información toxicológica (permetrina LC-50,96 hr para Mysidopsis bahia =0.02 µg/l)indican un peligro potencial para invertebrados marinos en los canales y la posibilidad de transporte por mareas a otras áreas. Abstract in english This project was undertaken as the initial monitoring program to determine if mosquito adulticides applied along the Florida Keys cause adverse ecological effects in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS).The study monitored the distribution and persistence of two mosquito adulticides,permethrin and dibrom (naled),during three separate routine applications by the Florida Keys Mosquito Control District.The approach was to determine if toxic concentrations of th (more) e pesticides entered the FKNMS by aerial drift or tidal transport.The amount of pesticide entering the FKNMS by way of aerial drift was monitored by collection on glass fiber filter pads,set on floats in a grid pattern on either side of the FKNMS.Permethrin was recovered from filter pads on the leeward side for each of the three applications,ranging from 0.5 to 50.1 µg/m² throughout the study.Tidal current transport was monitored by collection of surface and subsurface water samples at each grid site.Tidal transport of naled and dichlorvos (naled degradation product)was apparent in the adjacent waters of the FKNMS.These compounds were detected in subsurface,offshore water at 0.1 to 0.6 µg/l,14 hr after application.Permethrin was not detected in offshore water samples; however, concentrations ranging from 5.1 to 9.4 µg/l were found in surface water from the canal system adjacent to the application route.Comparison of the observed environmental concentrations with toxicity data (permethrin LC-50,96 hr for Mysidopsis bahia =0.02 µg/l)indicated a potential hazard to marine invertebrates in the canals with possible tidal transport to other areas.

Pierce, R.H; Henry, M.S; Blum, T.C; Mueller, E.M

2005-05-01

72

Aerial and tidal transport of mosquito control pesticides into the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project was undertaken as the initial monitoring program to determine if mosquito adulticides applied along the Florida Keys cause adverse ecological effects in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS). The study monitored the distribution and persistente of two mosquito adulticides, permethrin and dibrom (naled), during three separate routine applications by the Florida Keys Mosquito Control District. The approach was to determine if toxic concentrations of the pesticides entered the FKNMS by aerial drift or tidal transport. The amount of pesticide entering the FKNMS by way of aerial drift was monitored by collection on glass fiber filter pads, set on floats in a grid pattern on either side of the FKNMS. Permethrin was recovered from filter pads on the leeward side for each of the three applications, ranging from 0.5 to 50.1 ?g/m2 throughout the study. Tidal current transport was monitored by collection of surface and subsurface water samples at each grid site. Tidal transport of naled and dichlorvos (naled degradation product) was apparent in the adjacent waters of the FKNMS. These compounds were detected in subsurface, offshore water at 0.1 to 0.6 gg/l, 14 hr after application. Permethrin was not detected in offshore water samples; however, concentrations ranging from 5.1 to 9.4 ?g/1 were found in surface water from the canal system adjacent to the application route. Comparison of the observed environmental concentrations with toxicity data (permethrin LC-50, 96 hr for Mysidopsis bahia = 0.02 ?g/1) indicated a potential hazard to marine invertebrates in the canals with possible tidal transport to other areas.

2005-01-01

73

Impact of Educational Intervention Regarding Mosquito Borne Diseases and Their Control Measures among The Link Workers of Urban Health Centers (UHCs) of Ahmedabad City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In urban area link workers are playing key role in implementing anti-larval measures and behaviour change communication at community level to prevent and control mosquito borne diseases. Objectives: To check baseline knowledge of link workers regarding mosquito borne diseases and control...

Prajapati Arpit; Parikh Sonal,; Fancy Manish; Bala DV

74

O aproveitamento do resíduo da indústria do sisal no controle de larvas de mosquitos Utilization of the waste of sisal industry in the control of mosquito larvae  

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Full Text Available Descreve-se o aproveitamento do resíduo do desfibramento das folhas de Agave sisalana, como um larvicida para o combate a mosquitos transmissores de doenças tropicais. Durante 24 horas, larvas de Aedes aegypti e Culex quinquefasciatus foram expostas a concentrações diferentes do extrato da planta para determinar as concentrações letais. Para A. aegypti foi constatada a CL50 em 322ppm e para C. quinquefasciatus em 183ppm. Foi investigada a ação de saponinas existentes na planta, ficando evidenciado que o resíduo de A. sisalana é ativo através da interação de vários dos seus componentes. Este extrato poderá ser utilizado em campo, na concentração de 100ppm para C. quinquefasciatus com um aumento do tempo de exposição para três dias, obtendo-se uma mortalidade de 100% das larvas. Este produto, porém, não é recomendado para o controle de A. aegypti, devido à necessidade de uma alta concentração para a obtenção de 100% de mortalidade das larvas e ao fato destas se desenvolverem preferencialmente em água potável.The aim of this research was to utilize the waste residues of sisal fiber separation from Agave sisalana leaves to develop a larvicide for the combat of mosquito transmitting tropical diseases. Larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to different concentrations of the Agave extract for 24 hours to determine lethal concentrations. The LC50 for A. aegypti was 322 ppm and the LC50 for C. quinquefasciatus was 183 ppm. To detect the active substances, saponins were investigated. It was found that the various components of the extract were effective in eliminating the larvae. Under field conditions, this formulation can probably be used at 100 ppm, wich causes 100% mortality of C. quinquefasciatus larvae after 3-4 days. The product is not recommended for use against A. aegypti due to the necessity for high concentrations and to the fact that the larvae of this species live frequently on drinking water. To avoid fermentation, Agave extract should be used in a dehydrated form which also represent a good formulation for practical use.

Ana Paula B. Pizarro; Alfredo M. Oliveira Filho; José P. Parente; Marli T.V. Melo; Celso E. dos Santos; Paulo R. Lima

1999-01-01

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Evaluation of Methoprene (Altosid) and Diflubenzuron (Dimilin) for control of mosquito breeding in Tezpur (Assam).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) namely, Isopropyl (E-E)-(RS)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2, 4-dinoate (Methoprene) and 1-(4-cyclophenyl)-3-(2,6-diflerobenzoyl) urea (Diflubenzuron) were evaluated against mosquito larvae in laboratory as well as in different breeding habitats in Tezpur, Assam. LC90 values of diflubenzuron against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus were 0.0022 and 0.0027 ppm respectively, while it was 0.0027 and 0.0022 ppm respectively in case of methoprene. However, LC50 values of both the IGRs were almost same in case of Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (varies between 0.0009 and 0.0011 ppm). In case of methoprene, maximum mortality was observed in pupal stage though the exposure was given in all the cases to the III instar larvae. Field trials were conducted in cemented drains, small ponds and ditches. At 0.2 ppm (0.020 kg/ha) both diflubenzuron and methoprene were found to eliminate 92-96 per cent Culex and Anopheles larvae. Methoprene and diflubenzuron were found equally effective for control of mosquito breeding in different breeding habitats and provide better efficacy than conventional larvicides and biocides.

Baruah I; Das SC

1996-06-01

76

Evaluation of Methoprene (Altosid) and Diflubenzuron (Dimilin) for control of mosquito breeding in Tezpur (Assam).  

Science.gov (United States)

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) namely, Isopropyl (E-E)-(RS)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2, 4-dinoate (Methoprene) and 1-(4-cyclophenyl)-3-(2,6-diflerobenzoyl) urea (Diflubenzuron) were evaluated against mosquito larvae in laboratory as well as in different breeding habitats in Tezpur, Assam. LC90 values of diflubenzuron against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus were 0.0022 and 0.0027 ppm respectively, while it was 0.0027 and 0.0022 ppm respectively in case of methoprene. However, LC50 values of both the IGRs were almost same in case of Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (varies between 0.0009 and 0.0011 ppm). In case of methoprene, maximum mortality was observed in pupal stage though the exposure was given in all the cases to the III instar larvae. Field trials were conducted in cemented drains, small ponds and ditches. At 0.2 ppm (0.020 kg/ha) both diflubenzuron and methoprene were found to eliminate 92-96 per cent Culex and Anopheles larvae. Methoprene and diflubenzuron were found equally effective for control of mosquito breeding in different breeding habitats and provide better efficacy than conventional larvicides and biocides. PMID:8952169

Baruah, I; Das, S C

1996-06-01

77

Biorational insecticides for control of mosquitoes and black flies in Sinaloa  

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Full Text Available In Sinaloa Mexico the presence of mosquitoes is a important health problem, and each spring-summer season appear several species which include: Aedes aegypti (Linneus), Anopheles albimanus (Wiedemann), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and black flies of the Simulidae family. The control of larvae and adults of these insects are usually performed with chemical insecticides, so the use of biorational insecticides for control of these insects is novel, due to that have low environment impact. The objective of this work is to give known to the different biorational insecticides and their biological effects (inhibitor, insect repellent, larvicide, adulticide), that can be used to combat to different development stages of these insects. As well as show the progress of a study on the effectiveness of neem extracts, garlic, cinnamon, albahaca and cypermethrin at low doses (0.25,0.5 and 1ml/L), for control of larvae and adults of black flies in the unicipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa. By the mode of action, the biorational that can doing use for the control of theseinsects were: Spinosad, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) var. israeliensis for larvae control, Spinosad and Beauveria bassiana (Vuill.) for adults; as well as extracts of neem, garlic, cinnamon and albahaca for both stages. The preliminary results of the study showed that the effectiveness application in tourist sites, through aerial spraying of cypermethrin at low doses and the plants extracts, allow low the index of larvae and infestation of mosquitoes and blackflies, decreasing the discomfort caused by these insects in the place of study.

Cipriano García Gutiérrez; Rosa Luz Gómez Peraza; Claudia E. López Aguilar; Arturo León Váldez

2012-01-01

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Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Partial mosquito-proofing of houses with screens and ceilings has the potential to reduce indoor densities of malaria mosquitoes. We wish to measure whether it will also reduce indoor densities of vectors of neglected tropical diseases. METHODOLOGY: The main house entry points preferred by anopheline and culicine vectors were determined through controlled experiments using specially designed experimental huts and village houses in Lupiro village, southern Tanzania. The benefit of screening different entry points (eaves, windows and doors) using PVC-coated fibre glass netting material in terms of reduced indoor densities of mosquitoes was evaluated compared to the control. FINDINGS: 23,027 mosquitoes were caught with CDC light traps; 77.9% (17,929) were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, of which 66.2% were An. arabiensis and 33.8% An. gambiae sensu stricto. The remainder comprised 0.2% (50) An. funestus, 10.2% (2359) Culex spp. and 11.6% (2664) Mansonia spp. Screening eaves reduced densities of Anopheles gambiae s. l. (Relative ratio (RR) = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.84, 0.98; P = 0.01); Mansonia africana (RR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; P<0.001) and Mansonia uniformis (RR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.56; P<0.001) but not Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. univittatus or Cx. theileri. Numbers of these species were reduced by screening windows and doors but this was not significant. SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that across Africa, screening eaves protects households against important mosquito vectors of filariasis, Rift Valley Fever and O'Nyong nyong as well as malaria. While full house screening is required to exclude Culex species mosquitoes, screening of eaves alone or fitting ceilings has considerable potential for integrated control of other vectors of filariasis, arbovirus and malaria.

Ogoma SB; Lweitoijera DW; Ngonyani H; Furer B; Russell TL; Mukabana WR; Killeen GF; Moore SJ

2010-01-01

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Successful human infection with P. falciparum using three aseptic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes: a new model for controlled human malaria infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is a powerful method for assessing the efficacy of anti-malaria vaccines and drugs targeting pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the parasite. CHMI has heretofore required the bites of 5 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite (SPZ)-infected mosquitoes to reliably induce Pf malaria. We reported that CHMI using the bites of 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically in compliance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) was successful in 6 participants. Here, we report results from a subsequent CHMI study using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to validate the initial clinical trial. We also compare results of safety, tolerability, and transmission dynamics in participants undergoing CHMI using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to published studies of CHMI using 5 mosquitoes. Nineteen adults aged 18-40 years were bitten by 3 Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with the chloroquine-sensitive NF54 strain of Pf. All 19 participants developed malaria (100%); 12 of 19 (63%) on Day 11. The mean pre-patent period was 258.3 hours (range 210.5-333.8). The geometric mean parasitemia at first diagnosis by microscopy was 9.5 parasites/µL (range 2-44). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detected parasites an average of 79.8 hours (range 43.8-116.7) before microscopy. The mosquitoes had a geometric mean of 37,894 PfSPZ/mosquito (range 3,500-152,200). Exposure to the bites of 3 aseptically-raised, PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes is a safe, effective procedure for CHMI in malaria-naïve adults. The aseptic model should be considered as a new standard for CHMI trials in non-endemic areas. Microscopy is the gold standard used for the diagnosis of Pf malaria after CHMI, but qPCR identifies parasites earlier. If qPCR continues to be shown to be highly specific, and can be made to be practical, rapid, and standardized, it should be considered as an alternative for diagnosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00744133 NCT00744133.

Laurens MB; Billingsley P; Richman A; Eappen AG; Adams M; Li T; Chakravarty S; Gunasekera A; Jacob CG; Sim BK; Edelman R; Plowe CV; Hoffman SL; Lyke KE

2013-01-01

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Review of semiochemicals that mediate the oviposition of mosquitoes: a possible sustainable tool for the control and monitoring of Culicidae Revisão dos semioquímicos que mediam a oviposição em mosquitos: uma possível ferramenta sustentável para o monitoramento e controle de Culicidae  

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Full Text Available The choice for suitable places for female mosquitoes to lay eggs is a key-factor for the survival of immature stages (eggs and larvae). This knowledge stands out in importance concerning the control of disease vectors. The selection of a place for oviposition requires a set of chemical, visual, olfactory and tactile cues that interact with the female before laying eggs, helping the localization of adequate sites for oviposition. The present paper presents a bibliographic revision on the main aspects of semiochemicals in regard to mosquitoes' oviposition, aiding the comprehension of their mechanisms and estimation of their potential as a tool for the monitoring and control of the Culicidae.A seleção de locais adequados pelas fêmeas de mosquitos para depositarem seus ovos é um fator chave para a sobrevivência de seus imaturos (ovos e larvas). O conhecimento das relações ecológicas implicadas neste processo é de grande importância quando se refere a vetores de agentes patogênicos. A determinação do local de oviposição pelas fêmeas grávidas envolve uma rede de mensagens químicas, visuais, olfativas e táteis que facilitam a localização de lugares adequados para depositarem seus ovos. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma revisão bibliográfica dos principais aspectos relacionados com semioquímicos presentes na oviposição dos mosquitos auxiliando no entendimento dos mecanismos de atuação dos mesmos e potencializando a aplicação destes semioquímicos como uma possível ferramenta de monitoramento e controle de Culicidae.

Mario A. Navarro-Silva; Francisco A. Marques; Jonny E. Duque L

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Genetics as a component of vector mosquito control in East Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the proposed genetic control methods that have been tested with a degree of success are the release of sterile males, cytoplasmically incompatible strains and strains carrying chromosomal aberrations. In East Africa, the most important mosquitoes are Anopheles gambiae sensu strictu, which transmits malaria, filariasis and the O'nyong-nyong virus; An. arabiensis, which transmits malaria, filariasis and the Tatguine virus; and An. funestus, which transmits malaria, filariasis and the O'nyong-nyong and Tanga viruses. Other important vectors are Aedes simpsoni, which transmits yellow fever, and Ae. africanus, which is responsible for the forest cycle of the disease among monkeys. Cytological examination of specimens of An. gambiae sensu lato resulted in 804 positive identifications of the XB type chromosome only, indicating that An. arabiensis is the most abundant, and probably the only, member of the complex present, and constitutes close to 65.7% of the total mosquito population. Blood meal analysis of 1024 specimens showed its marked preference for bovid (51.9%) and human (28.1%) blood. Sporozoite rating by dissection and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay averaged 0.02%. Control methods tried in the past include chemical spraying and environmental management in the Kisumu area. A trial against An. arabiensis is suggested at Karima village, in Mwea, whereby an integrated approach incorporating environmental, chemical and genetic measures could be undertaken. This would take advantage of the low population during the dry season from mid-December to mid-April and would involve biological larviciding, mass pyrethrum spraying and the release of sterile males. There is a lack of adequate genetic knowledge of this species, especially genetic markers and linkage relationships, even though chromosome maps are available and inversion polymorphism is better understood. Notice should be taken of the reportedly discouraging results of genetic control trials, where failure has been attributed to immigration, poor competitiveness of laboratory produced males, failure to mate or density dependent mortality. (author). 56 refs, 2 tabs

1988-01-01

82

Emergency mosquito control associated with Hurricane Andrew--Florida and Louisiana, 1992.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hurricane Andrew crossed south Florida on August 24, 1992 entered the Gulf of Mexico, and struck the Louisiana coast on August 26. In Florida, an estimated 25,000 housing units were destroyed and 37,000 severely damaged in a 200,000-acre area in the southern portion of Dade County; in Louisiana, an estimated 25,000 housing units were destroyed or severely damaged by the storm, primarily in the coastal sections of the 36-parish disaster area. Initial assessment of the disaster areas indicated a need for vector surveillance and control (1). This report summarizes actions to assess and alleviate mosquito-related problems in Florida and Louisiana. PMID:8459791

1993-04-01

83

Impact of Educational Intervention Regarding Mosquito Borne Diseases and Their Control Measures among The Link Workers of Urban Health Centers (UHCs) of Ahmedabad City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In urban area link workers are playing key role in implementing anti-larval measures and behaviour change communication at community level to prevent and control mosquito borne diseases. Objectives: To check baseline knowledge of link workers regarding mosquito borne diseases and control measures and assess their knowledge 14 days after single educational interventional training. Methodology: All 274 link workers of 17 selected UHCs out of total 57 UHCs were taken as study population and their baseline knowledge regarding mosquito borne diseases and mosquito control measures was assessed by questionnaire. Single educational training for 45 minutes was given to groups of link workers and their post– intervention knowledge for same was assessed after 14 days. Mean, Wilcoxon sign-rank test were applied. Results: Mean age of link workers was 31.3 + 4.8 years. The knowledge regarding Chikungunya, Dengue and Malaria was mosquito borne diseases was respectively 55.5%, 87.9% and 95.5% which was increase after intervention to 100%. But 14.4% did not know filariasis is mosquito borne disease even after training. All link workers know about the chemical (Temephos) used for mosquito control (100%) but knowledge of proper temephos dose for different volume of water containers was significantly improved after intervention. The overall knowledge regarding mosquito & mosquito control measures was significantly improved after intervention (p value <0.05). Conclusion: Even though link workers were involved in anti-larval activities since from many years, many link workers had poor knowledge regarding the mosquito borne diseases and control measures.

Prajapati Arpit; Parikh Sonal,; Fancy Manish; Bala DV

2012-01-01

84

Experimental comparison of aerial larvicides and habitat modification for controlling disease-carrying Aedes vigilax mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Microbial and insect-growth-regulator larvicides dominate current vector control programmes because they reduce larval abundance and are relatively environmentally benign. However, their short persistence makes them expensive, and environmental manipulation of larval habitat might be an alternative control measure. Aedes vigilax is a major vector species in northern Australia. A field experiment was implemented in Darwin, Australia, to test the hypotheses that (1) aerial microbial larvicide application effectively decreases Ae. vigilax larval presence, and therefore adult emergence, and (2) environmental manipulation is an effective alternative control measure. Generalised linear and mixed-effects modelling and information-theoretic comparisons were used to test these hypotheses. RESULTS: It is shown that the current aerial larvicide application campaign is effective at suppressing the emergence of Ae. vigilax, whereas vegetation removal is not as effective in this context. In addition, the results indicate that current larval sampling procedures are inadequate for quantifying larval abundance or adult emergence. CONCLUSIONS: This field-based comparison has shown that the existing larviciding campaign is more effective than a simple environmental management strategy for mosquito control. It has also identified an important knowledge gap in the use of larval sampling to evaluate the effectiveness of vector control strategies.

de Little SC; Williamson GJ; Bowman DM; Whelan PI; Brook BW; Bradshaw CJ

2012-05-01

85

Toxicological effects of prolonged and intense use of mosquito coil emission in rats and its implications on malaria control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito coil is a vector control option used to prevent malaria in low income counties, while some studies have addressed this issue, additional reseach is required to increase knowledge on the adverse health effects caused by the prolonged use of coils. In this study we investigated the toxicological effects of fumes from two locally manufactured mosquito coil insecticides (with pyrethroids: transfluthrin and d-allethrin as active ingredients) on male albino rats. For this, we recorded the haematological and biochemical indices, and made histopathology and mutagenicity evaluations in rats exposed to mosquito fumes during 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 week periods. Haematological determination was performed using automated hematology analyzer to determine White Blood Cell (WBC), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC) and Platelet (PLT) counts, while biochemical evaluations were determined using available commercial kits. Gross histopathological changes were studied for the kidney, liver and lungs in sacrificed rats. The rat sperm head abnormalities assessment was used to evaluate mutagenicity. Mosquito coil fumes produced significant increase (P PLT count showed no significant increase (P > 0.05). Mutagenicity assessment revealed sperm abnormality was statistically significant (P < 0.05) compared with the control at 8, 12 and 16 weeks post exposure to transfluthrin. Histological studies revealed severe lung damage evidenced by interstitial accumulations, pulmonary oedema and emphysema in exposed rats. Intracellular accumulations and severe sinusoidal congestion of liver cells were observed from 12 weeks exposure, indicating liver damage. Our studies indicate that mosquito coil fumes do initiate gradual damage to the host. These pathological effects must be taken into consideration by the malaria control program, particularly when regulating their long term and indoor usage. PMID:24027936

Idowu, Emmanuel Taiwo; Aimufua, Oyenmwen Judith; Ejovwoke, Yomi-Onilude; Akinsanya, Bamidele; Otubanjo, Olubumi Adetoro

2013-09-01

86

The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently transported in the absence of water in the form of hibernating embryos. Once introduced either as embryos or juveniles in ponds, the annual killifish can effectively reduce the larval population because of its aggressive predatory activity.

Matias Jonathan R; Adrias Araceli Q

2010-01-01

87

Why do we need alternative tools to control mosquito-borne diseases in Latin America?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In this opinion paper, we discuss the potential and challenges of using the symbiont Wolbachia to block mosquito transmitted diseases such as dengue, malaria and chikungunya in Latin America.

Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Aguiar, Raquel; Bruno, Rafaela V; Guimarães, Maria Cristina; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Sorgine, Marcos HF; Struchiner, Cláudio J; Valle, Denise; O'Neill, Scott L; Moreira, Luciano A

2012-09-01

88

Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry p...

Dekker Teun; Ignell Rickard; Ghebru Maedot; Glinwood Robert; Hopkins Richard

89

AUTO MOSQUITO REPELLENT BY MOSQUITO FREQUENCY DETECTION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An automatic mosquito expeller is provided to achieve an automatic switching-on/off by detecting a frequency and level change caused by a flapping of the mosquito so that a user doesn't need to switch on the expeller itself and prevents a waste of a mosquito repellent previously. An automatic mosquito expeller(100) comprises a rectifier(120), rectifying an alternating current power into a constant direct current one a Micom(110), controlling the expeller entirely by using the direct current supplied by the rectifier a light emitter(130), switched on or off according to a control signal of the Micom so as to indicate an operation state a switching unit(140), switched on or off according to the control signal of the Micom so as to apply an electric power source to a heating member(150) which generates a heat of a determined temperature and a frequency detector(170), detecting a frequency band caused by a flapping of the mosquito so as to output a corresponding level value.

CHONG CHINE HWA; CHU EU GINE

90

Assessing key safety concerns of a Wolbachia-based strategy to control dengue transmission by Aedes mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue fever, chikungunya or malaria affect millions of people each year and control solutions are urgently needed. An international research program is currently being developed that relies on the introduction of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis into Aedes aegypti to control dengue transmission. In order to prepare for open-field testing releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, an intensive social research and community engagement program was undertaken in Cairns, Northern Australia. The most common concern expressed by the diverse range of community members and stakeholders surveyed was the necessity of assuring the safety of the proposed approach for humans, animals and the environment. To address these concerns a series of safety experiments were undertaken. We report in this paper on the experimental data obtained, discuss the limitations of experimental risk assessment and focus on the necessity of including community concerns in scientific research. PMID:21225190

Popovici, Jean; Moreira, Luciano A; Poinsignon, Anne; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Inaki; McNaughton, Darlene; O'Neill, Scott L

2010-12-01

91

Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, are not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

Márcia Aparecida Sperança; Margareth Lara Capurro

2007-01-01

92

Assessing key safety concerns of a Wolbachia-based strategy to control dengue transmission by Aedes mosquitoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue fever, chikungunya or malaria affect millions of people each year and control solutions are urgently needed. An international research program is currently being developed that relies on the introduction of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis into Aedes aegypti to control dengue transmission. In order to prepare for open-field testing releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, an intensive social research and community eng (more) agement program was undertaken in Cairns, Northern Australia. The most common concern expressed by the diverse range of community members and stakeholders surveyed was the necessity of assuring the safety of the proposed approach for humans, animals and the environment. To address these concerns a series of safety experiments were undertaken. We report in this paper on the experimental data obtained, discuss the limitations of experimental risk assessment and focus on the necessity of including community concerns in scientific research.

Popovici, Jean; Moreira, Luciano A; Poinsignon, Anne; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Inaki; McNaughton, Darlene; O'Neill, Scott L

2010-12-01

93

Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, are not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecti (more) cide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

Sperança, Márcia Aparecida; Capurro, Margareth Lara

2007-06-01

94

Comparison of dry ice-baited centers for disease control and New Jersey light traps for measuring mosquito abundance in California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito catch in New Jersy light traps (NJLTs) has been declining in recent years, compromising the sensitivity of the California mosquito monitoring program. Centers for Disease Control traps (CDCTs) operated without light and augmented with dry ice have been considered for replacement or augmentation. To provide information on comparative sensitivity and ability to measure abundance over time and space, catch of mosquitoes in NJLTs was compared to catch in CDCTs operated concurrently at 8-10 sites within the Coachella Valley, Kern, San Joaquin County, and Sacramento-Yolo Mosquito and Vector Control Districts. The CDCTs always collected more female mosquitoes than did NJLTs; however, differences in sensitivity varied markedly over time and space precluding the calculation of a universal conversion factor. Regressions of the catch of female Culex tarsalis in CDCTs as a function of catch in NJLTs within districts indicated that the slopes varied markedly, again precluding the derivation of a universal function. Therefore, we recommend that mosquito surveillance programs replace or supplement NJLTs with systematically operated CDCTs to enhance sampling sensitivity for females of most mosquito species. However, both trap types should be operated concurrently at several sites within each district to derive regression functions to convert historical relative abundance data from NJLTs to equivalent counts in CDCTs for retrospective analyses.

Reisen WK; Eldridge BE; Scott TW; Gutierrez A; Takahashi R; Lorenzen K; DeBenedictis J; Boyce K; Swartzell R

2002-09-01

95

Field efficacy of expanded polystyrene and shredded waste polystyrene beads for mosquito control in artificial pools and field trials, Islamic Republic of Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Concerns about traditional chemical pesticides has led to increasing research into novel mosquito control methods. This study compared the effectiveness of 2 different types of polystyrene beads for control of mosquito larvae in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran. Simulated field trials were done in artificial pools and field trials were carried out in 2 villages in an indigenous malaria area using WHO-recommended methods. Application of expanded polystyrene beads or shredded, waste polystyrene chips to pool surfaces produced a significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment density of mosquitoes (86% and 78% reduction respectively 2 weeks after treatment). There was no significant difference between the efficacy of the 2 types of material. The use of polystyrene beads as a component of integrated vector management with other supportive measures could assist in the control of mosquito-borne diseases in the Islamic Republic of Iran and neighbouring countries.

Soltani A; Vatandoost H; Jabbari H; Mesdaghinia AR; Mahvi AH; Younesian M; Hanafi-Bojd AA; Bozorgzadeh S

2012-10-01

96

Field efficacy of expanded polystyrene and shredded waste polystyrene beads for mosquito control in artificial pools and field trials, Islamic Republic of Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concerns about traditional chemical pesticides has led to increasing research into novel mosquito control methods. This study compared the effectiveness of 2 different types of polystyrene beads for control of mosquito larvae in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran. Simulated field trials were done in artificial pools and field trials were carried out in 2 villages in an indigenous malaria area using WHO-recommended methods. Application of expanded polystyrene beads or shredded, waste polystyrene chips to pool surfaces produced a significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment density of mosquitoes (86% and 78% reduction respectively 2 weeks after treatment). There was no significant difference between the efficacy of the 2 types of material. The use of polystyrene beads as a component of integrated vector management with other supportive measures could assist in the control of mosquito-borne diseases in the Islamic Republic of Iran and neighbouring countries. PMID:23301359

Soltani, A; Vatandoost, H; Jabbari, H; Mesdaghinia, A R; Mahvi, A H; Younesian, M; Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Bozorgzadeh, S

2012-10-01

97

The fog of war: why the environmental crusade for anadromous fish species in California could disarm the state's local vector control districts in their war against mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In California, local mosquito and vector control districts have successfully controlled mosquito and vector-borne diseases by improving drainage patterns and applying pesticides. The Bay-Delta Conservation Plan, which is a proposed habitat conservation plan for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay-Delta estuary, proposes to add over 70,000 acres of habitat in the Delta to improve conditions for threatened and endangered aquatic and terrestrial species. This habitat could also be a suitable mosquito breeding habitat, which will be located in close proximity to urban and suburban communities. Wetland management practices and continued pesticide applications in the Delta could mitigate the effects of a new mosquito breeding habitat. Recent legal developments, however, require districts to obtain and comply with Clean Water Act permits, which restrict the application of pesticides in or near waters of the United States. Moreover, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has taken the first step in a rulemaking process that could further limit or prohibit the use of certain vector control pesticides in the Delta. In the near term and until less harmful methods for mosquito control are available, local vector control districts' application of mosquito control pesticides should be exempt from Clean Water Act permit requirements.

Siptroth SM; Shanahan RP

2011-12-01

98

[Mosquito allergy].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Virtually all Finns are sensitized to mosquito bites already during childhood. Skin reactions caused by mosquito bites vary from rapidly appearing urticarial wheals to persistent itching papules. Allergic shock is fortunately extremely rare. The symptoms are strongest in early summer. Immediate symptoms result from proteins that get into the skin along with mosquito saliva and induce the production of IgE class antibodies by the body. The originating mechanism of delayed symptoms is unclear. Both immediate and delayed symptoms of mosquito allergy can be relieved with antihistamine drugs.

Brummer-Korvenkontio H; Reunala T

2013-01-01

99

Methods for Control of Vector Mosquitoes and the Possible Role of SIT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

a) China, Vietnam and Singapore. Approximately 10 million bednets are treated with insecticide in China and Vietnam annually. The nets are privately owned but treatment is provided by health authorities who also carry out house spraying in the same areas. Artesunate (from Artemesia) was shown to be effective against P. falciparun but it is resistant to other drugs; however, the combined use of artesunate and treated bednets has greatly reduced malaria burden in Vietnam in the last 10 years. Despite a sophisticated Aedes control programme, Singapore remains endemic for dengue. The use of SIT for routine control or to eradicate Ae. aegypti and Ae. albipictus from the island and nearby parts of Malaysia has been suggested. b) Indian sub-continent. Though the number of malaria cases is less than what it used to be in the 1930s, it rose in the 1960s at the height of house spraying campaigns when India used 18,000 tonnes of DDT annually. Sri Lanka switched from DDT in 1970s and India has stated that it intends to do so. Rural malaria is mainly transmitted by An. culicifacies and other species whilst urban malaria is transmitted by An. stephensi. If An. stephensi exists as 'urban islands' it should be possible to control or eradicate by SIT; however, this needs to be confirmed. In the 1970s SIT trials with Culex and Aedes showed that moderately competitive sterile males could be produced but village to village movement of Culex pointed to the fact that urban populations could be better targets. Sex separation in culicine mosquitoes can be done on the basis of pupal size. c) An. arabiensis in north east Africa and Red Sea coast. It is the only man-biting member of the An. gambiae complex in central and northern Sudan, Ethiopia and the Arabian Red Sea coast. An. arabiensis invaded Upper Egypt in 1942 and caused a malaria epidemic as it is a much more efficient vector than A. pharoensis but it was eradicated using arsenical larvicide (and some DDT) by 1945. The creation of Lake Nasser by Aswan High Dam has not (yet) led to another invasion by An. arabiensis into Egypt. There were successful house spraying programmes in the Gezira from the 1960s to 90s with switching of insecticides as resistances developed. There have been several research studies on the survival of An. arabiensis and malaria through the long dry season of eastern Sudan but the picture is far from clear. Filiriasis transmitted by Cx. pipiens is a more important mosquito borne disease than malaria in Egypt at present. d) Europe and Central Asia. Malaria disappeared from northern Europe in the first half of the 250th century. It was eradicated from southern Europe and USSR between 1940s and 60s but there has been a resurgence of major epidemics in Central Asia in the 1990s. The An. maculipennis complex is only susceptible to P. vivax, buat other species are susceptible to P. falciparum. There are thousands of imported cases of malaria into Europe each year and global warming would increase the chances of any Plasmodium gametocytes ingested by a mosquito competing their development. The prompt treatment of imported malaria cases renders infection of mosquitoes by gametocytes very improbable. Invading populations of Aedes albopictus in Italy and Albania are potential dengue vectors and have been considered as targets for eradication by SIT. e) Tropical Africa. The An. gambiae complex and An. funestus are highly anthropophilic and are therefore efficient vectors. About 80% of the world's annual 400 million clinical malaria cases are in this region as well as about 90% of worlds annual 1-2.5 million malaria deaths. The death rate is rising probably because of rising drug resistance. f) Southern Africa. DDT spraying has greatly reduced malaria burden compared to the 1930's. There was no DDT resistance and An. funestus was eradicated in South Africa and Madagascar highlands. The switch to pyrethroids in S. Africa in 1996 was followed by 4 fold increase in malaria and the re-appearance of An. funestus which was resistant to pyrethroids, but not to DDT. This resulted in a s

2001-01-01

100

Systematic list of the species added to the mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito species housed in the mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India, were increased from 181 to 266 species belonging to 22 genera. The systematic list of the 85 species added to the collection is provided. The collection consists of a total of 31,874 adult specimens, of which 23,696 are individually mounted on minuten pins, while the rest are held in stock vials. It also includes 2,456 male genitalia and 470 female genitalia preparations, 3,523 larvae, 4,745 larval exuviae, and 3,057 pupal exuviae on microscope slides. Representative specimens of different species are available from 16 states and 3 union territories of India. PMID:21476442

Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K; Jambulingam, P

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Systematic list of the species added to the mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito species housed in the mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India, were increased from 181 to 266 species belonging to 22 genera. The systematic list of the 85 species added to the collection is provided. The collection consists of a total of 31,874 adult specimens, of which 23,696 are individually mounted on minuten pins, while the rest are held in stock vials. It also includes 2,456 male genitalia and 470 female genitalia preparations, 3,523 larvae, 4,745 larval exuviae, and 3,057 pupal exuviae on microscope slides. Representative specimens of different species are available from 16 states and 3 union territories of India.

Rajavel AR; Natarajan R; Vaidyanathan K; Jambulingam P

2011-03-01

102

Field introductions and establishment of the tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus (Notostraca: Triopsidae), a biological control agent of mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The tadpole shrimp (Triops longicaudatus LeConte) is a potential biological control agent for some species of mosquitoes developing in temporary aquatic habitats. It is an effective larval predator that also actively deters mosquito oviposition. Its use in practical control programs depends in part on its ability to establish permanent populations where it is introduced. Introductions of its desiccation-resistant eggs (both lab-reared and field-collected) as well as gravid adults were made in 16 ponds in southern California. Tadpole shrimp density was monitored over five floodings from Fall 1991 through Summer 1992. The tadpole shrimp was able to colonize and persist in 94% of the ponds. All methods of introducing T. longicaudatus were successful, but its hardy egg is the preferred stage for field distribution. The hatching rate for lab-reared shrimp eggs in the ponds ranged from 13.7 to 19.4% (average = 15.9%, N = 1135-2353/pond). In a following experiment, a high density of tadpole shrimp was shown to have a significant negative impact on mosquito larvae (Culicidae) (P < 0.0.5), and on nontarget midge larvae (Chironomidae)(P < 0.05), but not on two other abundant insects--mayflies (Baetidae) or brine flies (Ephydridae).

Fry LL; Mulla MS; Adams CW

1994-06-01

103

Life-table analysis of Anopheles malaria vectors: generational mortality as tool in mosquito vector abundance and control studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Vector control will for sometime remain a primary weapon in the waragainst vector borne diseases. Malaria is of paramount importance in this with its associated highmorbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This study on generational mortality associatedfactors in Anopheles mosquitoes life-table analysis was designed to investigate the fecundity,levels of mortality and mortality associated factors at the aquatic stages of anopheline malaria vectors.Methods: Mortality associated factors were investigated at the eggs, I and II instar larval, III and IVinstar larval and pupal stages of two anopheline species— Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Theobald)and An. gambiae life-cycles in screen cages. Adult male and female mosquitoes were membrane filterfedand algae in culture medium formed the bulk of food substances for the larval stage. Environmentaltemperature of culture media, pH and some associated physio-chemical factors were also determined.Results: Results showed significant mortality rates at various aquatic stages. Infertility, cannibalismand environmental factors were the major factors responsible for mortality at the egg, larval and pupalstages respectively.Interpretation & conclusion: The aquatic stages of Anopheles mosquito mortality factor K and themortality factors at the various stages investigated k1, k2, k3 and k4 are discussed. Our recommendationsinclude further studies on the possible genetic modification of predacious An. pseudopunctipennislarvae and/or its modification for the production of sterile/infertile eggs as possible alternativesin the reduction and control of anopheline malaria burden.

Godwin Ray Anugboba Okogun

2005-01-01

104

Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in a rural community in northwestern Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite existence of effective tools for malaria control, malaria continues to be one of the leading killer diseases especially among under-five year children and pregnant women in poor rural populations of Sub Saharan Africa. In Tanzania Mainland the disease contributes to 39.4% of the total OPD attendances. In terms of mortality, malaria is known to be responsible for more than one third of deaths among children of age below 5 years and also contributes for up to one fifth of deaths among pregnant women. This paper is based on a study conducted in a rural community along the shores of Lake Victoria in Mwanza region, North-Western Tanzania. The study explores reasons for scepticism and low uptake of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) that were promoted through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of long lasting nets (LLN). The paper breaks from traditional approach that tend to study low uptake of health interventions in terms of structural practical constraints – cost, accessibility, everyday priorities – or in terms of cognition – insufficient knowledge of benefits e.g. ignorance of public health messages. This paper has shown that, the majority of people who could afford the prices of ITNs and who knew where to obtain the insecticides did not necessarily buy them. This suggests that, although people tend to report costrelated factors as a barrier against the use of ITNs, there are other critical concerns at work. Without underestimating the practical factors, our study have recommended to consider critical examinations of those other concerns that hinder optimal utilization of ITN for malaria control, and the basis for those concerns.

Nnko, Soori; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

2012-01-01

105

Role of cytochrome P450s in insecticide resistance: impact on the control of mosquito-borne diseases and use of insecticides on Earth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fight against diseases spread by mosquitoes and other insects has enormous environmental, economic and social consequences. Chemical insecticides remain the first line of defence but the control of diseases, especially malaria and dengue fever, is being increasingly undermined by insecticide resistance. Mosquitoes have a large repertoire of P450s (over 100 genes). By pinpointing the key enzymes associated with insecticide resistance we can begin to develop new tools to aid the implementation of control interventions and reduce their environmental impact on Earth. Recent technological advances are helping us to build a functional profile of the P450 determinants of insecticide metabolic resistance in mosquitoes. Alongside, the cross-responses of mosquito P450s to insecticides and pollutants are also being investigated. Such research will provide the means to produce diagnostic tools for early detection of P450s linked to resistance. It will also enable the design of new insecticides with optimized efficacy in different environments.

David JP; Ismail HM; Chandor-Proust A; Paine MJ

2013-02-01

106

Toxicological effects of prolonged and intense use of mosquito coil emission in rats and its implications on malaria control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito coil is a vector control option used to prevent malaria in low income counties, while some studies have addressed this issue, additional reseach is required to increase knowledge on the adverse health effects caused by the prolonged use of coils. In this study we investigated the toxicological effects of fumes from two locally manufactured mosquito coil insecticides (with pyrethroids: transfluthrin and d-allethrin as active ingredients) on male albino rats. For this, we recorded the haematological and biochemical indices, and made histopathology and mutagenicity evaluations in rats exposed to mosquito fumes during 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 week periods. Haematological determination was performed using automated hematology analyzer to determine White Blood Cell (WBC), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC) and Platelet (PLT) counts, while biochemical evaluations were determined using available commercial kits. Gross histopathological changes were studied for the kidney, liver and lungs in sacrificed rats. The rat sperm head abnormalities assessment was used to evaluate mutagenicity. Mosquito coil fumes produced significant increase (P < 0.05) in the levels of total protein, total albumin and bilirubin, when animals were exposed from two weeks to 16 weeks with transfluthrin. Similarly, elevation in the activities of aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and alanine phosphatase, increased significantly in both insecticides. Increase in WBC, RBC and PCV were recorded for all the exposure periods, however PLT count showed no significant increase (P > 0.05). Mutagenicity assessment revealed sperm abnormality was statistically significant (P < 0.05) compared with the control at 8, 12 and 16 weeks post exposure to transfluthrin. Histological studies revealed severe lung damage evidenced by interstitial accumulations, pulmonary oedema and emphysema in exposed rats. Intracellular accumulations and severe sinusoidal congestion of liver cells were observed from 12 weeks exposure, indicating liver damage. Our studies indicate that mosquito coil fumes do initiate gradual damage to the host. These pathological effects must be taken into consideration by the malaria control program, particularly when regulating their long term and indoor usage.

Idowu ET; Aimufua OJ; Ejovwoke YO; Akinsanya B; Otubanjo OA

2013-09-01

107

Interactions between Asaia, Plasmodium and Anopheles: new insights into mosquito symbiosis and implications in malaria symbiotic control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malaria represents one of the most devastating infectious diseases. The lack of an effective vaccine and the emergence of drug resistance make necessary the development of new effective control methods. The recent identification of bacteria of the genus Asaia, associated with larvae and adults of malaria vectors, designates them as suitable candidates for malaria paratransgenic control.To better characterize the interactions between Asaia, Plasmodium and the mosquito immune system we performed an integrated experimental approach. METHODS: Quantitative PCR analysis of the amount of native Asaia was performed on individual Anopheles stephensi specimens. Mosquito infection was carried out with the strain PbGFPCON and the number of parasites in the midgut was counted by fluorescent microscopy.The colonisation of infected mosquitoes was achieved using GFP or DsRed tagged-Asaia strains.Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis, growth and phagocytosis tests were performed using An. stephensi and Drosophila melanogaster haemocyte cultures and DsRed tagged-Asaia and Escherichia coli strains. RESULTS: Using quantitative PCR we have quantified the relative amount of Asaia in infected and uninfected mosquitoes, showing that the parasite does not interfere with bacterial blooming. The correlation curves have confirmed the active replication of Asaia, while at the same time, the intense decrease of the parasite.The 'in vitro' immunological studies have shown that Asaia induces the expression of antimicrobial peptides, however, the growth curves in conditioned medium as well as a phagocytosis test, indicated that the bacterium is not an immune-target.Using fluorescent strains of Asaia and Plasmodium we defined their co-localisation in the mosquito midgut and salivary glands. CONCLUSIONS: We have provided important information about the relationship of Asaia with both Plasmodium and Anopheles. First, physiological changes in the midgut following an infected or uninfected blood meal do not negatively affect the residing Asaia population that seems to benefit from this condition. Second, Asaia can act as an immune-modulator activating antimicrobial peptide expression and seems to be adapted to the host immune response. Last, the co-localization of Asaia and Plasmodium highlights the possibility of reducing vectorial competence using bacterial recombinant strains capable of releasing anti-parasite molecules.

Capone A; Ricci I; Damiani C; Mosca M; Rossi P; Scuppa P; Crotti E; Epis S; Angeletti M; Valzano M; Sacchi L; Bandi C; Daffonchio D; Mandrioli M; Favia G

2013-01-01

108

Quantitative trait loci that control vector competence for dengue-2 virus in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the ability of the mosquito Aedes aegypti to become infected with dengue-2 virus were mapped in an F(1) intercross. Dengue-susceptible A. aegypti aegypti were crossed with dengue refractory A. aegypti formosus. F(2) offspring were analyzed for midgut infection...

Bosio, C F; Fulton, R E; Salasek, M L; Beaty, B J; Black, W C

109

Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Genome Regions Controlling Permethrin Resistance in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever flaviviruses. Permethrin is an insecticide used to suppress Ae. aegypti adult populations but metabolic and target site resistance to pyrethroids has evolved in many locations worldwide. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) contr...

Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Strode, Clare; Flores Suarez, Adriana; Fernandez Salas, Ildefonso; Ranson, Hilary

110

A review of the invasive mosquitoes in Europe:Ecology, public health risks, and control options  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There has been growing interest in Europe in recent years in the establishment and spread of invasive mosquitoes, notably the incursion of Aedes albopictus through the international trade in used tires and lucky bamboo, with onward spread within Europe through ground transport. More recently, five o...

Medlock, J M; Hansford, K M; Schaffner, F; Versteirt, V; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W

111

First Planning Meeting on Development of the Sterile Insect Techniques for Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] At the request of Member States a series of consultant's reports were commisioned over the past 10 years to assess the potential of developing and using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) for the control of vectors of malaria. The experts reports recommended that the Agency proceed with such an evaluation. The rationale for the possible inclusion of SIT into malaria vector control were detailed in these reports. All the reports emphasized that significant R and D would be required to develop and evaluate the SIT technology for mosquitoes before operational pilot projects could be initiated. Following the last of these meetings a document was prepared in which the essential R and D components were identified. This plan also included the collection of baseline data from a potential field site in Africa and the proposal that the target species should be Anopheles arabiensis. On the basis of these activities a Technical Co-operation (TC) project was developed which focused on the identification of a potential field site and provided funds for initiation of the collection of epidemiological and entomological data from the site. The R and D requirements for mosquito SIT were addressed in two ways. Firstly by undertaking limited R and D activities at the Agency's Laboratories in Seibersdorf and secondly by elaborating a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). The first planning meeting was thus held in Vienna from 5-8 June 2001 with representatives from Ethiopia, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Sudan; as well as experts from the UK and the USA; and a representative from the World Health Organisation (WHO). The meeting provided a forum for the participants to summarize the current malaria situation, its control and the importance of An. arabiensis in their respective countries. The outside experts complemented these presentations by dealing with specific issues. The objectives of the meeting were to: Review the status of the control of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in Member States including Government policies; Review the state of art for possible use of SIT for the control of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes; Formulate long-term and short-term strategies and action plans for R and D aimed at possible use of SIT for the control of An. arabiensis; Identify international and regional partners and discuss modalities for co-operation.

2001-01-01

112

Intelligent mosquito repellent device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A smart mosquito killer comprises a settling tank and a water tank which is arranged in the settling tank through the opening of the settling tank and positioned in the upper part of the settling tank. The water tank can be filled with marsh water and the upper part of the water tank is provided with a top cover, an electric controller, a mosquito induction inlet, an oviposition cavity, a water inlet and an overflow pipe, and the bottom of the water tank is provided with an electromagnetic valve and a duct, wherein the duct inserting into the marsh water of the settling tank. The top of the settling tank is provided with a separation net for closing an emergence chamber, the settling tank is provided with a down comer communicated with an underground leaky pipe, and the lower part of the settling tank is buried into green land with ambient hedge for shielding. The water inlet is communicated with an electric water pump arranged in the marsh water through a water inlet pipe, and the electric controller which has a control circuit turns on the electric water pump periodically to pour marsh water into the water tank. Female mosquitoes fly into the oviposition cavity and oviposit on water surface. Before hatched mosquito larvae escape after emergence, the electromagnetic valve can automatically open to let mosquito larvae drop into the settling tank with marsh water and be killed, while the marsh water can drains into the underground leaky pipe to irrigate flowers and trees. The device can be arranged in residential quarters or scenic areas to kill mosquito larvae and root away mosquito hazard.

HUANG ZHU HUANG

113

Vigilancia y control en criaderos temporales y permanentes de culícidos en Villa Clara (Vigilance and control in temporal and permanent breeding ground of mosquitoes in Villa Clara)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la Unidad Provincial de Vigilancia y Lucha Antivectorial de la provincia de Villa Clara, en el período comprendido entre el primero de julio al primero de noviembre del 2005. Para el mismo se representaron gráficamente los 304 criaderos permanentes y 218 temporales de culícidos; distribuidos en los 13 municipios de dicha provincia. Se tomaron muestras de cuerpos de agua (28 criaderos) existentes en los 13 municipios de la provincia para detectar la Densidad Larvaria según la metodología del cucharón. Se determinaron las principales especies de culícidos que habitan en la provincia y se compararon dos métodos (Temephos al 2% y peces) de control para estos vectores, determinándose el costo – riesgo del Temephos al 2%, el Bacillus thurigiensis y los peces como métodos de control de mosquitos mediante una ponderización. Los datos primarios se procesaron en el sistema computarizado Excel del paquete Office XP y para el procesamiento estadístico de la efectividad de cada tratamiento se empleó la prueba de comparación de proporciones del paquete Statgraphics plus 4.1, ambos sistemas sustentados en WindowsÒ. Los resultados muestran que las especies de mosquitos más difundidas en la provincia son: el Anopheles albimanus, el Aedes mediovitatus, el Aedes scapularis, el Aedes confinis, el Culex quinquefasciatus, el Culex nigripalpus y el Culex corniger; además, los resultados demuestran la superioridad del control con peces sobre el control con Temephos ya que es más eficiente (99% versus 87% para p < 0.01) en el control de culícidos. La vigilancia con peces (no gastos en divisas y $ 1 035.08 MN) es más económica que el Temephos (847 500 CUC y $ 12 490.96 MN) y que el Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc y $ 8 280.64 MN). Se concluye que los peces constituyen un efectivo control para las poblaciones de culícidos, recomendando el uso de los mismos por todos los beneficios que estos representan. This work was developed in the Provincial Unit of Vigilance and Vectors Against fight in Villa Clara province, between the first July to first November 2005. For the same was graphically represented the 304 permanent and 218 temporal breeding ground of mosquitoes; distributed in the 13 municipalities of this province. Were taken shows of water body (28 breeding ground) existence in the 13 municipalities of the province that to detect the Density of Larva according the methodology of ladle. Were determined the species main of mosquitoes that habitat in the province and were compared two methods (Temephos 2% and fish) of control for this vectors, determining the cost – risk of Temephos 2%, the Bacillus thurigiensis and fish as mosquitoes control thorough a consideration. Were primary dates process in the computerized system Excel of packet Office XP and that statistic process of effectively of each treatment was use the test of proportions comparison of packet Statgraphics plus 4.1, both systems sustained in WindowsÒ. The results showing that the mosquitoes species more disseminated in the province are: Anopheles albimanus, Aedes mediovitatus, Aedes scapularis, Aedes confinis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex nigripalpus and Culex corniger; besides, the results demonstrating the superiority of control with fish on the Temephos control, already that is more efficient (99% versus 87% that p < 0.01) in the mosquitoes control. The fish control (no spending in CUC and $ 1 035.08 MN) is more economic than Temephos (847 500 CUC and $ 12 490.96 MN) and than Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc and $ 8 280.64 MN). Was conclude that the fish constitute a control effective that the mosquitoes people, recommended the use of fish for all benefice that this represent.

Janhad L. Rodríguez Mendieta; C. Omelio Cepero Rodríguez; Lic. Alejandro Rodríguez Rodríguez.

2006-01-01

114

- Vigilancia y control en criaderos temporales y permanentes de culícidos en Villa Clara (Vigilance and control in temporal and permanent breeding ground of mosquitoes in Villa Clara)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la Unidad Provincial de Vigilancia y Lucha Antivectorial de la provincia de Villa Clara, en el período comprendido entre el primero de julio al primero de noviembre del 2005. Para el mismo se representaron gráficamente los 304 criaderos permanentes y 218 temporales de culícidos; distribuidos en los 13 municipios de dicha provincia. Se tomaron muestras de cuerpos de agua (28 criaderos) existentes en los 13 municipios de la provincia para detectar la Densidad Larvaria según la metodología del cucharón. Se determinaron las principales especies de culícidos que habitan en la provincia y se compararon dos métodos (Temephos al 2% y peces) de control para estos vectores, determinándose el costo – riesgo del Temephos al 2%, el Bacillus thurigiensis y los peces como métodos de control de mosquitos mediante una ponderización. Los datos primarios se procesaron en el sistema computarizado Excel del paquete Office XP y para el procesamiento estadístico de la efectividad de cada tratamiento se empleó la prueba de comparación de proporciones del paquete Statgraphics plus 4.1, ambos sistemas sustentados en WindowsÒ. Los resultados muestran que las especies de mosquitos más difundidas en la provincia son: el Anopheles albimanus, el Aedes mediovitatus, el Aedes scapularis, el Aedes confinis, el Culex quinquefasciatus, el Culex nigripalpus y el Culex corniger; además, los resultados demuestran la superioridad del control con peces sobre el control con Temephos ya que es más eficiente (99% versus 87% para p < 0.01) en el control de culícidos. La vigilancia con peces (no gastos en divisas y $ 1 035.08 MN) es más económica que el Temephos (847 500 CUC y $ 12 490.96 MN) y que el Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc y $ 8 280.64 MN). Se concluye que los peces constituyen un efectivo control para las poblaciones de culícidos, recomendando el uso de los mismos por todos los beneficios que estos representan This work was developed in the Provincial Unit of Vigilance and Vectors Against fight in Villa Clara province, between the first July to first November 2005. For the same was graphically represented the 304 permanent and 218 temporal breeding ground of mosquitoes; distributed in the 13 municipalities of this province. Were taken shows of water body (28 breeding ground) existence in the 13 municipalities of the province that to detect the Density of Larva according the methodology of ladle. Were determined the species main of mosquitoes that habitat in the province and were compared two methods (Temephos 2% and fish) of control for this vectors, determining the cost – risk of Temephos 2%, the Bacillus thurigiensis and fish as mosquitoes control thorough a consideration. Were primary dates process in the computerized system Excel of packet Office XP and that statistic process of effectively of each treatment was use the test of proportions comparison of packet Statgraphics plus 4.1, both systems sustained in WindowsÒ. The results showing that the mosquitoes species more disseminated in the province are: Anopheles albimanus, Aedes mediovitatus, Aedes scapularis, Aedes confinis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex nigripalpus and Culex corniger; besides, the results demonstrating the superiority of control with fish on the Temephos control, already that is more efficient (99% versus 87% that p < 0.01) in the mosquitoes control. The fish control (no spending in CUC and $ 1 035.08 MN) is more economic than Temephos (847 500 CUC and $ 12 490.96 MN) and than Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc and $ 8 280.64 MN). Was conclude that the fish constitute a control effective that the mosquitoes people, recommended the use of fish for all benefice that this represent.

Janhad L. Rodríguez Mendieta; C. Omelio Cepero Rodríguez; Alejandro Rodríguez Rodríguez.

2006-01-01

115

Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of application as well as reducing their sensitivity to UV radiation, high temperatures and the inevitable contact with water. This study was conducted to develop formulations that facilitate the application of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana spores for the control of anopheline larvae, and also improve their persistence under field conditions. Methods Laboratory bioassays were conducted to test the ability of aqueous (0.1% Tween 80), dry (organic and inorganic) and oil (mineral and synthetic) formulations to facilitate the spread of fungal spores over the water surface and improve the efficacy of formulated spores against anopheline larvae as well as improve spore survival after application. Field bioassays were then carried out to test the efficacy of the most promising formulation under field conditions in western Kenya. Results When formulated in a synthetic oil (ShellSol T), fungal spores of both Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were easy to mix and apply to the water surface. This formulation was more effective against anopheline larvae than 0.1% Tween 80, dry powders or mineral oil formulations. ShellSol T also improved the persistence of fungal spores after application to the water. Under field conditions in Kenya, the percentage pupation of An. gambiae was significantly reduced by 39 - 50% by the ShellSol T-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana spores as compared to the effects of the application of unformulated spores. Conclusions ShellSol T is an effective carrier for fungal spores when targeting anopheline larvae under both laboratory and field conditions. Entomopathogenic fungi formulated with a suitable carrier are a promising tool for control of larval populations of malaria mosquitoes. Additional studies are required to identify the best delivery method (where, when and how) to make use of the entomopathogenic potential of these fungi against anopheline larvae.

Bukhari Tullu; Takken Willem; Koenraadt Constantianus JM

2011-01-01

116

Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of application as well as reducing their sensitivity to UV radiation, high temperatures and the inevitable contact with water. This study was conducted to develop formulations that facilitate the application of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana spores for the control of anopheline larvae, and also improve their persistence under field conditions. METHODS: Laboratory bioassays were conducted to test the ability of aqueous (0.1% Tween 80), dry (organic and inorganic) and oil (mineral and synthetic) formulations to facilitate the spread of fungal spores over the water surface and improve the efficacy of formulated spores against anopheline larvae as well as improve spore survival after application. Field bioassays were then carried out to test the efficacy of the most promising formulation under field conditions in western Kenya. RESULTS: When formulated in a synthetic oil (ShellSol T), fungal spores of both Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were easy to mix and apply to the water surface. This formulation was more effective against anopheline larvae than 0.1% Tween 80, dry powders or mineral oil formulations. ShellSol T also improved the persistence of fungal spores after application to the water. Under field conditions in Kenya, the percentage pupation of An. gambiae was significantly reduced by 39 - 50% by the ShellSol T-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana spores as compared to the effects of the application of unformulated spores. CONCLUSIONS: ShellSol T is an effective carrier for fungal spores when targeting anopheline larvae under both laboratory and field conditions. Entomopathogenic fungi formulated with a suitable carrier are a promising tool for control of larval populations of malaria mosquitoes. Additional studies are required to identify the best delivery method (where, when and how) to make use of the entomopathogenic potential of these fungi against anopheline larvae.

Bukhari T; Takken W; Koenraadt CJ

2011-01-01

117

Comparison between diflubenzuron and a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis- and Lysinibacillus sphaericus-based formulation for the control of mosquito larvae in urban catch basins in Switzerland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field test was conducted to evaluate a commercial biolarvicide based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus to control mosquitoes breeding in catch basins in southern Switzerland. The efficacy and residual activity of the microbial mosquito larvicide applied at the recommended rate of 10 g per catch basin was compared to the currently used larvicide diflubenzuron. Both products provided a very good control activity (> 97% of reduction) of late instars (3rd and 4th instars) and pupae for 4 wk. However, only the microbial formulation controlled immature stages during the whole period of the trial, with > 98% of larval reduction. A single application of the microbial larvicide applied at 10 g per catch basin significantly reduced the number of immature mosquitoes for at least 70 days. The quantity of rainfall in the 48-h period before each sampling and the water temperature did not influence the efficacy of the treatments. Under the environmental conditions encountered in southern Switzerland, the larvicide tested may be a valid alternative to diflubenzuron to control mosquitoes in urban catch basins. The long-lasting control by the microbial larvicide further reduces the number of treatments required to keep the population of mosquitoes at low levels.

Guidi V; Lüthy P; Tonolla M

2013-06-01

118

The Innovative Vector Control Consortium: improved control of mosquito-borne diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few new insecticides have been produced for control of disease vectors for public health in developing countries over the past three decades, owing to market constraints, and the available insecticides are often poorly deployed. The Innovative Vector Control Consortium will address these market failures by developing a portfolio of chemical and technological tools that will be directly and immediately accessible to populations in the developing world. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has supported this new initiative to enable industry and academia to change the vector control paradigm for malaria and dengue and to ensure that vector control, alongside drugs, case management and vaccines, can be better used to reduce disease.

Hemingway J; Beaty BJ; Rowland M; Scott TW; Sharp BL

2006-07-01

119

A five-year integrated mosquito control project in Kavala (N. Greece)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The plain of the Nestos River is a coastal area of 25,000 ha of agricultural land irrigated by the day-regulated waters of the Nestos River. Rice fields (600 individual parcels of 1,900 ha of total surface) represent the most important breeding sites during summer (five larvicide applications on average). Abandoned agricultural land (over 200 fields of 900 ha) receiving occasionally irrigation water constitutes the second most productive mosquito-breeding site (1-2 applications). Approximately 1-2% of the total surface of 6,500 ha of corn cultivation fields is poorly drained and thus about 100 ha produce at least one generation of mosquitoes during the summer. Along its 25 kilometers of seashore, the area of Nestos comprises the lagoons of Kavala (extensive aquaculture), and the last part of the delta of the Nestos River, 11,500 ha of protected wetlands under the Ramsar convention. About 2,000 ha of these wetlands harbours plants such as Arthr. fruticosum, Sal. europea, Ael. littoralis, Ju. maritimus, Sc. maritimus, representing highly productive mosquito breeding sites (1-2 generations during the summer). Ecological mapping involved 3,200 individual vegetation polygons organised in 311 different sampling stations. Larvae sampling protocol was followed on a weekly basis for the individual and/or groups of parcels in the agricultural and natural environment. All the above information was systematically monitored and transferred to an ArcView (8.3)-GIS (Geographical Information System) database for further exploitation. In addition, mosquito breeding sites were recorded in the urban environment: within 9 villages, 2,300 individual residences were monitored and 1,070 cesspools were recorded, out of which more than 50% were producing mosquitoes (1-2 applications). In total 8,500 ha were treated with larvicides by using temephos and diflubenzuron (agricultural land), Bti (natural environment) and MMF-Agnique (urban environment). 70% of the applications were made by air using a spraying helicopter (Hiller) and a specially modified ultra-light motorized (Delta type) equipped with GPS (Geographical Positioning System). During the five years of application of the project, 17 species of mosquitoes have been identified, the most important being Ochlerotatus caspius and Anopheles spp. (human bait and CO2 traps). Nuisance has been considerably reduced since the beginning of the operations, when 1,000 bites/hour were not unusual. Evaluation of the project was made twice through 200 questionnaires in year 2000 and 180 questionnaires in year 2004. Local community is fully supporting the project: 90% of the people are willing to participate financially for the continuation of the project. (author)

2005-01-01

120

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue.  

Science.gov (United States)

A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles that were tested as mosquito larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous 1?mM AgNO? to stable silver nanoparticles with an average size of 450?nm. The structure and percentage of synthesized nanoparticles was characterized by using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy methods. The median lethal concentrations (LC??) of silver nanoparticles that killed fourth instars of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. stephensi were 0.30, 0.41, and 2.12 ppm, respectively. Adult longevity (days) in male and female mosquitoes exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles was reduced by ~30% (p<0.05), whereas the number of eggs laid by females exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles decreased by 36% (p<0.05). PMID:22022807

Arjunan, Naresh Kumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rejeeth, Chandrababu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Barnard, Donald R

2011-10-24

 
 
 
 
121

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles that were tested as mosquito larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous 1?mM AgNO? to stable silver nanoparticles with an average size of 450?nm. The structure and percentage of synthesized nanoparticles was characterized by using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy methods. The median lethal concentrations (LC??) of silver nanoparticles that killed fourth instars of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. stephensi were 0.30, 0.41, and 2.12 ppm, respectively. Adult longevity (days) in male and female mosquitoes exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles was reduced by ~30% (p<0.05), whereas the number of eggs laid by females exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles decreased by 36% (p<0.05).

Arjunan NK; Murugan K; Rejeeth C; Madhiyazhagan P; Barnard DR

2012-03-01

122

Dynamics of the "popcorn" Wolbachia infection in outbred Aedes aegypti informs prospects for mosquito vector control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forty percent of the world's population is at risk of contracting dengue virus, which produces dengue fever with a potentially fatal hemorrhagic form. The wMelPop Wolbachia infection of Drosophila melanogaster reduces life span and interferes with viral transmission when introduced into the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue virus. Wolbachia has been proposed as an agent for preventing transmission of dengue virus. Population invasion by Wolbachia depends on levels of cytoplasmic incompatibility, fitness effects, and maternal transmission. Here we characterized these traits in an outbred genetic background of a potential target population of Ae. aegypti using two crossing schemes. Cytoplasmic incompatibility was strong in this background, and the maternal transmission rate of Wolbachia was high. The infection substantially reduced longevity of infected adult females, regardless of whether adults came from larvae cultured under high or low levels of nutrition or density. The infection reduced the viability of diapausing and nondiapausing eggs. Viability was particularly low when eggs were laid by older females and when diapausing eggs had been stored for a few weeks. The infection affected mosquito larval development time and adult body size under different larval nutrition levels and densities. The results were used to assess the potential for wMelPop-CLA to invade natural populations of Ae. aegypti and to develop recommendations for the maintenance of fitness in infected mosquitoes that need to compete against field insects.

Yeap HL; Mee P; Walker T; Weeks AR; O'Neill SL; Johnson P; Ritchie SA; Richardson KM; Doig C; Endersby NM; Hoffmann AA

2011-02-01

123

Characterizing the Aedes aegypti population in a Vietnamese village in preparation for a Wolbachia-based mosquito control strategy to eliminate dengue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A life-shortening strain of the obligate intracellular bacteria Wolbachia, called wMelPop, is seen as a promising new tool for the control of Aedes aegypti. However, developing a vector control strategy based on the release of mosquitoes transinfected with wMelPop requires detailed knowledge of the demographics of the target population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Tri Nguyen village (611 households) on Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam, we conducted nine quantitative entomologic surveys over 14 months to determine if Ae. aegypti populations were spatially and temporally homogenous, and to estimate population size. There was no obvious relationship between mosquito (larval, pupal or adult) abundance and temperature and rainfall, and no area of the village supported consistently high numbers of mosquitoes. In almost all surveys, key premises produced high numbers of Ae. aegypti. However, these premises were not consistent between surveys. For an intervention based on a single release of wMelPop-infected Ae. aegypti, release ratios of infected to uninfected adult mosquitoes of all age classes are estimated to be 1.8-6.7ratio1 for gravid females (and similarly aged males) or teneral adults, respectively. We calculated that adult female mosquito abundance in Tri Nguyen village could range from 1.1 to 43.3 individuals of all age classes per house. Thus, an intervention could require the release of 2-78 wMelPop-infected gravid females and similarly aged males per house, or 7-290 infected teneral female and male mosquitoes per house. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the variability we encountered, this study highlights the importance of multiple entomologic surveys when evaluating the spatial structure of a vector population or estimating population size. If a single release of wMelPop-infected Ae. aegypti were to occur when wild Ae. aegypti abundance was at its maximum, a preintervention control program would be necessary to ensure that there was no net increase in mosquito numbers. However, because of the short-term temporal heterogeneity, the inconsistent spatial structure and the impact of transient key premises that we observed, the feasibility of multiple releases of smaller numbers of mosquitoes also needs to be considered. In either case, fewer wMelPop-infected mosquitoes would then need to be released, which will likely be more acceptable to householders.

Jeffery JA; Thi Yen N; Nam VS; Nghia le T; Hoffmann AA; Kay BH; Ryan PA

2009-01-01

124

Use of insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and other impregnated materials for malaria control in the Americas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reviews the current status of the use of insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and other impregnated materials in the Americas. Studies from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela are examined. It is concluded that most studies have suffered from experimental design errors, short duration problems, and/or inadequate measurement of health indicators. The review brings out the great difficulty of conducting scientific studies that attempt to measure the impact of insecticide-treated materials on malaria incidence. In particular, the low incidence of malaria in the Americas, the high prevalences of P. vivax and relapsing cases, and the relationship between human activity patterns and the crepuscular biting patterns of certain malaria vectors stand in the way of easy experimental design and execution. The utilization of impregnated mosquito nets or other impregnated materials as a major component of an integrated malaria control program would be premature at this time. However, it is recommended that well-conceived large-scale trials and interventions be considered when they are based on a thorough understanding of the dynamics of malaria transmission in the area of study.

Zimmerman R. H.; Voorham J.

1997-01-01

125

How computational studies of mosquito repellents contribute to the control of vector Borne Diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector Borne Diseases (VBD) present a serious threat to millions of people. In this paper various computational approaches towards new drugs design against some of them are reviewed. Malaria attracts particular attention of computational medicinal chemists. A promising strategy of the fight with VBD is usage of insect repellents. N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has been the mostly used mosquito repellent for over five decades. Its mode of action is still a matter of intensive studies and debate. A possible mechanism of DEET activity is inactivation of odorant receptor proteins expressed in female mosquitoes, and being critical for finding a prey. In order to check possible interactions of DEET with such a transmembrane protein and to indicate a plausible biophore, we have constructed a hybrid "ab initio" model of Anopheles gambiae Odorant Receptor Protein 1 (AgOR1). The transmembrane regions of AgOR1 were predicted using 10 different bioinformatics algorithms and a consensus approach. A full torsional potential energy surface of DEET was determined using the AM1 method and low energy conformers were further optimized using the HF/6-31G method. DEET and a series of diastereomers of alternative repellent cyclohex-3-enyl 2-methylpiperidin-1-yl ketone (220) was docked to the AgOR1 model using the AutoDock 3.0.5 code, and possible interactions sites inside this GPCR AgOR1 were identified. PMID:24010929

Miszta, Przemyslaw; Basak, Subhash C; Natarajan, Ramanathan; Nowak, Wieslaw

2013-09-01

126

The Potential of the Sterile Insect Technique and other Genetic Methods for Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes. Report of a Consultants Meeting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report updates information provided by a 1993 consultant group on the use of genetic methods for control of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Human malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium are exclusively transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Where these two groups co-exist, the transmission of the parasite to humans can create a major health problem. Malaria currently causes 2 million deaths world-wide and approximately 400 million clinical cases annually. There are ca. 15 major vector species and 30-40 vectors of lesser importance. This report considers the practicality of developing the sterile insect technique (SIT) or other genetic mechanisms in order to eradicate mosquito vectors from specific areas. This would interrupt transmission and eliminate malaria in those areas.

1996-08-02

127

Indoor use of plastic sheeting impregnated with carbamate combined with long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets for the control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The combined efficacy of a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) and a carbamate-treated plastic sheeting (CTPS) or indoor residual spraying (IRS) for control of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes was evaluated in experimental huts in Burkina Faso. Anopheles gambiae from the area is resistant to pyrethroids and to a lesser extent, carbamates. Relatively low mortality rates were observed with the LLIN (44%), IRS (42%), and CTPS (52%), whereas both combinations killed significantly more mosquitoes (~70% for LLIN + CTPS and LLIN + IRS). Blood feeding by An. gambiae was uninhibited by IRS and CTPS compared with LLIN (43%), LLIN + CTPS (58%), and LLIN + IRS (56%). No evidence for selection of the kdr and ace-1(R) alleles was observed with the combinations, whereas a survival advantage of mosquitoes bearing the ace-1(R) mutation was observed with IRS and CTPS. The results suggest that the combination of the two interventions constitutes a potential tool for vector-resistance management.

Djènontin A; Chandre F; Dabiré KR; Chabi J; N'guessan R; Baldet T; Akogbéto M; Corbel V

2010-08-01

128

Indoor Use of Plastic Sheeting Impregnated with Carbamate Combined with Long-Lasting Insecticidal Mosquito Nets for the Control of Pyrethroid-Resistant Malaria Vectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The combined efficacy of a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) and a carbamate-treated plastic sheeting (CTPS) or indoor residual spraying (IRS) for control of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes was evaluated in experimental huts in Burkina Faso. Anopheles gambiae from the area is resistant to pyrethroids and to a lesser extent, carbamates. Relatively low mortality rates were observed with the LLIN (44%), IRS (42%), and CTPS (52%), whereas both combinations killed significantly more mosquitoes (~70% for LLIN + CTPS and LLIN + IRS). Blood feeding by An. gambiae was uninhibited by IRS and CTPS compared with LLIN (43%), LLIN + CTPS (58%), and LLIN + IRS (56%). No evidence for selection of the kdr and ace-1R alleles was observed with the combinations, whereas a survival advantage of mosquitoes bearing the ace-1R mutation was observed with IRS and CTPS. The results suggest that the combination of the two interventions constitutes a potential tool for vector-resistance management.

Djenontin, Armel; Chandre, Fabrice; Dabire, K. Roch; Chabi, Joseph; N'Guessan, Raphael; Baldet, Thierry; Akogbeto, Martin; Corbel, Vincent

2010-01-01

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Effectiveness of the area wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey: evidence from a household survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...

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Current procedures of the integrated urban vector-mosquito control as an example in Cotonou (Benin, West Africa) and Wroclaw area (Poland).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current strategy of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) comprises the general approach of environmentally friendly control measures. With regard to mosquitoes it includes first of all application of microbial insecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) delta-endotoxins as well as the reduction of breeding habitats and natural enemy augmentation. It can be achieved thorough implementation of the interdisciplinary program, i. e., understanding of mosquito vector ecology, the appropriate vector-diseases (e. g., malariometric) measurements and training of local personnel responsible for mosquito abatement activities, as well as community involvement. Biocontrol methods as an alternative to chemical insecticides result from the sustainability development concept, growing awareness of environmental pollution and the development of insecticide-resistant strains of vector-mosquito populations in many parts of the world. Although sustainable trends are usually considered in terms of the monetary and training resources within countries, environmental concerns are actually more limiting factors for the duration of an otherwise successful vector control effort. In order to meet these new needs, increasing efforts have been made in search of and application of natural enemies, such as parasites, bacterial pathogens and predators which may control populations of insect vectors. The biological control agent based on the bacterial toxins Bti and Bs has been used in the Wroc?aw's University and Municipal Mosquito Control Programs since 1998. In West-Africa biocontrol appears to be an effective and safe tool to combat malaria in addition to bed-nets, residual indoor spraying and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria parasites which are the major tools in the WHO Roll Back Malaria Program. IVM studies carried out 2005-2008 in Cotonou (Benin) as well those in Wroc?aw Irrigated Fields during the last years include the following major steps: 1. Mapping of all breeding sites in the project area and recording data in a geographical information system (GIS/relational database). All districts, streets and houses are numbered for quick reference during the operation; 2. Studying mosquito vector bionomics, migration and vectorial capacity in the project area, before, during and after the routine Bti treatments; 3. Assessment of the optimum for effective larvicide insecticide dosages at major breeding sites against the different target mosquito species; 4. Implementation of the microbial control agents in the integrated routine program. Adaptation of the application equipment to the local situation, training of the field staff, and routine treatments; 5. Conducting surveillance of vector-disease (e. g., malariometric) parameters in the control and experimental area before, during, and after the application of biocontrol agents.

Rydzanicz K; Lonc E; Becker N

2009-01-01

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Juvenile hormone and its receptor, methoprene-tolerant, control the dynamics of mosquito gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Juvenile hormone III (JH) plays a key role in regulating the reproduction of female mosquitoes. Microarray time-course analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during posteclosion (PE) development in the fat body of female Aedes aegypti. Hierarchical clustering identified three major gene clusters: 1,843 early-PE (EPE) genes maximally expressed at 6 h PE, 457 mid-PE (MPE) genes at 24 h PE, and 1,815 late-PE (LPE) genes at 66 h PE. The RNAi microarray screen for the JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) showed that 27% of EPE and 40% of MPE genes were up-regulated whereas 36% of LPE genes were down-regulated in the absence of this receptor. Met repression of EPE and MPE and activation of LPE genes were validated by an in vitro fat-body culture experiment using Met RNAi. Sequence motif analysis revealed the consensus for a 9-mer Met-binding motif, CACG(C)/TG(A)/G(T)/AG. Met-binding motif variants were overrepresented within the first 300 bases of the promoters of Met RNAi-down-regulated (LPE) genes but not in Met RNAi-up-regulated (EPE) genes. EMSAs using a combination of mutational and anti-Met antibody supershift analyses confirmed the binding properties of the Met consensus motif variants. There was a striking temporal separation of expression profiles among major functional gene groups, with carbohydrate, lipid, and xenobiotics metabolism belonging to the EPE and MPE clusters and transcription and translation to the LPE cluster. This study represents a significant advancement in the understanding of the regulation of gene expression by JH and its receptor Met during female mosquito reproduction. PMID:23633570

Zou, Zhen; Saha, Tusar T; Roy, Sourav; Shin, Sang Woon; Backman, Tyler W H; Girke, Thomas; White, Kevin P; Raikhel, Alexander S

2013-04-30

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Juvenile hormone and its receptor, methoprene-tolerant, control the dynamics of mosquito gene expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Juvenile hormone III (JH) plays a key role in regulating the reproduction of female mosquitoes. Microarray time-course analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during posteclosion (PE) development in the fat body of female Aedes aegypti. Hierarchical clustering identified three major gene clusters: 1,843 early-PE (EPE) genes maximally expressed at 6 h PE, 457 mid-PE (MPE) genes at 24 h PE, and 1,815 late-PE (LPE) genes at 66 h PE. The RNAi microarray screen for the JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) showed that 27% of EPE and 40% of MPE genes were up-regulated whereas 36% of LPE genes were down-regulated in the absence of this receptor. Met repression of EPE and MPE and activation of LPE genes were validated by an in vitro fat-body culture experiment using Met RNAi. Sequence motif analysis revealed the consensus for a 9-mer Met-binding motif, CACG(C)/TG(A)/G(T)/AG. Met-binding motif variants were overrepresented within the first 300 bases of the promoters of Met RNAi-down-regulated (LPE) genes but not in Met RNAi-up-regulated (EPE) genes. EMSAs using a combination of mutational and anti-Met antibody supershift analyses confirmed the binding properties of the Met consensus motif variants. There was a striking temporal separation of expression profiles among major functional gene groups, with carbohydrate, lipid, and xenobiotics metabolism belonging to the EPE and MPE clusters and transcription and translation to the LPE cluster. This study represents a significant advancement in the understanding of the regulation of gene expression by JH and its receptor Met during female mosquito reproduction.

Zou Z; Saha TT; Roy S; Shin SW; Backman TW; Girke T; White KP; Raikhel AS

2013-06-01

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Modelo de simulación para el control del mosquito Aedes aegypti, transmisor del dengue y la fiebre amarilla, por el crustáceo Mesocyclops spp./ A simulation model for the control of the Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue and yellow fever, by the crustacean Mesocyclops spp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: Se presenta un modelo de simulación que muestra la dinámica de depredación de Mesocyclops spp., sobre Aedes aegypti MÉTODOS: Representado por cuatro ecuaciones diferenciales: H'(t), cantidad de huevos; L'(t), cantidad de larvas; A'(t), cantidad de adultos y C'(t), cantidad de copépodos. Inicialmente las ecuaciones son del tipo clásico presa-depredador, según Lotka y Volterra. Posteriormente se modifica en un sistema con respuesta funcional para invertebr (more) ados, según Holling. RESULTADOS: El primer sistema controla y estabiliza la población de mosquitos, el segundo muestra que los copepodos son inefectivos como controladores. CONCLUSIONES: Se reconoce la necesidad de estudiar sistemas presa depredador (mosquitos - copepodos) con trabajos que integren pruebas de laboratorio y de campo. Solo así será posible establecer la validez en el uso de estos últimos como controladores biológicos efectivos de mosquitos. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: A simulation model is presented to show the predation dynamics of Mesocyclops spp. over Aedes aegypti.i METHODS: The system is represented through four differential equations. H'(t), quantity of eggs; L'(t), quantity of larvae; A'(t), quantity of adults and C'(t), quantity of copepods. Initially the equations are of the classic predator-prey type, according to Lotka (1924) and Volterra (1926). Then it is modified into a system with functional response for invert (more) ebrates, according to Holling. RESULTS: The first system effectively controls and stabilizes the mosquito population, while the second suggests that copepods may be ineffective as mosquito controllers. CONCLUSIONS: The need to study predator-prey systems (copepodos-mosquitos) with projects that integrate laboratory and of field tests is recognized. Only then will it be possible to establish the validity of predators as effective biological controllers of mosquitoes.

Duque L., Jonny E.; Muñoz L., Anibal; Navarro-Silva, Mario A.

2004-04-01

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ATon, abundant novel nonautonomous mobile genetic elements in yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti)  

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Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important pathogen vectors affecting human and other animals. Studies on genetic control of mosquito mediated disease transmission gained traction recently due to mosquito transgenesis technology. Active transposons are considered valuable tools to...

Yang Guojun; Wong Amy; Rooke Rebecca

135

Insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in India-experience from a tribal area on operational feasibility and uptake  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The study assessed the operational feasibility and acceptability of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) in one Primary Health Centre (PHC) in a falciparum malaria endemic district in the state of Orissa, India, where 74% of the people are tribes and DDT indoor residual spraying had been withdrawn and ITNs introduced by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme. To a population of 63,920, 24,442 ITNs were distributed free of charge through 101 treatment cent (more) ers during July-August 2002. Interview of 1,130, 1,012 and 126 respondents showed that the net use rates were 80%, 74% and 55% in the cold, rainy and summer seasons, respectively. Since using ITNs, 74.5-76.6% of the respondents observed reduction of mosquito bites and 7.2-32.1% reduction of malaria incidence; 37% expressed willingness to buy ITNs if the cost was lower and they were affordable. Up to ten months post-treatment, almost 100% mortality of vector mosquitoes was recorded on unwashed and washed nets (once or twice). Health workers re-treated the nets at the treatment centers eight months after distribution on a cost-recovery basis. The coverage reported by the PHC was only 4.2%, mainly because of unwillingness of the people to pay for re-treatment and to go to the treatment centers from their villages. When the re-treatment was continued at the villages involving personnel from several departments, the coverage improved to about 90%.Interview of 126 respondents showed that among those who got their nets re-treated, 81.4% paid cash for the re-treatment and the remainder were reluctant to pay. Majority of those who paid said that they did so due to the fear that if they did not do so they would lose benefits from other government welfare schemes. The 2nd re-treatment was therefore carried out free of charge nine months after the 1st re-treatment and thus achieved coverage of 70.4%. The study showed community acceptance to use ITNs as they perceived the benefit. Distribution and re-treatment of nets was thus possible through the PHC system, if done free of charge and when personnel from different departments, especially those at village level, were involved.

Jambulingam, P; Gunasekaran, K; Sahu, SS; Vijayakumar, T

2008-03-01

136

Genetically Modified Mosquito: Myth and Reality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been applied successfully in some agricultural pest control programs in the past, but in many cases, success has not been sustainable in the long run. Various attempts have been made to duplicate this limited success SIT application in agriculture to other areas of applications, particularly in vector control. For example, a recent mosquito control program has been initiated in Malaysia to eliminate dengue-mosquitoes Aedes aegypti by releasing large amount of genetically modified GM male mosquitoes into the field to outcompete the wild male mosquitoes. Field experimental data that has been made available in the literature is limited, rendering it difficult to make independent assessment on its short-term efficacy and long-term sustainability of this GM control strategy. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of GM mosquito in controlling dengue mosquito population by means of model simulations via DEER (Dengue Encephalitis Eradication Routines). Preliminary results indicate negative conclusion regarding the effectiveness of GM mosquitoes in controlling wild A. aegypti population over the long-term. Essentially, significant reduction of wild mosquito population is possible only if large over-flooding ratios are applied. Further, repeated releases must be maintained over an infinite time horizon to continue to sustain low population of mosquitoes. Major difficulty remains to be resolved. In particular, in-depth costbenefit analysis on this control program is essential to ensure long-term institutional and social support.

Teh Su Yean; Koh Hock Lye; Yeap Kiew Lee

2013-01-01

137

Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using contingent valuation we estimated the perceived value of an area-wide integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. We estimated residents' maximum willingness-to-pay and perceived monetary benefits (willingness-to-pay excluding residents who protested all types of payments) and payment modality through a telephone survey of 51 randomly selected households. The mean (+/- SE) perceived monetary benefits for an enhanced mosquito abatement program was $9.54 +/- 2.90 per capita per year. Most respondents would have been willing to pay through taxes (35%) or charitable donations (6%) starting then, or through one of these approaches in the future (43%), whereas 16% were completely unwilling to pay any additional costs whatsoever. We projected that the perceived monetary benefits to the counties' 1.01 million residents for an enhanced mosquito control program would be $9.61 million annually. Thus, collectively residents perceived monetary benefits of 3.67 times the combined 2008 annual operating costs of the counties' existing mosquito control programs of $2.61 million.

Halasa YA; Shepard DS; Wittenberg E; Fonseca DM; Farajollahi A; Healy S; Gaugler R; Strickman D; Clark GG

2012-09-01

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Turning cigarette butt waste into an alternative, control tool against an insecticide-resistant mosquito vector.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Annually, 4.5 trillion cigarette butts (CBs) are flicked into our environment. Evidence exists that CB waste is deadly to aquatic life, but their lethality to the aquatic life of the main dengue vector is unknown. CBs are full of toxicants that occur naturally, during planting and manufacturing, which may act as larvicidal agents. We assessed Aedes aegypti vulnerability to Marlboro butts during its development. Overall, CBs showed insecticidal activities against larvae. At early phases of development, mortality rates were much higher in two CBs solution (2CBSol) and 3CBSol microcosms (MICRs). Larval survival gradually decreased with development in 1CBSol-MICRs. However, in great presence of CBs, mortality was high even for the late developmental stages. These results suggest that A. aegypti larvae are vulnerable to CB presence in their habitats, but this effect was seen most during the early developmental phases and in the presence of increased amounts of cigarette remnants. CB filters are being used as raw material in many sectors, i.e., brick, art, fashion, plastic industries, as a practical solution to the pollution problem, the observed butt waste toxicity to mosquito larvae open new avenues for the identification of novel insecticide products.

Dieng H; Rajasaygar S; Ahmad AH; Ahmad H; Rawi CS; Zuharah WF; Satho T; Miake F; Fukumitsu Y; Saad AR; Ghani IA; Vargas RM; Majid AH; Abubakar S

2013-08-01

139

Large-scale use of mosquito larval source management for malaria control in Africa: a cost analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, large-scale use of two malaria vector control methods, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) is being scaled up in Africa with substantial funding from donors. A third vector control method, larval source management (LSM), has been historically very successful and is today widely used for mosquito control globally, except in Africa. With increasing risk of insecticide resistance and a shift to more exophilic vectors, LSM is now under re-evaluation for use against afro-tropical vector species. Here the costs of this intervention were evaluated. Methods The 'ingredients approach' was used to estimate the economic and financial costs per person protected per year (pppy) for large-scale LSM using microbial larvicides in three ecologically diverse settings: (1) the coastal metropolitan area of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, (2) a highly populated Kenyan highland area (Vihiga District), and (3) a lakeside setting in rural western Kenya (Mbita Division). Two scenarios were examined to investigate the cost implications of using alternative product formulations. Sensitivity analyses on product prices were carried out. Results The results show that for programmes using the same granular formulation larviciding costs the least pppy in Dar es Salaam (US$0.94), approximately 60% more in Vihiga District (US$1.50) and the most in Mbita Division (US$2.50). However, these costs are reduced substantially if an alternative water-dispensable formulation is used; in Vihiga, this would reduce costs to US$0.79 and, in Mbita Division, to US$1.94. Larvicide and staff salary costs each accounted for approximately a third of the total economic costs per year. The cost pppy depends mainly on: (1) the type of formulation required for treating different aquatic habitats, (2) the human population density relative to the density of aquatic habitats and (3) the potential to target the intervention in space and/or time. Conclusion Costs for LSM compare favourably with costs for IRS and LLINs, especially in areas with moderate and focal malaria transmission where mosquito larval habitats are accessible and well defined. LSM presents an attractive tool to be integrated in ongoing malaria control effort in such settings. Further data on the epidemiological health impact of larviciding is required to establish cost effectiveness.

Worrall Eve; Fillinger Ulrike

2011-01-01

140

Large-scale use of mosquito larval source management for malaria control in Africa: a cost analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: At present, large-scale use of two malaria vector control methods, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) is being scaled up in Africa with substantial funding from donors. A third vector control method, larval source management (LSM), has been historically very successful and is today widely used for mosquito control globally, except in Africa. With increasing risk of insecticide resistance and a shift to more exophilic vectors, LSM is now under re-evaluation for use against afro-tropical vector species. Here the costs of this intervention were evaluated. METHODS: The 'ingredients approach' was used to estimate the economic and financial costs per person protected per year (pppy) for large-scale LSM using microbial larvicides in three ecologically diverse settings: (1) the coastal metropolitan area of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, (2) a highly populated Kenyan highland area (Vihiga District), and (3) a lakeside setting in rural western Kenya (Mbita Division). Two scenarios were examined to investigate the cost implications of using alternative product formulations. Sensitivity analyses on product prices were carried out. RESULTS: The results show that for programmes using the same granular formulation larviciding costs the least pppy in Dar es Salaam (US$0.94), approximately 60% more in Vihiga District (US$1.50) and the most in Mbita Division (US$2.50). However, these costs are reduced substantially if an alternative water-dispensable formulation is used; in Vihiga, this would reduce costs to US$0.79 and, in Mbita Division, to US$1.94. Larvicide and staff salary costs each accounted for approximately a third of the total economic costs per year. The cost pppy depends mainly on: (1) the type of formulation required for treating different aquatic habitats, (2) the human population density relative to the density of aquatic habitats and (3) the potential to target the intervention in space and/or time. CONCLUSION: Costs for LSM compare favourably with costs for IRS and LLINs, especially in areas with moderate and focal malaria transmission where mosquito larval habitats are accessible and well defined. LSM presents an attractive tool to be integrated in ongoing malaria control effort in such settings. Further data on the epidemiological health impact of larviciding is required to establish cost effectiveness.

Worrall E; Fillinger U

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Controle de mosquitos com base em larvicidas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: a escolha do agente de controle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se neste estudo uma comparação entre larvicidas químicos e biológicos usados em programas de controle de mosquitos no Rio Grande do Sul. Em bioensaios de laboratório contra Culex quinquefasciatus constatou-se que as formulações biológicas líquidas Vectobac 12 AS e Teknar 3000 (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis), ABG 6262 líquido e em pó (B. sphaericus 2362), foram altamente eficazes. Também as formulações experimentais de B. thuringiensis israelensis produzidas em laboratórios brasileiros foram consideradas adequadas. Entre as formulações químicas, os compostos piretróides Pirisa e K-Othrine produziram resultados melhores do que os organo-fosforados Lebaycid e Abate. Estes últimos produziram respostas dez vezes mais fracas do que o previsto em outros estudos. Em condições de campo, a dose de 1250 mg/m² para as formulações biológicas foi considerada adequada para a rotina das aplicações, porque permite superar as influências físicas do meio sobre os resultados. Somente as formulações de B. sphaericus produziram interrupções nas reinfestações dos focos de culicídeos observados. Períodos de até 39 semanas sem reinfestações foram observados em focos naturais e de um mês sem sobrevivência foi observado em tanques, onde procedia-se a reinfestação artificial. Este estudo sugere que as alternativas biológicas devem ser consideradas em programas de controle de mosquitos. Elas podem superar os problemas de resistência e eliminação, bem como da ausência de efeito residual nas aplicações de larvicidas.

Ruas-Neto Antônio L.; Silveira Sydnei M.; Colares Evandro Ricardo da C.

1994-01-01

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Mosquito Life Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners build a plastic emergence chamber (or use purchased "mini mosquito breeder") to observe and analyze the mosquito life cycle. Learners record daily observations for 8-14 days by counting the number of larvae, pupae, and adults present in the chamber. This resource includes background information about the mosquito life cycle and mosquitoes as disease vectors plus a link to a mosquito reference manual.

Institute, Howard H.

2010-01-01

143

A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs). New vector surveillance, larviciding and management systems were designed and evaluated in 15 city wards to allow timely collection, interpretation and reaction to entomologic monitoring data using practical procedures that rely on minimal technology. After one year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis commenced in March 2006 in three selected wards. Results The procedures and staff management systems described greatly improved standards of larval surveillance relative to that reported at the outset of this programme. In the first year of the programme, over 65,000 potential Anopheles habitats were surveyed by 90 CORPs on a weekly basis. Reaction times to vector surveillance at observations were one day, week and month at ward, municipal and city levels, respectively. One year of community-based larviciding reduced transmission by the primary malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., by 31% (95% C.I. = 21.6–37.6%; p = 0.04). Conclusion This novel management, monitoring and evaluation system for implementing routine larviciding of malaria vectors in African cities has shown considerable potential for sustained, rapidly responsive, data-driven and affordable application. Nevertheless, the true programmatic value of larviciding in urban Africa can only be established through longer-term programmes which are stably financed and allow the operational teams and management infrastructures to mature by learning from experience.

Fillinger Ulrike; Kannady Khadija; William George; Vanek Michael J; Dongus Stefan; Nyika Dickson; Geissbühler Yvonne; Chaki Prosper P; Govella Nico J; Mathenge Evan M; Singer Burton H; Mshinda Hassan; Lindsay Steven W; Tanner Marcel; Mtasiwa Deo; de Castro Marcia C; Killeen Gerry F

2008-01-01

144

Mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito control activities. PMID:24130851

Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

2013-10-10

145

Mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito control activities.

Gonsalves L; Bicknell B; Law B; Webb C; Monamy V

2013-01-01

146

Influence of temperature and concentration of VectoBac on control of the salt-marsh mosquito, Ochlerotatus squamiger, in Monterey County, California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Laboratory susceptibility bioassays were conducted to determine the efficacy of VectoBac TP (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis [Bti]) at different concentrations and temperatures against the salt-marsh mosquito Ochlerotatus squamiger. Bioassays on late 3rd- and early 4th-stage larvae, read at 72 h and 14 degrees C produced an LD90 of 0.223 mg/liter, whereas more than double this dose was required to produce similar mortality at 6 degrees C. A field trial in the winter of 2001-02 of an aerially applied VectoBac TP formulation in Salinas, CA, corroborated laboratory bioassay observations by producing 97-100% control of Oc. squamiger at 72 h postapplication. Inconsistencies in mortality with field applications of VectoBac TP previously observed by North Salinas Valley Mosquito Abatement personnel were most likely caused by uneven application rates and varying temperatures and water volumes.

Christiansen JA; McAbee RD; Stanich MA; DeChant P; Boronda D; Cornel AJ

2004-06-01

147

Influence of temperature and concentration of VectoBac on control of the salt-marsh mosquito, Ochlerotatus squamiger, in Monterey County, California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory susceptibility bioassays were conducted to determine the efficacy of VectoBac TP (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis [Bti]) at different concentrations and temperatures against the salt-marsh mosquito Ochlerotatus squamiger. Bioassays on late 3rd- and early 4th-stage larvae, read at 72 h and 14 degrees C produced an LD90 of 0.223 mg/liter, whereas more than double this dose was required to produce similar mortality at 6 degrees C. A field trial in the winter of 2001-02 of an aerially applied VectoBac TP formulation in Salinas, CA, corroborated laboratory bioassay observations by producing 97-100% control of Oc. squamiger at 72 h postapplication. Inconsistencies in mortality with field applications of VectoBac TP previously observed by North Salinas Valley Mosquito Abatement personnel were most likely caused by uneven application rates and varying temperatures and water volumes. PMID:15264626

Christiansen, Julie A; McAbee, Rory D; Stanich, Matthew A; DeChant, Peter; Boronda, Dennis; Cornel, Anthony J

2004-06-01

148

A light mosquito trapping and killing device of catch basin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The light inducing catch basin device for killing mosquito lava includes draining grating comprising grating, grating frame, water collecting tank and draining pipe and separated egg laying cavity, mosquito raising chamber and emergence chamber. The present invention features the grating as inclined shading sheet, the mosquito raising chamber and the emergence chamber lighted through the grating frame, and the draining pipe inserted into water and with opened lower mouth for draining. Female mosquito flies through the holes in the grating into the egg laying cavity to lay egg, the mosquito lava is induced by light into the mosquito raising chamber, and the emerged mosquito can not escape from the emergence chamber. The present invention has simple structure, and may be used widely in catch basin to control mosquito propagation.

HUANG ZHU; HUANG SHAN

149

Survey of Bancroftian filariasis infection in humans and Culex mosquitoes in the western Brazilian Amazon region: implications for transmission and control  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Introduction The aim of this work was to identify possible lymphatic filariasis foci in the western Brazilian Amazonian that could be established from the reports of Rachou in the 1950s. The study was conducted in three cities of the western Brazilian Amazon region - Porto Velho and Guajará-Mirim (State of Rondônia) and Humaitá (State of Amazonas). Methods For human infection evaluation thick blood smear stained with Giemsa wa (more) s used to analyze samples collected from 10pm to 1am. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine mosquito vectors for the presence of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Humans were randomly sampled from night schools students and from inhabitants in neighborhoods lacking sanitation. Mosquitoes were collected from residences only. Results A total 2,709 night students enrolled in the Program for Education of Young Adults (EJA), and 935 people registered in the residences near the schools were examined, being 641 from Porto Velho, 214 from Guajará-Mirim and 80 from Humaitá. No individual examined was positive for the presence of microfilariae in the blood stream. A total of 7,860 female Culex quinquefasciatus specimens examined were negative by PCR. Conclusions This survey including human and mosquito examinations indicates that the western Amazon region of Brazil is not a focus of Bancroftian filariasis infection or transmission. Therefore, there is no need to be included in the Brazilian lymphatic filariasis control program.

Korte, Rodolfo Luís; Fontes, Gilberto; Camargo, Juliana de Souza Almeida Aranha; Rocha, Eliana Maria Maurício da; Araújo, Edicarlos André Cavalcante de; Oliveira, Marcelo Zagonel de; Santos, Rafael Vital dos; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

2013-04-01

150

Survey of Bancroftian filariasis infection in humans and Culex mosquitoes in the western Brazilian Amazon region: implications for transmission and control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this work was to identify possible lymphatic filariasis foci in the western Brazilian Amazonian that could be established from the reports of Rachou in the 1950s. The study was conducted in three cities of the western Brazilian Amazon region - Porto Velho and Guajará-Mirim (State of Rondônia) and Humaitá (State of Amazonas). Methods For human infection evaluation thick blood smear stained with Giemsa was used to analyze samples collected from 10pm to 1am. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine mosquito vectors for the presence of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Humans were randomly sampled from night schools students and from inhabitants in neighborhoods lacking sanitation. Mosquitoes were collected from residences only. Results A total 2,709 night students enrolled in the Program for Education of Young Adults (EJA), and 935 people registered in the residences near the schools were examined, being 641 from Porto Velho, 214 from Guajará-Mirim and 80 from Humaitá. No individual examined was positive for the presence of microfilariae in the blood stream. A total of 7,860 female Culex quinquefasciatus specimens examined were negative by PCR. Conclusions This survey including human and mosquito examinations indicates that the western Amazon region of Brazil is not a focus of Bancroftian filariasis infection or transmission. Therefore, there is no need to be included in the Brazilian lymphatic filariasis control program.

Rodolfo Luís Korte; Gilberto Fontes; Juliana de Souza Almeida Aranha Camargo; Eliana Maria Maurício da Rocha; Edicarlos André Cavalcante de Araújo; Marcelo Zagonel de Oliveira; Rafael Vital dos Santos; Luís Marcelo Aranha Camargo

2013-01-01

151

Survey of Bancroftian filariasis infection in humans and Culex mosquitoes in the western Brazilian Amazon region: implications for transmission and control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this work was to identify possible lymphatic filariasis foci in the western Brazilian Amazonian that could be established from the reports of Rachou in the 1950s. The study was conducted in three cities of the western Brazilian Amazon region - Porto Velho and Guajará-Mirim (State of Rondônia) and Humaitá (State of Amazonas). METHODS: For human infection evaluation thick blood smear stained with Giemsa was used to analyze samples collected from 10pm to 1am. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine mosquito vectors for the presence of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Humans were randomly sampled from night schools students and from inhabitants in neighborhoods lacking sanitation. Mosquitoes were collected from residences only. RESULTS: A total 2,709 night students enrolled in the Program for Education of Young Adults (EJA), and 935 people registered in the residences near the schools were examined, being 641 from Porto Velho, 214 from Guajará-Mirim and 80 from Humaitá. No individual examined was positive for the presence of microfilariae in the blood stream. A total of 7,860 female Culex quinquefasciatus specimens examined were negative by PCR. CONCLUSIONS: This survey including human and mosquito examinations indicates that the western Amazon region of Brazil is not a focus of Bancroftian filariasis infection or transmission. Therefore, there is no need to be included in the Brazilian lymphatic filariasis control program.

Korte RL; Fontes G; Camargo Jde S; da Rocha EM; de Araújo EA; de Oliveira MZ; dos Santos RV; Camargo LM

2013-03-01

152

Exploiting mosquito sugar feeding to detect mosquito-borne pathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) represent a global public health problem, with dengue viruses causing millions of infections annually, while emerging arboviruses, such as West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and chikungunya viruses have dramatically expanded their geographical ranges. Surveillance of arboviruses provides vital data regarding their prevalence and distribution that may be utilized for biosecurity measures and the implementation of disease control strategies. However, current surveillance methods that involve detection of virus in mosquito populations or sero-conversion in vertebrate hosts are laborious, expensive, and logistically problematic. We report a unique arbovirus surveillance system to detect arboviruses that exploits the process whereby mosquitoes expectorate virus in their saliva during sugar feeding. In this system, infected mosquitoes captured by CO(2)-baited updraft box traps are allowed to feed on honey-soaked nucleic acid preservation cards within the trap. The cards are then analyzed for expectorated virus using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. In field trials, this system detected the presence of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses in multiple traps deployed at two locations in Australia. Viral RNA was preserved for at least seven days on the cards, allowing for long-term placement of traps and continuous collection of data documenting virus presence in mosquito populations. Furthermore no mosquito handling or processing was required and cards were conveniently shipped to the laboratory overnight. The simplicity and efficacy of this approach has the potential to transform current approaches to vector-borne disease surveillance by streamlining the monitoring of pathogens in vector populations.

Hall-Mendelin S; Ritchie SA; Johansen CA; Zborowski P; Cortis G; Dandridge S; Hall RA; van den Hurk AF

2010-06-01

153

Toxicological effects of prolonged and intense use of mosquito coil emission in rats and its implications on malaria control/ Efectos toxicológicos del uso prolongado e intenso de emisiones de espirales contra mosquitos en ratas y sus implicaciones sobre el control de la malaria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las espirales contra los mosquitos se utilizan en los países de bajos ingresos como una opción para prevenir la malaria controlando el vector de esta enfermedad. A pesar de que algunos estudios han abordado este tema, se requiere más investigación para incrementar el conocimiento sobre los efectos adversos en la salud, causados por el uso prolongado de las espirales. En este estudio se investigaron los efectos toxicológicos de los gases de las espirales a partir de d (more) os insecticidas fabricados en el país (con piretroides: transflutrina y d-aletrina como ingredientes activos) en machos de ratas albinas. Para esto, se registraron los índices hematológicos y bioquímicos, y se hicieron evaluaciones histopatológicas y de mutagenicidad en ratas expuestas a los gases de las espirales durante períodos de 2, 4, 8, 12 y 16 semanas. La determinación hematológica se realizó mediante un analizador de hematología automatizado para determinar el conteo de los Glóbulos Blancos (WBC), el Hematocrito (PCV), Glóbulos Rojos (RBC) y las Plaquetas (PLT), mientras que las evaluaciones bioquímicas se determinaron utilizando kits comerciales disponibles. Los cambios histopatológicos fuertes se estudiaron en el riñón, el hígado y los pulmones de ratas sacrificadas. Las anormalidades en la cabeza de los espermatozoides de las ratas se utilizaron para evaluar la mutagenicidad. El humo de las espirales contra los mosquitos producen un aumento significativo (p Abstract in english Efectos toxicológicos del uso prolongado e intenso de emisiones de espirales contra mosquitos en ratas y sus implicaciones sobre el control de la malaria. Mosquito coil is a vector control option used to prevent malaria in low income counties, while some studies have addressed this issue, additional reseach is required to increase knowledge on the adverse health effects caused by the prolonged use of coils. In this study we investigated the toxicological effects of fumes (more) from two locally manufactured mosquito coil insecticides (with pyrethroids: transfluthrin and d-allethrin as active ingredients) on male albino rats. For this, we recorded the haematological and biochemical indices, and made histopathology and mutagenicity evaluations in rats exposed to mosquito fumes during 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 week periods. Haematological determination was performed using automated hematology analyzer to determine White Blood Cell (WBC), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC) and Platelet (PLT) counts, while biochemical evaluations were determined using available commercial kits. Gross histopathological changes were studied for the kidney, liver and lungs in sacrificed rats. The rat sperm head abnormalities assessment was used to evaluate mutagenicity. Mosquito coil fumes produced significant increase (P

Taiwo Idowu, Emmanuel; Aimufua, Oyenmwen Judith; Yomi-Onilude, Ejovwoke; Akinsanya, Bamidele; Adetoro Otubanjo, Olubumi

2013-09-01

154

Control of mosquito breeding using wood scrapings treated with neem oil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wood scrapings were given shape of a ball and soaked in 5, 10 and 20% neem (Azadirachta indica) oil diluted in acetone. Control of Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti breeding in water storage overhead tanks (OHTs) with the application of these balls was achieved for 45 days. Two balls soaked in 5% neem oil produced the best results among other concentrations tested.

Nagpal BN; Srivastava A; Sharma VP

1995-06-01

155

Cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means of controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. PMID:22206033

Atyame, Célestine M; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

2011-12-20

156

Cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means of controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands.

Atyame CM; Pasteur N; Dumas E; Tortosa P; Tantely ML; Pocquet N; Licciardi S; Bheecarry A; Zumbo B; Weill M; Duron O

2011-12-01

157

Free flight of the mosquito Aedes aegypti  

CERN Document Server

High speed video observations of free flying male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the dengue and yellow fever vector, along with custom measurement methods, enable measurement of wingbeat frequency, body position and body orientation of mosquitoes during flight. We find these mosquitoes flap their wings at approximately 850 Hz. We also generate body yaw, body pitch and wing deviation measurements with standard deviations of less than 1 degree and find that sideways velocity and acceleration are important components of mosquito motion. Rapid turns involving changes in flight direction often involve large sideways accelerations. These do not correspond to commensurate changes in body heading, and the insect's flight direction and body heading are decoupled during flight. These findings call in to question the role of yaw control in mosquito flight. In addition, using orientation data, we find that sideways accelerations are well explained by roll-based rotation of the lift vector. In contrast, the insect's body pitch...

Iams, S M

2012-01-01

158

Wind mosquito killer  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a wind mosquito killer which comprises a micro fan. The fan is provided with a closed shell, a hollow air inlet duct and a hollow outtake, wherein the air inlet duct and the outtake are communicated with the outside space and the hollow of the shell a mosquito retaining net is arranged in the air inlet duct the fan end of the outtake is connected with a micro battery and the battery is provided with an external jack and a knob switch for transforming an anode and a cathode. Compared with the prior art, the wind mosquito killer has the advantages that mosquitos are rapidly caught in a suction mode and killed by wind the wind mosquito killer is easy, convenient and rapid to kill the mosquitos and not only is the smoke pollution of mosquito incense avoided, but also the electric energy does not need to be consumed overnight. Moreover, the defect that when the mosquitos are killed by a mosquito basketry or double hands, the wall and the palms are dirtied by blood of the mosquitos so that the mode of killing mosquitos by the mosquito basketry or the double hands is not beneficial to the health of a human body can be avoided.

JUNLING ZHANG

159

Diversity and function of bacterial microbiota in the mosquito holobiont.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) have been shown to host diverse bacterial communities that vary depending on the sex of the mosquito, the developmental stage, and ecological factors. Some studies have suggested a potential role of microbiota in the nutritional, developmental and reproductive biology of mosquitoes. Here, we present a review of the diversity and functions of mosquito-associated bacteria across multiple variation factors, emphasizing recent findings. Mosquito microbiota is considered in the context of possible extended phenotypes conferred on the insect hosts that allow niche diversification and rapid adaptive evolution in other insects. These kinds of observations have prompted the recent development of new mosquito control methods based on the use of symbiotically-modified mosquitoes to interfere with pathogen transmission or reduce the host life span and reproduction. New opportunities for exploiting bacterial function for vector control are highlighted.

Minard G; Mavingui P; Moro CV

2013-01-01

160

A rapid knockdown effect of Penicillium citrinum for control of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty local isolates of entomopathogenic fungi were determined for control of the larvae and adults of Culex quinquefasciatus. In a laboratory experiment, a Penicillium sp. CM-010 caused 100 % mortality of third-instar larvae within 2 h using a conidial suspension of 1 × 10(6) conidia ml(-1). Its LC50 was 3 × 10(5) conidia ml(-1), and the lethal time (LT50) was 1.06 h. Cloning and sequencing of its internal transcribed spacer region indicated that this Penicillium species is Penicillium citrinum (100 % identity in 434 bp). Mortality of the adult was highest with Aspergillus flavus CM-011 followed with Metarhizium anisopliae CKM-048 from 1 × 10(9) conidia ml(-1). P. citrinum CM-010 at 1 × 10(6) conidia ml(-1) killed 100 % larvae within 2 h while Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis at 5 ITU ml(-1) required 24 h. This P. citrinum CM-010 also greatly reduced survival of C. quinquefasciatus larvae in an unreplicated field test. Light and transmission electron micrographs showed that the fungal conidia were ingested by the larvae and deposited in the gut. The metabolite patulin was produced by P. citrinum CM-010 instead of citrinin.

Maketon M; Amnuaykanjanasin A; Kaysorngup A

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Bioactivity of citrus seed for mosquito-borne diseases larval control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to determine the activity of citrus-seed extract against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The results indicated that ethanol citrus-seed extract showed the best killing effect on Ae. aegypti larvae, followed by local liquor, and water, with LC50 of 2,267.71, 6,389.22, and 135,319.40 ppm, respectively, whereas against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae, the LC50 were 2,639.27, 5,611.66, and 127,411.88 ppm, respectively. Temephos was tested against Ae. aegypti larvae; the LC50 was 0.00057 ppm, which was nearly 4,000,000 times less than ethanol citrus-seed extract. When ethanol citrus-seed extract and temephos were tested with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a standard environmental organism, using LC50 of Ae. aegypti larvae at 2,267 and 0.00057 ppm, respectively, fish mortality was 0%. The results suggested that ethanol citrus-seed extract had no harmful effect on the fish, and that temephos, which is recommended by WHO, was safe for use in drinking water. However, when the LC50 dose that killed Ae. aegypti larvae for local liquor (6,389 ppm) and water extract (135,319 ppm) were tested with fish, the mortality rates were 35% and 100%, respectively. On the whole, the results suggested that ethanol citrus-seed extract is environmentally friendly and can be used in the control of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae.

Sumroiphon S; Yuwaree C; Arunlertaree C; Komalamisra N; Rongsriyam Y

2006-01-01

162

Portable electrical mosquito flap  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a portable electrical mosquito flap, which comprises a handle and a flap surface. The flap surface is equipped with a flap frame and an electric grid. The flap surface and the handle can be separated from each other. The handle is detachably connected with the flap frame of the flap surface. According to the structure of the portable electrical mosquito flap, the flap surface and the handle are detachable, so that the electrical mosquito flap is convenient to transport and carry about. Therefore, the transportation cost of the electrical mosquito flap is effectively reduced. The portable electrical mosquito flap has certain economic value and industrial value.

WENCHUN LOU

163

Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587

Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

2012-05-01

164

A new long-lasting indoor residual formulation of the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos methyl for prolonged control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes: an experimental hut trial in Benin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is widely used for malaria transmission control in sub-Saharan Africa. Resistance to pyrethroids in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae is a growing problem. There is an urgent need to develop long-lasting alternative insecticides to reduce selection pressure for pyrethroid resistance and to provide control with a single IRS application in countries with long transmission seasons. METHODS: Two capsule suspension formulations (CS) of the organophosphate pirimiphos methyl were evaluated as IRS treatments in experimental huts in an area of Benin where the mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus are resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to organophosphates. The CS formulations were tested alongside an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation of pirimiphos methyl and a CS formulation of the pyrethroid lambdacyhalothrin. RESULTS: The two CS formulations of pirimiphos methyl gave prolonged control of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In cement huts application rates of 0.5 g/m(2) induced high mortality of An. gambiae for almost a year: overall mortality rates 87% (95% CI 82-91%) and 92% (95% CI 88-94%). In mud huts application rates of 1 g/m(2) induced high mortality of An. gambiae for 10 months: overall mortality rates 75% (95% CI 69-81%) and 76% (95% CI 68-83%). The EC formulation of pirimiphos methyl failed to control An. gambiae two months after spraying. The pyrethroid lambdacyhalothrin demonstrated prolonged residual activity in bioassay tests but failed to control pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae that entered the huts. Pirimiphos methyl CS was highly active against Culex quinquefasciatus and gave control for 10 months in cement huts and 6 months in mud huts. CONCLUSION: Pirimiphos methyl CS (Actellic 300 CS) applied at 1 g/m(2) shows great promise for providing prolonged control of pyrethroid-resistant An gambiae and for delaying pyrethroid resistance. An alternative to DDT, giving year-round transmission control in sub-Saharan Africa is now a realistic prospect.

Rowland M; Boko P; Odjo A; Asidi A; Akogbeto M; N'Guessan R

2013-01-01

165

Comparación morfológica e histológica del tubo digestivo de Gambusia puncticulata y Girardinus metallicus (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), peces utilizados en el control biológico de mosquitos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se describió y comparó la morfología e histología del tubo digestivo de Gambusia puncticulata y Girardinus metallicus, peces utilizados en el control biológico de larvas de mosquitos en Cuba, y se relacionó con los hábitos alimentarios de cada especie. Gambusia puncticulata tiene un intestino corto y grueso, característico de las especies carnívoras y Girardinus metallicus posee un intestino alargado y delgado arrollado en forma de espiral como corresponde a los peces omnívoros. Se observó que el patrón histológico del intestino en ambas especies es muy simple, sin embargo, Gambusia puncticulata presentó gran cantidad de microvellosidades de tipo ramificadas, al compararla con Girardinus metallicus, lo que aumenta de esta forma el rendimiento digestivo de su relativamente más corto, tubo digestivo.The morphology and histology of the digestive tract of Gambusia puncticulata and Girardinus metallicus fishes used in the biological control of mosquito larvae in Cuba, were described and compared. They were related to the food habits of each species. Gambusia puncticulata has a short and thick intestine, which is characteristic of the carnivorous species, whereas Girardinus metallicus has an elongate and thin spiral rolled up intestine as it corresponds to the omnivorous fishes. It was observed that the histological pattern of the intestine in both species is very simple; however, Gambusia puncticulata presented a great number of ramified microhairiness on comparing it with Girardinus metallicus, which increases this way the digestive yield of its relatively shorter digestive tract.

Jinnay Rodríguez Rodríguez; Efraín González; Natividad Hernández Contreras; Virginia Capó; Israel García

2004-01-01

166

Lack of insecticidal effect of mosquito coils containing either metofluthrin or esbiothrin on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Use of mosquito coils for personal protection against malaria and mosquito nuisance is advocated under mosquito and malaria control programmes. We performed field studies of mosquito coils containing either metofluthrin or esbiothrin in experimental huts situated in Kamhororo village, Gokwe district, Zimbabwe. All tests were performed on 3-5 day old reared female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes. The burning times were 9hr 20min for mosquito coils containing metofluthrin and 8 hr for those containing esbiothrin and the results were significantly different (p = <0.001). The mean knock down rate for mosquito coils containing metofluthrin was 90% and that for esbiothrin was 73.3% and the results were significantly different (p = 0.00). Mosquito coils containing metofluthrin had a mean repellence of 92.7% as compared to 85.4% for esbiothrin and the results were not significantly different (p=0.27). The protection time as required by EPA (1999) was 6 hr for mosquito coils containing metofluthrin and 5 hr for those containing esbiothrin. The mean insecticidal effect of mosquito coils containing metofluthrin was 84% as compared to 83% for those containing esbiothrin and the results were not significantly different (p = 0.56). Both mosquito formulations could not be classified as having insecticidal effect since none of them met the 95% mortality rate criteria.

Lukwa N; Chiwade T

2008-12-01

167

Mosquito-repellent incense rack  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The product is a mosquito-repellent incense frame, comprised by a assembly frame set in a box body with a cover and a pedestal box , the assembly frame is a horizontal blind frame comprised by a tie bar crossing between the both corresponding walls of the box and a variety of metal sheets arranged parallel on the tie bar, rotary shafts connect with the metal sheets on the both ends, the metal sheet bonded with an end of a three-segment crutch connecting bar whose final segment inserts directly the corresponding holes on the tie bar which crosses the joint holes paralleling with the rotary shaft on the side walls of the pedestal box, the first segment of the crutch tie bar is in a same vertical surface with the metal sheets, the middle segment of the tie bar is parallel to the axial line of the tie bar, the final segment is vertical to the axial line of the tie bar, each of the metal sheets appear long-strip shape, its breadth is at least same as the distance between two sheets. Pulling the tie bar will drive the metal sheets to rotate, and then the base surface of the horizontal blind frame will arrange a metal sheet board. As the metal sheet board has a lager contact area with the mosquito-repellent incense, the heat conduction amount of the board to the mosquito-repellent incense will increase, and then burning of the mosquito-repellent incense can be controlled.

YAN JUNJIE LU

168

Outdoor host seeking behaviour of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes following initiation of malaria vector control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor-based anti-vector interventions remain the preferred means of reducing risk of malaria transmission in malaria endemic areas around the world. Despite demonstrated success in reducing human-mosquito interactions, these methods are effective solely against endophilic vectors. It may be that outdoor locations serve as an important venue of host seeking by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes where indoor vector suppression measures are employed. This paper describes the host seeking activity of anopheline mosquito vectors in the Punta Europa region of Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. In this area, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) is the primary malaria vector. The goal of the paper is to evaluate the importance of An gambiae s.l. outdoor host seeking behaviour and discuss its implications for anti-vector interventions. Methods The venue and temporal characteristics of host seeking by anopheline vectors in a hyperendemic setting was evaluated using human landing collections conducted inside and outside homes in three villages during both the wet and dry seasons in 2007 and 2008. Additionally, five bi-monthly human landing collections were conducted throughout 2009. Collections were segregated hourly to provide a time distribution of host-seeking behaviour. Results Surprisingly high levels of outdoor biting by An. gambiae senso stricto and An. melas vectors were observed throughout the night, including during the early evening and morning hours when human hosts are often outdoors. As reported previously, An. gambiae s.s. is the primary malaria vector in the Punta Europa region, where it seeks hosts outdoors at least as much as it does indoors. Further, approximately 40% of An. gambiae s.l. are feeding at times when people are often outdoors, where they are not protected by IRS or LLINs. Repeated sampling over two consecutive dry-wet season cycles indicates that this result is independent of seasonality. Conclusions An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes currently seek hosts in outdoor venues as much as indoors in the Punta Europa region of Bioko Island. This contrasts with an earlier pre-intervention observation of exclusive endophagy of An. gambiae in this region. In light of this finding, it is proposed that the long term indoor application of insecticides may have resulted in an adaptive shift toward outdoor host seeking in An. gambiae s.s. on Bioko Island.

Reddy Michael R; Overgaard Hans J; Abaga Simon; Reddy Vamsi P; Caccone Adalgisa; Kiszewski Anthony E; Slotman Michel A

2011-01-01

169

Engineering, mosquitoes and filariasis: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results of larval surveys were used to assess the relative numbers of mosquitoes breeding in different types of habitat and in different parts of the town of Pondicherry, India. The results illustrate an effective method to set priorities for mosquito control by identifying the most significant breeding sites in a town, and show that they are not necessarily the most obvious, the most extensive or those intuitively most likely.

Cairncross S; Rajavel AR; Vanamail P; Subramaniam S; Paily KP; Ramaiah KD; Amalraj D; Mariappan T; Srinivasan R

1988-06-01

170

Engineering, mosquitoes and filariasis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of larval surveys were used to assess the relative numbers of mosquitoes breeding in different types of habitat and in different parts of the town of Pondicherry, India. The results illustrate an effective method to set priorities for mosquito control by identifying the most significant breeding sites in a town, and show that they are not necessarily the most obvious, the most extensive or those intuitively most likely. PMID:2899174

Cairncross, S; Rajavel, A R; Vanamail, P; Subramaniam, S; Paily, K P; Ramaiah, K D; Amalraj, D; Mariappan, T; Srinivasan, R

1988-06-01

171

Ecology of mosquitoes of Midwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The ecology and distribution of various mosquito species is important inthe determination of mosquito vector abundance and associated diseases prevalence. The distributionof various mosquito genera in natural and artificial habitats and their relative species abundancewas studied between August 2002 and July 2003 in three foci (Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi) comprisingthe Esan and Etsako regions of Midwestern Nigeria.Methods: Sampling was carried out by the method of Hopkins (1952) by dipping using a pipette orladle depending on container types. Pooled contents of smaller containers were sampled with a pondnet. All breeding sources of mosquito larvae were grouped into five (5) depending on their nature,constitution and the physiochemical properties. Artificial mosquito cultures were also carried out infour different container types; plastics, metal cans, earthenware pots and bamboo strips, in parts oftwo different macro habitats subdivided into area of high human activities (AHHA) and areas ofderived/secondary vegetation (ADSV). Environmental temperatures, rainfall and relative humiditywere monitored during the study.Results: The present study revealed 17 mosquito species belonging to three genera (Anopheles,Culex and Aedes) which are potential vectors of four human diseases in the areas surveyed. A total of736 mosquito larvae were encountered in artificial sources and 568 larvae were harvested from naturalsources. Pools, plastics and metal cans were the predominant artificial sources of mosquito larvae.Conclusion: The contribution of human activities and increasing environmental modification to thebreeding of human disease vector mosquitoes is of importance and selective vector control measuresincluding larviciding are recommended particularly before onset of rainy season

Godwin R.A. Okogun, Jude C. Anosike, Anthony N. Okere & Bethran E.B. Nwoke

2005-01-01

172

Device for entrapping mosquitoes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a device for entrapping mosquitoes. The device mainly utilizes luminescence components which are arranged inside a pedestal and have different wavelengths to attract the mosquitoes of different phototactic characteristics. The utility model also relates to a device for entrapping mosquitoes. The device utilizes a solar panel to absorb light energy emitted by the luminescence components and to convert the light energy into electric energy and takes the electric energy as another power supplied for the luminescence components, and an electric grid outside the pedestal can help achieve the aims of recycling, energy conservation and mosquito entrapping and killing.

RUIZHAO CHEN

173

Mosquito population regulation and larval source management in heterogeneous environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM). We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats' carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%). Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools) gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides.

Smith DL; Perkins TA; Tusting LS; Scott TW; Lindsay SW

2013-01-01

174

Mosquitoes and tyres.  

Science.gov (United States)

Car tyres not only help people to move about, they also assist exotic mosquitoes in travelling thousands of miles around the world to colonise new areas. The remarkable adaptability of mosquitoes that has led to their enormous success in the past can be seen close to home. PMID:11932500

Snow, Keith; Ramsdale, Clement

2002-04-01

175

Mosquitoes and tyres.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Car tyres not only help people to move about, they also assist exotic mosquitoes in travelling thousands of miles around the world to colonise new areas. The remarkable adaptability of mosquitoes that has led to their enormous success in the past can be seen close to home.

Snow K; Ramsdale C

2002-04-01

176

Perfumed mosquito repellent composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a perfumed mosquito repellent composition, characterized in that the composition is prepared by the following ingredients, based on percent by weight, of: 0.1-1% of wild lemonleaf oil, 0.1-2% of eucalyptus oil, 0.5-3% of tea tree oil, 1-10% of eucalyptus citriodora leaf oil, 0-0.5% of clove oil, 0-0.2% of linaloe wood oil, 0-0.5% of dementholised peppermint oil and the balance as diluent of alkane C14. The mosquito repellent composition makes full use of three mosquito repellent essential oils including eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil and eucalyptus citriodora leaf oil, which all have no pesticide ingredients contained, but are excellent in repelling mosquito, bugs and ants, thus achieving ideal mosquito repellent effect and acceptance for human body and generating noside effect to human body, besides, the cost of the composition is low.

HUIXIAN XU

177

Lack of insecticidal effect of mosquito coils containing either metofluthrin or esbiothrin on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of mosquito coils for personal protection against malaria and mosquito nuisance is advocated under mosquito and malaria control programmes. We performed field studies of mosquito coils containing either metofluthrin or esbiothrin in experimental huts situated in Kamhororo village, Gokwe district, Zimbabwe. All tests were performed on 3-5 day old reared female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes. The burning times were 9hr 20min for mosquito coils containing metofluthrin and 8 hr for those containing esbiothrin and the results were significantly different (p = metofluthrin was 90% and that for esbiothrin was 73.3% and the results were significantly different (p = 0.00). Mosquito coils containing metofluthrin had a mean repellence of 92.7% as compared to 85.4% for esbiothrin and the results were not significantly different (p=0.27). The protection time as required by EPA (1999) was 6 hr for mosquito coils containing metofluthrin and 5 hr for those containing esbiothrin. The mean insecticidal effect of mosquito coils containing metofluthrin was 84% as compared to 83% for those containing esbiothrin and the results were not significantly different (p = 0.56). Both mosquito formulations could not be classified as having insecticidal effect since none of them met the 95% mortality rate criteria. PMID:19287356

Lukwa, Nzira; Chiwade, Tonderai

2008-12-01

178

Mathematical modelling of mosquito dispersal in a heterogeneous environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito dispersal is a key behavioural factor that affects the persistence and resurgence of several vector-borne diseases. Spatial heterogeneity of mosquito resources, such as hosts and breeding sites, affects mosquito dispersal behaviour and consequently affects mosquito population structures, human exposure to vectors, and the ability to control disease transmission. In this paper, we develop and simulate a discrete-space continuous-time mathematical model to investigate the impact of dispersal and heterogeneous distribution of resources on the distribution and dynamics of mosquito populations. We build an ordinary differential equation model of the mosquito life cycle and replicate it across a hexagonal grid (multi-patch system) that represents two-dimensional space. We use the model to estimate mosquito dispersal distances and to evaluate the effect of spatial repellents as a vector control strategy. We find evidence of association between heterogeneity, dispersal, spatial distribution of resources, and mosquito population dynamics. Random distribution of repellents reduces the distance moved by mosquitoes, offering a promising strategy for disease control.

Lutambi AM; Penny MA; Smith T; Chitnis N

2013-02-01

179

Small RNAs: a new frontier in mosquito biology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The discovery of small non-coding RNAs has revolutionized our understanding of regulatory networks governing multiple functions in animals and plants. However, our knowledge of mosquito small RNAs is limited. We discuss here the state of current knowledge regarding the roles of small RNAs and their targets in mosquitoes, and describe the ongoing efforts to understand the role of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in mosquito antiviral immunity and transposon silencing. Providing a clear picture into the role of small RNAs in mosquito vectors will pave the way to the utilization of these small molecules in developing novel control approaches that target mosquito immunity and/or reproductive events. Elucidation of the functions of small RNAs represents a new frontier in mosquito biology.

Lucas KJ; Myles KM; Raikhel AS

2013-06-01

180

DsRed2 transient expression in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes have been successfully genetically modified only once, despite the efforts of several laboratories to transform and establish a stable strain. We have developed a transient gene expression method, in Culex, that delivers plasmid DNA directly to the mosquito haemolymph and additional tissues. We were able to express DsRed2 fluorescent protein in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes by injecting plasmids directly into their thorax. T (more) he expression of DsRed2 in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes is an important stepping stone to genetic transformation and the potential use of new control strategies and genetic interactions.

Wilke, Andre Barretto Bruno; Scaife, Sarah; Alphey, Luke; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

DsRed2 transient expression in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes have been successfully genetically modified only once, despite the efforts of several laboratories to transform and establish a stable strain. We have developed a transient gene expression method, in Culex, that delivers plasmid DNA directly to the mosquito haemolymph and additional tissues. We were able to express DsRed2 fluorescent protein in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes by injecting plasmids directly into their thorax. The expression of DsRed2 in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes is an important stepping stone to genetic transformation and the potential use of new control strategies and genetic interactions.

Wilke AB; Scaife S; Alphey L; Marrelli MT

2013-06-01

182

Landing response of Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis mosquitoes to coloured targets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in the island countries and territories of the South Pacific. In the development of a novel control tool, the response of Ae. polynesiensis to six different colours (three solid fabrics, two patterned fabrics and a plastic tarp) was measured using a digital photographic system. Adult mosquitoes were placed into an environmental chamber and allowed to choose between a white target and one of six experimental targets. Mosquito landing frequency and landing duration were calculated. Adult female Ae. polynesiensis preferred all of the experimental targets to the white control target. Mosquito landing frequency was highest for the solid targets (black, navy blue and red) followed in turn by the two colour pattern targets and the polyethylene target. Mosquito landing duration was greater for experimental targets when compared with white control targets. Mosquito landing frequencies did not change over time during the course of the assay. The response of male Ae. polynesiensis was also measured when exposed to a 100% cotton black target. Male mosquitoes preferred the black target to the white control target, although at levels lower than that observed in female mosquitoes. The results suggest that future investigations evaluating the visual responses of Ae. polynesiensis mosquitoes are warranted, with a special emphasis on semi-field and field-based experiments.

Chambers EW; Bossin HC; Ritchie SA; Russell RC; Dobson SL

2013-09-01

183

Area-wide management of Aedes albopictus: II. Gauging the efficacy of traditional integrated pest control measures against urban container mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) is an important disease vector and biting nuisance. During the 2009 active-season we studied six approximately 1,000-parcel sites, three in urban and three in suburban areas of New Jersey, USA, to examine the efficacy of standard integrated urban mosquito control strategies applied area-wide. We implemented active source reduction, larviciding, adulticiding, and public education (source reduction through education) in one site in each county, developed an education-only approach in the second site, and used the third site as an untreated experimental control. We surveyed populations weekly with BG-Sentinel-traps and ovitraps. RESULTS: We achieved a substantial reduction in Ae. albopictus populations in urban sites but only modest reductions in suburban sites. Education alone achieved significant reductions in urban adult Ae. albopictus. Egg catches echoed adult catches only in suburban sites. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant socio-economic and climatic differences between urban and suburban sites that impact Ae. albopictus populations and the efficacy of the control methods we tested. An integrated pest management approach can affect abundances but labor-intensive costly source-reduction was not enough to maintain Ae. albopictus counts below a nuisance threshold. Night-time adult population suppression using truck-mounted adulticides can be effective. Area-wide cost-effective strategies are necessary.

Fonseca DM; Unlu I; Crepeau T; Farajollahi A; Healy SP; Bartlett-Healy K; Strickman D; Gaugler R; Hamilton G; Kline D; Clark GG

2013-02-01

184

Mitochondrial NAD+-dependent malic enzyme from Anopheles stephensi: a possible novel target for malaria mosquito control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anopheles stephensi mitochondrial malic enzyme (ME) emerged as having a relevant role in the provision of pyruvate for the Krebs' cycle because inhibition of this enzyme results in the complete abrogation of oxygen uptake by mitochondria. Therefore, the identification of ME in mitochondria from immortalized A. stephensi (ASE) cells and the investigation of the stereoselectivity of malate analogues are relevant in understanding the physiological role of ME in cells of this important malaria parasite vector and its potential as a possible novel target for insecticide development. METHODS: To characterize the mitochondrial ME from immortalized ASE cells (Mos. 43; ASE), mass spectrometry analyses of trypsin fragments of ME, genomic sequence analysis and biochemical assays were performed to identify the enzyme and evaluate its activity in terms of cofactor dependency and inhibitor preference. RESULTS: The encoding gene sequence and primary sequences of several peptides from mitochondrial ME were found to be highly homologous to the mitochondrial ME from Anopheles gambiae (98%) and 59% homologous to the mitochondrial NADP+-dependent ME isoform from Homo sapiens. Measurements of ME activity in mosquito mitochondria isolated from ASE cells showed that (i) Vmax with NAD+ was 3-fold higher than that with NADP+, (ii) addition of Mg2+ or Mn2+ increased the Vmax by 9- to 21-fold, with Mn2+ 2.3-fold more effective than Mg2+, (iii) succinate and fumarate increased the activity by 2- and 5-fold, respectively, at sub-saturating concentrations of malate, (iv) among the analogs of L-malate tested as inhibitors of the NAD+-dependent ME catalyzed reaction, small (2- to 3-carbons) organic diacids carrying a 2-hydroxyl/keto group behaved as the most potent inhibitors of ME activity (e.g., oxaloacetate, tartronic acid and oxalate). CONCLUSIONS: The biochemical characterization of Anopheles stephensi ME is of critical relevance given its important role in bioenergetics, suggesting that it is a suitable target for insecticide development.

Pon J; Napoli E; Luckhart S; Giulivi C

2011-01-01

185

Mitochondrial NAD+-dependent malic enzyme from Anopheles stephensi: a possible novel target for malaria mosquito control  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles stephensi mitochondrial malic enzyme (ME) emerged as having a relevant role in the provision of pyruvate for the Krebs' cycle because inhibition of this enzyme results in the complete abrogation of oxygen uptake by mitochondria. Therefore, the identification of ME in mitochondria from immortalized A. stephensi (ASE) cells and the investigation of the stereoselectivity of malate analogues are relevant in understanding the physiological role of ME in cells of this important malaria parasite vector and its potential as a possible novel target for insecticide development. Methods To characterize the mitochondrial ME from immortalized ASE cells (Mos. 43; ASE), mass spectrometry analyses of trypsin fragments of ME, genomic sequence analysis and biochemical assays were performed to identify the enzyme and evaluate its activity in terms of cofactor dependency and inhibitor preference. Results The encoding gene sequence and primary sequences of several peptides from mitochondrial ME were found to be highly homologous to the mitochondrial ME from Anopheles gambiae (98%) and 59% homologous to the mitochondrial NADP+-dependent ME isoform from Homo sapiens. Measurements of ME activity in mosquito mitochondria isolated from ASE cells showed that (i) Vmax with NAD+ was 3-fold higher than that with NADP+, (ii) addition of Mg2+ or Mn2+ increased the Vmax by 9- to 21-fold, with Mn2+ 2.3-fold more effective than Mg2+, (iii) succinate and fumarate increased the activity by 2- and 5-fold, respectively, at sub-saturating concentrations of malate, (iv) among the analogs of L-malate tested as inhibitors of the NAD+-dependent ME catalyzed reaction, small (2- to 3-carbons) organic diacids carrying a 2-hydroxyl/keto group behaved as the most potent inhibitors of ME activity (e.g., oxaloacetate, tartronic acid and oxalate). Conclusions The biochemical characterization of Anopheles stephensi ME is of critical relevance given its important role in bioenergetics, suggesting that it is a suitable target for insecticide development.

Pon Jennifer; Napoli Eleonora; Luckhart Shirley; Giulivi Cecilia

2011-01-01

186

Interrupting malaria transmission by genetic manipulation of anopheline mosquitoes  

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Full Text Available Malaria ranks among the deadliest infectious diseases that kills more than one million persons everyyear. The mosquito is an obligatory vector for malaria transmission. In the mosquito, Plasmodiumundergoes a complex series of developmental events that includes transformation into severaldistinct morphological forms and the crossing of two different epithelia—midgut and salivarygland. Circumstantial evidence suggests that crossing of the epithelia requires specific interactionsbetween Plasmodium and epithelial surface molecules. By use of a phage display library we haveidentified a small peptide-SM1—that binds to the surfaces of the mosquito midgut and salivaryglands. Transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes expressing a SM1 tetramer from a bloodinducibleand gut-specific promoter are substantially impaired in their ability to sustain parasitedevelopment and transmission. A second effector gene, phospholipase A2, also impairs parasitetransmission in transgenic mosquitoes. These findings have important implications for the developmentof new strategies for malaria control.

Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena

2003-01-01

187

Toxicity of aqueous crude neem leaf extract against culex mosquitoes  

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Full Text Available Prevention of mosquitoes from biting is one of the major problems in the world. Mosquitoes transmitting serious human diseases and causing millions of death every year. The repeated use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes has created resistance to vectors and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Many natural products have been reported as insect antifeedants or repellents. Azadirachta indica contains several active ingredients that are toxic to insects and are safety to the environment. The safety evaluation of different parts of neem preparations were made and used as an alternative insecticide in many parts of the world. In the present study aqueous crude neem leaf extract shows 30% and 70% mortality rate of mosquitoes for 6 h and 12 h, respectively. The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of neem extract against culex mosquitoes in laboratory studies and field evaluation.

G. Arunpandiyan

2011-01-01

188

The Knowledge and Experience of Dengue Mosquitoes among Housewives.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) prevention programs in Semarang, were focused through controlling mosquito breeding sites (PSN), but the implementation of PSN was not become a habit in every household. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and experience of dengue mosquitoes among housewives in the endemic villages.The research was using qualitative methods. Subjects of the study were 17 housewives which selected by purposive sampling. The data collection was carried in Sendangmulyo village, Semarang, through observation, focus groups discussions, and indepth interviews. The techniques used to test data validity were triangulation and member checking method. Data were analyzed using content analysis approached. The results showed that housewives classifying mosquito based on time occurrence whether the presence of mosquito in environment was perceived naturally. Unoptimalized PSN behavior was based on the lack of housewives knowledge on larvae development stages. Mosquito was not considered as a threatening because night mosquito biting was directly more disturbing rather than day mosquitoes’. Health promotion program could increase dasa wisma cadres knowledge and skill, particularly on mosquito life cycle and the correct stages of PSN behavior. This study did not distinguish the demographic characteristics of informants. Further reserch could explore it or develop media based on local knowledge and experience.

Aryani Pujiyanti; Atik Triratnawati

2011-01-01

189

Radiation biology of mosquitoes  

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Full Text Available Abstract There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose) was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi-) field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators.

Helinski Michelle EH; Parker Andrew G; Knols Bart GJ

2009-01-01

190

Modelo de simulación para el control del mosquito Aedes aegypti, transmisor del dengue y la fiebre amarilla, por el crustáceo Mesocyclops spp.  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Se presenta un modelo de simulación que muestra la dinámica de depredación de Mesocyclops spp., sobre Aedes aegypti MÉTODOS: Representado por cuatro ecuaciones diferenciales: H'(t), cantidad de huevos; L'(t), cantidad de larvas; A'(t), cantidad de adultos y C'(t), cantidad de copépodos. Inicialmente las ecuaciones son del tipo clásico presa-depredador, según Lotka y Volterra. Posteriormente se modifica en un sistema con respuesta funcional para invertebrados, según Holling. RESULTADOS: El primer sistema controla y estabiliza la población de mosquitos, el segundo muestra que los copepodos son inefectivos como controladores. CONCLUSIONES: Se reconoce la necesidad de estudiar sistemas presa depredador (mosquitos - copepodos) con trabajos que integren pruebas de laboratorio y de campo. Solo así será posible establecer la validez en el uso de estos últimos como controladores biológicos efectivos de mosquitos.

Duque L. Jonny E.; Muñoz L. Anibal; Navarro-Silva Mario A.

2004-01-01

191

Advances in methods for colour marking of mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Different techniques are available for colour marking insects and each technique may be suitable for different insect species. Mosquitoes can be marked to determine population size, distribution and flight distance or distinguish closely related species. In this study, two methods of colour marking mosquitoes were described in detail and the impact of both methods on the survival and host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was investigated. METHODS: Mosquitoes were marked in groups with fluorescent powder or fluorescent dye. The powder was applied by creating a cloud of powder in a paper cup and the dye was applied with an airbrush. The effect of marking on the survival of mosquitoes of different age groups was tested under controlled conditions. The effect of marking on the host seeking response of the mosquitoes was tested in an olfactometer with human and cow odour as baits. RESULTS: No effect of either of the marking methods was found on the survival of mosquitoes that were treated 1 or 3 days after emergence, however, the survival of mosquitoes treated 5 or 9 days after emergence was significantly reduced. The host-seeking response of mosquitoes to human or cow odour was tested in a dual-port olfactometer and was not found to be affected by treatment with fluorescent powder or dye. CONCLUSIONS: Both methods are suitable for colour marking large groups of mosquitoes. Marking with fluorescent powder, however, is preferred because the method is simpler, visible without a UV light and no specific materials are required.

Verhulst NO; Loonen JA; Takken W

2013-01-01

192

Solar energy mosquito eradicator  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a solar mosquito killer, which comprises a bracket, wherein, the bracket is connected with a base, and a mosquito storage box is arranged in the base the upper end of the base is connected with a middle cylinder, and a mosquito screen and a liner are arranged in the middle cylinder a fan is arranged in the liner, and the upper end of the middle cylinder is connected with a top cap with a through hole a reflecting plate with an LED light is arranged in the top cap, and the top cap is connected with a solar panel through a top cap bracket and storage batteries connected with the solar panel are arranged on the bracket. The product utilizes the solar energy to supply power so as to effectively save the energy without an external power supply, thereby eliminating the trouble that the product keeps away from a power pull wire. The product can be put indoors and outdoors in which the sun can shine, and can be directly put on the flat ground indoors or fixed on the ground outdoors, and has no electricity consumption, free maintenance, safety, reliability, good effect and the like, which can be widely applied to the manufacture of the mosquito killer.

SHENGYAN GUO

193

Mosquito glutathione transferases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The glutathione transferases (glutathione S-transferases, GSTs) are a diverse family of enzymes involved in a wide range of biological processes, many of which involve the conjugation of the tripeptide glutathione to an electrophilic substrate. Relatively little is known about the endogenous substrates of mosquito GSTs, and most studies have focused on their role in insecticide metabolism, because elevated levels of GST activity have been associated with resistance to all the major classes of insecticides. In addition, there is growing interest in the role of this enzyme family in maintaining the redox status of the mosquito cell, particularly in relation to vectorial capacity. Most GSTs are cytosolic dimeric proteins, although a smaller class of microsomal GSTs exists in insects, mammals, and plants. Each GST subunit has a G site that binds glutathione and a substrate-binding site or H site. There are more than 30 GST genes in mosquitoes. Additional diversity is contributed by alternative splicing to produce GSTs with differing substrate specificities. In this review, we first discuss the diversity of insect GST enzymes and their mode of action before focusing on the various functions that have been attributed to specific mosquito GSTs.

Ranson H; Hemingway J

2005-01-01

194

Use of insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and other impregnated materials for malaria control in the Americas/ Uso de mosquiteros y otros materiales impregnados para el control de la malaria en las Américas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este artículo se revisa el uso actual en las Américas de mosquiteros y otros materiales impregnados con insecticida. Se examinan diversos estudios efectuados en el Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Perú, Suriname y Venezuela y se llega a la conclusión de que en su mayor parte estos estudios adolecen de graves deficiencias de diseño, problemas de excesiva brevedad, o de una medición inadecuada de los indicadores de salud. La revisión resalta la gran dificulta (more) d de llevar a cabo estudios que buscan medir el impacto de los materiales tratados con insecticidas sobre la incidencia de malaria. En particular, la baja incidencia de malaria en las Américas, las altas prevalencias de Plasmodium vivax y de casos recurrentes y la relación entre los patrones de actividad de los seres humanos y los hábitos de picadura crepusculares de los mosquitos impiden hacer experimentos de fácil diseño y ejecución. Por ahora sería prematuro usar mosquiteros u otros materiales impregnados como componentes principales de un programa integral para el control de la malaria. No obstante, se recomienda que se considere llevar a cabo ensayos bien diseñados a gran escala siempre que se basen en un conocimiento profundo de la dinámica de la transmisión de la malaria en la zona del estudio. Abstract in english This article reviews the current status of the use of insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and other impregnated materials in the Americas. Studies from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela are examined. It is concluded that most studies have suffered from experimental design errors, short duration problems, and/or inadequate measurement of health indicators. The review brings out the great difficulty of conducting scientific studies that a (more) ttempt to measure the impact of insecticide-treated materials on malaria incidence. In particular, the low incidence of malaria in the Americas, the high prevalences of P. vivax and relapsing cases, and the relationship between human activity patterns and the crepuscular biting patterns of certain malaria vectors stand in the way of easy experimental design and execution. The utilization of impregnated mosquito nets or other impregnated materials as a major component of an integrated malaria control program would be premature at this time. However, it is recommended that well-conceived large-scale trials and interventions be considered when they are based on a thorough understanding of the dynamics of malaria transmission in the area of study.

Zimmerman, R. H.; Voorham, J.

1997-07-01

195

Evaluation of a stable isotope method to mark naturally-breeding larval mosquitoes for adult dispersal studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding mosquito dispersal is critically important for vector-borne disease control and prevention. Mark-release-recapture methods using various marking techniques have made substantial contributions to the study of mosquito biology. However, the ability to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes noninvasively and with life-long retention has remained problematic. Here, we describe a method to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes with stable isotopes. Culex pipiens f. molestus mosquitoes were provisioned as larvae in laboratory experiments with 15N-labeled potassium nitrate and 13C-labeled glucose. Larval enrichment was sufficient to differentiate marked adult mosquitoes from unmarked control mosquitoes and the natural source population from Chicago Illinois, using either delta 15N or delta 13C. Isotopic retention lasted for at least 55 d for adult male and females mosquitoes. There were no consistent effects of isotopic enrichment on immature mosquito survival or adult mosquito body size. We then applied this marking technique to naturally breeding Culex pipiens mosquitoes in suburban Chicago, IL, and for the first time, report successful isotopic enrichment of mosquitoes in the field. This stable isotope marking technique will facilitate studies of mosquito dispersal.

Hamer GL; Donovan DJ; Hood-Nowotny R; Kaufman MG; Goldberg TL; Walker ED

2012-01-01

196

Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry plants. We verified whether active repellent compounds could be identified using gas-chromatography coupled electroantennogram recordings (GC-EAD) with headspace extracts of crushed plants. RESULTS: EAD active compounds included (R)-(-)-linalool, (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol, trans-caryophyllene, naphthalene, methyl salicylate, (R)-(-)-?-copaene, methyl cinnamate and (E)-ocimene. Of these compounds (R)-(-)-linalool, methyl cinnamate and methyl salicylate reduced landing of female Aedes aegypti on human skin-odor baited tubes. The latter two are novel mosquito repellent compounds. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of mosquito repellent compounds contributes to deciphering the mechanisms underlying repulsion, supporting the rational design of novel repellents. The three mosquito repellent compounds identified in this study are structurally dissimilar, which may indicate involvement of different sensory neurons in repulsion. Repulsion may well be enhanced through combining different repellent plants (or their synthetic mimics), and can be a locally sustainable part in mosquito control efforts.

Dekker T; Ignell R; Ghebru M; Glinwood R; Hopkins R

2011-01-01

197

Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry plants. We verified whether active repellent compounds could be identified using gas-chromatography coupled electroantennogram recordings (GC-EAD) with headspace extracts of crushed plants. Results EAD active compounds included (R)-(-)-linalool, (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol, trans-caryophyllene, naphthalene, methyl salicylate, (R)-(-)-?-copaene, methyl cinnamate and (E)-ocimene. Of these compounds (R)-(-)-linalool, methyl cinnamate and methyl salicylate reduced landing of female Aedes aegypti on human skin-odor baited tubes. The latter two are novel mosquito repellent compounds. Conclusions The identification of mosquito repellent compounds contributes to deciphering the mechanisms underlying repulsion, supporting the rational design of novel repellents. The three mosquito repellent compounds identified in this study are structurally dissimilar, which may indicate involvement of different sensory neurons in repulsion. Repulsion may well be enhanced through combining different repellent plants (or their synthetic mimics), and can be a locally sustainable part in mosquito control efforts.

Dekker Teun; Ignell Rickard; Ghebru Maedot; Glinwood Robert; Hopkins Richard

2011-01-01

198

Prevention of mosquito borne diseases by using mosquito repellents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquitoes, the disease transmitters are responsible for around 1.3 milliondeaths annually. Diseases such as West Nile Virus, malaria, dengue fever andyellow fever are transmitted to humans by blood-feeding mosquitoes.The immediate hypersensitivity and delayed hypersensitivity reactions aredue to mosquito bites. Chemical remedies for mosquito bites are applicationof antihistamines, diphenhydramine and topical corticosteroids. An understandingof vector’s lifecycle and behavioural characteristics guides mosquito controlactivities. Meta-N, N diethyl toluamide (DEET) protects against tick bitesand mosquito bites by blocking insect receptors which are used to locate hosts.DEET products are safest and most effective insect repellents. Naturally occurringrepellants are usually plant volatile oils like pyrethrum. Permethrinis a synthetic pyrethroid causing nervous system toxicity of the insect leadingto its death. The repellant activities can be measured by the blood-feedingmembrane tests. Safe and effective repellants should be chosen.

Saurabh Dahiya; Prof.Roop K.Khar; Dr. Aruna Chhikkara

2006-01-01

199

Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated Pest Managment Program to control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using contingent valuation, the perceived value of an area-wide, integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, was estimated. The residents’ maximum willingness-to-pay (WTP) and payment modality was estimat...

200

Nesting bird "host funnel" increases mosquito-bird contact rate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increases in vector-host contact rates can enhance arbovirus transmission intensity. We investigated weekly fluctuations in contact rates between mosquitoes and nesting birds using the recently described Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT). The number of mosquitoes per nestling increased from < 1 mosquito per trap night to 36.2 in the final 2 wk of the nesting season. Our evidence suggests the coincidence of the end of the avian nesting season and increasing mosquito abundances may have caused a "host funnel," concentrating host-seeking mosquitoes to the few remaining nestlings. The relative abundance of mosquitoes collected by the NMT suggests that significantly more Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex pipiens (L.) /restuans (Theobald) sought nesting bird bloodmeals than were predicted by their relative abundances in CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light and gravid traps. Culex salinarius (Coquillett) and Culex erraticus Dyar and Knab were collected in NMTs in proportion to their relative abundances in the generic traps. Temporal host funnels and nesting bird host specificity may enhance arbovirus amplification and explain observed West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus amplification periods.

Caillouët KA; Riggan AE; Bulluck LP; Carlson JC; Sabo RT

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Towards the genetic manipulation of mosquito disease vectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our research is aimed at developing the technologies necessary to undertake the genetic manipulation of insect vector genomes. In the longer term, we wish to explore the potential that this technology may have for developing novel strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases. The focus of our current research has been to: i) identify and characterise endogenous transposable elements in the genomes of mosquito vectors -research has focussed on identifying both Class I and Class 11 elements and determining their structure and distribution within mosquito genomes; ii) develop and use transfection systems for mosquito cells in culture as a test bed for transformation vectors and promoters - transfection techniques, vector constructs and different promoters driving reporter genes have been utilised to optimise the transformation of both Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae cells in culture; iii) identify putative promoter sequences which are induced in the female mosquito midgut when it takes a blood meal - the Anopheles gambiae trypsin gene locus has been cloned and sequenced and the intergenic regions assessed for their ability to induce reporter gene expression in mosquito gut cells. The progress we have made in each of these areas will be described and discussed in the context of our longer term aim which is to introduce genes coding for antiparasitic agents into mosquito genomes in such a way that they are expressed in the mosquito midgut and disrupt transmission of the malaria parasite. (author).

1998-01-01

202

Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an egyptian locality Potencial de óleos de plantas biologicamente ativos para o controle da larva do mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) de localidade egípcia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens.O efeito inseticida de seis óleos de plantas comercialmente disponíveis foi testado contra larvas de 4ºinstar de Culex pipiens. Larvas foram coletadas originalmente de Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egito e então cultivadas no laboratório até a geração F1. Os valores LC50 foram 32,42, 47,17, 71,37, 83,36, 86,06 e 152,94 ppm para o feno grego (Trigonella foenum-grecum), amêndoa da terra (Cyperus esculentus), mostarda (Brassica compestris), olíbano (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa) e salsa (Carum ptroselium), respectivamente. Os óleos testados alteraram alguns aspectos biológicos do C. pipiens, por exemplo os períodos de desenvolvimento, estados de crisálida, e emergências de adultos. As concentrações mais baixas de óleo de olíbano e feno grego causaram extraordinário prolongamento da duração larval e pupal. Dados também mostraram que o aumento das concentrações foi diretamente proporcional à redução no estado de crisálida e emergências dos adultos. Notável decréscimo no estado de crisálida foi conseguido com o óleo de mostarda a 1000 ppm. Emergência de adulto foi diminuída no óleo de amêndoa da terra e feno grego a 25 ppm. Além do mais, os óleos de plantas testados, exibiram várias anormalidades morfológicas nas larvas, pupas e estádios adultos. Consequentemente, o óleo de feno grego foi o óleo mais potente e o maior causador de malformação em ambos estádios larval e pupal. Potencial dos óleos de plantas aplicados mostraram excelente resultado no controle do C. pipiens.

Hanem Fathy Khater; Afaf Abdel-Salam Shalaby

2008-01-01

203

Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an egyptian locality/ Potencial de óleos de plantas biologicamente ativos para o controle da larva do mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) de localidade egípcia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O efeito inseticida de seis óleos de plantas comercialmente disponíveis foi testado contra larvas de 4ºinstar de Culex pipiens. Larvas foram coletadas originalmente de Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egito e então cultivadas no laboratório até a geração F1. Os valores LC50 foram 32,42, 47,17, 71,37, 83,36, 86,06 e 152,94 ppm para o feno grego (Trigonella foenum-grecum), amêndoa da terra (Cyperus esculentus), mostarda (Brassica compestris), olíbano (Boswelli (more) a serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa) e salsa (Carum ptroselium), respectivamente. Os óleos testados alteraram alguns aspectos biológicos do C. pipiens, por exemplo os períodos de desenvolvimento, estados de crisálida, e emergências de adultos. As concentrações mais baixas de óleo de olíbano e feno grego causaram extraordinário prolongamento da duração larval e pupal. Dados também mostraram que o aumento das concentrações foi diretamente proporcional à redução no estado de crisálida e emergências dos adultos. Notável decréscimo no estado de crisálida foi conseguido com o óleo de mostarda a 1000 ppm. Emergência de adulto foi diminuída no óleo de amêndoa da terra e feno grego a 25 ppm. Além do mais, os óleos de plantas testados, exibiram várias anormalidades morfológicas nas larvas, pupas e estádios adultos. Consequentemente, o óleo de feno grego foi o óleo mais potente e o maior causador de malformação em ambos estádios larval e pupal. Potencial dos óleos de plantas aplicados mostraram excelente resultado no controle do C. pipiens. Abstract in english The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (E (more) ruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens.

Khater, Hanem Fathy; Shalaby, Afaf Abdel-Salam

2008-04-01

204

A Visit to Florida's Mosquito Man  

Science.gov (United States)

This radio broadcast features an interview with George O'Meara, the world's foremost expert on mosquitoes, who studies mosquito biology and dispenses fun facts (such as: only female mosquitoes bite). There are descriptions of the most aggressive mosquito species, how to tell female mosquitoes from males, and a discussion of landing rates of mosquitoes in the Everglades National Park. The clip is 5 minutes and 30 seconds in length.

2010-10-01

205

Mosquito repellent spray  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a mosquito repellent spray which comprises the following raw materials by weight portion: 2-4 portions of largespike woodnettle roots, 2-4 portions of roots of common sesbania, 4-6 portions of polyporus, 10-20 portions of artemisia leaves, 20-24 portions of Japan pagodatrees, 2-4 portions of scorpio, 4-6 portions of sapanwood, 6-10 portions of puncture vines, 2-6 portions of oak mushroom, 6-10 portions of garlic, 4-10 portions of styrax, 6-8 portions of ramulus cinnamomi, 4-6 portions of asiatic pennywort herbs, 4-6 portions of sunflower roots, 8-10 portions of polygonum hydropipers, 10-16 portions of vanilla herbs, 6-8 portions of angelica dahurica, 6-10 portions of camphor, 10-14 portions of mints, 10-14 portions of sweet osmanthus, 8-12 portions of cloves, 4-6 portions of arachniodes, 6-8 portions of common sowthistle roots and 2-4 portions of preservatives. The invention has the advantages of good effect, easy operation, low cost and small toxic and side effects. Pyrethrins are not used, and mosquitoes can not generate resistance easily. The mosquito repellent spray is carried and used conveniently without limitations of environmental conditions, has low cost and needs less producing equipment, thereby being convenient for popularization and application.

GUISONG ZHANG

206

A consultation on the optimization of controlled human malaria infection by mosquito bite for evaluation of candidate malaria vaccines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early clinical investigations of candidate malaria vaccines and antimalarial medications increasingly employ an established model of controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). Study results are used to guide further clinical development of vaccines and antimalarial medications as CHMI results to date are generally predictive of efficacy in malaria-endemic areas. The urgency to rapidly develop an efficacious malaria vaccine has increased demand for efficacy studies that include CHMI and the need for comparability of study results among the different centres conducting CHMI. An initial meeting with the goal to optimize and standardise CHMI procedures was held in 2009 with follow-up meetings in March and June 2010 to harmonise methods used at different centres. The end result is a standardised document for the design and conduct of CHMI and a second document for the microscopy methods used to determine the patency endpoint. These documents will facilitate high accuracy and comparability of CHMI studies and will be revised commensurate with advances in the field.

Laurens MB; Duncan CJ; Epstein JE; Hill AV; Komisar JL; Lyke KE; Ockenhouse CF; Richie TL; Roestenberg M; Sauerwein RW; Spring MD; Talley AK; Moorthy VS

2012-08-01

207

Public health significance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are currently five invasive Aedes mosquito species known to be established in Europe, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes japonicus, Aedes atropalpus and Aedes koreicus. Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti are the incriminated vectors in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue fever in Europe. However, both laboratory experiments and field observations indicate that these invasive mosquitoes have a potential to also transmit other pathogens of public health importance. Increasing travel and pathogen introduction, expansion of vector distribution, and both environmental and climatic changes are likely to raise the risk of pathogen transmission by these invasive Aedes mosquitoes. Their vector status and their involvement in pathogen transmission are dynamic processes that shape the future of mosquito-borne disease epidemiology in Europe. Beside vector surveillance, enhanced disease surveillance will enable the early detection of cases and the prompt implementation of control measures. PMID:23574618

Schaffner, F; Medlock, J M; Van Bortel, W

2013-04-10

208

Public health significance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are currently five invasive Aedes mosquito species known to be established in Europe, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes japonicus, Aedes atropalpus and Aedes koreicus. Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti are the incriminated vectors in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue fever in Europe. However, both laboratory experiments and field observations indicate that these invasive mosquitoes have a potential to also transmit other pathogens of public health importance. Increasing travel and pathogen introduction, expansion of vector distribution, and both environmental and climatic changes are likely to raise the risk of pathogen transmission by these invasive Aedes mosquitoes. Their vector status and their involvement in pathogen transmission are dynamic processes that shape the future of mosquito-borne disease epidemiology in Europe. Beside vector surveillance, enhanced disease surveillance will enable the early detection of cases and the prompt implementation of control measures.

Schaffner F; Medlock JM; Van Bortel W

2013-08-01

209

Mosquitoes and other aquatic insects in fallow field biotopes and rice paddy fields.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fallow field biotopes that develop from abandoned rice fields are man-made wetlands that provide new habitats for various aquatic animals. Although consideration of such biotopes generally focuses on their positive aspects, this study evaluated the negative aspects of establishing fallow field biotopes with regard to mosquito breeding sites. To determine whether fallow field biotopes become breeding habitats for vector mosquitoes, we evaluated mosquito fauna in fallow field biotopes and adjacent rice fields. We found larvae of Anopheles lesteri, Anopheles sinensis and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (all: Diptera: Culicidae) in the biotopes. Although abundances of mosquito larvae in the biotopes and rice fields were statistically similar, mosquito abundances in rice fields increased dramatically in August when the water level reduced after the rainy season. The abundance and variety of the mosquitoes' natural predators were greater in biotopes than in rice fields because the former are a permanent and stable aquatic environment. A generalized linear mixed model showed a negative effect of predator diversity on mosquito larvae abundance in both habitats. Although fallow field biotopes become breeding habitats for vector mosquitoes, establishing biotopes from fallow fields in order to protect various aquatic animals, including mosquito insect predators, may help to control mosquito breeding.

Ohba SY; Matsuo T; Takagi M

2013-03-01

210

The roles of kairomones, synomones and pheromones in the chemically-mediated behaviour of male mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite decades of intensive study of the chemical ecology of female mosquitoes, relatively little is known about the chemical ecology of males. This short review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the chemicals that mediate male mosquito behaviour. Various trophic interactions including insect-plant, insect-host, and insect-insect responses are emphasized. The relevance of the chemical ecology of male mosquitoes in the context of vector control programmes is discussed.

Pitts RJ; Moz?raitis R; Gauvin-Bialecki A; Lempérière G

2013-09-01

211

Non-genetic determinants of mosquito competence for malaria parasites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding how mosquito vectors and malaria parasites interact is of fundamental interest, and it also offers novel perspectives for disease control. Both the genetic and environmental contexts are known to affect the ability of mosquitoes to support malaria development and transmission, i.e., vector competence. Although the role of environment has long been recognized, much work has focused on host and parasite genetic effects. However, the last few years have seen a surge of studies revealing a great diversity of ways in which non-genetic factors can interfere with mosquito-Plasmodium interactions. Here, we review the current evidence for such environmentally mediated effects, including ambient temperature, mosquito diet, microbial gut flora, and infection history, and we identify additional factors previously overlooked in mosquito-Plasmodium interactions. We also discuss epidemiological implications, and the evolutionary consequences for vector immunity and parasite transmission strategies. Finally, we propose directions for further research and argue that an improved knowledge of non-genetic influences on mosquito-Plasmodium interactions could aid in implementing conventional malaria control measures and contribute to the design of novel strategies.

Lefèvre T; Vantaux A; Dabiré KR; Mouline K; Cohuet A

2013-06-01

212

Seasonal abundance and potential of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes at the nesting colony of ardeid birds, Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the abundance and seasonal dynamics of mosquitoes, and to detect Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in these mosquitoes at the nesting colony of ardeid birds. METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected bimonthly from July 2009 to May 2010 by Centers for Disease Control. Light traps and dry ice, as a source of CO2, were employed to attract mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were first identified, pooled into groups of upto 50 mosquitoes by species, and tested for JEV infection by viral isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: A total of 20?370 mosquitoes comprising 14 species in five genera were collected. The five most abundant mosquito species collected were Culex tritaeniorhynchus (95.46%), Culex vishnui (2.68%), Culex gelidus (0.72%), Anopheles peditaeniatus (0.58%) and Culex quinquefasciatus (0.22%). Mosquito peak densities were observed in July. All of 416 mosquito pools were negative for JEV. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information about mosquito species and status of JEV infection in mosquitoes in Thailand. Further study should be done to continue a close survey for the presence of this virus in the ardeid birds.

Changbunjong T; Weluwanarak T; Taowan N; Suksai P; Chamsai T; Sedwisai P; Son W

2013-03-01

213

Predictors of mosquito net use in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past decade the malaria control community has been successful in dramatically increasing the number of households that own mosquito nets. However, as many as half of nets already in households go unused. This study examines the factors associated with use of nets owned in Ghana. Methods The data come from an August 2008 survey in Ghana of households with a pregnant woman or a guardian of a child under five, conducted during the rainy season. 1796 households were included in this analysis, which generated a sample of 1,852 mosquito nets. Using each net owned as the unit of analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of net used last night with 23 potentially explanatory variables having to do with characteristics of the household, of the respondent, and of the net. Odds Ratios, p-values, and confidence intervals were calculated for each variable to develop an explanatory model. Results The final multivariate model consisted of 10 variables statistically associated with whether or not the net was used the prior night: rural location, lower SES, not using coils for mosquito control, fewer nets in the household, newer nets and those in better condition, light blue colour, higher level of education of the guardian of the child under five, knowing that mosquitoes transmit malaria, and paying for the net instead of obtaining it free of charge. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that net use would increase in Ghana if coloured nets were made available in mass distributions as well as in the commercial market; if programmes emphasize that malaria is caused only by night-biting mosquitoes, and that nets protect against mosquitoes better than coils and need to be used even if coils are burning; if donated nets are replaced more frequently so that households have nets that are in good condition; and if there were support for the commercial market so that those who can afford to purchase a net and want to choose their own nets can do so.

Baume Carol A; Franca-Koh Ana Cláudia

2011-01-01

214

Uso de mosquiteros y otros materiales impregnados con insecticida para el control de la malaria en las Américas/ Use of insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and other impregnated materials for malaria control in the Americas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo se analiza el uso actual de mosquiteros y de otros materiales impregnados con insecticida en las Américas. Se examinan diversos estudios efectuados en Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Perú, Suriname y Venezuela y se llega a la conclusión de que, en su mayor parte, estos estudios adolecen de graves deficiencias de diseño experimental, problemas de excesiva brevedad, y medición inadecuada de indicadores de salud. En el análisis se resalta (more) la gran dificultad de llevar a cabo estudios científicos que buscan determinar el efecto de los materiales tratados con insecticida en la incidencia de malaria. En particular, la baja incidencia de malaria en las Américas, la elevada prevalencia de Plasmodium vivax y de casos recurrentes, y la relación existente entre los patrones de actividad del ser humano y los hábitos de picadura crepusculares de ciertos vectores de la malaria impiden hacer experimentos de fácil diseño y ejecución. Por ahora sería prematuro usar mosquiteros u otros materiales impregnados con insecticida como componentes principales de un programa integral para el control de la malaria. No obstante, se recomienda que se considere la posibilidad de realizar ensayos e intervenciones bien diseñados a gran escala, siempre que se basen en un conocimiento profundo de la dinámica de la transmisión de la malaria en la zona en estudio. Abstract in english This article reviews the current status of insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and other impregnated materials in the Americas. Studies from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela are examined. It is concluded that most studies have suffered from experimental design errors, short duration problems, and/or inadequate measurement of health indicators. The review brings out the great difficulty of conducting scientific studies that attempt to m (more) easure the impact of insecticide-treated materials on malaria incidence. In particular, the low incidence of malaria in the Americas, the high prevalences of Plasmodium vivax and relapsing cases, and the relationship between human activity patterns and the crepuscular biting patterns of certain malaria vectors stand in the way of easy experimental design and execution. The utilization of impregnated mosquito nets or other impregnated materials as a major component of an integrated malaria control program would be premature at this time. However, it is recommended that well-conceived large-scale trials and interventions be considered when they are based on a thorough understanding of the dynamics of malaria transmission in the area of study.

Zimmerman, R. H.; Voorham, J.

1997-01-01

215

Mosquito repellent incense containing plant vinegar liquid and use thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an anti-mosquito incense containing plant vinegar and application thereof, belonging to the sanitary insecticide article technical field. When made into a solid sheet type, the anti-mosquito incense comprises 45 to 65 percent of plant vinegar, 35 to 55 percent of binder and 0.1 to 1.0 percent of essence when made into a liquid type, the anti-mosquito incense comprises 90 to 99 percent of plant vinegar, and 4 to 8 percent of essence. The plant vinegar is one or a plurality of bamboo vinegar, wood vinegar and/or grass vinegar the binder is carbon powder, flour, corn starch, polyvinyl alcohol, WX-602 gelatine powder produced by Juxiang (a name of a company) and sticky wood powder the essence is one or a plurality of benzyl acetate, citric acid, wintergreen oil, dodecanoic acid, Australian orange essence oil, 2, 3-diacetyl propyl lauric acid ester, menthol and citronella oil. The anti-mosquito incense adopts plant vinegar as the active ingredient, has three functions of killing mosquito, killing fly and killing cockroach with good control effect and solves the problem that the using of chemical anti-mosquito incense can cause the insect to generate resistance to drugs.

JIANYI MA

216

PREVALENCE OF WEST NILE VIRUS IN TREE CANOPY-INHABITING CULEX PIPIENS AND ASSOCIATED MOSQUITOES  

Science.gov (United States)

Culex pipiens was the dominant mosquito captured in a West Nile virus (WNV) focus in Stratford, Connecticut. More Cx. pipiens were captured in Centers for Disease Control miniature light traps baited with CO2, quail/hamster traps, and mosquito magnet experimental (MMX) traps placed in the tree cano...

217

Don't Let the Bugs Bite: Preventing Dengue and Other Diseases Spread by Mosquitoes  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This year (2007) CDC is receiving a great many reports of cases of Dengue fever, which is spread by mosquitoes. This podcast discusses ways travelers to the tropics can protect themselves from mosquito bites.  Created: 12/10/2007 by National Center for the Prevention, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 12/10/2007.

2007-12-10

218

Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

Tabachnick, Walter J.

2013-01-01

219

Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

Walter J. Tabachnick

2013-01-01

220

Nature, nurture and evolution of intra-species variation in mosquito arbovirus transmission competence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

Tabachnick WJ

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Bacterial communities associated with culex mosquito larvae and two emergent aquatic plants of bioremediation importance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species.

Duguma D; Rugman-Jones P; Kaufman MG; Hall MW; Neufeld JD; Stouthamer R; Walton WE

2013-01-01

222

Bacterial Communities Associated with Culex Mosquito Larvae and Two Emergent Aquatic Plants of Bioremediation Importance  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species.

Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G.; Hall, Michael W.; Neufeld, Josh D.; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E.

2013-01-01

223

Activation of Akt signaling reduces the prevalence and intensity of malaria parasite infection and lifespan in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria (Plasmodium spp.) kills nearly one million people annually and this number will likely increase as drug and insecticide resistance reduces the effectiveness of current control strategies. The most important human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, undergoes a complex developmental cycle in the mosquito that takes approximately two weeks and begins with the invasion of the mosquito midgut. Here, we demonstrate that increased Akt signaling in the mosquito midgut disrupts parasite development and concurrently reduces the duration that mosquitoes are infective to humans. Specifically, we found that increased Akt signaling in the midgut of heterozygous Anopheles stephensi reduced the number of infected mosquitoes by 60-99%. Of those mosquitoes that were infected, we observed a 75-99% reduction in parasite load. In homozygous mosquitoes with increased Akt signaling parasite infection was completely blocked. The increase in midgut-specific Akt signaling also led to an 18-20% reduction in the average mosquito lifespan. Thus, activation of Akt signaling reduced the number of infected mosquitoes, the number of malaria parasites per infected mosquito, and the duration of mosquito infectivity. PMID:20664791

Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Drexler, Anna; Watkins de Jong, Laurel; Antonova, Yevgeniya; Pakpour, Nazzy; Ziegler, Rolf; Ramberg, Frank; Lewis, Edwin E; Brown, Jessica M; Luckhart, Shirley; Riehle, Michael A

2010-07-15

224

Correction: Activation of Akt signaling reduces the prevalence and intensity of malaria parasite infection and lifespan in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria (Plasmodium spp.) kills nearly one million people annually and this number will likely increase as drug and insecticide resistance reduces the effectiveness of current control strategies. The most important human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, undergoes a complex developmental cycle in the mosquito that takes approximately two weeks and begins with the invasion of the mosquito midgut. Here, we demonstrate that increased Akt signaling in the mosquito midgut disrupts parasite development and concurrently reduces the duration that mosquitoes are infective to humans. Specifically, we found that increased Akt signaling in the midgut of heterozygous Anopheles stephensi reduced the number of infected mosquitoes by 60-99%. Of those mosquitoes that were infected, we observed a 75-99% reduction in parasite load. In homozygous mosquitoes with increased Akt signaling parasite infection was completely blocked. The increase in midgut-specific Akt signaling also led to an 18-20% reduction in the average mosquito lifespan. Thus, activation of Akt signaling reduced the number of infected mosquitoes, the number of malaria parasites per infected mosquito, and the duration of mosquito infectivity. PMID:20714345

Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Drexler, Anna; Watkins de Jong, Laurel; Antonova, Yevgeniya; Pakpour, Nazzy; Ziegler, Rolf; Ramberg, Frank; Lewis, Edwin E; Brown, Jessica M; Luckhart, Shirley; Riehle, Michael A

2010-08-10

225

Mosquito-eliminating wet tissue  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is a mosquito repellent wet tissue which is made with spun-laced non-woven fabrics as base material by soaking in Chinese herbal medicine liquid. The Chinese herbal medicine liquid is the mixture of mint extract, clove extract, sting herb extract, asphodel extract and water, and the weight percentages of the five are respectively 1%, 1%,1%,1% and 96%. The weight percentages of the spun-laced non-woven fabrics and the Chinese herbal medicine liquid are respectively 15% and 85%. The invention has the advantages that the mosquito repellent wet tissue has the special functions of cooling the skin and relieving itch, and repelling mosquitoes and preventing ant the mosquito repellent wet tissue is fresh in fragrance and soft in texture and is not irritative to skin and has no side effect after long-time use.

DEMING LI

226

UV Irradiation-induced Silver Nanoparticles as Mosquito Larvicides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Silver nanoparticles have a great potential for use in biological control including antimicrobial activity. The pest control of mosquito Aedes aegypti by means of larvicidal is still necessity in order to diminish the vector of some life-threaten diseases. In this study, polymethacrylate (PMA...

N. Sap-Iam; C. Homklinchan; R. Larpudomlert; W. Warisnoicharoen; A. Sereemaspun; S.T. Dubas

227

Development and validation of a 'universal' HPLC method for pyrethroid quantification in long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets for malaria control and prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To outline the development and validation of a universal method for quantifying deltamethrin, permethrin and alpha-cypermethrin levels in a variety of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets. METHODS: Using the HPLC conditions found in the CIPAC method for deltamethrin quantification, the method is based on a simple extraction technique for sample preparation (heating in isooctane at approximately 100 °C for 15 min). The method was validated for linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision, insecticide stability to extraction conditions and required extraction time for insecticide removal. RESULTS: The method was found valid for insecticide quantifications for various types of nets, namely for deltamethrin coated on polyester nets, deltamethrin incorporated into polyethylene nets, permethrin incorporated into polyethylene nets, alpha-cypermethrin coated on polyester nets and alpha-cypermethrin incorporated into polyethylene nets. CONCLUSIONS: This method will provide a more simplified approach to testing a variety of nets (different types of fibre) containing deltamethrin, permethrin or alpha-cypermethrin.

Jenkins DW; Hensens A; Lloyd J; Payne M; Cizmarik P; Hamel S

2013-01-01

228

Mosquito driving essential oil composition and mosquito driving method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a composition of mosquito preventing extract, which comprises components of 0-10wt percent of clove oil, 0-10wt percent of litsea cubeba oil, 0-10wt percent of eucalyptus oil, 0-50wt percent of pure linaloe wood leaf oil, 0-10wt percent of thyme oil, 0-20wt percent of citionella oil, 0-10wt percent of geranium oil, 0-20wt percent of aspic oil, 0-10wt percent of wintergreen oil, 0-10wt percent of dementholized peppermint oil, 0-10wt percent of cinnamon oil, 0-60wt percent of cedar wood oil, .0-10wt percent of michelia alba leaf oil, 0-10wt percent of rue oil, 0-10wt percent of rose oil, 0-10wt percent of tea tree oil. The rest of the composition is at least any one of the following aromatic alcohols: linalool, rhodinol, nerol, geraniol, isogeraniol, citronellol and terpineol. The average mosquito preventing efficiency of the composition of mosquito preventing extract can realize above 90 percent and the scent is widely acceptable to be more than 90 percent the mosquito preventing method of the invention is simple and can be directly dispersed by ultrasonic or sprayed or dropped in a mosquito preventer device made of porous ceramic for naturally dispersing without heating.

XIANGYUN LIN

229

Modulation of La Crosse Virus Infection in Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes Following Larval Exposure to Coffee Extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mosquito-borne La Crosse virus (LACV; Family Bunyaviridae) may cause encephalitis, primarily in children, and is distributed throughout much of the eastern United States. No antivirals or vaccines are available for LACV, or most other mosquito-borne viruses, and prevention generally relies on mosquito control. We sought to determine whether coffee extracts could interfere with LACV replication and vector mosquito development. Both regular and decaffeinated coffee demonstrated significant reductions in LACV replication in direct antiviral assays. This activity was not due to the presence of caffeine, which did not inhibit the virus life cycle. Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito larvae suffered near total mortality when reared in high concentrations of regular and decaffeinated coffee and in caffeine. Following larval exposure to sublethal coffee concentrations, adult A. albopictus mosquitoes had significantly reduced whole-body LACV titers 5?days post-infection, compared to larvae reared in distilled water. These results suggest that it may be possible to both control mosquito populations and alter the vector competence of mosquitoes for arthropod-borne viruses by introducing antiviral compounds into the larval habitat.

Eastep NE; Albert RE; Anderson JR

2012-01-01

230

Señales físico químicas involucradas en la búsqueda de hospederos y en la inducción de picadura por mosquitos Physic-chemical signals involved in host localization and induction of disease vector mosquito bites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las hembras de los mosquitos vectores de enfermedades utilizan señales físicas y químicas para localizar su fuente de alimentación sanguínea en hospederos vertebrados. Los mosquitos zoofílicos responden preferentemente al CO2 y al octenol liberados en la respiración y excreciones, mientras que los mosquitos antropofílicos responden al ácido láctico y a una variedad de compuestos del sudor. Estos compuestos son modificados por microrganismos saprófitos de las glándulas sebáceas de la piel. Otros factores presentes en las viviendas contribuyen a la integración de microsistemas constituidos por olores característicos, que explican los diferentes niveles de atracción de mosquitos y la focalización de la transmisión del paludismo a una porción de casas en localidades de áreas endémicas. La identificación de estos atrayentes químicos y sus moléculas receptoras en mosquitos puede ser utilizada como complemento de nuevos métodos para la vigilancia epidemiológica, para atraer a los mosquitos a trampas de colecta o para incrementar su contacto con insecticidas usados en su control, así como en la manipulación genética para desviar las picaduras de los mosquitos hacia otros hospederos vertebrados.Disease vector female mosquitoes respond to physic-chemical signals to localize vertebrate hosts for blood meals. Zoophylic mosquitoes preferentially respond to CO2 and octenol released in the breath and bodily fluids, while anthropophylic mosquitoes respond to lactic acid and a variety of sweat compounds. These compounds are modified by saprophytic microorganisms in the skin sebaceous glands. Other factors present in human dwellings contribute to the integration of microsystems with characteristic odors that have different attraction for mosquitoes, explaining the focalization of malaria transmission in few households in endemic areas. The identification of the chemical attractants and their molecular receptors could be used to complement new methods to attract mosquitoes to traps during epidemiological surveys, to increase their contact with insecticides in control interventions, and for genetic manipulation to divert mosquito bites towards other animal populations.

José Luis Torres-Estrada; Mario H Rodríguez

2003-01-01

231

Señales físico químicas involucradas en la búsqueda de hospederos y en la inducción de picadura por mosquitos/ Physic-chemical signals involved in host localization and induction of disease vector mosquito bites  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las hembras de los mosquitos vectores de enfermedades utilizan señales físicas y químicas para localizar su fuente de alimentación sanguínea en hospederos vertebrados. Los mosquitos zoofílicos responden preferentemente al CO2 y al octenol liberados en la respiración y excreciones, mientras que los mosquitos antropofílicos responden al ácido láctico y a una variedad de compuestos del sudor. Estos compuestos son modificados por microrganismos saprófitos de las gl (more) ándulas sebáceas de la piel. Otros factores presentes en las viviendas contribuyen a la integración de microsistemas constituidos por olores característicos, que explican los diferentes niveles de atracción de mosquitos y la focalización de la transmisión del paludismo a una porción de casas en localidades de áreas endémicas. La identificación de estos atrayentes químicos y sus moléculas receptoras en mosquitos puede ser utilizada como complemento de nuevos métodos para la vigilancia epidemiológica, para atraer a los mosquitos a trampas de colecta o para incrementar su contacto con insecticidas usados en su control, así como en la manipulación genética para desviar las picaduras de los mosquitos hacia otros hospederos vertebrados. Abstract in english Disease vector female mosquitoes respond to physic-chemical signals to localize vertebrate hosts for blood meals. Zoophylic mosquitoes preferentially respond to CO2 and octenol released in the breath and bodily fluids, while anthropophylic mosquitoes respond to lactic acid and a variety of sweat compounds. These compounds are modified by saprophytic microorganisms in the skin sebaceous glands. Other factors present in human dwellings contribute to the integration of micro (more) systems with characteristic odors that have different attraction for mosquitoes, explaining the focalization of malaria transmission in few households in endemic areas. The identification of the chemical attractants and their molecular receptors could be used to complement new methods to attract mosquitoes to traps during epidemiological surveys, to increase their contact with insecticides in control interventions, and for genetic manipulation to divert mosquito bites towards other animal populations.

Torres-Estrada, José Luis; Rodríguez, Mario H

2003-12-01

232

Electric mosquito swatter structure  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses an electric mosquito swatter structure, which mainly comprises a swatter body, a handle and a light emitting device, wherein the central portion of the swatter body is a swatter net, the circumference thereof is provided with a frame body and the lower portion of the frame body is provided with a pivoting portion, the handle is formed by a plurality of tubes which can be telescopically sleeved, the top end of the handle is provided with a muff-coupling portion and the lower section thereof is provided with a holding portion and an electrical device. The pivoting portion of the swatter body and the muff-coupling portion of the handle can be in adjustably and movably pivoted with each other, thereby enabling the swatter body to have a function of selecting rotating angle. Further, the lower section of the handle is provided with a solar electrical device or a rechargeable AC/DC current electrical device, and the light emitting device is required to be mounted at the frame body close to the swatter net or a proper position of the tubes to be favorable for illuminating.

YILUN YANG; PEIYU XIE

233

Mosquito attractant blends to trap host seeking Aedes aegypti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aedes aegypti is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases -dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. To identify volatile chemicals which could be used in odour based traps for Aedes mosquito surveillance, a few synthetic compounds and compound blends have been evaluated in an indigenously designed olfactometer. A total of 24 compounds and seven compound blends were screened against unfed adult female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes for attraction and compared with control group. The attractancy or repellency index of the test material to mosquitoes was calculated and rated them as class-1, class-2 and class-3 with rating values ranging 1-15, 16-33 and 34-100 respectively. Out of the 24 compounds tested, six were showing significant attractancy (P?mosquito attractancy (P?mosquito attractancy.

Mathew N; Ayyanar E; Shanmugavelu S; Muthuswamy K

2013-03-01

234

Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer.

Singh B; Singh PR; Mohanty MK

2012-12-01

235

Identification of Wolbachia strains in mosquito disease vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wolbachia bacteria are common endosymbionts of insects, and some strains are known to protect their hosts against RNA viruses and other parasites. This has led to the suggestion that releasing Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes could prevent the transmission of arboviruses and other human parasites. We have identified Wolbachia in Kenyan populations of the yellow fever vector Aedes bromeliae and its relative Aedes metallicus, and in Mansonia uniformis and Mansonia africana, which are vectors of lymphatic filariasis. These Wolbachia strains cluster together on the bacterial phylogeny, and belong to bacterial clades that have recombined with other unrelated strains. These new Wolbachia strains may be affecting disease transmission rates of infected mosquito species, and could be transferred into other mosquito vectors as part of control programs.

Osei-Poku J; Han C; Mbogo CM; Jiggins FM

2012-01-01

236

Identification of Wolbachia strains in mosquito disease vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia bacteria are common endosymbionts of insects, and some strains are known to protect their hosts against RNA viruses and other parasites. This has led to the suggestion that releasing Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes could prevent the transmission of arboviruses and other human parasites. We have identified Wolbachia in Kenyan populations of the yellow fever vector Aedes bromeliae and its relative Aedes metallicus, and in Mansonia uniformis and Mansonia africana, which are vectors of lymphatic filariasis. These Wolbachia strains cluster together on the bacterial phylogeny, and belong to bacterial clades that have recombined with other unrelated strains. These new Wolbachia strains may be affecting disease transmission rates of infected mosquito species, and could be transferred into other mosquito vectors as part of control programs. PMID:23185484

Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Han, Calvin; Mbogo, Charles M; Jiggins, Francis M

2012-11-21

237

Potency of Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium as Aedes albopictus Mosquito Repellent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes being the vector of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF). Various effort have been done to control the mosquitoes, including using plant extract as repellent. Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium leaf were known to posses repellent activity for mosquito species. The study aimed to examine efJectiveness of P. amaryllifolius and N. scutellarium leaves as repellent for Ae. albopictus. The result study on 1 hr treatment showed that power protection of pandan leaves (N. scutellarium) was 93.55%, while mangkokan leaves (P. amaryllifolius) was 87.5%. Based on ANOVA analysis, there was not significantly different of power protection between N. scutellarium leaves and P. amaryllifolius leaves extracts against Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Both of these test, plants has showed the potential to be a repellent and eliminate the emergence of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, so it may effectively reduce contact between host and dengue vector.

Rina Marina; Endang Puji Astuti

2012-01-01

238

The mosquito online advanced analytic service: a case study for school research projects in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Mosquito Online Advanced Analytic Service (MOAAS) provides an essential tool for querying, analyzing, and visualizing patterns of mosquito larval distribution in Thailand. The MOAAS was developed using Structured Query Language (SQL) technology as a web-based tool for data entry and data access, webMathematica technology for data analysis and data visualization, and Google Earth and Google Maps for Geographic Information System (GIS) visualization. Fifteen selected schools in Thailand provided test data for MOAAS. Users performed data entry using the web-service, data analysis, and data visualization tools with webMathematica, data visualization with bar charts, mosquito larval indices, and three-dimensional (3D) bar charts overlaying on the Google Earth and Google Maps. The 3D bar charts of the number of mosquito larvae were displayed along with spatial information. The mosquito larvae information may be useful for dengue control efforts and health service communities for planning and operational activities.

Wongkoon S; Jaroensutasinee M; Jaroensutasinee K

2013-07-01

239

Intra-specific diversity of Serratia marcescens in Anopheles mosquito midgut defines Plasmodium transmission capacity  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical stage in malaria transmission occurs in the Anopheles mosquito midgut, when the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, ingested with blood, first makes contact with the gut epithelial surface. To understand the response mechanisms within the midgut environment, including those influenced by resident microbiota against Plasmodium, we focus on a midgut bacteria species' intra-specific variation that confers diversity to the mosquito's competency for malaria transmission. Serratia marcescens isolated from either laboratory-reared mosquitoes or wild populations in Burkina Faso shows great phenotypic variation in its cellular and structural features. Importantly, this variation is directly correlated with its ability to inhibit Plasmodium development within the mosquito midgut. Furthermore, this anti-Plasmodium function conferred by Serratia marcescens requires increased expression of the flagellum biosynthetic pathway that is modulated by the motility master regulatory operon, flhDC. These findings point to new strategies for controlling malaria through genetic manipulation of midgut bacteria within the mosquito.

Bando, Hironori; Okado, Kiyoshi; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Badolo, Athanase; Aonuma, Hiroka; Nelson, Bryce; Fukumoto, Shinya; Xuan, Xuenan; Sagnon, N'Fale; Kanuka, Hirotaka

2013-01-01

240

Intra-specific diversity of Serratia marcescens in Anopheles mosquito midgut defines Plasmodium transmission capacity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A critical stage in malaria transmission occurs in the Anopheles mosquito midgut, when the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, ingested with blood, first makes contact with the gut epithelial surface. To understand the response mechanisms within the midgut environment, including those influenced by resident microbiota against Plasmodium, we focus on a midgut bacteria species' intra-specific variation that confers diversity to the mosquito's competency for malaria transmission. Serratia marcescens isolated from either laboratory-reared mosquitoes or wild populations in Burkina Faso shows great phenotypic variation in its cellular and structural features. Importantly, this variation is directly correlated with its ability to inhibit Plasmodium development within the mosquito midgut. Furthermore, this anti-Plasmodium function conferred by Serratia marcescens requires increased expression of the flagellum biosynthetic pathway that is modulated by the motility master regulatory operon, flhDC. These findings point to new strategies for controlling malaria through genetic manipulation of midgut bacteria within the mosquito.

Bando H; Okado K; Guelbeogo WM; Badolo A; Aonuma H; Nelson B; Fukumoto S; Xuan X; Sagnon N; Kanuka H

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Cardioacceleratory function of the neurohormone CCAP in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) is a highly conserved arthropod neurohormone that is involved in ecdysis, hormone release and the modulation of muscle contractions. Here, we determined the CCAP gene structure in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, assessed the developmental expression of CCAP and its receptor and determined the role that CCAP plays in regulating mosquito cardiac function. RACE sequencing revealed that the A. gambiae CCAP gene encodes a neuropeptide that shares 100% amino acid identity with all sequenced CCAP peptides, with the exception of Daphnia pulex. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that expression of CCAP and the CCAP receptor displays a bimodal distribution, with peak mRNA levels in second instar larvae and pupae. Injection of CCAP revealed that augmenting hemocoelic CCAP levels in adult mosquitoes increases the anterograde and retrograde heart contraction rates by up to 28%, and increases intracardiac hemolymph flow velocities by up to 33%. Partial CCAP knockdown by RNAi had the opposite effect, decreasing the mosquito heart rate by 6%. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments showed that CCAP mRNA is enriched in the head region, and immunohistochemical experiments in newly eclosed mosquitoes detected CCAP in abdominal neurons and projections, some of which innervated the heart, but failed to detect CCAP in the abdomens of older mosquitoes. Instead, in older mosquitoes CCAP was detected in the pars lateralis, the subesophageal ganglion and the corpora cardiaca. In conclusion, CCAP has a potent effect on mosquito circulatory physiology, and thus heart physiology in this dipteran insect is under partial neuronal control.

Estévez-Lao TY; Boyce DS; Honegger HW; Hillyer JF

2013-02-01

242

Mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) and the transmission of Ross River virus in Brisbane, Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to identify the major mosquito vectors of Ross River virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, RRV) and to explore the threshold of mosquito abundance necessary for RRV transmission in Brisbane, Australia. Data on the monthly counts of RRV cases by statistical local areas from the Queensland Health and the monthly mosquito abundance in Brisbane between November 1998 and December 2001 from the Brisbane City Council were used to assess the pairwise relationship between mosquito abundance and the incidence of RRV disease over a range of time lags using cross-correlations. We used time series Poisson regression models to identify major mosquito species associated with incidence of RRV after adjusting for overdispersion, maximum temperature, autocorrelation, and seasonality. Our results show that Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (relative risk [RR] = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.01-1.74 per 100 mosquitoes per trap) and Culex annulirostris (Skuse) (RR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04-1.24 per 100 mosquitoes per trap) were most strongly associated with RRV transmission at a lag of 1 mo. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses indicate that the occurrence of RRV was associated with an average monthly mosquito abundance ofAedes vigilax above 72 and Cx. annulirostris above 52. The validation analyses indicate that the crude agreement between predicted values and actual observations was 76% (sensitivity, 61%; specificity, 80%). The results may have applications as a decision support tool in planning disease control and risk-management programs.

Hu W; Tong S; Mengersen K; Oldenburg B; Dale P

2006-03-01

243

Olfactory Responses of the Antennal Trichoid Sensilla to Chemical Repellents in the Mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insect repellents are widely used to protect against insect bites and thus prevent allergic reaction and the spread of disease. To gain insight into the mosquito's response to chemicals repellents, we investigated the interaction between the olfactory system of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say and chemical repellents using single sensillum recording. The interactions of 50 repellent chemicals with olfactory receptor neurons were measured in six different types of mosquito sensilla: long sharp trichoid (LST), short sharp trichoid (SST), short blunt trichoid I (SBT-I), short blunt trichoid II (SBT-II), short blunt trichoid-curved (SBT-C), and grooved peg (GP). A single olfactory neuron reacted to the chemical repellents in each of the sensilla except for SBT-I and SBT-II, where two neurons were involved. Other than LST and GP, which showed no or very weak responses to the repellents tested, all the sensilla showed significant excitatory responses to certain types of repellents. Terpene-derived chemicals such as eucalyptol, ?-pinene, and camphor, stimulated olfactory receptor neurons in a dose-dependent manner and mosquitoes responded more strongly to terpene-derived chemical repellents than to non-terpene-derived chemicals such as dimethyl phthalate. Mosquitoes also exhibited a similar response to stereoisomers of chemicals such as (-)-?-pinene versus (+)-?-pinene, and (-)-menthone versus (+)-menthone. This study not only demonstrates the effects of chemical repellents on the mosquito olfactory system but also provides important information that will assist those screening new mosquito repellents and designing new mosquito control agents.

Liu F; Chen L; Appel AG; Liu N

2013-09-01

244

Novel mosquito-absorbing device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a novel mosquito absorbing device which comprises a shell and a motor, and the shell is hollow in the interior with one closed end and the other open end the motor is arranged in the shell, and fan blades are arranged on a rotating shaft of the motor at the closed end of the shell, a handle is arranged a tuck net is mounted at the open end of the shell and in the handle, the power supply of the motor is mounted a motor switch is arranged on the handle. The mosquito absorbing device of the utility model can effectively absorb mosquitoes, is convenient for use, energy-saving and environment-friendly and has low cost and promising market prospect at the same time, thus having great value in use.

SICHAO YAO

245

Bait for mosquito and fly  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a mosquito and fly bait, which at least comprises mosquito and fly bait feed. The utility model is characterized in that the mosquito and fly bait feed is packaged in a blocky box body, an air hole is arranged on the surface of the box body. The blocky box body is mould by the plastic molding. An air hole is arranged on the upper surface of the box body and is covered by a thin film. The blocky box body is embeded by the lower box body and upper cap. An air hole is arranged on the surface of the upper cap and is covered by a thin film. The blocky box body is thin fan shaped. The utility model is convenient, safe, environment-friendly and sanitation.

XILIN HU

246

Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes. PMID:23911355

Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

2013-07-16

247

Spatiotemporal investigation of adult mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in an eastern Iowa county, USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Landscape and climatic factors regulate distributions of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) over time and space. The anthropogenic control of mosquito populations is often carried out at a local administrative scale, and it is applied based on the relevant agency's experiential knowledge rather than systematic analysis of spatial and temporal data. To address this shortcoming, a spatial and temporal analysis of landscape and climatic parameters in relation to mosquito populations in Black Hawk County, IA, USA, has been carried out. Adult mosquito sampling took place using CDC light traps from May to August 2003 in representative landscapes. Mosquitoes were identified to species level with Aedes trivittatus (Coquillet) and Aedes vexans (Meigen) dominating the collection totals. The best publicly available spatial data on landscape and demographic attributes were collated and included land cover, human census, soils, floodplain, elevation, wetlands, hydrography, roads, and vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery. Spatial processing was carried out to organize landscape attributes for statistical comparison with abundance data from the potentially important West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) vector species Ae. vexans and Ae. trivittatus. Landscape parameters shown to be significantly correlated with mosquito counts included soil hydrological properties, presence in floodplain, wetland areas, and deciduous and bottomland forest cover. Data on temperature and precipitation were used to investigate the climatic influence on the temporal occurrence of mosquito population abundances. Late spring rain provided ample moisture for mosquito development, but low temperatures delayed widespread emergence of Ae. trivittatus and Ae. vexans until June 2003. Landscape and climatic impacts on adult mosquito population distributions were demonstrated, and these results could form the basis for the development of a spatiotemporal modeling framework that would inform anthropogenic mosquito control anld vector-borne disease surveillance. A qualitative discussion concerning Culex pipiens (L.) and Culex restuans Theobald is included.

DeGroote J; Mercer DR; Fisher J; Sugumaran R

2007-11-01

248

Linking mosquito infestation to resident socioeconomic status, knowledge, and source reduction practices in suburban Washington, DC.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eliminating water-holding containers where mosquitoes oviposit and develop (source reduction) can help manage urban disease-vector mosquitoes. Source reduction requires residents to be knowledgeable of effective practices and motivated to implement them. We tested relationships between demographics, resident knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), and mosquito infestation by administering larval mosquito surveys and KAP questionnaires in Washington, DC. Respondents who reported practicing source reduction had lower numbers of pupae-positive containers and Culex pipiens-positive containers, but not Aedes albopictus-positive containers or water-holding containers, in their yards. When controlling for numbers of water-holding containers in statistical models, residents who reported source reduction had lower numbers of A. albopictus-positive containers in addition to numbers of pupae-positive containers and C. pipiens-positive containers. These results suggest that while active container reduction may be effective at reducing C. pipiens and overall pupal production, it may be offset by other resident activities that add containers to yards, and that source reduction that involves mosquito habitat management without outright container removal can also be effective at reducing A. albopictus. Source reduction was related to respondent knowledge of mosquitoes and, in particular, specific knowledge of mosquito development, which both varied with demographics alongside respondent motivation to control mosquitoes. Respondents from high socioeconomic status households reported greater knowledge but lower motivation than respondents from middle and low socioeconomic-status households. We conclude that mosquito-related education will help promote community-based container management as part of integrated mosquito management programs, particularly in middle and low socioeconomic status neighborhoods with lower knowledge and high motivation.

Dowling Z; Armbruster P; LaDeau SL; DeCotiis M; Mottley J; Leisnham PT

2013-03-01

249

Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes.

Tetreau G; Chandor-Proust A; Faucon F; Stalinski R; Akhouayri I; Prud'homme SM; Raveton M; Reynaud S

2013-09-01

250

Development of guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The recent notifications of autochthonous cases of dengue and chikungunya in Europe prove that the region is vulnerable to these diseases in areas where known mosquito vectors (Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti) are present. Strengthening surveillance of these species as well as other invasive container-breeding aedine mosquito species such as Aedes atropalpus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes koreicus and Aedes triseriatus is therefore required. In order to support and harmonize surveillance activities in Europe, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) launched the production of 'Guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe'. This article describes these guidelines in the context of the key issues surrounding invasive mosquitoes surveillance in Europe. METHODS: Based on an open call for tender, ECDC granted a pan-European expert team to write the guidelines draft. It content is founded on published and grey literature, contractor's expert knowledge, as well as appropriate field missions. Entomologists, public health experts and end users from 17 EU/EEA and neighbouring countries contributed to a reviewing and validation process. The final version of the guidelines was edited by ECDC (Additional file 1). RESULTS: The guidelines describe all procedures to be applied for the surveillance of invasive mosquito species. The first part addresses strategic issues and options to be taken by the stakeholders for the decision-making process, according to the aim and scope of surveillance, its organisation and management. As the strategy to be developed needs to be adapted to the local situation, three likely scenarios are proposed. The second part addresses all operational issues and suggests options for the activities to be implemented, i.e. key procedures for field surveillance of invasive mosquito species, methods of identification of these mosquitoes, key and optional procedures for field collection of population parameters, pathogen screening, and environmental parameters. In addition, methods for data management and analysis are recommended, as well as strategies for data dissemination and mapping. Finally, the third part provides information and support for cost estimates of the planned programmes and for the evaluation of the applied surveillance process. CONCLUSION: The 'Guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe' aim at supporting the implementation of tailored surveillance of invasive mosquito species of public health importance. They are intended to provide support to professionals involved in mosquito surveillance or control, decision/policy makers, stakeholders in public health and non-experts in mosquito surveillance. Surveillance also aims to support control of mosquito-borne diseases, including integrated vector control, and the guidelines are therefore part of a tool set for managing mosquito-borne disease risk in Europe.

Schaffner F; Bellini R; Petri? D; Scholte EJ; Zeller H; Rakotoarivony LM

2013-01-01

251

Impact of environment on mosquito response to pyrethroid insecticides: facts, evidences and prospects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By transmitting major human diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and filariasis, mosquito species represent a serious threat worldwide in terms of public health, and pose a significant economic burden for the African continent and developing tropical regions. Most vector control programmes aiming at controlling life-threatening mosquitoes rely on the use of chemical insecticides, mainly belonging to the pyrethroid class. However, resistance of mosquito populations to pyrethroids is increasing at a dramatic rate, threatening the efficacy of control programmes throughout insecticide-treated areas, where mosquito-borne diseases are still prevalent. In the absence of new insecticides and efficient alternative vector control methods, resistance management strategies are therefore critical, but these require a deep understanding of adaptive mechanisms underlying resistance. Although insecticide resistance mechanisms are intensively studied in mosquitoes, such adaptation is often considered as the unique result of the selection pressure caused by insecticides used for vector control. Indeed, additional environmental parameters, such as insecticides/pesticides usage in agriculture, the presence of anthropogenic or natural xenobiotics, and biotic interactions between vectors and other organisms, may affect both the overall mosquito responses to pyrethroids and the selection of resistance mechanisms. In this context, the present work aims at updating current knowledge on pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes and compiling available data, often from different research fields, on the impact of the environment on mosquito response to pyrethroids. Key environmental factors, such as the presence of urban or agricultural pollutants and biotic interactions between mosquitoes and their microbiome are discussed, and research perspectives to fill in knowledge gaps are suggested.

Nkya TE; Akhouayri I; Kisinza W; David JP

2013-04-01

252

Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species.

Revay EE; Junnila A; Xue RD; Kline DL; Bernier UR; Kravchenko VD; Qualls WA; Ghattas N; Müller GC

2013-02-01

253

Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species. PMID:23092689

Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C

2012-10-22

254

Plasmodium knowlesi in humans, macaques and mosquitoes in peninsular Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since a large focus of human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig tailed macaques, was reported in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, it was pertinent to study the situation in peninsular Malaysia. A study was thus initiated to screen human cases of Plasmodium malariae using molecular techniques, to determine the presence of P. knowlesi in non- human primates and to elucidate its vectors. Methods Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify all Plasmodium species present in the human blood samples sent to the Parasitology laboratory of Institute for Medical Research. At the same time, non-human primates were also screened for malaria parasites and nested PCR was carried out to determine the presence of P. knowlesi. Mosquitoes were collected from Pahang by human landing collection and monkey-baited-traps situated on three different levels. All mosquitoes were identified and salivary glands and midguts of anopheline mosquitoes were dissected to determine the presence of malaria parasites and nested PCR was carried out on positive glands. Sequencing of the csp genes were carried on P. knowlesi samples from humans, monkeys and mosquitoes, positive by PCR. Results and Discussion Plasmodium knowlesi was detected in 77 (69.37%) of the 111 human samples, 10 (6.90%) of the 145 monkey blood and in 2 (1.7%) Anopheles cracens. Sequence of the csp gene clustered with other P. knowlesi isolates. Conclusion Human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi is occurring in most states of peninsular Malaysia. An. cracens is the main vector. Economic exploitation of the forest is perhaps bringing monkeys, mosquitoes and humans into increased contact. A single bite from a mosquito infected with P. knowlesi is sufficient to introduce the parasite to humans. Thus, this zoonotic transmission has to be considered in the future planning of malaria control.

Vythilingam Indra; NoorAzian Yusuf M; Huat Tan; Jiram Adela; Yusri Yusof M; Azahari Abdul H; NorParina Ismail; NoorRain Abdullah; LokmanHakim Sulaiman

2008-01-01

255

Mosquito species geographical distribution in Iraq 2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills three million persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species. In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomological survey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009. METHODS: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi provinces were collected and speciated. Five to 10 villages were selected randomly in each province and in each village 10 houses were selected randomly to collect mosquitoes and the density of mosquitoes per room was calculated. Kits for entomological investigation were used and the collected mosquitoes were sent to the vector borne disease section laboratory for classification using the Naval Medical Research Unit 3 standard classification key. RESULTS: A total of 29,156 mosquitoes were collected, representing two genera: Anopheles (n=13,268, or 46% of the total collected) and Culex (n=15,888, or 54% of the total collected). Four Anopheles (An. pulcherrimus, An. stephensi, An. superpictus, and An. sacharovi) and one Culex (Cx. pipiens) species were identified. Anopheles pulcherrimus was found in 11 provinces, An. stephensi in 7, An. superpictus in 2 and An. sacharovi in one province, while Cx. pipiens was found in all the 12 provinces. Two peaks of mosquito density were found: the first from April-June and the other from September-October. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: There are clear differences in Anopheles mosquito species geographical distribution and density among Iraqi provinces, while Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are distributed all over Iraq. All mosquito genera show clear seasonal density variation. The study highlights that the manual mosquito classification is not enough to identify all the species of mosquitoes in Iraq.

Hantosh HA; Hassan HM; Ahma B; Al-fatlawy A

2012-03-01

256

Sustained reduction in prevalence of lymphatic filariasis infection in spite of missed rounds of mass drug administration in an area under mosquito nets for malaria control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was established by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2000 with the goal of eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem globally by 2020. Mass drug administration (MDA) of antifilarial drugs is the principal strategy recommended for global elimination. Kenya launched a National Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (NPELF) in Coast Region in 2002. During the same year a longitudinal research project to monitor trends of LF infection during MDA started in a highly endemic area in Malindi District. High coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) in the coastal region has been associated with dramatic decline in hospital admissions due to malaria; high usage of ITNs is also expected to have an impact on LF infection, also transmitted by mosquitoes. Results Four rounds of MDA with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) and albendazole were given to 8 study villages over an 8-year period. Although annual MDA was not administered for several years the overall prevalence of microfilariae declined significantly from 20.9% in 2002 to 0.9% in 2009. Similarly, the prevalence of filarial antigenaemia declined from 34.6% in 2002 to 10.8% in 2009. All the examined children born since the start of the programme were negative for filarial antigen in 2009. Conclusions Despite the fact that the study villages missed MDA in some of the years, significant reductions in infection prevalence and intensity were observed at each survey. More importantly, there were no rebounds in infection prevalence between treatment rounds. However, because of confounding variables such as insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), it is difficult to attribute the reduction to MDA alone as ITNs can lead to a significant reduction in exposure to filariasis vectors. The results indicate that national LF elimination programmes should be encouraged to continue provision of MDA albeit constraints that may lead to missing of MDA in some years.

Njenga Sammy M; Mwandawiro Charles S; Wamae C Njeri; Mukoko Dunstan A; Omar Anisa A; Shimada Masaaki; Bockarie Moses J; Molyneux David H

2011-01-01

257

Experimental and molecular genetic analysis of the impact of pyrethroid and non-pyrethroid insecticide impregnated bednets for mosquito control in an area of pyrethroid resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire were used to evaluate the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin, the non-ester pyrethroid etofenprox, the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl and the carbamate carbosulfan on bednets against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae Giles. To test for selection for the resistance gene by the treated nets, A. gambiae collected live or dead from the huts were kept and analysed for the presence of the kdr gene using a new polymerase chain reaction followed by sequence-specific oligonucleotide probing (PCR-SSOP) for kdr-genotyping. Deliberately holed bednets freshly treated with pirimiphos-methyl or carbosulfan caused over 90% kill of A. gambiae s.s. and Culex spp. However, the mortality with alpha-cypermethrin or etofenprox treated nets was similar to that with untreated nets. Bloodfeeding of A. gambiae s.s. on the sleepers under the nets was only significantly reduced by alpha-cypermethrin and carbosulfan. Tests of the residual activity of the bednets after seven months showed that pirimiphos-methyl had lost its efficacy while carbosulfan still performed well. Once again the pyrethroid treated nets gave similar results to the untreated nets. Selection for the kdr-allele by alpha-cypermethrin and etofenprox, but not by carbosulfan, was indicated by PCR-SSOP genotyping of mosquitoes. Thus carbamates such as carbosulfan, or organophosphates of longer persistence than pirimiphos-methyl and of low mammalian toxicity, would seem to be a promising alternative to be used on bednets, particularly in areas of pyrethroid resistance. PMID:10948372

Kolaczinski, J H; Fanello, C; Hervé, J P; Conway, D J; Carnevale, P; Curtis, C F

2000-04-01

258

Experimental and molecular genetic analysis of the impact of pyrethroid and non-pyrethroid insecticide impregnated bednets for mosquito control in an area of pyrethroid resistance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire were used to evaluate the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin, the non-ester pyrethroid etofenprox, the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl and the carbamate carbosulfan on bednets against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae Giles. To test for selection for the resistance gene by the treated nets, A. gambiae collected live or dead from the huts were kept and analysed for the presence of the kdr gene using a new polymerase chain reaction followed by sequence-specific oligonucleotide probing (PCR-SSOP) for kdr-genotyping. Deliberately holed bednets freshly treated with pirimiphos-methyl or carbosulfan caused over 90% kill of A. gambiae s.s. and Culex spp. However, the mortality with alpha-cypermethrin or etofenprox treated nets was similar to that with untreated nets. Bloodfeeding of A. gambiae s.s. on the sleepers under the nets was only significantly reduced by alpha-cypermethrin and carbosulfan. Tests of the residual activity of the bednets after seven months showed that pirimiphos-methyl had lost its efficacy while carbosulfan still performed well. Once again the pyrethroid treated nets gave similar results to the untreated nets. Selection for the kdr-allele by alpha-cypermethrin and etofenprox, but not by carbosulfan, was indicated by PCR-SSOP genotyping of mosquitoes. Thus carbamates such as carbosulfan, or organophosphates of longer persistence than pirimiphos-methyl and of low mammalian toxicity, would seem to be a promising alternative to be used on bednets, particularly in areas of pyrethroid resistance.

Kolaczinski JH; Fanello C; Hervé JP; Conway DJ; Carnevale P; Curtis CF

2000-04-01

259

Higher mosquito production in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: understanding ecological drivers and mosquito-borne disease risk in temperate cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito-vectored pathogens are responsible for devastating human diseases and are (re)emerging in many urban environments. Effective mosquito control in urban landscapes relies on improved understanding of the complex interactions between the ecological and social factors that define where mosquito populations can grow. We compared the density of mosquito habitat and pupae production across economically varying neighborhoods in two temperate U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC). Seven species of mosquito larvae were recorded. The invasive Aedes albopictus was the only species found in all neighborhoods. Culex pipiens, a primary vector of West Nile virus (WNV), was most abundant in Baltimore, which also had more tire habitats. Both Culex and Aedes pupae were more likely to be sampled in neighborhoods categorized as being below median income level in each city and Aedes pupae density was also greater in container habitats found in these lower income neighborhoods. We infer that lower income residents may experience greater exposure to potential disease vectors and Baltimore residents specifically, were at greater risk of exposure to the predominant WNV vector. However, we also found that resident-reported mosquito nuisance was not correlated with our measured risk index, indicating a potentially important mismatch between motivation needed to engage participation in control efforts and the relative importance of control among neighborhoods.

LaDeau SL; Leisnham PT; Biehler D; Bodner D

2013-04-01

260

Predicting human west nile virus infections with mosquito surveillance data.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus (WNV) has become established across the Americas with recent heightened activity causing significant human illness. Surveillance methods to predict the risk of human infection are urgently needed to initiate timely preventative measures and justify the expense of implementing costly or unpopular control measures, such as aerial spraying or curfews. We quantified the links between mosquito surveillance data and the spatiotemporal patterns of 3,827 human WNV cases reported over 5 years in Colorado from 2003 to 2007. Mosquito data were strongly predictive of variation in the number of human WNV infections several weeks in advance in both a spatiotemporal statewide analysis and temporal variation within counties with substantial numbers of human cases. We outline several ways to further improve the predictive power of these data and we quantify the loss of information if no funds are available for testing mosquitoes for WNV. These results demonstrate that mosquito surveillance provides a valuable public health tool for assessing the risk of human arboviral infections, allocating limited public health resources, and justifying emergency control actions. PMID:23825164

Kilpatrick, A Marm; Pape, W John

2013-07-03

 
 
 
 
261

Predicting human west nile virus infections with mosquito surveillance data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

West Nile virus (WNV) has become established across the Americas with recent heightened activity causing significant human illness. Surveillance methods to predict the risk of human infection are urgently needed to initiate timely preventative measures and justify the expense of implementing costly or unpopular control measures, such as aerial spraying or curfews. We quantified the links between mosquito surveillance data and the spatiotemporal patterns of 3,827 human WNV cases reported over 5 years in Colorado from 2003 to 2007. Mosquito data were strongly predictive of variation in the number of human WNV infections several weeks in advance in both a spatiotemporal statewide analysis and temporal variation within counties with substantial numbers of human cases. We outline several ways to further improve the predictive power of these data and we quantify the loss of information if no funds are available for testing mosquitoes for WNV. These results demonstrate that mosquito surveillance provides a valuable public health tool for assessing the risk of human arboviral infections, allocating limited public health resources, and justifying emergency control actions.

Kilpatrick AM; Pape WJ

2013-09-01

262

Short report: The effect of preservation methods on predicting mosquito age by near infrared spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining mosquito age is important to evaluate vector control programs because the ability to transmit diseases is age dependent. Current age-grading techniques require dissection or RNA extraction. Near infrared spectroscopy has been used to rapidly and nondestructively determine the age of fresh mosquitoes and specimens stored in RNAlater, but other preservation techniques have not been examined. Thus, in this study, we investigate whether age can be predicted from insects preserved by various common methods. Results from this study show that age can be predicted from mosquitoes preserved with desiccants, ethanol, Carnoy, RNAlater, or refrigeration with confidence intervals RNAlater, or refrigeration. PMID:22144450

Dowell, Floyd E; Noutcha, Aline E M; Michel, Kristin

2011-12-01

263

Enhanced esterase activity in salivary gland and midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquito infected with dengue-2 virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes were infected by intrathoracic inoculation. About 95% head squashes were positive for dengue virus antigen on the 15th post infection day (PID). Esterase activity was determined in the homogenates prepared from the salivary glands and midguts on different PIDs of dengue virus inoculated and control mosquitoes showed that it was consistently higher in the virus-infected batches.

Mourya DT; Rohankhedkar MS; Yadav P; Dighe V; Deobagkar DN

2003-01-01

264

Enhanced esterase activity in salivary gland and midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquito infected with dengue-2 virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquitoes were infected by intrathoracic inoculation. About 95% head squashes were positive for dengue virus antigen on the 15th post infection day (PID). Esterase activity was determined in the homogenates prepared from the salivary glands and midguts on different PIDs of dengue virus inoculated and control mosquitoes showed that it was consistently higher in the virus-infected batches. PMID:15267144

Mourya, D T; Rohankhedkar, M S; Yadav, P; Dighe, V; Deobagkar, D N

2003-01-01

265

Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU) mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ?80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes) and repellence (ability to prevent ?80% of mosquito bites) properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.

N. Lukwa; A. Makuwaza; T. Chiwade; S.L. Mutambu; M. Zimba; P. Munosiyei

2013-01-01

266

Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective. PMID:21706933

Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

2011-05-01

267

Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

Ndoen E; Wild C; Dale P; Sipe N; Dale M

2011-05-01

268

Alteration in Bacillus thuringiensis toxicity by curing gut flora: novel approach for mosquito resistance management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes are known for acquiring resistance against insecticides in many ways, namely target side mutation, enzyme modification, sequestration, quick elimination, etc. But, the role of microflora present in abundance in the larval midgut is less explored with respect to their role in insecticide resistance. During the course of their development, mosquitoes are continuously exposed to microbes and have naturally acquired midgut microbial flora. This midgut flora can modulate the mosquito's susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) infection by degrading toxic Bt protein forms through an unknown mechanism. In this study, we show that microbe-free aseptic mosquito larvae displayed an increased susceptibility to Bt toxicity compared to larvae harboring natural microbial flora. Fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi were treated separately with penicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin (100 ?g/ml), and mixtures of all three antibiotics and then analyzed for Bt toxicity. We have also examined the influence of the mosquito's midgut microbial flora under microaerophilic condition on the Bt protein degradation through plate, broth, TLC, and UV-vis spectrophotometric assay. A better understanding of the roles of microbiota in preventing Bt toxicity to mosquitoes could potentially lead to the development of new sustainable mosquito control strategies.

Patil CD; Borase HP; Salunke BK; Patil SV

2013-09-01

269

Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 ?L, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 ?L; 42.5%, 18% with 400 ?L; and 19%, 23% with 1000 ?L). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 ?L), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti.

Hsu WS; Yen JH; Wang YS

2013-01-01

270

Mosquito-repellent incense bracket  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a mosquito-repellent incense rack, comprising a main body constituted by triangle plate bar pieces respectively set on the three edges of the main body with one end fixedly connected with the main body and another end being free end and bending towards the same direction according to the main body plane to form three supporting legs position limitation components composed of at least two lineaments extend towards the main body along the two sides of the triangle wide area in bar pieces. The mosquito-repellent incense rack is placed into the package box in the form of plane, therefore the package space is saved and during using, the bar pieces bend at an angle to form the triangle supporting legs.

LONG ZHAO

271

Insecticide-treated vertical mesh barriers reduce the number of biting mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes foraging for blood sources normally fly relatively close to the ground where wind velocities do not exceed their flight speed. An experiment designed to block foraging mosquitoes from reaching inhabited houses was conducted in a rural settlement flanked by agricultural fields. Mosquitoes were collected during 9 nights using 30 carbon dioxide-baited traps deployed along the external walls of six houses in the row closest to the settlement's perimeter fence. Thereafter, a deltamethrin-impregnated mesh was draped along 400 m of the perimeter fence to a height of 2 m opposite three of the monitored houses. Mosquitoes were trapped for a further 11 nights. A significant difference in the numbers of mosquitoes caught before and after the intervention was demonstrated near protected houses, whereas no significant difference was observed in catches near control houses. The percentage of Culex perexiguus (Diptera: Culicidae), an important vector of West Nile virus, was significantly lower near protected houses (13%) than around control houses (45%). By contrast, the percentage of Culex pipiens was not significantly affected (16% at experimental and 18% at control houses). Although the results presented here are preliminary, the data demonstrate the potential efficacy of vertical insecticidal barriers for mosquito control.

Faiman R; Warburg A

2012-03-01

272

[Ecological aspects of mosquito biocontrol with implementation of GPS/GIS].  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquitoes bionomics and vector role as well as integrated control methods with GPS/GIS techniques were presented. Special attention was put on GIS which enables analysis of biological and environmental data generated by GPS (Global Positioning System). Combined with data from surveillance and management activities, those techniques provide a powerful tool for the precise analysis of mosquito development, breeding sites, and effective biocontrol effects on maps. PMID:21452522

Lonc, Elzbieta; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Jawie?, Piotr

2010-01-01

273

[Ecological aspects of mosquito biocontrol with implementation of GPS/GIS].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes bionomics and vector role as well as integrated control methods with GPS/GIS techniques were presented. Special attention was put on GIS which enables analysis of biological and environmental data generated by GPS (Global Positioning System). Combined with data from surveillance and management activities, those techniques provide a powerful tool for the precise analysis of mosquito development, breeding sites, and effective biocontrol effects on maps.

Lonc E; Rydzanicz K; Jawie? P

2010-01-01

274

Cytochrome B Analysis of Mosquito Blood Meals: Identifying Wildlife Hosts of West Nile Virus Mosquito Vectors in Wyoming, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Female mosquitoes commonly exhibit patterns of blood feeding from vertebrate hosts, a behavior that strongly influences mosquito pathogen infection and transmission. The vertebrate host dynamics of the mosquito transmitted arbovirus, West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in sa...

275

Risk factors for mosquito house entry in the Lao PDR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km(2) area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared with traditional homes built from poorer construction materials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys were carried out in the Nam Theun 2 resettlement area and a nearby traditional rice farming area in 2010. Mosquitoes were sampled in bedrooms using CDC light traps in 96 resettlement houses and 96 traditional houses and potential risk factors for mosquito house entry were recorded. Risk of mosquito house entry was more than twice as high in traditional bamboo houses compared with those newly constructed from wood (Putative Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vector incidence rate ratio (IRR)?=?2.26, 95% CI 1.38-3.70, P?=?0.001; Anopheline IRR?=?2.35, 95% CI: 1.30-4.23, P?=?0.005). Anophelines were more common in homes with cattle compared against those without (IRR?=?2.32, 95% CI: 1.29-4.17, P?=?0.005).Wood smoke from cooking fires located under the house or indoors was found to be protective against house entry by both groups of mosquito, compared with cooking in a separate room beside the house (Putative JE vector IRR?=?0.43, 95% CI: 0.26-0.73, P?=?0.002; Anopheline IRR?=?0.22, 95% CI: 0.10-0.51, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Construction of modern wooden homes should help reduce human-mosquito contact in the Lao PDR. Reduced mosquito contact rates could lead to reduced transmission of diseases such as JE and malaria. Cattle ownership was associated with increased anopheline house entry, so zooprophylaxis for malaria control is not recommended in this area. Whilst wood smoke was protective against putative JE vector and anopheline house entry we do not recommend indoor cooking since smoke inhalation can enhance respiratory disease.

Hiscox A; Khammanithong P; Kaul S; Sananikhom P; Luthi R; Hill N; Brey PT; Lindsay SW

2013-01-01

276

Biochemical pathway of melanotic encapsulation of Brugia malayi in the mosquito, Armigeres subalbatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mosquito, Armigeres subalbatus, is naturally resistant to the filarial worm, Brugia malayi, and microfilariae (mf) penetrating the midgut are killed by melanotic encapsulation reactions in the hemocoel within 48 h following ingestion. This vector-parasite system was used to assess changes in hemolymph tyrosine, tyrosine derivatives, and catecholamine-metabolizing enzyme activities using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) during melanotic encapsulation reactions against mf. Tyrosine and dopa were detected in the hemolymph of both control and immune-activated (mf-exposed) mosquitoes, but not dopamine or N-acetyl dopamine (NADA). Tyrosine was significantly increased in immune-activated mosquitoes at 6 and 12 h post blood feeding, but was depleted following intrathoracic inoculation of mf in the absence of a blood meal. Dopa also was elevated in immune-activated mosquitoes at 6, 12, and 24 h post-exposure to mf. There were significant increases in phenol oxidase (PO) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC) activities in immune-activated mosquitoes as compared to controls, and these elevated activities were correlated with changes in tyrosine and dopa levels in the hemolymph. No significant differences in N-acetyl transferase (NAT) and dopachrome conversion enzyme (DCE) activities between control and immune-activated mosquitoes were observed. The possible roles these molecules play in melanotic encapsulation reactions of A. subalbatus against mf are discussed. PMID:8595819

Zhao, X; Ferdig, M T; Li, J; Christensen, B M

277

Biochemical pathway of melanotic encapsulation of Brugia malayi in the mosquito, Armigeres subalbatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mosquito, Armigeres subalbatus, is naturally resistant to the filarial worm, Brugia malayi, and microfilariae (mf) penetrating the midgut are killed by melanotic encapsulation reactions in the hemocoel within 48 h following ingestion. This vector-parasite system was used to assess changes in hemolymph tyrosine, tyrosine derivatives, and catecholamine-metabolizing enzyme activities using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) during melanotic encapsulation reactions against mf. Tyrosine and dopa were detected in the hemolymph of both control and immune-activated (mf-exposed) mosquitoes, but not dopamine or N-acetyl dopamine (NADA). Tyrosine was significantly increased in immune-activated mosquitoes at 6 and 12 h post blood feeding, but was depleted following intrathoracic inoculation of mf in the absence of a blood meal. Dopa also was elevated in immune-activated mosquitoes at 6, 12, and 24 h post-exposure to mf. There were significant increases in phenol oxidase (PO) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC) activities in immune-activated mosquitoes as compared to controls, and these elevated activities were correlated with changes in tyrosine and dopa levels in the hemolymph. No significant differences in N-acetyl transferase (NAT) and dopachrome conversion enzyme (DCE) activities between control and immune-activated mosquitoes were observed. The possible roles these molecules play in melanotic encapsulation reactions of A. subalbatus against mf are discussed.

Zhao X; Ferdig MT; Li J; Christensen BM

1995-05-01

278

[Evolutionary ecology and epidemiology of interactions between Anopheles mosquitoes and malaria].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The transmission of malaria is largely determined by two parameters: the biting rate of the mosquito vector and its mortality. In this paper, data on the interactions among these parameters are reviewed to describe possible evolutionary mechanisms underlying the parasite's life cycle. In particular, in contrast to conventional wisdom about medical entomology, the author suggests that malaria parasites are not always expected to minimise the damage they inflict on their mosquito host. Rather, when they have developed into the infectious stage, they can increase their transmission by manipulating the mosquito to bite more frequently; this, however, is associated with a higher risk of being killed by the human host. This example illustrates that parameters determining malaria transmission can only be understood by integrating ecological and evolutionary ideas into more traditional epidemiology. Such an evolutionary view of malaria and mosquitoes will eventually lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology of malaria and may help to predict the effect of malaria control.

Koella JC

1999-08-01

279

Evarcha culicivora chooses blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes but other East African jumping spiders do not.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research using computer animation and lures made from dead prey has demonstrated that the East African salticid Evarcha culicivora Wesolowska & Jackson (Araneae: Salticidae) feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by actively choosing blood-carrying female mosquitoes as prey, and also that it singles out mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) by preference. Here, we demonstrate that E. culicivora's preference is expressed when the species is tested with living prey and that it is unique to E. culicivora. As an alternative hypothesis, we considered the possibility that the preference for blood-fed female anopheline mosquitoes might be widespread in East African salticids. When live-prey choice tests were carried out in 19 additional species, there were no instances in which blood-carrying mosquitoes were chosen significantly more often than other prey. Combined with the findings of previous work, these results suggest that it is possible that specialized predators play a role in the biological control of disease vectors.

Jackson RR; Nelson XJ

2012-06-01

280

Short report: The effect of preservation methods on predicting mosquito age by near infrared spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Determining mosquito age is important to evaluate vector control programs because the ability to transmit diseases is age dependent. Current age-grading techniques require dissection or RNA extraction. Near infrared spectroscopy has been used to rapidly and nondestructively determine the age of fresh mosquitoes and specimens stored in RNAlater, but other preservation techniques have not been examined. Thus, in this study, we investigate whether age can be predicted from insects preserved by various common methods. Results from this study show that age can be predicted from mosquitoes preserved with desiccants, ethanol, Carnoy, RNAlater, or refrigeration with confidence intervals < 1.4 days. The best results were generally obtained from mosquitoes stored using desiccants, RNAlater, or refrigeration.

Dowell FE; Noutcha AE; Michel K

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Comparison of mosquito densoviruses: two clades of viruses isolated from indigenous mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analyzed the phylogenetic tree of densoviruses isolated from indigenous mosquitoes and mosquito cell lines. Our findings suggest two distinct clades of densovirus. The viruses in the first clade were isolated from an indigenous mosquito which had the Aedes aegypti densovirus (AaeDNV) as a representative virus. The other clade of viruses was isolated from mosquito indigenous cell line which had the Aedes albopictus densovirus (AalDNV) as the representative virus. The origin of the two clades of DNVs is unclear but the phylogenetic trees were significantly different from each other. The two major densoviruses, AaeDNV and AalDNV, that infect mosquitoes that are known to carry viruses responsible for dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. Understanding the evolution of these two clades of densoviruses is important for studying the distribution of these viruses in mosquito cell lines and the information gained may be applied to understanding other viruses in various mosquito cell lines.

Sangdee K; Pattanakitsakul SN

2013-07-01

282

Mosquito capture system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a flying insect hunting and eliminating system. The utility model is composed of a gas cylinder bundle device, a gas-supplying control device, and a plurality of flying insect hunting and eliminating devices wherein, the gas cylinder bundle device is used to store and release CO <2> the gas-supplying control device is used to depressurize the CO <2> gas input by the gas cylinder bundle device to the set range first and then to output the depressurized CO <2> gas to all of flying insect hunting and eliminating devices and the flying insect hunting and eliminating devices are adopted to attract and kill flying insects by discontinuously releasing the input CO <2> gas. The utility model has the advantages that the eliminating effect towards flying insects is prompted greatly, the use and transportation costs are lowered by a large margin, centralized management and control may be implemented more conveniently, functions such as real-time monitoring, failure report, auto diagnosis report, auto-shutdown protection, and auto-recovering restarting at terminals are available, thereby providing a great convenience for the customers and lowering the costs of operation and management greatly, and making a centralized flying insect eliminating in more public areas possible.

ZENG RUI

283

Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, the characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito Aedes atropalpus is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no Escherichia?coli ?-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body; however, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at any stage examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes.

Totten DC; Vuong M; Litvinova OV; Jinwal UK; Gulia-Nuss M; Harrell RA 2nd; Beneš H

2013-02-01

284

Effects of insect growth regulators on the mosquito-parasitic nematode Romanomermis iyengari.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue, diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, and azadirachtin, an ecdysone agonist, are three insect growth regulators (IGRs) considered as selective and effective insecticides for mosquitoes. Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) is a mosquito-parasitic mermithid that can provide biological control against many medically important mosquito species. The compatibility of these two control tactics was tested by evaluating the sublethal effects of exposure to IGR on nematode developmental stages (preparasitic, parasitic, and preparasitic + parasitic) using Culex pipiens larvae as the host. Sublethal concentrations of IGRs were 90 % emergence inhibition of host mosquito. Preparasitic exposure to pyriproxyfen, azadirachtin, and diflurbenzuron had no effect on infectivity, parasite load, sex ratio, or male size but reduced nematode female length and increased male sex ratio at one parasite/larva. When IGRs treatments were made against the parasitic and preparasitic + parasitic stages, pyriproxyfen and azadirachtin reduced R. iyengari infectivity, parasite load, and male nematode length, whereas pyriproxyfen exposure increased male sex ratio and reduced the female R. iyengari length. Thus, IGRs have significant negative impacts on different stages of mosquito mermithid that can destabilize the balance of host-parasite population interaction. Therefore, IGRs should be used with caution in mosquito habitats where these parasites have established.

Suman DS; Brey CW; Wang Y; Sanad M; Shamseldean MS; Gaugler R

2013-02-01

285

Prey preferences of aquatic insects: potential implications for the regulation of wetland mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wetlands are potential sites for mosquito breeding and are thus important in the context of public health. The use of chemical and microbial controls is constrained in wetlands in view of their potential impact on the diverse biota. Biological control using generalist aquatic insects can be effective, provided a preference for mosquito larvae is exhibited. The mosquito prey preferences of water bugs and larvae of odonate species were evaluated using chironomid larvae, fish fingerlings and tadpoles as alternative prey. Manly's selectivity (?(i) ) values with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to judge prey preference patterns. Multivariate analysis of variance (manova) and standardized canonical coefficients were used to test the effects of density on prey selectivity. The ?(i) values indicated a significant preference (P < 0.05) in all of the insect predators tested for mosquito larvae over the alternative prey as a density-dependent function. On a comparative scale, chironomid larvae had the highest impact as alternative prey. In a multiple-prey experiment, predators showed a similar pattern of preference for mosquito larvae over alternative prey, reflecting a significant (P < 0.05) niche overlap. The results suggest that, in a laboratory setting, these insect predators can effectively reduce mosquito density in the presence of multiple alternative prey.

Saha N; Aditya G; Saha GK

2013-02-01

286

Challenges in undertaking mosquito surveillance at UK seaports and airports to prevent the entry and establishment of invasive vector species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Port health authorities have played an important role in the control of infectious diseases worldwide. The International Health Regulations (2005) further clarifies this role and provides a legal statutory instrument that aims to assist the international community to prevent and respond to global public health risks. Eleven UK sea and airports participated in a pilot, investigating the challenges ports could face in attempting to monitor for mosquitoes. The study also examined the types of habitat that could support mosquitoes. There is a concern that exotic vector species, such as Aedes albopictus, could invade and become established in the UK. Environments in and around the ports differed, and this was reflected in the species of mosquitoes caught. Ports used different methods to collect mosquitoes and developed a range of techniques for surveying, which suited the conditions at their port. This paper discusses the implications of invasive mosquito surveillance to UK port health authorities.

Murphy G; Vaux A; Medlock J

2013-01-01

287

Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin) developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm) of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50) of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding sites under natural field conditions provided 98.1% reduction of Anopheles larvae on day 1; thereafter 100% reduction was recorded up to week 1 and more than 80% reduction up to week 3, while percent reduction against Culex larvae was 95.5% on day 1, and thereafter 80% reduction was achieved up to week 3. The formulation also showed 95.1% and, 99.7% reduction of Aedes larvae on day 1 and day 2 respectively; thereafter 100% larval control was observed up to day 7. Conclusion The neem oil formulation was found effective in controlling mosquito larvae in different breeding sites under natural field conditions. As neem trees are widely distributed in India, their formulations may prove to be an effective and eco-friendly larvicide, which could be used as an alternative for malaria control.

Dua Virendra K; Pandey Akhilesh C; Raghavendra Kamaraju; Gupta Ashish; Sharma Trilochan; Dash Aditya P

2009-01-01

288

Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. METHODS: Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin) developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5-5.0 ppm) of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m(2) to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. RESULTS: Median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC(50) values of the formulation stored at 26 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 45 degrees C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC(90) values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC(50) and LC(90) values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m(2) in different breeding sites under natural field conditions provided 98.1% reduction of Anopheles larvae on day 1; thereafter 100% reduction was recorded up to week 1 and more than 80% reduction up to week 3, while percent reduction against Culex larvae was 95.5% on day 1, and thereafter 80% reduction was achieved up to week 3. The formulation also showed 95.1% and, 99.7% reduction of Aedes larvae on day 1 and day 2 respectively; thereafter 100% larval control was observed up to day 7. CONCLUSION: The neem oil formulation was found effective in controlling mosquito larvae in different breeding sites under natural field conditions. As neem trees are widely distributed in India, their formulations may prove to be an effective and eco-friendly larvicide, which could be used as an alternative for malaria control.

Dua VK; Pandey AC; Raghavendra K; Gupta A; Sharma T; Dash AP

2009-01-01

289

Microsporidian isolates from mosquitoes of Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...

290

Rupatadine 10 mg in the treatment of immediate mosquito-bite allergy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: People frequently experience wealing and delayed papules from mosquito bites. Wealing is mediated by antisaliva IgE antibodies and histamine. Rupatadine is a new antihistamine effective in allergic rhinitis and urticaria, but the effect on mosquito-bite allergy is not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of rupatadine in inmediate mosquito-bite allergy-confirmed adult patients. METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was performed with rupatadine 10 mg and matched placebo in 30 mosquito-bite-sensitive adults. The mean age was 37 years and the subjects had suffered from harmful mosquito bites for a mean of 15 years. Either rupatadine or placebo was taken at 08:00 am for 4 days, followed by a 5 day wash out period and then alternative treatment was given for 4 days. On day 3, in both drug periods the subjects received two Aedes aegypti mosquito-bites on the forearm. The size of lesions and intensity of pruritus [visual analogue scale (VAS)] were measured after 15 min bite reaction. RESULTS: Twenty-six subjects were analysed for efficacy. The size of the 15 min bite reaction under placebo was of 106 mm2 and under rupatadine, of 55 mm2. This is a significant decrease (48%; P=0.0003). The accompanying pruritus decreased from 60 (VAS; median) under placebo to 47.5 under rupatadine, which also is a significant (P=0.019) difference. There was no significant (P=0.263) difference in adverse events under rupatadine and placebo. CONCLUSION: The present placebo-controlled study in mosquito-bite-sensitive adults shows that rupatadine 10 mg prophylactically given is an effective treatment for the mosquito-bite wealing and skin pruritus.

Karppinen A; Brummer-Korvenkontio H; Reunala T; Izquierdo I

2012-07-01

291

Distribution of Culex species in vegetation bands of a constructed wetland undergoing integrated mosquito management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The distribution and abundance of emerging Culex spp. were assessed within narrow (width: 3 m) and wide (width: 20 m) bands of California bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus) and in the open water adjacent to emergent vegetation in 2 marshes of an ammonia-dominated wastewater treatment wetland in southern California. Emerging mosquitoes were collected along transects perpendicular to the path of water flow at 3 distances (1.5, 5, and 10 m) from the vegetation-open water interface in the wide bands of emergent vegetation, at the center of narrow bands of emergent vegetation, and at 1.5 m from the edge of emergent vegetation in the open water. The width of vegetation bands (3 vs. 20 m) influenced the effectiveness of integrated mosquito management practices, especially the application of mosquito control agents. Mosquito production from the 2 marshes also differed up to 14-fold, suggesting that the distance between the shorelines (62 vs. 74 m) of each marsh also influenced the efficacy of mosquito control agents applied from the shore and boats. Hot spots of mosquito production (75424 female Culex/m2/day) were found within the wide bands of bulrush. During summer, the relative abundance of Culex stigmatosoma among emerging mosquitoes increased from the periphery to the center of wide bands of emergent vegetation. Culex erythrothorax emergence rates were comparatively similar among the transects in the wide bands of emergent vegetation. Culex tarsalis adults increased in number from the periphery to the center of wide bands of bulrush and, in May, were > 95% of emerged mosquitoes.

Walton WE; Popko DA; Van Dam AR; Merrill A

2013-03-01

292

Reduction of mosquito biting-pressure: spatial repellents or mosquito traps? A field comparison of seven commercially available products in Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study assessed the personal protection efficiency of seven commercially available mosquito control devices (MCD) under field conditions in Israel. Trials were performed in a high biting-pressure area inhabited by large populations of mosquito and biting midge species, using human volunteers as bait in landing catch experiments. Results show that under minimal air-movement, three spatial repellent based products (ThermaCELL(®) Patio Lantern, OFF!(®) PowerPad lamp, and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR Tabletop Mosquito Repeller) significantly reduced the biting-pressure (t-test - P<0.01) when positioned at short distances from a volunteer (3, 7.5, and 10ft.), with the ThermaCELL unit being most effective (96.1, 89.9, and 76.66% reduction, respectively). No significant differences were seen between the three aforementioned devices at distances of 3 and 7.5ft., while at a distance of 10ft., only the ThermaCELL patio lantern repelled significantly more mosquitoes then the Terminix ALLCLEAR Tabletop Mosquito Repeller (t-test, P<0.05). In contrast, mosquito traps using attracting cues to bait mosquitoes (Dynatrap(®), Vortex(®) Electronic Insect Trap, Blue Rhino(®) SV3100) either significantly increased or had no effect on the biting-pressure at short distances compared with the unprotected control. Trials conducted over large areas showed that only the Blue Rhino trap was able to significantly reduce the biting-pressure (40.1% reduction), but this was only when operating four units at the corners of an intermediate sized area. PMID:23545129

Revay, Edita E; Kline, Daniel L; Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Ghattas, Nina; Pstygo, Irina; Müller, Günter C

2013-03-30

293

Reduction of mosquito biting-pressure: spatial repellents or mosquito traps? A field comparison of seven commercially available products in Israel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study assessed the personal protection efficiency of seven commercially available mosquito control devices (MCD) under field conditions in Israel. Trials were performed in a high biting-pressure area inhabited by large populations of mosquito and biting midge species, using human volunteers as bait in landing catch experiments. Results show that under minimal air-movement, three spatial repellent based products (ThermaCELL(®) Patio Lantern, OFF!(®) PowerPad lamp, and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR Tabletop Mosquito Repeller) significantly reduced the biting-pressure (t-test - P<0.01) when positioned at short distances from a volunteer (3, 7.5, and 10ft.), with the ThermaCELL unit being most effective (96.1, 89.9, and 76.66% reduction, respectively). No significant differences were seen between the three aforementioned devices at distances of 3 and 7.5ft., while at a distance of 10ft., only the ThermaCELL patio lantern repelled significantly more mosquitoes then the Terminix ALLCLEAR Tabletop Mosquito Repeller (t-test, P<0.05). In contrast, mosquito traps using attracting cues to bait mosquitoes (Dynatrap(®), Vortex(®) Electronic Insect Trap, Blue Rhino(®) SV3100) either significantly increased or had no effect on the biting-pressure at short distances compared with the unprotected control. Trials conducted over large areas showed that only the Blue Rhino trap was able to significantly reduce the biting-pressure (40.1% reduction), but this was only when operating four units at the corners of an intermediate sized area.

Revay EE; Kline DL; Xue RD; Qualls WA; Bernier UR; Kravchenko VD; Ghattas N; Pstygo I; Müller GC

2013-07-01

294

Eliciting renal failure in mosquitoes with a small-molecule inhibitor of inward-rectifying potassium channels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever take a large toll on global health. The primary chemical agents used for controlling mosquitoes are insecticides that target the nervous system. However, the emergence of resistance in mosquito populations is reducing the efficacy of available insecticides. The development of new insecticides is therefore urgent. Here we show that VU573, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels, inhibits a Kir channel cloned from the renal (Malpighian) tubules of Aedes aegypti (AeKir1). Injection of VU573 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti) disrupts the production and excretion of urine in a manner consistent with channel block of AeKir1 and renders the mosquitoes incapacitated (flightless or dead) within 24 hours. Moreover, the toxicity of VU573 in mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti) is exacerbated when hemolymph potassium levels are elevated, suggesting that Kir channels are essential for maintenance of whole-animal potassium homeostasis. Our study demonstrates that renal failure is a promising mechanism of action for killing mosquitoes, and motivates the discovery of selective small-molecule inhibitors of mosquito Kir channels for use as insecticides.

Raphemot R; Rouhier MF; Hopkins CR; Gogliotti RD; Lovell KM; Hine RM; Ghosalkar D; Longo A; Beyenbach KW; Denton JS; Piermarini PM

2013-01-01

295

Immunization with Culex tarsalis mosquito salivary gland extract modulates West Nile virus infection and disease in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito salivary proteins inoculated during blood feeding modulate the host immune response, which can contribute to the pathogenesis of viruses transmitted by mosquito bites. Previous studies with mosquito bite-naïve mice indicated that exposure to arthropod salivary proteins resulted in a shift toward a Th2-type immune response in flavivirus-susceptible mice but not flavivirus-resistant animals. In the study presented here, we tested the hypothesis that immunization with high doses of Culex tarsalis salivary gland extracts (SGE) with an adjuvant would prevent Th2 polarization after mosquito bite and enhance resistance to mosquito-transmitted West Nile virus (WNV). Our results indicate that mice immunized with Cx. tarsalis SGE produced increased levels of Th1-type cytokines (IFN? and TNF?) after challenge with mosquito-transmitted WNV and exhibited both a delay in infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and significantly lower WNV brain titers compared to mock-immunized mice. Moreover, mortality was significantly reduced in the SGE-immunized mice, as none of these mice died, compared to mortality of 37.5% of mock-vaccinated mice by 8 days after infected mosquito bite. These results suggest that development of a mosquito salivary protein vaccine might be a strategy to control arthropod-borne viral pathogens such as WNV.

Machain-Williams C; Reagan K; Wang T; Zeidner NS; Blair CD

2013-02-01

296

Eliciting Renal Failure in Mosquitoes with a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Inward-Rectifying Potassium Channels  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever take a large toll on global health. The primary chemical agents used for controlling mosquitoes are insecticides that target the nervous system. However, the emergence of resistance in mosquito populations is reducing the efficacy of available insecticides. The development of new insecticides is therefore urgent. Here we show that VU573, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels, inhibits a Kir channel cloned from the renal (Malpighian) tubules of Aedes aegypti (AeKir1). Injection of VU573 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti) disrupts the production and excretion of urine in a manner consistent with channel block of AeKir1 and renders the mosquitoes incapacitated (flightless or dead) within 24 hours. Moreover, the toxicity of VU573 in mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti) is exacerbated when hemolymph potassium levels are elevated, suggesting that Kir channels are essential for maintenance of whole-animal potassium homeostasis. Our study demonstrates that renal failure is a promising mechanism of action for killing mosquitoes, and motivates the discovery of selective small-molecule inhibitors of mosquito Kir channels for use as insecticides.

Raphemot, Rene; Rouhier, Matthew F.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Gogliotti, Rocco D.; Lovell, Kimberly M.; Hine, Rebecca M.; Ghosalkar, Dhairyasheel; Longo, Anthony; Beyenbach, Klaus W.; Denton, Jerod S.; Piermarini, Peter M.

2013-01-01

297

Transgenic Mosquitoes Expressing a Phospholipase A2 Gene Have a Fitness Advantage When Fed Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Blood  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Genetically modified mosquitoes have been proposed as an alternative strategy to reduce the heavy burden of malaria. In recent years, several proof-of-principle experiments have been performed that validate the idea that mosquitoes can be genetically modified to become refractory to malaria parasite development. Results We have created two transgenic lines of Anophelesstephensi, a natural vector of Plasmodium falciparum, which constitutively secrete a catalytically inactive phospholipase A2 (mPLA2) into the midgut lumen to interfere with Plasmodium ookinete invasion. Our experiments show that both transgenic lines expressing mPLA2 significantly impair the development of rodent malaria parasites, but only one line impairs the development of human malaria parasites. In addition, when fed on malaria-infected blood, mosquitoes from both transgenic lines are more fecund than non-transgenic mosquitoes. Consistent with these observations, cage experiments with mixed populations of transgenic and non-transgenic mosquitoes show that the percentage of transgenic mosquitoes increases when maintained on Plasmodium-infected blood. Conclusions Our results suggest that the expression of an anti-Plasmodium effector gene gives transgenic mosquitoes a fitness advantage when fed malaria-infected blood. These findings have important implications for future applications of transgenic mosquito technology in malaria control.

Smith, Ryan C.; Kizito, Christopher; Rasgon, Jason L.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

2013-01-01

298

History of Aedes mosquitoes in Hawaii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands.

Winchester JC; Kapan DD

2013-06-01

299

Kick-over preventive mosquito coil box  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a kick-over preventive mosquito coil box, which comprises a box body, a plurality of flat supports and a holder. The flat supports are arranged inside the box body, and the inner diameter of the holder disposed outside the box body is equal to the outer diameter of the box body. The kick-over preventive mosquito coil box can be used for containing a burning mosquito coil, and also is capable of collecting ash of the mosquito coil and being prevented from being kicked over by people. Further, the kick-over preventive mosquito coil box is simple in structure, convenient in use and suitable for most populations.

ZHENG ZHUGE

300

Mosquito species abundance and diversity in Malindi, Kenya and their potential implication in pathogen transmission.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of human disease-causing pathogens. Mosquitoes are found both in rural and urban areas. Deteriorating infrastructure, poor access to health, water and sanitation services, increasing population density, and widespread poverty contribute to conditions that modify the environment, which directly influences the risk of disease within the urban and peri-urban ecosystem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mosquito vector abundance and diversity in urban, peri-urban, and rural strata in Malindi along the Kenya coast. The study was conducted in the coastal district of Malindi between January and December 2005. Three strata were selected which were described as urban, peri-urban, and rural. Sampling was done during the wet and dry seasons. Sampling in the wet season was done in the months of April and June to cover the long rainy season and in November and December to cover the short rainy season, while the dry season was between January and March and September and October. Adult mosquito collection was done using Pyrethrum Spray Collection (PSC) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps inside houses and specimens were identified morphologically. In the three strata (urban, peri-urban, and rural), 78.5% of the total mosquito (n?=?7,775) were collected using PSC while 18.1% (n?=?1,795) were collected using the CDC light traps. Using oviposition traps, mosquito eggs were collected and reared in the insectary which yielded 329 adults of which 83.8% (n?=?276) were Aedes aegypti and 16.2% (n?=?53) were Culex quinquefasciatus. The mosquito distribution in the three sites varied significantly in each collection site. Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus and Anopheles coustani were predominant in the rural stratum while C. quinquefasciatus was mostly found in urban and peri-urban strata. However, using PSC and CDC light trap collection techniques, A. aegypti was only found in urban strata. In the three strata, mosquitoes were mainly found in high numbers during the wet season. Further, A. gambiae, C. quinquefasciatus, and A. aegypti mosquitoes were found occurring together inside the houses. This in turn exposes the inhabitants to an array of mosquito-borne diseases including malaria, bancroftian filariasis, and arboviruses (dengue fever, Yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya fever, and West Nile Virus). In conclusion, our findings provide useful information for the design of integrated mosquito and disease control programs in East African environments.

Mwangangi JM; Midega J; Kahindi S; Njoroge L; Nzovu J; Githure J; Mbogo CM; Beier JC

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Elevation of dopamine level reduces host-seeking activity in the adult female mosquito Aedes albopictus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito-borne viruses are transmitted to human hosts via blood-feeding behavior of female mosquitoes. Female mosquitoes seek a host to take blood meals (host-seeking behavior). In order to prevent virus infections, it is important to understand how they modulate host-seeking behavior. Dopamine (DA) in the central nervous system acts as a neuromediator that regulates a variety of behaviors in insects. In female mosquitoes, host-seeking behavior increases when DA levels in the head decline after emergence. However, it remains unclear whether DA directly modulates host-seeking behavior in female mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to examine whether changes in DA levels in the head affects host-seeking activity in the adult female mosquito Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus). Findings We compared host-seeking behavior in one group of emerging female adults treated with l-?-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), the precursor of DA, (l-DOPA group), with that in an untreated control (control group) after confirming elevation of head DA in l-DOPA group by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The content of head DA in l-DOPA group significantly remained higher than that in controls on all days examined. The host-seeking activity in the control group showed a gradual increase over the 6-day experimental period. In contrast, there was no such increase in the host-seeking activity in the l-DOPA group. Therefore, the host-seeking activity of l-DOPA group was significantly lower than that of the controls between day 3 and 6 post-emergence. Conclusion Our results indicate that elevation of DA level reduces host-seeking activity in adult female mosquito Ae. albopictus.

Fukumitsu Yuki; Irie Keiichi; Satho Tomomitsu; Aonuma Hitoshi; Dieng Hamady; Ahmad Abu; Nakashima Yukihiko; Mishima Kenichi; Kashige Nobuhiro; Miake Fumio

2012-01-01

302

Transcription profiling of resistance to Bti toxins in the mosquito Aedes aegypti using next-generation sequencing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The control of mosquitoes transmitting infectious diseases relies mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. However, resistance to most chemical insecticides threatens mosquito control programs. In this context, the spraying of toxins produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in larval habitats represents an alternative to chemical insecticides and is now widely used for mosquito control. Recent studies suggest that resistance of mosquitoes to Bti toxin may occur locally but mechanisms have not been characterized so far. In the present study, we investigated gene transcription level variations associated with Bti toxin resistance in the mosquito Aedes aegypti using a next-generation sequencing approach. More than 6 million short cDNA tags were sequenced from larvae of two strains sharing the same genetic background: a Bti toxins-resistant strain and a susceptible strain. These cDNA tags were mapped with a high coverage (308 reads per position in average) to more than 6000 genes of Ae. aegypti genome and used to quantify and compare the transcription level of these genes between the two mosquito strains. Among them, 86 genes were significantly differentially transcribed more than 4-fold in the Bti toxins resistant strain comparatively to the susceptible strain. These included gene families previously associated with Bti toxins resistance such as serine proteases, alkaline phosphatase and alpha-amylase. These results are discussed in regards of potential Bti toxins resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes.

Paris M; Melodelima C; Coissac E; Tetreau G; Reynaud S; David JP; Despres L

2012-02-01

303

Transcription profiling of resistance to Bti toxins in the mosquito Aedes aegypti using next-generation sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The control of mosquitoes transmitting infectious diseases relies mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. However, resistance to most chemical insecticides threatens mosquito control programs. In this context, the spraying of toxins produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in larval habitats represents an alternative to chemical insecticides and is now widely used for mosquito control. Recent studies suggest that resistance of mosquitoes to Bti toxin may occur locally but mechanisms have not been characterized so far. In the present study, we investigated gene transcription level variations associated with Bti toxin resistance in the mosquito Aedes aegypti using a next-generation sequencing approach. More than 6 million short cDNA tags were sequenced from larvae of two strains sharing the same genetic background: a Bti toxins-resistant strain and a susceptible strain. These cDNA tags were mapped with a high coverage (308 reads per position in average) to more than 6000 genes of Ae. aegypti genome and used to quantify and compare the transcription level of these genes between the two mosquito strains. Among them, 86 genes were significantly differentially transcribed more than 4-fold in the Bti toxins resistant strain comparatively to the susceptible strain. These included gene families previously associated with Bti toxins resistance such as serine proteases, alkaline phosphatase and alpha-amylase. These results are discussed in regards of potential Bti toxins resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes. PMID:22115744

Paris, Margot; Melodelima, Christelle; Coissac, Eric; Tetreau, Guillaume; Reynaud, Stephane; David, Jean-Philippe; Despres, Laurence

2011-11-16

304

Detection of infectious virus from field-collected mosquitoes by vero cell culture assay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes transmit a number of distinct viruses including important human pathogens such as West Nile virus, dengue virus, and chickungunya virus. Many of these viruses have intensified in their endemic ranges and expanded to new territories, necessitating effective surveillance and control programs to respond to these threats. One strategy to monitor virus activity involves collecting large numbers of mosquitoes from endemic sites and testing them for viral infection. In this article, we describe how to handle, process, and screen field-collected mosquitoes for infectious virus by Vero cell culture assay. Mosquitoes are sorted by trap location and species, and grouped into pools containing ?50 individuals. Pooled specimens are homogenized in buffered saline using a mixer-mill and the aqueous phase is inoculated onto confluent Vero cell cultures (Clone E6). Cell cultures are monitored for cytopathic effect from days 3-7 post-inoculation and any viruses grown in cell culture are identified by the appropriate diagnostic assays. By utilizing this approach, we have isolated 9 different viruses from mosquitoes collected in Connecticut, USA, and among these, 5 are known to cause human disease. Three of these viruses (West Nile virus, Potosi virus, and La Crosse virus) represent new records for North America or the New England region since 1999. The ability to detect a wide diversity of viruses is critical to monitoring both established and newly emerging viruses in the mosquito population.

Armstrong PM; Andreadis TG; Finan SL; Shepard JJ; Thomas MC

2011-01-01

305

Safety and sterilization of mosquito net mesh for humanitarian inguinal hernioplasty.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most commonly performed operations in Africa. Prosthetic repair with commercially available mesh is generally considered too expensive in low-income countries. Elective groin hernia surgery with mosquito net mesh has recently been described. However, can mesh sterility in resource-poor countries be guaranteed to ensure both effectiveness and safety? METHODS: Copolymer and polyester mosquito net mesh were steam-sterilized at varying temperatures. PubMed and EMBASE were searched using key words, MeSH, and subject headings (mosquito net mesh, mesh sterilization, inguinal hernia repair). RESULTS: Copolymer mosquito net mesh manufactured in India can be safely sterilized at lower (less "strict") temperatures (121°C) than those usually demanded by advanced health care systems (134°C). The literature search revealed a number of case series but all with limited follow-up. Available data, however, support the use of this type mosquito net mesh in the elective repair of hernias. CONCLUSIONS: Hernia repair with mosquito net mesh is a plausible, safe, cost-effective alternative in low-income countries. Sterilization in steam autoclaves that have accurate temperature control is required.

Stephenson BM; Kingsnorth AN

2011-09-01

306

Predicting mosquito infection from Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte density and estimating the reservoir of infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transmission reduction is a key component of global efforts to control and eliminate malaria; yet, it is unclear how the density of transmission stages (gametocytes) influences infection (proportion of mosquitoes infected). Human to mosquito transmission was assessed using 171 direct mosquito feeding assays conducted in Burkina Faso and Kenya. Plasmodium falciparum infects Anopheles gambiae efficiently at low densities (4% mosquitoes at 1/µl blood), although substantially more (>200/µl) are required to increase infection further. In a site in Burkina Faso, children harbour more gametocytes than adults though the non-linear relationship between gametocyte density and mosquito infection means that (per person) they only contribute slightly more to transmission. This method can be used to determine the reservoir of infection in different endemic settings. Interventions reducing gametocyte density need to be highly effective in order to halt human-mosquito transmission, although their use can be optimised by targeting those contributing the most to transmission. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00626.001.

Churcher TS; Bousema T; Walker M; Drakeley C; Schneider P; Ouédraogo AL; Basáñez MG

2013-01-01

307

Application of X-ray imaging techniques for studying the morphology of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The X-ray phase contrast tomography technique was applied to examine the morphology of malaria transmitting mosquitoes in support of the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). The aim of the experiment was to detect possible damage induced by the sample preparation procedures, to perform X-ray phase-contrast imaging on freshly prepared (not fixed) and live mosquito species, and to test the new beam line set up, which was not yet fully commissioned at the time of the experiment. The ability to perform X-ray phase-contrast imaging of live mosquito specimens was confirmed. The collected still images provided data on a relatively large population of mosquitoes. The CT data were very useful to compare selected mosquito species. They confirmed that the sample preparation procedures are critical for examining the morphological details. The procedures must be further optimized in order to stabilize the sample without inducing significant damage. The most interesting results should be obtained with the high-resolution (? 0.5 micrometer) set up using the FReloN camera to be commissioned at the TOPO beam line in the 3rd quarter of 2007. If there are differences between the control and irradiated populations of mosquitoes they should show up first at the tissue level. Using the high-resolution setup it should be possible to detect such differences, if present

2007-01-01

308

BIOACTIVIDAD DE ACEITES ESENCIALES DE Minthostachys mollis CONTRA MOSQUITOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El control químico de vectores es una herramienta principal de prevención de enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos. Los aceites esenciales (AE) de plantas pueden ser una alternativa a los compuestos sintéticos. Se extrajeron por arrastre con vapor AE de Minthostachys mollis y se evaluó su actividad insecticida contra larvas, pupas y adultos de mosquitos, según protocolos estándar de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se evaluaron concentraciones entre 10 y 160 ppm del AE y se registró la mortalidad a las 1, 2, 3 y 24 h de exposición. La dosis de 160 ppm mostró una clara actividad insecticida en larvas y adultos, pero no en pupas. Los resultados sugieren que este aceite puede tener potencial como insecticida y merita mayores estudios.

Raquel M. Gleiser; María A. Bonino; Julio A. Zygadlo

2007-01-01

309

Are insecticide-treated bednets more protective against Plasmodium falciparum than Plasmodium vivax-infected mosquitoes?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcomes of insecticide-treated bednet (ITN) interventions for malaria control in Papua New Guinea tend to suggest a differential protective effect against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Little is known about the impact of ITNs on the relative abundance of mosquitoes infected with either P. falciparum or P. vivax. This paper describes the biting cycle of P. falciparum and P. vivax-infected mosquitoes and the impact of an ITN intervention on the proportion of mosquitoes infected with either parasite species. Methods Entomological investigations were performed in East Sepik (ESP) and New Ireland Provinces (NIP) of PNG. Mosquitoes were collected using the all-night (18:00 - 06:00) landing catch and CDC light-trap methods and species specific malaria sporozoite rates were determined by ELISA. Results and discussion The distribution of sporozoite positive mosquitoes in three four-hour periods (18:00-22:00, 22:00-02:00 & 02:00-06:00) showed that a higher proportion of P. vivax-infected mosquitoes were biting before people retired to bed under the protection of bednets. In the intervention village, the 308 mosquitoes collected before ITNs were introduced included eight (2.0%) P. falciparum-positive and four (1.0%) P. vivax-positive specimens, giving a parasite ratio of 2:1. The sporozoite rate determined from 908 mosquitoes caught after ITNs were introduced showed a significant decrease for P. falciparum (0.7%) and a slight increase for P. vivax (1.3%), resulting in a post intervention parasite ratio of 1:2. In the East Sepik Province, where ITNs were not used, P. falciparum remained the dominant species in 12 monthly mosquito collections and monthly P. falciparum:P. vivax formula varied from 8:1 to 1.2:1. Conclusion These findings suggest that people sleeping under treated bednets may be more exposed to P. vivax than P. falciparum-infected mosquitoes before going to sleep under the protection of bednets. This difference in the biting behaviour of mosquitoes infected with different malaria parasites may partly explain the change in the P. falciparum:P. vivax formula after the introduction of ITNs.

Bockarie Moses J; Dagoro Henry

2006-01-01

310

Control of pyrethroid and DDT-resistant Anopheles gambiae by application of indoor residual spraying or mosquito nets treated with a long-lasting organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos-methyl  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) with support from the Global Fund and President's Malaria Initiative is providing increased opportunities for malaria control in Africa. The most cost-effective and longest-lasting residual insecticide DDT is also the most environmentally persistent. Alternative residual insecticides exist, but are too short-lived or too expensive to sustain. Dow Agrosciences have developed a microencapsulated formulation (CS) of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos methyl as a cost-effective, long-lasting alternative to DDT. Methods Chlorpyrifos methyl CS was tested as an IRS or ITN treatment in experimental huts in an area of Benin where Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasiactus are resistant to pyrethroids, but susceptible to organophosphates. Efficacy and residual activity was compared to that of DDT and the pyrethroid lambdacyalothrin. Results IRS with chlorpyrifos methyl killed 95% of An. gambiae that entered the hut as compared to 31% with lambdacyhalothrin and 50% with DDT. Control of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed a similar trend; although the level of mortality with chlorpyrifos methyl was lower (66%) it was still much higher than for DDT (14%) or pyrethroid (15%) treatments. Nets impregnated with lambdacyhalothrin were compromized by resistance, killing only 30% of An. gambiae and 8% of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Nets impregnated with chlorpyrifos methyl killed more (45% of An gambiae and 15% of Cx. quinquefasciatus), but its activity on netting was of short duration. Contact bioassays on the sprayed cement-sand walls over the nine months of monitoring showed no loss of activity of chlorpyrifos methyl, whereas lambdacyhalothrin and DDT lost activity within a few months of spraying. Conclusion As an IRS treatment against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes chlorpyrifos methyl CS outperformed DDT and lambdacyhalothrin. In IRS campaigns, chlorpyrifos methyl CS should show higher, more-sustained levels of malaria transmission control than conventional formulations of DDT or pyrethroids. The remarkable residual activity indicates that cost-effective alternatives to DDT are feasible through modern formulation technology.

N'Guessan Raphael; Boko Pelagie; Odjo Abibathou; Chabi Joseph; Akogbeto Martin; Rowland Mark

2010-01-01

311

Larvicidal potentiality, longevity and fecundity inhibitory activities of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV) on vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intervention measures to control the transmission of vector-borne diseases include control of the vector population. In mosquito control, synthetic insecticides used against both the larvae (larvicides) and adults (adulticides) create numerous problems, such as environmental pollution, insecticide r...

Arjunan Nareshkumar; Kadarkarai Murugan; Indra Baruah; Pari Madhiyazhagan; Thiyagarajan Nataraj

312

Rickettsia species in African Anopheles mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is higher rate of R. felis infection among febrile patients than in healthy people in Sub-Saharan Africa, predominantly in the rainy season. Mosquitoes possess a high vectorial capacity and, because of their abundance and aggressiveness, likely play a role in rickettsial epidemiology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative and traditional PCR assays specific for Rickettsia genes detected rickettsial DNA in 13 of 848 (1.5%) Anopheles mosquitoes collected from Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, and Senegal. R. felis was detected in one An. gambiae molecular form S mosquito collected from Kahin, Côte d'Ivoire (1/77, 1.3%). Additionally, a new Rickettsia genotype was detected in five An. gambiae molecular form S mosquitoes collected from Côte d'Ivoire (5/77, 6.5%) and one mosquito from Libreville, Gabon (1/88, 1.1%), as well as six An. melas (6/67, 9%) mosquitoes collected from Port Gentil, Gabon. A sequence analysis of the gltA, ompB, ompA and sca4 genes indicated that this new Rickettsia sp. is closely related to R. felis. No rickettsial DNA was detected from An. funestus, An. arabiensis, or An. gambiae molecular form M mosquitoes. Additionally, a BLAST analysis of the gltA sequence from the new Rickettsia sp. resulted in a 99.71% sequence similarity to a species (JQ674485) previously detected in a blood sample of a Senegalese patient with a fever from the Bandafassi village, Kedougou region. CONCLUSION: R. felis was detected for the first time in An. gambiae molecular form S, which represents the major African malaria vector. The discovery of R. felis, as well as a new Rickettsia species, in mosquitoes raises new issues with respect to African rickettsial epidemiology that need to be investigated, such as bacterial isolation, the degree of the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes, the animal reservoirs, and human pathogenicity.

Socolovschi C; Pages F; Ndiath MO; Ratmanov P; Raoult D

2012-01-01

313

Nest Mosquito Trap quantifies contact rates between nesting birds and mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accurate estimates of host-vector contact rates are required for precise determination of arbovirus transmission intensity. We designed and tested a novel mosquito collection device, the Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT), to collect mosquitoes as they attempt to feed on unrestrained nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. In the laboratory, the NMT collected nearly one-third of the mosquitoes introduced to the nest boxes. We then used these laboratory data to estimate our capture efficiency of field-collected bird-seeking mosquitoes collected over 66 trap nights. We estimated that 7.5 mosquitoes per trap night attempted to feed on nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. Presence of the NMT did not have a negative effect on avian nest success when compared to occupied nest boxes that were not sampled with the trap. Future studies using the NMT may elucidate the role of nestlings in arbovirus transmission and further refine estimates of nesting bird and vector contact rates.

Caillouët KA; Riggan AE; Rider M; Bulluck LP

2012-06-01

314

Riqueza de especies de mosquitos, distribución y sitios de cría en el municipio Boyeros/ Wealth of mosquito species, their distribution and breeding sites in Boyeros municipality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: la identificación de las especies de mosquitos en cada municipio en Cuba forma parte del Programa de Control de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, lo cual representa un factor importante en la aparición de eventos epidemiológicos o zoonóticos que involucren estos insectos. Objetivo: conocer la riqueza de especies de mosquitos y su distribución en el municipio Boyeros. Métodos: el trabajo se desarrolló en el municipio Boyeros, La Habana en el período (more) 1982-2011. Las muestras de mosquitos se colectaron por los trabajadores del programa de control de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus. Resultados: la riqueza de especies de mosquitos fue de 35, de estas 10 se encuentran distribuidas en todas las áreas del municipio. El área con mayor riqueza de especie fue Mulgoba seguida por Wajay, y la de menor correspondió a Boyeros. Se colectaron 8 especies en depósitos artificiales y naturales como hueco de árboles; mientras que 22 se colectaron en reservorios de aguas naturales, lagunas de oxidación, zanjas, arroyos, lagunatos y ríos. Del total de especies, 5 solo fueron colectadas en estadio adulto. Conclusiones: la emergencia y reemergencia de algunas enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos es uno de los aspectos que más seguimiento tiene en estos momentos en el continente americano, por lo que conocer la fauna de mosquitos del municipio así como su distribución es importante. De presentarse algún brote o epidemia que involucren a estos insectos obligaría a establecer las estrategias de control, para evitar la propagación de enfermedades de transmisión vectorial. Abstract in english Introduction: the identification of mosquito species in each municipality of Cuba is part of the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus control program. This is an important factor in the occurrence of epidemiological or zoonotic events involving these insects. Objective: to identify the wealth of mosquito species and their distribution in Boyeros municipality. Methods: the study was developed in Boyeros municipality from 1982 to 2011. The mosquito samples were taken by the A (more) edes aegypti and Aedes albopictus control program workers. Results: the wealth of mosquito species includes 35 species of which 10 are distributed in all the areas of the municipality. The area with the largest wealth of species was Mulgoba, followed by Wajay, and the smallest one was found in Boyeros. Eight species were collected in artificial and natural reservoirs such as tree holes, whereas 22 were observed in natural water reservoirs, oxidation lagoons, ditches, streams and rivers. Of all the species, just 5 were collected in their adult stage. Conclusions: emergency and reemergence of some mosquito-borne diseases is one of the more watched aspects at this time in the American continent, thus the mosquito fauna of the municipality and its distribution is fundamental. If any outbreak or epidemic involving these insects occurs, it would be compulsory to set up control strategies to prevent the spread of vector-borne diseases.

Valdés Miró, Vivian; Reyes Arencibia, Mayra; Marquetti Fernández, María del Carmen; González Broche, Raúl

2013-04-01

315

Riqueza de especies de mosquitos, distribución y sitios de cría en el municipio Boyeros Wealth of mosquito species, their distribution and breeding sites in Boyeros municipality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: la identificación de las especies de mosquitos en cada municipio en Cuba forma parte del Programa de Control de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, lo cual representa un factor importante en la aparición de eventos epidemiológicos o zoonóticos que involucren estos insectos. Objetivo: conocer la riqueza de especies de mosquitos y su distribución en el municipio Boyeros. Métodos: el trabajo se desarrolló en el municipio Boyeros, La Habana en el período 1982-2011. Las muestras de mosquitos se colectaron por los trabajadores del programa de control de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus. Resultados: la riqueza de especies de mosquitos fue de 35, de estas 10 se encuentran distribuidas en todas las áreas del municipio. El área con mayor riqueza de especie fue Mulgoba seguida por Wajay, y la de menor correspondió a Boyeros. Se colectaron 8 especies en depósitos artificiales y naturales como hueco de árboles; mientras que 22 se colectaron en reservorios de aguas naturales, lagunas de oxidación, zanjas, arroyos, lagunatos y ríos. Del total de especies, 5 solo fueron colectadas en estadio adulto. Conclusiones: la emergencia y reemergencia de algunas enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos es uno de los aspectos que más seguimiento tiene en estos momentos en el continente americano, por lo que conocer la fauna de mosquitos del municipio así como su distribución es importante. De presentarse algún brote o epidemia que involucren a estos insectos obligaría a establecer las estrategias de control, para evitar la propagación de enfermedades de transmisión vectorial.Introduction: the identification of mosquito species in each municipality of Cuba is part of the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus control program. This is an important factor in the occurrence of epidemiological or zoonotic events involving these insects. Objective: to identify the wealth of mosquito species and their distribution in Boyeros municipality. Methods: the study was developed in Boyeros municipality from 1982 to 2011. The mosquito samples were taken by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus control program workers. Results: the wealth of mosquito species includes 35 species of which 10 are distributed in all the areas of the municipality. The area with the largest wealth of species was Mulgoba, followed by Wajay, and the smallest one was found in Boyeros. Eight species were collected in artificial and natural reservoirs such as tree holes, whereas 22 were observed in natural water reservoirs, oxidation lagoons, ditches, streams and rivers. Of all the species, just 5 were collected in their adult stage. Conclusions: emergency and reemergence of some mosquito-borne diseases is one of the more watched aspects at this time in the American continent, thus the mosquito fauna of the municipality and its distribution is fundamental. If any outbreak or epidemic involving these insects occurs, it would be compulsory to set up control strategies to prevent the spread of vector-borne diseases.

Vivian Valdés Miró; Mayra Reyes Arencibia; María del Carmen Marquetti Fernández; Raúl González Broche

2013-01-01

316

Foraging ranges of insectivorous bats shift relative to changes in mosquito abundance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The need to develop effective management strategies for insectivorous bat populations requires an understanding of factors influencing habitat use. Availability of pest prey, such as mosquitoes is likely to be one such factor. To assess whether this is the case, we radio-tracked Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas (little forest bat), a predator of Aedes vigilax Skuse (saltmarsh mosquito), in saltmarsh and adjacent coastal swamp forest during periods of high and low Ae. vigilax abundance. When mosquito abundance in structurally-open saltmarsh was similar to the more cluttered coastal swamp forest, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was disproportionately greater than its availability, with saltmarsh selected preferentially for foraging. However, at times of low Ae. vigilax abundance in saltmarsh, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was reduced and all habitats were used in proportion to availability in the study area. This is the first radio-tracking study to demonstrate a shift in foraging range by an insectivorous bat species correlated with fluctuations in the distribution and abundance of a particular prey resource. The shift in foraging range by V. vulturnus, corresponding with a spatio-temporal variation in abundance of Ae. vigilax highlights the importance of mosquitoes as a dietary item. Broadscale pest control of Ae. vigilax may have ecological implications for the diet and habitat use of V. vulturnus. An adaptive management approach is proposed, whereby careful monitoring of insectivorous bat populations is recommended before and after any application of broadscale mosquito control measures. We also suggest a precautionary approach is taken such that broadscale control of mosquitoes avoids the lactation period of bats, a time when their energetic demands are greatest and when there is reduced risk of contracting mosquito-borne diseases transmitted by Ae. vigilax.

Gonsalves L; Law B; Webb C; Monamy V

2013-01-01

317

Can mosquitoes fly in the rain?  

CERN Document Server

Collisions with raindrops are one of many obstacles insects face during flight. In this fluid dynamics video, we present a series of high-speed films of impacts between mosquitoes and raindrops. We also present drop impacts upon insect mimics, which are unsupported styrofoam balls of the same mass as mosquitoes. High-speed videography and particle tracking during collision are employed to determine the insect position versus time. We determine the magnitude of acceleration by considering the momentum transfer and impact duration. Experiments with live mosquitoes indicate a surprising ability to quickly recover flight post-collision, despite accelerations of 30-300 gravities over durations of 1 ms.

Dickerson, Andrew; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

2011-01-01

318

Susceptibility of adult mosquitoes to insecticides in aqueous sucrose baits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes characteristically feed on plant-derived carbohydrates and honeydew just after emergence and intermittently during their lives. Development of toxic baits focusing on this carbohydrate-seeking behavior may potentially contribute to localized control. In the present study, ten insecticides were fed to female Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Aedes taeniorhynchus in a 10% sucrose solution. Active ingredients representative of five classes of insecticides (pyrethroids, phenylpyroles, pyrroles, neonicotinoids, and macrocyclic lactones) were selected for comparison with commercial formulations used to facilitate incorporation of active ingredients into aqueous sucrose solutions. Sucrose as a phagostimulant significantly enhanced mortality to toxicants. In general, the most effective active ingredients were fipronil, deltamethrin and imidacloprid, followed by spinosad, thiamethoxam, bifenthrin, permethrin, and cyfluthrin. The least effective ingredients were chlorfenapyr and ivermectin. For some of the ingredients tested, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the least susceptible species. One-day-old male Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible than females; however, no differences existed between one- and seven-day-old mosquitoes. There were no differences in susceptibility between unfed and gravid ten-day-old female Cx. quinquefasciatus to bifenthrin. In conclusion, several pesticides from different classes of compounds have potential for use in development of toxic baits for mosquitoes.

Allan SA

2011-06-01

319

Estimating mosquito population size from mark-release-recapture data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accurate estimation of population size is key to understanding the ecology of disease vectors, as well as the epidemiology of the pathogens they carry and to plan effective control activities. Population size can be estimated through mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiments that are based on the assumption that the ratio of recaptured individuals to the total captures approximates the ratio of marked individuals released to the total population. However, methods to obtain population size estimates usually consider pooled data and are often based on the total number of marked and unmarked captures. We here present a logistic regression model, based on the principle of the well-known Fisher-Ford method, specific for MRR experiments where the information available is the number of marked mosquitoes released, the number of marked and unmarked mosquitoes caught in each trap and on each day, and the geographic coordinates of the traps. The model estimates population size, taking into consideration the distance between release points and traps, the time between release and recapture, and the loss of marked mosquitoes to death or dispersal. The performance and accuracy of the logistic regression model has been assessed using simulated data from known population sizes. We then applied the model to data from MRR experiments with Aedes albopictus Skuse performed on the campus of "Sapienza" University in Rome (Italy).

Cianci D; Van den Broek J; Caputo B; Marini F; Della Torre A; Heesterbeek H; Hartemink N

2013-05-01

320

Estimating mosquito population size from mark-release-recapture data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate estimation of population size is key to understanding the ecology of disease vectors, as well as the epidemiology of the pathogens they carry and to plan effective control activities. Population size can be estimated through mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiments that are based on the assumption that the ratio of recaptured individuals to the total captures approximates the ratio of marked individuals released to the total population. However, methods to obtain population size estimates usually consider pooled data and are often based on the total number of marked and unmarked captures. We here present a logistic regression model, based on the principle of the well-known Fisher-Ford method, specific for MRR experiments where the information available is the number of marked mosquitoes released, the number of marked and unmarked mosquitoes caught in each trap and on each day, and the geographic coordinates of the traps. The model estimates population size, taking into consideration the distance between release points and traps, the time between release and recapture, and the loss of marked mosquitoes to death or dispersal. The performance and accuracy of the logistic regression model has been assessed using simulated data from known population sizes. We then applied the model to data from MRR experiments with Aedes albopictus Skuse performed on the campus of "Sapienza" University in Rome (Italy). PMID:23802447

Cianci, D; Van den Broek, J; Caputo, B; Marini, F; Della Torre, A; Heesterbeek, H; Hartemink, N

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
321

Chromosome phylogenies of malaria mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria mosquitoes often belong to complexes of sibling species, members of which are morphologically and genetically similar to each other. However, members within these complexes can vary significantly in their ecological adaptations and abilities to transmit the malaria parasite. The high degree of genetics similarity among sibling species makes the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within species complexes difficult. This paper reviews studies that infer the ancestral--descendant relationships among sibling species using molecular markers and chromosomal inversions. A methodology based on analyzing breakpoints of fixed overlapping inversions is shown to be useful for rooting phylogenies in complexes of sibling species, if the chromosomal arrangements in outgroup species are known. The construction of detailed phylogenies for malaria vectors will help to identify the association of evolutionary genomic changes with the origin of human blood choice and specific ecological adaptations.

Sharakhov IV

2013-01-01

322

Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT). To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carried out to provide key data on spatial and seasonal dynamics of local vector populations. Methods Monthly cross-sectional larval surveys were carried out between March 2005 and May 2007 in two localities (Dongola and Merowe) adjacent to the river Nile. A stratified random sampling strategy based on the use of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to select survey locations. Breeding sites were mapped using GPS and data on larval density and breeding site characteristics were recorded using handheld computers. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify breeding site characteristics associated with increased risk of presence of larvae. Seasonal patterns in the proportion of breeding sites positive for larvae were compared visually to contemporaneous data on climate and river height. Results Of a total of 3,349 aquatic habitats sampled, 321 (9.6%) contained An. arabiensis larvae. The frequency with which larvae were found varied markedly by habitat type. Although most positive sites were associated with temporary standing water around the margins of the main Nile channel, larvae were also found at brickworks and in areas of leaking pipes and canals – often far from the river. Close to the Nile channel, a distinct seasonal pattern in larval populations was evident and appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the river level. These patterns were not evident in vector populations breeding in artificial water sources away from the river. Conclusion The GIS-based survey strategy developed in this study provides key data on the population dynamics of An. arabiensis in Northern State. Quantitative estimates of the contributions of various habitat types and their proximity to settlements provide a basis for planning a strategy for reducing malaria risk by elimination of the vector population.

Ageep, Tellal B; Cox, Jonathan; Hassan, M'oawia M; Knols, Bart GJ; Benedict, Mark Q; Malcolm, Colin A; Babiker, Ahmed; El Sayed, Badria B

2009-01-01

323

Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT). To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carried out to provide key data on spatial and seasonal dynamics of local vector populations. Methods Monthly cross-sectional larval surveys were carried out between March 2005 and May 2007 in two localities (Dongola and Merowe) adjacent to the river Nile. A stratified random sampling strategy based on the use of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to select survey locations. Breeding sites were mapped using GPS and data on larval density and breeding site characteristics were recorded using handheld computers. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify breeding site characteristics associated with increased risk of presence of larvae. Seasonal patterns in the proportion of breeding sites positive for larvae were compared visually to contemporaneous data on climate and river height. Results Of a total of 3,349 aquatic habitats sampled, 321 (9.6%) contained An. arabiensis larvae. The frequency with which larvae were found varied markedly by habitat type. Although most positive sites were associated with temporary standing water around the margins of the main Nile channel, larvae were also found at brickworks and in areas of leaking pipes and canals – often far from the river. Close to the Nile channel, a distinct seasonal pattern in larval populations was evident and appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the river level. These patterns were not evident in vector populations breeding in artificial water sources away from the river. Conclusion The GIS-based survey strategy developed in this study provides key data on the population dynamics of An. arabiensis in Northern State. Quantitative estimates of the contributions of various habitat types and their proximity to settlements provide a basis for planning a strategy for reducing malaria risk by elimination of the vector population.

Ageep Tellal B; Cox Jonathan; Hassan M'oawia M; Knols Bart GJ; Benedict Mark Q; Malcolm Colin A; Babiker Ahmed; El Sayed Badria B

2009-01-01

324

Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT). To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carried out to provide key data on spatial and seasonal dynamics of local vector populations. METHODS: Monthly cross-sectional larval surveys were carried out between March 2005 and May 2007 in two localities (Dongola and Merowe) adjacent to the river Nile. A stratified random sampling strategy based on the use of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to select survey locations. Breeding sites were mapped using GPS and data on larval density and breeding site characteristics were recorded using handheld computers. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify breeding site characteristics associated with increased risk of presence of larvae. Seasonal patterns in the proportion of breeding sites positive for larvae were compared visually to contemporaneous data on climate and river height. RESULTS: Of a total of 3,349 aquatic habitats sampled, 321 (9.6%) contained An. arabiensis larvae. The frequency with which larvae were found varied markedly by habitat type. Although most positive sites were associated with temporary standing water around the margins of the main Nile channel, larvae were also found at brickworks and in areas of leaking pipes and canals - often far from the river. Close to the Nile channel, a distinct seasonal pattern in larval populations was evident and appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the river level. These patterns were not evident in vector populations breeding in artificial water sources away from the river. CONCLUSION: The GIS-based survey strategy developed in this study provides key data on the population dynamics of An. arabiensis in Northern State. Quantitative estimates of the contributions of various habitat types and their proximity to settlements provide a basis for planning a strategy for reducing malaria risk by elimination of the vector population.

Ageep TB; Cox J; Hassan MM; Knols BG; Benedict MQ; Malcolm CA; Babiker A; El Sayed BB

2009-01-01

325

Enhancing the Humoral and Melanization Responses of Aedes aegypti Mosquito: A Step Towards the Utilization of Immune System Against Dengue Fever  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Great efforts are currently being done to utilize the immune system of mosquito vectors in the battle against the different mosquito-borne parasitic and viral diseases. Based on this control strategy, the current study has been conducted to induce and enhance the most effective immune r...

A.M. Ahmed; E.M. Al-Olayan; M.A. Amoudy

326

Odorant-binding proteins of the malaria mosquito Anopheles funestus sensu stricto.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The mosquito Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vector species in sub-Saharan Africa. Olfaction is essential in guiding mosquito behaviors. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are highly expressed in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception. An improved understanding of the function of malaria mosquito OBPs may contribute to identifying new attractants/repellents and assist in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly mosquito controlling strategies. METHODOLOGY: In this study, a large screening of over 50 ecologically significant odorant compounds led to the identification of 12 ligands that elicit significant electroantennographic (EAG) responses from An. funestus female antennae. To compare the absolute efficiency/potency of these chemicals, corrections were made for differences in volatility by determining the exact amount in a stimulus puff. Fourteen AfunOBP genes were cloned and their expression patterns were analyzed. AfunOBP1, 3, 7, 20 and 66 showed olfactory tissue specificity by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that among olfactory-specific OBPs, AfunOBP1 and 3 are the most enriched OBPs in female antennae. Binding assay experiments showed that at pH 7, AfunOBP1 significantly binds to 2-undecanone, nonyl acetate, octyl acetate and 1-octen-3-ol but AfunOBP3, which shares 68% identify with AfunOBP1 at amino acid level, showed nearly no binding activity to the selected 12 EAG-active odorant compounds. CONCLUSION: This work presents for the first time a study on the odorants and OBPs of the malaria vector mosquito An. funestus, which may provide insight into the An. funestus olfactory research, assist in a comparative study between major malaria mosquitoes An. gambiae and An. funestus olfactory system, and help developing new mosquito control strategies to reduce malaria transmission.

Xu W; Cornel AJ; Leal WS

2010-01-01

327

West Nile Virus and Preventing Mosquito Bites  

Science.gov (United States)

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks West Nile Virus and Preventing Mosquito Bites Stay healthy this summer. ... case counts by state [PDF - 270KB] . Where is West Nile virus a problem? Some states, such as those in ...

328

Avaliação de termonebulizações de propoxur contra mosquitos através de testes biológicos Evaluation of thermonebulization of propoxur used against mosquitoes by means of biological tests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A eficácia de termonebulização do inseticida propoxur no controle de Aedes aegypti foi avaliada através de testes realizados no Município de São José do Rio Preto, Estado de São Paulo (Brasil). Estudos comparativos monitorados por mosquitos - Culex quinquefasciatus - presos em gaiolas, indicaram que o horário de aplicação do inseticida teve forte influência na mortalidade dos mosquitos, que não ultrapassou 43% quando as aplicações foram feitas entre 17 h e 17:30 h, enquanto que para as aplicações feitas após às 19 h a mortalidade média foi de 73%. Nos testes realizados à noite foi constatada uma mortalidade média não inferior a 95% nas gaiolas posicionadas em dependências com as portas e janelas abertas e naquelas onde as portas e janelas estavam fechadas observou-se uma mortalidade média não superior a 13%. Mudando-se a concentração do inseticida de 1:12 para 1:9, a mortalidade dos mosquitos não diferiu de forma significativa.The thermonebulization efficcacy of the insecticide propoxur used in Aedes aegypti control was evaluated by means of tests carried out in S. José do Rio Preto, S. Paulo, Brazil. Comparative studies monitored by caged mosquitoes - Culex quinquefasciatus - indicated that the applications of the insecticide influenced mosquito mortality greatly, this did not exceed 43% when application were performed between 5 p.m. and 5.30 p.m., but for applications carried out after 7 p.m. the mortality mean was 73%. In tests performed at night it was observed that mean mortality was not inferior to 95% in the cages situated in presences with doors and windows open and in those in which the doors and windows were closed a mean mortality not higher than 13% was observed. Mosquito mortality did not differ significantly when the concentration of the insecticide was increased from 1:12 to 1:9.

Amir Bertoni Gebara; Maria do Carmo Ramalho R. de Almeida

1988-01-01

329

Repelentes electrónicos contra mosquitos: propaganda y realidad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica acerca del uso de dispositivos electroacústicos con supuesta acción repelente sobre las hembras de diferentes especies de mosquitos hematófagos. Se dan 15 referencias directas y 2 indirectas, en todas se concluye que estos dispositivos no protegen a quienes los portan de las picadas de los mosquitos. Se dan los nombres de 9 de los dispositivos probados, así como de 16 de las principales especies de mosquitos presentes en las pruebas de campo. Estas pruebas de campo se han realizado en condiciones ecológicas muy diferentes, que van desde alaska hasta el África Ecuatorial. También se menciona el efecto potencialmente dañino al hombre de los dispositivos que emiten frecuencias a alta intensidad.A bibliographic review about the use of electroacustic devices with a supposed repellent action on the females of different species of hematophagous mosquitoes is presented. 15 direct references and 2 indirect ones are given, in which it is concluded that these devices do not protect those who have them from the stings of mosquitoes. The names of 9 of the tested devices as well as of 16 of the main species of mosquitoes present in the field tests are mentioned. These tests have been carried out in very different ecological conditions from Alaska to Equatorial Africa. It is also stressed that the high intensity ultrasonic frequencies emitted by these devices produces a potentially harmful effect on man.

Frank Coro; Silvia Suárez

1998-01-01

330

Laboratory and field assessment of the potential of larvivorous, air-breathing fishes as predators of culicine mosquitoes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The suitability of three indigenous, air-breathing fishes as predators of mosquito larvae were assessed under field and laboratory conditions using Culex quinquefasciatus as prey. In the laboratory, the fishes Anabas testudineus, Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis consumed an average 14.4-1158.0 fourth-instar mosquito larvae/day. The prey consumption rate increased as a function of prey density but decreased with container size (range 2 to 16 l). For all three predatory fishes, the Manly's prey selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was not significantly lowered in presence of alternative preys that included areneids, chironomid larvae, small fishes and tadpoles. In the field the presence of these fish species in large experimental macrocosms significantly lowered the abundance of mosquito larvae. The results of predation pattern and the prey preference by the fishes, A. testudineus, C. batrachus and H. fossilis, support their use as biological resource in the mosquito larval habitats like rice fields and temporary pools to regulate the pest and vector mosquito populations. The habitat similarity with the mosquito immatures and the ability of these fishes to tolerate low level of oxygen in aquatic systems favor their augmentative release as a part of a biological control program.

Bhattacharjee Indranil; Aditya Gautam; Chandra Goutam

2009-05-01

331

Population dynamics of indoor sampled mosquitoes and their implication in disease transmission in Abeokuta, south-western Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: A longitudinal study was carried out to investigate the species composition, seasonal abundance, parity and feeding preference of indoor sampled mosquitoes in Abeokuta, south-western Nigeria. METHODS: The mosquitoes were sampled weekly from five stratified locations using Center for Disease Control (CDC) light-traps between August 2005 and July 2006. The mosquitoes were examined for abdominal condition and dissected for age composition. Microscopic and precipitin techniques were also employed for the determination of host blood source. RESULTS: A total of 2969 mosquitoes which belong to 10 species of mosquitoes were collected during the study period. Mansonia africana (35.65%) constituted the most abundant species followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (32.23%) and Anopheles gambiae complex (13.52%). Other species in decreasing order of abundance were Coquilletidia maculipennis (8.2%), Aedes albopictus (5.9%), Ae. aegypti (1.93%), M. uniformis (1.81%), Cx. duttoni (0.25%), Cx. tigripes (0.25%) and An. funestus (0.25%). Seasonal abundance revealed a significant difference (p <0.05) in the population of mosquito vectors collected during the wet season as compared to the dry season and their abundance was positively correlated with rainfall. The results showed that the majority of the vector species collected were unfed and nulliparous. Moreover, the blood meal test was positive for human blood. CONCLUSION: The preponderance of mosquitoes observed in the study is of public health concern since they serve as vectors of most tropical diseases including malaria.

Adeleke MA; Mafiana CF; Idowu AB; Sam-Wobo SO; Idowu OA

2010-03-01

332

Population dynamics of indoor sampled mosquitoes and their implication in disease transmission in Abeokuta, south-western Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: A longitudinal study was carried out to investigate the speciescomposition, seasonal abundance, parity and feeding preference of indoor sampled mosquitoes inAbeokuta, south-western Nigeria.Methods: The mosquitoes were sampled weekly from five stratified locations using Center forDisease Control (CDC) light-traps between August 2005 and July 2006. The mosquitoes wereexamined for abdominal condition and dissected for age composition. Microscopic and precipitintechniques were also employed for the determination of host blood source.Results: A total of 2969 mosquitoes which belong to 10 species of mosquitoes were collectedduring the study period. Mansonia africana (35.65%) constituted the most abundant species followedby Culex quinquefasciatus (32.23%) and Anopheles gambiae complex (13.52%). Other species indecreasing order of abundance were Coquilletidia maculipennis (8.2%), Aedes albopictus (5.9%),Ae. aegypti (1.93%), M. uniformis (1.81%), Cx. duttoni (0.25%), Cx. tigripes (0.25%) and An.funestus (0.25%). Seasonal abundance revealed a significant difference (p <0.05) in the populationof mosquito vectors collected during the wet season as compared to the dry season and theirabundance was positively correlated with rainfall. The results showed that the majority of thevector species collected were unfed and nulliparous. Moreover, the blood meal test was positive forhuman blood.Conclusion: The preponderance of mosquitoes observed in the study is of public health concernsince they serve as vectors of most tropical diseases including malaria

M.A. Adeleke, C.F. Mafiana, A.B. Idowu, S.O. Sam-Wobo & O.A. Idowu

2010-01-01

333

Señales físico químicas involucradas en la búsqueda de hospederos y en la inducción de picadura por mosquitos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las hembras de los mosquitos vectores de enfermedades utilizan señales físicas y químicas para localizar su fuente de alimentación sanguínea en hospederos vertebrados. Los mosquitos zoofílicos responden preferentemente al CO2 y al octenol liberados en la respiración y excreciones, mientras que los mosquitos antropofílicos responden al ácido láctico y a una variedad de compuestos del sudor. Estos compuestos son modificados por microrganismos saprófitos de las glándulas sebáceas de la piel. Otros factores presentes en las viviendas contribuyen a la integración de microsistemas constituidos por olores característicos, que explican los diferentes niveles de atracción de mosquitos y la focalización de la transmisión del paludismo a una porción de casas en localidades de áreas endémicas. La identificación de estos atrayentes químicos y sus moléculas receptoras en mosquitos puede ser utilizada como complemento de nuevos métodos para la vigilancia epidemiológica, para atraer a los mosquitos a trampas de colecta o para incrementar su contacto con insecticidas usados en su control, así como en la manipulación genética para desviar las picaduras de los mosquitos hacia otros hospederos vertebrados.

Torres-Estrada José Luis; Rodríguez Mario H

2003-01-01

334

Larvicidal Activity of Tephrosia vogelii Crude Extracts on Mosquito Larval Stages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of natural products and biological insect control methods is gaining importance because of concerns about the environment, since they are more easily biodegradable. In some parts of Uganda, organic farmers have adopted the use of Tephrosia vogelii, a shrubby, leguminous and woody plant for control of storage pests. However, the efficacy of Tephrosia vogelii crude extracts in the control of Dipteran insect larvae under field conditions has not been well tested. Their use for the control of insect vectors such as mosquitoes has not also been fully evaluated. Tephrosia vogelii plant materials were collected from two selected sites, one on a higher altitude than the other using polythene study. The material was chopped, properly labeled and air-dried in a shade for two weeks. Four solvents where used for extraction: Water, Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol. The extract was dried in an oven at about 32-33°C for several days, after which it was weighed and stored in the fridge at 4°C until the time of exposing the mosquito larvae. Shoot Evening Methanol (SEM) was the most effective among methanol extracts; killing an average of 4.57 mosquito larvae in 8 min while Shoot Evening Water (SEW) was the most effective of water extracts killing an average of 2.57 mosquito larvae in 8 min; hence the SEM was considered to be nearly two times more efficacious than SEW on mosquito larvae, at a concentration of 25%: 10.8% or 2.3:1 SEM: SEW, respectively. Tephrosia vogelii crude extracts could potentially therefore be used to control the larval stages of mosquitoes.

H. Matovu; D. Olila

2007-01-01

335

Potential of the bush mint, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil for personal protection against mosquito biting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the potential of the essential oil extract from the bush mint, Hyptis suaveolens, for use against mosquito biting under both laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, the repellency of various concentrations (1-6%) of the essential oil was assessed against Anopheles gambiae, based on a 15-min landing and biting on treated forearms of volunteers. In the laboratory, the percentage of mosquitoes landing on the forearm was 42, 33, 23, 23, 9, and 2 for 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6% essential oil concentration, respectively; and 92 and 91 for the solvent (isopropanol) and untreated control, respectively. The percentage of mosquitoes taking a blood meal was 22, 12, 13, 12, 5, and 3 for 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6% essential oil, respectively; and 52 and 51 for the solvent and control, respectively. In the field, the 6% essential oil repelled all mosquitoes immediately postapplication; this activity declined to 75% after 5 h. The repellent action of the 8% essential oil concentration was higher, 97% after 5 h. Based on these data, the essential oil of H. suaveolens appears to be a good candidate for use in the integrated management of mosquito vectors of disease.

Abagli AZ; Alavo TB; Avlessi F; Moudachirou M

2012-03-01

336

Olfactory responses and field attraction of mosquitoes to volatiles from Limburger cheese and human foot odor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Olfactory responses of female Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) to various odor stimuli were studied in a dual-port olfactometer. Responses (i.e., the percent of ca. 75 available female mosquitoes in flight chamber entering each olfactometer port) were studied toward clean conditioned air (control), human foot skin emanations (collected on socks by wearing them for three days), human hand, and Limburger cheese. Mean percent response was greatest to the human hand (80.1%), followed by the human worn sock (66.1%), Limburger cheese (6.4%), and control (< 0.1%). In field studies the worn sock alone attracted very few mosquitoes but a synergistic response occurred to the sock + carbon dioxide baited traps for most species of mosquitoes in six genera (Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex, Culiseta, and Psorophora). This synergistic effect persisted even when the socks were exposed to environmental conditions for eight consecutive days. Limburger cheese alone did not attract mosquitoes to traps compared to unbaited traps, and there appeared to be a slight repellent effect for most mosquito species when used in combination with carbon dioxide.

Kline DL

1998-12-01

337

The discerning predator: decision rules underlying prey classification by a mosquito-eating jumping spider.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing blood-fed female Anopheles mosquitoes as prey. Previous studies have shown that this predator can identify its preferred prey even when restricted to using only visual cues. Here, we used lures and virtual mosquitoes to investigate the optical cues underlying this predator's prey-choice behaviour. We made lures by dissecting and then reconstructing dead mosquitoes, combining the head plus thorax with different abdomens. Depending on the experiment, lures were either moving or motionless. Findings from the lure experiments suggested that, for E. culicivora, seeing a blood-fed female mosquito's abdomen on a lure was a necessary, but not sufficient, cue by which preferred prey was identified, as cues from the abdomen needed to be paired with cues from the head and thorax of a mosquito. Conversely, when abdomens were not visible or were identical, spiders based their decisions on the appearance of the head plus thorax of mosquitoes, choosing prey with female characteristics. Findings from a subsequent experiment using animated 3D virtual mosquitoes suggest that it is specifically the mosquito's antennae that influence E. culicivora's prey-choice decisions. Our results show that E. culicivora uses a complex process for prey classification.

Nelson XJ; Jackson RR

2012-07-01

338

Mosquito larvicidal potential of potash alum against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito larviciding may prove to be an effective tool for incorporating into integrated vector management strategies for reducing malaria transmission. Here, we report the potential of potash alum, a traditionally known salt in Indian Ayurveda and Chinese medicine system, in malaria vector control by evaluating its aqueous suspension as larvicide and growth disruptor of Anopheles stephensi, under laboratory conditions. Immature stages of the mosquito were tested using WHO guidelines. 50 and 90% lethal concentrations among various larvae ranged between 2.1 to 48.74 ppm and 15.78 to 93.11 ppm, respectively. The results indicated that larvicidal effects of potash alum were comparable to various biological and chemical insecticides. The study provides considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for the control of nuisance mosquito vectors.

Preet S; Seema KC

2010-10-01

339

Mosquito vector abundance immediately before and after tropical storms Alma and Arthur, northern Belize, 2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To monitor adult mosquito abundance in northern Belize before/after the first tropical storm of the wet season to estimate the time required for development/recovery of potential vector populations; determine which species predominate post-storm; and compare the effectiveness of two types of mosquito traps-octenol-baited Mosquito Magnets® and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps (with/without octenol). METHODS: Field experiments were conducted in Orange Walk Town, Belize, 21 May to 3 June 2008. Incidence rate ratios and exact binomial 95% confidence intervals were reported and trap-nights calculated to compare species abundance pre- and post-storm as well as trap-type effectiveness. RESULTS: Twice as many species and three times more Anopheles spp. were trapped pre-storm versus post-storm. However, greater numbers of Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex (Culex) spp. were trapped post-storm. Mosquito Magnets® were consistently more effective than the CDC traps, obtaining twice as many Anopheles spp. and four times as many culicine species as the octenol-baited version (which collected 14 times more mosquitoes overall and 3.5 times more culicine species than the unbaited version). The unbaited CDC trap did not trap any Anopheles spp. during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated octenol is an effective attractant for An. crucians in northern Belize; malaria risk in Belize declines immediately post-storm (i.e., mosquito abundance drops); and arboviral risk associated with the rapid increase in culicine mosquitoes post-storm may represent a greater public health threat than malaria (although further research and active disease surveillance is necessary to validate this hypothesis).

Morrow MG; Johnson RN; Polanco J; Claborn DM

2010-07-01

340

Phylogenetic analyses of vector mosquito basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play critical roles in the regulation of a wide range of developmental processes in higher organisms and have been identified in more than 20 organisms. Mosquitoes are important vectors of certain human diseases. In this study, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae str. PEST and Culex quinquefasciatus genomes were found to encode 55, 55 and 57 bHLH genes, respectively. Further phylogenetic analyses and OrthoDB and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes orthology database searches led us to define orthology for all the identified mosquito bHLHs successfully. This provides useful information with which to update annotations to 40 Ae.?aegypti, 55 An.?gambiae and 38 C.?quinquefasciatus?bHLH genes in VectorBase. The mosquito lineage has more bHLH genes in the Atonal, neurogenin (Ngn) and Hes-related with YRPW motif (Hey) families than do other insect species, suggesting that mosquitoes have evolved to be more sensitive to vibration, light and chemicals. Mosquito bHLH genes generally have higher evolutionary rates than other insect species. However, no pervasive positive selection occurred in the evolution of insect bHLH genes. Only episodic positive selection was found to affect evolution of bHLH genes in 11 families. Besides, coding regions of several Ae.?aegypti?bHLH motifs have unusually long introns in which multiple copies of transposable elements have been identified. These data provide a solid basis for further studies on structures and functions of bHLH proteins in the regulation of mosquito development and for prevention and control of mosquito-mediated human diseases. PMID:23906262

Zhang, D B; Wang, Y; Liu, A K; Wang, X H; Dang, C W; Yao, Q; Chen, K P

2013-08-01