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Bionomics of Mansonioides mosquitoes in relation to community structure of hydrophytes/breeding habitats in Cherthala, Kerala.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three species of Mansonioides vectors viz.,Ma. annulifera, Ma. uniformis andMa. indiana were found in Cherthala taluk, Kerala which is one of the endemic areas due toB. malayi. The immatures of Mansonioides thrive mainly in association with macrophytic hydrophytes such asP. stratiotes, S. molesta andE. crassipes in perennial habitats (ponds, channels/ canals etc.,) andI. miliaceae in seasonal habitats (fallow lands etc.) Breeding potential was higher (130.19) in clean ponds withP. stratiotes, compared to that of polluted ones (40.69). However, the polluted habitats infested with the same host plants were found to be the most productive forMa. annulifera, with an average daily adult emergence rate of 601/100 sq.m.). The clean habitats played a major role in the contribution ofMa. uniformis, whereS. molesta in the perennial habitats and I. miliaceae in the seasonal fallow lands were the favourable plants contributing a daily output of 12.5/100 sq.m and 221.81/100 sq.m. respectively.E. crassipes infested polluted habitats formed the major source forMa. indiana, the emergence rate being 13.89/100 sq.m. The perennial habitats supported mainly the breeding ofMa. annulifera (70.82%), whereas the seasonal habitats contributed the major chunk ofMa. uniformis (92.54%) andMa. indiana (71.43%). The bionomics of Mansonioides mosquitoes are thus shown to be greatly influenced by the community structure of hydrophytes and also the nature of breeding habitats.

Sabesan S; Rajendran G; Kumar NP

1997-12-01

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The effect of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis [H-14] on emergence of Mansonia mosquitos from natural breeding habitat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The measurement of the ultimate effects of the microbial insecticides on mosquito density is best obtained by assessment of adult populations. The main aims of this study are: (1) to assess the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) FC Skeetal and Bactimos briquettes on the emergence rate of Mansonia bonneae developed from the introduced first-instar stage larvae and (2) to measure the effect of these two formulations of insecticides on Mansonia adult populations emerging from the natural breeding plots. Bti Skeetal and Bactimos briquettes at the lower applied dosages of 2.3 kg/ha and 1 briquette case/20 m2 respectively achieved 39-40% pupation rates and 31.5-34.2% adult emergence rates. At these low applied dosages, there was little or no direct effect on pupation from the surviving larvae and thereafter on the emergence of adults from the pupae. A two-fold increase in dosage, however, produced a drastic decline in the pupation rate and adult emergence rate. The rates dropped to 6.5% (pupation) and 4.3% (adult emergence) of the total larvae for Bactimos briquettes and to merely 1.5% (pupation) and 1.3% (adult emergence) of the total larvae for Skeetal. In studying the effect of Bti on the field populations of Mansonia mosquitos, two plots each were treated with Bactimos at 1 briquette case/10 m2 and Skeetal at 4.6 kg/ha. A wooden pyramid-shaped screened cage was placed on a cluster of host plants for a period of 2 weeks to trap the emerging adult mosquitoes. There were a total of 24 clusters of host plants in each plot.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Chang MS; Ho BC; Chan KL

1990-09-01

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Larval habitats of mosquito fauna in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the larval habitats of mosquito fauna and possible impact of land use/ land cover changes on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern, Nigeria. METHODS: All accessible larval habitats were surveyed between May and September, 2011 in Osogbo metropolis while Land Use/ Land cover of the city was analyzed using 2 Lansat Multispectral Scanner satellite imagery of SPOT 1986 and LANDSAT TM 2009. RESULTS: A total of six species namely, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes vittatus, Anopheles gambiae complex, Culex quinquefasciatus and Eretmapodite chrysogaster were encountered during the study. The occurrence and contribution of disused tyres was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the other habitats encountered, while there were no significant differences in the contribution of gutters/run-offs, septic tanks/ drums, ground pools/open drains and discarded containers to the breeding of mosquitoes (P>0.05). The accessible land use/ land covered of the study area between 1986 and 2009 showed that the wet land coverage and settlement area increased from 0.19 to 9.09 hectare and 1.00 to 2.01 hectare respectively while the forest area decreased from 60.18 to 50.14 hectare. CONCLUSION: The contribution of the habitats coupled with the increasing rate of flooded environment which could provide ample breeding sites for mosquitoes call for sustained environmental sanitation and management in Osogbo metropolis.

Adeleke MA; Adebimpe WO; Hassan AO; Oladejo SO; Olaoye I; Olatunde GO; Adewole T; Sam-Wobo SO

2013-09-01

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Mosquito larval habitats and public health implications in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The larval habitats of mosquitoes were investigated in Abeokuta, Nigeria in order to determine the breeding sites of the existing mosquito fauna and its possible public health implications on the residents of the City. The habitats were sampled between August 2005 and July 2006 using plastic dippers and a pipette. The habitats were grouped as ground pools/ponds, gutters/open drains, tyres, domestic containers and treeholes/ leaf axils. Ten species of mosquitoes were encountered in the five habitats namely Mansonia africana, M. uniformis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. vittatus, Cx tigripes, Anopheles gambiae s.l., An. funestus and Eretmapodite clnysogaster. Ae. aegypti bred in all the habitats sampled while Cx quinquefasciatus bred in four habitats except tree holes/leaf axils. An. gambiae s.l and Ae. albopictus occurred in three habitats while other species bred only in one or two habitats. Ground pools and domestic containers recorded the highest number of species followed by gutters/open drains. Tree holes/leaf axils was the least preferred habitat with the lowest number of species occurrence. However, statistical analysis revealed non-significant difference in species occurrence in the five habitats. The availability of the habitats to support the breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles, which are known vectors of urban yellow fever, lymphatic filariasis and malaria suggest that the residents ofAbeokuta City are at risk of mosquito-borne diseases. It is important that residents of the City are enlighten on the environmental factors that contribute to mosquito breeding and that the Government should institute proper sanitation measures to reduce mosquito breeding sites. PMID:18846789

Adeleke, M A; Mafiana, C F; Idowu, A B; Adekunle, M F; Sam-Wobo, S O

2008-04-01

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Tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in Israel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey was conducted to evaluate the number of tree-hole breeding mosquito species and their distribution in the six principal woodland types in Israel. Out of approximately 3,000 mature trees examined, only 38 contained holes that retained water for extended periods of time, and breeding mosquitoes were observed in 27 of them. Two specialized tree-hole breeders, Aedes pulchritarsis Rondani and Aedes geniculatus Oliver, were found breeding at several sites in northern Israel, always at locations 500 m above sea level (a.s.l) and with high annual precipitation. Aedes albopictus Skuse which, in Israel, is known as an opportunistic container breeder, was found in this study to have adapted remarkably well to breeding in tree holes and was found in most forest types investigated and in most tree species which had adequate tree holes. Two other species, Culiseta annulata Schrank and Culex pipiens Linnaeus instars, were found in one of the tree holes, but did not survive to reach maturity.

Müller GC; Kravchenko VD; Junnila A; Schlein Y

2012-06-01

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Observations on anopheline breeding in relation to aquatic plants in different breeding habitats of Kheda (Gujarat).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water bodies infested with aquatic vegetations may pose problems in mosquito control through bio-environmental methods. Paucity of information pertaining to association of mosquito breeding with aquatic vegetation was the basis for present investigation. The mosquito breeding sites infested with solitary/dominating plant community viz., Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphea neuchali, Trapa bispinosa, Lemna paucicostata, Trachelomonas spp., Azolla pinnata, Algae spp. and Cynodon dactylon were selected for the study. The investigation revealed that breeding of eleven anopheline species was associated with Eichhornia in different habitats followed by Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon (8 each), Ipomoea and Trapa (6), Lemna. and Nymphea (5), Azolla and Trachelomonas (4). An. subpictus was associated with all types of vegetation. An. annularis, An. nigerrimus and An. barbirostris were associated with nine plant species. An. culicifacies, the principal malaria vector was found breeding in association with seven aquatic plants and showed strong association with Cynodon, Hydrilla and algae. The species diversity in habitats infested with Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon seems to be most favourable for the breeding of An. culicifacies. It is suggested that thinning or removal of such vegetations at regular interval may help to reduce vector population and enhance the efficacy of biological control agents particularly the larvivorous fishes in such habitats.

Kant R; Srivastava HC

2004-09-01

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Larval habitats of mosquito fauna in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To determine the larval habitats of mosquito fauna and possible impact of land use/ land cover changes on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern, Nigeria. Methods All accessible larval habitats were surveyed between May and September, 2011 in Osogbo metropolis while Land Use/ Land cover of the city was analyzed using 2 Lansat Multispectral Scanner satellite imagery of SPOT 1986 and LANDSAT TM 2009. Results A total of six species namely, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes vittatus, Anopheles gambiae complex, Culex quinquefasciatus and Eretmapodite chrysogaster were encountered during the study. The occurrence and contribution of disused tyres was significantly higher (P0.05). The accessible land use/ land covered of the study area between 1986 and 2009 showed that the wet land coverage and settlement area increased from 0.19 to 9.09 hectare and 1.00 to 2.01 hectare respectively while the forest area decreased from 60.18 to 50.14 hectare. Conclusion The contribution of the habitats coupled with the increasing rate of flooded environment which could provide ample breeding sites for mosquitoes call for sustained environmental sanitation and management in Osogbo metropolis.

Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Adebimpe, Wasiu Olalekan; Hassan, AbdulWasiu Oladele; Oladejo, Sunday Olukayode; Olaoye, Ismail; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Adewole, Taiwo

2013-01-01

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Mass Breeding of AEDES Aegypti Mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for mass breeding of Aedes Aegypti is described. The results were obtained with larvae grown with an infusion of guinea pig excrement with brewer's yeast, in which a rich microflora developed. Specially constructed closets used for breeding mosqu...

V. V. Vladimirova

1969-01-01

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Studies on mosquitoes breeding in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria, northern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Rainwater often collects in depressions on rocks to form pools that are ideal breeding sites of mosquito vectors of diseases. Knowledge on the existence of disease vectors in these remote and relatively inaccessible locations could improve epidemiologic understanding and control capabilities. This study identifies mosquito species, their relative abundance and physicochemical characteristics of breeding microhabitats in rock pools on four inselbergs in northern Nigeria.Methods: Soup ladle dipper was used to obtain representative samples of larval mosquitoes breeding in 141 rock pools on four inselbergs. Physicochemical parameters (depth, electrical conductivity, pH, surface area, temperature and total dissolved solids) of the pools were determined. Larvae were preserved in 70% alcohol and identified microscopically to species using taxonomic keys. Statistical correlation analysis and ANOVA were used to test the associations between physicochemical parameters and mosquito abundance, and for differences amongst inselbergs. Results: Of 2991 larvae, five species of mosquito distributed in three genera (Anopheles, Aedes and Culex) including Ae. vittatus (92.88%), An. ardensis (0.13%), An. distinctus (1.67%), An. wilsoni (0.13%) and Cx. ingrami (5.18%) bred in the rock pools, Up to five species occurred per pool in various conspecific and heterogeneric combinations. Except for Ae. vittatus, the physicochemical parameters of the pools correlate significantly with species abundance. Conclusion: Ae. vittatus, a potential vector of yellow fever in Nigeria breeds profusely in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria. For comprehensive vector implication and control, rock pools should be amongst the habitats of focus in yellow fever epidemiology.

David A. Adebote; Sonnie J. Oniye; Yunus A. Muhammed

2008-01-01

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Habitat characterization and mapping of Anopheles maculatus (Theobald) mosquito larvae in malaria endemic areas in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Peninsular Malaysia, a large proportion of malaria cases occur in the central mountainous and forested parts of the country. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, we conducted entomological surveys to determine the type of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats of the vector Anopheles maculatus in malaria endemic areas in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus mosquitoes were collected from 49 breeding sites in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus preferred to breed in water pockets formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls. The most common larval habitats were shallow pools 5.0-15.0 cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and plants or floatage. The mosquito also preferred open or partially shaded habitats. Breeding habitats were generally located at 100-400 m from the nearest human settlement. Changes in breeding characteristics were also observed. Instead of breeding in slow flowing streams, most larvae bred in small water pockets along the river margin.

Rohani A; Wan Najdah WM; Zamree I; Azahari AH; Mohd Noor I; Rahimi H; Lee HL

2010-07-01

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Evaluation of Methoprene (Altosid) and Diflubenzuron (Dimilin) for control of mosquito breeding in Tezpur (Assam).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) namely, Isopropyl (E-E)-(RS)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2, 4-dinoate (Methoprene) and 1-(4-cyclophenyl)-3-(2,6-diflerobenzoyl) urea (Diflubenzuron) were evaluated against mosquito larvae in laboratory as well as in different breeding habitats in Tezpur, Assam. LC90 values of diflubenzuron against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus were 0.0022 and 0.0027 ppm respectively, while it was 0.0027 and 0.0022 ppm respectively in case of methoprene. However, LC50 values of both the IGRs were almost same in case of Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (varies between 0.0009 and 0.0011 ppm). In case of methoprene, maximum mortality was observed in pupal stage though the exposure was given in all the cases to the III instar larvae. Field trials were conducted in cemented drains, small ponds and ditches. At 0.2 ppm (0.020 kg/ha) both diflubenzuron and methoprene were found to eliminate 92-96 per cent Culex and Anopheles larvae. Methoprene and diflubenzuron were found equally effective for control of mosquito breeding in different breeding habitats and provide better efficacy than conventional larvicides and biocides.

Baruah I; Das SC

1996-06-01

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Evaluation of Methoprene (Altosid) and Diflubenzuron (Dimilin) for control of mosquito breeding in Tezpur (Assam).  

Science.gov (United States)

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) namely, Isopropyl (E-E)-(RS)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2, 4-dinoate (Methoprene) and 1-(4-cyclophenyl)-3-(2,6-diflerobenzoyl) urea (Diflubenzuron) were evaluated against mosquito larvae in laboratory as well as in different breeding habitats in Tezpur, Assam. LC90 values of diflubenzuron against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus were 0.0022 and 0.0027 ppm respectively, while it was 0.0027 and 0.0022 ppm respectively in case of methoprene. However, LC50 values of both the IGRs were almost same in case of Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (varies between 0.0009 and 0.0011 ppm). In case of methoprene, maximum mortality was observed in pupal stage though the exposure was given in all the cases to the III instar larvae. Field trials were conducted in cemented drains, small ponds and ditches. At 0.2 ppm (0.020 kg/ha) both diflubenzuron and methoprene were found to eliminate 92-96 per cent Culex and Anopheles larvae. Methoprene and diflubenzuron were found equally effective for control of mosquito breeding in different breeding habitats and provide better efficacy than conventional larvicides and biocides. PMID:8952169

Baruah, I; Das, S C

1996-06-01

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Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

Ahmad Rohani; Ali Wan NWM; Nor Zurainee M; Ismail Zamree; Hadi Azahari A; Ibrahim Mohd N; Lim Lee H

2011-01-01

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Habitat Suitability Index Models: Gadwall (Breeding)  

Science.gov (United States)

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the gadwall (Anas strepera). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Sousa, Patrick J.

1985-01-01

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Identification of breeding sites and prevalence of endemic mosquito vectors of parasitic infection in Uyo urban, Akma Ibom State, Nigeria  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rural areas of Nigeria are thought to provide the optimal environment for transmission of parasitic infection. But many urban areas also serve as endemic foci of parasitic infection(WHO, 1991). The negative impact of road construction and poor methods of economic development provides ample breeding grounds for mosquitoes(Liexse, 1991). Robber et al.(1996) reported that the breeding sites of dipter an-borne disease vectors could be predicted based on a clear understanding of prevailing environmental factors. The incidence of malaria, filariasis and yellow fever are associated with the presence of mosquito vectors. The correct identification and knowledge of the habitat preferences of local vectors is necessary for effective control measures.

Lawrence Patrick Esiet USIP; Stephen Ibanga EDEM

2003-01-01

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ISLANDS CLASSIFICATION TOWARDS BREEDING BIRDS HABITATS  

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Full Text Available The key islands for the breeding birds within Southern Ukraine were considered. Principal abiotic features thatdetermined the presence and distribution of the breeding waterbirds were discovered. The cluster analysis followedby the classification of the island was performed.

Matsyura ?. V.; Matsyura M.V.

2011-01-01

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Larval habitats and biodiversity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malarious area of southern Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Malaria is the most important mosquito-borne disease in Iran. It is endemic in south to southeastern part of the country. Knowledge about bio-ecology of vectors will support authorities for appropriate management of the disease. Bashagard district is one of the main endemic areas for malaria in south of Iran. This study was conducted to determine anopheline fauna, diversity and affinity in the area, characterization of larval habitats, and mapping their potential distribution across the district. METHODS: The potential aquatic habitats for Anopheles larvae were extracted from Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) image and digital elevation model of the area using GIS. Surface water bodies were sampled monthly during 2009–10 for anopheline larvae, while characteristics of their physical environment were recorded and water samples were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 4511 Anopheles larvae were found during the year with the lowest and highest frequencies in February and April, respectively. Dominant species was Anopheles culicifacies. The Shanon diversity index ranged from 0.570–0.829 at fixed collection sites, while the affinity index was significant among some vector species. CONCLUSION: Riversides and riverbeds were the main breeding places which provided sandy, rocky, and clay beds for different species. The potential breeding places as well as distribution of collected species were mapped. Knowledge about ecology of malaria vectors provides information to health sector for effective control programs.

Hanafi-Bojd AA; Vatandoost H; Oshaghi MA; Charrahy Z; Haghdoost AA; Sedaghat MM; Abedi F; Soltani M; Raeisi A

2012-06-01

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Larval habitats and biodiversity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malarious area of southern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Malaria is the most important mosquito-borne disease in Iran. It is endemic in southto southeastern part of the country. Knowledge about bio-ecology of vectors will support authorities for appropriatemanagement of the disease. Bashagard district is one of the main endemic areas for malaria in south of Iran.This study was conducted to determine anopheline fauna, diversity and affinity in the area, characterization oflarval habitats, and mapping their potential distribution across the district.Methods: The potential aquatic habitats for Anopheles larvae were extracted from Indian Remote Sensing Satellite(IRS) image and digital elevation model of the area using GIS. Surface water bodies were sampled monthlyduring 2009–10 for anopheline larvae, while characteristics of their physical environment were recorded andwater samples were analyzed.Results: A total of 4511 Anopheles larvae were found during the year with the lowest and highest frequencies inFebruary and April, respectively. Dominant species was Anopheles culicifacies. The Shanon diversity indexranged from 0.570–0.829 at fixed collection sites, while the affinity index was significant among some vectorspecies.Conclusion: Riversides and riverbeds were the main breeding places which provided sandy, rocky, and claybeds for different species. The potential breeding places as well as distribution of collected species were mapped.Knowledge about ecology of malaria vectors provides information to health sector for effective control programs.

A.A. Hanafi-Bojd , H. Vatandoost , M.A. Oshaghi , Z. Charrahy , A.A. Hagdoost , M.M. Sedaghat , F. Abedi , M. Soltani & A. Raeisi

2012-01-01

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The breeding waterfowl in Zhalong Nature Reserve and their habitat^s present situation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Zhalong National Nature Reserve is a important breeding-ground for the waterfowl, according to the survey, therre are 52 species of water birds breed here, between them 8 species are important protected in our country. The habitat of waterfowl has been destroyed.

Qiu Fuchen; Cai Yongjun; Du Wei

2002-01-01

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Breeding habitats and their contribution to Anopheles stephensi in Panaji.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A one-year longitudinal study conducted in 9 categories of breeding habitats in Panaji, Goa, showed that 1.1% of the 67,360 breeding sites contained Anopheles stephensi immatures and the overall positivity varied from 0.4 to 3.5% with a peak in June. The habitat-wise proportion of An. stephensi was: wells, 0-1.3%; fountains, 1.4-11.4%; masonry tanks, 0.8-6.1%; overhead tanks, 0.1-4.0%; curing water in construction sites, 0.6-9.0%; groundwater tanks, 0-1.4%; tyres, 0-8.9%; barrels and tins, 0-5.4%; and intradomestic containers, 0-1.9%. An. stephensi was breeding along with An. subpictus, An. vagus, An. barbirostris, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. vishnui, Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Ae. vittatus.

Kumar A; Thavaselvam D

1992-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Remote Sensing and Modeling of Mosquito Abundance and Habitats in Coastal Virginia, USA  

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Full Text Available The increase in mosquito populations following extreme weather events poses a major threat to humans because of mosquitoes’ ability to carry disease-causing pathogens, particularly in low-lying, poorly drained coastal plains vulnerable to tropical cyclones. In areas with reservoirs of disease, mosquito abundance information can help to identify the areas at higher risk of disease transmission. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), mosquito abundance is predicted across the City of Chesapeake, Virginia. The mosquito abundance model uses mosquito light trap counts, a habitat suitability model, and dynamic environmental variables (temperature and precipitation) to predict the abundance of the species Culiseta melanura, as well as the combined abundance of the ephemeral species, Aedes vexans and Psorophora columbiae, for the year 2003. Remote sensing techniques were used to quantify environmental variables for a potential habitat suitability index for the mosquito species. The goal of this study was to produce an abundance model that could guide risk assessment, surveillance, and potential disease transmission. Results highlight the utility of integrating field surveillance, remote sensing for synoptic landscape habitat distributions, and dynamic environmental data for predicting mosquito vector abundance across low-lying coastal plains. Limitations of mosquito trapping and multi-source geospatial environmental data are highlighted for future spatial modeling of disease transmission risk.

Haley L. Cleckner; Thomas R. Allen; A. Scott Bellows

2011-01-01

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Evaluation of a stable isotope method to mark naturally-breeding larval mosquitoes for adult dispersal studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding mosquito dispersal is critically important for vector-borne disease control and prevention. Mark-release-recapture methods using various marking techniques have made substantial contributions to the study of mosquito biology. However, the ability to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes noninvasively and with life-long retention has remained problematic. Here, we describe a method to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes with stable isotopes. Culex pipiens f. molestus mosquitoes were provisioned as larvae in laboratory experiments with 15N-labeled potassium nitrate and 13C-labeled glucose. Larval enrichment was sufficient to differentiate marked adult mosquitoes from unmarked control mosquitoes and the natural source population from Chicago Illinois, using either delta 15N or delta 13C. Isotopic retention lasted for at least 55 d for adult male and females mosquitoes. There were no consistent effects of isotopic enrichment on immature mosquito survival or adult mosquito body size. We then applied this marking technique to naturally breeding Culex pipiens mosquitoes in suburban Chicago, IL, and for the first time, report successful isotopic enrichment of mosquitoes in the field. This stable isotope marking technique will facilitate studies of mosquito dispersal.

Hamer GL; Donovan DJ; Hood-Nowotny R; Kaufman MG; Goldberg TL; Walker ED

2012-01-01

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Slipping through the Cracks: Rubber Plantation Is Unsuitable Breeding Habitat for Frogs in Xishuangbanna, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conversion of tropical forests into agriculture may present a serious risk to amphibian diversity if amphibians are not able to use agricultural areas as habitat. Recently, in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province - a hotspot of frog diversity within China - two-thirds of the native tropical rainforests have been converted into rubber plantation agriculture. We conducted surveys and experiments to quantify habitat use for breeding and non-breeding life history activities of the native frog species in rainforest, rubber plantation and other human impacted sites. Rubber plantation sites had the lowest species richness in our non-breeding habitat surveys and no species used rubber plantation sites as breeding habitat. The absence of breeding was likely not due to intrinsic properties of the rubber plantation pools, as our experiments indicated that rubber plantation pools were suitable for tadpole growth and development. Rather, the absence of breeding in the rubber plantation was likely due to a misalignment of breeding and non-breeding habitat preferences. Analyses of our breeding surveys showed that percent canopy cover over pools was the strongest environmental variable influencing breeding site selection, with species exhibiting preferences for pools under both high and low canopy cover. Although rubber plantation pools had high canopy cover, the only species that bred in high canopy cover sites used the rainforest for both non-breeding and breeding activities, completing their entire life cycle in the rainforest. Conversely, the species that did use the rubber plantation for non-breeding habitat preferred to breed in low canopy sites, also avoiding breeding in the rubber plantation. Rubber plantations are likely an intermediate habitat type that 'slips through the cracks' of species habitat preferences and is thus avoided for breeding. In summary, unlike the rainforests they replaced, rubber plantations alone may not be able to support frog populations. PMID:24040026

Behm, Jocelyn E; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Jin

2013-09-10

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Slipping through the Cracks: Rubber Plantation Is Unsuitable Breeding Habitat for Frogs in Xishuangbanna, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conversion of tropical forests into agriculture may present a serious risk to amphibian diversity if amphibians are not able to use agricultural areas as habitat. Recently, in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province - a hotspot of frog diversity within China - two-thirds of the native tropical rainforests have been converted into rubber plantation agriculture. We conducted surveys and experiments to quantify habitat use for breeding and non-breeding life history activities of the native frog species in rainforest, rubber plantation and other human impacted sites. Rubber plantation sites had the lowest species richness in our non-breeding habitat surveys and no species used rubber plantation sites as breeding habitat. The absence of breeding was likely not due to intrinsic properties of the rubber plantation pools, as our experiments indicated that rubber plantation pools were suitable for tadpole growth and development. Rather, the absence of breeding in the rubber plantation was likely due to a misalignment of breeding and non-breeding habitat preferences. Analyses of our breeding surveys showed that percent canopy cover over pools was the strongest environmental variable influencing breeding site selection, with species exhibiting preferences for pools under both high and low canopy cover. Although rubber plantation pools had high canopy cover, the only species that bred in high canopy cover sites used the rainforest for both non-breeding and breeding activities, completing their entire life cycle in the rainforest. Conversely, the species that did use the rubber plantation for non-breeding habitat preferred to breed in low canopy sites, also avoiding breeding in the rubber plantation. Rubber plantations are likely an intermediate habitat type that 'slips through the cracks' of species habitat preferences and is thus avoided for breeding. In summary, unlike the rainforests they replaced, rubber plantations alone may not be able to support frog populations.

Behm JE; Yang X; Chen J

2013-01-01

25

Plying of speedboats along canals in the city of Kolkata, India, to prevent mosquito breeding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Two long sewerage canals in the city of Kolkata, India were heavily infested with larvae, pupae and egg rafts of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Although the burden of bancroftian filariasis and other diseases transmitted by C. quinquefasciatus in the city is practically zero, the night-biting mosquitoes are a great nuisance to residents living alongside the canals. It is known that mosquitoes survive poorly in water agitated by wave and wind action. METHOD: The health department of Kolkata Municipal Corporation undertook, from November 2010 to April 2012, a programme of plying speedboats along the canals to prevent C. quinquefasciatus breeding. At the same time, along stretches of canal too shallow to permit the use of speedboats and where the canal banks are inaccessible to spraymen, the edges were treated with larvicidal spray, Temephos 50% EC (emulsifiable concentrate), using small rowing boats as transport. RESULT: The densities of egg rafts and immature and adult insects declined dramatically when the speedboats were deployed and remained low for the duration of the project. For Feburary, the peak month for C. quinquefasciatus breeding, densities for egg rafts, larvae, pupae and adults, respectively, declined from 800, 2942, 1457 and 662 to 3, 75, 15 and 27. The cost was comparable to that of using larvicidal spray where this required the use of rowing boats. CONCLUSION: Speedboat-generated waves are effective in preventing the breeding of mosquitoes in otherwise mosquitogenic canals. Where use of boats is an option and use of insecticides is unfeasible or undesirable, the plying of speedboats is a potentially ecofriendly approach to mosquito control.

Biswas D; Mandal B; Biswas B; Banerjee A; Mukherjee TK

2013-03-01

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Habitat Segregation of Mosquito Arbovirus Vectors in South Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

Oviposition traps set in rural to urban environments in three south Florida counties were colonized predominantly by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (35.1%), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (34.5%), Aedes aegypti (L.) (23.8%), and Culex nigripalpus Theobald (6.6%) during 1 yr of monthly sampling. Significant differences were detected among counties for abundances of Cx. quinquefasciatus and for percentage composition of that species and Ae. albopictus. Aerial images of habitats around each collection site were digitized, and coverages by each of 16 habitat variables were recorded. Abundances of Ae. aegypti were positively related to habitat variables associated with urbanization and negatively correlated to those reflecting rural characteristics. Multiple regression models of habitat selection explained similar proportions of variances in abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, but signs of significant variables were opposite for these two species. No consistent trends of habitat associations were observed among counties for the two Culex spp. Co-occurrences of the four species in individual traps depended on container type (tub versus cup), and, for Aedes spp. with Culex spp., county. The results underscore the importance of scale in evaluating habitat selection and the utility of quantifiable habitat characteristics of intermediate scale to identify site characteristics favored by the arboviral vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

REY, JORGE R.; NISHIMURA, NAOYA; WAGNER, BILLI; BRAKS, MARIETA A.H.; O'CONNELL, SHEILA M.; LOUNIBOS, L. PHILIP

2007-01-01

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[Larval seasonality of the mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae) and other insects associated to its habitat in Sucre, Venezuela].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anopheles aquasalis Curry is considered the main vector of human malaria in Northern Venezuela. A longitudinal study was carried out in the coastal areas of the Paria Peninsula, Sucre state. The larval habitats of A. aquasalis were classified as: 1--Brackish mangrove, and 2--Freshwater herbaceous swamp. Field surveys of mosquito larvae and aquatic insects were carried out in the same breeding sites over a one-year period, between January and December 1999. At each site, 30 samples of Anopheles larvae and aquatic insects were taken monthly. Simultaneously with mosquito larvae sampling, five selected variables of water were measured: conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH. Seasonal and temporal variations of A. aquasalis larvae and aquatic insects were determined in the two larval habitats. For the entire study period, the abundance of larvae was higher in the mangrove. Correspondence analysis showed a strong relation between some chemical factors of water and larval abundance. The abundance of A. aquasalis larvae in both seasons, was positively correlated with water salinity, pH and conductivity, and negatively and with dissolved oxygen in the dry season. The presence of larvae was positively correlated with the presence of Avicenia germinans. In the mangrove there was a positive association between larvae abundance and Scirtidae family abundance and a negative correlation between larvae abundance and monthly precipitation (Spearman), as well as a significant negative correlation between Gerridae abundance and monthly precipitation. In the herbaceous swamp, there were not significant associations between A. aquasalis larvae abundance and abundance of others aquatic insects associated to habitat.

Berti J; González J; Navarro-Bueno E; Zoppi E; Gordon E; Delgado L

2010-06-01

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Effect of Group-Selection Opening Size on Breeding Bird Habitat Use in a Bottomland Forest  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research on the effects of creating group-selection openings of various sizes on breeding birds habitat use in a bottomland hardwood forest of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Creation of 0.5-ha group selection openings in southern bottomland forests should provide breeding habitat for some field-edge species in gaps and habitat for forest-interior species and canopy-dwelling forest-edge species between gaps provided that enough mature forest is made available.

Moorman, C.E.; D.C. Guynn, Jr.

2001-12-01

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Epidemiological significance of the breeding of mosquitoes in discarded automobile tyres in Zaria, Northern Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waste automobile tyres are suitable receptacles of rainwater thus capable of supporting the breeding of vector mosquito species in close proximity to humans and altering disease transmission risks. Bionomics of mosquitoes in carelessly discarded tyres was explored to unravel species composition and abundance, physicochemical parameters of microhabitats and epidemiological significance. Of the 1179 larvae isolated from 90/212 (42.45%) positive tyres were ten species belonging to Aedes and Culex genera, including Aedes aegypti (46.56%), Culex albiventris (0.25%), Cx. cinereus (0.25%), Cx. grahami (0.68%), Cx. ingrami (1.44%), Cx. nebulosus (2.37%), Cx. mirificus (0.08%), Cx. pipiens pipiens (0.17%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (47.07%) and Cx. tigripes (1.10%). Abundance of the dominant Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), but was higher than those of the other eight species (P < 0.05). The microhabitat pH (range 5.20-9.50), total dissolved solids (range 15-802 ppm) and electrical conductivity (range 30-1603 microscm 1) were obtained in tyres. Abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus correlated positively and significantly with EC and TDS of breeding water (P < 0.05). The study revealed high potential of the transmission of filariasis and arboviruses including dengue and yellow fever by mosquitoes domiciled in waste tyres.

Adebote DA; Kogi E; Oniye SJ; Akoje F

2011-09-01

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Epidemiological significance of the breeding of mosquitoes in discarded automobile tyres in Zaria, Northern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste automobile tyres are suitable receptacles of rainwater thus capable of supporting the breeding of vector mosquito species in close proximity to humans and altering disease transmission risks. Bionomics of mosquitoes in carelessly discarded tyres was explored to unravel species composition and abundance, physicochemical parameters of microhabitats and epidemiological significance. Of the 1179 larvae isolated from 90/212 (42.45%) positive tyres were ten species belonging to Aedes and Culex genera, including Aedes aegypti (46.56%), Culex albiventris (0.25%), Cx. cinereus (0.25%), Cx. grahami (0.68%), Cx. ingrami (1.44%), Cx. nebulosus (2.37%), Cx. mirificus (0.08%), Cx. pipiens pipiens (0.17%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (47.07%) and Cx. tigripes (1.10%). Abundance of the dominant Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), but was higher than those of the other eight species (P < 0.05). The microhabitat pH (range 5.20-9.50), total dissolved solids (range 15-802 ppm) and electrical conductivity (range 30-1603 microscm 1) were obtained in tyres. Abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus correlated positively and significantly with EC and TDS of breeding water (P < 0.05). The study revealed high potential of the transmission of filariasis and arboviruses including dengue and yellow fever by mosquitoes domiciled in waste tyres. PMID:23781631

Adebote, D A; Kogi, E; Oniye, S J; Akoje, F

2011-09-01

31

Wetland management strategies that enhance waterfowl habitats can also control mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two studies in California wetlands and a third in Minnesota wetlands indicate that management practices designed to enhance habitat quality for waterfowl can concurrently reduce mosquito problems. In a seasonally flooded pickleweed wetland in Suisun Marsh, Solano Co., CA, we demonstrated that reducing plant-cover by 50% increased benthic densities of chironomid midge and dytiscid beetle larvae; these insects can be important in waterfowl diets. This manipulation also concentrated Aedes melanimon and Culiseta inornata mosquito larvae along wetland perimeters; thus, the need for control measures was greatly restricted spatially. A study in 9 experimental ponds in Suisun Marsh demonstrated that higher water levels could enhance populations of the macroinvertebrates important in waterfowl diets; general macroinvertebrate densities were higher at 60 cm depths than 20 cm or 40 cm depths. In contrast, Cs. inornata densities were lowest at 60 cm depths and highest at 20 cm depths. A study conducted in a perennial-water cattail wetland in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, demonstrated that a temporary water-level drawdown, designed to enhance waterfowl habitat quality of perennial-water wetlands, also reduced densities of Coquillettidia perturbans mosquito larvae. These mosquitoes disappeared immediately after the drawdown, but even after water depths were restored to pre-drawdown levels, significant numbers did not reappear until 4 years post-drawdown. Studies in 202 other Minnesota wetlands also demonstrated the susceptibility of Cq. perturbans populations to drawdown, but the impact of drawdown was greater in stands of emergent cattail than in floating cattail.

Batzer DP; Resh VH

1992-06-01

32

Wetland management strategies that enhance waterfowl habitats can also control mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two studies in California wetlands and a third in Minnesota wetlands indicate that management practices designed to enhance habitat quality for waterfowl can concurrently reduce mosquito problems. In a seasonally flooded pickleweed wetland in Suisun Marsh, Solano Co., CA, we demonstrated that reducing plant-cover by 50% increased benthic densities of chironomid midge and dytiscid beetle larvae; these insects can be important in waterfowl diets. This manipulation also concentrated Aedes melanimon and Culiseta inornata mosquito larvae along wetland perimeters; thus, the need for control measures was greatly restricted spatially. A study in 9 experimental ponds in Suisun Marsh demonstrated that higher water levels could enhance populations of the macroinvertebrates important in waterfowl diets; general macroinvertebrate densities were higher at 60 cm depths than 20 cm or 40 cm depths. In contrast, Cs. inornata densities were lowest at 60 cm depths and highest at 20 cm depths. A study conducted in a perennial-water cattail wetland in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, demonstrated that a temporary water-level drawdown, designed to enhance waterfowl habitat quality of perennial-water wetlands, also reduced densities of Coquillettidia perturbans mosquito larvae. These mosquitoes disappeared immediately after the drawdown, but even after water depths were restored to pre-drawdown levels, significant numbers did not reappear until 4 years post-drawdown. Studies in 202 other Minnesota wetlands also demonstrated the susceptibility of Cq. perturbans populations to drawdown, but the impact of drawdown was greater in stands of emergent cattail than in floating cattail. PMID:1431852

Batzer, D P; Resh, V H

1992-06-01

33

Landscape determinants and remote sensing of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in the western Kenya highlands  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past two decades the east African highlands have experienced several major malaria epidemics. Currently there is a renewed interest in exploring the possibility of anopheline larval control through environmental management or larvicide as an additional means of reducing malaria transmission in Africa. This study examined the landscape determinants of anopheline mosquito larval habitats and usefulness of remote sensing in identifying these habitats in western Kenya highlands. Methods Panchromatic aerial photos, Ikonos and Landsat Thematic Mapper 7 satellite images were acquired for a study area in Kakamega, western Kenya. Supervised classification of land-use and land-cover and visual identification of aquatic habitats were conducted. Ground survey of all aquatic habitats was conducted in the dry and rainy seasons in 2003. All habitats positive for anopheline larvae were identified. The retrieved data from the remote sensors were compared to the ground results on aquatic habitats and land-use. The probability of finding aquatic habitats and habitats with Anopheles larvae were modelled based on the digital elevation model and land-use types. Results The misclassification rate of land-cover types was 10.8% based on Ikonos imagery, 22.6% for panchromatic aerial photos and 39.2% for Landsat TM 7 imagery. The Ikonos image identified 40.6% of aquatic habitats, aerial photos identified 10.6%, and Landsate TM 7 image identified 0%. Computer models based on topographic features and land-cover information obtained from the Ikonos image yielded a misclassification rate of 20.3–22.7% for aquatic habitats, and 18.1–25.1% for anopheline-positive larval habitats. Conclusion One-metre spatial resolution Ikonos images combined with computer modelling based on topographic land-cover features are useful tools for identification of anopheline larval habitats, and they can be used to assist to malaria vector control in western Kenya highlands.

Mushinzimana Emmanuel; Munga Stephen; Minakawa Noboru; Li Li; Feng Chen-chieh; Bian Ling; Kitron Uriel; Schmidt Cindy; Beck Louisa; Zhou Guofa; Githeko Andrew K; Yan Guiyun

2006-01-01

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Importance of Hydrilla verticillata (hydrocharitaceae) as habitat for immature mosquitoes at the Ross River reservoir, Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From November 1990 to November 1992, immature mosquitoes were sampled from the shoreline and from emergent beds of the submerged aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata at the Ross River reservoir, northern Australia. Aerial mapping of Hydrilla beds was done in conjunction with sampling to estimate total immature mosquito numbers. Larvae of 7 species were found. Culex annulirostris. Anopheles annulipes s.l., and Anopheles amictus comprised 80.4% of the total. Peak larval densities occurred in the late wet season period in both habitat types (March to May) but Hydrilla generally supported higher densities, particularly of An. annulipes s.l. (43.7% of the total sample), than the shoreline habitats. Anopheles annulipes replaced Cx. annulirostris as the predominant taxon when 1990-92 data were compared with data for 1985-86. The Hydrilla beds supported on the order of 5.6 x 10(9) immatures during the period of peak density. This suggests that where human exposure is of concern, mosquito control in habitats such as Hydrilla is warranted.

Hearnden MN; Kay BH

1997-06-01

35

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Blue-Winged Teal (Breeding)  

Science.gov (United States)

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the blue-winged teal (Anas discors). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Sousa, Patrick J.

1985-01-01

36

The unexpected importance of mosquito oviposition behaviour for malaria: non-productive larval habitats can be sources for malaria transmission  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes commute between blood-meal hosts and water. Thus, heterogeneity in human biting reflects underlying spatial heterogeneity in the distribution and suitability of larval habitat as well as inherent differences in the attractiveness, suitability and distribution of blood-meal hosts. One of the possible strategies of malaria control is to identify local vector species and then attack water bodies that contain their larvae. Methods Biting and host seeking, not oviposition, have been the focus of most previous studies of mosquitoes and malaria transmission. This study presents a mathematical model that incorporates mosquito oviposition behaviour. Results The model demonstrates that oviposition is one potential factor explaining heterogeneous biting and vector distribution in a landscape with a heterogeneous distribution of larval habitat. Adult female mosquitoes tend to aggregate around places where they oviposit, thereby increasing the risk of malaria, regardless of the suitability of the habitat for larval development. Thus, a water body may be unsuitable for adult mosquito emergence, but simultaneously, be a source for human malaria. Conclusion Larval density may be a misleading indicator of a habitat's importance for malaria control. Even if mosquitoes could be lured to oviposit in sprayed larval habitats, this would not necessarily mitigate – and might aggravate – the risk of malaria transmission. Forcing mosquitoes to fly away from humans in search of larval habitat may be a more efficient way to reduce the risk of malaria than killing larvae. Thus, draining, fouling, or filling standing water where mosquitoes oviposit can be more effective than applying larvicide.

Menach Arnaud; McKenzie F Ellis; Flahault Antoine; Smith David L

2005-01-01

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Anthropogenic habitat disturbance and ecological divergence between incipient species of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic habitat disturbance is a prime cause in the current trend of the Earth's reduction in biodiversity. Here we show that the human footprint on the Central African rainforest, which is resulting in deforestation and growth of densely populated urban agglomerates, is associated to ecological divergence and cryptic speciation leading to adaptive radiation within the major malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In southern Cameroon, the frequency of two molecular forms--M and S--among which reproductive isolation is strong but still incomplete, was correlated to an index of urbanisation extracted from remotely sensed data, expressed as the proportion of built-up surface in each sampling unit. The two forms markedly segregated along an urbanisation gradient forming a bimodal cline of ?6-km width: the S form was exclusive to the rural habitat, whereas only the M form was present in the core of densely urbanised settings, co-occurring at times in the same polluted larval habitats of the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus--a species association that was not historically recorded before. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that when humans create novel habitats and ecological heterogeneities, they can provide evolutionary opportunities for rapid adaptive niche shifts associated with lineage divergence, whose consequences upon malaria transmission might be significant.

Kamdem C; Tene Fossog B; Simard F; Etouna J; Ndo C; Kengne P; Boussès P; Etoa FX; Awono-Ambene P; Fontenille D; Antonio-Nkondjio C; Besansky NJ; Costantini C

2012-01-01

38

Urban habitat evaluation for West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitoes in Albuquerque, New Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan Albuquerque area (Bernalillo County, New Mexico) were trapped from May through September 2004. Each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap and a gravid trap. Captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Based on previous surveillance, WNV was already established in the state of New Mexico. Surveillance during 2003, the 1st year of WNV detection in New Mexico mosquitoes, was focused on the bosque forest of the Rio Grande river valley. Surveillance during summer of 2004 was extended to additional areas around the city of Albuquerque, the state's largest population center. In addition to the standard surveillance objectives, a secondary goal was to determine whether foci of WNV activity were detectable in other habitats besides the riparian ecosystem of the Rio Grande, and in other species not previously identified as vectors. There was no demonstrable advantage to extending the traditional trapping area outside of the Rio Grande valley. Sites in the valley area had WNV-positive mosquitoes earlier in the season, and for a longer period than the added sites. In addition, riparian sites had the highest diversity of species, the largest numbers of Culex spp. captured, and the largest proportion of the WNV-positive mosquito pools from the study. Species found in other areas of the metropolitan area were also represented in the valley. Although WNV activity was detected in other areas of the city, its activity began later and ended earlier than in the river valley. We surmise that the greatest benefit to mosquito surveillance could be achieved by focusing on the river valley area. PMID:17847847

DiMenna, Mark A; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R; Norris, Douglas E; Sheyka, Jeff M; Molina, Josephine L; LaBeau, Elisa M; Hatton, Elizabeth S; Roberts, Christine M; Glass, Gregory E

2007-06-01

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Urban habitat evaluation for West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitoes in Albuquerque, New Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan Albuquerque area (Bernalillo County, New Mexico) were trapped from May through September 2004. Each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap and a gravid trap. Captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Based on previous surveillance, WNV was already established in the state of New Mexico. Surveillance during 2003, the 1st year of WNV detection in New Mexico mosquitoes, was focused on the bosque forest of the Rio Grande river valley. Surveillance during summer of 2004 was extended to additional areas around the city of Albuquerque, the state's largest population center. In addition to the standard surveillance objectives, a secondary goal was to determine whether foci of WNV activity were detectable in other habitats besides the riparian ecosystem of the Rio Grande, and in other species not previously identified as vectors. There was no demonstrable advantage to extending the traditional trapping area outside of the Rio Grande valley. Sites in the valley area had WNV-positive mosquitoes earlier in the season, and for a longer period than the added sites. In addition, riparian sites had the highest diversity of species, the largest numbers of Culex spp. captured, and the largest proportion of the WNV-positive mosquito pools from the study. Species found in other areas of the metropolitan area were also represented in the valley. Although WNV activity was detected in other areas of the city, its activity began later and ended earlier than in the river valley. We surmise that the greatest benefit to mosquito surveillance could be achieved by focusing on the river valley area.

DiMenna MA; Bueno R Jr; Parmenter RR; Norris DE; Sheyka JM; Molina JL; LaBeau EM; Hatton ES; Roberts CM; Glass GE

2007-06-01

40

Engineering, mosquitoes and filariasis: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results of larval surveys were used to assess the relative numbers of mosquitoes breeding in different types of habitat and in different parts of the town of Pondicherry, India. The results illustrate an effective method to set priorities for mosquito control by identifying the most significant breeding sites in a town, and show that they are not necessarily the most obvious, the most extensive or those intuitively most likely.

Cairncross S; Rajavel AR; Vanamail P; Subramaniam S; Paily KP; Ramaiah KD; Amalraj D; Mariappan T; Srinivasan R

1988-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Engineering, mosquitoes and filariasis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of larval surveys were used to assess the relative numbers of mosquitoes breeding in different types of habitat and in different parts of the town of Pondicherry, India. The results illustrate an effective method to set priorities for mosquito control by identifying the most significant breeding sites in a town, and show that they are not necessarily the most obvious, the most extensive or those intuitively most likely. PMID:2899174

Cairncross, S; Rajavel, A R; Vanamail, P; Subramaniam, S; Paily, K P; Ramaiah, K D; Amalraj, D; Mariappan, T; Srinivasan, R

1988-06-01

42

Dry season ecology of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in Baringo, Kenya  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-adult stages of malaria vectors in semi-arid areas are confronted with highly variable and challenging climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to determine which larval habitat types are most productive in terms of larval densities in the dry and wet seasons within semi-arid environments, and how vector species productivity is partitioned over time. Methods Larval habitats were mapped and larvae sampled longitudinally using standard dipping techniques. Larvae were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Physical characteristics of larval habitats, including water depth, turbidity, and presence of floating and emergent vegetation were recorded. Water depth was measured using a metal ruler. Turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperatures salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured in the field using the hand-held water chemistry meters. Results Mean larval densities were higher in the dry season than during the wet season but the differences in density were not statistically significant (F = 0.04, df = 1, p = 0.8501). Significantly higher densities of larvae were collected in habitats that were shaded and holding turbid, temporary and still water. Presence of emergent or floating vegetation, habitat depth, habitat size and habitat distance to the nearest house did not significantly affect larval density in both villages. There was a weakly positive relationship between larval density and salinity (r = 0.19, p Conclusion Breeding of malaria vector mosquitoes in Baringo is driven by predominantly human-made and permanent breeding sites in which Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus breed at a low level throughout the year. Permanent water sources available during the dry season serve as inocula by providing "larval seed" to freshly formed rain-fed habitats during the rainy season. The highly localized and focal nature of breeding sites in these semi-desert environments provides a good opportunity for targeted larval control since the habitats are few, well-defined and easily traceable.

Mala Albert O; Irungu Lucy W; Shililu Josephat I; Muturi Ephantus J; Mbogo Charles C; Njagi Joseph K; Githure John I

2011-01-01

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Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that are most frequently disposed off contributed largely to the sustenance of Aedes mosquito population in the city. This calls for a strict legislation towards disposal as well as enhanced management of the household wastes. A link between the wastes disposed and subsequent conversion to the mosquito larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population and possibility of dengue epidemics if the existing management practices are not improved.

Banerjee, Soumyajit, E-mail: soumyajitb@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Aditya, Gautam, E-mail: gautamaditya2001@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104 (India); Saha, Goutam K, E-mail: gkszoo@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India)

2013-01-15

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Malaria knowledge and agricultural practices that promote mosquito breeding in two rural farming communities in Oyo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural practices such as the use of irrigation during rice cultivation, the use of ponds for fish farming and the storage of water in tanks for livestock provide suitable breeding grounds for anthropophylic mosquitoes. The most common anthropophylic mosquito in Nigeria which causes much of the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Farmers are therefore at high risk of malaria - a disease which seriously impacts on agricultural productivity. Unfortunately information relating to agricultural practices and farmers' behavioural antecedent factors that could assist malaria programmers plan and implement interventions to reduce risk of infections among farmers is scanty. Farmers' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which favour the breeding of mosquitoes in Fashola and Soku, two rural farming communities in Oyo State were therefore assessed in two rural farming communities in Oyo State. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of data through the use of eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and the interview of 403 randomly selected farmers using semi-structured questionnaires. These sets of information were supplemented with observations of agricultural practices made in 40 randomly selected farms. The FGD data were recorded on audio-tapes, transcribed and subjected to content analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Most respondents in the two communities had low level of knowledge of malaria causation as only 12.4% stated that mosquito bite could transmit the disease. Less than half (46.7%) correctly mentioned the signs and symptoms of malaria as high body temperature, body pains, headache, body weakness and cold/fever. The reported main methods for preventing mosquito bites in the farming communities included removal of heaps of cassava tuber peelings (62.3%), bush burning/clearing (54.6%) and clearing of ditches (33.7%). The dumping of cassava tuber peelings which allows the collection of pools of water in the farms storage of peeled cassava tubers soaked in water in uncovered plastic containers, digging of trenches, irrigation of farms and the presence of fish ponds were the observed major agricultural practices that favoured mosquito breeding on the farms. A significant association was observed between respondents' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which promote mosquito breeding. Respondents' wealth quintile level was also seen to be associated with respondents' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which promote mosquito breeding. Conclusion Farmers' knowledge of malaria causation and signs and symptoms was low, while agricultural practices which favour mosquito breeding in the farming communities were common. There is an urgent need to engage farmers in meaningful dialogue on malaria reduction initiatives including the modification of agricultural practices which favour mosquito breeding. Multiple intervention strategies are needed to tackle the factors related to malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the communities.

Oladepo Oladimeji; Tona Grace O; Oshiname Frederick O; Titiloye Musibau A

2010-01-01

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Factors influencing differential larval habitat productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes in a western Kenyan village.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The study was undertaken to characterize factors influencing differential productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in a rural village in western Kenya. METHODS: Longitudinal larval sampling was done using an area sampler for 3 months. Emerged adults were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nutrient content was analyzed using persulphate oxidation method. Water pH was measured using an Orion pH/conductivity meter. Turbidity was measured using a Hach 2100A turbidity meter. Algal count density was estimated using a sedge-wick rafter cell. RESULTS: A total 3367 larvae were harvested. Out of 500 adults subjected to PCR analysis 358 (71.6%) were Anopheles gambiae s.s., 127 (25.4%) An. arabiensis while PCR amplification failed for 15 (3%) specimens. Rainwater pools were the most productive habitat type. There was a positive association between algal density and larval density (p<0). Total nitrogen, water pH and turbidity were positively correlated with larval density (p<0.01) and pH was negatively associated with larval density. CONCLUSION: Results indicate water nutrient and algal content in larval habitats of An. gambiae play crucial, dual roles in the resource ecology of these mosquitoes. Overall, the findings of this study support the notion that anti-larval source reduction measures aimed at manipulating physicochemical variables in larval habitats to eliminate larval production have a chance of succeeding in an integrated vector control program.

Mala AO; Irungu LW

2011-03-01

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Factors influencing differential larval habitat productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes in a western Kenyan village  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was undertaken to characterize factors influencing differential productivityof Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in a rural village in western Kenya.Methods: Longitudinal larval sampling was done using an area sampler for 3 months. Emerged adults wereidentified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction(PCR). Nutrient content was analyzed using persulphate oxidation method. Water pH was measured using anOrion pH/conductivity meter. Turbidity was measured using a Hach 2100A turbidity meter. Algal count densitywas estimated using a sedge-wick rafter cell.Results: A total 3367 larvae were harvested. Out of 500 adults subjected to PCR analysis 358 (71.6%) wereAnopheles gambiae s.s., 127 (25.4%) An. arabiensis while PCR amplification failed for 15 (3%) specimens.Rainwater pools were the most productive habitat type. There was a positive association between algal densityand larval density (p<0). Total nitrogen, water pH and turbidity were positively correlated with larval density(p<0.01) and pH was negatively associated with larval density.Conclusion: Results indicate water nutrient and algal content in larval habitats of An. gambiae play crucial,dual roles in the resource ecology of these mosquitoes. Overall, the findings of this study support the notion thatanti-larval source reduction measures aimed at manipulating physicochemical variables in larval habitats toeliminate larval production have a chance of succeeding in an integrated vector control program.

Albert O. Mala & Lucy W. Irungu

2011-01-01

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Mosquito larval habitat mapping using remote sensing and GIS: Implications of coalbed methane development and West Nile virus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Potential larval habitats of the mosquito Culex tarsalis (Coquillett), implicated as a primary vector of West Nile virus in Wyoming, were identified using integrated remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) analyses. The study area is in the Powder River Basin of north central Wyoming, an area that has been undergoing a significant increase in coalbed methane gas extractions since the late 1990s. Large volumes of water are discharged, impounded, and released during the extraction of methane gas, creating aquatic habitats that have the potential to support immature mosquito development. Landsat TM and ETM + data were initially classified into spectrally distinct water and vegetation classes, which were in turn used to identify suitable larval habitat sites. This initial habitat classification was refined using knowledge-based GIS techniques requiring spatial data layers for topography, streams, and soils to reduce the potential for overestimation of habitat. Accuracy assessment was carried out using field data and high-resolution aerial photography commensurate with one of the Landsat images. The classifier can identify likely habitat for ponds larger than 0.8 ha (2 acres) with generally satisfactory results (72.1%) with a lower detection limit of approximate to 0.4 ha (1 acre). Results show a 75% increase in potential larval habitats from 1999 to 2004 in the study area, primarily because of the large increase in small coalbed methane water discharge ponds. These results may facilitate mosquito abatement programs in the Powder River Basin with the potential for application throughout the state and region.

Zou, L.; Miller, S.N.; Schmidtmann, E.T. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Renewable Resources

2006-09-15

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Mosquito larval habitat mapping using remote sensing and GIS: implications of coalbed methane development and West Nile virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Potential larval habitats of the mosquito Culex tarsalis (Coquillett), implicated as a primary vector of West Nile virus in Wyoming, were identified using integrated remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) analyses. The study area is in the Powder River Basin of north central Wyoming, an area that has been undergoing a significant increase in coalbed methane gas extractions since the late 1990s. Large volumes of water are discharged, impounded, and released during the extraction of methane gas, creating aquatic habitats that have the potential to support immature mosquito development. Landsat TM and ETM+ data were initially classified into spectrally distinct water and vegetation classes, which were in turn used to identify suitable larval habitat sites. This initial habitat classification was refined using knowledge-based GIS techniques requiring spatial data layers for topography, streams, and soils to reduce the potential for overestimation of habitat. Accuracy assessment was carried out using field data and high-resolution aerial photography commensurate with one of the Landsat images. The classifier can identify likely habitat for ponds larger than 0.8 ha (2 acres) with generally satisfactory results (72.1%) with a lower detection limit of approximately 0.4 ha (1 acre). Results show a 75% increase in potential larval habitats from 1999 to 2004 in the study area, primarily because of the large increase in small coalbed methane water discharge ponds. These results may facilitate mosquito abatement programs in the Powder River Basin with the potential for application throughout the state and region.

Zou L; Miller SN; Schmidtmann ET

2006-09-01

49

Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

2005-06-29

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Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

Jennifer C. Rock; Marty L. Leonard; Andrew W. Boyne

2007-01-01

51

Mosquitoes and other aquatic insects in fallow field biotopes and rice paddy fields.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fallow field biotopes that develop from abandoned rice fields are man-made wetlands that provide new habitats for various aquatic animals. Although consideration of such biotopes generally focuses on their positive aspects, this study evaluated the negative aspects of establishing fallow field biotopes with regard to mosquito breeding sites. To determine whether fallow field biotopes become breeding habitats for vector mosquitoes, we evaluated mosquito fauna in fallow field biotopes and adjacent rice fields. We found larvae of Anopheles lesteri, Anopheles sinensis and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (all: Diptera: Culicidae) in the biotopes. Although abundances of mosquito larvae in the biotopes and rice fields were statistically similar, mosquito abundances in rice fields increased dramatically in August when the water level reduced after the rainy season. The abundance and variety of the mosquitoes' natural predators were greater in biotopes than in rice fields because the former are a permanent and stable aquatic environment. A generalized linear mixed model showed a negative effect of predator diversity on mosquito larvae abundance in both habitats. Although fallow field biotopes become breeding habitats for vector mosquitoes, establishing biotopes from fallow fields in order to protect various aquatic animals, including mosquito insect predators, may help to control mosquito breeding.

Ohba SY; Matsuo T; Takagi M

2013-03-01

52

Detection, identification, and classification of mosquito larval habitats using remote sensing scanners in earth-orbiting satellites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of identifying mosquito larval habitats associated with fresh-water plant communities, wetlands, and other aquatic locations at Lewis and Clark Lake in the states of Nebraska and South Dakota, USA, using remote sensing imagery obtained by multispectral scanners aboard earth-orbiting satellites (Landsat 1 and 2) is described. The advantages and limitations of this method are discussed.

Hayes RO; Maxwell EL; Mitchell CJ; Woodzick TL

1985-01-01

53

Mosquito larval habitat mapping using remote sensing and GIS: Implications of coalbed methane development and the West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential larval habitats of the mosquito Culex tarsalis (Coquillett), implicated as a primary vector of West Nile virus in Wyoming, were identified using integrated remote sensing and geographic information sytem (GIS) analyses. The study area is in the Powder River Basin of north central Wyoming,...

54

Vigilancia y control en criaderos temporales y permanentes de culícidos en Villa Clara (Vigilance and control in temporal and permanent breeding ground of mosquitoes in Villa Clara)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la Unidad Provincial de Vigilancia y Lucha Antivectorial de la provincia de Villa Clara, en el período comprendido entre el primero de julio al primero de noviembre del 2005. Para el mismo se representaron gráficamente los 304 criaderos permanentes y 218 temporales de culícidos; distribuidos en los 13 municipios de dicha provincia. Se tomaron muestras de cuerpos de agua (28 criaderos) existentes en los 13 municipios de la provincia para detectar la Densidad Larvaria según la metodología del cucharón. Se determinaron las principales especies de culícidos que habitan en la provincia y se compararon dos métodos (Temephos al 2% y peces) de control para estos vectores, determinándose el costo – riesgo del Temephos al 2%, el Bacillus thurigiensis y los peces como métodos de control de mosquitos mediante una ponderización. Los datos primarios se procesaron en el sistema computarizado Excel del paquete Office XP y para el procesamiento estadístico de la efectividad de cada tratamiento se empleó la prueba de comparación de proporciones del paquete Statgraphics plus 4.1, ambos sistemas sustentados en WindowsÒ. Los resultados muestran que las especies de mosquitos más difundidas en la provincia son: el Anopheles albimanus, el Aedes mediovitatus, el Aedes scapularis, el Aedes confinis, el Culex quinquefasciatus, el Culex nigripalpus y el Culex corniger; además, los resultados demuestran la superioridad del control con peces sobre el control con Temephos ya que es más eficiente (99% versus 87% para p < 0.01) en el control de culícidos. La vigilancia con peces (no gastos en divisas y $ 1 035.08 MN) es más económica que el Temephos (847 500 CUC y $ 12 490.96 MN) y que el Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc y $ 8 280.64 MN). Se concluye que los peces constituyen un efectivo control para las poblaciones de culícidos, recomendando el uso de los mismos por todos los beneficios que estos representan. This work was developed in the Provincial Unit of Vigilance and Vectors Against fight in Villa Clara province, between the first July to first November 2005. For the same was graphically represented the 304 permanent and 218 temporal breeding ground of mosquitoes; distributed in the 13 municipalities of this province. Were taken shows of water body (28 breeding ground) existence in the 13 municipalities of the province that to detect the Density of Larva according the methodology of ladle. Were determined the species main of mosquitoes that habitat in the province and were compared two methods (Temephos 2% and fish) of control for this vectors, determining the cost – risk of Temephos 2%, the Bacillus thurigiensis and fish as mosquitoes control thorough a consideration. Were primary dates process in the computerized system Excel of packet Office XP and that statistic process of effectively of each treatment was use the test of proportions comparison of packet Statgraphics plus 4.1, both systems sustained in WindowsÒ. The results showing that the mosquitoes species more disseminated in the province are: Anopheles albimanus, Aedes mediovitatus, Aedes scapularis, Aedes confinis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex nigripalpus and Culex corniger; besides, the results demonstrating the superiority of control with fish on the Temephos control, already that is more efficient (99% versus 87% that p < 0.01) in the mosquitoes control. The fish control (no spending in CUC and $ 1 035.08 MN) is more economic than Temephos (847 500 CUC and $ 12 490.96 MN) and than Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc and $ 8 280.64 MN). Was conclude that the fish constitute a control effective that the mosquitoes people, recommended the use of fish for all benefice that this represent.

Janhad L. Rodríguez Mendieta; C. Omelio Cepero Rodríguez; Lic. Alejandro Rodríguez Rodríguez.

2006-01-01

55

- Vigilancia y control en criaderos temporales y permanentes de culícidos en Villa Clara (Vigilance and control in temporal and permanent breeding ground of mosquitoes in Villa Clara)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la Unidad Provincial de Vigilancia y Lucha Antivectorial de la provincia de Villa Clara, en el período comprendido entre el primero de julio al primero de noviembre del 2005. Para el mismo se representaron gráficamente los 304 criaderos permanentes y 218 temporales de culícidos; distribuidos en los 13 municipios de dicha provincia. Se tomaron muestras de cuerpos de agua (28 criaderos) existentes en los 13 municipios de la provincia para detectar la Densidad Larvaria según la metodología del cucharón. Se determinaron las principales especies de culícidos que habitan en la provincia y se compararon dos métodos (Temephos al 2% y peces) de control para estos vectores, determinándose el costo – riesgo del Temephos al 2%, el Bacillus thurigiensis y los peces como métodos de control de mosquitos mediante una ponderización. Los datos primarios se procesaron en el sistema computarizado Excel del paquete Office XP y para el procesamiento estadístico de la efectividad de cada tratamiento se empleó la prueba de comparación de proporciones del paquete Statgraphics plus 4.1, ambos sistemas sustentados en WindowsÒ. Los resultados muestran que las especies de mosquitos más difundidas en la provincia son: el Anopheles albimanus, el Aedes mediovitatus, el Aedes scapularis, el Aedes confinis, el Culex quinquefasciatus, el Culex nigripalpus y el Culex corniger; además, los resultados demuestran la superioridad del control con peces sobre el control con Temephos ya que es más eficiente (99% versus 87% para p < 0.01) en el control de culícidos. La vigilancia con peces (no gastos en divisas y $ 1 035.08 MN) es más económica que el Temephos (847 500 CUC y $ 12 490.96 MN) y que el Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc y $ 8 280.64 MN). Se concluye que los peces constituyen un efectivo control para las poblaciones de culícidos, recomendando el uso de los mismos por todos los beneficios que estos representan This work was developed in the Provincial Unit of Vigilance and Vectors Against fight in Villa Clara province, between the first July to first November 2005. For the same was graphically represented the 304 permanent and 218 temporal breeding ground of mosquitoes; distributed in the 13 municipalities of this province. Were taken shows of water body (28 breeding ground) existence in the 13 municipalities of the province that to detect the Density of Larva according the methodology of ladle. Were determined the species main of mosquitoes that habitat in the province and were compared two methods (Temephos 2% and fish) of control for this vectors, determining the cost – risk of Temephos 2%, the Bacillus thurigiensis and fish as mosquitoes control thorough a consideration. Were primary dates process in the computerized system Excel of packet Office XP and that statistic process of effectively of each treatment was use the test of proportions comparison of packet Statgraphics plus 4.1, both systems sustained in WindowsÒ. The results showing that the mosquitoes species more disseminated in the province are: Anopheles albimanus, Aedes mediovitatus, Aedes scapularis, Aedes confinis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex nigripalpus and Culex corniger; besides, the results demonstrating the superiority of control with fish on the Temephos control, already that is more efficient (99% versus 87% that p < 0.01) in the mosquitoes control. The fish control (no spending in CUC and $ 1 035.08 MN) is more economic than Temephos (847 500 CUC and $ 12 490.96 MN) and than Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc and $ 8 280.64 MN). Was conclude that the fish constitute a control effective that the mosquitoes people, recommended the use of fish for all benefice that this represent.

Janhad L. Rodríguez Mendieta; C. Omelio Cepero Rodríguez; Alejandro Rodríguez Rodríguez.

2006-01-01

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Evaluation of methods for collecting blood-engorged mosquitoes from habitats within a wildlife refuge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mortality of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks attributed to West Nile virus (WNV) prompted field studies on the bionomics of mosquitoes on a wildlife refuge in northern Montana. One component of these studies was to identify blood meal sources for Culex tarsalis, the primary vector of WNV in the region, and the potential bridge vectors Aedes vexans and Culiseta inornata. To accomplish this, 3 methods were evaluated to collect bloodfed mosquitoes: a gasoline powered aspirator, CO2-baited light traps, and fiber pots in shelterbelts consisting of stands of deciduous trees and shrubs and marshes along the lake edge. Fiber pots were also deployed in open fields of prairie grasses. Overall, fiber pots were the most efficient method for collecting engorged Cx. tarsalis and Cs. inornata, largely due to shorter sampling and processing times. Aedes vexans was not collected in fiber pots but was more abundant in aspiration samples than the other 2 species. The optimal location for collecting Cx. tarsalis was dependent on trapping method. Aspirations and fiber pot placements collected more Cx. tarsalis in shelterbelts, while CO2-baited light traps collected more Cx. tarsalis in the marsh habitat. Sixteen avian and 4 mammalian hosts were identified from bloodfed Cx. tarsalis with 46 blood meals derived from birds and 49 from mammals. Aedes vexans and Cs. inornata fed predominantly on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus), respectively. Humans were identified as hosts in 33% of engorged Cx. tarsalis, 4% of engorged Ae. vexans, and 18% of engorged Cs. inornata.

Friesen KM; Johnson GD

2013-06-01

57

Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. ? Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. ? Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. ? Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P

2013-01-01

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IMPORTANCE OF LANDSCAPE AND HABITAT ISLAND FEATURES FOR THE SUPPORT OF BREEDING BIRDS DIVERSITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Landscape and biotopic characteristics of some Sivash islands are presented. The principal role of these factors forthe support of the bird species diversity is proved. It is suggested that the islands’ genesis determines the dominantvegetation and the breeding habitats for the birds. Two types of islands – accumulative and continental are considered.

Matsyura O. V.

2011-01-01

59

Identification and characterization of larval and adult anopheline mosquito habitats in the Republic of Korea: potential use of remotely sensed data to estimate mosquito distributions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria reemerged in the Republic of Korea in 1993, with more than 2,000 cases reported in the northwestern part of the country over the last 10 years. To better assess the risk of malaria transmission we conducted a surveillance study to identify and characterize the habitats that produce potential Anopheles vector mosquitoes. Immature and adult mosquito collection data were incorporated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) along with remotely sensed satellite imagery, and imagery classified to land use to determine if remote sensing data could be used to estimate mosquito habitats. RESULTS: More than 2,100 anopheline larvae were collected and mapped from 186 immature habitats, which were categorized into 9 types. Anopheles sinensis was the most commonly collected species, representing more than 97% of the specimens, followed by Anopheles pullus 1.0%, Anopheles lesteri 1.0%, and Anopheles sineroides 0.8%. Anopheles sinensis, pullus, and lesteri were found most frequently in rice paddies followed by: ditches, flooded areas, ground pools, wheel tracks, swamps, irrigation canals, and stream margins. Anopheles sineroides was found most commonly in flooded areas. Supervised classification was conducted on a LANDSAT 7 ETM+ image to identify 5-6 land-use classes that were considered to be of interest. The spatial distribution of the larval mosquito collections was overlaid on the land-use image derived from the LANDSAT image, and the number of mosquitoes habitats in each class calculated. On Ganghwa Island 67% of the immature habitats containing Anopheles sinensis were in the Paddy land-use class, although the class only represented 17% of the land area. In Paju District 53% of the immature habitats containing Anopheles sinensis were in the Paddy land-use class which represented only 9 % of the area of the district. There was significant (p < 0.05) correlation between habitats containing all four species and land use on Ganghwa Island; however, only Anopheles sinensis was significantly correlated with land-use in Paju District. In Ganghwa Island almost 50% of the Anopheles sinensis adults were collected in the paddy land-use class, and there was a positive correlation between larval and adult distributions. However, in Paju District adult Anopheles sinensis adults were most commonly collected in the Bare land-use class and only 17% collected in the Paddy class. There was a negative correlation between larval and adult distributions. CONCLUSION: Immature habitats most commonly associated with Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles pullus, Anopheles sineroides and Anopheles lesteri were flooded rice paddies. Adult Anopheles sinensis, the most commonly collected anopheline, were found closely associated with rice habitats on Ganghwa Island but not in Paju District. Both QuickBird and LANDSAT satellite data were used to display spatial data in the form of geographic coverage and descriptive information in the form of relational databases associated with the mapped features. Supervised classification of LANDSAT imagery permitted good separation between Paddy, Forest, and Water land-use classes. The immature collections of Anopheles sinensis were significantly correlated with land-use as determined in the land-use classification in both Ganghwa Island and Paju District. These data suggest that classified remotely sensed data could potentially be used to estimate the distribution of immature and adult mosquito populations in the Republic of Korea.

Sithiprasasna R; Lee WJ; Ugsang DM; Linthicum KJ

2005-07-01

60

Locating suitable habitats for West Nile Virus-infected mosquitoes through association of environmental characteristics with infected mosquito locations: a case study in Shelby County, Tennessee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its first detection in 2001, West Nile Virus (WNV) poses a significant health risk for residents of Shelby County in Tennessee. This situation forced public health officials to adopt efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. Analyses that use environmental variables to find suitable habitats for WNV-infected mosquitoes have the potential to support these efforts. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, we identified areas of Shelby County that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV, based on similarity of environmental characteristics to areas where WNV was found. The environmental characteristics in this study were based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data, such as elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, and precipitation. Results Our analyses produced maps of likely habitats of WNV-infected mosquitoes for each week of August 2004, revealing the areas that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV within the core of the Memphis urban area. By comparing neighbourhood social characteristics to the environmental factors that contribute to WNV infection, potential social drivers of WNV transmission were revealed in Shelby County. Results show that human population characteristics and housing conditions such as a high percentage of black population, low income, high rental occupation, old structures, and vacant housing are associated with the focal area of WNV identified for each week of the study period. Conclusion We demonstrated that use of the Mahalanobis Distance statistic as a similarity index to assess environmental characteristics is a potential raster-based approach to identify areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining the virus. This approach was also useful to monitor changes over time for likely locations of infected mosquito habitats. This technique is very helpful for authorities when making decisions related to an integrated mosquito management plan and targeted health education outreach.

Ozdenerol Esra; Bialkowska-Jelinska Elzbieta; Taff Gregory N

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Upland Habitat Quality and Historic Landscape Composition Influence Genetic Variation of a Pond-Breeding Salamander  

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Full Text Available Understanding the temporal and spatial scale at which habitat alteration impacts populations is important for conservation and management. Amphibians have declined more than other vertebrates, and pond-breeding species are particularly susceptible to habitat loss and fragmentation because they have terrestrial and aquatic life stages. One approach to management of pond-breeding species is protection of core upland habitat surrounding the breeding pond. We used genetic variation as an indicator of population status in a common amphibian species, spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum), to determine how amount of suitable upland habitat relates to population status in the greater Charlotte, North Carolina, USA metropolitan area. We developed candidate models to evaluate the relative influence of historical and contemporary forested habitat availability on population genetic variation at two spatial scales of upland area (164 m and 2000 m) at four time intervals over the past seven decades (1938, 1978, 1993, 2005). We found that historical land cover best predicted contemporary allelic richness. Inbreeding coefficient and observed heterozygosity were not effectively predicted by forest cover at either spatial or temporal scales. Allelic richness was best predicted at the smaller spatial scale in the 1993 time interval. Predicting and understanding how future landscape configuration affects genetic variation of common and rare species is imperative for the conservation of amphibian and other wildlife populations.

Stephen C. Richter; Steven J. Price; Chelsea S. Kross; Jeremiah R. Alexander; Michael E. Dorcas

2013-01-01

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Evaluation of species distribution model algorithms for fine-scale container-breeding mosquito risk prediction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present work evaluates the use of species distribution model (SDM) algorithms to classify high densities of small container-breeding Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on a fine scale in the Bermuda Islands. Weekly ovitrap data collected by the Department of Health, Bermuda for the years 2006 and 2007 were used for the models. The models evaluated included the algorithms Bioclim, Domain, GARP (genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction), logistic regression and MaxEnt (maximum entropy). Models were evaluated according to performance and robustness. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate each model's performance, and robustness was assessed according to the spatial correlation between classification risks for the two datasets. Relative to the other algorithms, logistic regression was the best and MaxEnt the second best model for classifying high-risk areas. We describe the importance of covariables for these two models and discuss the utility of SDMs in vector control efforts and the potential for the development of scripts that automate the task of creating risk assessment maps.

Khatchikian C; Sangermano F; Kendell D; Livdahl T

2011-09-01

63

Identification and characterization of larval and adult anopheline mosquito habitats in the Republic of Korea: potential use of remotely sensed data to estimate mosquito distributions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax malaria reemerged in the Republic of Korea in 1993, with more than 2,000 cases reported in the northwestern part of the country over the last 10 years. To better assess the risk of malaria transmission we conducted a surveillance study to identify and characterize the habitats that produce potential Anopheles vector mosquitoes. Immature and adult mosquito collection data were incorporated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) along with remotely sensed satellite imagery, and imagery classified to land use to determine if remote sensing data could be used to estimate mosquito habitats. Results More than 2,100 anopheline larvae were collected and mapped from 186 immature habitats, which were categorized into 9 types. Anopheles sinensis was the most commonly collected species, representing more than 97% of the specimens, followed by Anopheles pullus 1.0%, Anopheles lesteri 1.0%, and Anopheles sineroides 0.8%. Anopheles sinensis, pullus, and lesteri were found most frequently in rice paddies followed by: ditches, flooded areas, ground pools, wheel tracks, swamps, irrigation canals, and stream margins. Anopheles sineroides was found most commonly in flooded areas. Supervised classification was conducted on a LANDSAT 7 ETM+ image to identify 5–6 land-use classes that were considered to be of interest. The spatial distribution of the larval mosquito collections was overlaid on the land-use image derived from the LANDSAT image, and the number of mosquitoes habitats in each class calculated. On Ganghwa Island 67% of the immature habitats containing Anopheles sinensis were in the Paddy land-use class, although the class only represented 17% of the land area. In Paju District 53% of the immature habitats containing Anopheles sinensis were in the Paddy land-use class which represented only 9 % of the area of the district. There was significant (p Anopheles sinensis was significantly correlated with land-use in Paju District. In Ganghwa Island almost 50% of the Anopheles sinensis adults were collected in the paddy land-use class, and there was a positive correlation between larval and adult distributions. However, in Paju District adult Anopheles sinensis adults were most commonly collected in the Bare land-use class and only 17% collected in the Paddy class. There was a negative correlation between larval and adult distributions. Conclusion Immature habitats most commonly associated with Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles pullus, Anopheles sineroides and Anopheles lesteri were flooded rice paddies. Adult Anopheles sinensis, the most commonly collected anopheline, were found closely associated with rice habitats on Ganghwa Island but not in Paju District. Both QuickBird and LANDSAT satellite data were used to display spatial data in the form of geographic coverage and descriptive information in the form of relational databases associated with the mapped features. Supervised classification of LANDSAT imagery permitted good separation between Paddy, Forest, and Water land-use classes. The immature collections of Anopheles sinensis were significantly correlated with land-use as determined in the land-use classification in both Ganghwa Island and Paju District. These data suggest that classified remotely sensed data could potentially be used to estimate the distribution of immature and adult mosquito populations in the Republic of Korea.

Sithiprasasna Ratana; Ja Lee Won; Ugsang Donald M; Linthicum Kenneth J

2005-01-01

64

Philopatric predisposition to predation-induced ecological traps: habitat-dependent mortality of breeding eiders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because population size is sensitive to changes in adult survival, adult survival may be buffered against environmental variability. Philopatry may be adaptive in changing environments, but it could also constrain breeding habitat selection under changing conditions such as shifting predation regimes. Habitat preference and quality could become decoupled in long-lived philopatric species that evolved in stable environments when suddenly faced by increased adult predation risk, as dispersal may be triggered by past reproductive failure. We evaluated whether the Baltic eider (Somateria m. mollissima) population may currently face a predation-induced ecological trap. Eiders are philopatric and nest on open and forested islands. We hypothesized that open-nesting females would be disproportionately affected by increased predation. We compared female annual survival in these two habitats in 1996-2010. We also tested for effects of time trends, winter severity (NAO), female body condition, and habitat-specific predation pressure on survival. Our results revealed the lowest survival recorded for this species (? = 0.720), and survival on open islands was significantly lower (? = 0.679) than on forested islands (? = 0.761). Nonetheless, only 0.7 % of females changed breeding habitat type despite ample availability of alternative islands, and breeding phenology in both habitats was similar. Female survival increased with body condition, while it was unrelated to winter climate and stable over time. Open islands had a higher predation pressure on incubating females. Breeding philopatry results in a predator-mediated ecological trap for open-nesting eiders. Our results contribute to explaining the drastic decline of the Baltic eider population.

Ekroos J; Öst M; Karell P; Jaatinen K; Kilpi M

2012-12-01

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Topographic models for predicting malaria vector breeding habitats: potential tools for vector control managers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Identification of malaria vector breeding sites can enhance control activities. Although associations between malaria vector breeding sites and topography are well recognized, practical models that predict breeding sites from topographic information are lacking. We used topographic variables derived from remotely sensed Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) to model the breeding sites of malaria vectors. We further compared the predictive strength of two different DEMs and evaluated the predictability of various habitat types inhabited by Anopheles larvae. METHODS: Using GIS techniques, topographic variables were extracted from two DEMs: 1) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 3 (SRTM3, 90-m resolution) and 2) the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer Global DEM (ASTER, 30-m resolution). We used data on breeding sites from an extensive field survey conducted on an island in western Kenya in 2006. Topographic variables were extracted for 826 breeding sites and for 4520 negative points that were randomly assigned. Logistic regression modelling was applied to characterize topographic features of the malaria vector breeding sites and predict their locations. Model accuracy was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). RESULTS: All topographic variables derived from both DEMs were significantly correlated with breeding habitats except for the aspect of SRTM. The magnitude and direction of correlation for each variable were similar in the two DEMs. Multivariate models for SRTM and ASTER showed similar levels of fit indicated by Akaike information criterion (3959.3 and 3972.7, respectively), though the former was slightly better than the latter. The accuracy of prediction indicated by AUC was also similar in SRTM (0.758) and ASTER (0.755) in the training site. In the testing site, both SRTM and ASTER models showed higher AUC in the testing sites than in the training site (0.829 and 0.799, respectively). The predictability of habitat types varied. Drains, foot-prints, puddles and swamp habitat types were most predictable. CONCLUSIONS: Both SRTM and ASTER models had similar predictive potentials, which were sufficiently accurate to predict vector habitats. The free availability of these DEMs suggests that topographic predictive models could be widely used by vector control managers in Africa to complement malaria control strategies.

Nmor JC; Sunahara T; Goto K; Futami K; Sonye G; Akweywa P; Dida G; Minakawa N

2013-01-01

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Mosquito larval habitat mapping using remote sensing and GIS: implications of coalbed methane development and West Nile virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential larval habitats of the mosquito Culex tarsalis (Coquillett), implicated as a primary vector of West Nile virus in Wyoming, were identified using integrated remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) analyses. The study area is in the Powder River Basin of north central Wyoming, an area that has been undergoing a significant increase in coalbed methane gas extractions since the late 1990s. Large volumes of water are discharged, impounded, and released during the extraction of methane gas, creating aquatic habitats that have the potential to support immature mosquito development. Landsat TM and ETM+ data were initially classified into spectrally distinct water and vegetation classes, which were in turn used to identify suitable larval habitat sites. This initial habitat classification was refined using knowledge-based GIS techniques requiring spatial data layers for topography, streams, and soils to reduce the potential for overestimation of habitat. Accuracy assessment was carried out using field data and high-resolution aerial photography commensurate with one of the Landsat images. The classifier can identify likely habitat for ponds larger than 0.8 ha (2 acres) with generally satisfactory results (72.1%) with a lower detection limit of approximately 0.4 ha (1 acre). Results show a 75% increase in potential larval habitats from 1999 to 2004 in the study area, primarily because of the large increase in small coalbed methane water discharge ponds. These results may facilitate mosquito abatement programs in the Powder River Basin with the potential for application throughout the state and region. PMID:17017244

Zou, Li; Miller, Scott N; Schmidtmann, Edward T

2006-09-01

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Efectividad y supervivencia de Romanomermis culicivorax en criaderos naturales de larvas de mosquitos/ Effectiveness and survival of Romanomermis culicivorax in natural breeding sites of mosquito larvae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los mosquitos (Díptera: Culicidae) son transmisores de agentes causales de paludismo, dengue y encefalitis del Nilo occidental y causan fuertes molestias a los humanos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto de aplicar 500 y 1000 nemátodos, Romanomermis culicivorax Ross y Smith, por metro cuadrado en poblaciones de larvas de Anopheles albimanus Wiedeman, Culex nigipalpus Theobald y Uranotaenia sapphirina Oster-Sacken, para su control en 13 criaderos n (more) aturales. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con arreglo factorial de dos factores (dos dosis de nemátodos y tres especies de mosquitos). La dosis de 500 nemátodos causó 74.3-87.8 % de parasitismo en larvas de las tres especies; la dosis de 1000 causó 77.2-96.9 % de parasitismo, con un incremento del parasitismo al aumentar la dosis de nemátodos (p Abstract in english Mosquitoes (Díptera: Culicidae) transmit causal agents of malaria, dengue and western Nile encephalitis, besides being extremely annoying for humans. The objective of this study was to determine the control effect of releasing 500 and 1000 Romanomermis culicivorax Ross and Smith nematodes per square meter into larval populations of Anopheles albimanus Wiedeman, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, and Uranotenia sapphiriuna Oster-Sacken in 13 natural breeding sites. The experimen (more) tal design was completely randomized with a factorial arrangement of two factors (two dosages of nematodes and three species of mosquitoes). The doses of 500 nematodes m-2 caused 74.3-87.8 % parasitism in larvae of the three species; the dose of 1000 nematodes m-2 caused 77.2-96.9 % parasitism; that is, parasitism was higher with the higher dose of nematodes (p

Pérez-Pacheco, Rafael; Santamarina-Mijares, Alberto; Vásquez-López, Alfonso; Martínez-Tomás, Sabino H.; Suárez-Espinosa, Javier

2009-12-01

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Evaluation of methods for collecting blood-engorged mosquitoes from habitats within a wildlife refuge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mortality of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks attributed to West Nile virus (WNV) prompted field studies on the bionomics of mosquitoes on a wildlife refuge in northern Montana. One component of these studies was to identify blood meal sources for Culex tarsalis, the primary vector of WNV in the region, and the potential bridge vectors Aedes vexans and Culiseta inornata. To accomplish this, 3 methods were evaluated to collect bloodfed mosquitoes: a gasoline powered aspirator, CO2-baited light traps, and fiber pots in shelterbelts consisting of stands of deciduous trees and shrubs and marshes along the lake edge. Fiber pots were also deployed in open fields of prairie grasses. Overall, fiber pots were the most efficient method for collecting engorged Cx. tarsalis and Cs. inornata, largely due to shorter sampling and processing times. Aedes vexans was not collected in fiber pots but was more abundant in aspiration samples than the other 2 species. The optimal location for collecting Cx. tarsalis was dependent on trapping method. Aspirations and fiber pot placements collected more Cx. tarsalis in shelterbelts, while CO2-baited light traps collected more Cx. tarsalis in the marsh habitat. Sixteen avian and 4 mammalian hosts were identified from bloodfed Cx. tarsalis with 46 blood meals derived from birds and 49 from mammals. Aedes vexans and Cs. inornata fed predominantly on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus), respectively. Humans were identified as hosts in 33% of engorged Cx. tarsalis, 4% of engorged Ae. vexans, and 18% of engorged Cs. inornata. PMID:23923324

Friesen, Kristina M; Johnson, Gregory D

2013-06-01

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Bionomics of the mud lobster-hole mosquito Aedes (Geoskusea) baisasi in the mangrove swamps of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The bionomics of the mud lobster-hole mosquito Aedes (Geoskusea) baisasi in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, was studied in the field and in the laboratory. The studies included the natural habitat, seasonal appearance, flight activity, mating behavior, resistance of eggs to desiccation, and breeding periods of the immature stages of this species. The burrow systems made by the mud lobster Thalassina anomala were excellent as breeding and resting habitats for both the immature and adult stages of the mosquito.

Toma T; Miyagi I; Tamashiro M; Higa Y; Okudo H; Okazawa T

2011-09-01

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Bionomics of the mud lobster-hole mosquito Aedes (Geoskusea) baisasi in the mangrove swamps of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bionomics of the mud lobster-hole mosquito Aedes (Geoskusea) baisasi in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, was studied in the field and in the laboratory. The studies included the natural habitat, seasonal appearance, flight activity, mating behavior, resistance of eggs to desiccation, and breeding periods of the immature stages of this species. The burrow systems made by the mud lobster Thalassina anomala were excellent as breeding and resting habitats for both the immature and adult stages of the mosquito. PMID:22017084

Toma, Takako; Miyagi, Ichiro; Tamashiro, Mikako; Higa, Yukiko; Okudo, Haruo; Okazawa, Takao

2011-09-01

71

Habitat Requirements of Breeding Black-Backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in Managed, Unburned Boreal Forest  

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Full Text Available We investigated home-range characteristics and habitat selection by Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in an unburned, boreal forest landscape managed by mosaic harvesting in Quebec, Canada. Habitat selection by this species was specifically examined to determine home-range establishment and foraging activities. We hypothesized that Black-backed Woodpeckers would respond to harvesting by adjusting their home-range size as a function of the amount of dead wood available. Twenty-two birds were tracked using radiotelemetry, and reliable estimates of home-range size were obtained for seven breeding individuals (six males and one female). The average home-range size was 151.5 ± 18.8 ha (range: 100.4–256.4 ha). Our results indicate that this species establishes home ranges in areas where both open and forested habitats are available. However, during foraging activities, individuals preferentially selected areas dominated by old coniferous stands. The study also showed that the spatial distribution of preferred foraging habitat patches influenced space use, with home-range area increasing with the median distance between old coniferous habitat patches available within the landscape. Finally, these data show that Black-backed Woodpeckers may successfully breed in an unburned forest with at least 35 m3 ? ha-1 of dead wood, of which 42% (15 m3 ? ha-1) is represented by dead wood at the early decay stage.

Junior A. Tremblay; Jacques Ibarzabal; Christian Dussault; Jean-Pierre L. Savard

2009-01-01

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Mosquito breeding in relation to aquatic vegetation and some physico-chemical parameters in rice fields of central Gujarat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito breeding in relation to aquatic vegetation and certain physico-chemical parameters was studied in rice fields of Kheda district in central Gujarat. A total of 14 anopheline and 15 culicine species were encountered in close association with different types of aquatic vegetation in different proportions. Among anophelines, Anopheles annularis, An. nigerrimus, An. subpictus and An. tessellatus were of general distribution and were found associated with each aquatic vegetation. An. culicifacies showed poor association with most of the aquatic weeds. Maximum number of anophelines were found associated with algae. Culex vishnui sub-group predominated among culicines and showed frequent association with Ceratophyllum, Hydrilla and algae. Physico-chemical parameters also exerted some impact on mosquito larval population.

Kant R; Pandey SD; Sharma SK

1996-03-01

73

Experimental comparison of aerial larvicides and habitat modification for controlling disease-carrying Aedes vigilax mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Microbial and insect-growth-regulator larvicides dominate current vector control programmes because they reduce larval abundance and are relatively environmentally benign. However, their short persistence makes them expensive, and environmental manipulation of larval habitat might be an alternative control measure. Aedes vigilax is a major vector species in northern Australia. A field experiment was implemented in Darwin, Australia, to test the hypotheses that (1) aerial microbial larvicide application effectively decreases Ae. vigilax larval presence, and therefore adult emergence, and (2) environmental manipulation is an effective alternative control measure. Generalised linear and mixed-effects modelling and information-theoretic comparisons were used to test these hypotheses. RESULTS: It is shown that the current aerial larvicide application campaign is effective at suppressing the emergence of Ae. vigilax, whereas vegetation removal is not as effective in this context. In addition, the results indicate that current larval sampling procedures are inadequate for quantifying larval abundance or adult emergence. CONCLUSIONS: This field-based comparison has shown that the existing larviciding campaign is more effective than a simple environmental management strategy for mosquito control. It has also identified an important knowledge gap in the use of larval sampling to evaluate the effectiveness of vector control strategies.

de Little SC; Williamson GJ; Bowman DM; Whelan PI; Brook BW; Bradshaw CJ

2012-05-01

74

Classification of immature mosquito species according to characteristics of the larval habitat in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english To classify mosquito species based on common features of their habitats, samples were obtained fortnightly between June 2001-October 2003 in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina. Data on the type of larval habitat, nature of the habitat (artificial or natural), size, depth, location related to sunlight, distance to the neighbouring houses, type of substrate, organic material, vegetation and algae type and their presence were collected. Data on the permanence, temp (more) erature, pH, turbidity, colour, odour and movement of the larval habitat's water were also collected. From the cluster analysis, three groups of species associated by their degree of habitat similarity were obtained and are listed below. Group 1 consisted of Aedes aegypti. Group 2 consisted of Culex imitator, Culex davisi, Wyeomyia muehlensi and Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis separatus. Within group 3, two subgroups are distinguished: A (Psorophora ferox, Psorophora cyanescens, Psorophora varinervis, Psorophora confinnis, Psorophora cingulata, Ochlerotatus hastatus-oligopistus, Ochlerotatus serratus, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Culex intrincatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pilosus, Ochlerotatus albifasciatus, Culex bidens) and B (Culex maxi, Culex eduardoi, Culex chidesteri, Uranotaenia lowii, Uranotaenia pulcherrima, Anopheles neomaculipalpus, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles albitarsis, Uranotaenia apicalis, Mansonia humeralis and Aedeomyia squamipennis). Principal component analysis indicates that the size of the larval habitats and the presence of aquatic vegetation are the main characteristics that explain the variation among different species. In contrast, water permanence is second in importance. Water temperature, pH and the type of larval habitat are less important in explaining the clustering of species.

Stein, Marina; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Willener, Juana Alicia; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

2011-06-01

75

Classification of immature mosquito species according to characteristics of the larval habitat in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To classify mosquito species based on common features of their habitats, samples were obtained fortnightly between June 2001-October 2003 in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina. Data on the type of larval habitat, nature of the habitat (artificial or natural), size, depth, location related to sunlight, distance to the neighbouring houses, type of substrate, organic material, vegetation and algae type and their presence were collected. Data on the permanence, temperature, pH, turbidity, colour, odour and movement of the larval habitat's water were also collected. From the cluster analysis, three groups of species associated by their degree of habitat similarity were obtained and are listed below. Group 1 consisted of Aedes aegypti. Group 2 consisted of Culex imitator, Culex davisi, Wyeomyia muehlensi and Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis separatus. Within group 3, two subgroups are distinguished: A (Psorophora ferox, Psorophora cyanescens, Psorophora varinervis, Psorophora confinnis, Psorophora cingulata, Ochlerotatus hastatus-oligopistus, Ochlerotatus serratus, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Culex intrincatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pilosus, Ochlerotatus albifasciatus, Culex bidens) and B (Culex maxi, Culex eduardoi, Culex chidesteri, Uranotaenia lowii, Uranotaenia pulcherrima, Anopheles neomaculipalpus, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles albitarsis, Uranotaenia apicalis, Mansonia humeralis and Aedeomyia squamipennis). Principal component analysis indicates that the size of the larval habitats and the presence of aquatic vegetation are the main characteristics that explain the variation among different species. In contrast, water permanence is second in importance. Water temperature, pH and the type of larval habitat are less important in explaining the clustering of species.

Marina Stein; Francisco Ludueña-Almeida; Juana Alicia Willener; Walter Ricardo Almirón

2011-01-01

76

Classification of immature mosquito species according to characteristics of the larval habitat in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To classify mosquito species based on common features of their habitats, samples were obtained fortnightly between June 2001-October 2003 in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina. Data on the type of larval habitat, nature of the habitat (artificial or natural), size, depth, location related to sunlight, distance to the neighbouring houses, type of substrate, organic material, vegetation and algae type and their presence were collected. Data on the permanence, temperature, pH, turbidity, colour, odour and movement of the larval habitat's water were also collected. From the cluster analysis, three groups of species associated by their degree of habitat similarity were obtained and are listed below. Group 1 consisted of Aedes aegypti. Group 2 consisted of Culex imitator, Culex davisi, Wyeomyia muehlensi and Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis separatus. Within group 3, two subgroups are distinguished: A (Psorophora ferox, Psorophora cyanescens, Psorophora varinervis, Psorophora confinnis, Psorophora cingulata, Ochlerotatus hastatus-oligopistus, Ochlerotatus serratus, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Culex intrincatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pilosus, Ochlerotatus albifasciatus, Culex bidens) and B (Culex maxi, Culex eduardoi, Culex chidesteri, Uranotaenia lowii, Uranotaenia pulcherrima, Anopheles neomaculipalpus, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles albitarsis, Uranotaenia apicalis, Mansonia humeralis and Aedeomyia squamipennis). Principal component analysis indicates that the size of the larval habitats and the presence of aquatic vegetation are the main characteristics that explain the variation among different species. In contrast, water permanence is second in importance. Water temperature, pH and the type of larval habitat are less important in explaining the clustering of species.

Stein M; Ludueña-Almeida F; Willener JA; Almirón WR

2011-06-01

77

Characterization of potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to urban land-use in Malindi, Kenya  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study characterized Anopheles mosquito larval habitats in relation to ecological attributes about the habitat and community-level drainage potential, and investigated whether agricultural activities within or around urban households increased the probability of water body occurrence. Malindi, a city on the coast of Kenya, was mapped using global positioning system (GPS) technology, and a geographic information system (GIS) was used to overlay a measured grid, which served as a sampling frame. Grid cells were stratified according to the level of drainage in the area, and 50 cells were randomly selected for the study. Cross-sectional household and entomological surveys were conducted during November and December 2002 within the 50 grid cells. Chi-square analysis was used to test whether water bodies differed fundamentally between well and poorly drained areas, and multi-level logistic regression was used to test whether household-level agricultural activity increased the probability of water body occurrence in the grid cell. Results Interviews were conducted with one adult in 629 households. A total of 29 water bodies were identified within the sampled areas. This study found that characteristics of water bodies were fundamentally the same in well and poorly drained areas. This study also demonstrated that household-level urban agriculture was not associated with the occurrence of water bodies in the grid cell, after controlling for potential confounders associated with distance to the city center, drainage, access to resources, and population density. Conclusions Household-level urban agricultural activity may be less important than the other types of human perturbation in terms of mosquito larval habitat creation. The fact that many larvae were coming from few sites, and few sites in general were found under relatively dry conditions suggests that mosquito habitat reduction is a reasonable and attainable goal in Malindi.

Keating Joseph; Macintyre Kate; Mbogo Charles M; Githure John I; Beier John C

2004-01-01

78

Influence of biological and physicochemical characteristics of larval habitats on the body size of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) along the Kenyan coast  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The number and productivity of larval habitats ultimately determine thedensity of adult mosquitoes. The biological and physicochemical conditions at the larval habitataffect larval development hence affecting the adult body size. The influence of biological and physicochemicalcharacteristics on the body size of Anopheles gambiae was assessed in Jaribuni village,Kilifi district along the Kenyan Coast.Methods: Ten cages measuring 1 × 1 × 1 m (1 m3) with a netting material were placed in 10 differentaquatic habitats, which were positive for anopheline mosquito larvae. Emergent mosquitoes werecollected daily by aspiration and the wing lengths were determined by microscopy. In the habitats,physicochemical parameters were assessed: pH, surface debris, algae and emergent plants, turbidity,substrate, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate and chlorophyll a content.Results: A total of 685 anopheline and culicine mosquitoes were collected from the emergent cages.Only female mosquitoes were considered in this study. Among the Anopheles spp, 202 were An.gambiae s.s., eight An. arabiensis, two An. funestus, whereas the Culex spp was composed of 214Cx. quinquefasciatus, 10 Cx. tigripes, eight Cx. annulioris and one Cx. cumminsii. The mean winglength of the female An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes was 3.02 mm (n = 157), while that of An. arabiensiswas 3.09 mm (n = 9). There were no associations between the wing lengths and the environmentaland chemical parameters, except for a positive correlation between wing length of An. gambiae andchlorophyll a content (r = 0.622). The day on which the mosquitoes emerged was not significant forthe anopheline (p = 0.324) or culicine mosquitoes (p = 0.374), because the mosquito emerged fromthe cages on a daily basis.Interpretation & conclusion: In conclusion, there was variability in production of emergent mosquitoesfrom different habitats, which means that there should be targeted control on these habitatsbased on productivity.

Joseph M. Mwangangi, Charles M. Mbogo, Ephantus J. Muturi, Joseph G. Nzovu, Ephantus W. Kabiru, John I. Githure, Robert J. Novak , John C. Beier

2007-01-01

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Alterations in the breeding habitats for two endangered raptor species along the Sava River basin, Croatia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in habitat suitable for breeding of two sympatric raptor species (Haliaeetus albicilla and Aquila pomarina) were analysed along one of the most important breeding sites in Croatia for both species. The habitat suitability modelling was used to assess the influence of forestry practice during 2000-2006 using the known data on nesting places along research area. The four most important variables for lesser spotted eagle were elevation, distance from the nearest pasture, vertical distance to the nearest channel network and broadleaved forest placement (second axis from the principal component analysis of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) index of MODIS images; November-March). The variables where white-tailed eagles showed greatest shift from overall habitat characteristics in the research area were broadleaved forest (second axis from the principal component analysis of the EVI index), height above the sea level, distance from the small settlements, vertical distance to channel network - all with negative loadings. The results clearly reveal the disproportion of suitable forests for raptors that were cut down in comparison to maturation of suitable forests.

Radovi? A; Jelaska SD

2012-07-01

80

Some water chemistry parameters of breeding habitats of the Caucasian salamander, Mertensiella caucasica in the Western Lesser Caucasus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Selection of breeding habitat plays a fundamental role in the reproductive success of urodeles and anurans. We studied the influence of water chemistry variables on the selection of a specific water resource as breeding habitat in Mertensiella caucasica. To determine the influence of water chemistry parameters on their habitat selection, we surveyed a total of 45 small river, streams and brooks in the Western Lesser Caucasus (northeastern Turkey and southwestern Georgia). The water samples taken from these localities were analyzed for 14 chemical variables and the results submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis in order to evaluate the influence of these parameters on the presence or absence of the species in the localities. Of these parameters, chloride concentration influenced the breeding habitat selection of Mertensiella caucasica significantly.

Sayim F; Ba?kale E; Tarkhnishvili D; Kaya U

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Some water chemistry parameters of breeding habitats of the Caucasian salamander, Mertensiella caucasica in the Western Lesser Caucasus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selection of breeding habitat plays a fundamental role in the reproductive success of urodeles and anurans. We studied the influence of water chemistry variables on the selection of a specific water resource as breeding habitat in Mertensiella caucasica. To determine the influence of water chemistry parameters on their habitat selection, we surveyed a total of 45 small river, streams and brooks in the Western Lesser Caucasus (northeastern Turkey and southwestern Georgia). The water samples taken from these localities were analyzed for 14 chemical variables and the results submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis in order to evaluate the influence of these parameters on the presence or absence of the species in the localities. Of these parameters, chloride concentration influenced the breeding habitat selection of Mertensiella caucasica significantly. PMID:19393978

Sayim, Ferah; Ba?kale, Eyup; Tarkhnishvili, David; Kaya, U?ur

2009-02-28

82

Tire-breeding mosquitoes of public health importance along an urbanisation gradient in Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Used vehicle tires are a source of mosquito vectors and a means of their introduction and expansion. With the aim of assessing the effects of urbanisation on the main mosquito vectors in temperate Argentina, the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. were studied in used tires from highly urbanised cities to low-urbanised small towns in Buenos Aires. Immatures of both species accounted for 96% of the 9,722 individuals collected; the total individual (more) s collected represented seven species. The percentage of water-filled tires containing mosquitoes [container index (CI)] was 33% and the percentage of infested sites [site index (SI)] was 65.2%. These indexes decreased significantly from low to high urbanisation levels for both mosquito species. The relative abundance (RA) of Ae. aegypti immatures was slightly higher toward large cities, but showed no difference for Cx. pipiens. The CI of shaded tires was significantly higher than the CI of exposed tires for both mosquito species. There was no difference in RA values between shaded and sunlit tires. The CI and the SI were highest during the summer across the urbanisation levels, except for Cx. pipiens, which continued to increase during the autumn in small towns. Results related to urbanisation gradient, sunlit exposure and seasonality are discussed.

Rubio, Alejandra; Cardo, María Victoria; Vezzani, Darío

2011-09-01

83

Oviposition habitat selection by mosquitoes in response to predator (Notonecta maculata) density.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some species of mosquitoes can detect the presence of predatory notonectid bugs and avoid oviposition in predator pools. The oviposition response of two mosquito species, Culiseta longiareolata Macquart and Culex laticinctus Edwards (Diptera: Culicidae), to a range of densities of the predator, Notonecta maculata Fabricius (Heteroptera: Notonectidae), was tested here. Densities of 0, 1, 2 or 4 Notonecta were established in 30-L artificial pools. Both mosquito species oviposited less in predator pools, but the response was unrelated to predator density, whereas vulnerability of Culiseta immatures to predation was density-dependent. Thus, although mosquitoes can detect Notonecta at any density within the range tested, they may be unable to discriminate among predator densities. The avoidance of predator pools by Culiseta, as well as its vulnerability to predation, occurred to a lesser degree than in earlier studies. This may have been due to the mitigating effects of components of the biotic community.

Eitam A; Blaustein L

2004-06-01

84

Fusion of High Resolution Aerial Multispectral and LiDAR Data: Land Cover in the Context of Urban Mosquito Habitat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remotely sensed multi-spectral and -spatial data facilitates the study of mosquito-borne disease vectors and their response to land use and cover composition in the urban environment. In this study we assess the feasibility of integrating remotely sensed multispectral reflectance data and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-derived height information to improve land use and land cover classification. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analyses were used to compare and contrast the enhancements and accuracy of the multi-sensor urban land cover classifications. Eight urban land-cover classes were developed for the city of Tucson, Arizona, USA. These land cover classes focus on pervious and impervious surfaces and microclimate landscape attributes that impact mosquito habitat such as water ponds, residential structures, irrigated lawns, shrubs and trees, shade, and humidity. Results show that synergistic use of LiDAR, multispectral and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data produced the most accurate urban land cover classification with a Kappa value of 0.88. Fusion of multi-sensor data leads to a better land cover product that is suitable for a variety of urban applications such as exploring the relationship between neighborhood composition and adult mosquito abundance data to inform public health issues.

Kyle A. Hartfield; Katheryn I. Landau; Willem J. D. van Leeuwen

2011-01-01

85

Socioeconomic status affects mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitat type availability and infestation level.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito populations are largely regulated by processes occurring at the larval stage. We sampled mosquito larval microhabitats (mostly water-holding containers) in six neighborhoods in the Washington, DC, area that varied in socioeconomic status (SES) and housing structure (row houses vs. stand-alone houses) to test associations among these neighborhood characteristics, microhabitat abundance and parameters, and mosquito occurrence and densities. Thirty-four percent (33.9%) of sampled microhabitats contained mosquito larvae, and 93.1% of larvae were Aedes albopictus Skuse or Culex pipiens L. Five specific container types (drains, corrugated flexible drainpipes, planters, garbage cans, and buckets) accounted for the majority of water-holding (56.0%) and mosquito-positive (50.6%) microhabitats sampled. We found no associations between SES or housing structure with total microhabitat abundance per yard, mosquito occurrence or mosquito densities per microhabitat. In contrast, container purpose varied with SES, with low SES neighborhoods having greater numbers of disused containers and lower numbers of functional containers than low and medium SES neighborhoods. Ae. albopictus were 83% more abundant in disused containers, whereas Cx. pipiens were more abundant in structural and functional containers, possibly owing to species-specific oviposition and development related to water quality. Ae. albopictus densities increased over the summer, whereas Cx. pipiens densities remained constant. Ae. albopictus is usually the dominant pest in urban areas in the eastern United States; therefore, integrated mosquito management programs should incorporate the elimination of disused containers to reduce its infestation and adult production, especially in low SES neighborhoods where they occur most frequently.

Dowling Z; Ladeau SL; Armbruster P; Biehler D; Leisnham PT

2013-07-01

86

Avian use of perennial biomass feedstocks as post-breeding and migratory stopover habitat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased production of biomass crops in North America will require new agricultural land, intensify the cultivation of land already under production and introduce new types of biomass crops. Assessing the potential biodiversity impacts of novel agricultural systems is fundamental to the maintenance of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, yet the consequences of expanded biomass production remain unclear. We evaluate the ability of two candidate second generation biomass feedstocks (switchgrass, Panicum virgatum, and mixed-grass prairie) not currently managed as crops to act as post-breeding and fall migratory stopover habitat for birds. In total, we detected 41 bird species, including grassland specialists and species of state and national conservation concern (e.g. Henslow's Sparrow, Ammodramus henslowii). Avian species richness was generally comparable in switchgrass and prairie and increased with patch size in both patch types. Grassland specialists were less abundant and less likely to occur in patches within highly forested landscapes and were more common and likely to occur in larger patches, indicating that this group is also area-sensitive outside of the breeding season. Variation in the biomass and richness of arthropod food within patches was generally unrelated to richness and abundance metrics. Total bird abundance and that of grassland specialists was higher in patches with greater vegetation structural heterogeneity. Collectively, we find that perennial biomass feedstocks have potential to provide post-breeding and migratory stopover habitat for birds, but that the placement and management of crops will be critical factors in determining their suitability for species of conservation concern. Industrialization of cellulosic bioenergy production that results in reduced crop structural heterogeneity is likely to dramatically reduce the suitability of perennial biomass crops for birds. PMID:21390274

Robertson, Bruce A; Doran, Patrick J; Loomis, Elizabeth R; Robertson, J Roy; Schemske, Douglas W

2011-03-03

87

Avian use of perennial biomass feedstocks as post-breeding and migratory stopover habitat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increased production of biomass crops in North America will require new agricultural land, intensify the cultivation of land already under production and introduce new types of biomass crops. Assessing the potential biodiversity impacts of novel agricultural systems is fundamental to the maintenance of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, yet the consequences of expanded biomass production remain unclear. We evaluate the ability of two candidate second generation biomass feedstocks (switchgrass, Panicum virgatum, and mixed-grass prairie) not currently managed as crops to act as post-breeding and fall migratory stopover habitat for birds. In total, we detected 41 bird species, including grassland specialists and species of state and national conservation concern (e.g. Henslow's Sparrow, Ammodramus henslowii). Avian species richness was generally comparable in switchgrass and prairie and increased with patch size in both patch types. Grassland specialists were less abundant and less likely to occur in patches within highly forested landscapes and were more common and likely to occur in larger patches, indicating that this group is also area-sensitive outside of the breeding season. Variation in the biomass and richness of arthropod food within patches was generally unrelated to richness and abundance metrics. Total bird abundance and that of grassland specialists was higher in patches with greater vegetation structural heterogeneity. Collectively, we find that perennial biomass feedstocks have potential to provide post-breeding and migratory stopover habitat for birds, but that the placement and management of crops will be critical factors in determining their suitability for species of conservation concern. Industrialization of cellulosic bioenergy production that results in reduced crop structural heterogeneity is likely to dramatically reduce the suitability of perennial biomass crops for birds.

Robertson BA; Doran PJ; Loomis ER; Robertson JR; Schemske DW

2011-01-01

88

Oviposition habitat selection by the mosquito Culiseta longiareolata in response to risk of predation and conspecific larval density.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Most female Culiseta longiareolata (Diptera: Culicidae) avoid ovipositing in pools that contain the predatory backswimmer Notonecta maculata. Such oviposition habitat selection has been suggested to reflect a trade-off between the risk of predation on larvae and potential density-dependent fitness costs. This putative trade-off was examined. In particular, evidence was sought in support of direct female response to local heterogeneity in habitat quality. 2. Three habitat types were established using artificial outdoor pools: predator pools, and non-predator pools with either low or high densities of Culiseta larvae. During each experimental night, females were offered one of the three possible pair-wise treatment combinations. 3. The majority (approximately equal to 88%) of females oviposited in low-density pools rather than in the predator- or high-density pools. Furthermore, a substantially higher proportion of females oviposited in predator pools when faced with the high-density alternative, however this was due largely to fewer females ovipositing in high- vs low-density pools. 4. Females of a second mosquito species (Culex laticinctus), the larvae of which are at a lower risk of predation, were predicted to exhibit weaker aversion to N. maculata; this prediction was supported only weakly. 5. Oviposition habitat selection by female C. longiareolata does not appear to involve a behavioural response that is based on individual assessment of local heterogeneity in relative pool quality, at least not at the spatial scale examined here; alternative explanations are discussed.

Kiflawi M; Blaustein L; Mangel M

2003-04-01

89

Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

2010-07-15

90

Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data (DEM) were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight against malaria in Zambia and other regions with seasonal transmission. This work shows that, in areas of seasonal malaria transmission, incorporating terrain-based landscape models to the planning stages of vector control allows for the exclusion of significant portions of landscape that would be unsuitable for water to accumulate and for mosquito larvae occupation. With increasing free availability of satellite imagery such as SRTM and LandSat, the development of satellite imagery-based prediction models is becoming more accessible to vector management coordinators.

Clennon Julie A; Kamanga Aniset; Musapa Mulenga; Shiff Clive; Glass Gregory E

2010-01-01

91

Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for marine protected areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006). Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA), where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (< 100 m) and slope (< 10%), and locate the key breeding and nursing habitat of the species within the continental shelf domains. Proposed Marine Protected Areas (MPA's) network plans should consider connectivity of Cafio Island-Drake Bay and the extension of Corcovado National Park maritime borders.

Oviedo L; Solís M

2008-06-01

92

Immature mosquitoes associated with urban parklands: implications for water and mosquito management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to compare 2 urban habitat types: pools artificially filled with water from damaged or leaking water pipes (AF) and pools naturally filled by rainwater (NF), with regard to their favorability as breeding sites for mosquitoes. Two study areas were analyzed, 1 for 5 months and the other for 9 months, covering the whole period when AF pools contained water. The AF pools held water during the entire study, and showed lower fluctuations in surface area than NF pools. The AF pools showed higher levels of total mosquitoes and of stagnant-water mosquitoes. The floodwater mosquitoes were numerically (but not significantly) more abundant in NF pools. Nine mosquito species were identified. Habitat type, temperature, and season were significant in explaining the variability in species composition according to the canonical correspondence analysis. The most abundant species were Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (= Aedes albifasciatus, predominantly in NF pools), Culex dolosus, and Cx. pipiens (mainly in AF pools). The latter 2 species differed in their temporal dynamics, with Cx. dolosus associated with lower temperatures and Cx. pipiens with higher temperatures. Overall, the results indicate that although both habitat types harbored immature mosquitoes, the AF pools were more favorable than co-occurring rain pools. Easy-to-implement management actions such as the design of adequate drainage systems and the fast repair of broken pipes will be helpful to reduce the risk of human illness associated with mosquitoes in urban green areas.

Quiroga L; Fischer S; Schweigmann N

2013-03-01

93

Field evaluation of the bioefficacy of diflubenzuron (Dimilin) against container-breeding Aedes sp. mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The inhibitory activity of diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on the ecdysis of Aedes sp. larvae was evaluated in earthen jars and automobile tires. Two formulations of diflubenzuron were used in this study: Dimilin(R) WP (wettable powder), 25% and Dimilin GR (granular), 2%. The equivalent rate of 25 g/ha, 50 g/ha and 100 g/ha active ingredients for both WP and GR formulations were used in this study. Generally, at the higher dosage of 100 g/ha, both formulations were more effective against Aedes mosquitoes. On the whole, the WP formulation appeared to perform better than the GR formulation in terms of residual activity.

Chen CD; Seleena B; Chiang YF; Lee HL

2008-04-01

94

Control of mosquito breeding using wood scrapings treated with neem oil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wood scrapings were given shape of a ball and soaked in 5, 10 and 20% neem (Azadirachta indica) oil diluted in acetone. Control of Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti breeding in water storage overhead tanks (OHTs) with the application of these balls was achieved for 45 days. Two balls soaked in 5% neem oil produced the best results among other concentrations tested.

Nagpal BN; Srivastava A; Sharma VP

1995-06-01

95

Habitat Relationships of Three Grassland Breeding Bird Species: Broadscale Comparisons and Hayfield Management Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generalized recommendations for the conservation of birds in agro-ecosystems have been elusive because studies are often of a local nature, and do not compare source data against those from other regions. In this study, we developed geographically broad habitat relationship models to provide conservation prescriptions for three species that breed in farmed grasslands: Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), and Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus). We develop models from our study in Nova Scotia, Canada and confront them with independent data from Wisconsin, USA pastures and Iowa, USA restored prairies. Vegetation that was higher and denser in the prebreeding season was linked to increased occupancy rates and abundance of Bobolinks in each study region. Providing tall spring grass is easily accomplished by not cutting late in the previous year. Savannah Sparrows were instead associated with shorter and sparser spring grass, which highlights the need to simultaneously provide heterogeneous habitat for otherwise ecologically similar species. Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrows were more likely to occur, and be numerous, in areas with greater availability of drainage ditches. They and several other species would benefit from provision of ditches with adequate vegetation to promote occupancy. By combining these with other well-established recommendations, such as a delayed first harvest, a greater net conservation benefit can be realized from these working landscapes.

Joseph J. Nocera; Graham Forbes; G. Randy Milton

2007-01-01

96

[Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in areas of Serra da Bocaina National Park, Brazil. I. Habitat distribution  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the mosquito fauna in Serra da Bocaina National Park (PNSB), by collecting information through a general survey, and investigating the population behavior in habitats within the park with different vegetation. METHODS: Human bait collections were conducted once a month for both the forest and households, in diurnal and nocturnal periods, three time a day, throughout 24 months, from January 1991 to December 1992. RESULTS: A total of 11, 808 adult mosquitoes belonging to 28 species were collected. Runchomyia reversa and Anopheles cruzii were the most abundant, reaching 52.5% and 17.9% of the total collected specimens, respectively. In the dense forest, Ru. reversa comprised 59.4% of the total, followed by Ru. frontosa with 10.5%, and An. cruzii with 9.9%. In the high altitude fields and in gallery forest, An. cruzii was the most abundant (48.1%) followed by Ru. reversa (28.1%). Inside households An. cruzii was also the most prominent species, representing 73.7% of the total for that location. Coquillettidia chrysonotum was the only species mainly seen in the household surroundings, where its distribution was: 14.9% (indoors), 19.4% (close to the house), and 65.7% (outdoors). An. cruzii and Ru. reversa were found throughout the whole year and captured every month. CONCLUSIONS: Mosquitoes in PNSB present an assynanthropic behavior, except for Cq. chrysonotum which lives preferentially in the household environment. Though An. cruzii is an assynantropic species it may approaches live near households and even invades and infest them for the blood meals. The occurrence of Aedes serratus in the household vicinity emphasizes its epidemiological importance as a potential vector of arboviruses. Sabethini are all exclusively sylvatic species.

Guimarães AE; Gentile C; Lopes CM; Sant'Anna A; Jovita AM

2000-06-01

97

Foraging and nesting habitat of breeding male northern goshawks in the laurentian mixed forest province, Minnesota  

Science.gov (United States)

We used radiotelemetry to examine foraging habitat preferences of 17 breeding, male northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in Minnesota from 1998-2000. We assessed habitat preference using radio relocation points and 50-m radius buffers of radio relocation points. Our data suggested that foraging male goshawks used early-successional upland conifer stands (???25 yrs old), early-successional upland deciduous stands (???50 yrs old), late-successional upland conifer stands (???50 yrs old), and late-successional upland deciduous stands (???50 yrs old) more frequently than expected based on the abundance of these vegetation types in the landscape. The 2 most available stand types, early-successional upland deciduous (foraging goshawks. Late-successional lowland deciduous stands (???50 yrs old) were used in proportion to availability. Although analysis of relocation points suggested early-successional upland deciduous stands (25-49 yrs old) and late-successional upland conifer stands (???50 yrs old) were used in proportion to availability, analysis of buffers around relocation points indicated that these stand types were also used more than expected by foraging goshawks. Regardless of vegetation community type, stands used by goshawks were structurally similar with high canopy and understory stem densities, high canopy closure, substantial shrub cover, and large amounts of woody debris. Nest stands consisted of taller and larger diameter canopy trees and fewer understory trees than foraging stands, but stands were otherwise similar in structural features, suggesting goshawks used similar stands for nesting and foraging but that they tended to select the most mature stands for nesting. A commonality among nesting and foraging stands was the presence of open spaces between the canopy and understory foliage, and between understory and shrub layer foliage. In our study area, these spaces may have served as relatively unobstructed flight paths where foraging and nesting stands possessed stem densities at the upper end of that reported for goshawk habitat.

Boal, C. W.; Andersen, D. E.; Kennedy, P. L.

2005-01-01

98

Field evaluation of the bioefficacy of diflubenzuron (Dimilin) against container-breeding Aedes sp. mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inhibitory activity of diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on the ecdysis of Aedes sp. larvae was evaluated in earthen jars and automobile tires. Two formulations of diflubenzuron were used in this study: Dimilin(R) WP (wettable powder), 25% and Dimilin GR (granular), 2%. The equivalent rate of 25 g/ha, 50 g/ha and 100 g/ha active ingredients for both WP and GR formulations were used in this study. Generally, at the higher dosage of 100 g/ha, both formulations were more effective against Aedes mosquitoes. On the whole, the WP formulation appeared to perform better than the GR formulation in terms of residual activity. PMID:18600208

Chen, C D; Seleena, B; Chiang, Y F; Lee, H L

2008-04-01

99

Observations on mosquito breeding in rice fields in two ecological terrains of district Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies on ecological succession of anophelines and the malaria vectors were carried out in rice fields located in two ecologically different terrains, i.e. plains and forested hills in Jabalpur district during monsoon (July-October 1995). Nine and fifteen species of anophelines were found breeding in the rice fields of plain and forested hill villages respectively. Anopheles culicifacies and An. subpictus were dominant species in both the areas. The percentage emergence of adults of An. annularis, An. nigerrimus and An. pallidus was higher in plain villages while the percentage of An. theobaldi, An. fluviatilis and An. jeyporiensis was higher in forested hill villages. Among malaria vectors, three species were found breeding in rice fields of hilly terrain, i.e. An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis and An. stephensi whereas in rice fields of plains An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were recorded.

Mishra AK; Singh N

1997-12-01

100

[Mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) ecology in the Iguacu National Park, Brazil: 1 Habitat distribution].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study of the mosquito fauna in the Iguaçu National Park focused on population behavior in four biotopes with different types of plant cover inside the Park. Systematic bimonthly diurnal and nocturnal human bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted in both forest and domiciliary environments over the course of 24 months. A total of 20,273 adult mosquito specimens belonging to 44 species were collected: Ochlerotatus serratus (10.3%), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9.7%), Mansonia titillans (9.6%), and Chagasia fajardoi (8.8%) were the most frequently captured mosquitoes. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia theobaldi, Wyeomyia aporonoma, and Wy. confusa were captured almost exclusively in well-preserved areas with dense forest cover. Culex nigripalpus, Oc. pennai, Oc. serratus, Sabethes purpureus, and Sa. albiprivus were captured in three essentially sylvatic biotopes. Species captured in the forest areas around a dam were: An. albitarsis s.l., An. galvaoi, An. evansae, An. fluminensis, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Cq. juxtamansonia, Wy. quasilongirostris, and Onirion personatum, Ch. fajardoi, Cq. fasciolata, Cq nitens, and Ma. titillans were the most frequently captured species in a residential area.

Guimarães AE; Lopes CM; de Mello RP; Alencar J

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Ecology of mosquitoes of Midwestern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: The ecology and distribution of various mosquito species is important inthe determination of mosquito vector abundance and associated diseases prevalence. The distributionof various mosquito genera in natural and artificial habitats and their relative species abundancewas studied between August 2002 and July 2003 in three foci (Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi) comprisingthe Esan and Etsako regions of Midwestern Nigeria.Methods: Sampling was carried out by the method of Hopkins (1952) by dipping using a pipette orladle depending on container types. Pooled contents of smaller containers were sampled with a pondnet. All breeding sources of mosquito larvae were grouped into five (5) depending on their nature,constitution and the physiochemical properties. Artificial mosquito cultures were also carried out infour different container types; plastics, metal cans, earthenware pots and bamboo strips, in parts oftwo different macro habitats subdivided into area of high human activities (AHHA) and areas ofderived/secondary vegetation (ADSV). Environmental temperatures, rainfall and relative humiditywere monitored during the study.Results: The present study revealed 17 mosquito species belonging to three genera (Anopheles,Culex and Aedes) which are potential vectors of four human diseases in the areas surveyed. A total of736 mosquito larvae were encountered in artificial sources and 568 larvae were harvested from naturalsources. Pools, plastics and metal cans were the predominant artificial sources of mosquito larvae.Conclusion: The contribution of human activities and increasing environmental modification to thebreeding of human disease vector mosquitoes is of importance and selective vector control measuresincluding larviciding are recommended particularly before onset of rainy season

Godwin R.A. Okogun, Jude C. Anosike, Anthony N. Okere & Bethran E.B. Nwoke

2005-01-01

102

The Risk of a Mosquito-Borne Infectionin a Heterogeneous Environment  

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Full Text Available A common assumption about malaria, dengue, and other mosquito-borne infections is that the two main components of the risk of human infection-the rate at which people are bitten (human biting rate) and the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious-are positively correlated. In fact, these two risk factors are generated by different processes and may be negatively correlated across space and time in heterogeneous environments. Uneven distribution of blood-meal hosts and larval habitat creates a spatial mosaic of demograPhic sources and sinks. Moreover, mosquito populations fluctuate temporally, forced by environmental variables such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity. These sources of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of mosquito populations generate variability in the human biting rate, in the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious, and in the risk of human infection. To understand how heterogeneity affects the epidemiology of mosquito-borne infections, we developed a set of simple models that incorporate heterogeneity in a stepwise fashion. These models predict that the human biting rate is highest shortly after the mosquito densities peak, near breeding sites where adult mosquitoes emerge, and around the edges of areas where humans are aggregated. In contrast, the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious reflects the age structure of mosquito populations; it peaks where old mosquitoes are found, far from mosquito breeding habitat, and when mosquito population density is declining. Finally, we show that estimates for the average risk of infection that are based on the average entomological inoculation rate are strongly biased in heterogeneous environments.

Smith David L; Dushoff Jonathan; McKenzie F. Ellis

2004-01-01

103

Riqueza de especies de mosquitos, distribución y sitios de cría en el municipio Boyeros/ Wealth of mosquito species, their distribution and breeding sites in Boyeros municipality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: la identificación de las especies de mosquitos en cada municipio en Cuba forma parte del Programa de Control de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, lo cual representa un factor importante en la aparición de eventos epidemiológicos o zoonóticos que involucren estos insectos. Objetivo: conocer la riqueza de especies de mosquitos y su distribución en el municipio Boyeros. Métodos: el trabajo se desarrolló en el municipio Boyeros, La Habana en el período (more) 1982-2011. Las muestras de mosquitos se colectaron por los trabajadores del programa de control de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus. Resultados: la riqueza de especies de mosquitos fue de 35, de estas 10 se encuentran distribuidas en todas las áreas del municipio. El área con mayor riqueza de especie fue Mulgoba seguida por Wajay, y la de menor correspondió a Boyeros. Se colectaron 8 especies en depósitos artificiales y naturales como hueco de árboles; mientras que 22 se colectaron en reservorios de aguas naturales, lagunas de oxidación, zanjas, arroyos, lagunatos y ríos. Del total de especies, 5 solo fueron colectadas en estadio adulto. Conclusiones: la emergencia y reemergencia de algunas enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos es uno de los aspectos que más seguimiento tiene en estos momentos en el continente americano, por lo que conocer la fauna de mosquitos del municipio así como su distribución es importante. De presentarse algún brote o epidemia que involucren a estos insectos obligaría a establecer las estrategias de control, para evitar la propagación de enfermedades de transmisión vectorial. Abstract in english Introduction: the identification of mosquito species in each municipality of Cuba is part of the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus control program. This is an important factor in the occurrence of epidemiological or zoonotic events involving these insects. Objective: to identify the wealth of mosquito species and their distribution in Boyeros municipality. Methods: the study was developed in Boyeros municipality from 1982 to 2011. The mosquito samples were taken by the A (more) edes aegypti and Aedes albopictus control program workers. Results: the wealth of mosquito species includes 35 species of which 10 are distributed in all the areas of the municipality. The area with the largest wealth of species was Mulgoba, followed by Wajay, and the smallest one was found in Boyeros. Eight species were collected in artificial and natural reservoirs such as tree holes, whereas 22 were observed in natural water reservoirs, oxidation lagoons, ditches, streams and rivers. Of all the species, just 5 were collected in their adult stage. Conclusions: emergency and reemergence of some mosquito-borne diseases is one of the more watched aspects at this time in the American continent, thus the mosquito fauna of the municipality and its distribution is fundamental. If any outbreak or epidemic involving these insects occurs, it would be compulsory to set up control strategies to prevent the spread of vector-borne diseases.

Valdés Miró, Vivian; Reyes Arencibia, Mayra; Marquetti Fernández, María del Carmen; González Broche, Raúl

2013-04-01

104

Riqueza de especies de mosquitos, distribución y sitios de cría en el municipio Boyeros Wealth of mosquito species, their distribution and breeding sites in Boyeros municipality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: la identificación de las especies de mosquitos en cada municipio en Cuba forma parte del Programa de Control de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, lo cual representa un factor importante en la aparición de eventos epidemiológicos o zoonóticos que involucren estos insectos. Objetivo: conocer la riqueza de especies de mosquitos y su distribución en el municipio Boyeros. Métodos: el trabajo se desarrolló en el municipio Boyeros, La Habana en el período 1982-2011. Las muestras de mosquitos se colectaron por los trabajadores del programa de control de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus. Resultados: la riqueza de especies de mosquitos fue de 35, de estas 10 se encuentran distribuidas en todas las áreas del municipio. El área con mayor riqueza de especie fue Mulgoba seguida por Wajay, y la de menor correspondió a Boyeros. Se colectaron 8 especies en depósitos artificiales y naturales como hueco de árboles; mientras que 22 se colectaron en reservorios de aguas naturales, lagunas de oxidación, zanjas, arroyos, lagunatos y ríos. Del total de especies, 5 solo fueron colectadas en estadio adulto. Conclusiones: la emergencia y reemergencia de algunas enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos es uno de los aspectos que más seguimiento tiene en estos momentos en el continente americano, por lo que conocer la fauna de mosquitos del municipio así como su distribución es importante. De presentarse algún brote o epidemia que involucren a estos insectos obligaría a establecer las estrategias de control, para evitar la propagación de enfermedades de transmisión vectorial.Introduction: the identification of mosquito species in each municipality of Cuba is part of the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus control program. This is an important factor in the occurrence of epidemiological or zoonotic events involving these insects. Objective: to identify the wealth of mosquito species and their distribution in Boyeros municipality. Methods: the study was developed in Boyeros municipality from 1982 to 2011. The mosquito samples were taken by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus control program workers. Results: the wealth of mosquito species includes 35 species of which 10 are distributed in all the areas of the municipality. The area with the largest wealth of species was Mulgoba, followed by Wajay, and the smallest one was found in Boyeros. Eight species were collected in artificial and natural reservoirs such as tree holes, whereas 22 were observed in natural water reservoirs, oxidation lagoons, ditches, streams and rivers. Of all the species, just 5 were collected in their adult stage. Conclusions: emergency and reemergence of some mosquito-borne diseases is one of the more watched aspects at this time in the American continent, thus the mosquito fauna of the municipality and its distribution is fundamental. If any outbreak or epidemic involving these insects occurs, it would be compulsory to set up control strategies to prevent the spread of vector-borne diseases.

Vivian Valdés Miró; Mayra Reyes Arencibia; María del Carmen Marquetti Fernández; Raúl González Broche

2013-01-01

105

A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

2001-06-04

106

Larval Habitat Diversity and Species Composition of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Hamadan Province  

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Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of the study was to identify larval habitats and new species and determine the exact distribution of Culicidae in Hamadan Province.Materials & Methods: This descriptive,cross -sectional study was conducted in six regions of Hamadan Province during 2010. Sampling method was carried out by standard Dipping method. Specimens were mounted by lactophenol solution and were sent to Medical Entomology Laboratory, Tehran University of Medical Sciences with related codes. The accurate diagnosis of Culex pipiens was made with male genitalia morphology. The data were analyzed using standard statistical software (SPSS version 11.5). Results: In total, 4751 larvae of the three genera including Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta ,and nine species including An.superpictus, An.maculipennis sl and An.claviger, Cx.pipiens,Cx.theileri, Cx.hortensis and Cx.prexiguuus ,Cu.longiareolata ,and Cu.subochrea in 36 larval habitat sites in the province were collected and identified. Among Culicidae larvae collected, Culex. Pipiens and Culiseta.subochrea with 58%, and 0.4% of samples were the most and the least species collected. Conclusion: Culex pipiens was reported as the dominant species . Based on morphology of male genitalia, only Culex pipiens was identified among the complex species .The species of Anopheles claviger and Culex prexiguus were found for the first time in this area. The molecular analysis and the egg ridge counts of anopheles maculipennis sl must be extensively studied in the future. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(3):50-58)

H. Dehghan; S.H. Moosa Kazemi; A.H. Zahirnia; B. Davari; F. Sharifi

2011-01-01

107

Connecting breeding and wintering habitats of migratory piscivorous birds: implications for tracking contaminants (Hg) using multiple stable isotopes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contaminant concentrations in migratory species are complicated by differential accumulation and elimination among geographically separated biomes. Double-crested cormorants ( Phalacrocorax auritus ) are used as monitors of Hg in North America; however, migration from northern breeding colonies to southern marine, freshwater, and aquaculture systems exposes individuals to spatiotemporal variations in contaminant uptake. We used stable isotopes (?(34)S, ?(13)C, ?(15)N, ?(2)H) in primary feathers and a combined Bayesian assignment and isotopic threshold model to identify feather origins and the potential winter use of aquaculture (?(34)S < 10‰, ?(13)C > -14‰), freshwater (?(34)S < 10‰, ?(13)C < -20‰), and marine habitats (?(34)S > 10‰). This approach allowed us to contrast body burden Hg derived from the breeding and wintering grounds, as well as from marine and freshwater habitats. We found feathers grown on Lake Winnipeg had greater Hg concentrations (mean = 4.26 ± 1.47 ?g/g fresh weight; n = 20) than winter-grown feathers (3.19 ± 1.64 ?g/g; n = 19), but Hg in winter-grown feathers was not related to any specific habitat. Isotopic assays of tissues of migratory birds allowed the source and degree of contaminant exposure to be identified throughout the annual cycle.

Ofukany AF; Hobson KA; Wassenaar LI

2012-03-01

108

[Various aspects of the ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) from a plains area (Calabria Farms) in Jacarepagua, Rio de Janeiro. V. Breeding grounds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Results are presented of observations on the breeding places of mosquitoes, carried out in a coastal lowland farm--Granjas Calábria, in Jacarepguá, city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The majority of species preferred breeding places on the ground, chiefly the natural ones, but also developed in those originated from human activities. Cx. saltanensis and the species belonging to the Aedini tribe, such as Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Ps. ciliata, Ps. confinnis and Ps. pseudomelanota were more abundant in temporary breeding places, while Ma. titillans, Cx. amazonensis, Cx. chidesteri, Cx. bidens, Cx. declarator, Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. plectoporpe occurred usually in the permanent ones. Some species were collected in natural recipients: Cx. ocellatus, the Cx. (Microculex), Ph. davisi, Ph. deanei and Wy. forcipenis, in bromeliads; Ae. terrens, Cx. imitator and Cx. gairus, in tree-holes; and Wy. leucostigma, in the submerged Typha dominguensis leaf axils. Cx. gairus was found for the first time breeding in artificial containers, which were also preferred by Cx. corniger, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Li. durhami.

Lourenço-de-Oliveira R; Heyden R; da Silva TF

1986-07-01

109

Aquatic insects of New York salt marsh associated with mosquito larval habitat and their potential utility as bioindicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonomic survey of salt marsh aquatic insects on Long Island, New York, USA and to evaluate their utility for non-target pesticide impacts and environmental biomonitoring. A total of 18 species from 11 families and five orders were collected repeatedly during the five month study period. Diptera was the most diverse order with nine species from four families, followed by Coleoptera with four species from two families, Heteroptera with three species from three families, then Odonata and the hexapod Collembola with one species each. Water boatmen, Trichocorixa verticalis Fieber (Heteroptera: Corixidae) and a shore fly, Ephydra subopaca Loew (Diptera: Ephydridae), were the two most commonly encountered species. An additional six species; Anurida maritima Guérin-Méneville (Collembola: Neanuridae), Mesovelia mulsanti White (Heteroptera: Mesovelidae), Enochrus hamiltoni Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Tropisternus quadristriatus Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Dasyhelea pseudocincta Waugh and Wirth (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and Brachydeutera argentata Walker (Diptera: Ephydridae), were found regularly. Together with the less common Erythrodiplax berenice Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae), these nine species were identified as the most suitable candidates for pesticide and environmental impact monitoring due to abundance, position in the food chain, and extended seasonal occurrence. This study represents a first step towards developing an insect-based index of biological integrity for salt marsh health assessment. PMID:22957707

Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

2011-01-01

110

Efficacy of neem oil-water emulsion against mosquito immatures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neem oil-water emulsion was used in mosquito breeding habitats to find out its larvicidal effect on immatures of different mosquito species. Application of 5% neem oil-water emulsion @ 50 ml/sq m in pools and @ 100 ml/sq m in tanks resulted in 100% reduction of III and IV instar larvae of An. stephensi after 24 h while, against Cx. quinquefasciatus it was 51.6 and 91.2% reduction in the larval density after Day 1 and 14 respectively. Similarly, application of 10% emulsion in desert coolers against Aedes aegypti @ 40 to 80 ml per cooler resulted in complete inhibition of pupal production.

Batra CP; Mittal PK; Adak T; Sharma VP

1998-03-01

111

Climate change, breeding date and nestling diet: how temperature differentially affects seasonal changes in pied flycatcher diet depending on habitat variation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1.?Climate warming has led to shifts in the seasonal timing of species. These shifts can differ across trophic levels, and as a result, predator phenology can get out of synchrony with prey phenology. This can have major consequences for predators such as population declines owing to low reproductive success. However, such trophic interactions are likely to differ between habitats, resulting in differential susceptibility of populations to increases in spring temperatures. A mismatch between breeding phenology and food abundance might be mitigated by dietary changes, but few studies have investigated this phenomenon. Here, we present data on nestling diets of nine different populations of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca, across their breeding range. This species has been shown to adjust its breeding phenology to local climate change, but sometimes insufficiently relative to the phenology of their presumed major prey: Lepidoptera larvae. In spring, such larvae have a pronounced peak in oak habitats, but to a much lesser extent in coniferous and other deciduous habitats. 2.?We found strong seasonal declines in the proportions of caterpillars in the diet only for oak habitats, and not for the other forest types. The seasonal decline in oak habitats was most strongly observed in warmer years, indicating that potential mismatches were stronger in warmer years. However, in coniferous and other habitats, no such effect of spring temperature was found. 3.?Chicks reached somewhat higher weights in broods provided with higher proportions of caterpillars, supporting the notion that caterpillars are an important food source and that the temporal match with the caterpillar peak may represent an important component of reproductive success. 4.?We suggest that pied flycatchers breeding in oak habitats have greater need to adjust timing of breeding to rising spring temperatures, because of the strong seasonality in their food. Such between-habitat differences can have important consequences for population dynamics and should be taken into account in studies on phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to climate change.

Burger C; Belskii E; Eeva T; Laaksonen T; Mägi M; Mänd R; Qvarnström A; Slagsvold T; Veen T; Visser ME; Wiebe KL; Wiley C; Wright J; Both C

2012-07-01

112

Larval habitat of Armigeres subalbatus (COQ) and its characteristics in Pondicherry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Larval habitats of Armigeres subalbatus were delineated in urban and rural areas of Pondicherry. Survey of various potential mosquito breeding habitats revealed that septic tanks were the typical breeding habitat in both areas and the proportion was significantly higher in urban areas. The productive status of septic tanks differed in different months and the overall proportion breeding Ar. subalbatus was significantly higher in urban areas (0.0447) compared to rural areas (0.0181). Sporadic breeding observed in receptacles holding water admixed with cow-dung, was however insignificant. Among the various physico-chemical factors of septic tank habitat analysed in relation to breeding, only ammonia nitrogen was found to be significantly correlated with immature density. PMID:1362629

Rajavel, A R

1992-09-01

113

Larval habitat of Armigeres subalbatus (COQ) and its characteristics in Pondicherry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Larval habitats of Armigeres subalbatus were delineated in urban and rural areas of Pondicherry. Survey of various potential mosquito breeding habitats revealed that septic tanks were the typical breeding habitat in both areas and the proportion was significantly higher in urban areas. The productive status of septic tanks differed in different months and the overall proportion breeding Ar. subalbatus was significantly higher in urban areas (0.0447) compared to rural areas (0.0181). Sporadic breeding observed in receptacles holding water admixed with cow-dung, was however insignificant. Among the various physico-chemical factors of septic tank habitat analysed in relation to breeding, only ammonia nitrogen was found to be significantly correlated with immature density.

Rajavel AR

1992-09-01

114

Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for Marine Protected Areas  

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Full Text Available Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006). Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA), where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (Las ballenas jorobadas viajan a aguas tropicales para reproducirse y criar a sus ballenatos. Es importante entender las características oceanográficas que influencian su distribución para lograr una planificación efectiva de áreas marinas protegidas con hábitats críticos para estos cetáceos. Este estudio examina la relación entre la profundidad, la pendiente del suelo oceánico y la distribución de estas ballenas, usando avistamientos del 2005 y 2006 en la costa Pacífica de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica (temporada de reproducción del sur y norte en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental). Usamos Análisis de Factores de Nicho Ecológico (ENFA por sus siglas en inglés), donde los índices de Marginalidad y Tolerancia ilustran las restricciones en uso de hábitat. En una escala local, factores físicos como la profundidad y la pendiente definen el hábitat crítico de reproducción y cría de M. novaeangliae. Las divergencias entre las medias de las sub-muestras y la media global del área de estudio en ambas variables eco-geográficas, determinan las limitaciones en requerimientos de hábitat en aspectos topográficos como la profundidad (>100 m) y la pendiente del fondo (>10%), localizando los hábitat críticos para reproducción y cría dentro de la plataforma continental. Los planes y propuestas para un sistema de áreas marinas protegidas deben de considerar la conectividad de la isla del Caño y la Bahía de Drake, así como la extensión de los límites marinos del Parque Nacional Corcovado.

L Oviedo; M Solís

2008-01-01

115

Species Composition and Relative Abundance of Mosquitoes in Swat, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) was conducted in Swat Pakistan, from April to September during 2000. The survey involved the sampling of both, adult and immature stages of mosquitoes, and recovered a total of 21 species in five genera. Sampling of adult mosquitoes involved Pyrethrum spray collections, Man-biting collections, and Animal-biting collection. Immature stages of mosquitoes were collected from variety of habitats including springs, irrigation channels, rice fields, marshes, temporary pools, construction pools, agriculture pools, river margins, ditches, waste water drains, wells and tree holes. During the study most of the species built up their populations in June, July and August, while a few increased their populations in September. During the survey of immature stages, from a total of 138 samples taken, Cx. quinquefasciatus showed maximum frequency of occurrence (recovered from 48 samples) followed by An. maculatus (17 samples), Cx. pseudovishnui (14 samples), An. annularis and An. stephensi (13 samples each), Cx. bitaeniorhynchus (11 samples), An. splendidus (5 samples) and Cx. theileri (4 samples). The rest of the species occurred infrequently. The observations on habitat specificity of different species of mosquitoes showed the rice fields as the most favorable site for mosquito breeding (harboring 12 species) followed by river margins (five species) and temporary pools and springs (four species each). During this study Ae. aegypti was recovered from tyres in Mingora; it was not reported earlier from Swat.

Ikram Ilahi; Muhammad Suleman

2013-01-01

116

The fog of war: why the environmental crusade for anadromous fish species in California could disarm the state's local vector control districts in their war against mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In California, local mosquito and vector control districts have successfully controlled mosquito and vector-borne diseases by improving drainage patterns and applying pesticides. The Bay-Delta Conservation Plan, which is a proposed habitat conservation plan for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay-Delta estuary, proposes to add over 70,000 acres of habitat in the Delta to improve conditions for threatened and endangered aquatic and terrestrial species. This habitat could also be a suitable mosquito breeding habitat, which will be located in close proximity to urban and suburban communities. Wetland management practices and continued pesticide applications in the Delta could mitigate the effects of a new mosquito breeding habitat. Recent legal developments, however, require districts to obtain and comply with Clean Water Act permits, which restrict the application of pesticides in or near waters of the United States. Moreover, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has taken the first step in a rulemaking process that could further limit or prohibit the use of certain vector control pesticides in the Delta. In the near term and until less harmful methods for mosquito control are available, local vector control districts' application of mosquito control pesticides should be exempt from Clean Water Act permit requirements.

Siptroth SM; Shanahan RP

2011-12-01

117

[Effect of water quality in mosquito breeding sites on the pathogenicity and infectivity of zoospores from the fungus Leptolegnia chapmanii (Straminipila: Peronosporomycetes)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fungus Leptolegnia chapmanii is highly pathogenic to mosquito larvae in Argentina. We studied if physical and chemical characteristics of the water from mosquito breeding sites affect pathogenicity, and the infectivity of zoospores of L. chapmanii. Water samples were taken from pools filled by rains, urban ditches with domestic waste water, pools filled by overflow from Río de la Plata, and flower vases from the Cemetery of La Plata city. Sub-samples of water were analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics, while other sub-samples were used for laboratory bioassays. Containers with 150 ml of water samples, 25 Aedes aegypti larvae, and 2.8 x 10(5) zoospores of L. chapmanii, were incubated under controlled environment, and larval mortality was recorded after 48 h. There were highly significant differences among mortalities in water from cemetery vases (70.2%), rain pools water (99.5%), and pools with water from Río de la Plata (95%). There were no significant differences among larval mortalities in water from ditches, rain pools and Río de la Plata pools. Leptolegnia chapmanii was successful as a biological control agent in all kinds of tested water qualities, producing high larval mortality.

Pelizza SA; Lastra CC; Maciá A; Bisaro V; García JJ

2009-03-01

118

Density, habitat selection and breeding success of an insular population of Barbary Falcon Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides  

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11 pages, 3 figures, 5 tables. , Full-text version available Open Access at: http://www.ebd.csic.es/Airam/pdf/RODRIGUEZ_et_al._2007_Ardea.pdf , We studied density, habitat selection and reproduction of Barbary Falcons Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides on Tenerife Island during 2004 and 2005. A total of 26 br...

Rodríguez, Beneharo; Siverio, Manuel; Rodríguez, Airam; Siverio, Felipe

119

Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Habitat Selection in Female-Calf Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Pairs on the Hawaiian Breeding Grounds  

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The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-t...

Cartwright, Rachel; Gillespie, Blake; LaBonte, Kristen; Mangold, Terence; Venema, Amy; Eden, Kevin; Sullivan, Matthew

120

The effect of physical water quality and water level changes on the occurrence and density of Anopheles mosquito larvae around the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, central Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of mosquito larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir in central Ethiopia between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is located close to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data, derived from weekly larval collections, showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of An. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitat than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitat. The density of An. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation. There was also a positive correlation between the occurrence of Anopheles larvae with the water and daily minimum atmospheric temperature. Similarly at Ejersa, over the sampling period, there was a positive correlation between falling reservoir water levels and the number of positive breeding habitats. These results confirm that physical characteristics of the water bodies play an important role in the species composition, total Anopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes. Suitable breeding habitat in the vicinity of the reservoir village was strongly associated with the reservoir. This is particularly important for An. pharoensis and An. gambiae s.l. which are important vectors of malaria in the area.

B. M. Teklu; H. Tekie; M. McCartney; S. Kibret

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Between a rock and a hard place: habitat selection in female-calf humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Pairs on the Hawaiian breeding grounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-tourism and whale watching industry. Our aim was to establish current trends in habitat preference in female-calf humpback whale pairs within this region, focusing specifically on the busy, eastern portions of the channel. We used an equally-spaced zigzag transect survey design, compiled our results in a GIS model to identify spatial trends and calculated Neu's Indices to quantify levels of habitat use. Our study revealed that while mysticete female-calf pairs on breeding grounds typically favor shallow, inshore waters, female-calf pairs in the Au'au Channel avoided shallow waters (<20 m) and regions within 2 km of the shoreline. Preferred regions for female-calf pairs comprised water depths between 40-60 m, regions of rugged bottom topography and regions that lay between 4 and 6 km from a small boat harbor (Lahaina Harbor) that fell within the study area. In contrast to other humpback whale breeding grounds, there was only minimal evidence of typical patterns of stratification or segregation according to group composition. A review of habitat use by maternal females across Hawaiian waters indicates that maternal habitat choice varies between localities within the Hawaiian Islands, suggesting that maternal females alter their use of habitat according to locally varying pressures. This ability to respond to varying environments may be the key that allows wildlife species to persist in regions where human activity and critical habitat overlap.

Cartwright R; Gillespie B; Labonte K; Mangold T; Venema A; Eden K; Sullivan M

2012-01-01

122

Efficacy of Agnique MMF monomolecular surface film against Anopheles stephensi breeding in urban habitats in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Efficacy of Agnique MMF, a monomolecular film formulation, was tested against immatures of Anopheles stephensi, an urban malaria vector in India, in simulated and natural habitats. Simulated field trials carried out in cement tanks showed 100% inhibition of adult emergence for up to 1 wk at 0.4 ml/m2 and up to 3 wk at 1 ml/m2. A small-scale field trial in tanks and wells at 1 and 2 ml/m2 produced more than 75% reduction of late instars and 100% reduction of pupae on day 1. The reduction in pupae at 1 and 2 ml/m2 lasted up to 2 wk in tanks and 5 wk in wells. These results suggest that Agnique MMF could be used as one of the choices in an urban malaria control program.

Batra CP; Mittal PK; Adak T; Subbarao SK

2006-09-01

123

Efficacy of Agnique MMF monomolecular surface film against Anopheles stephensi breeding in urban habitats in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficacy of Agnique MMF, a monomolecular film formulation, was tested against immatures of Anopheles stephensi, an urban malaria vector in India, in simulated and natural habitats. Simulated field trials carried out in cement tanks showed 100% inhibition of adult emergence for up to 1 wk at 0.4 ml/m2 and up to 3 wk at 1 ml/m2. A small-scale field trial in tanks and wells at 1 and 2 ml/m2 produced more than 75% reduction of late instars and 100% reduction of pupae on day 1. The reduction in pupae at 1 and 2 ml/m2 lasted up to 2 wk in tanks and 5 wk in wells. These results suggest that Agnique MMF could be used as one of the choices in an urban malaria control program. PMID:17067041

Batra, C P; Mittal, P K; Adak, T; Subbarao, S K

2006-09-01

124

Studies on mosquito vector species in indoor habitats of desert and non-desert regions of Rajasthan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey undertaken in two desert (Jodhpur and Bikaner) and one non-desert (Jaipur) districts of Rajasthan indicated that medically important mosquitoes comprised of three genera and elevan mosquito species. Culex pseudovisbnui, C. malayi and Anopheles culicifacies were found in desert districts only and A. fluviatilis, C. gelidus and Aedes vittatus in non-desert Jaipur district only. Except A. subpictus, all the species in the desert region had peak density in RH range of 21-60 per cent while in non-desert area most of the species had highest density in RH range of 61-80 per cent. No species in non-desert area occurred at temperature more than 40 degrees C.

Verma KV; Joshi V; Bansal SK

1991-12-01

125

Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?  

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Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

Márcio Goulart Mocellin; Taynãna César Simões; Teresa Fernandes Silva do Nascimento; Maria Lucia França Teixeira; Leon Philip Lounibos; Ricardo Lourenço de Oliveira

2009-01-01

126

Host range of the parasite Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in Argentina mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Poinar and Camino 1986) is a nematode parasite of mosquitoes isolated from the Neotropical region. We investigated the host range of this parasite in mosquito populations for a better understanding of the dynamics of temporary breeding sites. Five grassy-pool habitats filled by rainwater were sampled from the summer 2007 through the fall 2008. Eight mosquito species were collected: Anopheles albitarsis, Culex chidesteri, Culex dolosus, Culex maxi, Aedes albifasciatus, Psorophora ciliata, Psorophora cyanescens, and Psorophora albigenu. Six of these species were parasitized: Cx. chidesteri, Cx. dolosus, Cx. maxi, Ae. albifasciatus, Ps. ciliata, and Ps. cyanescens. The occurrence of this mermithid in natural mosquito populations was increased from the end of winter to the end of the spring. Prevalence ranged from 11% to 100%. High levels of infections were registered only in Ae. albifasciatus larvae, the most abundant mosquito species (95%), followed by Cx. dolosus (2.7%). Strelkovimermis spiculatus completed its development in all infected mosquito larvae. The presence of S. spiculatus in six natural mosquito populations increases the number of susceptible species to 24.

Achinelly MF; Micieli MV

2013-06-01

127

Abundance of water bodies is critical to guide mosquito larval control interventions and predict risk of mosquito-borne diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Characterization of mosquito breeding habitats is often accomplished with the goal of guiding larval control interventions as well as the goal of identifying areas with higher disease risk. This characterization often relies on statistical measures of association (e.g., regression coefficients) between covariates and presence/absence or abundance of larva. Here we contend that these measures of association are not enough; researchers should also study the spatial and temporal distribution of water bodies. We provide recommendations on how current methodology may be improved to adequately take into account the distribution of water bodies.

Valle D; Zaitchik B; Feingold B; Spangler K; Pan W

2013-01-01

128

Relative abundance and species composition of mosquito populations (Diptera:Culicidae) in a La Crosse virus-endemic area in western North Carolina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, and the standing crop of mosquitoes per residence. Eleven species of mosquitoes were collected, but 80.9% of all mosquitoes reared from containers were Aedes triseriatus (Say). All communities averaged > 6 containers per residence, indicating that the potential for mosquito production was high. The Breteau index and mean standing crop of adults per residence in the 5 communities were highly concordant. LAC virus was isolated from 2 pools of 56 female and 36 male Ae. triseriatus adults that were reared from eggs collected by ovitraps. The minimum field infection rate was 0.26 per 1,000 adults tested. Aedes triseriatus, the most frequently collected blood-fed mosquito (98/112 blood-engorged specimens), fed predominantly on dogs (40.4%), rabbits (26.6%), and turtles (22.3%). Only 7.5% of the blood-fed mosquitoes had fed on eastern chipmunks. Peridomestic conditions on the Reservation appear to contribute to the maintenance of LAC virus transmission. Production of Ae. triseriatus occurs in artificial containers discarded around residences, and wooded areas immediately adjacent to residences provide resting cover for mosquitoes as well as suitable habitat for LAC virus reservoir hosts.

Szumlas DE; Apperson CS; Powell EE; Hartig P; Francy DB; Karabotsos N

1996-07-01

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Mosquitos dendrícolas (Diptera, Culicidae) em internódios de taquara da Floresta Atlântica, Serra do Mar e do Primeiro Planalto, Paraná, Brasil  

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Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from january 1985 to december 1986, studies were carried out on mosquitoes living in the internodes of bamboo in two distinct regions, the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar and the First Plateau, both in the state of Paraná, Brazil. These dendricolous habitats are very different from other recorded mosquito breeding sites. The internodes of the green, living bamboo are closed reservoirs of water with only some small, lateral holes made by boring insects Eucalyptra barbara Schaus, 1894 and Eucalyptra fumida Schaus, 1894 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), and other animals. The water in the internodes derives from the bamboo itself. These are the first observations of this breeding behavior. Some females entirely enter the hole to oviposit while others dont't. Similar, artificially constructed habitats were studied at the same time by producing transvere openings and introducing water into the reservoir. Seventeen species of dendricolous mosquitoes were observed utilizing this unique habitat. Additional studies have elaborated other behavioral aspects of these mosquitoes.

Ana Leuch Lozovei

1998-01-01

130

Influence of short time exposure to an insect growth regulator, hexaflumuron, on mortality and adult emergence of vector mosquitoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Hexaflumuron, an insect growth regulator (IGR), was found to greatly affect the development of immatures and emergence of adults of three species of vector mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, when larvae were subjected to short time exposure of (more) degrees of morphogenetic abnormalities were induced in immatures and adults of the three species. Four weeks of control achieved in a slow moving sullage canal breeding Culex quinquefasciatus indicates that this IGR can be of use in such breeding habitats.

Vasuki, V.; Rajavel, A. R.

1992-06-01

131

Foraging habitat selection by sympatric Temminck’s tragopan and blood pheasant during breeding season in southwestern China  

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Full Text Available Temminck’s tragopan (Tragopan temminckii) and blood pheasant (Ithaginis cruentus) are two threatened species mainly distributed in China. However, we know little about the ecology of these two pheasants. Between May and August in 2006, we investigated foraging habitat selection by the two sympatric species in Liziping Nature Reserve in Sichuan Province, China, using line transect and systematic sampling methods. Temminck’s tragopans occurred at relatively low altitudes (1,950?3,450 m), while blood pheasants occurred at higher altitudes (2,760?3,800 m). No differences were found between the two species in terms of use of forest types. Both species preferred coniferous and mixed coniferous-broadleaved forest and they seldom occurred in forest areas with dense arrow bamboo (Fargesia spathacea). At the microhabitat scale, both species were consistently associated with dense tree coverage, and dense coverage of tall herbaceous plants. Home ranges of the two species contained more coniferous trees than random, and foraging sites were close to forest roads. We did detect some habitat use differences between the two species. Blood pheasant foraging habitats were associated with southwest-facing slopes, while Temminck’s tragopans did not select sites based on aspect. The habitats of Temminck’s tragopans were associated with lower arrow bamboo and sparse bamboo coverage compared to the control sites. There were more mixed coniferous-broadleaved forests and less forest-bamboo mixed forests in Temminck’s tragopans’ home ranges than in blood pheasants’ home ranges. We suggest that basic differences in habitat use can explain how the two species are able to maintain sympatric distributions.

Peng Cui; Mingjiang Kang; Wenhong Deng

2008-01-01

132

Mosquito population regulation and larval source management in heterogeneous environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM). We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats' carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%). Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools) gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides.

Smith DL; Perkins TA; Tusting LS; Scott TW; Lindsay SW

2013-01-01

133

Observations on the breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti in Calcutta following an episode of dengue haemorrhagic fever.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A year-long (Nov. 1990-Oct. 1991) search for Ae. aegypti larvae was made of all water containers in and around fixed 100 houses at Bowbazar area in Calcutta following an episode of DHF. Out of 10151 containers searched, 615 (6%) were positive. Masonry tanks were the major (64.2%) and preferred (17%) breeding sites of Ae. aegypti. Indoor containers (6.7%) were more conducive to breeding of the vector species than the outdoor ones (3%). Breteau index showing wide variation (25 in December '90 to '93 in August 1991) proved to be the best for measurement of density of larval population of Ae. aegypti and paralleled the fluctuation in both rainfall and humidity. Role of temperature was not pronounced. It was noted that cases of DHF occurred even with the lowest Breteau index in December.

Biswas D; Dey S; Dutta RN; Hati AK

1993-01-01

134

Anopheles culicifacies breeding in polluted water bodies in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Anopheles culicifacies, the major vector of malaria in Sri Lanka, is known to breed in clean and clear water. The main objective of the study was to detect the breeding habitat diversity of An. culicifacies. Methods Potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes were surveyed on a monthly basis for 17 months (January 2011–June 2012) in four different selected sampling sites (Murthankulam, Kommnaimottai, Paranamadawachchiya and Kokmotawewa) in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka. Results A total of 2,996 larval specimens representing 13 Anopheles species were reported from 16 different breeding habitats. According to density criterion, An. culicifacies, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus and Anopheles nigerrimus were dominant. Anopheles nigerrimus, An. subpictus and An. peditaeniatus were observed as constant in relation to their distribution. The most productive breeding site for An. culicifacies was drains filled with waste water in remote areas; the second highest productivity was found in built wells. Conclusions These results indicate that An. culicifacies has adapted to breed in a wide range of water bodies including waste water collections although they were earlier considered to breed only in clean and clear water.

2013-01-01

135

Anopheles culicifacies breeding in polluted water bodies in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anopheles culicifacies, the major vector of malaria in Sri Lanka, is known to breed in clean and clear water. The main objective of the study was to detect the breeding habitat diversity of An. culicifacies. METHODS: Potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes were surveyed on a monthly basis for 17 months (January 2011--June 2012) in four different selected sampling sites (Murthankulam, Kommnaimottai, Paranamadawachchiya and Kokmotawewa) in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka. RESULTS: A total of 2,996 larval specimens representing 13 Anopheles species were reported from 16 different breeding habitats. According to density criterion, An. culicifacies, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus and Anopheles nigerrimus were dominant. Anopheles nigerrimus, An. subpictus and An. peditaeniatus were observed as constant in relation to their distribution. The most productive breeding site for An. culicifacies was drains filled with waste water in remote areas; the second highest productivity was found in built wells. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that An. culicifacies has adapted to breed in a wide range of water bodies including waste water collections although they were earlier considered to breed only in clean and clear water.

Gunathilaka N; Fernando T; Hapugoda M; Wickremasinghe R; Wijeyerathne P; Abeyewickreme W

2013-08-01

136

Bdelloid rotifer, Philodina species in the breeding containers of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The vector mosquitoes of dengue and chikungunya fever, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have adapted to feed on humans and undergo larval and pupal development in natural and artificial freshwater collections. Although several studies reported, still, much information is required to understand the successful survival of Aedes mosquitoes in small temporary containers. In an investigation conducted in the chikungunya affected areas of Kerala state, India, the presence of Bdelloid rotifer, Philodina in 95% of breeding habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was recorded. The role of Philodina in the breeding containers was investigated. It was found that while in control the number of Philodina was found increasing in the water sample during the study period of seven days, the number found decreased in the containers with larvae of Aedes. The gut content analysis also confirmed the presence of the rotating wheel, corona of Philodina in some of the specimen suggests its role as major larval food.

Muniaraj M; Arunachalam N; Paramasivan R; Mariappan T; Philip Samuel P; Rajamannar V

2012-12-01

137

Bdelloid rotifer, Philodina species in the breeding containers of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The vector mosquitoes of dengue and chikungunya fever, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have adapted to feed on humans and undergo larval and pupal development in natural and artificial freshwater collections. Although several studies reported, still, much information is required to understand the successful survival of Aedes mosquitoes in small temporary containers. In an investigation conducted in the chikungunya affected areas of Kerala state, India, the presence of Bdelloid rotifer, Philodina in 95% of breeding habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was recorded. The role of Philodina in the breeding containers was investigated. It was found that while in control the number of Philodina was found increasing in the water sample during the study period of seven days, the number found decreased in the containers with larvae of Aedes. The gut content analysis also confirmed the presence of the rotating wheel, corona of Philodina in some of the specimen suggests its role as major larval food. PMID:23202612

Muniaraj, M; Arunachalam, N; Paramasivan, R; Mariappan, T; Philip Samuel, P; Rajamannar, V

2012-12-01

138

Alguns aspectos da ecologia dos mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) de uma área de planície (granjas Calábria), em Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: V. Criadouros Some aspects of the ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of an area of plains (granjas Calábria), in Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: V. Breeding places  

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Full Text Available Apresentamos os resultados de observações sobre os criadouros dos mosquitos, que realizamos numa fazenda - Granjas Calábria, da Baixada de Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, no período de agosto de 1981 a julho de 1983. A maioria das espécies locais preferiu coleções líquidas no solo, particularmente as de caráter natural, não deixando, entretanto, de procurar aquelas propiciadas pelas atividades humanas. Os criadouros transitórios foram mais freqüentados por Culex saltanensis e pelas espécies da tribo Aedini, como Aedes scapularis, Aedes taeniorhynchus, Psorophora ciliata e Psorophora confinnis, enquanto os de caráter permanente foram mananciais de formas imaturas de Mansonia titillans, Culex amazonensis, Culex chidesteri, Culex bidens, Culex declarator, Culex nigripalpus e Culex plectoporpe. Algumas espécies foram coletadas em recipientes naturais: Culex ocellatus, os Culex (Microculex), Phoniomyia davisi, Phoniomyia deanei e Wyeomyia forcipenis, em bromélias; Aedes terrens, Culex gairus e Culex imitador, em buraco em árvore; e Wyeomyia leucostigma, em axilas submersas das folhas de taboas (Thypha dominguensis). Culex gairus foi encontrado pela primeira vez criando em recipientes artificiais, locais também preferidos por Culex corniger, Culex quinquefasciatus e Limatus durhami.Results are presented of observations on the breeding places of mosquitoes, carried out in a coastal lowland farm - Granjas Calábria, in JAcarepaguá, city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The majority of species preferred breeding places on the ground, chiefly the natural ones, but also developed in those originated from human activities. Cx. saltanensis and the species belonging to the Aedini tribe, such as Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Ps. ciliata, Ps. confinnis and Ps. Pseudomelanota were more abundant in temporary breeding places, while Ma. titillans, Cx. amazonensis, Cx. chidesteri, Cx. bidens, Cx. declarator, cx. nigipalpus and Cx. plectoporpe occurred usually in the permanent ones. Some species were collected in natural recipients: Cx. ocellatus, the Cx. (Microculex), Ph davisi, Ph. deanei and Wy. forcipenis, in bromeliads, Ae. terrens, Cx. imitator and Cx. gairus, in tree-holes; and Wy. leucostigma, in the submerged Typha dominguensis leaf axils. Cx. gairus was found for the first time breeding in artificial containers, which were also preferred by Cx. corniger, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Li. durhaml.

Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira; Rosemarie Heyden; Teresa Fernandes da Silva

1986-01-01

139

Cyanobacteria associated with Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in southern Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cyanobacteria associated with Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann larval habitats from southern Chiapas, Mexico, were isolated and identified from water samples and larval midguts using selective medium BG-11. Larval breeding sites were classified according to their hydrology and dominant vegetation. Cyanobacteria isolated in water samples were recorded and analyzed according to hydrological and vegetation habitat breeding types, and mosquito larval abundance. In total, 19 cyanobacteria species were isolated from water samples. Overall, the most frequently isolated cyanobacterial taxa were Phormidium sp., Oscillatoria sp., Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis, Lyngbya lutea, P. animalis, and Anabaena cf. spiroides. Cyanobacteria were especially abundant in estuaries, irrigation canals, river margins and mangrove lagoons, and more cyanobacteria were isolated from Brachiaria mutica, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Hymenachne amplexicaulis habitats. Cyanobacteria were found in habitats with low to high An. albimanus larval abundance, but Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis was associated with habitats of low larval abundance. No correlation was found between water chemistry parameters and the presence of cyanobacteria, however, water temperature (29.2-29.4 degrees C) and phosphate concentration (79.8-136.5 ppb) were associated with medium and high mosquito larvae abundance. In An. albimanus larval midguts, only six species of cyanobacteria were isolated, the majority being from the most abundant cyanobacteria in water samples.

Vázquez-Martínez MG; Rodríguez MH; Arredondo-Jiménez JI; Méndez-Sanchez JD; Bond-Compeán JG; Cold-Morgan M

2002-11-01

140

The effect of water physical quality and water level changes on the occurrence and density of larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes around the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, Central Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae and on the spatial and temporal formation of larval breeding habitats were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is in close proximity to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data from the weekly larval collections showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of A. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitats than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitats (F=16.97, pF=6.03, pA. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation (F=15.75, pF=10.56, pAnopheles larvae with water temperature of the breeding habitat and daily minimum atmospheric temperature (r=0.541, pr=0.604, pr=0.605, pAnopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes in the vicinity. The proliferation of suitable breeding habitats around the reservoir villages is strongly associated with reservoir water level changes. This is particularly important for A. pharoensis and A. arabiensis which are important vectors of malaria in the area. Further investigation on the species diversity, physical and chemical habitat characteristics and impact of water holding capacity of the soil need to be done to generate detailed baseline data which will serve as a basis for proper water management activities for malaria risk mitigation.

B. M. Teklu; H. Tekie; M. McCartney; S. Kibret

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Mosquito Modifications: New Approaches to Controlling Malaria  

Science.gov (United States)

This article from the November 2007 issue of BioScience examines the historical and current methods to control Malaria.Malaria kills about one million people each year, but efforts to destroy disease-carrying mosquitoes have succeeded only in breeding tougher bugs. Researchers have begun to look for ways to create malaria-resistant mosquitoes. One approach is to bioengineer transgenic mosquitoes that, when released into the wild, would lead to a new race of malaria-proof young. Another approach uses mosquitoes' natural resistance to Plasmodium infection.

Sharon Levy (;)

2007-11-01

142

[Mosquito allergy].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Virtually all Finns are sensitized to mosquito bites already during childhood. Skin reactions caused by mosquito bites vary from rapidly appearing urticarial wheals to persistent itching papules. Allergic shock is fortunately extremely rare. The symptoms are strongest in early summer. Immediate symptoms result from proteins that get into the skin along with mosquito saliva and induce the production of IgE class antibodies by the body. The originating mechanism of delayed symptoms is unclear. Both immediate and delayed symptoms of mosquito allergy can be relieved with antihistamine drugs.

Brummer-Korvenkontio H; Reunala T

2013-01-01

143

The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently transported in the absence of water in the form of hibernating embryos. Once introduced either as embryos or juveniles in ponds, the annual killifish can effectively reduce the larval population because of its aggressive predatory activity.

Matias Jonathan R; Adrias Araceli Q

2010-01-01

144

Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) em áreas do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Brasil: 1 ­ Distribuição por hábitat Mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) ecology in the Iguaçu National Park, Brazil: 1 ­ Habitat distribution  

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Full Text Available Estabelecemos a influência exercida pela cobertura vegetal de quatro diferentes biótopos em áreas do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu (PNI) sobre a fauna local de mosquitos. Realizaram-se capturas bimestrais, em isca humana e armadilha Shannon, em três diferentes períodos do dia, em ambiente silvestre e domiciliar, durante 24 meses consecutivos. Dentre os 20.273 espécimes de fêmeas adultas capturadas, pertencentes a 44 espécies, Ochlerotatus serratus (10,3%), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9,7%), Mansonia titillans (9,6%) e Chagasia fajardoi (8,8%) foram predominantes. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia theobaldi, Wyeomyia aporonoma e Wy. confusa ocorreram exclusivamente em áreas com vegetação bem preservada e densa configuração. Culex nigripalpus, Oc. pennai, Oc. serratus, Sabethes purpureus e Sa. albiprivus foram capturados nos três biótopos essencialmente silvestres. Na mata no entorno da represa foram capturadas principalmente An. albitarsis s.l., An. galvaoi, An. evansae, An. fluminensis, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Cq. juxtamansonia, Wy. quasilongirostris e Onirion personatum. As espécies que apresentaram maiores incidências na área sob ação antrópica foram Ch. fajardoi, Cq. fasciolata, Cq. nitens e Ma. titillans.A study of the mosquito fauna in the Iguaçu National Park focused on population behavior in four biotopes with different types of plant cover inside the Park. Systematic bimonthly diurnal and nocturnal human bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted in both forest and domiciliary environments over the course of 24 months. A total of 20,273 adult mosquito specimens belonging to 44 species were collected: Ochlerotatus serratus (10.3%), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9.7%), Mansonia titillans (9.6%), and Chagasia fajardoi (8.8%) were the most frequently captured mosquitoes. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia theobaldi, Wyeomyia aporonoma, and Wy. confusa were captured almost exclusively in well-preserved areas with dense forest cover. Culex nigripalpus, Oc. pennai, Oc. serratus, Sabethes purpureus, and Sa. albiprivus were captured in three essentially sylvatic biotopes. Species captured in the forest areas around a dam were: An. albitarsis s.l., An. galvaoi, An. evansae, An. fluminensis, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Cq. juxtamansonia, Wy. quasilongirostris, and Onirion personatum, Ch. fajardoi, Cq. fasciolata, Cq nitens, and Ma. titillans were the most frequently captured species in a residential area.

Anthony Érico Guimarães; Catarina Macedo Lopes; Rubens Pinto de Mello; Jeronimo Alencar

2003-01-01

145

Time budgets of Tibetan eared pheasants during the non-breeding season in an alpine scrub habitat  

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Full Text Available Time allocations of the group-living Tibetan eared pheasants Crossoptilon harmani with and without supplementary food were investigated by full-day sampling from winter through spring in an alpine shrub zone, south Tibet. At a flock scale, both the different food-supply flocks displayed similar daily patterns of activity, foraging in the morning and evening, and resting around midday. In terms of individual activity, either foraging or resting was highly synchronous with the flock’s. Non-provisioned birds spent more time feeding and less resting in midwinter than in late autumn. In early spring as climates became warmer and day longer, however, non-provisioned birds did not decrease their feeding efforts significantly but the provisioned birds did. Across the non-breeding seasons, the provisioned birds (relying on nutrition-rich artificial foods) devoted less time to feeding and more to resting than did the non-provisioned ones (relying on nutrition-poor plant roots). Multivariate analysis showed increased food supply and ambient temperature resulted in a reduced foraging effort. However, the fact that the non-provisioned birds can save daily time for resting even in the cold short midwinter indicated that they faced no energetic constraint. Thus, protecting shelter vegetation rather than providing extra food is suggested to be important for long-term survival of the endangered galliform birds [Current Zoology 55(3):193–199,2009].

Xin LU; Guangmei ZHENG

2009-01-01

146

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Wood Duck  

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A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop models for breeding and wintering habitats for the wood duck (Aix sponsa). The models are scaled to produce indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat). Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Sousa, Patrick J.; Farmer, Adrian H.

1983-01-01

147

Global climate change and its potential impact on disease transmission by salinity-tolerant mosquito vectors in coastal zones.  

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Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water with <0.5?ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5-30?ppt and >30?ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish, and saline respectively) will also take place as a result of global warming causing a rise in sea levels in coastal zones. Its possible impact on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases has, however, not been adequately appreciated. The relevant impacts of global climate change on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones are discussed with reference to the Ross-McDonald equation and modeling studies. Evidence is presented to show that an expansion of brackish water bodies in coastal zones can increase the densities of salinity-tolerant mosquitoes like Anopheles sundaicus and Culex sitiens, and lead to the adaptation of fresh water mosquito vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus to salinity. Rising sea levels may therefore act synergistically with global climate change to increase the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones. Greater attention therefore needs to be devoted to monitoring disease incidence and preimaginal development of vector mosquitoes in artificial and natural coastal brackish/saline habitats. It is important that national and international health agencies are aware of the increased risk of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones and develop preventive and mitigating strategies. Application of appropriate counter measures can greatly reduce the potential for increased coastal transmission of mosquito-borne diseases consequent to climate change and a rise in sea levels. It is proposed that the Jaffna peninsula in Sri Lanka may be a useful case study for the impact of rising sea levels on mosquito vectors in tropical coasts.

Ramasamy R; Surendran SN

2012-01-01

148

Brazilian mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna: I. Anopheles species from Porto Velho, Rondonia state, western Amazon, Brazil.  

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This study contributes to knowledge of Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium from the western Brazilian Amazon in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. The sampling area has undergone substantial environmental changes as a consequence of agricultural and hydroelectric projects, which have caused intensive deforestation and favored habitats for some mosquito species. The purpose of this study was to diagnose the occurrence of anopheline species from collections in three locations along an electric-power transmission line. Each locality was sampled three times from 2010 to 2011. The principal adult mosquitoes captured in Shannon trap were Anopheles darlingi, An. triannulatus, An. nuneztovari l.s., An.gilesi and An. costai. In addition, larvae were collected in ground breeding sites for Anopheles braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. darlingi, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. peryassui, An. nuneztovari l.s. and An. oswaldoi-konderi. Anopheles darlingi was the most common mosquito in the region. We discuss Culicidae systematics, fauna distribution, and aspects of malaria in altered habitats of the western Amazon.

Morais SA; Urbinatti PR; Sallum MA; Kuniy AA; Moresco GG; Fernandes A; Nagaki SS; Natal D

2012-12-01

149

Availability and utility of local fishes of Shahjahanpur for mosquito control.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of fishes in Shahjahanpur in different aquatic habitats revealed 35 indigenous fish species. Out of 35 fish species, 24 were found feeding on mosquito larvae of which 6 species, viz. Chela bacaila, Puntius stigma, Rasbora daniconius, Esomus danricus, Colisa fasciatus and Danio sp., had good larvivorous potential. Most of the fish species preferred to feed on III and IV instar larvae. In the presence of planktonic food, the consumption capacity of fishes for mosquito larvae was lesser on third day (D3) of observation than on first day (D1). The difference in the consumption of mosquito larvae between D1 and D3 was significant (P < 0.01). Similarly, difference in the feeding capacity of fishes in the months of September and January was highly significant (P < 0.001). But there was no seasonal variation in the preference of instar-wise consumption. Indigenous fish species such as C. fasciatus, E. danricus, P. stigma, R. daniconius and Danio sp. could therefore play a significant role in controlling mosquito breeding in this area. PMID:8100538

Haq, S; Prasad, H; Prasad, R N; Sharma, T

1993-03-01

150

Registros de mayor altitud para mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas) y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 (more) especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae). Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia) podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia) en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m. Abstract in english Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean (more) mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera Kerteszia- with the upper limit of 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2 550 m were the highest records in the Central- Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2 252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2 000 m. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1): 245-254. Epub 2010 March 01.

Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

2010-03-01

151

Registros de mayor altitud para mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas) y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae). Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia) podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia) en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera Kerteszia- with the upper limit of 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2 550 m were the highest records in the Central- Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2 252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2 000 m. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1): 245-254. Epub 2010 March 01.

Juan-Carlos Navarro; Fabiola Del Ventura; Adriana Zorrilla; Jonathan Liria

2010-01-01

152

Environmental predictors of the occurrence of ground water mosquito immatures in the Parana Lower Delta, Argentina.  

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Characterizing mosquito larval habitats is essential for understanding the complex interactions between immatures and the biotic and abiotic components of their environment. Using generalized linear mixed models, we studied the environmental predictors of the presence of three ubiquitous mosquito species breeding in ground water habitats in the Paraná Lower Delta, Argentina. During a year-round survey, 34.1% of the 419 ground water habitats inspected were positive for either Culex dolosus s.l. (Lynch Arribálzaga 1891), Aedes crinifer (Theobald 1903), or Culex intrincatus Brèthes 1916. Univariate analysis showed that the former two occurred throughout the year, whereas the latter during the summer and fall. Ae. crinifer and Cx. intrincatus were more frequently collected in secondary forests, whereas Cx. dolosus s.l. was homogeneously distributed among land uses. Best generalized linear mixed models included the sampling period and landscape variables in different combinations for each species. Spatial dependence of the data was evident for Cx. dolosus s.l. and Ae. crinifer. Our results showed that the most widespread species presented different spatio-temporal distribution patterns, related with land use, anthropic intervention, and seasonality, highlighting the complexity of the wetland under study. This methodological approach could aid in the selection of priority areas for vector control and disease risk management.

Cardo MV; Vezzani D; Carbajo AE

2011-09-01

153

Characterisation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in Córdoba, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in Córdoba city. Every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention (more) ponds, canals and ditches) were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. Data regarding the water depth, temperature and pH, permanence, the presence of aquatic vegetation and the density of collected mosquito larvae were recorded. Data on the average air temperatures and accumulated precipitation during the 15 days prior to each sampling date were also obtained. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected throughout the study period and were generally most abundant in the summer season. Generalised linear mixed models indicated the average air temperature and presence of dicotyledonous aquatic vegetation as variables that served as important predictors of larval densities. Additionally, permanent breeding sites supported high larval densities. In Córdoba city and possibly in other highly populated cities at the same latitude with the same environmental conditions, control programs should focus on permanent larval habitats with aquatic vegetation during the early spring, when the Cx. quinquefasciatus population begins to increase.

Grech, Marta; Sartor, Paolo; Estallo, Elizabet; Luduena-Almeida, Francisco; Almiron, Walter

2013-09-01

154

Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia andelsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporalvariation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anophelinemosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course ofthe Ethiopian Rift Valley.Methods: Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables(water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables) were measured, characterized andanalyzed.Results: Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV) of anopheline larvae collected throughout thestudy period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus). Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis andAn. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logisticregression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vectorspecies. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquaticvegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly andpositively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies.Conclusion: Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintainedby perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vectorcontrol operations.

Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew & Teshome Gebre-Michael

2011-01-01

155

Microhabitats de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) em internódios de taquara na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Mosquitoes microhabitats (Diptera, Culicidae) in bamboo internodes in Atlantic forest, Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from January 1985 to December 1986, a comparative study of mosquitoes preferences for breeding habitat was carried out in the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar, Paraná State, Brazil. To achieve it, 1875 bamboo internodes aligned vertically in live green, bamboo plants Merostachys speciosa Munro and Merostachys sp. were used, in which metabolic water was exuded from the plant itself, and presenting different size/pattern holes at their lateral walls, bored by the local sylvan fauna. Another group of 1200 individual internode traps was used as comparative element, carved out with a transversal cut by a saw, filled with local stream water and held in branches at different heights in the vegetal strata nearby. At both microhabitat types, a total of 17 culicid species was registered. Culex (Microculex) neglectus Lutz, 1904, Cx. (Carrollia) soperi Antunes & Lane, 1937, Sabethes (Sabethes) batesi Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 and Sa. (Sabethinus) melanonymphe (Dyar, 1924)colonized exclusively live plant internodes, while Culex (Microculex) elongatus Rozeboom & Lane, 1950, Cx. (Carrollia) iridescens (Lutz, 1905), Cx. (Carrollia) kompi Valencia,1973and Trichoprosopon (Trichoprosopon) soaresi Dyar & Knab, 1907 bred only in internode traps. The remaining nine species colonized both habitats indistinctly. Quantitatively, was detected the abundance of 60.1% at live green internodes, against 39.9% for internode traps. Concerning the different patterns of bored live internode holes, 40.3% of the total computed specimens were collected in square or rectangular holes, 31.9% in two hole internodes, one minute circular, the other wider, and the remaining 28.8% of specimens distributed in other pattern type internodes. The mosquitoes breeding at these microhabitats fall in the culicid entomofauna specialized at locating and detecting peculiar and propitious mesogen conditions for breeding purposes.

Ana Leuch Lozovei

2001-01-01

156

Landscape Ecology vol. 7 no. 2 pp 87-99 (1992) SPB Academic Publishing bv, The Hague Satellite remote sensing of breeding habitat for an African weaver-bird  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board the NOAA seriesof operational, polar orbiting, meteorological satellites have previously been shown to be quite useful formonitoring vegetation dynamics at scales ranging from regional to global. In this report, wedemonstrate that these same data can be used to monitor potential breeding habitat for a highly mobile,granivorous African weaver-bird, the red-billed quelea (Quelea guelea). This species is often considered tobe an agricultural pest, affecting cereal production throughout Africa. The temporal resolutionand very large (continental) spatial coverage provided by these data can provide a unique context within whichto examine species distribution and abundance patterns.

David Clive; C. H. Elliott; Herman H. Shugart; Compton J. Tucker

157

Beta-cyfluthrin, a synthetic pyrethroid for mosquito control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beta-cyfluthrin (OMS 3051), a new synthetic pyrethroid and one of the stereoisomers of cyfluthrin, was studied for insecticidal activity against eight mosquito species. Its larvicidal activity with LC50 values of 5.62 x 10(-5) and 1.19 x 10(-4) mg/l respectively for Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was comparable with that of deltamethrin. This pyrethroid was more effective against the larvae of Armigeres subalbatus (LC50 - 7.76 x 10(-7)) and the adults of Anopheles culicifacies LT50 - 27.76 min at 2.0 mu/cm2) than the other species tested. Residual efficacy at 50 mg(ai)/m2 was more persistent (for 14-25 weeks) on thatch and asbestos among the four treated surfaces. This compound also elicited oviposition deterrent activity at 0.001 mg/l against Cx.quinquefasciatus. beta-cyfluthrin is a good insecticide for mosquito control. However, care should be exercised while using it as a larvicide in breeding habitats considering its toxicity to fish. PMID:1359650

Vasuki, V; Rajavel, A R

1992-06-01

158

Beta-cyfluthrin, a synthetic pyrethroid for mosquito control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Beta-cyfluthrin (OMS 3051), a new synthetic pyrethroid and one of the stereoisomers of cyfluthrin, was studied for insecticidal activity against eight mosquito species. Its larvicidal activity with LC50 values of 5.62 x 10(-5) and 1.19 x 10(-4) mg/l respectively for Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was comparable with that of deltamethrin. This pyrethroid was more effective against the larvae of Armigeres subalbatus (LC50 - 7.76 x 10(-7)) and the adults of Anopheles culicifacies LT50 - 27.76 min at 2.0 mu/cm2) than the other species tested. Residual efficacy at 50 mg(ai)/m2 was more persistent (for 14-25 weeks) on thatch and asbestos among the four treated surfaces. This compound also elicited oviposition deterrent activity at 0.001 mg/l against Cx.quinquefasciatus. beta-cyfluthrin is a good insecticide for mosquito control. However, care should be exercised while using it as a larvicide in breeding habitats considering its toxicity to fish.

Vasuki V; Rajavel AR

1992-06-01

159

Aquatic insect predators and mosquito control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes are serious biting pests and obligate vectors of many vertebrate pathogens. Their immature larval and pupal life stages are a common feature in most tropical and many temperate water bodies and often form a significant proportion of the biomass. Control strategies rely primarily on the use of larvicides and environmental modification to reduce recruitment and adulticides during periods of disease transmission. Larvicides are usually chemical but can involve biological toxins, agents or organisms. The use of insect predators in mosquito control has been exploited in a limited fashion and there is much room for further investigation and implementation. Insects that are recognized as having predatorial capacity with regard to mosquito prey have been identified in the Orders Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera (primarily aquatic predators), and Hemiptera (primarily surface predators). Although their capacity is affected by certain biological and physical factors, they could play a major role in mosquito control. Furthermore, better understanding for the mosquitoes-predators relationship(s) could probably lead to satisfactory reduction of mosquito-borne diseases by utilizing either these predators in control programs, for instance biological and/or integrated control, or their kairomones as mosquitoes' ovipoisting repellents. This review covers the predation of different insect species on mosquito larvae, predator-prey-habitat relationships, co-habitation developmental issues, survival and abundance, oviposition avoidance, predatorial capacity and integrated vector control.

Shaalan EA; Canyon DV

2009-12-01

160

Análise comparativa entre métodos alternativo e convencional para amostras de mosquitos obtidos a partir de habitats fitotélmicos (Bromeliaceae) na Floresta Atlântica, Serra do Mar, Paraná, Brasil Comparison between alternative and usual methods to study mosquitoes samples from bromeliads habitat (Bromeliaceae), Atlantic Forest, Sea Mountain ridge, Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The collects from mosquitoes' sample that repro-duce in leaf imbricate of bromeliads were done by two differents methods: a conven-tional method where the plants were felled and the water inside were dropped in a recipient and in the second method the samples were collected by sucking the water, so the plant wasn't felled. The number of bromeliads studied in each method was 120 plants from zero to 15 m height. The period of study lasted from january till december 1989. The bromeliads were collected monthly by each method. The score of immature was done at the laboratory. The variables studied were the number of leaf axils with water (Xi, Yi), water volume (cm³) inside each bromeliad (X2, Y2), the number of immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) inside each water volume from each bromeliad (X3, Y3), respectivelly, for the methods that the samples were obtained: by sucking or by felling the plant and the time (month) variable. By this study, we concluded that there is no significative difference between the methods done for a = 0,05. There is also no significative difference between both methods in each month. However, there was significative difference between the monlhs for ? = 0.05.

Ana Leuch Lozovei; Mário Antônio Navarro da Silva

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Influence of short time exposure to an insect growth regulator, hexaflumuron, on mortality and adult emergence of vector mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hexaflumuron, an insect growth regulator (IGR), was found to greatly affect the development of immatures and emergence of adults of three species of vector mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, when larvae were subjected to short time exposure of < or = 1 h. This IGR could completely prevent adult emergence even at a minimum exposure time of 10 min at 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/l. On treatment, larval and pupal mortality as well as varying degrees of morphogenetic abnormalities were induced in immatures and adults of the three species. Four weeks of control achieved in a slow moving sullage canal breeding Culex quinquefasciatus indicates that this IGR can be of use in such breeding habitats.

Vasuki V; Rajavel AR

1992-04-01

162

Influence of short time exposure to an insect growth regulator, hexaflumuron, on mortality and adult emergence of vector mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexaflumuron, an insect growth regulator (IGR), was found to greatly affect the development of immatures and emergence of adults of three species of vector mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, when larvae were subjected to short time exposure of < or = 1 h. This IGR could completely prevent adult emergence even at a minimum exposure time of 10 min at 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/l. On treatment, larval and pupal mortality as well as varying degrees of morphogenetic abnormalities were induced in immatures and adults of the three species. Four weeks of control achieved in a slow moving sullage canal breeding Culex quinquefasciatus indicates that this IGR can be of use in such breeding habitats. PMID:1308571

Vasuki, V; Rajavel, A R

163

Influence of short time exposure to an insect growth regulator, hexaflumuron, on mortality and adult emergence of vector mosquitoes  

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Full Text Available Hexaflumuron, an insect growth regulator (IGR), was found to greatly affect the development of immatures and emergence of adults of three species of vector mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, when larvae were subjected to short time exposure of < or = 1h. This IGR could completely prevent adult emergence even at a minimum exposure time of 10 min at 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/l. On treatment, larval and pupal mortality as well as varying degrees of morphogenetic abnormalities were induced in immatures and adults of the three species. Four weeks of control achieved in a slow moving sullage canal breeding Culex quinquefasciatus indicates that this IGR can be of use in such breeding habitats.

V. Vasuki; A. R. Rajavel

1992-01-01

164

Climate and geographic trends in hatch delay of the treehole mosquito, Aedes triseriatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eggs of Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes are stimulated to hatch when inundated with water, but only a small fraction of eggs from the same batch will hatch for any given stimulus. Similar hatching or germination patterns are observed in desert plants, copepods, rotifers, insects, and many other species. Bet hedging theory suggests that parents stagger offspring emergence into vulnerable life history stages in order to avoid catastrophic reproductive failures. For Ae. triseriatus, a treehole breeding mosquito, immediate hatching of an entire clutch leaves all of the parent's progeny vulnerable to extinction in the event of a severe drought. Natural selection has likely favored parents that pursued a bet hedging strategy where the risk of reproductive failure is distributed over time. Considering treehole mosquitoes, bet hedging theory could be used to predict that hatch delay would be positively correlated with the likelihood of drought. To test this prediction, we collected Ae. triseriatus from habitats that varied widely in mean annual precipitation and exposed them to several hatch stimuli in the laboratory. Here we report that, as predicted, Ae. triseriatus eggs from high precipitation regions showed less hatch delay than areas of low precipitation. This strategy probably allows Ae. triseriatus to cope with the wide variety of climatic conditions that it faces in its extensive geographical range.

Khatchikian CE; Dennehy JJ; Vitek CJ; Livdahl T

2009-06-01

165

Unusual Life History Traits of Aedes (Stegomyia) Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Inhabiting Nepenthes Pitchers  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Unusual life history traits of Aedes (Stegomyia) dybasi Bohart of Palau and Aedes (S.) maehleri Bohart of Yap, Micronesia, were observed in the laboratory. These species are unique in the subgenus Stegomyia in that they use pitchers of a carnivorous plant, Nepenthes mirabilis Druce, as larval habitats. Traits of Ae. dybasi were compared with two sympatric, container-breeding species, Aedes (S.) palauensis Bohart, a probable ancestor of Ae. dybasi, and Aedes (S.) hensilli Farner. Life history traits of Ae. dybasi differ distinctly from those of Ae. palauensis and Ae. hensilli in egg and adult stages as well as in the larva. The female is autogenous and lays a few but extremely large eggs that can neither resist desiccation nor postpone hatch. The latter two species take blood and produce many smaller eggs with desiccation resistance as usual in Stegomyia. Developmental time of eggs was shorter in Ae. dybasi, whereas that for larvae and pupae was longer. Ae. maehleri differs from other Stegomyia species in its early copulation, where males copulate with newly emerging females on the water surface. Females neither are autogenous nor take blood from human hands. Nepenthes pitchers that provide mosquito larvae with a unique environment could contribute to studying either converging or diverging patterns in mosquito evolution under phylogenic potential and constraints after acquisition of a new larval habitat.

Mogi Motoyoshi

2010-07-01

166

Aqueous neem extract versus neem powder on Culex quinquefasciatus: implications for control in anthropogenic habitats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Control programs using conventional insecticides to target anthropogenic mosquito habitats are very expensive because these habitats are widespread, particularly in cities of most African countries. Additionally, there are serious environmental concerns regarding large-scale application of most conventional insecticides. Clearly there is a need for alternative methods that are more effective, less expensive, and environmentally friendly. One such method would be the application of preparations made from parts of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Jussieu (Sapindales: Meliaceae). In this study, aqueous crude extracts and crude powder were prepared from different parts of neem, and the efficacies of the preparations on juvenile stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) were evaluated in the laboratory. When larvae were exposed to a concentration of 0.1 g/mL extract for 24 hours, percent mean mortality (± SE) was 72.7 plusmn; 1.8 for the bark, 68.7 ± 1.6 for fruits and 60 ± 1.6 for leaves. These means were not significantly different (?(2) = 4.12; df = 2; p = 0.127). At a concentration of 0.01 g/mL, > 95% of the larvae died within 24 hours of exposure to powdered neem leaf, but it took 120 hours to reach the same level of larval mortality in aqueous leaf extract. The crude extract slowly inhibited the growth and development of mosquitoes while the crude powder acted more as a barrier; the mosquitoes probably died from suffocation. However, both types of preparations can be made and used by local people to control mosquito breeding in anthropogenic habitats, especially in urbanized areas.

Kudom AA; Mensah BA; Botchey MA

2011-01-01

167

Does the spillage of petroleum products in Anopheles breeding sites have an impact on the pyrethroid resistance?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of Anopheles populations capable of withstanding lethal doses of insecticides has weakened the efficacy of most insecticide based strategies of vector control and, has highlighted the need for further studies on the mechanisms of insecticide resistance and the various factors selecting resistant populations of mosquitoes. This research targeted the analysis of breeding sites and the oviposition behaviour of susceptible and resistant populations of Anopheles in localities of spilled petroleum products. The aim was to establish the possible contribution of oil spillage in the selection of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors. Methods Anopheles breeding sites were identified and the insecticide susceptibility of the Anopheles gambiae populations mapped in 15 localities of South Western Nigeria. The presence of oil particles as well as the turbidity, the dissolved oxygen and the pH of each identified breeding site was recorded. Data were cross-analysed to correlate the habitat types and the insecticide susceptibility status of emerging mosquitoes. The second phase of this study was basically a laboratory model to provide more information on the implication of the spillage of petroleum on the selection of pyrethroid resistance in An. gambiae. Results Moderate levels of resistance following exposure to permethrin-impregnated papers were recorded with the majority of An. gambiae samples collected in the South Western Nigeria. Data from this study established a link between the constituency of the breeding sites and the resistance status of the emerging Anopheles. Conclusion This study has revealed the segregational occupation of breeding habitats by pyrethroid resistant and susceptible strains of An. gambiae in south-western Nigeria. Compiled results from field and laboratory research point out clear relationships between oil spillage and pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors. The identification of this factor of resistance could serve as strong information in the management of insecticide resistance in some West African settings.

Djouaka Rousseau F; Bakare Adekunle A; Bankole Honore S; Doannio Julien MC; Coulibaly Ousmane N; Kossou Hortense; Tamo Manuele; Basene Harcourt I; Popoola OK; Akogbeto Martin C

2007-01-01

168

Do the Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged Warbler Exhibit Species-specific Differences in their Breeding Habitat Use?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera) on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in hab...

Laura L. Patton; David S. Maehr; Joseph E. Duchamp; Songlin Fei; Jonathan W. Gassett; Jeffery L. Larkin

169

Mosquito Life Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners build a plastic emergence chamber (or use purchased "mini mosquito breeder") to observe and analyze the mosquito life cycle. Learners record daily observations for 8-14 days by counting the number of larvae, pupae, and adults present in the chamber. This resource includes background information about the mosquito life cycle and mosquitoes as disease vectors plus a link to a mosquito reference manual.

Institute, Howard H.

2010-01-01

170

Current procedures of the integrated urban vector-mosquito control as an example in Cotonou (Benin, West Africa) and Wroclaw area (Poland).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current strategy of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) comprises the general approach of environmentally friendly control measures. With regard to mosquitoes it includes first of all application of microbial insecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) delta-endotoxins as well as the reduction of breeding habitats and natural enemy augmentation. It can be achieved thorough implementation of the interdisciplinary program, i. e., understanding of mosquito vector ecology, the appropriate vector-diseases (e. g., malariometric) measurements and training of local personnel responsible for mosquito abatement activities, as well as community involvement. Biocontrol methods as an alternative to chemical insecticides result from the sustainability development concept, growing awareness of environmental pollution and the development of insecticide-resistant strains of vector-mosquito populations in many parts of the world. Although sustainable trends are usually considered in terms of the monetary and training resources within countries, environmental concerns are actually more limiting factors for the duration of an otherwise successful vector control effort. In order to meet these new needs, increasing efforts have been made in search of and application of natural enemies, such as parasites, bacterial pathogens and predators which may control populations of insect vectors. The biological control agent based on the bacterial toxins Bti and Bs has been used in the Wroc?aw's University and Municipal Mosquito Control Programs since 1998. In West-Africa biocontrol appears to be an effective and safe tool to combat malaria in addition to bed-nets, residual indoor spraying and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria parasites which are the major tools in the WHO Roll Back Malaria Program. IVM studies carried out 2005-2008 in Cotonou (Benin) as well those in Wroc?aw Irrigated Fields during the last years include the following major steps: 1. Mapping of all breeding sites in the project area and recording data in a geographical information system (GIS/relational database). All districts, streets and houses are numbered for quick reference during the operation; 2. Studying mosquito vector bionomics, migration and vectorial capacity in the project area, before, during and after the routine Bti treatments; 3. Assessment of the optimum for effective larvicide insecticide dosages at major breeding sites against the different target mosquito species; 4. Implementation of the microbial control agents in the integrated routine program. Adaptation of the application equipment to the local situation, training of the field staff, and routine treatments; 5. Conducting surveillance of vector-disease (e. g., malariometric) parameters in the control and experimental area before, during, and after the application of biocontrol agents.

Rydzanicz K; Lonc E; Becker N

2009-01-01

171

Bionomics and Breeding Places of the Genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mahroo and Sepid-Dasht Districts, Luristan Province, Western Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Study on ecology and larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes are important in terms of some aspects such as, vector control through manipulation and modification of these habitats that can reduce the burdens of mosquito-borne diseases. Given the likelihood of malaria epidemy, this work has been conducted to study anopheline mosquito fauna, larval habitat features and seasonal activity of the genus Anopheles in the Mahroo and Sepid – Dasht rural districts, Luristan province.Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional investigation was done from April to November 2001-2002. Larvae were collected by means of dipper and dropper from breeding places using the standard dipping technique, every two weeks. The third and fourth instar anopheline larvae were preserved in Lactophenol and identified into species using morphological characters. Larval habitat characteristics were recorded. Results: A total of 4376 Anopheles larvae were collected. Five species and two morphological forms were found which include Anopheles superpictus Grassi form A (76.3%), A. dthali Patton (9.7%), A.turkhudi Liston (8.5%), A. marteri Senevet and Prunelle (4%), A. superpictus Grassi form B (1.1%) and A. apoci Marsh (0.4%). In these districts, anopheline larval activity began in early May and ended in early November. In this paper, the characteristics of larval habitats of any species have been discussed separately.Conclusion: The main larval habitats of important vector of the region, A. superpictus, were determined river sides, stream margins and rice fields. The findings of this research can be used to manage control of vectors.

Hamid Kassiri; Hamid Amani

2012-01-01

172

A recent survey of mosquito fauna in Guangdong Province,southern China, with a review of past records [corrected].  

Science.gov (United States)

The southern province of Guangdong has long been subject to endemic mosquito-borne diseases. In recent years, this region of China has experienced rapid, extensive economic development involving environmental change, making much of the scant knowledge of its mosquito fauna obsolete. This paper reviews previous mosquito surveys, some of which may be too old to be of relevance to present-day conditions, and presents the results of a recent survey of adult and immature mosquitoes. The main vectors of mosquito-borne diseases endemic to the area, such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus, develop in container habitats. A three-year survey was carried out, between 2004 and 2006, of 4131 breeding containers in residential areas and in open, sparsely populated areas, of which approximately 50% were positive for the presence of mosquitoes, and 10 156 larvae and pupae were collected and identified. Twelve species were found in both residential and sparsely populated areas: Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), Ae. lineatopennis (Ludlow), Ae. vexans (Meigen), Tanakaius togoi (Theobald), Culex barraudi Edwards, Cx dispectus Bram, Cx malayi (Leicester), Cx pallidothorax Theobald, Cx quinquefasciatus Say, Cx sitiens Wiedemann, Lutzia fuscanus Wiedemann and Tripteroides bambusa (Yamada). Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) was found only in containers in villages, whereas Ae. macfarlanei Edwards, Cx mimeticus Noé, Cx sinensis Theobald, Cx vegans Wiedemann, Cx wilfredi Colless and Mansonia uniformis (Theobald) were found only in non- or sparsely populated areas. In residential areas, the rank order of most common species, as measured by the proportion of containers colonized, was Ae. albopictus > Cx quinquefasciatus > Lu. fuscanus, whereas in sparsely populated areas the rank order was Cx quinquefasciatus > Ae. albopictus > Lu. fuscanus. Light traps in non- or sparsely populated areas caught 5995 adult mosquitoes of 25 species, some of which are not container breeders. The most common species were: Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann, An. maculatus Theobald, An. minimus Theobald, Ta. togoi, Cx bitaeniorhynchus Giles, Cx malayi, Cx quinquefasciatus, Cx sinensis Theobald, Cx sitiens, Cx tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Lu. fuscanus. It is noteworthy that nine species caught had not been previously recorded in Guangdong Province, highlighting the deficient knowledge of the current composition and distribution of the mosquito fauna of this part of China. PMID:19120964

Jin, L Q; Li, D

2008-12-01

173

Anopheline (Diptera:Culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank-based irrigation network that still forms an important component of the rice production system in the low elevation dry zone. In total, 3,818 immatures representing 12 species were obtained from 2,940 samples taken from 5 larval habitats within the village ecosystem. Anopheles varuna Iyengar and An. culicifacies Giles were the most abundant species collected. Peak abundance in both species occurred in August-October. Anopheles barbirostris Van der Wulp and An. peditaeniatus Leicester also were abundant, but neither these nor the other anophelines attained comparable abundance to An. varuna and An. culicifacies. A clear progression in breeding habitat use from stream bed to tank bed and drainage area pools was seen in An. culicifacies during the premonsoon period. Environmental management measures to reduce or modify these habitats could potentially decrease malaria. transmission.

Amerasinghe FP; Konradsen F; Fonseka KT; Amerasinghe PH

1997-05-01

174

Do the Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged Warbler Exhibit Species-specific Differences in their Breeding Habitat Use?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera) on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elevations and with greater percentages of grass and canopy cover. Mean territory size (minimum convex polygon) was 1.3 ha (se = 0.1) for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 1.7 ha (se = 0.3) for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 2.1 ha (se = 0.3) for Blue-winged Warbler. Territory overlap occurred within and between species (18 of n = 73 territories, 24.7%). All Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers established territories that included an edge between reclaimed mine land and mature forest, as opposed to establishing territories in open grassland/shrubland habitat. The mean distance territories extended from a forest edge was 28.0 m (se = 3.8) for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 44.7 m (se = 5.7) for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 33.1 m (se = 6.1) for Blue-winged Warbler. Neither territory size nor distances to forest edges differed significantly between Golden-winged Warbler in presence or absence of Blue-winged Warbler. According to Monte Carlo analyses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) seedlings and saplings, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) saplings were indicative of sites with only Golden-winged Warblers. Sericea lespedeza, goldenrod (Solidago spp.), clematis vine (Clematis spp.), and blackberry (Rubus spp.) were indicative of sites where both species occurred. Our findings complement recent genetic studies and add another factor for examining Golden-winged Warbler population decline. Further, information from our study will aid land managers in manipulating habitat for the Golden-winged Warbler.

Laura L. Patton; David S. Maehr; Joseph E. Duchamp; Songlin Fei; Jonathan W. Gassett; Jeffery L. Larkin

2010-01-01

175

Mathematical modelling of mosquito dispersal in a heterogeneous environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito dispersal is a key behavioural factor that affects the persistence and resurgence of several vector-borne diseases. Spatial heterogeneity of mosquito resources, such as hosts and breeding sites, affects mosquito dispersal behaviour and consequently affects mosquito population structures, human exposure to vectors, and the ability to control disease transmission. In this paper, we develop and simulate a discrete-space continuous-time mathematical model to investigate the impact of dispersal and heterogeneous distribution of resources on the distribution and dynamics of mosquito populations. We build an ordinary differential equation model of the mosquito life cycle and replicate it across a hexagonal grid (multi-patch system) that represents two-dimensional space. We use the model to estimate mosquito dispersal distances and to evaluate the effect of spatial repellents as a vector control strategy. We find evidence of association between heterogeneity, dispersal, spatial distribution of resources, and mosquito population dynamics. Random distribution of repellents reduces the distance moved by mosquitoes, offering a promising strategy for disease control.

Lutambi AM; Penny MA; Smith T; Chitnis N

2013-02-01

176

Repovoamento de criadouros de Biomphalaria glabrata após tratamento com niclosamida Repopulation of breeding habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata after treatment with niclosamide  

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Full Text Available Experimentos foram feitos no laboratório e no campo nos anos de 1980 a 1984, objetivando detectar as causas do repovoamento de criadouros de Biomphalaria glabrata após tratamento com niclosamida. Os bioensaios no laboratório mostraram que a suscetibilidade à niclosamida emulsionável de B. glabrata coletada mensalmente em um sistema de valas de irrigação, variou durante o ano. As concentrações letais CL90 foram 0,15 mgl-1 a 0,60 mgl-1, apresentando diferenças significantes estatisticamente (p Experiments were undertaken both in the laboratory and in the field between 1980-1984 to evaluate the causes of repopulation of breeding places of Biomphalaria glabrata following treatment with Niclosamide. Laboratory bioassays showed that the susceptibility to emulsifiable Niclosamide of B. glabrata collected monthly from an irrigation ditch system varied during the year. Lethal concentrations (LC90) ranged between 0.15 mg/l-1 and 0.60 mg/l-1. Statistically significant differences (alpha=0.01) were evident between the months of May/82 and January/83 and December/82 and January/83, and were related to snail nutrition. In the field two types of foci of B. glabrata were treated with 10 ppm of Niclosamide. The first one consisted of a reservoir of 12000 1 of water in which 14.5% of snails were infected with Schistosoma mansoni. One application of molluscicide followed by cleaning of the reservoir eliminated all the snails. The second one consisted of an irrigation system in which 5.6% of the snails were infected with S. mansoni. One application of molluscicide without cleaning the ditches reduced the density of snails by 98%. The causes of the survival of 2.0% of the snails in the ditches are discussed in relation to the substratum of the breeding places and the treatment technique.

Cecília Pereira de Souza; Nelymar Martineli Mendes

1991-01-01

177

Repovoamento de criadouros de Biomphalaria glabrata após tratamento com niclosamida/ Repopulation of breeding habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata after treatment with niclosamide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Experimentos foram feitos no laboratório e no campo nos anos de 1980 a 1984, objetivando detectar as causas do repovoamento de criadouros de Biomphalaria glabrata após tratamento com niclosamida. Os bioensaios no laboratório mostraram que a suscetibilidade à niclosamida emulsionável de B. glabrata coletada mensalmente em um sistema de valas de irrigação, variou durante o ano. As concentrações letais CL90 foram 0,15 mgl-1 a 0,60 mgl-1, apresentando diferenças sig (more) nificantes estatisticamente (p Abstract in english Experiments were undertaken both in the laboratory and in the field between 1980-1984 to evaluate the causes of repopulation of breeding places of Biomphalaria glabrata following treatment with Niclosamide. Laboratory bioassays showed that the susceptibility to emulsifiable Niclosamide of B. glabrata collected monthly from an irrigation ditch system varied during the year. Lethal concentrations (LC90) ranged between 0.15 mg/l-1 and 0.60 mg/l-1. Statistically significant d (more) ifferences (alpha=0.01) were evident between the months of May/82 and January/83 and December/82 and January/83, and were related to snail nutrition. In the field two types of foci of B. glabrata were treated with 10 ppm of Niclosamide. The first one consisted of a reservoir of 12000 1 of water in which 14.5% of snails were infected with Schistosoma mansoni. One application of molluscicide followed by cleaning of the reservoir eliminated all the snails. The second one consisted of an irrigation system in which 5.6% of the snails were infected with S. mansoni. One application of molluscicide without cleaning the ditches reduced the density of snails by 98%. The causes of the survival of 2.0% of the snails in the ditches are discussed in relation to the substratum of the breeding places and the treatment technique.

Souza, Cecília Pereira de; Mendes, Nelymar Martineli

1991-08-01

178

Wind mosquito killer  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a wind mosquito killer which comprises a micro fan. The fan is provided with a closed shell, a hollow air inlet duct and a hollow outtake, wherein the air inlet duct and the outtake are communicated with the outside space and the hollow of the shell a mosquito retaining net is arranged in the air inlet duct the fan end of the outtake is connected with a micro battery and the battery is provided with an external jack and a knob switch for transforming an anode and a cathode. Compared with the prior art, the wind mosquito killer has the advantages that mosquitos are rapidly caught in a suction mode and killed by wind the wind mosquito killer is easy, convenient and rapid to kill the mosquitos and not only is the smoke pollution of mosquito incense avoided, but also the electric energy does not need to be consumed overnight. Moreover, the defect that when the mosquitos are killed by a mosquito basketry or double hands, the wall and the palms are dirtied by blood of the mosquitos so that the mode of killing mosquitos by the mosquito basketry or the double hands is not beneficial to the health of a human body can be avoided.

JUNLING ZHANG

179

Shesher and Welala floodplain wetlands (Lake Tana, Ethiopia): are they important breeding habitats for Clarias gariepinus and the migratory Labeobarbus fish species?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aims at investigating the spawning migration of the endemic Labeobarbus species and C. gariepinus from Lake Tana, through Ribb River, to Welala and Shesher wetlands. The study was conducted during peak spawning months (July to October, 2010). Fish were collected through overnight gillnet settings. A total of 1725 specimens of the genus Labeobarbus (13 species) and 506 specimens of C. gariepinus were collected. Six species of Labeobarbus formed prespawning aggregation at Ribb River mouth. However, no Labeobarbus species was found to spawn in the two wetlands. More than 90% of the catch in Welala and Shesher wetlands was contributed by C. gariepinus. This implies that these wetlands are ideal spawning and nursery habitats for C. gariepinus but not for the endemic Labeobarbus species. Except L. intermedius, all the six Labeobarbus species (aggregated at Ribb River mouth) and C. gariepinus (spawning at Shesher and Welala wetlands) were temporally segregated.

Anteneh W; Dejen E; Getahun A

2012-01-01

180

Aquatic macrophytes and the associated mosquitoes in and around Madurai City (Tamil Nadu).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey of mosquitoes was carried out in 7 weeded astatic ponds in and around Madurai from October 1990 to January 1991 to qualitatively determine the macrophyte-mosquito larvae association. Members of Culex vishnui subgroup were associated with most of the macrophytes. Eichhornia crassipes, Marsilea quadrifolia and Spirodella polyrhiza showed a high potential for mosquito breeding and Azolla sp., a very low potential for both anophelines and culicines.

Victor TJ; Marimuthu S; Sivaramakrishnan KG

1991-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Aquatic macrophytes and the associated mosquitoes in and around Madurai City (Tamil Nadu).  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of mosquitoes was carried out in 7 weeded astatic ponds in and around Madurai from October 1990 to January 1991 to qualitatively determine the macrophyte-mosquito larvae association. Members of Culex vishnui subgroup were associated with most of the macrophytes. Eichhornia crassipes, Marsilea quadrifolia and Spirodella polyrhiza showed a high potential for mosquito breeding and Azolla sp., a very low potential for both anophelines and culicines. PMID:1688022

Victor, T J; Marimuthu, S; Sivaramakrishnan, K G

1991-09-01

182

Portable electrical mosquito flap  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a portable electrical mosquito flap, which comprises a handle and a flap surface. The flap surface is equipped with a flap frame and an electric grid. The flap surface and the handle can be separated from each other. The handle is detachably connected with the flap frame of the flap surface. According to the structure of the portable electrical mosquito flap, the flap surface and the handle are detachable, so that the electrical mosquito flap is convenient to transport and carry about. Therefore, the transportation cost of the electrical mosquito flap is effectively reduced. The portable electrical mosquito flap has certain economic value and industrial value.

WENCHUN LOU

183

Population trend and breeding biology of Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus in a natural vegetation site in northeast Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

highlighting the importance of natural habitats for the species. Aims: To evaluate breeding in a natural habitat in inland Castellon province, Spain, and compare breeding parameters with other Europe...

Limiñana Morcillo, Rubén; Surroca Royo, Martín; Miralles, Stephan; Urios Moliner, Vicente; Jiménez, Juan

184

The phenology of malaria mosquitoes in irrigated rice fields in Mali.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field study was carried out in the large-scale rice irrigation scheme of the Office du Niger in Mali to investigate the relation between anopheline mosquito larval development and small-scale differences in irrigation practices, such as water level, irrigation application and irrigation frequency. The objective of the study was to find out if water management can be used as a tool for vector control to reduce the malaria transmission risk. Larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s.,; the main malaria vector in the study area, developed mostly in the first 6 weeks after transplanting the rice. During rice development, a succession of anopheline species was observed. This was associated with a marked decrease in light intensity reaching the water surface as plant height increased. Minor differences in water management resulted in noticeable variations in larval densities and species composition. A. gambiae s.s. larvae were most abundant during the early growing stages and almost absent in a closed rice crop. Due to improper drainage after harvest, A. gambiae s.s. breeding was soon re-established in fields where small pools of water were retained. The results suggest that larval mosquito habitats in the Office du Niger can be significantly reduced by water management, simultaneous planting and harvesting and proper drainage of fallow fields.

Klinkenberg E; Takken W; Huibers F; Touré YT

2003-01-01

185

Species Composition and Diversity of Mosquitoes in Neka County, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Regarding to the significant of the possibility of the malaria epidemic and nuisance of mosquitoes during the active season, the fauna and some ecological activities of mosquitoes in related to tree holes were investigated from April to December 2009 in Neka county of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Methods: Larval collection was carried out from natural, artificial breeding places, and tree holes inside the forest in Neka County, Mazandaran Province in 2009. In addition, human bait net trap collection was conducted using suction tube several times during this investigation. Results: Four genera and five species were found in tree holes. Anopheles plumbeus, Culiseta annulata, Culex pipiens, and Ochlerotatus geniculatus were collected by larval collection whereas, Ochlerotatus pulcritarsis was found by adult collection. Overall Cx. pipiens 44.6%, Oc. geniculatus 32.6%, An. plumbeus 22.5%, and Cs. annulata 0.3% were collected by larval collection. During the bait net collection five specie were identified including: Oc. geniculatus 55.87%, Oc. echinus 1.33%, Oc. pulcritarsis 8.8%, Cx. pipiens 33.8%, and An. plumbeus 0.2%. Cs. annulata larvae was detected for the first time with a low abundance in tree cavity. Conclusion: Tree holes were found the main habitat for the species of Oc. geniculatus. The species of Cs. annulata was found in tree holes

Nikookar, SH; Moosa-Kazemi, SH; Oshaghi, MA; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, MR; Vatandoost, H; Kianinasab, A

2010-01-01

186

Mosquitoes Associated with Ditch-Plugged and Control Tidal Salt Marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November) ditches were plugged near their outlets in two (‘experimental’) marshes with the aim to restore their natural tidal hydrology. The three other marshes were not plugged. Marshes were sampled from July to September in 2009 by using standard dip count method. A total of 2,457 mosquito larvae representing six species were collected on 15.4% (86/557) of all sample occasions and 399 adults representing four mosquito species were collected from landing counts. Aedes sollicitans, Anopheles bradleyi and Culex salinarius were the most common species collected in larval habitats, and Ae. sollicitans was the most common adult collected. Wooded habitats had more total mosquitoes, were also more frequently occupied by mosquitoes and had higher densities of mosquitoes than marsh habitats. Almost all larvae collected from marshes were from one experimental and one control site. The majority of larvae at the control site were Ae. sollicitans in marsh pannes while Cx. salinarius, An. bradleyi, Ae. cantator, and Ae. sollicitans were collected in high numbers from ditches at the experimental site. We found a difference in the proportion of marsh pannes occupied by Ae. sollicitans but not total mosquitoes sampled 4–5 days after spring tide events than on other occasions. Salinity measures of 42 larval habitats showed lower median salinity in mosquito-occupied habitats (11.5 ppt) than unoccupied habitats (20.1 ppt), and in habitats in wooded areas followed by ditches and pannes in marsh areas. The results of this study suggest that wooded areas adjacent to salt marshes may be a substantial source of biting adult mosquitoes usually associated with salt marsh habitats and that ditch plugging may alter the productivity of mosquitoes on some marshes. We recommend future studies consider mosquito productivity from habitats surrounding salt marshes, and if assessments of marsh alterations are a goal, compare multiple experimental and control areas before and after treatments to determine if alterations have a consistent impact on regional mosquito production.

Paul T. Leisnham; Sarah Sandoval-Mohapatra

2011-01-01

187

The Knowledge and Experience of Dengue Mosquitoes among Housewives.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) prevention programs in Semarang, were focused through controlling mosquito breeding sites (PSN), but the implementation of PSN was not become a habit in every household. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and experience of dengue mosquitoes among housewives in the endemic villages.The research was using qualitative methods. Subjects of the study were 17 housewives which selected by purposive sampling. The data collection was carried in Sendangmulyo village, Semarang, through observation, focus groups discussions, and indepth interviews. The techniques used to test data validity were triangulation and member checking method. Data were analyzed using content analysis approached. The results showed that housewives classifying mosquito based on time occurrence whether the presence of mosquito in environment was perceived naturally. Unoptimalized PSN behavior was based on the lack of housewives knowledge on larvae development stages. Mosquito was not considered as a threatening because night mosquito biting was directly more disturbing rather than day mosquitoes’. Health promotion program could increase dasa wisma cadres knowledge and skill, particularly on mosquito life cycle and the correct stages of PSN behavior. This study did not distinguish the demographic characteristics of informants. Further reserch could explore it or develop media based on local knowledge and experience.

Aryani Pujiyanti; Atik Triratnawati

2011-01-01

188

Use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) and Shredded Waste Polystyrene (SWAP) Beads for Control of Mosquitoes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases to human. There are several measures for control of larvae. As part of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) program, the utility of floating layers of polystyrene beads (EPS) is a po­ten­tial alternative in habitats of mosquito larva. EPS bead...

A Soltani; H Vatandoost; H Jabbari; AR Mesdaghinia; AH Mahvi; M Younesian; AA Hanafi-Bojd

189

Bacterial communities associated with culex mosquito larvae and two emergent aquatic plants of bioremediation importance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species.

Duguma D; Rugman-Jones P; Kaufman MG; Hall MW; Neufeld JD; Stouthamer R; Walton WE

2013-01-01

190

Bacterial Communities Associated with Culex Mosquito Larvae and Two Emergent Aquatic Plants of Bioremediation Importance  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species.

Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G.; Hall, Michael W.; Neufeld, Josh D.; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E.

2013-01-01

191

Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana/ Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion (more) ) sp. e Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904) and showed shong anthopophilia and a high degree of adaptation to humam environment. On the cantray, the species that showed lilth adaptation to such ambients or to the geoclimatic conditions of the region were: Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto, 1922); An. parvus (Chagas, 1907); An. lutzii Cruzi, 1901, Culex amazonensis (Lutz, 1905); Cx. chidesteri; Psorophora confinnis (Linch Arribalzaga, 1891); Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856); Ps. cingulata (Fabricius, 1805) e Aedes scapularis. Although Anopheles argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827; Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, 1906; Cx. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906 and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, 1823, were captured in little numbers, it is knowntht they an mosquito of human surroundings. These mosquitos showed a plak of feeding activity directly related to sunset bat did not have a bimodal behaviour. Anophelinae were in general more active in spring while Culex Linnaeus, 1758; Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905; Aedes Meigen, 1818; Mansonia Blanchard, 1901 e Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827 were more active in summer.

Lopes, José; Lozovei, Ana L

1996-01-01

192

Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion) sp. e Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904) and showed shong anthopophilia and a high degree of adaptation to humam environment. On the cantray, the species that showed lilth adaptation to such ambients or to the geoclimatic conditions of the region were: Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto, 1922); An. parvus (Chagas, 1907); An. lutzii Cruzi, 1901, Culex amazonensis (Lutz, 1905); Cx. chidesteri; Psorophora confinnis (Linch Arribalzaga, 1891); Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856); Ps. cingulata (Fabricius, 1805) e Aedes scapularis. Although Anopheles argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827; Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, 1906; Cx. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906 and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, 1823, were captured in little numbers, it is knowntht they an mosquito of human surroundings. These mosquitos showed a plak of feeding activity directly related to sunset bat did not have a bimodal behaviour. Anophelinae were in general more active in spring while Culex Linnaeus, 1758; Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905; Aedes Meigen, 1818; Mansonia Blanchard, 1901 e Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827 were more active in summer.

José Lopes; Ana L Lozovei

1996-01-01

193

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Field Sparrow  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat preferences of the field sparrow (Spizella pusilla) are described in this report, which is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. A review and synthesis of the literature is followed by the development of a habitat model for the field sparrow throughout its breeding range in the United States. HSI models are designed to be used in conjunction with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Sousa, Patrick J.

1983-01-01

194

Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Barmah Forest virus (BFV) is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure. METHODS: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW) Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas. RESULTS: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30) cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms. DISCUSSION: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.

Ehlkes L; Eastwood K; Webb C; Durrheim D

2012-07-01

195

Potency and persistence of the bacterial mosquitocide Bacillus sphaericus against culicine mosquitoes under field conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The biopesticide Bacillus sphaericus represents one of the important tools used in the control of mosquito larvae after chemical insecticides. The present study was conducted to investigate the efficacy B. sphaericus 2362 (VectoLex) in two different technical powders, ABG-6232 and ABG-6491 against larvae of two mosquitoes, Culex pipiens and Aedescaspius in El-Arish city, North Sinai, Egypt. The mosquito larvae were collected from polluted and fresh water (Cx. pipiens) and saline water (Ae. caspius). The physicochemical characteristics of larval breeding water sites were measured as salinity, conductivity, pH values and temperature. Susceptibility bioassays showed that Cx. pipiens larvae from polluted water sites have high susceptibility to B. sphaericus 2362 formulation ABG-6232 (LC50 0.150.33 ppm, LC90: 0.73-9.68 ppm). In case of ABG-6491 formulation, the values were LC50: 0.15-0.33 ppm and LC90: 1.73-9.83 ppm. Cx. pipiens larvae collected from fresh water habitat in ElQusiema, outside El-Arish city, susceptibility to B. sphaericus 2362 ABG-6232 had LC50 values ranging between 0.12 and 0.28 ppm, while LC90 ranged between 1.59 and 4.13 ppm. In case of ABG-6491, the LC50 values ranged between 0.13 and 0.28 ppm, while LC90 values ranged between 1.46 and 8.93 ppm. For Ae. caspius larvae from saline water and treated with B. sphaericus 2362 ABG-6232, LC50 values ranged between 0.31 &1.36 ppm, while LC90 ranged between 1.92 & 9.75 ppm. In case of ABG- 6491, the LC50 values ranged between 0.34 & 0.59 ppm, while LC90 values ranged between 1.79 and 11.56 ppm.

Kamal HA; Khater EI

2013-04-01

196

Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV) is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW) Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas.Results: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30) cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms.Discussion: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.

Lutz Ehlkes; Keith Eastwood; Cameron Webb; David Durrheim

2012-01-01

197

Device for entrapping mosquitoes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a device for entrapping mosquitoes. The device mainly utilizes luminescence components which are arranged inside a pedestal and have different wavelengths to attract the mosquitoes of different phototactic characteristics. The utility model also relates to a device for entrapping mosquitoes. The device utilizes a solar panel to absorb light energy emitted by the luminescence components and to convert the light energy into electric energy and takes the electric energy as another power supplied for the luminescence components, and an electric grid outside the pedestal can help achieve the aims of recycling, energy conservation and mosquito entrapping and killing.

RUIZHAO CHEN

198

Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part 7--an overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parts 1 to 6 of this series on the mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India dealt with the mosquito species recorded in the mangroves of Bhitarkanika, Sundarbans, Andaman and Nicobar islands, Coringa, Chorao and Vikhroli, and Kundapur and Kannur. This concluding part provides an overview of the distribution of the mosquito species in different mangrove forests, including the mangroves of Muthupet in Tamilnadu and the mangroves of Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Kambhat in Gujarat, species collected as larvae, species in relation to the salinity of the larval habitats, species landing on humans for feeding in the mangroves, and the impact of habitat degradation on species diversity.

Rajavel AR; Natarajan R

2008-12-01

199

Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part 7--an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parts 1 to 6 of this series on the mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India dealt with the mosquito species recorded in the mangroves of Bhitarkanika, Sundarbans, Andaman and Nicobar islands, Coringa, Chorao and Vikhroli, and Kundapur and Kannur. This concluding part provides an overview of the distribution of the mosquito species in different mangrove forests, including the mangroves of Muthupet in Tamilnadu and the mangroves of Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Kambhat in Gujarat, species collected as larvae, species in relation to the salinity of the larval habitats, species landing on humans for feeding in the mangroves, and the impact of habitat degradation on species diversity. PMID:19181053

Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R

2008-12-01

200

Distribution of breeding and control of the filariasis vector Aedes samoanus in leaf axils of Pandanus in Samoa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water in leaf axils of the screwpine Pandanus was sampled for mosquito immature stages at seventy villages in Upolu, fifty-five in Savai'i and three in Manono, the main islands of Samoa. Ten plants in every patch of Pandanus plantation were sampled at each village. Among 23,049 mosquito larvae collected from Upolu, 77% were the filariasis vector Aedes (Finlaya) samoanus, 17.7% were Ae. (Fin.) oceanicus and 5.3% were Ae. (Fin.) tutuilae. Out of 6981 larvae taken in Savai'i, 23.2% were Ae. samoanus, 67.6% Ae. oceanicus and 9.2% Ae.tutuilae. When larval counts per plant were analysed for each district, Ae. samoanus was found to predominate in Pandanus in Upolu and Ae. oceanicus in Savai'i. However, the adult density of Ae.samoanus was higher in Savai'i and this was attributed to the large areas of forests with Freycinetia for Ae.samoanus breeding. In Pandanus in Savai'i the number of Ae.samoanus was negligible. In Upolu, with more urbanization and larger plantations, there was greater breeding of Ae.samoanus in Pandanus. Two control trials were conducted against Ae.samoanus larvae in Pandanus, one using a sand culture of the parasitic nematode Romanomermis culicivorax and the other with temephos, an organophosphate insecticide. While R. culicivorax did not adapt to the leaf axil habitat, all plants were without larvae for 5 weeks after treatment with temephos. PMID:1463903

Samarawickrema, W A; Sone, F; Self, L S; Cummings, R F; Paulson, G S

1992-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Distribution of breeding and control of the filariasis vector Aedes samoanus in leaf axils of Pandanus in Samoa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water in leaf axils of the screwpine Pandanus was sampled for mosquito immature stages at seventy villages in Upolu, fifty-five in Savai'i and three in Manono, the main islands of Samoa. Ten plants in every patch of Pandanus plantation were sampled at each village. Among 23,049 mosquito larvae collected from Upolu, 77% were the filariasis vector Aedes (Finlaya) samoanus, 17.7% were Ae. (Fin.) oceanicus and 5.3% were Ae. (Fin.) tutuilae. Out of 6981 larvae taken in Savai'i, 23.2% were Ae. samoanus, 67.6% Ae. oceanicus and 9.2% Ae.tutuilae. When larval counts per plant were analysed for each district, Ae. samoanus was found to predominate in Pandanus in Upolu and Ae. oceanicus in Savai'i. However, the adult density of Ae.samoanus was higher in Savai'i and this was attributed to the large areas of forests with Freycinetia for Ae.samoanus breeding. In Pandanus in Savai'i the number of Ae.samoanus was negligible. In Upolu, with more urbanization and larger plantations, there was greater breeding of Ae.samoanus in Pandanus. Two control trials were conducted against Ae.samoanus larvae in Pandanus, one using a sand culture of the parasitic nematode Romanomermis culicivorax and the other with temephos, an organophosphate insecticide. While R. culicivorax did not adapt to the leaf axil habitat, all plants were without larvae for 5 weeks after treatment with temephos.

Samarawickrema WA; Sone F; Self LS; Cummings RF; Paulson GS

1992-10-01

202

AUTO MOSQUITO REPELLENT BY MOSQUITO FREQUENCY DETECTION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An automatic mosquito expeller is provided to achieve an automatic switching-on/off by detecting a frequency and level change caused by a flapping of the mosquito so that a user doesn't need to switch on the expeller itself and prevents a waste of a mosquito repellent previously. An automatic mosquito expeller(100) comprises a rectifier(120), rectifying an alternating current power into a constant direct current one a Micom(110), controlling the expeller entirely by using the direct current supplied by the rectifier a light emitter(130), switched on or off according to a control signal of the Micom so as to indicate an operation state a switching unit(140), switched on or off according to the control signal of the Micom so as to apply an electric power source to a heating member(150) which generates a heat of a determined temperature and a frequency detector(170), detecting a frequency band caused by a flapping of the mosquito so as to output a corresponding level value.

CHONG CHINE HWA; CHU EU GINE

203

Aquatic vegetation and their natural hospitability to the immatures of Mansonia mosquitos, the vectors of Brugia malayi in Shertallai, Kerala, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevalence of various aquatic vegetation and their role in supporting vector breeding were studied by drawing plant samples from natural fresh water habitats in Shertallai region which is endemic for Brugia malayi. As many as 30 aquatic plant species were identified in addition to the most abundant and preferred host plants such as Pistia stratiotes, Salvinia molesta and Eichhornia crassipes which are of major concern due to their contribution for vector proliferation. Fallow lands and paddy fields recorded relatively a higher number of plant species. Natural breeding of Mansonia, the vector mosquitos was observed in 16 of them. Using the data on the prevalence, proportion of samples positive for Mansonia breeding and immature density, two indices viz, natural hospitability Index (NH) and Mansonia host plant Index (MHI) were developed for each plant species. Ranking of these plants in relation to Mansonia breeding was done based on these indices. Monochoria vaginalis has been identified to be one of the most important auxiliary host plant. Three grasses viz, Hygrorhiza aristata, Sacciolepis interrupta and Leersia hexandra were found to support all the three species of Mansonia viz, Ma. annulifera, Ma. uniformis and Ma. indiana with considerable immature density. The inclusion of these plants for weed/vector control is emphasized. PMID:7667728

Krishnamoorthy, K; Rajendran, G; Panicker, K N

1994-12-01

204

Mosquitoes and tyres.  

Science.gov (United States)

Car tyres not only help people to move about, they also assist exotic mosquitoes in travelling thousands of miles around the world to colonise new areas. The remarkable adaptability of mosquitoes that has led to their enormous success in the past can be seen close to home. PMID:11932500

Snow, Keith; Ramsdale, Clement

2002-04-01

205

Mosquitoes and tyres.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Car tyres not only help people to move about, they also assist exotic mosquitoes in travelling thousands of miles around the world to colonise new areas. The remarkable adaptability of mosquitoes that has led to their enormous success in the past can be seen close to home.

Snow K; Ramsdale C

2002-04-01

206

Perfumed mosquito repellent composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a perfumed mosquito repellent composition, characterized in that the composition is prepared by the following ingredients, based on percent by weight, of: 0.1-1% of wild lemonleaf oil, 0.1-2% of eucalyptus oil, 0.5-3% of tea tree oil, 1-10% of eucalyptus citriodora leaf oil, 0-0.5% of clove oil, 0-0.2% of linaloe wood oil, 0-0.5% of dementholised peppermint oil and the balance as diluent of alkane C14. The mosquito repellent composition makes full use of three mosquito repellent essential oils including eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil and eucalyptus citriodora leaf oil, which all have no pesticide ingredients contained, but are excellent in repelling mosquito, bugs and ants, thus achieving ideal mosquito repellent effect and acceptance for human body and generating noside effect to human body, besides, the cost of the composition is low.

HUIXIAN XU

207

Global Climate Change and Its Potential Impact on Disease Transmission by Salinity-Tolerant Mosquito Vectors in Coastal Zones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival...

Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

208

76 FR 2863 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Sonoma...  

Science.gov (United States)

...providing sufficient breeding habitat and upland habitat to maintain and sustain existing...floodplain may be due to the lack of suitable upland habitat within the floodplain during the...habitat for the salamander. Suitable upland habitat may also be lacking during...

2011-01-18

209

Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciprocal nature of this relationship is exploited by various blood parasites that use mechanical, salivary or trophic transmission to pass from mosquitoes to frogs. It is important to investigate the involvement of mosquitoes, frogs and parasites in this interaction in order to understand the consequences of anthropogenic actions, such as implementing biocontrol efforts against mosquitoes, and to determine potential causes of the global decline of amphibian species.

Laura V. Ferguson; Todd G. Smith

2012-01-01

210

Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropic environment: 6 - Breeding in empty conditions of rice fields in South-Eastern Brazil Estudos sobre mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) e ambiente antrópico: 6 - Observações em campos de arroz não cultivados, na região sudeste do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on culicid breeding in empty rice fields were carried out during the cultivation cycle from May to November 1993. This period corresponded to stages 1 and 2, when empty conditions prevailed. Breeding occurred in stage 1 and the first part of stage 2, corresponding respectively to fallow uncultivated and ploughing situations. No breeding was found to take place during the second part of stage 2 when transient floods and harrowing occurred. The predominant species were Aedes scapularis, Culex nigripalpus and Cx. mollis. The Pilosus Group of Culex (Melanoconion) was found at lower densities. Some epidemiological considerations are presented.Apresentam-se os resultados obtidos com a pesquisa sistemática de criadouros nas fases não cultivadas dos campos de arroz, correspondendo ao período de maio a novembro de 1993. Esse lapso de tempo foi o referente aos estádios de repouso, de aradura do terreno e de gradeamento. Este foi realizado mediante inundações transitórias e a homogeneização mecânica da terra. O primeiro correspondeu ao estádio 1, enquanto os outros dois, ao estádio 2. Foram encontrados criadouros nas etapas concernentes aos estados de repouso e de aradura. Foram negativas as pesquisas referentes às fases de gradeamento. As espécies predominantes foram Aedes scapularis, Culex nigripalpus e Cx. mollis. Observou-se a existência de associações com o ritmo local das precipitações atmosféricas. São apresentadas considerações sobre o potencial epidemiológico desses encontros.

Oswaldo Paulo Forattini; Iná Kakitani; Eduardo Massad; Daniel Marucci

1994-01-01

211

Population ecology of mosquitoes and the status of bancroftian filariasis in El Dakahlia Governorate, the Nile delta, Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes were surveyed (Oct. 2010 & Apr. - Oct. 2011) in some localities representing 13 centers of El-Dakahlia Governorate. Six mosquito species were collected: Culex pipiens, Cx. antennatus, Cx. perexiguus, Ochlerotatus detritus, Anopheles pharoensis and An. tenebrosus. Culex pipiens was predominating (ca 79% larvae, 51% adults). Culex antennatus and Cx. perexiguus were also common. Of the Four types of the breeding habitats, the drainage canals were the most productive (53.4% larvae). For the three common species, the compiled larval density increases as water temp. increased and decreases as pH increased while adult indoor density increases as indoor and outdoor temp. and indoor RH increased and decreases as outdoor RH increased. Cx. pipiens significantly associated with Cx. antennatus (CAB=0.88 & I=0.48) while Cx. antennatus has a moderate association with Cx. perexiguus (CAB=0.47 & I=0.36). Out of 908 examined blood samples from ten centers, 7.49% were infected with Wuchereria bancrofti. The highest infection rates in some centers were associated with high indoor densities of Cx. pipiens females, the main filariasis vector. The situation necessitates a wide vector control program to minimize lymphatic filariasis transmission in this Governorate.

Abdel-Hamid YM; Soliman MI; Kenawy MA

2013-04-01

212

Breeding patterns of the JE vector Culex gelidus and its insect predators in rice cultivation areas of northern peninsular Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus activity is an important cause of viral encephalitis in Southeast Asia. In Malaysia, JEV activity has been first detected in Culex gelidus in 1976. Since then, no study has fully addressed the seasonal dynamics of this mosquito. As irrigated rice production expands, the incidence of JEV vectors, particularly Cx. gelidus is expected to increase. We surveyed Penang Island to determine the breeding patterns of Cx. gelidus and their potential insect predators, in relation to habitat/niche and rice growing period. Six rice fields proper (RFP) and related drainage canals (DC) were visited through three cultivation cycles (CCs) over 17 months. Weekly visits were performed to each of the 36 sites and mosquito larvae and aquatic insects were sampled from RFP and DCs using dippers. Culex gelidus was abundant in RFP and almost absent in DCs. Its densities usually were high during the first and 3rd CC and when the RFs were in Fp, Pp and Gp. In DCs, the mosquito was abundant during Mp, e.g., 2nd CC. Predators, especially those belonging to the families Corixidae, Coenagrionidae and Dytiscidae, were more present in RFP. Predator numbers usually were high during the first CC; in some cases predator abundance peaked during other CCs, e.g., corixids and dysticids. In RFP, neither corixids nor coenagrionids showed any positive correlation with densities of Cx. gelidus. However, dytiscids' population peaked when the mosquito densities were on the rise. These observations suggest that Cx. gelidus is active during the period of rice cultivation. Operational vector control through bio-control or with insecticides near the end of the rice cultivation season in RFP may prove beneficial in reducing the density of Cx. gelidus, but also the amount of bio-agent or insecticide applied on riceland.

Abu Hassan A; Hamady D; Tomomitsu S; Michael B; Jameel S L AS

2010-12-01

213

Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropicenvironment: 5- Breeding of Anopheles albitarsis in flooded rice fields in South-Eastern Brazil Estudos sobre mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) e ambiente antrópico: 5- Desenvolvimento de Anopheles albitarsis em campos de arroz irrigados na região sudeste do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on breeding Anopheles albitarsis and association with rice growth in irrigated paddy fields were carried out during the rice cultivation cycle from December 1993 to March 1994. This period corresponded to the length of time of permanent paddy flooding. Breeding occurred in the early stage up until five weeks after transplantation when rice plant height was small. That inverse correlation may give potential direction to control measures.Apresentam-se os resultados de observações sobre desenvolvimento da densidade larval de Anopheles albitarsis em criadouros representados por campos de arroz artificialmente irrigados, de dezembro de 1993 a março de 1994. Esse espaço de tempo correspondeu a período de inundação permanente iniciado com o transplante. Verificou-se relação inversa entre a densidade de larvas e a altura atingida pelas plantas de arroz. Assim, praticamente a produção das formas imaturas ocorreu ao longo das cinco primeiras semanas de inundação. O rendimento da margem dos campos de cultivo foi cerca do dobro daquele observado na área interna. Esse fenômeno não logrou explicação satisfatória apenas pelo fator insolação. Pode-se argumentar que a vegetação marginal, pela sua maior diversidade, possa oferecer maiores oportunidades de sobrevivência para as larvas, mediante abrigo e alimentação. De qualquer maneira, essas observações concordam com o verificado em outras regiões e possibilitam nortear a aplicação de eventuais medidas de controle.

Oswaldo Paulo Forattini; Iná Kakitani; Eduardo Massad; Daniel Marucci

1994-01-01

214

Higher mosquito production in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: understanding ecological drivers and mosquito-borne disease risk in temperate cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito-vectored pathogens are responsible for devastating human diseases and are (re)emerging in many urban environments. Effective mosquito control in urban landscapes relies on improved understanding of the complex interactions between the ecological and social factors that define where mosquito populations can grow. We compared the density of mosquito habitat and pupae production across economically varying neighborhoods in two temperate U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC). Seven species of mosquito larvae were recorded. The invasive Aedes albopictus was the only species found in all neighborhoods. Culex pipiens, a primary vector of West Nile virus (WNV), was most abundant in Baltimore, which also had more tire habitats. Both Culex and Aedes pupae were more likely to be sampled in neighborhoods categorized as being below median income level in each city and Aedes pupae density was also greater in container habitats found in these lower income neighborhoods. We infer that lower income residents may experience greater exposure to potential disease vectors and Baltimore residents specifically, were at greater risk of exposure to the predominant WNV vector. However, we also found that resident-reported mosquito nuisance was not correlated with our measured risk index, indicating a potentially important mismatch between motivation needed to engage participation in control efforts and the relative importance of control among neighborhoods.

LaDeau SL; Leisnham PT; Biehler D; Bodner D

2013-04-01

215

Colonization of UK coastal realignment sites by mosquitoes: implications for design, management, and public health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coastal realignment is now widely instituted in the UK as part of local flood risk management plans to compensate for the loss of European protected habitat and to mitigate the effects of sea-level rise and coastal squeeze. Coastal aquatic habitats have long been known to provide suitable habitats for brackish-water mosquitoes and historically, coastal marshes were considered to support anopheline mosquito populations that were responsible for local malaria transmission. This study surveyed the eight largest managed realignment (MRA) sites in England (Essex and the Humber) for mosquito habitats. The apparent absence of anopheline mosquitoes exploiting aquatic habitats at all of these sites suggests that the risk of malaria associated with MRA sites is currently negligible. However, three of the eight sites supported populations of two nuisance and potential arboviral vector species, Aedes detritus and Aedes caspius. The aquatic habitats that supported mosquitoes resulted from a) specific design aspects of the new sea wall (ballast to mitigate wave action and constructed saline borrow ditches) that could be designed out or managed or b) isolated pools created through silt accretion or expansion of flooded zones to neighbouring pasture. The public health risks and recommendations for management are discussed in this report. This report highlights the need for pro-active public health impact assessments prior to MRA development in consultation with the Health Protection Agency, as well as the need for a case-by-case approach to design and management to mitigate mosquito or mosquito-borne disease issues now and in the future.

Medlock JM; Vaux AG

2013-06-01

216

Presence of the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus in South Moravia, Czech Republic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During a survey of mosquitoes in the South Moravian lowland area, the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas) (Diptera: Culicidae) was found breeding in an ancient fishpond (Nesyt). It is not clear whether this southern Palaearctic species, a known vector of malaria in Asia which has not been recorded in the Czech Republic until this year, has gone undetected in the past or whether it has recently moved into the region as a result of climate change.

Sebesta O; Rettich F; Minár J; Halouzka J; Hubálek Z; Juricová Z; Rudolf I; Sikutová S; Gelbic I; Reiter P

2009-09-01

217

Presence of the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus in South Moravia, Czech Republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

During a survey of mosquitoes in the South Moravian lowland area, the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas) (Diptera: Culicidae) was found breeding in an ancient fishpond (Nesyt). It is not clear whether this southern Palaearctic species, a known vector of malaria in Asia which has not been recorded in the Czech Republic until this year, has gone undetected in the past or whether it has recently moved into the region as a result of climate change. PMID:19712159

Sebesta, O; Rettich, F; Minár, J; Halouzka, J; Hubálek, Z; Juricová, Z; Rudolf, I; Sikutová, S; Gelbic, I; Reiter, P

2009-09-01

218

[Ecological aspects of mosquito biocontrol with implementation of GPS/GIS].  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquitoes bionomics and vector role as well as integrated control methods with GPS/GIS techniques were presented. Special attention was put on GIS which enables analysis of biological and environmental data generated by GPS (Global Positioning System). Combined with data from surveillance and management activities, those techniques provide a powerful tool for the precise analysis of mosquito development, breeding sites, and effective biocontrol effects on maps. PMID:21452522

Lonc, Elzbieta; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Jawie?, Piotr

2010-01-01

219

[Ecological aspects of mosquito biocontrol with implementation of GPS/GIS].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes bionomics and vector role as well as integrated control methods with GPS/GIS techniques were presented. Special attention was put on GIS which enables analysis of biological and environmental data generated by GPS (Global Positioning System). Combined with data from surveillance and management activities, those techniques provide a powerful tool for the precise analysis of mosquito development, breeding sites, and effective biocontrol effects on maps.

Lonc E; Rydzanicz K; Jawie? P

2010-01-01

220

Intelligent mosquito repellent device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A smart mosquito killer comprises a settling tank and a water tank which is arranged in the settling tank through the opening of the settling tank and positioned in the upper part of the settling tank. The water tank can be filled with marsh water and the upper part of the water tank is provided with a top cover, an electric controller, a mosquito induction inlet, an oviposition cavity, a water inlet and an overflow pipe, and the bottom of the water tank is provided with an electromagnetic valve and a duct, wherein the duct inserting into the marsh water of the settling tank. The top of the settling tank is provided with a separation net for closing an emergence chamber, the settling tank is provided with a down comer communicated with an underground leaky pipe, and the lower part of the settling tank is buried into green land with ambient hedge for shielding. The water inlet is communicated with an electric water pump arranged in the marsh water through a water inlet pipe, and the electric controller which has a control circuit turns on the electric water pump periodically to pour marsh water into the water tank. Female mosquitoes fly into the oviposition cavity and oviposit on water surface. Before hatched mosquito larvae escape after emergence, the electromagnetic valve can automatically open to let mosquito larvae drop into the settling tank with marsh water and be killed, while the marsh water can drains into the underground leaky pipe to irrigate flowers and trees. The device can be arranged in residential quarters or scenic areas to kill mosquito larvae and root away mosquito hazard.

HUANG ZHU HUANG

 
 
 
 
221

Anopheles gambiae s.s. breeding in polluted water bodies in urban Lagos, southwestern Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Urban malaria is on the rise in Nigeria due to rapid industrialisation and developmental activities. A study was undertaken in Lagos, Nigeria to study the Anopheles breeding in polluted water bodies. METHODS: Anopheles larval breeding habitats were surveyed and water samples from 24 larval breeding sites from four strategic areas in urban Lagos were analysed. The relationship between eight abiotic variables (pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, hardness, nitrate, total dissolved solids, turbidity and oil) and density of Anopheles larvae were investigated. The levels of heavy metals (Zn, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe, Hg and Ni) pollution were analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. RESULTS: Morphological and PCR analysis of 2358 anopheline larvae revealed only the presence of two members of the Anopheles gambiae complex consisting of 93.1% Anopheles gambiae s.s. and 6.9% An. arabiensis. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant association between occurrence of An. arabiensis larvae and two independent variables: pH and turbidity but not for An. gambiae s.s. The levels of three heavy metals: Fe, Cu and Pb from more than half of the sites surveyed were three times higher than the values obtained in natural breeding sites of An. gambiae s.s. from a rural area of Lagos. Over 85% of An. gambiae s.s. larvae were found in water bodies characterised by low dissolved oxygen (<3 mg/L), high conductivity (>900 uS/cm), turbidity (>180 FAU), oil (>11 mg/L) and heavy metals: Fe, Cu, and Pb (>0.4 mg/L). INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: These results indicate that An. gambiae s.s. is adapting to a wide range of water pollution in this urban area. The survival of the mosquito in widespread polluted water bodies across Lagos metropolis could be responsible for the rise in the incidence of malaria.

Awolola TS; Oduola AO; Obansa JB; Chukwurar NJ; Unyimadu JP

2007-12-01

222

Transfer of toxin genes to alternate bacterial hosts for mosquito control  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Mosquitoes are vector of serious human and animal diseases, such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, among others. The use of biological control agents has provide an environmentally safe and highly specific alternative to the use of chemical insecticides in the control of vector borne diseases. Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus produce toxic proteins to mosquito larvae. Great progress has been made on the biochemical and molecular characterization of such proteins a (more) nd the genes encoding them. Nevertheless, the low residuality of these biological insecticides is one of the major drawbacks. This article present some interesting aspects of the mosquito larvae feeding habits and review the attempts that have been made to genetically engineer microorganisms that while are used by mosquito larvae as a food source should express the Bacillus toxin genes in order to improve the residuality and stability in the mosquito breeding ponds.

Orduz, Sergio; Restrepo, Nora; Patiño, Maria M; Rojas, William

1995-02-01

223

Dog Breeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.

;

2004-07-05

224

Can settlement in natal-like habitat explain maladaptive habitat selection?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study of habitat selection has long been influenced by the ideal free model, which maintains that young adults settle in habitat according to its inherent quality and the density of conspecifics within it. The model has gained support in recent years from the finding that conspecifics produce cues inadvertently that help prebreeders locate good habitat. Yet abundant evidence shows that animals often fail to occupy habitats that ecologists have identified as those of highest quality, leading to the conclusion that young animals settle on breeding spaces by means not widely understood. Here, we report that a phenomenon virtually unknown in nature, natal habitat preference induction (NHPI), is a strong predictor of territory settlement in both male and female common loons (Gavia immer). NHPI causes young animals to settle on natal-like breeding spaces, but not necessarily those that maximize reproductive success. If widespread, NHPI might explain apparently maladaptive habitat settlement.

Piper WH; Palmer MW; Banfield N; Meyer MW

2013-08-01

225

The ecology of mosquitoes in an irrigated vegetable farm in Kumasi, Ghana: abundance, productivity and survivorship.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Irrigated vegetable farms within the city of Kumasi, Ghana, create hotspots for the breeding of malaria vectors, which could lead to high transmission of malaria. This study investigated the abundance and productivity of mosquitoes in an irrigated vegetable farm in Kumasi, Ghana. METHODS: Adult mosquito productivity was estimated five days in a week in different irrigated scheme types (dug-out wells, furrows and footprints) for 12 weeks using emergence traps. Larval sampling was done five days a week to estimate the abundance of larvae from the different irrigated schemes types. RESULTS: Mosquito breeding in the irrigated vegetable field was confined to dug-out wells, furrows and human footprints. Mosquito productivity (m2/week) was highest in the dugout wells followed by the human footprints and the least was in the furrows (11.23, 5.07 and 4.34 An. gambiae/m2/week). Larval abundance for the late instars (3rd, 4th and pupae) also followed the same trend, with the dug-out wells having the highest larval abundance followed by the human footprints and then the furrows (13.24, 6.81, 5.87 larvae/week). Mosquito productivity and abundance was negatively correlated with rainfall (R2 = 0.209; P< 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study showed that adult and larval mosquito abundance and larval survival were high in the irrigated fields in the irrigated vegetable farm. This therefore, contributed significantly to adult mosquito populations and hence malaria transmission in the city.

Afrane YA; Lawson BW; Brenya R; Kruppa T; Yan G

2012-01-01

226

Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes. PMID:23911355

Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

2013-07-16

227

Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes.

Tetreau G; Chandor-Proust A; Faucon F; Stalinski R; Akhouayri I; Prud'homme SM; Raveton M; Reynaud S

2013-09-01

228

[Experience in suppressing the mosquito count in basement flooding in the city of Nukus].  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-scale trials of bacterial insecticides (Bac. sphaericus and Bac. thuringiensis) and of 5 synthetic pyrethroids were carried out in Nukus, Uzbekistan, in order to evaluate their effectiveness against Culex pipiens molestus Forsk (Diptera: Culicidae) breeding in flooded basements in urban areas. Lambdacyhaothrine (Karate, 5% e.c.) in the dosage of 0.01 g/m2 A. I. was found to be the most effective. Application of permethrine containing thermosublimated briquettes for quick elimination of adult mosquitoes combined with application of residual larvicides proved to be the best way to control basement breeding mosquitoes. PMID:1839053

Chabanenko, A A; Ermishev, Iu V; Stepnov, A P

229

[Experience in suppressing the mosquito count in basement flooding in the city of Nukus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Large-scale trials of bacterial insecticides (Bac. sphaericus and Bac. thuringiensis) and of 5 synthetic pyrethroids were carried out in Nukus, Uzbekistan, in order to evaluate their effectiveness against Culex pipiens molestus Forsk (Diptera: Culicidae) breeding in flooded basements in urban areas. Lambdacyhaothrine (Karate, 5% e.c.) in the dosage of 0.01 g/m2 A. I. was found to be the most effective. Application of permethrine containing thermosublimated briquettes for quick elimination of adult mosquitoes combined with application of residual larvicides proved to be the best way to control basement breeding mosquitoes.

Chabanenko AA; Ermishev IuV; Stepnov AP

1991-07-01

230

A classification system for mosquito life cycles: life cycle types for mosquitoes of the northeastern United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A system for the classification of mosquito life cycle types is presented for mosquito species found in the northeastern United States. Primary subdivisions include Univoltine Aedine, Multivoltine Aedine, Multivoltine Culex/Anopheles, and Unique Life Cycle Types. A montotypic subdivision groups life cycle types restricted to single species. The classification system recognizes 11 shared life cycle types and three that are limited to single species. Criteria for assignments include: 1) where the eggs are laid, 2) typical larval habitat, 3) number of generations per year, and 4) stage of the life cycle that overwinters. The 14 types in the northeast have been named for common model species. A list of species for each life cycle type is provided to serve as a teaching aid for students of mosquito biology.

Crans WJ

2004-06-01

231

RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA  

Science.gov (United States)

Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

232

Mosquito community structure in phytotelmata from a South American temperate wetland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phytotelmata, or plant-held waters, are considered to be good model systems for the study of community ecology. The fauna of these natural container habitats, particularly the mosquitoes, have been extensively investigated in tropical regions, but there is little known about them in temperate South America. We assessed the structure of immature mosquito communities in leaf axils, tree holes, and bamboo stumps from a temperate wetland of Argentina. A total of 4,330 immature mosquitoes were collected among the 2,606 phytotelmata inspected. Leaf axils of eight plant species and tree holes were larval habitats for nine mosquito species belonging to the genus Culex, Wyeomyia, Isostomyia, and Toxorhynchites. The mosquito communities showed richness ranging from one to four species. Marked differences were detected in the plant specificity for the species collected. Some of them were exclusively found in one plant species (Isostomyia paranensis in Scirpus giganteus), whereas others were collected in up to five plant species but belonging to the same phytotelm class, the leaf axils. Those from tree holes are well-known dwellers of artificial containers and ground water habitats, such as Culex pipiens. Our results support the idea of low mosquito richness in phytotelmata from temperate regions in comparison with tropical areas, but the observed specificity patterns echo the findings of tropical forests.

Albicócco AP; Carbajo AE; Vezzani D

2011-12-01

233

Environmental management of mosquito-borne viruses in rhode island.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) are both primarily bird viruses, which can be transmitted by several mosquito species. Differences in larval habitats, flight, and biting patterns of the primary vector species result in substantial differences in epidemiology, with WNV more common, primarily occurring in urban areas, and EEEV relatively rare, typically occurring near swamp habitats. The complex transmission ecology of these viruses complicates prediction of disease outbreaks. The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (DEM) and Department of Health (DoH) provide prevention assistance to towns and maintain a mosquito surveillance program to identify potential disease risk. Responses to potential outbreaks follow a protocol based on surveillance results, assessment of human risk, and technical consultation.

Ginsberg HS; Gettman A; Becker E; Bandyopadhyay AS; Lebrun RA

2013-01-01

234

Environmental management of mosquito-borne viruses in Rhode Island  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) are both primarily bird viruses, which can be transmitted by several mosquito species. Differences in larval habitats, flight, and biting patterns of the primary vector species result in substantial differences in epidemiology, with WNV more common, primarily occurring in urban areas, and EEEV relatively rare, typically occurring near swamp habitats. The complex transmission ecology of these viruses complicates prediction of disease outbreaks. The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (DEM) and Department of Health (DoH) provide prevention assistance to towns and maintain a mosquito surveillance program to identify potential disease risk. Responses to potential outbreaks follow a protocol based on surveillance results, assessment of human risk, and technical consultation.

Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gettman, Alan; Becker, Elisabeth; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S.; Lebrun, Roger A.

2013-01-01

235

Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna breeding water in a dry zone stream in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Selected physico-chemical characteristics of flowing and pooled water ina stream that generated two malaria vectors, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. Giles and Anopheles varunaIyengar, were investigated during August–September 1997 and July 1998 at the Upper Yan Oyawatershed in north-central Sri Lanka.Methods: The physico-chemical parameters measured were: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity,total dissolved solids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, calcium, magnesium,carbondioxide, ferrous iron, phosphate, colour and turbidity. In total, 75.5% of 151 samples analysedwere mosquito-positive. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis.Results: Among physico-chemical parameters, An. culicifacies (the major malaria vector in the country)was positively related only to temperature, and An. varuna (a secondary malaria vector) tocalcium. Among habitat characteristics, An. culicifacies was associated with light and vegetation, andnegatively associated with the presence of potential predators. An. varuna was positively associatedwith other aquatic fauna.Interpretation & conclusion: Surprisingly this detailed study did not find an association betweenAn. culicifacies and dissolved oxygen as previously found in the few studies that have looked atphysico-chemical characteristics of malaria vector breeding habitats in south Asia. This study, alongwith existing information from other studies indicate that most of the physico-chemical parametersmeasured under natural conditions within the same habitat type is insufficient to explain the distributionof vectors within such habitats. However, it seems likely that both An. culicifacies and An.varuna follow a strategy whereby ovipositing females scatter their eggs over most of or all of a highlytemporary and only transiently available stream bed pool habitat, in order to optimise breedingsuccess.

M.K. Piyaratne, F.P. Amerasinghe, P.H. Amerasinghe & F. Konradsen

2005-01-01

236

Solar energy mosquito eradicator  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a solar mosquito killer, which comprises a bracket, wherein, the bracket is connected with a base, and a mosquito storage box is arranged in the base the upper end of the base is connected with a middle cylinder, and a mosquito screen and a liner are arranged in the middle cylinder a fan is arranged in the liner, and the upper end of the middle cylinder is connected with a top cap with a through hole a reflecting plate with an LED light is arranged in the top cap, and the top cap is connected with a solar panel through a top cap bracket and storage batteries connected with the solar panel are arranged on the bracket. The product utilizes the solar energy to supply power so as to effectively save the energy without an external power supply, thereby eliminating the trouble that the product keeps away from a power pull wire. The product can be put indoors and outdoors in which the sun can shine, and can be directly put on the flat ground indoors or fixed on the ground outdoors, and has no electricity consumption, free maintenance, safety, reliability, good effect and the like, which can be widely applied to the manufacture of the mosquito killer.

SHENGYAN GUO

237

Mosquito glutathione transferases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The glutathione transferases (glutathione S-transferases, GSTs) are a diverse family of enzymes involved in a wide range of biological processes, many of which involve the conjugation of the tripeptide glutathione to an electrophilic substrate. Relatively little is known about the endogenous substrates of mosquito GSTs, and most studies have focused on their role in insecticide metabolism, because elevated levels of GST activity have been associated with resistance to all the major classes of insecticides. In addition, there is growing interest in the role of this enzyme family in maintaining the redox status of the mosquito cell, particularly in relation to vectorial capacity. Most GSTs are cytosolic dimeric proteins, although a smaller class of microsomal GSTs exists in insects, mammals, and plants. Each GST subunit has a G site that binds glutathione and a substrate-binding site or H site. There are more than 30 GST genes in mosquitoes. Additional diversity is contributed by alternative splicing to produce GSTs with differing substrate specificities. In this review, we first discuss the diversity of insect GST enzymes and their mode of action before focusing on the various functions that have been attributed to specific mosquito GSTs.

Ranson H; Hemingway J

2005-01-01

238

Awareness and practice about preventive method against mosquito bite in Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquito borne diseases are major public health problems in India. Gujarat is endemic for malaria and other mosquito borne diseases. Anopheles, Aedes and Culex are commonly seen in Gujarat. Therefore the efforts have been consistently made to educate the citizens of State on danger of mosquito bites. The present study was conducted to assess the awareness and practices of mosquito bite prevention methods among households of Central Gujarat district Vadodara. Total 311 families have participated in the study from UHTC area of the Medical college. Door to door visit was conducted to visit the all households. The study was conducted in the month of June 2009, which is observed as Anti-Malaria month in Gujarat. The pilot pre-tested structure questionnaire was used to collect the data. Study respondents were 57% male and 43% female. Almost 99% had knowledge about breeding places of mosquito, but poor knowledge about biting time (20%). 71% of participants knew that mosquito bite causes malaria. 39% 0f households were using mosquito net as protection against the bite, but only 10% were using insecticide treated bed net. There is need of increasing use of insecticide treated bed nets and continuous updating of knowledge about various aspects of mosquito bite.

Niraj Pandit; Yogesh Patel; Bharat Bhavsar

2010-01-01

239

Modulation of La Crosse Virus Infection in Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes Following Larval Exposure to Coffee Extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mosquito-borne La Crosse virus (LACV; Family Bunyaviridae) may cause encephalitis, primarily in children, and is distributed throughout much of the eastern United States. No antivirals or vaccines are available for LACV, or most other mosquito-borne viruses, and prevention generally relies on mosquito control. We sought to determine whether coffee extracts could interfere with LACV replication and vector mosquito development. Both regular and decaffeinated coffee demonstrated significant reductions in LACV replication in direct antiviral assays. This activity was not due to the presence of caffeine, which did not inhibit the virus life cycle. Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito larvae suffered near total mortality when reared in high concentrations of regular and decaffeinated coffee and in caffeine. Following larval exposure to sublethal coffee concentrations, adult A. albopictus mosquitoes had significantly reduced whole-body LACV titers 5?days post-infection, compared to larvae reared in distilled water. These results suggest that it may be possible to both control mosquito populations and alter the vector competence of mosquitoes for arthropod-borne viruses by introducing antiviral compounds into the larval habitat.

Eastep NE; Albert RE; Anderson JR

2012-01-01

240

Prevention of mosquito borne diseases by using mosquito repellents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquitoes, the disease transmitters are responsible for around 1.3 milliondeaths annually. Diseases such as West Nile Virus, malaria, dengue fever andyellow fever are transmitted to humans by blood-feeding mosquitoes.The immediate hypersensitivity and delayed hypersensitivity reactions aredue to mosquito bites. Chemical remedies for mosquito bites are applicationof antihistamines, diphenhydramine and topical corticosteroids. An understandingof vector’s lifecycle and behavioural characteristics guides mosquito controlactivities. Meta-N, N diethyl toluamide (DEET) protects against tick bitesand mosquito bites by blocking insect receptors which are used to locate hosts.DEET products are safest and most effective insect repellents. Naturally occurringrepellants are usually plant volatile oils like pyrethrum. Permethrinis a synthetic pyrethroid causing nervous system toxicity of the insect leadingto its death. The repellant activities can be measured by the blood-feedingmembrane tests. Safe and effective repellants should be chosen.

Saurabh Dahiya; Prof.Roop K.Khar; Dr. Aruna Chhikkara

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Incorporating the effects of humidity in a mechanistic model of Anopheles gambiae mosquito population dynamics in the Sahel region of Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Low levels of relative humidity are known to decrease the lifespan of mosquitoes. However, most current models of malaria transmission do not account for the effects of relative humidity on mosquito survival. In the Sahel, where relative humidity drops to levels <20% for several months of the year, we expect relative humidity to play a significant role in shaping the seasonal profile of mosquito populations. Here, we present a new formulation for Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquito survival as a function of temperature and relative humidity and investigate the effect of humidity on simulated mosquito populations. METHODS: Using existing observations on relationships between temperature, relative humidity and mosquito longevity, we developed a new equation for mosquito survival as a function of temperature and relative humidity. We collected simultaneous field observations on temperature, wind, relative humidity, and anopheline mosquito populations for two villages from the Sahel region of Africa, which are presented in this paper. We apply this equation to the environmental data and conduct numerical simulations of mosquito populations using the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS). RESULTS: Relative humidity drops to levels that are uncomfortable for mosquitoes at the end of the rainy season. In one village, Banizoumbou, water pools dried up and interrupted mosquito breeding shortly after the end of the rainy season. In this case, relative humidity had little effect on the mosquito population. However, in the other village, Zindarou, the relatively shallow water table led to water pools that persisted several months beyond the end of the rainy season. In this case, the decrease in mosquito survival due to relative humidity improved the model's ability to reproduce the seasonal pattern of observed mosquito abundance. CONCLUSIONS: We proposed a new equation to describe Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquito survival as a function of temperature and relative humidity. We demonstrated that relative humidity can play a significant role in mosquito population and malaria transmission dynamics. Future modeling work should account for these effects of relative humidity.

Yamana TK; Eltahir EA

2013-01-01

242

Knowledge of mosquitos in relation to public and domestic control activities in the cities of Dar es Salaam and Tanga.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study of community awareness of mosquitos and related subjects in the residential areas of two Tanzanian cities (Dar es Salaam and Tanga) showed that residents were well aware of mosquitos. Almost all claimed to use some form of domestic mosquito control product for their personal protection, and many spend a significant portion of the household income on this. The problems of nuisance-biting and malaria transmission are usually not separated and are considered to be the result of poor environmental hygiene, for which both residents and local authorities are responsible. Although Culex mosquitos are not a primary target of the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP), the persistence of nuisance-biting has made residents sceptical and dissatisfied with insecticide spraying. The residents' priorities are evidently not the same as those of the health authorities, yet mutual cooperation is essential. In order to maintain community support, campaigns aimed at malaria vectors should consider the need for additional measures to control Culex mosquitos, such as those now being tried by the UMCP. Mosquito breeding sites are non-specifically associated with rubbish and standing water of all kinds, and so the actions that the community considers necessary for mosquito source reduction tend to be poorly targeted. Residents do not recognize that some sources produce malaria mosquitos while others produce nuisance mosquitos. The environmental anti-mosquito measures currently promoted by health education and other forms of propaganda are also poorly targeted. While some of them are directed at important Culex breeding sites, others are aimed at sites of little importance for mosquitos of any kind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Stephens C; Masamu ET; Kiama MG; Keto AJ; Kinenekejo M; Ichimori K; Lines J

1995-01-01

243

Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 studies; four cluster-RCTs, eight controlled before-and-after trials, and one randomized cross-over trial. The included studies evaluated habitat modification (one study), habitat modification with larviciding (two studies), habitat manipulation (one study), habitat manipulation plus larviciding (two studies), or larviciding alone (seven studies) in a wide variety of habitats and countries. Malaria incidenceIn two cluster-RCTs undertaken in Sri Lanka, larviciding of abandoned mines, streams, irrigation ditches, and rice paddies reduced malaria incidence by around three-quarters compared to the control (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.31, 20,124 participants, two trials, moderate quality evidence). In three controlled before-and-after trials in urban and rural India and rural Kenya, results were inconsistent (98,233 participants, three trials, very low quality evidence). In one trial in urban India, the removal of domestic water containers together with weekly larviciding of canals and stagnant pools reduced malaria incidence by three quarters. In one trial in rural India and one trial in rural Kenya, malaria incidence was higher at baseline in intervention areas than in controls. However dam construction in India, and larviciding of streams and swamps in Kenya, reduced malaria incidence to levels similar to the control areas. In one additional randomized cross-over trial in the flood plains of the Gambia River, where larval habitats were extensive and ill-defined, larviciding by ground teams did not result in a statistically significant reduction in malaria incidence (2039 participants, one trial). Parasite prevalenceIn one cluster-RCT from Sri Lanka, larviciding reduced parasite prevalence by almost 90% (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.22, 2963 participants, one trial, moderate quality evidence). In five controlled before-and-after trials in Greece, India, the Philippines, and Tanzania, LSM resulted in an average reduction in parasite prevalence of around two-thirds (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.55, 8041 participants, five trials, mod

Tusting LS; Thwing J; Sinclair D; Fillinger U; Gimnig J; Bonner KE; Bottomley C; Lindsay SW

2013-01-01

244

A Visit to Florida's Mosquito Man  

Science.gov (United States)

This radio broadcast features an interview with George O'Meara, the world's foremost expert on mosquitoes, who studies mosquito biology and dispenses fun facts (such as: only female mosquitoes bite). There are descriptions of the most aggressive mosquito species, how to tell female mosquitoes from males, and a discussion of landing rates of mosquitoes in the Everglades National Park. The clip is 5 minutes and 30 seconds in length.

2010-10-01

245

Mosquito repellent spray  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a mosquito repellent spray which comprises the following raw materials by weight portion: 2-4 portions of largespike woodnettle roots, 2-4 portions of roots of common sesbania, 4-6 portions of polyporus, 10-20 portions of artemisia leaves, 20-24 portions of Japan pagodatrees, 2-4 portions of scorpio, 4-6 portions of sapanwood, 6-10 portions of puncture vines, 2-6 portions of oak mushroom, 6-10 portions of garlic, 4-10 portions of styrax, 6-8 portions of ramulus cinnamomi, 4-6 portions of asiatic pennywort herbs, 4-6 portions of sunflower roots, 8-10 portions of polygonum hydropipers, 10-16 portions of vanilla herbs, 6-8 portions of angelica dahurica, 6-10 portions of camphor, 10-14 portions of mints, 10-14 portions of sweet osmanthus, 8-12 portions of cloves, 4-6 portions of arachniodes, 6-8 portions of common sowthistle roots and 2-4 portions of preservatives. The invention has the advantages of good effect, easy operation, low cost and small toxic and side effects. Pyrethrins are not used, and mosquitoes can not generate resistance easily. The mosquito repellent spray is carried and used conveniently without limitations of environmental conditions, has low cost and needs less producing equipment, thereby being convenient for popularization and application.

GUISONG ZHANG

246

Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary - 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered bird that breeds only in dense riparian habitats in six southwestern states (southern California, extreme southern Nevada, southern Utah, southwestern Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico). Since 1993, hundreds of Southwestern Willow Flycatcher surveys have been conducted each year, and many new flycatcher breeding sites located. This document synthesizes information on all known Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites. This rangewide data synthesis was designed to meet these objectives: * identify all known Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites, and * assemble data on population size, location, habitat, and other information for all breeding sites, for as many years as possible, from 1993 through 2006. This report provides data summaries in terms of the number of flycatcher sites and the number of territories.

Durst, Scott L.; Sogge, Mark K.; Stump, Shay D.; Williams, Sartor O.; Kus, Barbara E.; Sferra, Susan J.

2007-01-01

247

Evidence for regular ongoing introductions of mosquito disease vectors into the Galapagos Islands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wildlife on isolated oceanic islands is highly susceptible to the introduction of pathogens. The recent establishment in the Galápagos Islands of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector for diseases such as avian malaria and West Nile fever, is considered a serious risk factor for the archipelago's endemic fauna. Here we present evidence from the monitoring of aeroplanes and genetic analysis that C. quinquefasciatus is regularly introduced via aircraft into the Galápagos Archipelago. Genetic population structure and admixture analysis demonstrates that these mosquitoes breed with, and integrate successfully into, already-established populations of C. quinquefasciatus in the Galápagos, and that there is ongoing movement of mosquitoes between islands. Tourist cruise boats and inter-island boat services are the most likely mechanism for transporting Culex mosquitoes between islands. Such anthropogenic mosquito movements increase the risk of the introduction of mosquito-borne diseases novel to Galápagos and their subsequent widespread dissemination across the archipelago. Failure to implement and maintain measures to prevent the human-assisted transport of mosquitoes to and among the islands could have catastrophic consequences for the endemic wildlife of Galápagos. PMID:19675009

Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A; Cedeño, Virna; Cruz, Marilyn; Eastwood, Gillian; Fonseca, Dina M; Causton, Charlotte E; Azuero, Ronal; Loayza, Jose; Martinez, Jose D Cruz; Goodman, Simon J

2009-08-12

248

Evidence for regular ongoing introductions of mosquito disease vectors into the Galapagos Islands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wildlife on isolated oceanic islands is highly susceptible to the introduction of pathogens. The recent establishment in the Galápagos Islands of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector for diseases such as avian malaria and West Nile fever, is considered a serious risk factor for the archipelago's endemic fauna. Here we present evidence from the monitoring of aeroplanes and genetic analysis that C. quinquefasciatus is regularly introduced via aircraft into the Galápagos Archipelago. Genetic population structure and admixture analysis demonstrates that these mosquitoes breed with, and integrate successfully into, already-established populations of C. quinquefasciatus in the Galápagos, and that there is ongoing movement of mosquitoes between islands. Tourist cruise boats and inter-island boat services are the most likely mechanism for transporting Culex mosquitoes between islands. Such anthropogenic mosquito movements increase the risk of the introduction of mosquito-borne diseases novel to Galápagos and their subsequent widespread dissemination across the archipelago. Failure to implement and maintain measures to prevent the human-assisted transport of mosquitoes to and among the islands could have catastrophic consequences for the endemic wildlife of Galápagos.

Bataille A; Cunningham AA; Cedeño V; Cruz M; Eastwood G; Fonseca DM; Causton CE; Azuero R; Loayza J; Martinez JD; Goodman SJ

2009-11-01

249

Linking mosquito infestation to resident socioeconomic status, knowledge, and source reduction practices in suburban Washington, DC.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eliminating water-holding containers where mosquitoes oviposit and develop (source reduction) can help manage urban disease-vector mosquitoes. Source reduction requires residents to be knowledgeable of effective practices and motivated to implement them. We tested relationships between demographics, resident knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), and mosquito infestation by administering larval mosquito surveys and KAP questionnaires in Washington, DC. Respondents who reported practicing source reduction had lower numbers of pupae-positive containers and Culex pipiens-positive containers, but not Aedes albopictus-positive containers or water-holding containers, in their yards. When controlling for numbers of water-holding containers in statistical models, residents who reported source reduction had lower numbers of A. albopictus-positive containers in addition to numbers of pupae-positive containers and C. pipiens-positive containers. These results suggest that while active container reduction may be effective at reducing C. pipiens and overall pupal production, it may be offset by other resident activities that add containers to yards, and that source reduction that involves mosquito habitat management without outright container removal can also be effective at reducing A. albopictus. Source reduction was related to respondent knowledge of mosquitoes and, in particular, specific knowledge of mosquito development, which both varied with demographics alongside respondent motivation to control mosquitoes. Respondents from high socioeconomic status households reported greater knowledge but lower motivation than respondents from middle and low socioeconomic-status households. We conclude that mosquito-related education will help promote community-based container management as part of integrated mosquito management programs, particularly in middle and low socioeconomic status neighborhoods with lower knowledge and high motivation.

Dowling Z; Armbruster P; LaDeau SL; DeCotiis M; Mottley J; Leisnham PT

2013-03-01

250

Foraging ranges of insectivorous bats shift relative to changes in mosquito abundance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The need to develop effective management strategies for insectivorous bat populations requires an understanding of factors influencing habitat use. Availability of pest prey, such as mosquitoes is likely to be one such factor. To assess whether this is the case, we radio-tracked Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas (little forest bat), a predator of Aedes vigilax Skuse (saltmarsh mosquito), in saltmarsh and adjacent coastal swamp forest during periods of high and low Ae. vigilax abundance. When mosquito abundance in structurally-open saltmarsh was similar to the more cluttered coastal swamp forest, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was disproportionately greater than its availability, with saltmarsh selected preferentially for foraging. However, at times of low Ae. vigilax abundance in saltmarsh, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was reduced and all habitats were used in proportion to availability in the study area. This is the first radio-tracking study to demonstrate a shift in foraging range by an insectivorous bat species correlated with fluctuations in the distribution and abundance of a particular prey resource. The shift in foraging range by V. vulturnus, corresponding with a spatio-temporal variation in abundance of Ae. vigilax highlights the importance of mosquitoes as a dietary item. Broadscale pest control of Ae. vigilax may have ecological implications for the diet and habitat use of V. vulturnus. An adaptive management approach is proposed, whereby careful monitoring of insectivorous bat populations is recommended before and after any application of broadscale mosquito control measures. We also suggest a precautionary approach is taken such that broadscale control of mosquitoes avoids the lactation period of bats, a time when their energetic demands are greatest and when there is reduced risk of contracting mosquito-borne diseases transmitted by Ae. vigilax.

Gonsalves L; Law B; Webb C; Monamy V

2013-01-01

251

Tidal circulation alteration for salt marsh mosquito control  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito control ditches designed to increase tidal circulation are widely used as a physical control alternative to insecticidal applications The impact of such ditching on Pacific Coast marshlands was largely unknown before this five-year study of impact in two types of San Francisco Bay salt marshes, a Salicornia virginica (pickleweed) monoculure and a mixed vegetation marsh Results of our studies suggest that ditches cause less environmental disturbance than insecticidal applications The article describes the following environmental consequences of ditching for mosquito control: increased tidal flushing of soils occurs adjacent to ditches compared with that in the open marsh, thereby reducing ground water and soil surface salinities and water table height; primary productivity of S. virginica, as determined by both the harvest method and infrared photographic analysis, is higher directly adjacent to ditches than in the open marsh, distribution of selected arthropod populations is similar at ditches and natural channels, although arthropod community response differs seasonally; aquatic invertebrate biomass is similar within ditched and natural ponds, but diversity is lower in ditched habitats, ditching increases fish diversity and density by improving fish access from tidal channels; ditches provide additional salt marsh song sparrow habitat, although ditches are less preferred than natural channels or sloughs. Management criteria can be used to design ditches that provide effective mosquito control and reduced environmental impact

Resh, Vincent H.; Balling, Steven S.

1983-01-01

252

Challenges in undertaking mosquito surveillance at UK seaports and airports to prevent the entry and establishment of invasive vector species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Port health authorities have played an important role in the control of infectious diseases worldwide. The International Health Regulations (2005) further clarifies this role and provides a legal statutory instrument that aims to assist the international community to prevent and respond to global public health risks. Eleven UK sea and airports participated in a pilot, investigating the challenges ports could face in attempting to monitor for mosquitoes. The study also examined the types of habitat that could support mosquitoes. There is a concern that exotic vector species, such as Aedes albopictus, could invade and become established in the UK. Environments in and around the ports differed, and this was reflected in the species of mosquitoes caught. Ports used different methods to collect mosquitoes and developed a range of techniques for surveying, which suited the conditions at their port. This paper discusses the implications of invasive mosquito surveillance to UK port health authorities.

Murphy G; Vaux A; Medlock J

2013-01-01

253

Door to door survey and community participation to implement a new county mosquito control program in Wayne County, North Carolina, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community involvement in mosquito management programs provides more sustainable and effective organization and service. A door to door survey in Wayne County, NC carried out by student volunteers, resulted in 60 household responses. Residents had not previously experienced outreach from the county (88%), and 95% of them thought the student door to door survey was an effective form of outreach. One third of the residents thought mosquitoes were severe where they lived, but only 9% thought they had any containers in their yard that might breed mosquitoes. Only 15% of the residents were concerned about mosquito borne diseases. These responses provide evidence that outreach and education on mosquito control and diseases were necessary steps for future mosquito control community planning. PMID:19742152

Grantham, Amanda; Anderson, Alice L; Kelley, Timothy

2009-07-31

254

Cubiertas de auto abandonadas como sitios de cría de Culex eduardoi (Diptera: Culicidae) en el Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola, Provincia de Buenos Aires Discarded car tires as breeding sites of Culex eduardoi (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Pereyra Iraola Provincial Park, Buenos Aires Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El conocimiento sobre la fauna de mosquitos que se cría en cubiertas de auto es realmente escaso en Argentina. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar una población de inmaduros de Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia en una acumulación de cubiertas abandonadas en un bosque suburbano de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Entre noviembre 2009 y mayo 2010, se recolectaron mensualmente larvas de mosquitos en 27 cubiertas de auto abandonadas en un sector boscoso del Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola. Se recolectaron en total 1.009 larvas del tercer y cuarto estadio de Cx. eduardoi, y el índice de contenedores (IC) global fue 66,3% (106/160). Culex eduardoi estuvo presente durante todos los meses, aunque el IC difirió significativamente (x²(6) = 15,11; p The knowledge about tire-breeding mosquitoes is truly scarce in Argentina. The objective of this study was to characterize a population of immatures of Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia, from a pile of abandoned tires located in a suburban forest of Buenos Aires Province. Between November 2009 and May 2010, mosquito larvae were monthly collected in 27 abandoned tires within a woody area of the Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola. A total of 1009 third and fourth instar larvae of Cx. eduardoi were collected, and the overall container index (CI) was 66.3% (106/160). Culex eduardoi was collected every month but the CI differed significantly (x²(6) = 15.11; p < 0.05), reaching maximum values in November and December (76 and 92.5% respectively). In spring, the relative abundance of larvae was also the highest, and the mean number of larvae collected per habitat was 9.5 (min. 3.5 in March; max.15.1 in November). Other mosquito species such as Cx. pipiens Linneo and Toxorhynchites theobaldi Dyar & Knab were also found in the studied containers. The present findings contribute with novel knowledge on culicids of tires in Argentina.

Alejandra Rubio; Darío Vezzani

2011-01-01

255

Fluctuaciones estacionales y temporales de la densidad larvaria de Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) y familias de insectos asociados al hábitat en El Granzón, Parroquia San Isidro, municipio Sifontes del estado Bolívar, Venezuela/ Seasonal and temporal fluctuations of larval densites of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) and insects associated to the habitat in San Isidro Parish, Sifontes municipality, Bolívar state, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Anopheles darlingi Root ha sido considerado en condiciones naturales como el principal vector de la malaria humana en América del sur y también en Venezuela, principalmente en los estados Bolívar y Amazonas, donde se produce el 90% de la malaria del país. Durante un mes (Junio de 1999) se realizaron muestreos en criaderos de mosquitos en siete localidades del área minera de San Isidro municipio Sifontes, estado Bolívar. Los sitios de muestreo fueron clasificados a p (more) riori en cuatro tipos de hábitat larvario: quebradas, lagunas, ríos, pantanos (herbáceo o arbóreo). En cada criadero se tomaron 30 muestras con un cucharón para colectar larvas de Anopheles. Simultáneamente al muestreo de larvas se midieron cuatro variables físico-químicas del criadero: pH, oxígeno disuelto, temperatura y profundidad del criadero. Asimismo, en un criadero de An. darlingi (quebrada con sombra), ubicado en la localidad de El Granzón, se llevó a cabo un estudio longitudinal, durante un año entre Julio de 1999 y Junio del 2000. En dicho criadero, se colectaron mensualmente larvas de An. darlingi e insectos acuáticos asociados. Las correlaciones entre la precipitación acumulada, la abundancia de estos insectos y la abundancia de larvas de An. darlingi, se establecieron mediante el análisis no paramétrico de correlación de Spearman (Spearman rank correlation). En el hábitat seleccionado, los resultados del análisis revelaron la presencia de una correlación negativa y significativa entre la abundancia de larvas de An. darlingi y la precipitación acumulada el mes anterior a la colecta. En esa misma localidad, la precipitación acumulada el mes anterior a la colecta, se correlacionó positivamente con la abundancia de la familia Naucoridae (Hemiptera). Asimismo, la abundancia de larvas de An. darlingi presentó una correlación negativa y significativa con la abundancia de la familia Naucoridae. En este hábitat (quebrada del Granzón), la densidad de larvas An. darlingi fue mayor en los meses de menor precipitación, aunque tanto en la época de menor precipitación como en la temporada lluviosa, hubo presencia de larvas de esta especie. Por otro lado, el criadero típico de An. darlingi, donde éste presentó su mayor abundancia y hubo presencia de larvas durante todo el año, fue clasificado como ?Quebrada con sombra?. Esta presentó mucha sombra (90-100%), abundante materia orgánica sumergida o flotante (hojarasca, palitos, hojas, semillas), profundidad promedio de 65,22 cm, un pH promedio de 6,16, contenido medio de oxigeno disuelto de 6,40 g/L y una temperatura promedio del agua de 26ºC. Abstract in english Anopheles darlingi Root has been considered under natural conditions as human malaria?s principal vector in South America. In Venezuela, Amazonas and Bolivar States, it is responsible for 90 % of malaria cases reported in the country. Field surveys and mosquito larvae sampling of mosquito breeding sites in mining areas, were carried out in seven localities of Sifontes county, Bolívar state during one month, between 2 and 29 June 1999. The breeding sites were a priori cl (more) assified into four larval habitat categories: lagoons, streams, rivers and herbaceous swamps. At each breeding site, 30 dips for mosquito larvae samples were made. Simultaneously with mosquito larvae sampling, four selected variables of water were measured: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and water depth. On the other hand, a longitudinal study was carried out in the typical An. darlingi breeding site (shaded streams) in El Granzón (Sifontes county). Field surveys of mosquito larvae and aquatic insects were carried out in the same breeding site over a one-year period (July, 1999 to June, 2000). At this breeding site, Anopheles larvae and aquatic insects were collected monthly. During the study, 12 samples were taken from this larval habitat of An. darlingi. Seasonal and temporal variations of An. darlingi larvae and aquatic insects were determined. Relationships among the rain in the prev

Berti-Moser, Jesús; González-Rivas, Julio; Navarro, Edith

2008-12-01

256

Urban Habitats ????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban Habitats is an open-access electronic journal that focuses on current research on the biology of urban areas. Papers cover a range of related subject areas, including urban botany, conservation biology, wildlife and vegetation management in urban areas, urban ecology, restoration of urb...

257

Laboratory and field assessment of the potential of larvivorous, air-breathing fishes as predators of culicine mosquitoes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The suitability of three indigenous, air-breathing fishes as predators of mosquito larvae were assessed under field and laboratory conditions using Culex quinquefasciatus as prey. In the laboratory, the fishes Anabas testudineus, Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis consumed an average 14.4-1158.0 fourth-instar mosquito larvae/day. The prey consumption rate increased as a function of prey density but decreased with container size (range 2 to 16 l). For all three predatory fishes, the Manly's prey selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was not significantly lowered in presence of alternative preys that included areneids, chironomid larvae, small fishes and tadpoles. In the field the presence of these fish species in large experimental macrocosms significantly lowered the abundance of mosquito larvae. The results of predation pattern and the prey preference by the fishes, A. testudineus, C. batrachus and H. fossilis, support their use as biological resource in the mosquito larval habitats like rice fields and temporary pools to regulate the pest and vector mosquito populations. The habitat similarity with the mosquito immatures and the ability of these fishes to tolerate low level of oxygen in aquatic systems favor their augmentative release as a part of a biological control program.

Bhattacharjee Indranil; Aditya Gautam; Chandra Goutam

2009-05-01

258

Multiple habitat associations : the role of offsite habitat in determining onsite avian density and species richness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many animal populations continue to decline despite occurring in protected areas or on sympathetically managed sites. Frequently, this is because a specific habitat patch may not fulfil all the niche requirements of a threatened species. For instance, species often move between, and make use of, multiple habitat types for breeding, roosting and feeding within the same landscape. These cross-habitat interactions present a challenge for conservation. Here we quantify how the habitat associations of individual species and assemblages occurring within two distinct but adjacent habitat types (moorland and farmland) determine a suite of density and richness indicators, using the bird community of the English uplands as a case study. There was a clear association between onsite avian density and richness and offsite habitat structure (e.g. vegetation height, percent cover of dominant plant species, land management practices). Although such effects are not universal across all species and assemblages, where present (for five farmland and three moorland indicators) the increase in explanatory power offered by including offsite habitat structure can be large. By constructing scenarios of possible changes to management practice on both moorland and farmland, we demonstrate a real conservation benefit can be obtained by altering management in offsite habitats. For example, reducing burning intensity on moorland can result in a five-fold increase in snipe Gallinago gallinago density on farmland, without an alteration in farmland habitat. For one species (Eurasian curlew Numenius arquata), we demonstrate the frequency with which birds move between and utilise farmland and moorland during the breeding season, and therefore the importance of both habitat types to maintaining population densities. The multiple habitat dependency phenomenon quantified here is common and not restricted to birds. The successful conservation of many threatened species will thus depend on coordinated cross-habitat management.

Dallimer, Martin; Skinner, Andrew M. J.

2012-01-01

259

The changes in mosquito vector behaviour and the emerging resistance to insecticides will challenge the decline of malaria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The preventive measures against malaria recommended by the WHO include anti-vector procedures such as indoor residual spraying, the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed-nets, and the destruction of larval breeding sites. The presence of insecticide-treated materials inside the mosquito habitat has consequences for the vector's population, reducing density, survival, contact with humans, and feeding frequency. However, the effectiveness of these tools is being challenged by the emergence of insecticide resistance. The evolution of resistance to insecticides in Anopheles threatens to thwart the goal of decreasing malaria transmission, in an arms race between malaria control programmes and the vector populations. Multiple mechanisms of resistance to insecticides have been observed in Anopheles populations, including target site mutation (knockdown resistance), increased metabolic detoxification, and remarkable behavioural adaptation. These disturbing observations all show the capacity of Anopheles to adapt to and circumvent strategies aimed at reducing malaria transmission. Thus, by using nets to protect ourselves, are we providing Anopheles with the entire arsenal needed to hit much harder?

Sokhna C; Ndiath MO; Rogier C

2013-06-01

260

Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. METHODS: The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. RESULTS: Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was preferred; however a transgenic release that satisfied certain requirements was usually acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Although there were some dissenters, the majority of participants were pragmatic towards a release of GM mosquitoes. An array of social and cultural issues associated with malaria, mosquitoes and genetic engineering became apparent. If these can be successfully addressed, then social acceptance among the populations surveyed seems promising.

Marshall JM; Touré MB; Traore MM; Famenini S; Taylor CE

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Development of guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The recent notifications of autochthonous cases of dengue and chikungunya in Europe prove that the region is vulnerable to these diseases in areas where known mosquito vectors (Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti) are present. Strengthening surveillance of these species as well as other invasive container-breeding aedine mosquito species such as Aedes atropalpus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes koreicus and Aedes triseriatus is therefore required. In order to support and harmonize surveillance activities in Europe, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) launched the production of 'Guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe'. This article describes these guidelines in the context of the key issues surrounding invasive mosquitoes surveillance in Europe. METHODS: Based on an open call for tender, ECDC granted a pan-European expert team to write the guidelines draft. It content is founded on published and grey literature, contractor's expert knowledge, as well as appropriate field missions. Entomologists, public health experts and end users from 17 EU/EEA and neighbouring countries contributed to a reviewing and validation process. The final version of the guidelines was edited by ECDC (Additional file 1). RESULTS: The guidelines describe all procedures to be applied for the surveillance of invasive mosquito species. The first part addresses strategic issues and options to be taken by the stakeholders for the decision-making process, according to the aim and scope of surveillance, its organisation and management. As the strategy to be developed needs to be adapted to the local situation, three likely scenarios are proposed. The second part addresses all operational issues and suggests options for the activities to be implemented, i.e. key procedures for field surveillance of invasive mosquito species, methods of identification of these mosquitoes, key and optional procedures for field collection of population parameters, pathogen screening, and environmental parameters. In addition, methods for data management and analysis are recommended, as well as strategies for data dissemination and mapping. Finally, the third part provides information and support for cost estimates of the planned programmes and for the evaluation of the applied surveillance process. CONCLUSION: The 'Guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe' aim at supporting the implementation of tailored surveillance of invasive mosquito species of public health importance. They are intended to provide support to professionals involved in mosquito surveillance or control, decision/policy makers, stakeholders in public health and non-experts in mosquito surveillance. Surveillance also aims to support control of mosquito-borne diseases, including integrated vector control, and the guidelines are therefore part of a tool set for managing mosquito-borne disease risk in Europe.

Schaffner F; Bellini R; Petri? D; Scholte EJ; Zeller H; Rakotoarivony LM

2013-01-01

262

Genetic methods for control of mosquitoes and biting flies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The earliest research efforts on using genetic methods for the control of mosquitoes and biting flies concentrated on the evaluation of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Several successful, but generally small scale, research efforts with mosquitoes clearly documented that either chemosterilized or radiation sterilized males were effective in causing a level of genetic load that would be sufficient for the reduction or eradication of natural populations of several species. Genetic sexing strains of several species of mosquitoes have been assembled, and this aspect of breeding specialty strains is not a limiting factor in the implementation of SIT. In the largest field experiment, conducted with Anopheles albimanus in El Salvador during the 1970s, a genetic sexing strain was used operationally in a factory that produced one million sterile males per day over a one year period. Technical problems that would require extensive research of a practical nature before the implementation of SIT for mosquito control involve primarily better means for the rearing, sterilization and distribution of the insects. A successful experiment was conducted to eliminate the stable fly on the island of St. Croix, the United States Virgin Islands, and since this work in the 1970s, genetic sexing strains have been developed. A considerable amount of effort was expended on the synthesis of chromosome aberrations for the control of mosquitoes. Although the results of experimental trials indicated that aberration bearing insects could effectively inject a genetic load into the natural population, no large scale tests have ever been conducted to evaluate fully the real effectiveness of induced chromosomal aberrations. More recently, most of the research work in genetic control has been aimed at the use of recombinant DNA techniques for the development of new technology. All of these topics and an assessment of their value are discussed. (author). 30 refs

1988-01-01

263

[Evaluation of the anopheline mosquito aggressivity and of malaria transmission risk: methods used in French Army  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Identification of the anopheline mosquito species involved in local transmission as well as knowledge of its biology and behavior is necessary for malaria vector control. To allow such study, two methods are usually used to capture adult mosquitoes, i.e., night catches on human volunteers and light-trap collections with human bait. The purpose of this article is to describe these two methods including their advantages and disadvantages as well as a method of surveying breeding sites as implemented by French Army personnel.

Coffinet T; Rogier C; Pages F

2009-04-01

264

Predatory efficacy of Culex (Lutzia) fuscanus on mosquito vectors of human diseases in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Larvae of Culex (Lutzia) Fuscanus were collected from ovitraps in a natural breeding site. Collected larvae were used to establish a self-mating colony, and larval progeny were then used to determine their predatory efficacy on larvae of 3 vector mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Statistical analysis revealed that Cx. fuscanus showed greater feeding efficacy for Ae. aegypti than for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus. The natural predatory role of this species can potentially be exploited for biological control of mosquito vectors in Sri Lanka.

Surendran SN; Jude PJ; Thavaranjit AC; Eswaramohan T; Vinobaba M; Ramasamy R

2013-06-01

265

Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin) developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm) of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50) of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding sites under natural field conditions provided 98.1% reduction of Anopheles larvae on day 1; thereafter 100% reduction was recorded up to week 1 and more than 80% reduction up to week 3, while percent reduction against Culex larvae was 95.5% on day 1, and thereafter 80% reduction was achieved up to week 3. The formulation also showed 95.1% and, 99.7% reduction of Aedes larvae on day 1 and day 2 respectively; thereafter 100% larval control was observed up to day 7. Conclusion The neem oil formulation was found effective in controlling mosquito larvae in different breeding sites under natural field conditions. As neem trees are widely distributed in India, their formulations may prove to be an effective and eco-friendly larvicide, which could be used as an alternative for malaria control.

Dua Virendra K; Pandey Akhilesh C; Raghavendra Kamaraju; Gupta Ashish; Sharma Trilochan; Dash Aditya P

2009-01-01

266

Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. METHODS: Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin) developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5-5.0 ppm) of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m(2) to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. RESULTS: Median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC(50) values of the formulation stored at 26 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 45 degrees C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC(90) values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC(50) and LC(90) values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m(2) in different breeding sites under natural field conditions provided 98.1% reduction of Anopheles larvae on day 1; thereafter 100% reduction was recorded up to week 1 and more than 80% reduction up to week 3, while percent reduction against Culex larvae was 95.5% on day 1, and thereafter 80% reduction was achieved up to week 3. The formulation also showed 95.1% and, 99.7% reduction of Aedes larvae on day 1 and day 2 respectively; thereafter 100% larval control was observed up to day 7. CONCLUSION: The neem oil formulation was found effective in controlling mosquito larvae in different breeding sites under natural field conditions. As neem trees are widely distributed in India, their formulations may prove to be an effective and eco-friendly larvicide, which could be used as an alternative for malaria control.

Dua VK; Pandey AC; Raghavendra K; Gupta A; Sharma T; Dash AP

2009-01-01

267

Mosquito-eliminating wet tissue  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is a mosquito repellent wet tissue which is made with spun-laced non-woven fabrics as base material by soaking in Chinese herbal medicine liquid. The Chinese herbal medicine liquid is the mixture of mint extract, clove extract, sting herb extract, asphodel extract and water, and the weight percentages of the five are respectively 1%, 1%,1%,1% and 96%. The weight percentages of the spun-laced non-woven fabrics and the Chinese herbal medicine liquid are respectively 15% and 85%. The invention has the advantages that the mosquito repellent wet tissue has the special functions of cooling the skin and relieving itch, and repelling mosquitoes and preventing ant the mosquito repellent wet tissue is fresh in fragrance and soft in texture and is not irritative to skin and has no side effect after long-time use.

DEMING LI

268

Molecular identification of avian haemosporidia in wild birds and mosquitoes on Tsushima Island, Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated for the first time the prevalence of avian haemosporidia of genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon among birds and mosquitoes on Tsushima Island of Japan, which is located between Japan and the Korean Peninsula. Of 55 wild birds belonging to 33 species, 16 (29.1%) tested positive for haemosporidia as follows: Plasmodium spp. (11/55; 20.0%); Haemoproteus spp. (2/55; 3.6%); and Leucocytozoon spp. (3/55; 5.5%). A genetic lineage isolated from the Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) was identical to that of the known avian malaria parasite P. circumflexum. Several genetic lineages were identical or closely related to the parasite lineages that were previously detected in birds and mosquitoes in Japan and Korea. Another single identical genetic lineage was also detected in both migratory and resident birds. A total of 753 mosquitoes from 12 species were collected; and one fully fed Aedes albopictus was positive for avian Plasmodium(1/753; 0.13%) which is identical to a genetic lineage detected in both mosquitoes in Japan and birds in Korea. Blood-meal identifications of blood-fed mosquitoes showed direct contact between the mosquitoes and 4 species of mammals including humans, cattle, rodents and the endangered Tsushima leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilura). Migratory birds use Tsushima Island as a site for wintering, breeding and resting, and our results suggest the transmission of avian haematozoa between resident and migratory birds during their stay on Tsushima Island.

Tanigawa M; Sato Y; Ejiri H; Imura T; Chiba R; Yamamoto H; Kawaguchi M; Tsuda Y; Murata K; Yukawa M

2013-01-01

269

Prey preferences of aquatic insects: potential implications for the regulation of wetland mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wetlands are potential sites for mosquito breeding and are thus important in the context of public health. The use of chemical and microbial controls is constrained in wetlands in view of their potential impact on the diverse biota. Biological control using generalist aquatic insects can be effective, provided a preference for mosquito larvae is exhibited. The mosquito prey preferences of water bugs and larvae of odonate species were evaluated using chironomid larvae, fish fingerlings and tadpoles as alternative prey. Manly's selectivity (?(i) ) values with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to judge prey preference patterns. Multivariate analysis of variance (manova) and standardized canonical coefficients were used to test the effects of density on prey selectivity. The ?(i) values indicated a significant preference (P < 0.05) in all of the insect predators tested for mosquito larvae over the alternative prey as a density-dependent function. On a comparative scale, chironomid larvae had the highest impact as alternative prey. In a multiple-prey experiment, predators showed a similar pattern of preference for mosquito larvae over alternative prey, reflecting a significant (P < 0.05) niche overlap. The results suggest that, in a laboratory setting, these insect predators can effectively reduce mosquito density in the presence of multiple alternative prey.

Saha N; Aditya G; Saha GK

2013-02-01

270

Categorization of potential breeding sites of dengue vectors in Johor, Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study was to compare and categorize potential breeding sites of dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus at three different places, namely, an urban (Taman Permas Jaya, Johor Bahru, Johor), a suburban (Kg. Melayu Gelang Patah, Johor Bahru, Johor) and a rural (Felda Simpang Waha, Kota Tinggi, Johor) habitats in Malaysia. Larval surveys were conducted once in every two months at each habitat over a period of 11 months from August 2000 until June 2001. There was a significant difference between the three study sites in terms of potential breeding sites inspected (psuburban (29.35)>urban habitat (16.97). Both breeding sites and potential breeding sites were the nominator and the total number of containers inspected as the denominator in the formula of PCI, thus the latter could be a potential indicator to initiate anti-dengue campaign at the community level to rid off potential Aedes breeding sites. The three most common potential breeding sites of Aedes species were similar for urban and suburban habitats (flower pots, pails and bowls respectively). However, flower pots, vases and tyres were the three most common potential breeding sites for the rural habitat. Another finding in this study was that various types of larval habitats were found indoors and outdoors for both species. PMID:20562811

Nyamah, M A; Sulaiman, S; Omar, B

2010-04-01

271

Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat  

Science.gov (United States)

Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

Shive, J. P.; Pilliod, D. S.; Peterson, C. R.

2010-01-01

272

Anopheles gambiae s.s. breeding in polluted water bodies in urban Lagos, southwestern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objective: Urban malaria is on the rise in Nigeria due to rapid industrialisation anddevelopmental activities. A study was undertaken in Lagos, Nigeria to study the Anopheles breedingin polluted water bodies.Methods: Anopheles larval breeding habitats were surveyed and water samples from 24 larval breedingsites from four strategic areas in urban Lagos were analysed. The relationship between eight abioticvariables (pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, hardness, nitrate, total dissolved solids, turbidity andoil) and density of Anopheles larvae were investigated. The levels of heavy metals (Zn, Co, Cu, Pb,Mn, Fe, Hg and Ni) pollution were analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.Results: Morphological and PCR analysis of 2358 anopheline larvae revealed only the presence oftwo members of the Anopheles gambiae complex consisting of 93.1% Anopheles gambiae s.s. and6.9% An. arabiensis. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant association betweenoccurrence of An. arabiensis larvae and two independent variables: pH and turbidity but not for An.gambiae s.s. The levels of three heavy metals: Fe, Cu and Pb from more than half of the sites surveyedwere three times higher than the values obtained in natural breeding sites of An. gambiae s.s. from arural area of Lagos. Over 85% of An. gambiae s.s. larvae were found in water bodies characterisedby low dissolved oxygen (900 uS/cm), turbidity (>180 FAU), oil(>11 mg/L) and heavy metals: Fe, Cu, and Pb (>0.4 mg/L).Interpretation & conclusion: These results indicate that An. gambiae s.s. is adapting to a wide rangeof water pollution in this urban area. The survival of the mosquito in widespread polluted waterbodies across Lagos metropolis could be responsible for the rise in the incidence of malaria.

T.S. Awolola, A.O. Oduola, J.B. Obansa, N.J. Chukwurar & J.P. Unyimadu

2007-01-01

273

Estacionalidad de la densidad larval del mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae) y otros insectos asociados a su hábitat en Sucre, Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anopheles aquasalis es considerado como el principal vector de malaria humana en el norte de Venezuela. El estudio longitudinal se llevó a cabo en áreas costeras de la Península de Paria, estado Sucre. El hábitat de las larvas de A. aquasalis fue clasificado como: manglar salobre y pantano herbáceo. Muestreos para recolectar larvas de mosquitos e insectos asociados se realizaron mensualmente en ambos criaderos desde enero hasta diciembre de 1999 (30 muestras). Simultáneamente se midieron cinco variables seleccionadas del agua: conductividad, salinidad, oxígeno disuelto, temperatura y pH. En ambos criaderos de determinaron las variaciones estacionales y temporales de las larvas de A. aquasalis e insectos acuáticos. Para el período de estudio, la abundancia de larvas fue mayor en el manglar. El análisis de correspondencia mostró una fuerte relación entre algunos factores químicos del agua y la abundancia de las larvas. La abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis en ambas épocas, se correlacionó positivamente con la salinidad del agua, pH y conductividad, y negativamente con el oxígeno disuelto, en la estación seca. La presencia de larvas se correlacionó positivamente con la presencia de Avicennia germinans. En el manglar existió una asociación positiva entre la abundancia de larvas y la abundancia de la familia Scirtidae y una correlación negativa entre la abundancia de larvas y la precipitación mensual (Spearman), así como una correlación negativa significativa entre la abundancia de Gerridae y la precipitación mensual. En el pantano herbáceo, no había asociaciones significativas entre la abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis y la abundancia de otros insectos acuáticos asociados al hábitat.Larval seasonality of the mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae) and other insects associated to its habitat in Sucre, Venezuela. Anopheles aquasalis Curry is considered the main vector of human malaria in Northern Venezuela. A longitudinal study was carried out in the coastal areas of the Paria Peninsula, Sucre state. The larval habitats of A. aquasalis were classified as: 1- Brackish mangrove, and 2- Freshwater herbaceous swamp. Field surveys of mosquito larvae and aquatic insects were carried out in the same breeding sites over a one-year period, between January and December 1999. At each site, 30 samples of Anopheles larvae and aquatic insects were taken monthly. Simultaneously with mosquito larvae sampling, five selected variables of water were measured: conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH. Seasonal and temporal variations of A. aquasalis larvae and aquatic insects were determined in the two larval habitats. For the entire study period, the abundance of larvae was higher in the mangrove. Correspondence analysis showed a strong relation between some chemical factors of water and larval abundance. The abundance of A. aquasalis larvae in both seasons, was positively correlated with water salinity, pH and conductivity, and negatively with dissolved oxygen in the dry season. The presence of larvae was positively correlated with the presence of Avicenia germinans. In the mangrove there was a positive association between larvae abundance and Scirtidae family abundance and a negative correlation between larvae abundance and monthly precipitation (Spearman), as well as a significant negative correlation between Gerridae abundance and monthly precipitation. In the herbaceous swamp, there were not significant associations between A. aquasalis larvae abundance and abundance of others aquatic insects associated to habitat. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2): 777-787. Epub 2010 June 02.

Jesús Berti; Julio González; Edith Navarro-Bueno; Evelin Zoppi; Elizabeth Gordon; Laura Delgado

2010-01-01

274

Estacionalidad de la densidad larval del mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae) y otros insectos asociados a su hábitat en Sucre, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Anopheles aquasalis es considerado como el principal vector de malaria humana en el norte de Venezuela. El estudio longitudinal se llevó a cabo en áreas costeras de la Península de Paria, estado Sucre. El hábitat de las larvas de A. aquasalis fue clasificado como: manglar salobre y pantano herbáceo. Muestreos para recolectar larvas de mosquitos e insectos asociados se realizaron mensualmente en ambos criaderos desde enero hasta diciembre de 1999 (30 muestras). Simult (more) áneamente se midieron cinco variables seleccionadas del agua: conductividad, salinidad, oxígeno disuelto, temperatura y pH. En ambos criaderos de determinaron las variaciones estacionales y temporales de las larvas de A. aquasalis e insectos acuáticos. Para el período de estudio, la abundancia de larvas fue mayor en el manglar. El análisis de correspondencia mostró una fuerte relación entre algunos factores químicos del agua y la abundancia de las larvas. La abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis en ambas épocas, se correlacionó positivamente con la salinidad del agua, pH y conductividad, y negativamente con el oxígeno disuelto, en la estación seca. La presencia de larvas se correlacionó positivamente con la presencia de Avicennia germinans. En el manglar existió una asociación positiva entre la abundancia de larvas y la abundancia de la familia Scirtidae y una correlación negativa entre la abundancia de larvas y la precipitación mensual (Spearman), así como una correlación negativa significativa entre la abundancia de Gerridae y la precipitación mensual. En el pantano herbáceo, no había asociaciones significativas entre la abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis y la abundancia de otros insectos acuáticos asociados al hábitat. Abstract in english Larval seasonality of the mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae) and other insects associated to its habitat in Sucre, Venezuela. Anopheles aquasalis Curry is considered the main vector of human malaria in Northern Venezuela. A longitudinal study was carried out in the coastal areas of the Paria Peninsula, Sucre state. The larval habitats of A. aquasalis were classified as: 1- Brackish mangrove, and 2- Freshwater herbaceous swamp. Field surveys of mosquito larv (more) ae and aquatic insects were carried out in the same breeding sites over a one-year period, between January and December 1999. At each site, 30 samples of Anopheles larvae and aquatic insects were taken monthly. Simultaneously with mosquito larvae sampling, five selected variables of water were measured: conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH. Seasonal and temporal variations of A. aquasalis larvae and aquatic insects were determined in the two larval habitats. For the entire study period, the abundance of larvae was higher in the mangrove. Correspondence analysis showed a strong relation between some chemical factors of water and larval abundance. The abundance of A. aquasalis larvae in both seasons, was positively correlated with water salinity, pH and conductivity, and negatively with dissolved oxygen in the dry season. The presence of larvae was positively correlated with the presence of Avicenia germinans. In the mangrove there was a positive association between larvae abundance and Scirtidae family abundance and a negative correlation between larvae abundance and monthly precipitation (Spearman), as well as a significant negative correlation between Gerridae abundance and monthly precipitation. In the herbaceous swamp, there were not significant associations between A. aquasalis larvae abundance and abundance of others aquatic insects associated to habitat. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2): 777-787. Epub 2010 June 02.

Berti, Jesús; González, Julio; Navarro-Bueno, Edith; Zoppi, Evelin; Gordon, Elizabeth; Delgado, Laura

2010-06-01

275

Source Reduction Behavior as an Independent Measurement of the Impact of a Public Health Education Campaign in an Integrated Vector Management Program for the Asian Tiger Mosquito  

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Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a public health educational campaign to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats. Three communities each, within two New Jersey counties, were randomly selected to receive: (1) both education and mosquito control, (2) education only, and (3) no education or mosquito control. Four separate educational events included a 5-day elementary school curriculum in the spring, and three door to door distributions of educational brochures. Before and after each educational event, the numbers of mosquito-larval container habitats were counted in 50 randomly selected homes per study area. Container surveys allowed us to measure source reduction behavior. Although we saw reductions in container habitats in sites receiving education, they were not significantly different from the control. Our results suggest that traditional passive means of public education, which were often considered the gold standard for mosquito control programs, are not sufficient to motivate residents to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats.

Kristen Bartlett-Healy; George Hamilton; Sean Healy; Taryn Crepeau; Isik Unlu; Ary Farajollahi; Dina Fonseca; Randy Gaugler; Gary G. Clark; Daniel Strickman

2011-01-01

276

Effects of insect growth regulators on the mosquito-parasitic nematode Romanomermis iyengari.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue, diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, and azadirachtin, an ecdysone agonist, are three insect growth regulators (IGRs) considered as selective and effective insecticides for mosquitoes. Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) is a mosquito-parasitic mermithid that can provide biological control against many medically important mosquito species. The compatibility of these two control tactics was tested by evaluating the sublethal effects of exposure to IGR on nematode developmental stages (preparasitic, parasitic, and preparasitic + parasitic) using Culex pipiens larvae as the host. Sublethal concentrations of IGRs were 90 % emergence inhibition of host mosquito. Preparasitic exposure to pyriproxyfen, azadirachtin, and diflurbenzuron had no effect on infectivity, parasite load, sex ratio, or male size but reduced nematode female length and increased male sex ratio at one parasite/larva. When IGRs treatments were made against the parasitic and preparasitic + parasitic stages, pyriproxyfen and azadirachtin reduced R. iyengari infectivity, parasite load, and male nematode length, whereas pyriproxyfen exposure increased male sex ratio and reduced the female R. iyengari length. Thus, IGRs have significant negative impacts on different stages of mosquito mermithid that can destabilize the balance of host-parasite population interaction. Therefore, IGRs should be used with caution in mosquito habitats where these parasites have established.

Suman DS; Brey CW; Wang Y; Sanad M; Shamseldean MS; Gaugler R

2013-02-01

277

Diffusion Model On The Efficacy Of Larvicide In Antilarval Operation Of Mosquito Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito control is being performed under chemical, biological and genetic and altogether it is called integrated vector control. In developing countries like India, chemical control has been given priority. Chemicals used as adulticide is becoming resistance among mosquitoes compared to larvicide. Further, the destruction of immature (larvae) stages of mosquitoes is as effective as its distribution is limited whereas adult mosquitoes turned to terrestrial mode of life and its distribution is based on its flight range, habitat, aggregation of man and animals. In this research paper, selective spray treatment over larvae of mosquitoes of a semi-infinite pool is analyzed using diffusion model. Spray chemical is conceived to spread on the surface with time and in space. A critical concentration of spray chemical is envisaged for assumed death of mosquito larvae. Diffusion is modeled Fick' law. Spray losses are lumped into a first order term. Analytical solution of the resulting partial differential equation for various values of diffusivity and loss rate constant are plotted and interpreted. The model would be useful to appraise beforehand how far and for how long spray would be effective and how much of spray chemical is required for effectiveness within specified distance and time.

Basker, P.; Kumar, T. Ramesh; Prabu, S. Milton; Hemalatha, S.; Elango, S.; Padmanabhan, P.; Asokan, R.

2008-01-01

278

Vector competence of California mosquitoes for California encephalitis and California encephalitis-like viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes collected from coastal, inland valley, and alpine locations in California were evaluated for their experimental vector competence for two viruses in the California serogroup (Bunyaviridae:Bunyavirus). Aedes squamiger, a coastal salt marsh mosquito, was an efficient vector of a California encephalitis (CE)-like virus isolated from its habitat (89% of the pledget-fed females became infected and 61% transmitted virus). Aedes dorsalis, a coastal mosquito, and Ae. melanimon, an inland valley mosquito, were competent vectors of prototype CE virus (98% and 100% of the pledget-fed females became infected and 56% and 30%, respectively, transmitted virus). Aedes squamiger and Ae. dorsalis transmitted both viruses vertically to one or more of 20 of their progeny. Culiseta inornata was susceptible to infection with both viruses, but 5% or less transmitted virus perorally. Alpine mosquitoes, Ae. cataphylla, Ae. increpitus, and Ae. tahoensis, became infected with both CE and CE-like viruses, but 3% or less transmitted virus. All species of mosquitoes were more efficient vectors of both viruses following intrathoracic inoculation than following pledget feeding, suggesting the presence of mesenteronal barriers.

Kramer LD; Reeves WC; Hardy JL; Presser SB; Eldridge BF; Bowen MD

1992-11-01

279

Vector competence of California mosquitoes for California encephalitis and California encephalitis-like viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquitoes collected from coastal, inland valley, and alpine locations in California were evaluated for their experimental vector competence for two viruses in the California serogroup (Bunyaviridae:Bunyavirus). Aedes squamiger, a coastal salt marsh mosquito, was an efficient vector of a California encephalitis (CE)-like virus isolated from its habitat (89% of the pledget-fed females became infected and 61% transmitted virus). Aedes dorsalis, a coastal mosquito, and Ae. melanimon, an inland valley mosquito, were competent vectors of prototype CE virus (98% and 100% of the pledget-fed females became infected and 56% and 30%, respectively, transmitted virus). Aedes squamiger and Ae. dorsalis transmitted both viruses vertically to one or more of 20 of their progeny. Culiseta inornata was susceptible to infection with both viruses, but 5% or less transmitted virus perorally. Alpine mosquitoes, Ae. cataphylla, Ae. increpitus, and Ae. tahoensis, became infected with both CE and CE-like viruses, but 3% or less transmitted virus. All species of mosquitoes were more efficient vectors of both viruses following intrathoracic inoculation than following pledget feeding, suggesting the presence of mesenteronal barriers. PMID:1360192

Kramer, L D; Reeves, W C; Hardy, J L; Presser, S B; Eldridge, B F; Bowen, M D

1992-11-01

280

Cooler temperatures destabilize RNA interference and increase susceptibility of disease vector mosquitoes to viral infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The impact of global climate change on the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is the subject of extensive debate. The transmission of mosquito-borne viral diseases is particularly complex, with climatic variables directly affecting many parameters associated with the prevalence of disease vectors. While evidence shows that warmer temperatures often decrease the extrinsic incubation period of an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus), exposure to cooler temperatures often predisposes disease vector mosquitoes to higher infection rates. RNA interference (RNAi) pathways are essential to antiviral immunity in the mosquito; however, few experiments have explored the effects of temperature on the RNAi machinery. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized transgenic "sensor" strains of Aedes aegypti to examine the role of temperature on RNA silencing. These "sensor" strains express EGFP only when RNAi is inhibited; for example, after knockdown of the effector proteins Dicer-2 (DCR-2) or Argonaute-2 (AGO-2). We observed an increase in EGFP expression in transgenic sensor mosquitoes reared at 18°C as compared with 28°C. Changes in expression were dependent on the presence of an inverted repeat with homology to a portion of the EGFP sequence, as transgenic strains lacking this sequence, the double stranded RNA (dsRNA) trigger for RNAi, showed no change in EGFP expression when reared at 18°C. Sequencing small RNAs in sensor mosquitoes reared at low temperature revealed normal processing of dsRNA substrates, suggesting the observed deficiency in RNAi occurs downstream of DCR-2. Rearing at cooler temperatures also predisposed mosquitoes to higher levels of infection with both chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This data suggest that microclimates, such as those present in mosquito breeding sites, as well as more general climactic variables may influence the dynamics of mosquito-borne viral diseases by affecting the antiviral immunity of disease vectors.

Adelman ZN; Anderson MA; Wiley MR; Murreddu MG; Samuel GH; Morazzani EM; Myles KM

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Blackberry Breeding and Genetics  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant Breeding Reviews has been published since the early 1980s and each edition presents a thorough review of the state of the are on breeding and genetics of specific crop plant. The extensive chapter on blackberry breeding and genetics is organized as follows: INTRODUCTION (Origin and Speciation...

282

Exploiting mosquito sugar feeding to detect mosquito-borne pathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) represent a global public health problem, with dengue viruses causing millions of infections annually, while emerging arboviruses, such as West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and chikungunya viruses have dramatically expanded their geographical ranges. Surveillance of arboviruses provides vital data regarding their prevalence and distribution that may be utilized for biosecurity measures and the implementation of disease control strategies. However, current surveillance methods that involve detection of virus in mosquito populations or sero-conversion in vertebrate hosts are laborious, expensive, and logistically problematic. We report a unique arbovirus surveillance system to detect arboviruses that exploits the process whereby mosquitoes expectorate virus in their saliva during sugar feeding. In this system, infected mosquitoes captured by CO(2)-baited updraft box traps are allowed to feed on honey-soaked nucleic acid preservation cards within the trap. The cards are then analyzed for expectorated virus using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. In field trials, this system detected the presence of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses in multiple traps deployed at two locations in Australia. Viral RNA was preserved for at least seven days on the cards, allowing for long-term placement of traps and continuous collection of data documenting virus presence in mosquito populations. Furthermore no mosquito handling or processing was required and cards were conveniently shipped to the laboratory overnight. The simplicity and efficacy of this approach has the potential to transform current approaches to vector-borne disease surveillance by streamlining the monitoring of pathogens in vector populations.

Hall-Mendelin S; Ritchie SA; Johansen CA; Zborowski P; Cortis G; Dandridge S; Hall RA; van den Hurk AF

2010-06-01

283

Mosquito driving essential oil composition and mosquito driving method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a composition of mosquito preventing extract, which comprises components of 0-10wt percent of clove oil, 0-10wt percent of litsea cubeba oil, 0-10wt percent of eucalyptus oil, 0-50wt percent of pure linaloe wood leaf oil, 0-10wt percent of thyme oil, 0-20wt percent of citionella oil, 0-10wt percent of geranium oil, 0-20wt percent of aspic oil, 0-10wt percent of wintergreen oil, 0-10wt percent of dementholized peppermint oil, 0-10wt percent of cinnamon oil, 0-60wt percent of cedar wood oil, .0-10wt percent of michelia alba leaf oil, 0-10wt percent of rue oil, 0-10wt percent of rose oil, 0-10wt percent of tea tree oil. The rest of the composition is at least any one of the following aromatic alcohols: linalool, rhodinol, nerol, geraniol, isogeraniol, citronellol and terpineol. The average mosquito preventing efficiency of the composition of mosquito preventing extract can realize above 90 percent and the scent is widely acceptable to be more than 90 percent the mosquito preventing method of the invention is simple and can be directly dispersed by ultrasonic or sprayed or dropped in a mosquito preventer device made of porous ceramic for naturally dispersing without heating.

XIANGYUN LIN

284

Nota sobre o encontro de Aedes aegypti em bromélias Finding of Aedes aegypti breeding in bromeliad  

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Full Text Available Descreve-se o encontro de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti em bromélia domesticada para fins decorativos. São feitas considerações sobre as implicações desse encontro para o controle desse mosquito.A breeding place of Aedes aegypti immature forms were found in bromeliads domesticated for decorative purposes. Implications for the control measures were considered.

Oswaldo Paulo Forattini; Gisela Rita Alvarenga Monteiro Marques

2000-01-01

285

Weak larval competition between the invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) and three resident container-inhabiting mosquitoes in the laboratory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The spread of exotic mosquito species into new environments can introduce shifts in mosquito populations and potentially alter public health risks to mosquito-borne diseases. The successful establishment of exotic species may occur due to their competitive advantage over other cohabitating species. We hypothesized that the recently introduced exotic mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) would be a more effective competitor than Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett) and Aedes triseriatus (Say), and an equal competitor to Culex pipiens (L.) based on larval abundance data within tire habitats. Impacts of competition were measured using the larval developmental rate and survival of larvae, adult mortality, wing length, and sex ratio. We found that intraspecific competition acted strongest against Ae. japonicus versus the other three resident mosquito species by delaying larval development and increasing adult mortality. Interspecific competition was generally weak and significant main effects were only detected for species and density. Overall, our results show that larval competition between Ae. japonicus and the three resident species was weak when present, indicating that other ecological or behavioral factors may be influencing the invasion success for Ae. japonicus in North America.

Hardstone MC; Andreadis TG

2012-03-01

286

The breeding bird species from the middle hydrographical basin of the Arge? river (Romania) and their protection status  

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Full Text Available The author made ornithological observations during 2003 - 2010 in the middle basin of the river Arge?, and observed 122 breeding species that are included in 13 orders, 38 families and 83 genera. 96 of them are certainly breeding species and 26 are probably breeding species. The results of the researches were cumulated with the data from the Atlas of the Romanian breeding species. By reference to the Atlas data, it is noticeable that 95 of the 106 breeding species cited in the Atlas were again recorded. 27 new breeding species were identified. Regarding the occupied habitat, most of the breeding species (72%) live in the terrestrial habitat. The summer visitor species and the sedentary species are preponderant; they are followed by the partially migrant species. 22 breeding species are listed in Annex I of the Birds Directive.

Denisa CONETE

2010-01-01

287

Electric mosquito swatter structure  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses an electric mosquito swatter structure, which mainly comprises a swatter body, a handle and a light emitting device, wherein the central portion of the swatter body is a swatter net, the circumference thereof is provided with a frame body and the lower portion of the frame body is provided with a pivoting portion, the handle is formed by a plurality of tubes which can be telescopically sleeved, the top end of the handle is provided with a muff-coupling portion and the lower section thereof is provided with a holding portion and an electrical device. The pivoting portion of the swatter body and the muff-coupling portion of the handle can be in adjustably and movably pivoted with each other, thereby enabling the swatter body to have a function of selecting rotating angle. Further, the lower section of the handle is provided with a solar electrical device or a rechargeable AC/DC current electrical device, and the light emitting device is required to be mounted at the frame body close to the swatter net or a proper position of the tubes to be favorable for illuminating.

YILUN YANG; PEIYU XIE

288

Categorization of potential breeding sites of dengue vectors in Johor, Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This cross-sectional study was to compare and categorize potential breeding sites of dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus at three different places, namely, an urban (Taman Permas Jaya, Johor Bahru, Johor), a suburban (Kg. Melayu Gelang Patah, Johor Bahru, Johor) and a rural (Felda Simpang Waha, Kota Tinggi, Johor) habitats in Malaysia. Larval surveys were conducted once in every two months at each habitat over a period of 11 months from August 2000 until June 2001. There was a significant difference between the three study sites in terms of potential breeding sites inspected (p<0.001). There were more potential breeding sites found in the rural area when compared to the urban and suburban habitats. The mean Potential Container Index (PCI) values in descending order were as follows: rural habitat (57.72)>suburban (29.35)>urban habitat (16.97). Both breeding sites and potential breeding sites were the nominator and the total number of containers inspected as the denominator in the formula of PCI, thus the latter could be a potential indicator to initiate anti-dengue campaign at the community level to rid off potential Aedes breeding sites. The three most common potential breeding sites of Aedes species were similar for urban and suburban habitats (flower pots, pails and bowls respectively). However, flower pots, vases and tyres were the three most common potential breeding sites for the rural habitat. Another finding in this study was that various types of larval habitats were found indoors and outdoors for both species.

Nyamah MA; Sulaiman S; Omar B

2010-04-01

289

Female Anopheles gambiae antennae: increased transcript accumulation of the mosquito-specific odorant-binding-protein OBP2  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background New interventions are required to optimally and sustainably control the Anopheles sp. mosquitoes that transmit malaria and filariasis. The mosquito olfactory system is important in host seeking (transmission) and mate finding (reproduction). Understanding olfactory function could lead to development of control strategies based on repelling parasite-carrying mosquitoes or attracting them into a fatal trap. Findings Our initial focus is on odorant binding proteins with differential transcript accumulation between female and male mosquitoes. We report that the odorant binding protein, OBP2 (AGAP003306), had increased expression in the antennae of female vs. male Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (G3 strain). The increased expression in antennae of females of this gene by quantitative RT-PCR was 4.2 to 32.3 fold in three independent biological replicates and two technical replicate experiments using A. gambiae from two different laboratories. OBP2 is a member of the vast OBP superfamily of insect odorant binding proteins and belongs to the predominantly dipteran clade that includes the Culex oviposition kairomone-binding OBP1. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that its orthologs are present across culicid mosquitoes and are likely to play a conserved role in recognizing a molecule that might be critical for female behavior. Conclusions OBP2 has increased mRNA transcript accumulation in the antennae of female as compared to male A. gambiae. This molecule and related molecules may play an important role in female mosquito feeding and breeding behavior. This finding may be a step toward providing a foundation for understanding mosquito olfactory requirements and developing control strategies based on reducing mosquito feeding and breeding success.

Hoffman Seth A; Aravind Lakshminarayanan; Velmurugan Soundarapandian

2012-01-01

290

Aquatic Habitats  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson plan will help students to understand that the way a community disposes of its wastewater may negatively affect local aquatic habitats, that it is possible to find wastewater-disposal methods that do not pollute, and that both governments and citizens can take action to ensure that waste water will be disposed of in a way that is not destructive. As part of the lesson, students will discuss the definition of "wastewater", how it is disposed of, invite a guest speaker to class, and write proposals to local government officials either suggesting improvements or commending their current procedures. Adaptations for older students, discussion questions, an evaluation rubric, extension activities, suggested readings, a vocabulary, and links to related sites accompany the lesson.

Hedberg, Betsy

2003-01-01

291

Proximate and ultimate factors that promote aggregated breeding in the Western Sandpiper.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report that Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) on Alaska's Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta exhibited aggregated breeding behavior at a relatively small spatial scale. Prior to clutch initiation, males performing song flight displays on a 36 ha plot were aggregated as were subsequent initial nesting attempts on the plot. We tested three hypotheses commonly invoked to explain aggregated breeding in territorial species (social mate choice, predation, and material resources hypotheses), and found support for the material resources hypothesis, as dispersed individuals were more often associated with tundra habitat patches, and aggregated individuals nested more often in undulating-tundra habitat patches compared to patch availability. The pattern of habitat occupancy conformed to an ideal despotic distribution with aggregated nesting birds in undulating-tundra patches experiencing lower reproductive success. On our study plot, older, more aggressive males solicited females more often, and defended larger, more dispersed sites in tundra habitat patches, compared to younger, less aggressive males that were aggregated in undulating-tundra habitat patches. Breeding aggregations are often concentrated on or near a critical resource. In contrast, Western Sandpiper breeding aggregations occur when dominant and/or older individuals exclude younger, subordinate individuals from preferred habitat. Although many taxa of non-colonial birds have been reported to aggregate breeding territories, this is the first quantitative report of aggregated breeding behavior in a non-colonial monogamous shorebird species prior to hatch.

Johnson M; Walters JR

2011-04-01

292

Mine-associated wetlands as avian habitat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Surveys for interior wetland birds at mine-associated emergent wetlands on coal surface mines in southern Illinois detected one state threatened and two state endangered species. Breeding by least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) and common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) was confirmed. Regional assessment of potential wetland bird habitat south of Illinois Interstate 64 identified a total of 8,109 ha of emergent stable water wetlands; 10% were associated with mining. Mine-associated wetlands with persistent hydrology and large expanses of emergent vegetation provide habitat that could potentially compensate for loss of natural wetlands in Illinois

1998-01-01

293

Integrated mosquito larval source management reduces larval numbers in two highland villages in western Kenya  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In western Kenya, malaria remains one of the major health problems and its control remains an important public health measure. Malaria control is by either use of drugs to treat patients infected with malaria parasites or by controlling the vectors. Vector control may target the free living adult or aquatic (larval) stages of mosquito. The most commonly applied control strategies target indoor resting mosquitoes. However, because mosquitoes spend a considerable time in water, targeting the aquatic stages can complement well with existing adult control measures. Methods Larval source management (LSM) of malaria vectors was examined in two villages i.e. Fort Ternan and Lunyerere, with the aim of testing strategies that can easily be accessed by the affected communities. Intervention strategies applied include environmental management through source reduction (drainage of canals, land levelling or by filling ditches with soil), habitat manipulation (by provision of shading from arrow root plant), application of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti) and the use of predatory fish, Gambusia affinis. The abundance of immature stages of Anopheles and Culex within intervention habitats was compared to that within non-intervention habitats. Results The findings show that in Fort Ternan no significant differences were observed in the abundance of Anopheles early and late instars between intervention and non-intervention habitats. In Lunyerere, the abundance of Anopheles early instars was fifty five times more likely to be present within non-intervention habitats than in habitats under drainage. No differences in early instars abundance were observed between non-intervention and habitats applied with Bti. However, late instars had 89?% and 91?% chance of being sampled from non-intervention rather than habitats under drainage and those applied with Bti respectively. Conclusion Most of these interventions were applied in habitats that arose due to human activities. Involvement of community members in control programs would be beneficial in the long term once they understand the role they play in malaria transmission. Apart from the need for communities to be educated on their role in malaria transmission, there is a need to develop and test strategies that can easily be accessed and hence be used by the affected communities. The proposed LSM strategies target outdoor immature mosquitoes and hence can complement well with control measures that target indoor resting vectors. Therefore inclusion of LSM in Integrated Vector Management (IVM) program would be beneficial.

Imbahale Susan S; Githeko Andrew; Mukabana Wolfgang R; Takken Willem

2012-01-01

294

HERBAL CONTROL OF MOSQUITO LARVAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquitoes are the vectors for the dreadful diseases of mankind. For control of larval stages of mosquito, herbal plant extracts/ botanical insecticides are being tried. In the present study aqueous extract of some traditional medicinal herbal plants i.e. Neem (Azadirechta indica), Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Tulasi (Ocimum santum), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) were tested for their Larvicidal activity. The successful attempt is made to kill the larvae, the premature stage of mosquitoes by using safe and socio-economical herbal plant extract mixtures. Ginger+Tobacco, Neem+Tobbaco and Ginger Neem, Turmeric, Tobacco and Tulasi showed highest larvicidal activity. The results obtained show that this plant material exhibited larvicidal activity and could be considered as potent natural larvicidal agent without any toxic effects.

Chaudhari Priyanka S, Chaudhari SV* Jangam Sampada, Shinde JS, Wankhede Sneha

2013-01-01

295

Novel mosquito-absorbing device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a novel mosquito absorbing device which comprises a shell and a motor, and the shell is hollow in the interior with one closed end and the other open end the motor is arranged in the shell, and fan blades are arranged on a rotating shaft of the motor at the closed end of the shell, a handle is arranged a tuck net is mounted at the open end of the shell and in the handle, the power supply of the motor is mounted a motor switch is arranged on the handle. The mosquito absorbing device of the utility model can effectively absorb mosquitoes, is convenient for use, energy-saving and environment-friendly and has low cost and promising market prospect at the same time, thus having great value in use.

SICHAO YAO

296

Bait for mosquito and fly  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a mosquito and fly bait, which at least comprises mosquito and fly bait feed. The utility model is characterized in that the mosquito and fly bait feed is packaged in a blocky box body, an air hole is arranged on the surface of the box body. The blocky box body is mould by the plastic molding. An air hole is arranged on the upper surface of the box body and is covered by a thin film. The blocky box body is embeded by the lower box body and upper cap. An air hole is arranged on the surface of the upper cap and is covered by a thin film. The blocky box body is thin fan shaped. The utility model is convenient, safe, environment-friendly and sanitation.

XILIN HU

297

Transcription profiling of resistance to Bti toxins in the mosquito Aedes aegypti using next-generation sequencing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The control of mosquitoes transmitting infectious diseases relies mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. However, resistance to most chemical insecticides threatens mosquito control programs. In this context, the spraying of toxins produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in larval habitats represents an alternative to chemical insecticides and is now widely used for mosquito control. Recent studies suggest that resistance of mosquitoes to Bti toxin may occur locally but mechanisms have not been characterized so far. In the present study, we investigated gene transcription level variations associated with Bti toxin resistance in the mosquito Aedes aegypti using a next-generation sequencing approach. More than 6 million short cDNA tags were sequenced from larvae of two strains sharing the same genetic background: a Bti toxins-resistant strain and a susceptible strain. These cDNA tags were mapped with a high coverage (308 reads per position in average) to more than 6000 genes of Ae. aegypti genome and used to quantify and compare the transcription level of these genes between the two mosquito strains. Among them, 86 genes were significantly differentially transcribed more than 4-fold in the Bti toxins resistant strain comparatively to the susceptible strain. These included gene families previously associated with Bti toxins resistance such as serine proteases, alkaline phosphatase and alpha-amylase. These results are discussed in regards of potential Bti toxins resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes.

Paris M; Melodelima C; Coissac E; Tetreau G; Reynaud S; David JP; Despres L

2012-02-01

298

Transcription profiling of resistance to Bti toxins in the mosquito Aedes aegypti using next-generation sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The control of mosquitoes transmitting infectious diseases relies mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. However, resistance to most chemical insecticides threatens mosquito control programs. In this context, the spraying of toxins produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in larval habitats represents an alternative to chemical insecticides and is now widely used for mosquito control. Recent studies suggest that resistance of mosquitoes to Bti toxin may occur locally but mechanisms have not been characterized so far. In the present study, we investigated gene transcription level variations associated with Bti toxin resistance in the mosquito Aedes aegypti using a next-generation sequencing approach. More than 6 million short cDNA tags were sequenced from larvae of two strains sharing the same genetic background: a Bti toxins-resistant strain and a susceptible strain. These cDNA tags were mapped with a high coverage (308 reads per position in average) to more than 6000 genes of Ae. aegypti genome and used to quantify and compare the transcription level of these genes between the two mosquito strains. Among them, 86 genes were significantly differentially transcribed more than 4-fold in the Bti toxins resistant strain comparatively to the susceptible strain. These included gene families previously associated with Bti toxins resistance such as serine proteases, alkaline phosphatase and alpha-amylase. These results are discussed in regards of potential Bti toxins resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes. PMID:22115744

Paris, Margot; Melodelima, Christelle; Coissac, Eric; Tetreau, Guillaume; Reynaud, Stephane; David, Jean-Philippe; Despres, Laurence

2011-11-16

299

Radiation biology of mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose) was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi-) field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators.

Helinski Michelle EH; Parker Andrew G; Knols Bart GJ

2009-01-01

300

Evolution of plant breeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the essence of being art and science of manipulating plants for man. This review discusses theevolution of the concepts and the methods of plant breeding, here divided arbitrarily into selection based on phenotypes,breeding values and genotypes. No matter how big the pool of genetic information in recent years, the phenotype will continuesto be important in the present and future.

Arnel R. Hallauer

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Fish Breeding in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This article reviews the wild sources of fish seeds, some cultivable fishes. carp breeding, relationship between the endocrine system and gonad development, function of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in propagation, influence of ecological conditions on gonad development, artificial propagation of common carp, natural induced spawning, salmon culture and an innovation in the sea to educate fish breeders, fish genetics and fish culturist in other to facilitate their productivity.

J.A. Akankali; E.I. Seighabo; J.F.N. Abowei

2011-01-01

302

Mosquito-repellent incense rack  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The product is a mosquito-repellent incense frame, comprised by a assembly frame set in a box body with a cover and a pedestal box , the assembly frame is a horizontal blind frame comprised by a tie bar crossing between the both corresponding walls of the box and a variety of metal sheets arranged parallel on the tie bar, rotary shafts connect with the metal sheets on the both ends, the metal sheet bonded with an end of a three-segment crutch connecting bar whose final segment inserts directly the corresponding holes on the tie bar which crosses the joint holes paralleling with the rotary shaft on the side walls of the pedestal box, the first segment of the crutch tie bar is in a same vertical surface with the metal sheets, the middle segment of the tie bar is parallel to the axial line of the tie bar, the final segment is vertical to the axial line of the tie bar, each of the metal sheets appear long-strip shape, its breadth is at least same as the distance between two sheets. Pulling the tie bar will drive the metal sheets to rotate, and then the base surface of the horizontal blind frame will arrange a metal sheet board. As the metal sheet board has a lager contact area with the mosquito-repellent incense, the heat conduction amount of the board to the mosquito-repellent incense will increase, and then burning of the mosquito-repellent incense can be controlled.

YAN JUNJIE LU

303

Mosquito species geographical distribution in Iraq 2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills three million persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species. In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomological survey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009. METHODS: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi provinces were collected and speciated. Five to 10 villages were selected randomly in each province and in each village 10 houses were selected randomly to collect mosquitoes and the density of mosquitoes per room was calculated. Kits for entomological investigation were used and the collected mosquitoes were sent to the vector borne disease section laboratory for classification using the Naval Medical Research Unit 3 standard classification key. RESULTS: A total of 29,156 mosquitoes were collected, representing two genera: Anopheles (n=13,268, or 46% of the total collected) and Culex (n=15,888, or 54% of the total collected). Four Anopheles (An. pulcherrimus, An. stephensi, An. superpictus, and An. sacharovi) and one Culex (Cx. pipiens) species were identified. Anopheles pulcherrimus was found in 11 provinces, An. stephensi in 7, An. superpictus in 2 and An. sacharovi in one province, while Cx. pipiens was found in all the 12 provinces. Two peaks of mosquito density were found: the first from April-June and the other from September-October. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: There are clear differences in Anopheles mosquito species geographical distribution and density among Iraqi provinces, while Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are distributed all over Iraq. All mosquito genera show clear seasonal density variation. The study highlights that the manual mosquito classification is not enough to identify all the species of mosquitoes in Iraq.

Hantosh HA; Hassan HM; Ahma B; Al-fatlawy A

2012-03-01

304

A five-year integrated mosquito control project in Kavala (N. Greece)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The plain of the Nestos River is a coastal area of 25,000 ha of agricultural land irrigated by the day-regulated waters of the Nestos River. Rice fields (600 individual parcels of 1,900 ha of total surface) represent the most important breeding sites during summer (five larvicide applications on average). Abandoned agricultural land (over 200 fields of 900 ha) receiving occasionally irrigation water constitutes the second most productive mosquito-breeding site (1-2 applications). Approximately 1-2% of the total surface of 6,500 ha of corn cultivation fields is poorly drained and thus about 100 ha produce at least one generation of mosquitoes during the summer. Along its 25 kilometers of seashore, the area of Nestos comprises the lagoons of Kavala (extensive aquaculture), and the last part of the delta of the Nestos River, 11,500 ha of protected wetlands under the Ramsar convention. About 2,000 ha of these wetlands harbours plants such as Arthr. fruticosum, Sal. europea, Ael. littoralis, Ju. maritimus, Sc. maritimus, representing highly productive mosquito breeding sites (1-2 generations during the summer). Ecological mapping involved 3,200 individual vegetation polygons organised in 311 different sampling stations. Larvae sampling protocol was followed on a weekly basis for the individual and/or groups of parcels in the agricultural and natural environment. All the above information was systematically monitored and transferred to an ArcView (8.3)-GIS (Geographical Information System) database for further exploitation. In addition, mosquito breeding sites were recorded in the urban environment: within 9 villages, 2,300 individual residences were monitored and 1,070 cesspools were recorded, out of which more than 50% were producing mosquitoes (1-2 applications). In total 8,500 ha were treated with larvicides by using temephos and diflubenzuron (agricultural land), Bti (natural environment) and MMF-Agnique (urban environment). 70% of the applications were made by air using a spraying helicopter (Hiller) and a specially modified ultra-light motorized (Delta type) equipped with GPS (Geographical Positioning System). During the five years of application of the project, 17 species of mosquitoes have been identified, the most important being Ochlerotatus caspius and Anopheles spp. (human bait and CO2 traps). Nuisance has been considerably reduced since the beginning of the operations, when 1,000 bites/hour were not unusual. Evaluation of the project was made twice through 200 questionnaires in year 2000 and 180 questionnaires in year 2004. Local community is fully supporting the project: 90% of the people are willing to participate financially for the continuation of the project. (author)

2005-01-01

305

Tritium breeding in fusion reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

1982-09-10

306

Composição, uso de hábitat e estações reprodutivas das espécies de anuros da floresta de restinga da Estação Ecológica Juréia-Itatins, sudeste do Brasil/ Species composition, habitat use and breeding seasons of anurans of the restinga forest of the Estação Ecológica Juréia-Itatins, Southeastern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Apresentamos aqui dados sobre a composição de espécies, o uso de hábitat e as estações reprodutivas dos anuros da floresta de restinga da Estação Ecológica Juréia-Itatins, sudeste do Brasil. Entre fevereiro e dezembro de 1993, foram realizadas visitas mensais à área de estudo, com permanência de três ou quatro dias, totalizando 28 dias de trabalhos de campo. Três poças pré-selecionadas foram investigadas diariamente entre 18:00 e 22:30 horas, quando foi e (more) stimado o número de machos vocalmente ativos nas agregações observadas, tentando-se localizá-los visualmente em seus substratos característicos de vocalização. A fauna é composta por 20 espécies, a maior riqueza já registrada em um ambiente de restinga do Brasil. De acordo com os critérios da IUCN, oito dessas espécies possuem populações em declínio, devido principalmente à perda de hábitat. Onze espécies apresentaram machos em atividade de vocalização e reprodução nas poças monitoradas mensalmente durante todo o período de estudo; a maioria dos hilídeos apresentou segregação vertical em seus sítios de vocalização sobre a vegetação marginal. Scinax hayii e S. littoralis foram consideradas de reprodução contínua, mas o período reprodutivo da maior parte das espécies mostrou-se associado à estação chuvosa. A alta riqueza de espécies observada na área e a indicação de declínios populacionais de algumas espécies em outras regiões sugerem que a região da Juréia apresenta uma grande relevância como área de preservação de anuros. Abstract in english Herein we present data on species composition, habitat use, and calling seasons of anurans from the Restinga forest of the Estação Ecológica Juréia-Itatins, Southeastern Brazil. The study site was visited monthly (3 to 4 days) between February and December 1993, a total of 28 days of field work. Three previously selected puddles were searched for anurans between 6:00 and 10:30 PM, when the number of calling males of each species was estimated and the positions of thei (more) r calling sites were recorded. Anuran fauna is composed by 20 species, the highest richness ever recorded in a Brazilian restinga habitat. According to IUCN criteria, eight of these species have populations declining mainly due to habitat loss. Eleven species showed calling males in the three pools monitored during the study period; most hylids showed some vertical segregation on the marginal vegetation used as calling sites. Scinax hayii and S. littoralis were considered continuous breeders, but the calling and breeding period of most species was associated to the rainy season. The high species richness recorded and the indication of declining populations for some species outside the area suggest the E.E. Juréia-Itatins has a high potential to preserve anuran fauna.

Narvaes, Patrícia; Bertoluci, Jaime; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

2009-06-01

307

Biotechnology and mutation breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mutation breeding has been successful. New biotechnological techniques such as in vitro mutagenesis, in vitro selection, and haploidy may assist in, or improve mutation breeding where applicable. In vitro mutagenesis will increase the specificity of the mutation process. In vitro selection and haploidy will improve mutation identification and selection capabilities. These techniques, their uses, and their limitations are discussed. (author). 20 refs.

1988-01-01

308

Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P?mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties.

Arjunan N; Murugan K; Madhiyazhagan P; Kovendan K; Prasannakumar K; Thangamani S; Barnard DR

2012-04-01

309

Tritium breeding blanket  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

1991-01-01

310

Optimal control of insects through sterile insect release and habitat modification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper develops an optimal control framework for an ordinary differential equation model to investigate the introduction of sterile mosquitoes to reduce the incidence of mosquito-borne diseases. Existence of a solution given an optimal strategy and the optimal control is determined in association with the negative effects of the disease on the population while minimizing the cost due to this control mechanism. Numerical simulations have shown the importance of effects of the bounds on the release of sterile mosquitoes and the bounds on the likelihood of egg maturation. The optimal strategy is to maximize the use of habitat modification or insecticide. A combination of techniques leads to a more rapid elimination of the wild mosquito population.

Renee Fister K; McCarthy ML; Oppenheimer SF; Collins C

2013-08-01

311

Optimal control of insects through sterile insect release and habitat modification.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper develops an optimal control framework for an ordinary differential equation model to investigate the introduction of sterile mosquitoes to reduce the incidence of mosquito-borne diseases. Existence of a solution given an optimal strategy and the optimal control is determined in association with the negative effects of the disease on the population while minimizing the cost due to this control mechanism. Numerical simulations have shown the importance of effects of the bounds on the release of sterile mosquitoes and the bounds on the likelihood of egg maturation. The optimal strategy is to maximize the use of habitat modification or insecticide. A combination of techniques leads to a more rapid elimination of the wild mosquito population. PMID:23743207

Renee Fister, K; McCarthy, Maeve L; Oppenheimer, Seth F; Collins, Craig

2013-06-03

312

Mosquito fauna inhabiting water bodies in the urban environment of Cordoba city, Argentina, following a St. Louis encephalitis outbreak.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An understanding of urban aquatic environments as mosquito larval habitats is necessary to prioritize sites for surveillance and control of arbovirus vectors in urban areas. Natural and artificial water bodies at ground level that may be larval mosquito habitats in Córdoba city, Argentina were surveyed. Data on the characteristics of aquatic sites and the presence and abundance of mosquito larvae and pupae were collected in the summer of 2006, coinciding with the first report of human WNV and following an outbreak of St. Louis encephalitis in 2005. Eight species in the genera Aedes, Culex, and Mansonia were identified. At 64.2% (34 of 53) of the sites, only one species was collected, while 3.8% (2 of 53) had three associated species, the highest richness found per site. Culex quinquefasciatus represented over 99% (out of 32,729) of the specimens. It was also the most widely distributed and detected under diverse habitat conditions. Although puddles and semi-permanent pools harbored a greater number of species, drainages and channels may be more relevant as risk factors from an epidemiological point of view because they showed the highest larval densities, mainly of Cx. quinquefasciatus (vector of SLE and WNV). Also, higher densities of this species were associated with stormwater runoff and sewage water, thus water management systems should be targeted and closely monitored for mosquito control purposes.

Pires DA; Gleiser RM

2010-12-01

313

Distribution and occurrence of mosquito species in the municipal areas of Imo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study of the ecology of drainage - breeding mosquito vectors was conducted in the three urban centers (Owerri, Orlu and Okigwe) of Imo State, Nigeria. Four drainage sites located around markets, residential, stream and hotel premises were selected in each urban centre. Dipping method of sampling was employed and a total of 8,820 mosquitoes comprising eight species namely; Aedes aegypti, Aedes vittatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tigripes, Culex horridus, Culex cinereus, Culex annuliorus and Anopheles gambiae were encountered; in Owerri and Orlu with Cx. cinereus being completely absent in Okigwe. Cx. quinquefasciatus was predominantly present in all drainage sites with the highest occurrence of 4,474(50.74%) followed by Aedes aegypti 1814 (20.57%), An .gambiae 945(10.71%), Cx. tigripes 484 (5.48%) Ae. vittatus 420 (4.76%), Cx. horridus 264 (02.99%), Cx. cinereus 261 (2.96%), Cx. annuliorus 159 (1.88%). Of all sites sampled, market drainages had the highest abundance of mosquitoes which was significantly higher than (ANOVA, P? 0.05) those found in the residential, streams and hotel premises. Residential drainages recorded the second highest density followed by stream/vegetation drainages and hotel drainages which had the least. The abundance and distribution of mosquitoes in Owerri (130.06) the State Capital was significantly higher (ANOVA, P? 0.05) than those for Orlu (93.44) and Okigwe (52.13). The mosquito species identified in this study are of public health importance and there is an urgent need to desilt and clean up these drainages for free flow of water. This will not only rid these species of breeding sites but also free the State of the diseases associated with these organisms.

Ifeyinwa Celestina MGBEMENA; Tochi EBE

2012-01-01

314

Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU) mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ?80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes) and repellence (ability to prevent ?80% of mosquito bites) properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.

N. Lukwa; A. Makuwaza; T. Chiwade; S.L. Mutambu; M. Zimba; P. Munosiyei

2013-01-01

315

A new home for the long-snouted seahorse : Hippocampus guttulatus : breeding in captivity to preserve in the wild  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Habitat degradation and intensive exploitation are threatening seahorse populations worldwide. Captive breeding may be essential to replace harvesting of natural populations and provide an alternative source of seahorses for commercial trade and supplementation programs in the wild. The present inve...

Jesus, Filipa Faleiro de, 1981-

316

Does migration promote or restrict circumpolar breeding ranges of arctic birds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Migration has been suggested to promote large breeding ranges among birds because of the greater mobility of migratory compared with non-migratory species, but migration has also been suggested to restrict breeding ranges because of evolutionary constraints imposed by the genetically based migration control programme. We aim to investigate the association between migration and the breeding ranges of both land birds and pelagic birds breeding in the Arctic region. The Arctic region. Information on breeding and wintering ranges and migratory status of bird species breeding in the arctic tundra biome was compiled from the literature. The association between breeding range, migration distance and primary winter habitat was tested using multivariate generalized linear models and pair-wise Mann-Whitney U-tests. Phylogenetic effects were tested for using Mantel's permutation tests. We found different relationships depending on the species' major winter habitat. Among birds that are pelagic during winter, long-distance migrants have the largest breeding ranges, while among terrestrial birds, residents and short-distance migrants have the largest breeding ranges. Breeding ranges of coastal birds of all migratory distance classes are comparatively restricted. As a new explanation for this pattern we suggest that the possibility of colonizing large winter ranges is a key factor for the subsequent expansion of breeding ranges in arctic bird communities and possibly also in bird communities of other regions of the world. Because of the reversal in the relative extent of continents and oceans between the hemispheres, longitudinally wide winter ranges are more likely for long-distance than short-distance migrants among pelagic birds, while the reverse holds true for birds that use terrestrial winter habitats. For coastal birds both continents and oceans form barriers restricting colonization of extensive winter quarters and consequently also of extensive breeding ranges, regardless of the distance to the winter quarters.

Henningsson SaraS; Alerstam Thomas

2008-05-01

317

Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry p...

Dekker Teun; Ignell Rickard; Ghebru Maedot; Glinwood Robert; Hopkins Richard

318

Mosquito-repellent incense bracket  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a mosquito-repellent incense rack, comprising a main body constituted by triangle plate bar pieces respectively set on the three edges of the main body with one end fixedly connected with the main body and another end being free end and bending towards the same direction according to the main body plane to form three supporting legs position limitation components composed of at least two lineaments extend towards the main body along the two sides of the triangle wide area in bar pieces. The mosquito-repellent incense rack is placed into the package box in the form of plane, therefore the package space is saved and during using, the bar pieces bend at an angle to form the triangle supporting legs.

LONG ZHAO

319

Mutation breeding in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

1991-01-01

320

Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera) from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control/ Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera) em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera) em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores. Este estudo investiga a distribuição espacial da fauna urbana e de Culicidae e informa o monitoramento entomológico de espécies que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval. Coletas de larvas de mosquitos foram realizadas no município paulista de Santa Bárbara d' Oeste entre os anos de 2004 (more) e 2006, durante visitas casa-a-casa. Um total de 1.891 amostras foi considerado, com nove espécies diferentes coletadas. A distribuição das espécies foi avaliada através do método de krigagem estatística extrapolando as divisões administrativas do município. O método de coleta adotado no presente estudo está de acordo com os métodos sugeridos aos serviços de saúde municipais pelo Ministério da Saúde e pode, portanto, ser adotado pelas autoridades públicas de saúde no controle da doença e delimitação das áreas de risco. Além disso, este tipo de levantamento e análise pode ser empregado como vigilância entomológica de espécies de mosquitos vetores que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval em áreas urbanas. Abstract in english Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera) larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers as larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house vis (more) its. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.

Piovezan, Rafael; Azevedo, Thiago Salomão de; Von Zuben, Cláudio José

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Terrestrial vegetation and aquatic chemistry influence larval mosquito abundance in catch basins, Chicago, USA  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An important determinant of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission is the spatial distribution of vectors. The primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) in Illinois are Culex pipiens Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald. In urban environments, these mosquitoes commonly oviposit in roadside storm water catch basins. However, use of this habitat is inconsistent, with abundance of larvae varying significantly across catch basins at a fine spatial scale. Methods We tested the hypothesis that attributes of the biotic and abiotic environment contribute to spatial and temporal variation in production of mosquito vectors, characterizing the relationship between terrestrial vegetation and aquatic chemistry and Culex abundance in Chicago, Illinois. Larvae were sampled from 60 catch basins from June 14 to October 3, 2009. Density of shrubs and 14 tree genera surrounding the basins were quantified, as well as aquatic chemistry content of each basin. Results We demonstrate that the spatial pattern of Culex abundance in catch basins is strongly influenced by environmental characteristics, resulting in significant variation across the urban landscape. Using regression and machine learning techniques, we described landscape features and microhabitat characteristics of four Chicago neighborhoods and examined the implications of these measures for larval abundance in adjacent catch basins. The important positive predictors of high larval abundance were aquatic ammonia, nitrates, and area of shrubs of height Culex during the fruit-bearing periods and early senescent periods in August and September. Conclusions This study identifies environmental predictors of mosquito production in urban environments. Because an abundance of adult Culex is integral to efficient WNV transmission and mosquitoes are found in especially high densities near larval habitats, identifying aquatic sites for Culex and landscape features that promote larval production are important in predicting the spatial pattern of cases of human and veterinary illness. Thus, these data enable accurate assessment of regions at risk for exposure to WNV and aid in the prevention of vector-borne disease transmission.

Gardner Allison M; Anderson Tavis K; Hamer Gabriel L; Johnson Dana E; Varela Kate E; Walker Edward D; Ruiz Marilyn O

2013-01-01

322

Genetically Modified Mosquito: Myth and Reality  

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Full Text Available Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been applied successfully in some agricultural pest control programs in the past, but in many cases, success has not been sustainable in the long run. Various attempts have been made to duplicate this limited success SIT application in agriculture to other areas of applications, particularly in vector control. For example, a recent mosquito control program has been initiated in Malaysia to eliminate dengue-mosquitoes Aedes aegypti by releasing large amount of genetically modified GM male mosquitoes into the field to outcompete the wild male mosquitoes. Field experimental data that has been made available in the literature is limited, rendering it difficult to make independent assessment on its short-term efficacy and long-term sustainability of this GM control strategy. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of GM mosquito in controlling dengue mosquito population by means of model simulations via DEER (Dengue Encephalitis Eradication Routines). Preliminary results indicate negative conclusion regarding the effectiveness of GM mosquitoes in controlling wild A. aegypti population over the long-term. Essentially, significant reduction of wild mosquito population is possible only if large over-flooding ratios are applied. Further, repeated releases must be maintained over an infinite time horizon to continue to sustain low population of mosquitoes. Major difficulty remains to be resolved. In particular, in-depth costbenefit analysis on this control program is essential to ensure long-term institutional and social support.

Teh Su Yean; Koh Hock Lye; Yeap Kiew Lee

2013-01-01

323

Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review  

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Full Text Available Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti) curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis.

Ernst-Jan Scholte; Bart G.J. Knols; Robert A. Samson; Willem Takken

2004-01-01

324

Cytochrome B Analysis of Mosquito Blood Meals: Identifying Wildlife Hosts of West Nile Virus Mosquito Vectors in Wyoming, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Female mosquitoes commonly exhibit patterns of blood feeding from vertebrate hosts, a behavior that strongly influences mosquito pathogen infection and transmission. The vertebrate host dynamics of the mosquito transmitted arbovirus, West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in sa...

325

Genetically modified mosquito: the Malaysian public engagement experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

On December 21, 2010, 6000 genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes were released in an uninhabited forest in Malaysia. The purpose of the deliberate release was a limited “marked release and recapture” (MRR) experiment, a standard ecological method in entomology, to evaluate under field conditions, the flight distance and longevity of the sterile male Aedes aegypti strain OX513A(My1), a GM strain. As with any other GM technologies, the release was received with mixed responses. As the scientific community debate over the public engagement strategies for similar GM releases, dengue incidence continues to rise with a heavy toll on morbidity, mortality and healthcare budgets. Meanwhile the wild female Aedes aegypti continues to breed offspring, surviving and evading conventional interventions for vector control. PMID:23125042

Subramaniam, T S Saraswathy; Lee, Han Lim; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Murad, Shahnaz

2012-11-01

326

Genetically modified mosquito: the Malaysian public engagement experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On December 21, 2010, 6000 genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes were released in an uninhabited forest in Malaysia. The purpose of the deliberate release was a limited “marked release and recapture” (MRR) experiment, a standard ecological method in entomology, to evaluate under field conditions, the flight distance and longevity of the sterile male Aedes aegypti strain OX513A(My1), a GM strain. As with any other GM technologies, the release was received with mixed responses. As the scientific community debate over the public engagement strategies for similar GM releases, dengue incidence continues to rise with a heavy toll on morbidity, mortality and healthcare budgets. Meanwhile the wild female Aedes aegypti continues to breed offspring, surviving and evading conventional interventions for vector control.

Subramaniam TS; Lee HL; Ahmad NW; Murad S

2012-11-01

327

Native bird breeding in a chronosequence of revegetated sites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Restoration of degraded landscapes through replantings of native vegetation has been proceeding in response to habitat loss and fragmentation and plummeting biodiversity. Little is known about whether the investments in ecological restoration have resulted in biodiversity benefits. We evaluated the potential of restored sites to support populations by assessing bird breeding activity. We surveyed 21 revegetated sites of various ages (9-111 years) in the box-ironbark region of Victoria, Australia. Sites differed in landscape context, patch features and in-site characteristics. The latter, including whether sites were grazed, amounts of fallen timber and numbers of remnant trees, were most important in affecting overall bird breeding activity. Patch-configuration (e.g., shape, area) was of secondary importance. Landscape context appeared to have little effect on bird breeding except for one species. While these results suggest that in-site habitat structure is the predominant driver, we caution against dismissing the importance of patch characteristics and landscape context for two reasons. First, the available sites covered a relatively small range of areas (<54 ha), and we could not provide a broad range of landscape-contextual contrasts given that we could only use existing plantings. Second, much of the breeding activity was by bird species known to be tolerant of smaller woodland areas or of the open countryside. We show that there is very little breeding activity in replantings by species that have declined dramatically in rank abundance between large 'reference' areas and fragmented landscapes. It seems likely that most replantings provide habitat configurations unsuited for dealing with declines of species most vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation.

Selwood K; Mac Nally R; Thomson JR

2009-03-01

328

Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: Part 3--Andaman and Nicobar Islands, including an update on the mosquito fauna of the islands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT. Fifty-three mosquito species belonging to 20 subgenera and 18 genera--Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, Downsiomyia, Finlaya, Heizmannia, Kenknightia, Lorrainea, Lutzia, Ochlerotatus, Orthopodomyia, Rhinoskusea, Stegomyia, Toxorhynchites, Tripteroides, Uranotaenia, and Verrallina--were recorded in the mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, in collections made during May and June 2001. Larvae of 43 species were collected from different mangrove habitats. Together with collections made in nonmangrove areas, 83 species in 22 subgenera and 20 genera in total were recorded of which 33 species are new records for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Rhinoskusea wardi, Fl. flavipennis, and Ve. consonensis are 3 new country records for India. Collections included topotype specimens of St. seampi. Together with species known from earlier records, the mosquito fauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands is updated to 107 species in 23 subgenera and 24 genera.

Rajavel AR; Natarajan R

2006-09-01

329

Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: Part 3--Andaman and Nicobar Islands, including an update on the mosquito fauna of the islands.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT. Fifty-three mosquito species belonging to 20 subgenera and 18 genera--Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, Downsiomyia, Finlaya, Heizmannia, Kenknightia, Lorrainea, Lutzia, Ochlerotatus, Orthopodomyia, Rhinoskusea, Stegomyia, Toxorhynchites, Tripteroides, Uranotaenia, and Verrallina--were recorded in the mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, in collections made during May and June 2001. Larvae of 43 species were collected from different mangrove habitats. Together with collections made in nonmangrove areas, 83 species in 22 subgenera and 20 genera in total were recorded of which 33 species are new records for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Rhinoskusea wardi, Fl. flavipennis, and Ve. consonensis are 3 new country records for India. Collections included topotype specimens of St. seampi. Together with species known from earlier records, the mosquito fauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands is updated to 107 species in 23 subgenera and 24 genera. PMID:17067033

Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R

2006-09-01

330

Spatially targeting Culex quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats on modified land cover for implementing an Integrated Vector Management (IVM) program in three villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous land cover modification is an important part of spatial epidemiology because it can help identify environmental factors and Culex mosquitoes associated with arbovirus transmission and thus guide control intervention. The aim of this study was to determine whether remotely sensed data could be used to identify rice-related Culex quinquefasciatus breeding habitats in three rice-villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya. We examined whether a land use land cover (LULC) classification based on two scenes, IKONOS at 4 m and Landsat Thematic Mapper at 30 m could be used to map different land uses and rice planted at different times (cohorts), and to infer which LULC change were correlated to high density Cx. quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats. We performed a maximum likelihood unsupervised classification in Erdas Imagine V8.7® and generated three land cover classifications, rice field, fallow and built environment. Differentially corrected global positioning systems (DGPS) ground coordinates of Cx. quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats were overlaid onto the LULC maps generated in ArcInfo 9.1®. Grid cells were stratified by levels of irrigation (well-irrigated and poorly-irrigated) and varied according to size of the paddy. Results Total LULC change between 1988–2005 was 42.1 % in Kangichiri, 52.8 % in Kiuria and and 50.6 % Rurumi. The most frequent LULC changes was rice field to fallow and fallow to rice field. The proportion of aquatic habitats positive for Culex larvae in LULC change sites was 77.5% in Kangichiri, 72.9% in Kiuria and 73.7% in Rurumi. Poorly – irrigated grid cells displayed 63.3% of aquatic habitats among all LULC change sites. Conclusion We demonstrate that optical remote sensing can identify rice cultivation LULC sites associated with high Culex oviposition. We argue that the regions of higher Culex abundance based on oviposition surveillance sites reflect underlying differences in abundance of larval habitats which is where limited control resources could be concentrated to reduce vector larval abundance.

Jacob Benjamin G; Shililu Josephat; Muturi Ephantus J; Mwangangi Joseph M; Muriu Simon M; Funes Jose; Githure John; Regens James L; Novak Robert J

2006-01-01

331

Stabilizer state breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a breeding protocol that distills pure copies of any stabilizer state from noisy copies and a pool of predistilled pure copies of the same state, by means of local Clifford operations, Pauli measurements, and classical communication

2006-01-01

332

Immature mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on the bromeliad Nidularium innocentii in ombrophilous dense forest of Santa Catarina Island, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available Immature forms of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected from bromeliads Nidularium innocentii var. paxianum in dense ombrophilous forest of Santa Catarina Island, state of Santa Catarina. Two hundred and eleven mosquitoes were collected; 37.44% Culex (Microculex) albipes, 19.91% Cx. (Mic.) davisi, 0.95% Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii and 0.47% Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) tripartita. Correlation between the quantities of collected mosquitoes and mean temperatures was significantly positive, but that between the quantities and the rainfall was not. The quantity of anophelines was much smaller than that reported by other workers in the same region. Even considering the small quantity of anophelines collected, the great density of this bromeliad in the area indicates the need for of attention to it as a breeding ground for these mosquitoes.

Gerson Azulim Müller; Carlos Brisola Marcondes

2007-01-01

333

Field evaluation of the Off! Clip-on Mosquito Repellent (metofluthrin) against Aedes albopictus and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Florida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repellent efficacy of the Off! Clip-on Mosquito Repellent device (S. C. Johnson and Son, Inc., Racine, WI) containing Metofluthrin was evaluated on six human volunteers against the container-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and the salt marsh mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) at two field locations in northeastern Florida. The device repelled mosquitoes by releasing a vaporized form of the pyrethroid insecticide metofluthrin ([AI] 31.2%) and provided 70% protection from Ae. albopictus bites for > 3 h. For the second field trial, a repellent device that was used in the first trial was tested after being open for >1 wk. This device provided 79% protection from Ae. taeniorhynchus bites for 3 h. Our field results showed that the repellent device was 70 and 79% effective at repelling Ae. albopictus and Ae. taeniorhynchus from human test subjects in both field locations in northeastern Florida. PMID:22679874

Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A; Smith, Michael L; Gaines, Marcia K; Weaver, James H; Debboun, Mustapha

2012-05-01

334

Field evaluation of the Off! Clip-on Mosquito Repellent (metofluthrin) against Aedes albopictus and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Florida.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Repellent efficacy of the Off! Clip-on Mosquito Repellent device (S. C. Johnson and Son, Inc., Racine, WI) containing Metofluthrin was evaluated on six human volunteers against the container-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and the salt marsh mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) at two field locations in northeastern Florida. The device repelled mosquitoes by releasing a vaporized form of the pyrethroid insecticide metofluthrin ([AI] 31.2%) and provided 70% protection from Ae. albopictus bites for > 3 h. For the second field trial, a repellent device that was used in the first trial was tested after being open for >1 wk. This device provided 79% protection from Ae. taeniorhynchus bites for 3 h. Our field results showed that the repellent device was 70 and 79% effective at repelling Ae. albopictus and Ae. taeniorhynchus from human test subjects in both field locations in northeastern Florida.

Xue RD; Qualls WA; Smith ML; Gaines MK; Weaver JH; Debboun M

2012-05-01

335

Jute breeding in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The evolution, domestication, variability and adaptation of fibre jutes in Bangladesh are described. Domestication of fibre jutes, in evolutionary terms, is recent and the spectrum of variability within them is narrow. Yield improvement by breeding has been minimal and the reasons for this are suggested. Recent germplasm collecting expeditions to the eastern hill tracts of Bangladesh have revealed wide-spectrum diversity among the vegetable jutes grown there. Variability among the vegetable types can be utilized to improve the fibre types and to this end various hybridization schemes have now been initiated by the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute. The initial breeding priority is yield per se but ideotype characteristics have been delineated. The objectives of the breeding programme are likely to become more specific as the agronomic worth of these characteristics becomes more clearly defined. The rationale for mutation breeding in jute has been the narrow-spectrum diversity within the fibre types; the wide-spectrum diversity among the hill tract vegetable jutes should, however, be exploited in imaginative hybridization programmes before resorting to large-scale mutation breeding programmes. Mutation breeding may, however, be a valuable tool for inducing changes in fibre quality characteristics when technologists identify new uses for jute and specify their requirements. At present, however, quality is assessed subjectively. (author)

1980-11-21

336

Use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) and Shredded Waste Polystyrene (SWAP) Beads for Control of Mosquitoes  

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Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases to human. There are several measures for control of larvae. As part of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) program, the utility of floating layers of polystyrene beads (EPS) is a po­ten­tial alternative in habitats of mosquito larva. EPS beads prevent oviposition of mosquito as well as killing the im­ma­ture stages by forming a tick layer on the water surface.  They are cheap, environmentally safe and do not need fre­quent application and remain on the surface of water for long time. The objective of the current study was to asses the effectiveness of two types of polystyrene beads of (EPS) and (SWAP) for control of mosquito larvae under labo­ra­tory conditions."nMethods: Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were used for experimental purposes. In each tray 250 lar­vae of late 3rd and early 4th instars were introduced. The experiment was conducted on 4 replicates for An. ste­phensi, Cu. quinquefasciatus and combination of both. Emerging of adult mosquitoes were calculated every day until the end of experiments."nResults: Mortality rate and Inhibition of Emerge (IE) for Cu. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and combination of both spe­cies was 97.8%, 100% and 99.07%, respectively using EPS. In average, EPS was able to kill 98.9% of lar­vae. The fig­ures with SWAP were 63%, 91.05% and 72.65%, respectively. The average mortality for mosquitoes was 75.57%"nConclusion: EPS and SWAP beads can be very effective and practical for elimination of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefas­ciatus under the laboratory conditions.

A Soltani; H Vatandoost; H Jabbari; AR Mesdaghinia; AH Mahvi; M Younesian; AA Hanafi-Bojd; S Bozorgzadeh; MR Abai; A Pakari; H Shabkhiz

2008-01-01

337

Diversidad larval de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en contenedores artificiales procedentes de una comunidad urbana de San José, Costa Rica/ LARVAL DIVERSITY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN ARTIFICIAL CONTAINERS FROM AN URBAN COMMUNITY OF SAN JOSÉ, COSTA RICA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó una encuesta larval por mosquitos urbanos en contenedores artificiales intra y peridomiciliares en la comunidad "La Carpio", San José, Costa Rica. "La Carpio" es una comunidad que sufrió un brote de dengue en los últimos meses de la estación lluviosa de 2002. En 2003, fueron visitadas 369 viviendas durante la estación seca y 582 en la lluviosa, para identificar los potenciales sitios de multiplicación de mosquitos. 1.160 contenedores fueron identificados (more) y 152 de ellos (13,0%) estuvieron positivos por larvas de al menos una especie de mosquitos. La presencia de larvas de dos especies de mosquitos en un mismo contenedor fue observada en 9 contenedores (0,78%). Con el fin de estimar la diversidad larval de mosquitos, se calculó un índice de infestación por especie para cada tipo de contenedor. Cinco especies de larvas de mosquito fueron identificadas: Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, Cx. coronator y Limatus durhamii. Ae. aegypti fue la especie que se encontró con mayor frecuencia y fue la que mostró los índices de diversidad más altos para los contenedores identificados (p Abstract in english A larval survey of mosquitoes was performed in artificial containers from indoor and outdoor enviroments in the neighborhood "La Carpio", San José, Costa Rica. "La Carpio" is a community that suffered a dengue outbreak during the last months of the rainy season in 2002. During 2003, 582 and 369 houses were visited in the dry and rainy season, respectively, and the potencial mosquito breeding sites were searched for larvae. Of 1160 water containers identified, 152 (13.0%) (more) were positive for at least one species of mosquito larvae and two mosquito species were found in 9 (0.78%) of the containers. In order to estimate the mosquito diversity, an infestation index by species (Ii) was calculated for each kind of container. Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, Cx. coronator, and Limatus durhamii were identified. Ae. aegypti was the most common species, and it showed the highest infestation index for all the containers (p

CALDERÓN-ARGUEDAS, OLGER; TROYO, ADRIANA; SOLANO, MAYRA E

2004-07-01

338

Diversidad larval de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en contenedores artificiales procedentes de una comunidad urbana de San José, Costa Rica LARVAL DIVERSITY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN ARTIFICIAL CONTAINERS FROM AN URBAN COMMUNITY OF SAN JOSÉ, COSTA RICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta larval por mosquitos urbanos en contenedores artificiales intra y peridomiciliares en la comunidad "La Carpio", San José, Costa Rica. "La Carpio" es una comunidad que sufrió un brote de dengue en los últimos meses de la estación lluviosa de 2002. En 2003, fueron visitadas 369 viviendas durante la estación seca y 582 en la lluviosa, para identificar los potenciales sitios de multiplicación de mosquitos. 1.160 contenedores fueron identificados y 152 de ellos (13,0%) estuvieron positivos por larvas de al menos una especie de mosquitos. La presencia de larvas de dos especies de mosquitos en un mismo contenedor fue observada en 9 contenedores (0,78%). Con el fin de estimar la diversidad larval de mosquitos, se calculó un índice de infestación por especie para cada tipo de contenedor. Cinco especies de larvas de mosquito fueron identificadas: Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, Cx. coronator y Limatus durhamii. Ae. aegypti fue la especie que se encontró con mayor frecuencia y fue la que mostró los índices de diversidad más altos para los contenedores identificados (p A larval survey of mosquitoes was performed in artificial containers from indoor and outdoor enviroments in the neighborhood "La Carpio", San José, Costa Rica. "La Carpio" is a community that suffered a dengue outbreak during the last months of the rainy season in 2002. During 2003, 582 and 369 houses were visited in the dry and rainy season, respectively, and the potencial mosquito breeding sites were searched for larvae. Of 1160 water containers identified, 152 (13.0%) were positive for at least one species of mosquito larvae and two mosquito species were found in 9 (0.78%) of the containers. In order to estimate the mosquito diversity, an infestation index by species (Ii) was calculated for each kind of container. Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, Cx. coronator, and Limatus durhamii were identified. Ae. aegypti was the most common species, and it showed the highest infestation index for all the containers (p < 0.05). In addition to Ae. aegypti, the presence of other species of Culicidae could mask the success of campaigns for prevention of dengue. This is also an important factor to consider in order to prevent the ocurrence of emerging vector borne diseases such as West Nile Virus Encephalitis.

OLGER CALDERÓN-ARGUEDAS; ADRIANA TROYO; MAYRA E SOLANO

2004-01-01

339

Changes in the breeding habits and season of the Cave Swallow (Petrochelidon fulva) in Puerto Rico  

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Full Text Available The common name of the Cave Swallow (Petrochelidon fulva) originated from its behavior to nest at the entrance of caves and sinkholes where it constructs mud nests. The bird is one of the two species of swallows that breeds in Puerto Rico. The usual habitat of these swallows used to be coastal habitats such as mangroves and open fields but they have colonized urban habitats such as balconies, cement bridges and other human made structures. It seems that a change has taken place in the breeding season of the Cave Swallow. The changes in the breeding season have been documented in both colonies, the colonies living in urban settlements and the colonies nesting at the entrance of caves. The onset of the breeding season of the Cave Swallow, at least in urban habitats, is triggered by rain. The causes of the change in the breeding season seems to be associated to changes in temperature and on the raining patterns which in turns seems to affect the abundance of prey consumed by the swallows. Professor Pérez suggests that the Cave Swallow could be used as a good predictor of climatic change. Keywords: Cave Swallow, Petrochelidon fulva, change in breeding season, climatic change.

Raúl A. Pérez-Rivera

2009-01-01

340

Comparison of mosquito densoviruses: two clades of viruses isolated from indigenous mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analyzed the phylogenetic tree of densoviruses isolated from indigenous mosquitoes and mosquito cell lines. Our findings suggest two distinct clades of densovirus. The viruses in the first clade were isolated from an indigenous mosquito which had the Aedes aegypti densovirus (AaeDNV) as a representative virus. The other clade of viruses was isolated from mosquito indigenous cell line which had the Aedes albopictus densovirus (AalDNV) as the representative virus. The origin of the two clades of DNVs is unclear but the phylogenetic trees were significantly different from each other. The two major densoviruses, AaeDNV and AalDNV, that infect mosquitoes that are known to carry viruses responsible for dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. Understanding the evolution of these two clades of densoviruses is important for studying the distribution of these viruses in mosquito cell lines and the information gained may be applied to understanding other viruses in various mosquito cell lines.

Sangdee K; Pattanakitsakul SN

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Biology of Culex sitiens, a predominant mosquito in Phang Nga, Thailand after a tsunami.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A tsunami affected area in Phang Nga province, Thailand was explored randomly as some freshwater sites had changed into brackish-water sites. A survey of four areas found Culex sitiens to be the most dominant mosquito species.This mosquito prefers to breed in putrefied water with garbage and it was found in almost every stagnant, brackish-water site in full sunlight. The larval density was more than 300 larvae/dip/250 ml water. Its biting cycle, determined by human landing catch, was nocturnal, with a single peak at 19.00-20.00 hr. The maximum rate was 108 mosquitoes per person/hour. The biology of the mosquito was studied by colonization in natural water under laboratory conditions. The mean number of eggs per raft was 158.1 ± 31.7, hatchability 96.6 ± 4.1%, development from 1st instar larvae to adult was 8.8-11.7 days, and longevity of adult males was 7.3-41.3 days and females 11.0-52.7 days. The ratio of adult males to adult females was 1:1.1 ± 0.2.

Prummongkol S; Panasoponkul C; Apiwathnasorn C; Lek-Uthai U

2012-01-01

342

Microsporidian isolates from mosquitoes of Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...

343

Predicting cerulean warbler habitat use in the Cumberland Mountains of Tennessee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We developed a habitat model to predict cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea) habitat availability in the Cumberland Mountains of eastern Tennessee. We used 7 remotely sensed vegetation and topographic landform explanatory variables and known locations of territorial male cerulean warblers mapped in 2003 as the response variable to develop a Mahalanobis distance statistic model of potential habitat. We evaluated the accuracy of the model based on field surveys for ceruleans during the 2004 breeding season. The model performed well with an 80% correct classification of cerulean presence based on the validation data, although prediction of absence was only 54% correct. We extrapolated from potential habitat to cerulean abundance based on density estimates from territory mapping on 8 20-ha plots in 2005. Over the 200,000-ha study area, we estimated there were 80,584 ha of potential habitat, capable of supporting about 36,500 breeding pairs. We applied the model to the 21,609-ha state-owned Royal Blue Wildlife Management Area to evaluate the potential effects of coal surface minin