WorldWideScience
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Water quality and breeding habitats of anopheline mosquito in northwestern Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria transmission is dependent upon many hydrology-driven ecological factors that directly affect the vectorial competence, including the presence of suitable habitats for the development of anopheline larvae. Larval habitats were identified and characterized at three malaria endemic villages (Ban Khun Huay, Ban Pa Dae, and Ban Tham Seau) in Mae Sot district, Tak Province, in northwestern Thailand between July 2002 and June 2003. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to provide precise locational data for the spatial distribution of anopheline mosquito larvae and their habitats. Ten habitat categories were identified. Eighteen adult Anopheles species were identified from larvae in all the surveyed habitats. An. minimus was the most common species throughout the year. The relationship between eight abiotic variables (temperature, hardness, carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, silica and pH) and the abundance of four major species of malaria vectors (An. (Cel.) dirus, An. (Cel.) minimus, An. (Cel.) maculatus, and An. (Cel.) sawadwongporni), and six species of non-vectors (An. (Cel.) kochi, An. (Cel.) jamesii, An. (Ano.) peditaeniatus, An. (Ano.) barbirostris, An. (Ano.) campestris, and An (Cel.) vagus) larvae was investigated. The results from the multiple regression models suggest that hardness, water temperature and carbon dioxide are the best predictor variables associated with the abundance of An. minimus larvae (p < 0.001); water pH for An. dirus larvae (p < 0.001); temperature and pH for An. kochi larvae (p < 0.01); temperature and silica concentration for An. jamesii larvae (p < 0.001); dissolved oxygen and silica concentration for An. campestris larvae (p < 0.001); and pH and silica concentration for An. vagus larvae (p < 0.001). We could not identify key environmental variables for An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, An. peditaeniatus, and An. barbirostris. PMID:15906641

Kengluecha, Ampornpan; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Tiensuwan, Montip; Jones, James W; Sithiprasasna, Ratana

2005-01-01

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Use of GIS-based spatial modeling approach to characterize the spatial patterns of malaria mosquito vector breeding habitats in northwestern Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

We sampled 291 bodies of water for Anopheles larvae around three malaria-endemic villages of Ban Khun Huay, Ban Pa Dae, and Ban Tham Seau, Mae Sot district, Tak Province, Thailand during August 2001-December 2002 and collected 4,387 larvae from 12 categories of breeding habitat types. We modeled surface slope and wetness indices to identify the extent and spatial pattern of potential mosquito breeding habitats by digitizing base topographical maps of the study site and overlaying them with coordinates for each larval habitat. Topographical contours and streamlines were incorporated into the Geographical Information System (GIS). We used Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments to locate accurately each field observed breeding habitat, and produced a 30-m spatial resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The slope (of less than 12 degrees) and wetness (more than 8 units) derived from spatial modeling were positively associated with the abundance of major malaria vectors An. dirus, An. maculatus, An. minimus, and An. sawadwongporni. These associations permit real-time monitoring and possibly forecasting of the distributions of these four species, enabling public health agencies to institute control measures before the mosquitos emerge as adults and transmit disease. PMID:15115121

Sithiprasasna, Ratana; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Liu, Gang-Jun; Jones, James W; Singhasivanon, Pratap

2003-09-01

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Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes of the Genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Guilan Province, Iran  

OpenAIRE

An investigation was carried out during April to December 2000 to study mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Prov¬ince of northern Iran. The mosquito larvae were collected by dipping method and larval habitat characteristics recorded ac¬cording to hydro-ecological features. In total, 3937 larvae of the genus Culex from 92 larval breeding sites were collected. Six spe¬cies of the genus Culex; Cx. mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. hortensis, and Cx. terri¬tans...

Azari-hamidian, S.

2007-01-01

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Larval habitats and species composition of mosquitoes in Darjeeling Himalayas, India  

OpenAIRE

Background & objectives: A preliminary survey of larval mosquito habitats and temporal variationin mosquito diversity in the hill town of Darjeeling, India was made during 2003, for a qualitativeand quantitative assessment of mosquito distribution.Methods: The possible larval habitats of mosquitoes were surveyed and the species diversity in thesites positive for mosquito larvae was noted. Bi-weekly sampling from a particular habitat wascarried out to reveal the temporal variation in mosquito ...

Gautam Aditya, B.

2006-01-01

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Control of mosquito breeding through Gambusia affinis in rice fields.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on mosquito breeding and its control through Gambusia affinis in nursery and paddy fields after transplantation of seedlings were carried out during June to October 1991 in about 10 ha rice field area. Six anopheline species, viz. An. culicifacies, An. annularis, An. subpictus, An. nigerrimus, An. barbirostris and An. aconitus, and four culicine species, viz. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Aedes sp. could be identified. These were found breeding in rice fields with fluctuations in their percentage composition, exhibiting species succession in different months. G. affinis survived well in submerged rice fields and provided 87.8% mosquito larval control. In rice fields which exhibited intermittent drying up leading to formation of pools, puddles etc., moderate larval control was achieved. However, in nursery rice fields, this method was not applicable. Mosquito larval control through larvivorous fish in rice fields can be achieved but the method has limitations. PMID:8405595

Prasad, H; Prasad, R N; Haq, S

1993-06-01

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Studies on mosquitoes breeding in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria, northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: Rainwater often collects in depressions on rocks to form pools that are ideal breeding sites of mosquito vectors of diseases. Knowledge on the existence of disease vectors in these remote and relatively inaccessible locations could improve epidemiologic understanding and control capabilities. This study identifies mosquito species, their relative abundance and physicochemical characteristics of breeding microhabitats in rock pools on four inselbergs in northern Nigeria.Methods: Soup ladle dipper was used to obtain representative samples of larval mosquitoes breeding in 141 rock pools on four inselbergs. Physicochemical parameters (depth, electrical conductivity, pH, surface area, temperature and total dissolved solids of the pools were determined. Larvae were preserved in 70% alcohol and identified microscopically to species using taxonomic keys. Statistical correlation analysis and ANOVA were used to test the associations between physicochemical parameters and mosquito abundance, and for differences amongst inselbergs. Results: Of 2991 larvae, five species of mosquito distributed in three genera (Anopheles, Aedes and Culex including Ae. vittatus (92.88%, An. ardensis (0.13%, An. distinctus (1.67%, An. wilsoni (0.13% and Cx. ingrami (5.18% bred in the rock pools, Up to five species occurred per pool in various conspecific and heterogeneric combinations. Except for Ae. vittatus, the physicochemical parameters of the pools correlate significantly with species abundance. Conclusion: Ae. vittatus, a potential vector of yellow fever in Nigeria breeds profusely in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria. For comprehensive vector implication and control, rock pools should be amongst the habitats of focus in yellow fever epidemiology.

David A. Adebote

2008-02-01

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Physico-chemical characteristics of the mosquito breeding water in two urban areas of Cairo Governorate, Egypt  

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Full Text Available Certain physico-chemical characteristics of mosquito breeding habitats [temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO and nitrite] were examined relative to the distribution of mosquito larval species in two urban areas of Cairo Governorate namely El- Muqattam (M and Abu-Seir (A. Mean values and ranges of such characteristics for the reported mosquito species (Culex pipiens, Cx. perexiguus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Cx. pusillus and Culiseta longiareolata were reported. In conclusion, based on the significant correlations of the different characteristics with the abundance of the two common larval species (Culex pipiens and Cx. perexiguus, salinity and DO may be considered the predictor variables associated with the immature abundance. Considering altogether mosquitoes, there is an increasing presence from planned safe (M to unplanned unsafe (A habitats mainly due to turbidity and nitrite.

M.A. Kenawy

2013-12-01

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British container breeding mosquitoes: the impact of urbanisation and climate change on community composition and phenology  

OpenAIRE

The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abun...

Townroe, Susannah; Callaghan, Amanda

2014-01-01

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Studies on entomological monitoring: mosquito species frequency in riverine habitats of the Igarapava Dam, Southern Region, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diversity of mosquito species was evaluated in different habitats before and after the Igarapava reservoir flooding in the Grande River, Southern Cerrado of Brazil. We aimed at verifying changes in these mosquito populations in consequence of the lake formation. Four habitats were selected as sampling stations: peridomiciliary habitat, pasture, "veredas" and gallery forest patch. Bimonthly collections were made with the Shannon trap and human bait, including diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal period of mosquito activity. The Shannon Index results from the potential vectors were compared using Student t-test. Aedes scapularis, Anopheles darlingi and An. albitarsis senso latu seasonal abundance were described with moving average and compared using chi2 test. There were changes in the mosquito frequency in the habitats, except for the "veredas" that was 13 km away from the catchment area. The altering in mosquito species seasonal abundance suggests breeding places expansion. Diversity indexes can be used to monitor changes in mosquito vector population in environments where abrupt disturbance can alter disease transmission cycles. PMID:15361975

Tubaki, Rosa Maria; Menezes, Regiane Maria Tironi de; Cardoso, Rubens Pinto; Bergo, Eduardo Sterlino

2004-01-01

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A survey of mosquitoes breeding in used tires in Spain for the detection of imported potential vector species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The used tire trade has facilitated the introduction, spread, and establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and other mosquito species in several countries of America, Africa, Oceania, and Europe. A strategy for detecting these imported mosquito vectors was developed in Spain during 2003-2004 by EVITAR (multidisciplinary network for the study of viruses transmitted by arthropods and rodents). A survey in 45 locations found no invasive species. Eight autochthonous species of mosquitoes were detected in used tires, including Culex pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. modestus, Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. annulata, and Aedes caspius. Dominant species were Cx. pipiens and Cs. longiareolata. Aedes caspius was found in only once, near its natural breeding habitat. Considering the recent discovery of an established population of Ae. albopictus in Catalonia, the increasing commerce of used tires in Spain for recycling, storage, and recapping might greatly contribute to the rapid spread of this species across the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:17633420

Roiz, D; Eritja, R; Escosa, R; Lucientes, J; Marquès, E; Melero-Alcíbar, R; Ruiz, S; Molina, R

2007-06-01

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Studies on entomological monitoring: mosquito species frequency in riverine habitats of the Igarapava Dam, Southern Region, Brazil / Estudos em monitoramento entomológico: mudanças na freqüência de mosquitos em habitats ripários da usina hidroelétrica de Igarapava, Sudeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a diversidade de mosquitos em diferentes habitats antes e depois da formação do reservatório de Igarapava no Rio Grande, Cerrado do Sudeste do Brasil, com objetivo de verificar alteração nessas populações de mosquitos. Quatro habitats foram selecionados como sítios de coleta: a) peridomic [...] ílio rural, b) pastagem, c) veredas e d) mata ciliar. Realizaram-se coletas bimestrais com isca humana e armadilha de Shannon, incluindo períodos de atividade culicídea diurna, crepuscular vespertina e noturna. Os resultados do Índice de Shannon para os potenciais vetores nos diferentes habitats foram comparados pelo teste t de Student. As abundâncias sazonais de Aedes scapularis, Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles albitarsis s.l., foram descritas com a média móvel e comparadas com o teste chi2. Houve alteração nas freqüências dos mosquitos nos habitats, com exceção das veredas, que estavam afastadas 13 km da área de influência do reservatório. A modificação nas abundâncias sazonais dos potenciais vetores sugere o incremento de criadouros após a formação do reservatório. Índices de diversidade são ferramentas úteis para monitorar populações de mosquitos vetores em ambientes cujas mudanças drásticas podem alterar ciclos de transmissão de doenças transmitidas por vetores. Abstract in english Diversity of mosquito species was evaluated in different habitats before and after the Igarapava reservoir flooding in the Grande River, Southern Cerrado of Brazil. We aimed at verifying changes in these mosquito populations in consequence of the lake formation. Four habitats were selected as sampli [...] ng stations: peridomiciliary habitat, pasture, "veredas" and gallery forest patch. Bimonthly collections were made with the Shannon trap and human bait, including diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal period of mosquito activity. The Shannon Index results from the potential vectors were compared using Student t-test. Aedes scapularis, Anopheles darlingi and An. albitarsis senso latu seasonal abundance were described with moving average and compared using chi2 test. There were changes in the mosquito frequency in the habitats, except for the "veredas" that was 13 km away from the catchment area. The altering in mosquito species seasonal abundance suggests breeding places expansion. Diversity indexes can be used to monitor changes in mosquito vector population in environments where abrupt disturbance can alter disease transmission cycles.

Rosa Maria, Tubaki; Regiane Maria Tironi de, Menezes; Rubens Pinto, Cardoso Junior; Eduardo Sterlino, Bergo.

2004-08-01

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Studies on entomological monitoring: mosquito species frequency in riverine habitats of the Igarapava Dam, Southern Region, Brazil Estudos em monitoramento entomológico: mudanças na freqüência de mosquitos em habitats ripários da usina hidroelétrica de Igarapava, Sudeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available Diversity of mosquito species was evaluated in different habitats before and after the Igarapava reservoir flooding in the Grande River, Southern Cerrado of Brazil. We aimed at verifying changes in these mosquito populations in consequence of the lake formation. Four habitats were selected as sampling stations: peridomiciliary habitat, pasture, "veredas" and gallery forest patch. Bimonthly collections were made with the Shannon trap and human bait, including diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal period of mosquito activity. The Shannon Index results from the potential vectors were compared using Student t-test. Aedes scapularis, Anopheles darlingi and An. albitarsis senso latu seasonal abundance were described with moving average and compared using chi2 test. There were changes in the mosquito frequency in the habitats, except for the "veredas" that was 13 km away from the catchment area. The altering in mosquito species seasonal abundance suggests breeding places expansion. Diversity indexes can be used to monitor changes in mosquito vector population in environments where abrupt disturbance can alter disease transmission cycles.Avaliou-se a diversidade de mosquitos em diferentes habitats antes e depois da formação do reservatório de Igarapava no Rio Grande, Cerrado do Sudeste do Brasil, com objetivo de verificar alteração nessas populações de mosquitos. Quatro habitats foram selecionados como sítios de coleta: a peridomicílio rural, b pastagem, c veredas e d mata ciliar. Realizaram-se coletas bimestrais com isca humana e armadilha de Shannon, incluindo períodos de atividade culicídea diurna, crepuscular vespertina e noturna. Os resultados do Índice de Shannon para os potenciais vetores nos diferentes habitats foram comparados pelo teste t de Student. As abundâncias sazonais de Aedes scapularis, Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles albitarsis s.l., foram descritas com a média móvel e comparadas com o teste chi2. Houve alteração nas freqüências dos mosquitos nos habitats, com exceção das veredas, que estavam afastadas 13 km da área de influência do reservatório. A modificação nas abundâncias sazonais dos potenciais vetores sugere o incremento de criadouros após a formação do reservatório. Índices de diversidade são ferramentas úteis para monitorar populações de mosquitos vetores em ambientes cujas mudanças drásticas podem alterar ciclos de transmissão de doenças transmitidas por vetores.

Rosa Maria Tubaki

2004-08-01

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Fatty acids in anopheline mosquito larvae and their habitats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Larvae of the three important Central American malaria vectors, Anopheles albimanus, An. vestitipennis, and An. darlingi, are found in distinctly different habitats broadly defined by hydrology and aquatic vegetation, but little is known about the actual food quality and quantity of these habitats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are of special interest, because mosquitoes require 20:5?3 (EPA), 20:4?6 (ARA), and 22:6?3 (DHA) and without an adequate supply of these PUFAs they are not able to complete their life cycle. We collected samples of larvae and their corresponding habitats and analyzed their fatty acid (FA) composition to reveal if there are any species-specific and habitat-specific differences in FA composition, and if habitat FA differences can be linked to differences in the mosquito FA pattern and, ultimately, mosquito performance. We also assessed how FA of wild larvae compare to the laboratory-reared larvae. Habitats were generally low in essential PUFAs and there were no significant differences among the FA composition of habitat samples. There were significant differences in FA composition of larvae. An. darlingi contained significantly higher amounts of FA, specifically a higher content of ?-6 PUFA, represented mainly by the linoleic acid (18:2?-6). Large differences were found between field-collected and laboratory-reared An. vestitipennis larvae, especially in the content of PUFAs. The laboratory-reared larvae contained significantly more of the total FA, ?3 PUFA, and MUFA. The laboratory-reared larvae contained three to five times more essential PUFAs, EPA, and DHA. However, there were no differences in the total dry weight of the 4(th) instar larvae between the wild vs laboratory-reared larvae. Total FA in both larvae and habitats of An. albimanus and An. darlingi were positively correlated with the concentration of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC, PON) in their respective habitats, but no such correlation was found for An. vestitipennis. PUFA are a good indicator of nutritional quality, although factors controlling the success of anopheline development from larval habitats are likely to be more complex and would include the presence of predators, pathogens, and toxins as interacting factors. PMID:23181863

Komínková, Dana; Rejmánková, Eliška; Grieco, John; Achee, Nicole

2012-12-01

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Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

Ahmad Rohani

2011-12-01

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Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes of the Genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae in Guilan Province, Iran  

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Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during April to December 2000 to study mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Prov¬ince of northern Iran. The mosquito larvae were collected by dipping method and larval habitat characteristics recorded ac¬cording to hydro-ecological features. In total, 3937 larvae of the genus Culex from 92 larval breeding sites were collected. Six spe¬cies of the genus Culex; Cx. mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. hortensis, and Cx. terri¬tans were identified in the province and respectively comprised 10.3%, 47.2%, 2.2%, 31%, 6.5%, and 2.8% of the samples. Most of the larvae were collected from the natural habitats (75.6% such as river edges (6.5%, riverbed pools (28.2%, rain pools (47.8%, stream edges (9.4%, grasslands (1.9%, marshes (2.8%, and hoof-prints (3.4% and others from artificial habitats (24.4% including rice fields (32.1%, irrigation channels (7.1%, wells (16.4%, discarded concrete tubes (33.1%, dis¬carded tires (11.0%, and agricultural water-storage pools (0.3%. The ecology of Cx. pipiens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, which are the most prevalent species and potentially involved in the transmission of many pathogens to humans and domes¬ticated animals, must be extensively studied.

S Azari-Hamidian

2007-05-01

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Ion regulatory patterns of mosquito larvae collected from breeding sites in the Amazon rain forest.  

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We examined the ion composition of mosquito breeding sites located in the Amazon rain forest and the ion regulatory patterns of larvae from these habitats. We found larvae of Toxorhynchites haemorroidalis, Limatus durhamii, Culex (Carrollia) bonnei, and Culex (Culex) sp. residing in fallen palm bracts, leaves, and tree holes that were filled with water. These breeding sites had micromolar levels of Na(+) (1.6-99 micromol L(-1)), but K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations were higher and varied over a large range (231-17,615 micromol L(-1) K(+); 355-2,700 micromol L(-1) Cl(-)). Despite the variability in environmental ion levels and ratios, all four species maintain high hemolymph NaCl levels (80-120 mmol L(-1) Na(+); 60-80 mmol L(-1) Cl(-)). However, the species differed in the means by which they maintain hemolymph ion balance, as indicated by the range of unidirectional Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake rates. Toxorhynchites haemorroidalis had extremely low rates of Na(+) uptake and undetectable Cl(-) uptake, whereas L. durhamii had high rates of uptake for both ions. This variability in rates of uptake may reflect species differences in rates of diffusive ion loss (i.e., permeability). We observed the same curious pattern of Na(+) inhibition and Cl(-) stimulation by low-pH exposure in all four species of mosquitoes, as has been documented in other mosquitoes and aquatic insects. Kinetic analyses of Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake in C. bonnei larvae revealed an unusual pattern of Na(+) uptake that increases linearly (nonsaturable) to extremely high rates, while Cl(-) uptake is a low-affinity, low-capacity system. This pattern contrasts with L. durhamii and Culex (Culex) sp. larvae, which had large increases in both Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake when external NaCl levels were increased. Our results suggest that although these rain forest mosquito larvae are residing in habitats with similar low Na(+), high Cl(-) composition and maintain similar hemolymph NaCl levels, the underlying mechanisms of ion regulation differ among the species. PMID:12177825

Patrick, Marjorie L; Ferreira, Ruth L; Gonzalez, Richard J; Wood, Chris M; Wilson, Rod W; Bradley, Timothy J; Val, Adalberto L

2002-01-01

17

Studies on mosquitoes breeding in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria, northern Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Background & objectives: Rainwater often collects in depressions on rocks to form pools that are ideal breeding sites of mosquito vectors of diseases. Knowledge on the existence of disease vectors in these remote and relatively inaccessible locations could improve epidemiologic understanding and control capabilities. This study identifies mosquito species, their relative abundance and physicochemical characteristics of breeding microhabitats in rock pools on four inselbergs in northern Nigeri...

Adebote, David A.; Oniye, Sonnie J.; Muhammed, Yunus A.

2008-01-01

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Communications: Mosquito Habitats, Land Use, and Malaria Risk in Belize from Satellite Imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite imagery of northern Belize is used to examine the distribution of land use and breeding habitats of the malaria vector the Anopheles mosquito. A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats, and one, Eleocharis spp. marsh, is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of Typha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. Thus, land use induced expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat is potentially increasing malaria risk in Belize, and in other regions where Anopheles vestitipennis is a major malaria vector.

Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

2004-01-01

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Characterizing the relationship between Asian tiger mosquito abundance and habitat in urban New Jersey  

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Since its introduction to North America in 1987, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has spread rapidly. Due to its unique ecology and preference for container breeding sites, Ae. albopictus commonly inhabits urban/suburban areas and is often in close contact with humans. An aggressive pest, this mosquito species is a vector of multiple arboviruses. In order for mosquito control efforts to remain effective, control of this important vector must be guided by spatially explicit habitat models that aid in predicting mosquito outbreaks. Using linear regression, I determined the relationship between adult Ae. albopictus abundance and climate, census, and land use factors in nine urban/suburban study sites in central New Jersey. Systematically collected adult counts (females and males) from July to October 2008, served as estimates of abundance. Fine-scale land use/land cover data were obtained from object-oriented classifications of 2007 CIR orthophotos in Definiens eCognition. Mosquito abundance data were tested for spatial autocorrelation via Moran's I, semivariograms, and hotspot analysis in order to reveal consistent patterns in abundance. Spatial pattern analysis produced little evidence of consistent spatial autocorrelation, though several sites exhibited recurring hotspots, especially in areas near residential housing and vegetation. Stepwise multiple regression was able to explain 20-25 percent of variation in Ae. albopictus abundance at the 'backyard' or cell level and 72-78 percent of variation in abundance at the 'neighborhood' or study site level. Meteorological variables (temperature on the trap date and precipitation), census variables (vacant housing units and population density), and more detailed land use/land cover classes (deciduous woody vegetation, rights-of-way and vacant lots) were frequently selected in all eight models, though many other independent variables were included in the individual models. The results of the spatial statistics suggest that clustering may occur at a broader extent, while the superior predictive ability of the site level models over the finer grain cell level models supports this conclusion. Future work should focus on validating these models with 2009 field data and testing whether finer grain weather and census data enhance the models' predictive ability. Given the major differences between individual county models, future studies should further explore variations in Ae. albopictus habitat preferences in different geographic locations.

Ferwerda, Carolin

2009-12-01

20

Ross River Virus Risk Associated with Dispersal of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) camptorhynchus (Thomson) from Breeding Habitat into Surrounding Residential Areas: Muddy Lakes, Western Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid population growth in Western Australia has resulted in increased development of land for residential housing, and new developments are often proposed close to water because of intrinsic aesthetic values. However, this placement may place future residents at risk of mosquito-borne disease, of which Ross River virus (RRV) disease is the most common in Australia. Mosquito dispersal data were combined with a spatial analysis of human RRV cases to show that mosquitoes dispersed readily from larval habitat into surrounding low- and high-density residential areas and that residents living within 2 km of mosquito breeding habitat had a significantly higher rate of RRV disease. This finding highlights the importance of planning authorities in state and local governments to consider the implications of mosquito-borne disease risks when assessing residential development applications. PMID:24799370

Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J.; Dent, Colin; Webster, Carla; Lindsay, Michael D. A.

2014-01-01

21

Larval habitats and species composition of mosquitoes in Darjeeling Himalayas, India  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: A preliminary survey of larval mosquito habitats and temporal variationin mosquito diversity in the hill town of Darjeeling, India was made during 2003, for a qualitativeand quantitative assessment of mosquito distribution.Methods: The possible larval habitats of mosquitoes were surveyed and the species diversity in thesites positive for mosquito larvae was noted. Bi-weekly sampling from a particular habitat wascarried out to reveal the temporal variation in mosquito species.Results: A good number of lentic aquatic habitats were found to be hosting mosquito immatures,though difference in the physical and biological features of these habitats was prominent. Altogether,immatures of six mosquito species, belonging to four genera — Aedes, Armigeres, Culex andToxorhynchites were noted with significant difference in temporal variation in their relative andabsolute numbers. A positive correlation (r = + 0.707 was found between population of the preymosquito immatures and the population of immatures of Tx. splendens. The species diversity index(H’ for the mosquitoes remained between 0.87 and 1.53. The evenness components ranged between54.03 and 95.03% and differed significantly.Interpretation & conclusion: In the present study, the aquatic bodies could be categorised into sixtypes depending on the size and structural complexity that may account for the observed variation inthe species composition of the larval habitats. In addition to this, other factors like temperature,rainfall and other related climatic attributes may be responsible for the observed species variation,which needs to be confirmed through further studies.

Gautam Aditya,b, Mihir K. Pramanik & Goutam K. Saha

2006-03-01

22

Effect of leaf type and pesticide exposure on abundance of bacterial taxa in mosquito larval habitats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poorly understood. We used indoor aquatic microcosms to determine the abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria in leaf litters from seven plant species and their responses to low concentrations of four pesticides with different modes of action on the target organisms; permethrin, malathion, atrazine and glyphosate. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species support different quantities of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and that exposure to pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations alters bacterial abundance and community structure in mosquito larval habitats. We found support for both hypotheses suggesting that leaf litter identity and chemical contamination may alter the quality and quantity of mosquito food base (microbial communities) in larval habitats. The effect of pesticides on microbial communities varied significantly among leaf types, suggesting that the impact of pesticides on natural microbial communities may be highly complex and difficult to predict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential for detritus composition within mosquito larval habitats and exposure to pesticides to influence the quality of mosquito larval habitats. PMID:23940789

Muturi, Ephantus J; Orindi, Benedict O; Kim, Chang-Hyun

2013-01-01

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Habitat-related heterogeneity in breeding in a metapopulation of the Iberian lynx  

OpenAIRE

Identifying attributes associated with good breeding habitat is critical for understanding animal population dynamics. However, the association between environmental heterogeneity and breeding probability has been often overlooked in habitat analyses. We evaluated habitat quality in a metapopulation of the endangered Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus by analyzing spatiotemporal patterns in breeding records. Data summarizing successful production of litters after emergence from dens over four years...

Ferna?ndez, Ne?stor; Delibes, M.; Palomares, Francisco

2007-01-01

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Larval habitat segregation between the molecular forms of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae in a rice field area of Burkina Faso, West Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

In West Africa, lineage splitting between the M and S molecular forms of the major Afro-tropical malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae), is thought to be driven by ecological divergence, occurring mainly at the larval stage. Here, we present evidence for habitat segregation between the two molecular forms in and around irrigated rice fields located within the humid savannahs of western Burkina Faso. Longitudinal sampling of adult mosquitoes emerging from a range of breeding sites distributed along a transect extending from the heart of the rice field area into the surrounding savannah was conducted from June to November 2009. Analysis revealed that the two molecular forms and their sibling species Anopheles arabiensis are not randomly distributed in the area. A major ecological gradient was extracted in relation to the perimeter of the rice fields. The M form was associated with larger breeding sites mostly consisting of rice paddies, whereas the S form and An. arabiensis were found to depend upon temporary, rain-filled breeding sites. These results support hypotheses about larval habitat segregation and confirm the suggestion that the forms have different larval habitat requirements. Segregation appears to be clearly linked to anthropogenic permanent habitats and the community structure they support. PMID:21501199

Gimonneau, G; Pombi, M; Choisy, M; Morand, S; Dabiré, R K; Simard, F

2012-03-01

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Source reduction of mosquito larval habitats has unexpected consequences on malaria transmission  

OpenAIRE

Reduction of aquatic habitats through environmental management mitigates malaria transmission not only by reducing emergence of host-seeking mosquitoes, but also by increasing the amount of time required for vectors to locate oviposition sites. However, the consequence of source reduction on mosquito oviposition has largely been neglected in evaluations of environment-management programs. Here, by theoretically examining the relationship between the time spent for oviposition and the availabi...

Gu, Weidong; Regens, James L.; Beier, John C.; Novak, Robert J.

2006-01-01

26

Effect of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme with reference to biocontrol strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme, Kenya, to assess the impact of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding and identify indigenous biocontrol agents with potential for controlling mosquito breeding in the scheme. The study established a close relationship between the schedule of the farming practices (particularly the flooding phase) and mosquito breeding. Two groups of agents, entomopathogenic bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) and larvivorous fish, were identified. Laboratory evaluation of the agents produced encouraging results. The bacterial isolates showed broad-spectrum larvicidal potency against Anopheles, Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae and 2 of the fish species, Tilapia zilli and Oreochromis niloticus, demonstrated a strong predation for a mosquito larval diet. To facilitate their use in effective biocontrol strategies, the agents would require further evaluation under field conditions. PMID:8096871

Asimeng, E J; Mutinga, M J

1993-03-01

27

Studies on entomological monitoring: mosquito species frequency in riverine habitats of the Igarapava Dam, Southern Region, Brazil Estudos em monitoramento entomológico: mudanças na freqüência de mosquitos em habitats ripários da usina hidroelétrica de Igarapava, Sudeste do Brasil  

OpenAIRE

Diversity of mosquito species was evaluated in different habitats before and after the Igarapava reservoir flooding in the Grande River, Southern Cerrado of Brazil. We aimed at verifying changes in these mosquito populations in consequence of the lake formation. Four habitats were selected as sampling stations: peridomiciliary habitat, pasture, "veredas" and gallery forest patch. Bimonthly collections were made with the Shannon trap and human bait, including diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal...

Rosa Maria Tubaki; Regiane Maria Tironi de Menezes; Rubens Pinto Cardoso Junior; Eduardo Sterlino Bergo

2004-01-01

28

Heavy metals in mosquito larval habitats in urban Kisumu and Malindi, Kenya, and their impact  

OpenAIRE

Concentrations and distribution of cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc in mosquito larval habitats in urban Kisumu and Malindi, Kenya and their effect on the presence of Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles funestus larvae were investigated. Manganese and iron were the most prevalent heavy metals in water of larval habitats in urban Kisumu and Malindi, respectively. Iron was the most prevalent heavy metal in bottom sediments in larval ha...

Mireji, Paul O.; Keating, Joseph; Hassanali, Ahmed; Mbogo, Charles M.; Nyambaka, Hudson; Kahindi, Samuel; Beier, John C.

2008-01-01

29

Nestedness patterns of container-dwelling mosquitoes: Effects of larval habitat within variable terrestial matrices  

Science.gov (United States)

Distributions of mosquito larvae likely are a consequence of multiple factors, although two commonly studied factors (quality of the larval environment and the terrestrial matrix in which these habitats reside) have rarely and simultaneously been varied in the field to understand...

30

Epidemiological significance of the breeding of mosquitoes in discarded automobile tyres in Zaria, Northern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste automobile tyres are suitable receptacles of rainwater thus capable of supporting the breeding of vector mosquito species in close proximity to humans and altering disease transmission risks. Bionomics of mosquitoes in carelessly discarded tyres was explored to unravel species composition and abundance, physicochemical parameters of microhabitats and epidemiological significance. Of the 1179 larvae isolated from 90/212 (42.45%) positive tyres were ten species belonging to Aedes and Culex genera, including Aedes aegypti (46.56%), Culex albiventris (0.25%), Cx. cinereus (0.25%), Cx. grahami (0.68%), Cx. ingrami (1.44%), Cx. nebulosus (2.37%), Cx. mirificus (0.08%), Cx. pipiens pipiens (0.17%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (47.07%) and Cx. tigripes (1.10%). Abundance of the dominant Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), but was higher than those of the other eight species (P < 0.05). The microhabitat pH (range 5.20-9.50), total dissolved solids (range 15-802 ppm) and electrical conductivity (range 30-1603 microscm 1) were obtained in tyres. Abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus correlated positively and significantly with EC and TDS of breeding water (P < 0.05). The study revealed high potential of the transmission of filariasis and arboviruses including dengue and yellow fever by mosquitoes domiciled in waste tyres. PMID:23781631

Adebote, D A; Kogi, E; Oniye, S J; Akoje, F

2011-09-01

31

Detection of potential mosquito breeding sites based on community sourced geotagged images  

Science.gov (United States)

Various initiatives have been taken all over the world to involve the citizens in the collection and reporting of data to make better and informed data-driven decisions. Our work shows how the geotagged images collected through the general population can be used to combat Malaria and Dengue by identifying and visualizing localities that contain potential mosquito breeding sites. Our method first employs image quality assessment on the client side to reject the images with distortions like blur and artifacts. Each geotagged image received on the server is converted into a feature vector using the bag of visual words model. We train an SVM classifier on a histogram-based feature vector obtained after the vector quantization of SIFT features to discriminate images containing either a small stagnant water body like puddle, or open containers and tires, bushes etc. from those that contain flowing water, manicured lawns, tires attached to a vehicle etc. A geographical heat map is generated by assigning a specific location a probability value of it being a potential mosquito breeding ground of mosquito using feature level fusion or the max approach presented in the paper. The heat map thus generated can be used by concerned health authorities to take appropriate action and to promote civic awareness.

Agarwal, Ankit; Chaudhuri, Usashi; Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Seetharaman, Guna

2014-06-01

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Studies on Some Physicochemical Factors Affecting the Breeding and Abundance of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Phytotelmata on Delonix regia (Leguminosae: Caesalpinoidea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some physical (depth, electrical conductivity, height, surface area, temperature, volume and chemical (pH, total dissolved solids, concentrations of cadmium, calcium, chlorine, copper, magnesium, sodium, sulphate, zinc factors affecting the breeding and abundance of preimaginal mosquitoes in phytotelmata on the flamboyant tree, Delonix regia were investigated in Zaria, northern Nigeria. Forty-nine (43.36% of the 113 stands of the tree had phytotelmata while 28 (24.78% supported mosquito breeding. Of the 541 mosquito preimaginals isolated from phytotelmata were 5 (0.92% Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 126 (23.29% Aedes metallicus Edwards, 3 (0.55% Aedes simpsoni Theobald, 79 (14.60% Culex horridus Edwards, 272 (50.28% Culex nebulosus Theobald, 52 (9.61% Culex pipiens pipiens Linnaeus and 4 (0.74% Culex tigripes Grandpre. Conspecific, congeneric, heterospecific and heterogeneric breeding behavioural patterns were observed with one, two, three and four mosquito species per phytotelma on 13 (46.43%, 11 (39.29%, 2 (7.14% and 2 (7.14% trees, respectively. Aedes genus of mosquitoes bred in phytotelmata at significantly lower heights and smaller water volumes than Culex genus (p<0.05; but depths and surface areas of phytotelmata for both genera did not differ significantly (p>0.05. Abundance of each of the seven species of mosquito correlated positively and highly significantly with water volumes in the phytotelmata (p = 0.0016; r = 0.435. Culex horridus population correlates positively and highly significantly with the concentration of cadmium (p<0.0001; r = 0.661, surface areas (p<0.05; r = 0.283 and temperature (p<0.05; r = 0.323 of water in phytotelmata. Culex nebulosus abundance correlates positively and significantly with electrical conductivity (p<0.05; r = 0.302 and total dissolved solids (p<0.05; r = 0.302 in phytotelmata. Abundance of C. p. pipiens in phytotelmata correlates positively and significantly with water depth (p<0.05; r = 0.304. The study identified some ecological factors regulating mosquito productivity in a relatively unusual larval habitat of disease vectors.

D.A. Adebote

2008-01-01

33

Toxicity of vegetable tannins on crustacea associated with alpine mosquito breeding sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of tannins from the environmental vegetation naturally polluting Alpine mosquito breeding sites was experimentally investigated by studying the toxicity of tannic acid, a natural hydrolyzable tannin, on the nontarget crustacean fauna associated with culicine populations. Bioassays indicate that exposure to tannic acid at concentrations from 0.06 to 2.0 mM is more deleterious to Chydorus sphaericus, Diaptomus castor, and Eucypris fuscata, than to Daphnia pulex, Acanthocyclops robustus, and Eucypris virens. Histopathological investigations after treatment with tannic acid at concentrations from 0.125 to 0.500 mM reveal sequential degenerative patterns of the midgut epithelium depending on the taxon, duration of the treatment, and concentrations assayed. These differential toxic effects on Crustacea are compared with those previously observed in larval Diptera, in order to evaluate the plant tannins as potentially useful products in integrated mosquito management programs. PMID:11139187

Pautou, M P; Rey, D; David, J P; Meyran, J C

2000-11-01

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Habitat suitability for three species of Anopheles mosquitoes: larval growth and survival in reciprocal placement experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Larval habitats of the main malaria vectors in Belize are associated with three distinctly different aquatic environments: marshes with sparse macrophytes and cyanobacterial mats (Anopheles albimanus), tall dense macrophyte marshes (An. vestitipennis), and floating detritus assemblages within freshwater rivers (An. darlingi). We assessed species-specific habitat suitability based upon nutrient characteristics using larval survival rates (SR) and wing lengths (WL) from floating habitat enclosures. Anopheles albimanus showed a high SR (81%) in all three habitats, while An. vestitipennis had a similarly high SR in its own habitat (82%) and An. darlingi's habitat (81%). Anopheles darlingi only showed high SR (85%) in its own habitat. Both An. vestitipennis and An. darlingi showed very low SR in the An. albimanus habitat. There were no significant WL differences among field-caught, laboratory-reared, and experimental populations of An. vestitipennis and An. albimanus, with the exception of An. vestitipennis experimental populations and An. vestitipennis field populations placed in the An. albimanus habitat. Habitat quality indicators, particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and particulate organic nitrogen (PON), were consistently higher in An. vestitipennis habitats than in the habitats of the other two species. Correspondingly, An. vestitipennis adults were larger when measured both as dry mass and from WL. There were no differences in dry mass, lipids, or protein content among the same species reared at different locations. We compared SR and WL among mosquitoes from shaded and unshaded containers to test whether the high mortality rates for An. vestitipennis and An. darlingi in the An. albimanus habitat were due to intense sun exposure. There were no significant differences among developmental times, survivorship, or adult size for shaded versus sun-exposed populations. This indicates that other factors such as larval toxins, predator avoidance, interspecific species competition, etc. may be responsible for the higher mortality rates in those species not adapted to this particular habitat. PMID:18260505

Grieco, John P; Rejmánková, Eliska; Achee, Nicole L; Klein, Corinne N; Andre, Richard; Roberts, Donald

2007-12-01

35

The effect of West Nile virus perceptions and knowledge on protective behavior and mosquito breeding in residential yards in Upstate New York  

OpenAIRE

A knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire combined with entomological surveys of residential mosquito-breeding sites were conducted in two Upstate New York neighborhoods. We tested the hypothesis that “correct” West Nile virus (WNV) knowledge and perceptions correspond with the use of practices that prevent mosquitoes from breeding and biting. Our results demonstrate that perceptions of WNV relate to the number of positive containers in yards and the use of mosquito preven...

Tuiten, W.; Koenraadt, C. J. M.; Mccomas, K.; Harrington, L. C.

2009-01-01

36

Landscape determinants and remote sensing of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in the western Kenya highlands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past two decades the east African highlands have experienced several major malaria epidemics. Currently there is a renewed interest in exploring the possibility of anopheline larval control through environmental management or larvicide as an additional means of reducing malaria transmission in Africa. This study examined the landscape determinants of anopheline mosquito larval habitats and usefulness of remote sensing in identifying these habitats in western Kenya highlands. Methods Panchromatic aerial photos, Ikonos and Landsat Thematic Mapper 7 satellite images were acquired for a study area in Kakamega, western Kenya. Supervised classification of land-use and land-cover and visual identification of aquatic habitats were conducted. Ground survey of all aquatic habitats was conducted in the dry and rainy seasons in 2003. All habitats positive for anopheline larvae were identified. The retrieved data from the remote sensors were compared to the ground results on aquatic habitats and land-use. The probability of finding aquatic habitats and habitats with Anopheles larvae were modelled based on the digital elevation model and land-use types. Results The misclassification rate of land-cover types was 10.8% based on Ikonos imagery, 22.6% for panchromatic aerial photos and 39.2% for Landsat TM 7 imagery. The Ikonos image identified 40.6% of aquatic habitats, aerial photos identified 10.6%, and Landsate TM 7 image identified 0%. Computer models based on topographic features and land-cover information obtained from the Ikonos image yielded a misclassification rate of 20.3–22.7% for aquatic habitats, and 18.1–25.1% for anopheline-positive larval habitats. Conclusion One-metre spatial resolution Ikonos images combined with computer modelling based on topographic land-cover features are useful tools for identification of anopheline larval habitats, and they can be used to assist to malaria vector control in western Kenya highlands.

Beck Louisa

2006-02-01

37

The unexpected importance of mosquito oviposition behaviour for malaria: non-productive larval habitats can be sources for malaria transmission  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes commute between blood-meal hosts and water. Thus, heterogeneity in human biting reflects underlying spatial heterogeneity in the distribution and suitability of larval habitat as well as inherent differences in the attractiveness, suitability and distribution of blood-meal hosts. One of the possible strategies of malaria control is to identify local vector species and then attack water bodies that contain their larvae. Methods Biting and host seeking, not oviposition, have been the focus of most previous studies of mosquitoes and malaria transmission. This study presents a mathematical model that incorporates mosquito oviposition behaviour. Results The model demonstrates that oviposition is one potential factor explaining heterogeneous biting and vector distribution in a landscape with a heterogeneous distribution of larval habitat. Adult female mosquitoes tend to aggregate around places where they oviposit, thereby increasing the risk of malaria, regardless of the suitability of the habitat for larval development. Thus, a water body may be unsuitable for adult mosquito emergence, but simultaneously, be a source for human malaria. Conclusion Larval density may be a misleading indicator of a habitat's importance for malaria control. Even if mosquitoes could be lured to oviposit in sprayed larval habitats, this would not necessarily mitigate and might aggravate the risk of malaria transmission. Forcing mosquitoes to fly away from humans in search of larval habitat may be a more efficient way to reduce the risk of malaria than killing larvae. Thus, draining, fouling, or filling standing water where mosquitoes oviposit can be more effective than applying larvicide.

Flahault Antoine

2005-05-01

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Classification of immature mosquito species according to characteristics of the larval habitat in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina  

OpenAIRE

To classify mosquito species based on common features of their habitats, samples were obtained fortnightly between June 2001-October 2003 in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina. Data on the type of larval habitat, nature of the habitat (artificial or natural), size, depth, location related to sunlight, distance to the neighbouring houses, type of substrate, organic material, vegetation and algae type and their presence were collected. Data on the permanence, temperature, pH, turbidit...

Marina Stein; Francisco Ludueña-Almeida; Juana Alicia Willener; Walter Ricardo Almirón

2011-01-01

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Malaria knowledge and agricultural practices that promote mosquito breeding in two rural farming communities in Oyo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural practices such as the use of irrigation during rice cultivation, the use of ponds for fish farming and the storage of water in tanks for livestock provide suitable breeding grounds for anthropophylic mosquitoes. The most common anthropophylic mosquito in Nigeria which causes much of the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Farmers are therefore at high risk of malaria - a disease which seriously impacts on agricultural productivity. Unfortunately information relating to agricultural practices and farmers' behavioural antecedent factors that could assist malaria programmers plan and implement interventions to reduce risk of infections among farmers is scanty. Farmers' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which favour the breeding of mosquitoes in Fashola and Soku, two rural farming communities in Oyo State were therefore assessed in two rural farming communities in Oyo State. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of data through the use of eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs and the interview of 403 randomly selected farmers using semi-structured questionnaires. These sets of information were supplemented with observations of agricultural practices made in 40 randomly selected farms. The FGD data were recorded on audio-tapes, transcribed and subjected to content analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Most respondents in the two communities had low level of knowledge of malaria causation as only 12.4% stated that mosquito bite could transmit the disease. Less than half (46.7% correctly mentioned the signs and symptoms of malaria as high body temperature, body pains, headache, body weakness and cold/fever. The reported main methods for preventing mosquito bites in the farming communities included removal of heaps of cassava tuber peelings (62.3%, bush burning/clearing (54.6% and clearing of ditches (33.7%. The dumping of cassava tuber peelings which allows the collection of pools of water in the farms storage of peeled cassava tubers soaked in water in uncovered plastic containers, digging of trenches, irrigation of farms and the presence of fish ponds were the observed major agricultural practices that favoured mosquito breeding on the farms. A significant association was observed between respondents' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which promote mosquito breeding. Respondents' wealth quintile level was also seen to be associated with respondents' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which promote mosquito breeding. Conclusion Farmers' knowledge of malaria causation and signs and symptoms was low, while agricultural practices which favour mosquito breeding in the farming communities were common. There is an urgent need to engage farmers in meaningful dialogue on malaria reduction initiatives including the modification of agricultural practices which favour mosquito breeding. Multiple intervention strategies are needed to tackle the factors related to malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the communities.

Oshiname Frederick O

2010-04-01

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Larval Habitat Characteristics of the Genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) and a Checklist of Mosquitoes in Guilan Province, Northern Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: Ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. There is scattered pub­lished information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern Iran.Methods: This cross sectional investigation was carried out to study the mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Province, northern Iran, during April–December 2000. Larvae were coll...

Azari-hamidian, S.

2011-01-01

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Immature Aedes mosquitoes colonize Culex quinquefasciatus breeding sites in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. [...] Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%), Aedes albopictus (0.03%), and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8%) were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex.

Suzane Alves dos, Santos; Rosângela Maria Rodrigues, Barbosa.

2014-12-01

42

Mosquito habitat and dengue risk potential in Kenya: alternative methods to traditional risk mapping techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outbreaks, epidemics and endemic conditions make dengue a disease that has emerged as a major threat in tropical and sub-tropical countries over the past 30 years. Dengue fever creates a growing burden for public health systems and has the potential to affect over 40% of the world population. The problem being investigated is to identify the highest and lowest areas of dengue risk. This paper presents "Similarity Search", a geospatial analysis aimed at identifying these locations within Kenya. Similarity Search develops a risk map by combining environmental susceptibility analysis and geographical information systems, and then compares areas with dengue prevalence to all other locations. Kenya has had outbreaks of dengue during the past 3 years, and we identified areas with the highest susceptibility to dengue infection using bioclimatic variables, elevation and mosquito habitat as input to the model. Comparison of the modelled risk map with the reported dengue epidemic cases obtained from the open source reporting ProMED and Government news reports from 1982-2013 confirmed the high-risk locations that were used as the Similarity Search presence cells. Developing the risk model based upon the bioclimatic variables, elevation and mosquito habitat increased the efficiency and effectiveness of the dengue fever risk mapping process. PMID:25545930

Attaway, David F; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Falconer, Allan; Manca, Germana; Rosenshein Bennett, Lauren; Waters, Nigel M

2014-11-01

43

Mosquito larval habitat mapping using remote sensing and GIS: Implications of coalbed methane development and West Nile virus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Potential larval habitats of the mosquito Culex tarsalis (Coquillett), implicated as a primary vector of West Nile virus in Wyoming, were identified using integrated remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) analyses. The study area is in the Powder River Basin of north central Wyoming, an area that has been undergoing a significant increase in coalbed methane gas extractions since the late 1990s. Large volumes of water are discharged, impounded, and released during the extraction of methane gas, creating aquatic habitats that have the potential to support immature mosquito development. Landsat TM and ETM + data were initially classified into spectrally distinct water and vegetation classes, which were in turn used to identify suitable larval habitat sites. This initial habitat classification was refined using knowledge-based GIS techniques requiring spatial data layers for topography, streams, and soils to reduce the potential for overestimation of habitat. Accuracy assessment was carried out using field data and high-resolution aerial photography commensurate with one of the Landsat images. The classifier can identify likely habitat for ponds larger than 0.8 ha (2 acres) with generally satisfactory results (72.1%) with a lower detection limit of approximate to 0.4 ha (1 acre). Results show a 75% increase in potential larval habitats from 1999 to 2004 in the study area, primarily because of the large increase in small coalbed methane water discharge ponds. These results may facilitate mosquito abatement programs in the Powder River Basin with the potential for application throughout the state and region.

Zou, L.; Miller, S.N.; Schmidtmann, E.T. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Renewable Resources

2006-09-15

44

Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. ? Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. ? Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. ? Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the gnificant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that are most frequently disposed off contributed largely to the sustenance of Aedes mosquito population in the city. This calls for a strict legislation towards disposal as well as enhanced management of the household wastes. A link between the wastes disposed and subsequent conversion to the mosquito larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population and possibility of dengue epidemics if the existing management practices are not improved.

45

Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that are most frequently disposed off contributed largely to the sustenance of Aedes mosquito population in the city. This calls for a strict legislation towards disposal as well as enhanced management of the household wastes. A link between the wastes disposed and subsequent conversion to the mosquito larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population and possibility of dengue epidemics if the existing management practices are not improved.

Banerjee, Soumyajit, E-mail: soumyajitb@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Aditya, Gautam, E-mail: gautamaditya2001@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104 (India); Saha, Goutam K, E-mail: gkszoo@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India)

2013-01-15

46

Locating suitable habitats for West Nile Virus-infected mosquitoes through association of environmental characteristics with infected mosquito locations: a case study in Shelby County, Tennessee  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Since its first detection in 2001, West Nile Virus (WNV) poses a significant health risk for residents of Shelby County in Tennessee. This situation forced public health officials to adopt efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. Analyses that use environmental variables to find suitable habitats for WNV-infected mosquitoes have the potential to support these efforts. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, we iden...

Bialkowska-Jelinska Elzbieta; Ozdenerol Esra; Taff Gregory N

2008-01-01

47

Volatile substances from larval habitats mediate species-specific oviposition in Anopheles mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oviposition site selection has been recognized as critical both for the survival and population dynamics of mosquitoes. Volatile substances released from larval habitats have been implicated as potential olfactory cues mediating oviposition. In our continuing studies of cues involved in oviposition site selection, we collected material from the larval habitats of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann and Anopheles vestitipennis Dyar & Knab, i.e., cyanobacterial mats and Typha domingensis Pers. litter, respectively. The volatile compounds were extracted by freeze-drying the material and trapping the volatilized material on a -55 degrees C titanium condenser. For oviposition trials conducted with wild-caught females, the tested volatile materials were pipetted onto filters floating on the surface of distilled water in Teflon beakers that were placed within oviposition cages. For both species, volatile materials in low concentrations increased oviposition, assessed as egg density, whereas there was a shift to reduced oviposition at higher concentrations. Volatile effect was strongly habitat/species-specific as shown by reciprocal treatment tests. PMID:15799516

Rejmánková, Eliska; Higashi, Richard; Grieco, John; Achee, Nicole; Roberts, Donald

2005-03-01

48

Locating suitable habitats for West Nile Virus-infected mosquitoes through association of environmental characteristics with infected mosquito locations: a case study in Shelby County, Tennessee  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Since its first detection in 2001, West Nile Virus (WNV) poses a significant health risk for residents of Shelby County in Tennessee. This situation forced public health officials to adopt efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. Analyses that use environmental variables to find suitable habitats for WNV-infected mosquitoes have the potential to support these efforts. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, we identified areas of Shelby County that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV, based on similarity of environmental characteristics to areas where WNV was found. The environmental characteristics in this study were based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data, such as elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, and precipitation. Results Our analyses produced maps of likely habitats of WNV-infected mosquitoes for each week of August 2004, revealing the areas that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV within the core of the Memphis urban area. By comparing neighbourhood social characteristics to the environmental factors that contribute to WNV infection, potential social drivers of WNV transmission were revealed in Shelby County. Results show that human population characteristics and housing conditions such as a high percentage of black population, low income, high rental occupation, old structures, and vacant housing are associated with the focal area of WNV identified for each week of the study period. Conclusion We demonstrated that use of the Mahalanobis Distance statistic as a similarity index to assess environmental characteristics is a potential raster-based approach to identify areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining the virus. This approach was also useful to monitor changes over time for likely locations of infected mosquito habitats. This technique is very helpful for authorities when making decisions related to an integrated mosquito management plan and targeted health education outreach. PMID:18373868

Ozdenerol, Esra; Bialkowska-Jelinska, Elzbieta; Taff, Gregory N

2008-01-01

49

Locating suitable habitats for West Nile Virus-infected mosquitoes through association of environmental characteristics with infected mosquito locations: a case study in Shelby County, Tennessee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its first detection in 2001, West Nile Virus (WNV poses a significant health risk for residents of Shelby County in Tennessee. This situation forced public health officials to adopt efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. Analyses that use environmental variables to find suitable habitats for WNV-infected mosquitoes have the potential to support these efforts. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, we identified areas of Shelby County that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV, based on similarity of environmental characteristics to areas where WNV was found. The environmental characteristics in this study were based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS data, such as elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, and precipitation. Results Our analyses produced maps of likely habitats of WNV-infected mosquitoes for each week of August 2004, revealing the areas that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV within the core of the Memphis urban area. By comparing neighbourhood social characteristics to the environmental factors that contribute to WNV infection, potential social drivers of WNV transmission were revealed in Shelby County. Results show that human population characteristics and housing conditions such as a high percentage of black population, low income, high rental occupation, old structures, and vacant housing are associated with the focal area of WNV identified for each week of the study period. Conclusion We demonstrated that use of the Mahalanobis Distance statistic as a similarity index to assess environmental characteristics is a potential raster-based approach to identify areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining the virus. This approach was also useful to monitor changes over time for likely locations of infected mosquito habitats. This technique is very helpful for authorities when making decisions related to an integrated mosquito management plan and targeted health education outreach.

Bialkowska-Jelinska Elzbieta

2008-03-01

50

Identification and characterization of larval and adult anopheline mosquito habitats in the Republic of Korea: potential use of remotely sensed data to estimate mosquito distributions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax malaria reemerged in the Republic of Korea in 1993, with more than 2,000 cases reported in the northwestern part of the country over the last 10 years. To better assess the risk of malaria transmission we conducted a surveillance study to identify and characterize the habitats that produce potential Anopheles vector mosquitoes. Immature and adult mosquito collection data were incorporated into a Geographic Information System (GIS along with remotely sensed satellite imagery, and imagery classified to land use to determine if remote sensing data could be used to estimate mosquito habitats. Results More than 2,100 anopheline larvae were collected and mapped from 186 immature habitats, which were categorized into 9 types. Anopheles sinensis was the most commonly collected species, representing more than 97% of the specimens, followed by Anopheles pullus 1.0%, Anopheles lesteri 1.0%, and Anopheles sineroides 0.8%. Anopheles sinensis, pullus, and lesteri were found most frequently in rice paddies followed by: ditches, flooded areas, ground pools, wheel tracks, swamps, irrigation canals, and stream margins. Anopheles sineroides was found most commonly in flooded areas. Supervised classification was conducted on a LANDSAT 7 ETM+ image to identify 5–6 land-use classes that were considered to be of interest. The spatial distribution of the larval mosquito collections was overlaid on the land-use image derived from the LANDSAT image, and the number of mosquitoes habitats in each class calculated. On Ganghwa Island 67% of the immature habitats containing Anopheles sinensis were in the Paddy land-use class, although the class only represented 17% of the land area. In Paju District 53% of the immature habitats containing Anopheles sinensis were in the Paddy land-use class which represented only 9 % of the area of the district. There was significant (p Anopheles sinensis was significantly correlated with land-use in Paju District. In Ganghwa Island almost 50% of the Anopheles sinensis adults were collected in the paddy land-use class, and there was a positive correlation between larval and adult distributions. However, in Paju District adult Anopheles sinensis adults were most commonly collected in the Bare land-use class and only 17% collected in the Paddy class. There was a negative correlation between larval and adult distributions. Conclusion Immature habitats most commonly associated with Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles pullus, Anopheles sineroides and Anopheles lesteri were flooded rice paddies. Adult Anopheles sinensis, the most commonly collected anopheline, were found closely associated with rice habitats on Ganghwa Island but not in Paju District. Both QuickBird and LANDSAT satellite data were used to display spatial data in the form of geographic coverage and descriptive information in the form of relational databases associated with the mapped features. Supervised classification of LANDSAT imagery permitted good separation between Paddy, Forest, and Water land-use classes. The immature collections of Anopheles sinensis were significantly correlated with land-use as determined in the land-use classification in both Ganghwa Island and Paju District. These data suggest that classified remotely sensed data could potentially be used to estimate the distribution of immature and adult mosquito populations in the Republic of Korea.

Linthicum Kenneth J

2005-07-01

51

Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

2005-06-29

52

Bird and plant companion species predict breeding and migrant habitats of the genus Oenanthe  

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Full Text Available Analysing companion species from unrelated taxa concentrated so far mainly on identifying biosurrogacy in terms ofconservation biology. No study has investigated companion bird and plant species to predict breeding and migranthabitats of a bird genus. In this study we recorded and analysed companion bird and plant species of the breeding birdCyprus Wheatear Oenanthe cypriaca and four migranting Oenanthe species on Cyprus. We found characteristic companionspecies in Cyprus Wheatear’s, Wheatear migrant’s and in control habitats where no Wheatears were present.We show that plant and bird companion species can be used as discriminating factors to predict breeding and migranthabitats of the genus Oenanthe on Cyprus. Furthermore, habitat preferences of Cyprus Wheatear’s companion speciesindicate bushy and vegetation rich habitats avoiding woodland on the one hand and managed farmland on the otherhand. In comparison, migrant Wheatear and control habitats were characterised by companion species pointing to ahigh openness. These results support former habitat descriptions of Cyprus Wheatear and migrant Wheatears. In moregeneral, this study shows that companion species from unrelated taxa can be used to predict breeding and migranthabitats of a bird genus.

Stefan Pentzold

2011-09-01

53

Response of breeding European Storm Petrels Hydrobates pelagicus to habitat change  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Mainly through trampling and manuring, ground-nesting seabirds induced significant habitat changes both on vegetation cover and soil in one of the largest French colonies of European Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus, Habitat deterioration led to a high level of erosion and the collapse of many former Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus burrows previously occupied by breeding Storm Petrels. The loss of burrows accelerated in recent years since Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo...

2009-01-01

54

An Educational Interventional Study to Assess Awareness about Mosquito Breeding, Diseases Caused and Protective Measures Against them among Families Residing in an Urban Slum of Indore City  

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Full Text Available Background: Community participation plays an important role in control of Mosquito borne diseases. This study tries to assess impact of educational intervention on various aspects of mosquito borne diseases in an urban slum. Methodology: An educational interventional study was done in 200 families residing in a slum (Badi Gwaltoli which is in field practice area of Urban Health Centre attached to Department of Community Medicine of M.G.M.Medical College, Indore. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the Head of the family which studied their awareness and perception regarding breeding sites and biting habits of mosquitoes, diseases spread by them and personal protective measures used, followed by an educational intervention and post assessment. Data was entered into Microsoft excel spread sheet and analysed using SPSS version 20 software. Results: 46% of study population knew the correct breeding season of mosquitoes (monsoon season during pre-intervention and 68% of the population post- intervention (p- value 0.004. When asked at what time mosquitoes bite the most, maximum number (92% of people said that mosquitoes bite most in the evening and night, while only 6% and 2% were for morning and noon, respectively. Only 3.5% of the population who knew about breeding sites knew about artificial collections of water. Majority said mosquito breed in dirty stagnant water (78.5%. About 96%of the study population was aware that mosquitoes spread diseases. However, only 33.3%of respondents knew correctly about the diseases spread which improved to 68% in the post-intervention period (p-value=.000. 46% knew all the protection measures against mosquitoes in the pre-intervention which increased to 86% in the post intervention (p.value-.005. Conclusion: Awareness about Aedes mosquitoes and its habits is quite poor and many people still believe that only dirty water serves as a breeding place in mosquitoes. Regular IEC sessions informing community about mosquito-borne diseases will improve community participation.

Deepa Raghunath

2013-08-01

55

Topographic spatial characterisation of grey seal Halichoerus grypus breeding habitat at a sub-seal size spatial grain.  

OpenAIRE

Expansion within breeding colonies may critically depend upon the availability of suitable breeding habitat. Here we use topographic modelling in a GIS to characterise suitable pupping habitat and accurately predict the pattern of colonisation in an expanding grey seal breeding colony - the Isle of May (Scotland). We use high resolution images from large format aerial photographs of the colony to generate sub-metre accurate Digital Terrain Models (DTMs). GIS modelling with these DTMs provides...

Twiss, S. D.; Thomas, C. J.; Pomeroy, P. P.

2001-01-01

56

Upland Habitat Quality and Historic Landscape Composition Influence Genetic Variation of a Pond-Breeding Salamander  

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Full Text Available Understanding the temporal and spatial scale at which habitat alteration impacts populations is important for conservation and management. Amphibians have declined more than other vertebrates, and pond-breeding species are particularly susceptible to habitat loss and fragmentation because they have terrestrial and aquatic life stages. One approach to management of pond-breeding species is protection of core upland habitat surrounding the breeding pond. We used genetic variation as an indicator of population status in a common amphibian species, spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum, to determine how amount of suitable upland habitat relates to population status in the greater Charlotte, North Carolina, USA metropolitan area. We developed candidate models to evaluate the relative influence of historical and contemporary forested habitat availability on population genetic variation at two spatial scales of upland area (164 m and 2000 m at four time intervals over the past seven decades (1938, 1978, 1993, 2005. We found that historical land cover best predicted contemporary allelic richness. Inbreeding coefficient and observed heterozygosity were not effectively predicted by forest cover at either spatial or temporal scales. Allelic richness was best predicted at the smaller spatial scale in the 1993 time interval. Predicting and understanding how future landscape configuration affects genetic variation of common and rare species is imperative for the conservation of amphibian and other wildlife populations.

Jeremiah R. Alexander

2013-09-01

57

Soil analysis around anopheline breeding habitats in north-western Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemiology of malaria is largely dependent on its vector habitat. Each species of Anopheles larvae has a specific habitat requirement for its development. Anopheline mosquitoes are common throughout Thailand and utilize a wide variety of habitats. The dominant malaria vectors in Thailand are An. dirus, An. maculatus, and An. minimus. The relationship between soil chemical components and the particular species of anopheline in their specific aquatic habitats was studied from September 2002 to July 2003 at Ban Khun Huay, Ban Pa Dae, and Ban Tham Seau in the Mae Sot district, Tak Province, Thailand. Mapping of each habitat was performed using a Global Positioning System unit. A total count of 2,130 laboratory reared adult Anopheles were collected from 138 habitats categorized into 11 different types identified into 18 species from larval sampling in three villages. An. dirus, An. maculatus, and An. minimus were found 5.26%, 10.70%, and 55.31%, respectively, along with other minor species. Drainage and/or season seemed to be associated with the presence of An. dirus, An. maculatus, An. minimus, An. jamesii, An. sawadwongporni, and An. peditaeniatus. Chemical tests: pH, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, and ferric iron showed some associations with the presence of Anopheles. Only drainage was found to be a parameter associated with the presence of An. minimus. PMID:16438140

Kankaew, Prasan; Krasaesub, Somporn; Sithiprasasna, Ratana

2005-09-01

58

Larval Habitat Characteristics of the Genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae and a Checklist of Mosquitoes in Guilan Province, Northern Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. There is scattered pub­lished information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae in Iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern Iran.Methods: This cross sectional investigation was carried out to study the mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Province, northern Iran, during April–December 2000. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique. Larval habitat characteristics were recorded according to water situation (clear or turbid, vegetation, substrate type, sunlight situation, habitat situation (transient or permanent, running or stagnant, habitat type (natural or artificial, and water temperature. Results: In total, 1547 third- and fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles from 90 habitats were collected and morphologi­cally identified. Five species; Anopheles claviger, An.’hyrcanus’, An. maculipennis s.l., An. plumbeus, and An. su­perpictus were identified and respectively comprised 6.3%, 22.4%, 54.4%, 13.0%, and 3.9% of the samples. The mean and range temperatures of the larval habitat water were 19.6oC (n=14 (16–25oC, 22.6oC (n=53 (12–33oC, 23.8oC (n=52 (10–33oC, 11.5oC (n=12 (9–21oC, and 20.4oC (n=7 (12–26oC, respectively. There was a signifi­cant difference in the mean water temperatures (11.5–23.5oC of the larval habitats of different species (P=0.000. Most of the genus larvae were collected from natural habitats (86.9% such as river bed pools (46.4% and rain pools (33.1% with transient (98.3%, stagnant (99.5% and clear (95.3% water, with vegetation (69.9%, mud (42.0% or gravel (39.7% substrate in full sunlight (69.6% or shaded (22.7% area. A checklist of the province mosquitoes including 30 species and seven genera has been provided.Conclusion: The main larval habitats of the most abundant species, An.’hyrcanus’ and An. maculipennis s.l., in Guilan Province are: river bed pools, rain pools, and rice fields.

S Azari-Hamidian

2011-06-01

59

Classification of immature mosquito species according to characteristics of the larval habitat in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina  

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Full Text Available To classify mosquito species based on common features of their habitats, samples were obtained fortnightly between June 2001-October 2003 in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina. Data on the type of larval habitat, nature of the habitat (artificial or natural, size, depth, location related to sunlight, distance to the neighbouring houses, type of substrate, organic material, vegetation and algae type and their presence were collected. Data on the permanence, temperature, pH, turbidity, colour, odour and movement of the larval habitat's water were also collected. From the cluster analysis, three groups of species associated by their degree of habitat similarity were obtained and are listed below. Group 1 consisted of Aedes aegypti. Group 2 consisted of Culex imitator, Culex davisi, Wyeomyia muehlensi and Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis separatus. Within group 3, two subgroups are distinguished: A (Psorophora ferox, Psorophora cyanescens, Psorophora varinervis, Psorophora confinnis, Psorophora cingulata, Ochlerotatus hastatus-oligopistus, Ochlerotatus serratus, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Culex intrincatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pilosus, Ochlerotatus albifasciatus, Culex bidens and B (Culex maxi, Culex eduardoi, Culex chidesteri, Uranotaenia lowii, Uranotaenia pulcherrima, Anopheles neomaculipalpus, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles albitarsis, Uranotaenia apicalis, Mansonia humeralis and Aedeomyia squamipennis. Principal component analysis indicates that the size of the larval habitats and the presence of aquatic vegetation are the main characteristics that explain the variation among different species. In contrast, water permanence is second in importance. Water temperature, pH and the type of larval habitat are less important in explaining the clustering of species.

Marina Stein

2011-06-01

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Classification of immature mosquito species according to characteristics of the larval habitat in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

To classify mosquito species based on common features of their habitats, samples were obtained fortnightly between June 2001-October 2003 in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina. Data on the type of larval habitat, nature of the habitat (artificial or natural), size, depth, location related to sunlight, distance to the neighbouring houses, type of substrate, organic material, vegetation and algae type and their presence were collected. Data on the permanence, temperature, pH, turbidity, colour, odour and movement of the larval habitat's water were also collected. From the cluster analysis, three groups of species associated by their degree of habitat similarity were obtained and are listed below. Group 1 consisted of Aedes aegypti. Group 2 consisted of Culex imitator, Culex davisi, Wyeomyia muehlensi and Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis separatus. Within group 3, two subgroups are distinguished: A (Psorophora ferox, Psorophora cyanescens, Psorophora varinervis, Psorophora confinnis, Psorophora cingulata, Ochlerotatus hastatus-oligopistus, Ochlerotatus serratus, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Culex intrincatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pilosus, Ochlerotatus albifasciatus, Culex bidens) and B (Culex maxi, Culex eduardoi, Culex chidesteri, Uranotaenia lowii, Uranotaenia pulcherrima, Anopheles neomaculipalpus, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles albitarsis, Uranotaenia apicalis, Mansonia humeralis and Aedeomyia squamipennis). Principal component analysis indicates that the size of the larval habitats and the presence of aquatic vegetation are the main characteristics that explain the variation among different species. In contrast, water permanence is second in importance. Water temperature, pH and the type of larval habitat are less important in explaining the clustering of species. PMID:21739026

Stein, Marina; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Willener, Juana Alicia; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

2011-06-01

61

Tire-breeding mosquitoes of public health importance along an urbanisation gradient in Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Used vehicle tires are a source of mosquito vectors and a means of their introduction and expansion. With the aim of assessing the effects of urbanisation on the main mosquito vectors in temperate Argentina, the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. were studied in used tires [...] from highly urbanised cities to low-urbanised small towns in Buenos Aires. Immatures of both species accounted for 96% of the 9,722 individuals collected; the total individuals collected represented seven species. The percentage of water-filled tires containing mosquitoes [container index (CI)] was 33% and the percentage of infested sites [site index (SI)] was 65.2%. These indexes decreased significantly from low to high urbanisation levels for both mosquito species. The relative abundance (RA) of Ae. aegypti immatures was slightly higher toward large cities, but showed no difference for Cx. pipiens. The CI of shaded tires was significantly higher than the CI of exposed tires for both mosquito species. There was no difference in RA values between shaded and sunlit tires. The CI and the SI were highest during the summer across the urbanisation levels, except for Cx. pipiens, which continued to increase during the autumn in small towns. Results related to urbanisation gradient, sunlit exposure and seasonality are discussed.

Alejandra, Rubio; María Victoria, Cardo; Darío, Vezzani.

2011-09-01

62

Sergentomyia spp.: breeding sites in vertisols and peri-domestic habitats in North West Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sand flies belonging to the genus Sergentomyia Franca & Parrot, 1920, are hematophagous insects feeding mostly on reptiles and birds, but some species feed also on mammals including humans. Sergentomyia spp. frequently comprise the vast majority of sand flies trapped along with Phlebotomus spp., the vectors of mammalian leishmaniasis. Within the framework of a project on the ecology and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia, putative breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies were studied. Large horizontal sticky traps (LHSTs) covered with sand fly-proof mesh were deployed over cracked vertisol and related habitats for up to 3 nights, and emerging sand flies were collected daily. Emergence traps (ETs) were also adapted to sample other putative breeding sites including tree trunks, termite mounds, rock piles and vertical river banks. Productive breeding sites were identified in the trunks and roots systems of trees, vertisol fields, cracks and burrows in vertisol dry river banks and termite mounds. Emerging flies were also collected form a stone wall and a rock pile situated inside a village. Significantly more Sergentomyia spp. were trapped in vertisols by ETs deployed over root system than in open fields. Similarly, more sand flies emerged from cracks in the vertisol in fallow Sorghum than in fallow sesame fields. Productive breeding sites were characterized by stable micro-climatic conditions. Species composition of emerging sand flies varied with habitat, season and geographical location. PMID:24841132

Moncaz, Aviad; Kirstein, Oscar; Gebresellassie, Araya; Lemma, Wossenseged; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha; Belay, Shewaye; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon

2014-09-01

63

Evaluation of Species Distribution Model Algorithms For Fine-Scale Container Breeding Mosquito Risk Prediction  

OpenAIRE

The present work evaluates the use of species distribution model (SDM) algorithms to classify high density of small container Aedes mosquitoes at a fine scale, in the Bermuda islands. Weekly ovitrap data collected by the Health Department of Bermuda (UK) for the years 2006 and 2007 were used for the models. The models evaluated included the following algorithms: Bioclim, Domain, GARP, logistic regression, and MaxEnt. Models were evaluated according to performance and robustness. The area Rece...

Khatchikian, C.; Sangermano, F.; Kendell, D.; Livdahl, T.

2010-01-01

64

Breeding bird populations of Irish peatlands : capsule peatlands are very important habitats for birds despite low species diversity  

OpenAIRE

Aims to describe the variation in breeding bird populations that occur on different types of Irish peatlands and their associated habitat characteristics. Methods: Bird abundance and diversity were compared between four peatland habitat types: fens; raised bogs; Atlantic blanket bogs; and montane blanket bogs at twelve study sites using transects. Various measures of habitat quality were also taken at each location. Results: Only 21 species were recorded during the study with Meadow Pip...

Bracken, Fintan; Mcmahon, Barry J.; Whelan, John

2008-01-01

65

Conspecific reproductive success and breeding habitat selection: Implications for the study of coloniality  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat selection is a crucial process in the life cycle of animals because it can affect most components of fitness. It has been proposed that some animals cue on the reproductive success of conspecifics to select breeding habitats. We tested this hypothesis with demographic and behavioral data from a 17-yr study of the Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a cliff-nesting seabird. As the hypothesis assumes, the Black-legged Kittiwake nesting environment was patchy, and the relative quality of the different patches (i.e., breeding cliffs) varied in time. The average reproductive success of the breeders of a given cliff was predictable from one year to the next, but this predictability faded after several years. The dynamic nature of cliff quality in the long term is partly explained by the autocorrelation of the prevalence of an ectoparasite that influences reproductive success. As predicted by the performance-based conspecific attraction hypothesis, the reproductive success of current breeders on a given cliff was predictive of the reproductive success of new recruits on the cliff in the following year. Breeders tended to recruit to the previous year's most productive cliffs and to emigrate from the least productive ones. Consequently, the dynamics of breeder numbers on the cliffs were explained by local reproductive success on a year-to-year basis. Because, on average, young Black-legged Kittiwakes first breed when 4 yr old, such a relationship probably results from individual choices based on the assessment of previous-year local quality. When breeders changed breeding cliffs between years, they selected cliffs of per capita higher reproductive success. Furthermore, after accounting for the potential effects of age and sex as well as between-year variations, the effect of individual breeding performance on breeding dispersal was strongly influenced by the average reproductive success of other breeders on the same cliff. Individual breeding performance did not appear to influence the probability of dispersing for birds breeding on cliffs with high local reproductive success, whereas individual breeding performance did have a strong effect on dispersal for birds that bred on cliffs with lower local reproductive success. This suggests that the reproductive success of locally breeding conspecifics may be sufficient to override an individual's own breeding experience when deciding whether to emigrate. These results, which are supported by behavioral observations of the role of prospecting in recruitment, suggest that both first breeders and adults rely on the reproductive success of conspecifics as 'public information' to assess their own chances of breeding successfully in a given patch and to make settling decisions. A corollary prediction is that individuals should attempt to breed near successful conspecifics (a form of social attraction) in order to benefit from the same favorable local environmental conditions. Such a performance-based conspecific attraction mechanism can thus lead to an aggregative distribution of nests and may have played a role in the evolution of coloniality.

Danchin, E.; Boulinier, T.; Massot, M.

1998-01-01

66

Habitat Use and Body Mass Regulation among Warblers in the Sahel Region during the Non-Breeding Season  

Science.gov (United States)

Migratory birds face significant challenges across their annual cycle, including occupying an appropriate non-breeding home range with sufficient foraging resources. This can affect demographic processes such as over-winter survival, migration mortality and subsequent breeding success. In the Sahel region of Africa, where millions of migratory songbirds attempt to survive the winter, some species of insectivorous warblers occupy both wetland and dry-scrubland habitats, whereas other species are wetland or dry-scrubland specialists. In this study we examine evidence for strategic regulation of body reserves and competition-driven habitat selection, by comparing invertebrate prey activity-density, warbler body size and extent of fat and pectoral muscle deposits, in each habitat type during the non-breeding season. Invertebrate activity-density was substantially higher in wetland habitats than in dry-scrubland. Eurasian reed warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus occupying wetland habitats maintained lower body reserves than conspecifics occupying dry-scrub habitats, consistent with buffering of reserves against starvation in food-poor habitat. A similar, but smaller, difference in body reserves between wet and dry habitat was found among subalpine warblers Sylvia cantillans but not in chiffchaffs Phylloscopus collybita inhabiting dry-scrub and scrub fringing wetlands. Body reserves were relatively low among habitat specialist species; resident African reed warbler A. baeticatus and migratory sedge warbler A. schoenobaenus exclusively occupying wetland habitats, and Western olivaceous warblers Iduna opaca exclusively occupying dry habitats. These results suggest that specialists in preferred habitats and generalists occupying prey-rich habitats can reduce body reserves, whereas generalists occupying prey-poor habitats carry an increased level of body reserves as a strategic buffer against starvation. PMID:25426716

Vafidis, James O.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Jones, T. Hefin; Facey, Richard J.; Parry, Rob; Thomas, Robert J.

2014-01-01

67

Community diversity of mosquitoes and their microbes across different habitats endemic for West Nile Virus and other arthropod-borne diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquitoes have long been vectors for disease, and humans, birds, and other vertebrates have served their role as hosts in the transmission cycle of arthropod-borne viruses. In California, there are several mosquito species that act as vectors, transmitting such disease agents as Western equine and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, filarial nematodes, Plasmodium (which causes malaria), and West Nile virus (WNV). Last year (2012-2013), California had over 450 reported cases of West Nile Virus in humans (http://westnile.ca.gov/). To begin to understand mosquitoes and their role in the bay area as vectors of diseases, including West Nile Virus, we trapped mosquitoes from various sites and examined their microbiomes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and eukaryotes. Study sites were in Marin, San Mateo, and San Francisco counties, in areas that represented, respectively, rural, suburban, and urban habitats. The mosquitoes were identified through morphological characteristics, and verified molecularly by sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene extracted from a leg. Most mosquitoes were collected from San Mateo and Mill Valley and were identified as Culiseta incidens. Data from traditional culture-based and next-generation 454 sequencing methods applied to mosquito whole bodies, representing their microbiomes, will be discussed, to determine how mosquito and microbial diversity varies across sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay area.

Liu, R.; Bennett, S. N.; Thongsripong, P.; Chandler, J. S.

2013-12-01

68

Classification of immature mosquito species according to characteristics of the larval habitat in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english To classify mosquito species based on common features of their habitats, samples were obtained fortnightly between June 2001-October 2003 in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina. Data on the type of larval habitat, nature of the habitat (artificial or natural), size, depth, location related [...] to sunlight, distance to the neighbouring houses, type of substrate, organic material, vegetation and algae type and their presence were collected. Data on the permanence, temperature, pH, turbidity, colour, odour and movement of the larval habitat's water were also collected. From the cluster analysis, three groups of species associated by their degree of habitat similarity were obtained and are listed below. Group 1 consisted of Aedes aegypti. Group 2 consisted of Culex imitator, Culex davisi, Wyeomyia muehlensi and Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis separatus. Within group 3, two subgroups are distinguished: A (Psorophora ferox, Psorophora cyanescens, Psorophora varinervis, Psorophora confinnis, Psorophora cingulata, Ochlerotatus hastatus-oligopistus, Ochlerotatus serratus, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Culex intrincatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pilosus, Ochlerotatus albifasciatus, Culex bidens) and B (Culex maxi, Culex eduardoi, Culex chidesteri, Uranotaenia lowii, Uranotaenia pulcherrima, Anopheles neomaculipalpus, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles albitarsis, Uranotaenia apicalis, Mansonia humeralis and Aedeomyia squamipennis). Principal component analysis indicates that the size of the larval habitats and the presence of aquatic vegetation are the main characteristics that explain the variation among different species. In contrast, water permanence is second in importance. Water temperature, pH and the type of larval habitat are less important in explaining the clustering of species.

Marina, Stein; Francisco, Ludueña-Almeida; Juana Alicia, Willener; Walter Ricardo, Almirón.

2011-06-01

69

Habitat selection by breeding waterbirds at ponds with size-structured fish populations  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish may significantly affect habitat use by birds, either as their prey or as competitors. Fish communities are often distinctly size-structured, but the consequences for waterbird assemblages remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of size structure of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) cohorts together with other biotic and abiotic pond characteristics on the distribution of breeding waterbirds in a seminatural system of monocultured ponds, where three fish age classes were separately stocked. Fish age corresponded to a distinct fish size gradient. Fish age and total biomass, macroinvertebrate and amphibian abundance, and emergent vegetation best explained the differences in bird density between ponds. Abundance of animal prey other than fish (aquatic macroinvertebrates and larval amphibians) decreased with increasing carp age in the ponds. Densities of ducks and smaller grebes were strongly negatively associated with fish age/size gradient. The largest of the grebes, the piscivorous great crested grebe ( Podiceps cristatus), was the only species that preferred ponds with medium-sized fish and was positively associated with total fish biomass. Habitat selection by bitterns and most rallids was instead strongly influenced by the relative amount of emergent vegetation cover in the ponds. Our results show that fish size structure may be an important cue for breeding habitat choice and a factor affording an opportunity for niche diversification in avian communities.

Kloskowski, Janusz; Nieoczym, Marek; Polak, Marcin; Pitucha, Piotr

2010-07-01

70

Alterations in the breeding habitats for two endangered raptor species along the Sava River basin, Croatia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in habitat suitable for breeding of two sympatric raptor species (Haliaeetus albicilla and Aquila pomarina) were analysed along one of the most important breeding sites in Croatia for both species. The habitat suitability modelling was used to assess the influence of forestry practice during 2000-2006 using the known data on nesting places along research area. The four most important variables for lesser spotted eagle were elevation, distance from the nearest pasture, vertical distance to the nearest channel network and broadleaved forest placement (second axis from the principal component analysis of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) index of MODIS images; November-March). The variables where white-tailed eagles showed greatest shift from overall habitat characteristics in the research area were broadleaved forest (second axis from the principal component analysis of the EVI index), height above the sea level, distance from the small settlements, vertical distance to channel network - all with negative loadings. The results clearly reveal the disproportion of suitable forests for raptors that were cut down in comparison to maturation of suitable forests. PMID:21800060

Radovi?, Andreja; Jelaska, Sven D

2012-07-01

71

Density, habitat selection and breeding success of an insular population of Barbary Falcon Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides  

OpenAIRE

We studied density, habitat selection and reproduction of Barbary Falcons Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides on Tenerife Island during 2004 and 2005. A total of 26 breeding pairs were counted, all of them occupying natural cliffs around the island. Density observed was 1.27 pairs/100 km2, and was positively correlated with cliff availability. Mean distance between neighbouring pairs was 5869 ± 3338 m, ranging from 1388-13 610 m; in some areas this value was as low as 2062 ± 673 m. Tenerife stil...

Rodri?guez, Beneharo; Siverio, Manuel; Rodri?guez, Airam; Siverio, Felipe

2007-01-01

72

Field irradiator gamma: pre-irradiation occurrence of breeding birds in three boreal habitats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A trail census was conducted of the breeding birds found in three major habitats in the Field Irradiator Gamma area at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba. The area sampled was about 10.50 ha in size, and included 4.25 ha of upland forest, 4.75 ha of lowland conifers, and 1.50 ha of black spruce-tamarack bog. Forty-four species of birds were identified, of which 24 were considered to be resident in the study area. The highest population density was observed in the bog, followed by upland forest and lowland conifer respectively. In contrast, species diversity was greatest in the upland forest, while it decreased markedly in the relatively monotypic lowland conifer and bog habitats. (author)

73

Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data (DEM) were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight against malaria in Zambia and other regions with seasonal transmission. This work shows that, in areas of seasonal malaria transmission, incorporating terrain-based landscape models to the planning stages of vector control allows for the exclusion of significant portions of landscape that would be unsuitable for water to accumulate and for mosquito larvae occupation. With increasing free availability of satellite imagery such as SRTM and LandSat, the development of satellite imagery-based prediction models is becoming more accessible to vector management coordinators. PMID:21050496

2010-01-01

74

Ecology of mosquitoes of Midwestern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: The ecology and distribution of various mosquito species is important inthe determination of mosquito vector abundance and associated diseases prevalence. The distributionof various mosquito genera in natural and artificial habitats and their relative species abundancewas studied between August 2002 and July 2003 in three foci (Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi comprisingthe Esan and Etsako regions of Midwestern Nigeria.Methods: Sampling was carried out by the method of Hopkins (1952 by dipping using a pipette orladle depending on container types. Pooled contents of smaller containers were sampled with a pondnet. All breeding sources of mosquito larvae were grouped into five (5 depending on their nature,constitution and the physiochemical properties. Artificial mosquito cultures were also carried out infour different container types; plastics, metal cans, earthenware pots and bamboo strips, in parts oftwo different macro habitats subdivided into area of high human activities (AHHA and areas ofderived/secondary vegetation (ADSV. Environmental temperatures, rainfall and relative humiditywere monitored during the study.Results: The present study revealed 17 mosquito species belonging to three genera (Anopheles,Culex and Aedes which are potential vectors of four human diseases in the areas surveyed. A total of736 mosquito larvae were encountered in artificial sources and 568 larvae were harvested from naturalsources. Pools, plastics and metal cans were the predominant artificial sources of mosquito larvae.Conclusion: The contribution of human activities and increasing environmental modification to thebreeding of human disease vector mosquitoes is of importance and selective vector control measuresincluding larviciding are recommended particularly before onset of rainy season

Godwin R.A. Okogun, Jude C. Anosike, Anthony N. Okere & Bethran E.B. Nwoke

2005-03-01

75

Human disturbance and stage-specific habitat requirements influence snowy plover site occupancy during the breeding season  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat use has important consequences for avian reproductive success and survival. In coastal areas with recreational activity, human disturbance may limit use of otherwise suitable habitat. Snowy plovers Charadrius nivosus have a patchy breeding distribution along the coastal areas on the Florida Panhandle, USA. Our goal was to determine the relative effects of seasonal human disturbance and habitat requirements on snowy plover habitat use. We surveyed 303 sites for snowy plovers, human disturbance, and habitat features between January and July 2009 and 2010. We made multiple visits during three different sampling periods that corresponded to snowy plover breeding: pre-breeding, incubation, and brood-rearing and used multi-season occupancy models to examine whether human disturbance, habitat features, or both influenced site occupancy, colonization (probability of transition from an unoccupied site to an occupied site), and extinction (probability of transition from an occupied site to an unoccupied site). Snowy plover site occupancy and colonization was negatively associated with human disturbance and site extinction was positively associated with human disturbance. Interdune vegetation had a negative effect on occupancy and colonization, indicating that plovers were less likely to use areas with uniform, dense vegetation among dunes. Also, dune shape, beach debris, and access to low-energy foraging areas influenced site occupancy, colonization, and extinction. Plovers used habitat based on beach characteristics that provided stage-specific resource needs; however, human disturbance was the strongest predictor of site occupancy. In addition, vegetation plantings used to enhance dune rehabilitation may negatively impact plover site occupancy. Management actions that decrease human disturbance, such as symbolic fencing and signage, may increase the amount of breeding habitat available to snowy plovers on the Florida Panhandle and in other areas with high human activity. The specific areas that require this protection may vary across snowy plover life history stages. PMID:23610630

Webber, Alyson F; Heath, Julie A; Fischer, Richard A

2013-01-01

76

Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina, Brasil.I - Distribuição por habitat Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra da Bocaina National Park, Brazil. I - Habitat distribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer a influência exercida por três diferentes biótopos em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina (PNSB sobre a fauna local de mosquitos. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas capturas mensais em ambiente silvestre e domiciliar, em isca humana, durante três diferentes períodos do dia, pelo período de 24 meses consecutivos, de janeiro de 1991 a dezembro de 1992. RESULTADOS: Foram capturados 11.808 espécimes adultos, pertencentes a 28 espécies. Ru. reversa e An. cruzii foram predominantes, respectivamente 52,5% e 17,9% do total de mosquitos. Ru. reversa representou 59,4% do total de espécimes no ambiente de mata fechada, seguida por Ru. frontosa com 10,5% e An. cruzii com 9,9%. No ambiente formado por campos de altitude e matas de galeria, o An. cruzii predominou com 48,1%, seguido por Ru. reversa com 28,1%. No ambiente modificado pelo homem, o An. cruzii predominou com 73,7% dos espécimes. Coquillettidia chrysonotum foi a única que se apresentou preferencialmente nesse biótopo: 14,9% no intra, 19,4% no peri e 65,7% no extradomicílio. An. cruzii e Ru. reversa foram constantes em todos os ambientes ao longo do ano. CONCLUSÕES: Com exceção de Cq. chrysonotum, com preferência pelo ambiente modificado pelo homem, os mosquitos apresentam hábitos assinantrópicos no PNSB. An. cruzii, embora assinantrópico, se aproxima e adentra o domicílio para realizar a hematofagia. A presença do Ae. serratus no extra e peridomicílio reforça a importância epidemiológica como vetora potencial de arboviroses. Os Sabethini apresentaram-se exclusivamente silvestres.OBJECTIVE: To assess the mosquito fauna in Serra da Bocaina National Park (PNSB, by collecting information through a general survey, and investigating the population behavior in habitats within the park with different vegetation. METHODS: Human bait collections were conducted once a month for both the forest and households, in diurnal and nocturnal periods, three time a day, throughout 24 months, from January 1991 to December 1992. RESULTS: A total of 11,808 adult mosquitoes belonging to 28 species were collected. Runchomyia reversa and Anopheles cruzii were the most abundant, reaching 52.5% and 17.9% of the total collected specimens, respectively. In the dense forest, Ru. reversa comprised 59.4% of the total, followed by Ru. frontosa with 10.5%, and An. cruzii with 9.9%. In the high altitude fields and in gallery forest, An. cruzii was the most abundant (48.1% followed by Ru. reversa (28.1%. Inside households An. cruzii was also the most prominent species, representing 73.7% of the total for that location. Coquillettidia chrysonotum was the only species mainly seen in the household surroundings, where its distribution was: 14.9% (indoors, 19.4% (close to the house, and 65.7% (outdoors. An. cruzii and Ru. reversa were found throughout the whole year and captured every month. CONCLUSIONS: Mosquitoes in PNSB present an assynanthropic behavior, except for Cq. chrysonotum which lives preferentially in the household environment. Though An. cruzii is an assynantropic species it may approaches live near households and even invades and infest them for the blood meals. The occurrence of Aedes serratus in the household vicinity emphasizes its epidemiological importance as a potential vector of arboviruses. Sabethini are all exclusively sylvatic species.

Anthony Érico Guimarães

2000-06-01

77

[Mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) ecology in the Iguaçu National Park, Brazil: 1 Habitat distribution].  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the mosquito fauna in the Iguaçu National Park focused on population behavior in four biotopes with different types of plant cover inside the Park. Systematic bimonthly diurnal and nocturnal human bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted in both forest and domiciliary environments over the course of 24 months. A total of 20,273 adult mosquito specimens belonging to 44 species were collected: Ochlerotatus serratus (10.3%), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9.7%), Mansonia titillans (9.6%), and Chagasia fajardoi (8.8%) were the most frequently captured mosquitoes. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia theobaldi, Wyeomyia aporonoma, and Wy. confusa were captured almost exclusively in well-preserved areas with dense forest cover. Culex nigripalpus, Oc. pennai, Oc. serratus, Sabethes purpureus, and Sa. albiprivus were captured in three essentially sylvatic biotopes. Species captured in the forest areas around a dam were: An. albitarsis s.l., An. galvaoi, An. evansae, An. fluminensis, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Cq. juxtamansonia, Wy. quasilongirostris, and Onirion personatum, Ch. fajardoi, Cq. fasciolata, Cq nitens, and Ma. titillans were the most frequently captured species in a residential area. PMID:12973575

Guimarães, Anthony Erico; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; de Mello, Rubens Pinto; Alencar, Jeronimo

2003-01-01

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The Risk of a Mosquito-Borne Infectionin a Heterogeneous Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A common assumption about malaria, dengue, and other mosquito-borne infections is that the two main components of the risk of human infection-the rate at which people are bitten (human biting rate and the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious-are positively correlated. In fact, these two risk factors are generated by different processes and may be negatively correlated across space and time in heterogeneous environments. Uneven distribution of blood-meal hosts and larval habitat creates a spatial mosaic of demograPhic sources and sinks. Moreover, mosquito populations fluctuate temporally, forced by environmental variables such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity. These sources of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of mosquito populations generate variability in the human biting rate, in the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious, and in the risk of human infection. To understand how heterogeneity affects the epidemiology of mosquito-borne infections, we developed a set of simple models that incorporate heterogeneity in a stepwise fashion. These models predict that the human biting rate is highest shortly after the mosquito densities peak, near breeding sites where adult mosquitoes emerge, and around the edges of areas where humans are aggregated. In contrast, the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious reflects the age structure of mosquito populations; it peaks where old mosquitoes are found, far from mosquito breeding habitat, and when mosquito population density is declining. Finally, we show that estimates for the average risk of infection that are based on the average entomological inoculation rate are strongly biased in heterogeneous environments.

Smith David L

2004-01-01

79

Breeding Sites of Phlebotomus sergenti, the Sand Fly Vector of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Judean Desert  

OpenAIRE

Phlebotomine sand flies transmit Leishmania, phlebo-viruses and Bartonella to humans. A prominent gap in our knowledge of sand fly biology remains the ecology of their immature stages. Sand flies, unlike mosquitoes do not breed in water and only small numbers of larvae have been recovered from diverse habitats that provide stable temperatures, high humidity and decaying organic matter. We describe studies designed to identify and characterize sand fly breeding habitats in a Judean Desert focu...

Moncaz, Aviad; Faiman, Roy; Kirstein, Oscar; Warburg, Alon

2012-01-01

80

Breeding habitat of sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus on spoil heaps after coal mining  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural succession of spoil heaps after brown coal mining leads to the development of rich plant and invertebrate communities and therefore has been considered a proper alternative to conventional reclamation practice. Little is known, however, about the effects of these alternative approaches on vertebrate predators. This study analyses nest-site choice of the sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus on afforested spoil heaps in the brown coal basin of north-west Bohemia, Czech Republic. Nest places of sparrowhawks, numbers of their main prey (small birds) and habitat attributes were investigated in 2007 and 2008 on 28 individual spoil heaps that were either reclaimed by silviculture or spontaneously afforested. Our results revealed preferences of breeding sparrowhawks for spontaneously developed birch growths with diverse mosaics of tree clumps, open patches and edge structures, all providing for opportunities to hunt. In addition, the proximity of large forests positively influenced nest-site choice of sparrowhawks. Although small birds were more abundant on Successions than Reclamations, our results did not suggest that numbers of this main prey were of higher importance for the sparrowhawks than habitat components of prey availability. These results highlight the importance of spontaneous succession as a rehabilitation alternative in post-mining landscapes.

Šálek, Miroslav; Hendrychová, Markéta; ?eho?, Michal

2010-03-01

81

Habitat Relationships of Three Grassland Breeding Bird Species: Broadscale Comparisons and Hayfield Management Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generalized recommendations for the conservation of birds in agro-ecosystems have been elusive because studies are often of a local nature, and do not compare source data against those from other regions. In this study, we developed geographically broad habitat relationship models to provide conservation prescriptions for three species that breed in farmed grasslands: Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis, and Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus. We develop models from our study in Nova Scotia, Canada and confront them with independent data from Wisconsin, USA pastures and Iowa, USA restored prairies. Vegetation that was higher and denser in the prebreeding season was linked to increased occupancy rates and abundance of Bobolinks in each study region. Providing tall spring grass is easily accomplished by not cutting late in the previous year. Savannah Sparrows were instead associated with shorter and sparser spring grass, which highlights the need to simultaneously provide heterogeneous habitat for otherwise ecologically similar species. Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrows were more likely to occur, and be numerous, in areas with greater availability of drainage ditches. They and several other species would benefit from provision of ditches with adequate vegetation to promote occupancy. By combining these with other well-established recommendations, such as a delayed first harvest, a greater net conservation benefit can be realized from these working landscapes.

Joseph J. Nocera

2007-06-01

82

Web mapping GIS: GPS under the GIS umbrella for Aedes species dengue and chikungunya vector mosquito surveillance and control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mosquito nuisance and the mosquito borne diseases have become major important challenging public health problems in India especially in the fast developing city like Pondicherry urban agglomeration. The Pondicherry government has been implemented full-fledged mosquito control measures, however, dengue and chikungunya epidemics was accelerating trend in Pondicherry for the recent years, and therefore, the directorate of public health, Pondicherry was requested vector control research centre (VCRC, to conduct a mosquito control evaluation survey. A team of field staff of VCRC headed by the author, Pondicherry, have conducted a detailed reconnaissance survey for collecting the site specifications of houses and the streetwise mosquito data for analyzing the density of vector mosquitoes in the wards / blocks and delineating the areas vulnerable to disease epidemics in the urban areas. The GPS GARMIN 12 XL was used to collect the field data. The ARC GIS 10.0 software was used to map the site locations (houses with mosquito’s data. The digital map of block boundary of Pondicherry was used for mapping purpose. A systematic grid sampling was applied to conduct a rapid survey for mapping Aedes species mosquito genic condition in the urban areas and the coordinates of sites of house information with breeding habitats positive in the grid sectors was collected using GPS, and the mean value of positive habitats was analyzed by quintiles method for mapping. The four blocks were selected for Aedes mosquito survey where the mosquito problem was identified as comparatively high, four numbers of wards were selected from each block, and the 40 number of houses was selected with 100 meter interval distance for mosquito breeding survey in the domestic and peripheral domestic areas in each wards. The problematic areas were identified, highlighted and recommended for web mapping GIS for Aedes mosquito surveillance continuously for monitoring the mosquito control measures in the Pondicherry urban areas and the other parts of the urban areas in the country.

M. Palaniyandi

2014-09-01

83

Influence of biological and physicochemical characteristics of larval habitats on the body size of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) along the Kenyan coast  

OpenAIRE

Background & objectives: The number and productivity of larval habitats ultimately determine thedensity of adult mosquitoes. The biological and physicochemical conditions at the larval habitataffect larval development hence affecting the adult body size. The influence of biological and physicochemicalcharacteristics on the body size of Anopheles gambiae was assessed in Jaribuni village,Kilifi district along the Kenyan Coast.Methods: Ten cages measuring 1 × 1 × 1 m (1 m3) with a netting mate...

Joseph M Mwangangi, Charles M. Mbogo

2007-01-01

84

The practical importance of permanent and semipermanent habitats for controlling aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes: operational observations from a rural town in western Kenya  

OpenAIRE

Control of aquatic-stage Anopheles is one of the oldest and most historically successful interventions to prevent malaria, but it has seen little application in Africa. Consequently, the ecology of immature afrotropical Anopheles has received insufficient attention. We therefore examined the population dynamics of African anopheline and culicine mosquitoes using operationally practicable techniques to examine the relative importance and availability of different larval habitats in an area of ...

Fillinger, U.; Sonye, G.; Killeen, G. F.; Knols, B. G. J.; Becker, N.

2004-01-01

85

The ecology of anopheline mosquitos in northwest coastal Malaysia: larval habitats and adult seasonal abundance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Collections of anopheline mosquitos were made twice monthly for 13 months from a cow-baited trap in two villages, Kampung Permatang Rawa and Sungai Udang Kecil, on mainland coastal Penang, Malaysia. Each collection period was six hours from sunset. Unquantified larval collections were made regularly in each area. Although the villages were only about 50km apart, and each had extensive, irrigated rice-fields in its vicinity, the species abundance and the seasonal fluctuations differed significantly. In Kampung Permatang Rawa Anopheles sinensis and An. peditaeniatus were dominant in prevalence, whereas in Sungai Udang Kecil An. indefinitus and An. lesteri paraliae were most common and An. peditaeniatus was relatively rare. The rice growing schedules in the two areas differed, but there was a moderate correlation between the abundance of several species and the rice-growing pattern. There was no correlation at either site with rainfall. PMID:8160063

Jaal, Z; Macdonald, W W

1993-09-01

86

Influence of habitat heterogeneity on distribution, occupancy patterns, and productivity of breeding peregrine falcons in central West Greenland  

Science.gov (United States)

We used occupancy and productivity data collected at 67 cliffs used for nesting from 1972 to 1999 to assess patterns of distribution and nest-site selection in an increasing population of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in central West Greenland. Peregrine Falcons breeding at traditionally occupied cliffs used for nesting had significantly lower variation in productivity and thus these cliffs were better quality sites. This indicates that Peregrine Falcons occupied cliffs according to a pattern of despotic distribution. Falcons breeding at cliffs that were consistently occupied during the breeding season had higher average productivity and lower variation in productivity than falcons at inconsistently occupied cliffs, and thus consistent occupancy also was indicative of cliff quality. Features of high quality habitat included tall cliffs, greater change in elevation from the lowest point within 3 km of the cliff to the cliff top (elevation gain), and protection from weather on the eyrie ledge. Spacing of suitable and occupied cliffs also was an important feature, and the best cliffs generally were more isolated. Increased spacing was likely a mechanism for reducing intraspecific competition. Our results suggest that Peregrine Falcons use a resource defense strategy to compete for better quality habitats and may use spacing and physical features of a nest site to identify good quality breeding habitat. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

Wightman, C.S.; Fuller, M.R.

2006-01-01

87

Larval Habitat Diversity and Species Composition of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Hamadan Province  

OpenAIRE

Introduction & Objective: The aim of the study was to identify larval habitats and new species and determine the exact distribution of Culicidae in Hamadan Province.Materials & Methods: This descriptive,cross -sectional study was conducted in six regions of Hamadan Province during 2010. Sampling method was carried out by standard Dipping method. Specimens were mounted by lactophenol solution and were sent to Medical Entomology Laboratory, Tehran University of Medical Sciences with related cod...

Dehghan, H.; Moosa Kazemi, S. H.; Zahirnia, A. H.; Davari, B.; Sharifi, F.

2011-01-01

88

Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea home range and habitat use during the non-breeding season in Assam, India  

OpenAIRE

India is an important non-breeding ground for migratory waterfowl in the Central Asian Flyway. Millions of birds visit wedands across the country, yet information on their distribution, abundance, and use of resources is rudimentary at best. Limited information suggests that populations of several species of migratory ducks are declining due to encroachment of wedand habitats largely by agriculture and industry. The development of conservation strategies is stymied by a lack of ecological inf...

Namgail, T.; Takekawa, J. Y.; Sivananinthaperumal, B.; Areendran, G.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Mundkur, T.; Mccracken, T.; Newman, S.

2011-01-01

89

A review of data on abundance, trends in abundance, habitat utilisation and diet for Southern Ocean ice-breeding seals  

OpenAIRE

The development of models of marine ecosystems in the Southern Ocean is becoming increasingly important as a means of understanding and managing impacts such as exploitation and climate change. Collating data from disparate sources, and understanding biases or uncertainties inherent in those data, are important first steps for improving ecosystem models. This review focuses on seals that breed in ice habitats of the Southern Ocean (i.e. the crabeater seal, Lobodon carcinophaga; Ross seal, Omm...

Southwell, C.; Bengtson, J.; Bester, M. N.; Schytte-blix, A.; Bornemann, Horst; Boveng, P.; Cameron, M.; Forcada, J.; Laake, J.; Nordøy, E.; Plo?tz, Joachim; Rogers, T.; Steinhage, Daniel; Stewart, B.; Trathan, P.

2012-01-01

90

Mosquito Species Associated Within Some Western Himalayas Phytogeographic Zones in the Garhwal Region of India  

OpenAIRE

Thirty four species of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected across three phytogeographic zones; tropical (300 to 1000 m), sub tropical (1000 to 2000 m) and temperate (2000 to 3000 m) in the Garhwal region of India. They included 5 genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex and Uranotaenia. Of these, the immature forms of 23 species were recovered from different breeding habitats. The larval habitats were seepage pools, river beds, rice fields, tanks, forest pools, ditches, streams, ...

Pemola Devi, N.; Jauhari, R. K.

2007-01-01

91

A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

2001-06-04

92

Species Composition and Relative Abundance of Mosquitoes in Swat, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae was conducted in Swat Pakistan, from April to September during 2000. The survey involved the sampling of both, adult and immature stages of mosquitoes, and recovered a total of 21 species in five genera. Sampling of adult mosquitoes involved Pyrethrum spray collections, Man-biting collections, and Animal-biting collection. Immature stages of mosquitoes were collected from variety of habitats including springs, irrigation channels, rice fields, marshes, temporary pools, construction pools, agriculture pools, river margins, ditches, waste water drains, wells and tree holes. During the study most of the species built up their populations in June, July and August, while a few increased their populations in September. During the survey of immature stages, from a total of 138 samples taken, Cx. quinquefasciatus showed maximum frequency of occurrence (recovered from 48 samples followed by An. maculatus (17 samples, Cx. pseudovishnui (14 samples, An. annularis and An. stephensi (13 samples each, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus (11 samples, An. splendidus (5 samples and Cx. theileri (4 samples. The rest of the species occurred infrequently. The observations on habitat specificity of different species of mosquitoes showed the rice fields as the most favorable site for mosquito breeding (harboring 12 species followed by river margins (five species and temporary pools and springs (four species each. During this study Ae. aegypti was recovered from tyres in Mingora; it was not reported earlier from Swat.

Ikram Ilahi

2013-04-01

93

Aquatic insects of New York salt marsh associated with mosquito larval habitat and their potential utility as bioindicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonomic survey of salt marsh aquatic insects on Long Island, New York, USA and to evaluate their utility for non-target pesticide impacts and environmental biomonitoring. A total of 18 species from 11 families and five orders were collected repeatedly during the five month study period. Diptera was the most diverse order with nine species from four families, followed by Coleoptera with four species from two families, Heteroptera with three species from three families, then Odonata and the hexapod Collembola with one species each. Water boatmen, Trichocorixa verticalis Fieber (Heteroptera: Corixidae) and a shore fly, Ephydra subopaca Loew (Diptera: Ephydridae), were the two most commonly encountered species. An additional six species; Anurida maritima Guérin-Méneville (Collembola: Neanuridae), Mesovelia mulsanti White (Heteroptera: Mesovelidae), Enochrus hamiltoni Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Tropisternus quadristriatus Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Dasyhelea pseudocincta Waugh and Wirth (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and Brachydeutera argentata Walker (Diptera: Ephydridae), were found regularly. Together with the less common Erythrodiplax berenice Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae), these nine species were identified as the most suitable candidates for pesticide and environmental impact monitoring due to abundance, position in the food chain, and extended seasonal occurrence. This study represents a first step towards developing an insect-based index of biological integrity for salt marsh health assessment. PMID:22957707

Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

2011-01-01

94

Comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies: importance of habitat preference and breeding behavior on genetic structure in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historical geological events and climatic changes are believed to have played important roles in shaping the current distribution of species. However, sympatric species may have responded in different ways to such climatic fluctuations. Here we compared genetic structures of two corvid species, the Azure-winged Magpie Cyanopica cyanus and the Eurasian Magpie Pica pica, both widespread but with different habitat dependence and some aspects of breeding behavior. Three mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns were used to examine their co-distributed populations in East China and the Iberian Peninsula. Both species showed deep divergences between these two regions that were dated to the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene. In the East Chinese clade of C. cyanus, populations were subdivided between Northeast China and Central China, probably since the early to mid-Pleistocene, and the Central subclade showed a significant pattern of isolation by distance. In contrast, no genetic structure was found in the East China populations of P. pica. We suggest that the different patterns in the two species are at least partly explained by ecological differences between them, especially in habitat preference and perhaps also breeding behavior. These dissimilarities in life history traits might have affected the dispersal and survival abilities of these two species differently during environmental fluctuations. PMID:22842292

Zhang, Ruiying; Song, Gang; Qu, Yanhua; Alström, Per; Ramos, Raül; Xing, Xiaoying; Ericson, Per G P; Fjeldså, Jon; Wang, Haitao; Yang, Xiaojun; Kristin, Anton; Shestopalov, Alexander M; Choe, Jae Chun; Lei, Fumin

2012-11-01

95

Comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies : importance of habitat preference and breeding behavior on genetic structure in China  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Historical geological events and climatic changes are believed to have played important roles in shaping the current distribution of species. However, sympatric species may have responded in different ways to such climatic fluctuations. Here we compared genetic structures of two corvid species, the Azure-winged Magpie Cyanopica cyanus and the Eurasian Magpie Pica pica, both widespread but with different habitat dependence and some aspects of breeding behavior. Three mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns were used to examine their co-distributed populations in East China and the Iberian Peninsula. Both species showed deep divergences between these two regions that were dated to the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene. In the East Chinese clade of C. cyanus, populations were subdivided between Northeast China and Central China, probably since the early to mid-Pleistocene, and the Central subclade showed a significant pattern of isolation by distance. In contrast, no genetic structure was found in the East China populations of P. pica. We suggest that the different patterns in the two species are at least partly explained by ecological differences between them, especially in habitat preference and perhaps also breeding behavior. These dissimilarities in life history traits might have affected the dispersal and survival abilities of these two species differently during environmental fluctuations.

Zhang, Ruiying; Song, Gang

2012-01-01

96

Laboratory evaluation of Mesocyclops annulatus (Wierzejski, 1892) (Copepoda: Cyclopidea) as a predator of container-breeding mosquitoes in Argentina  

OpenAIRE

In laboratory bioassays we tested the predatory capacity of the copepod Mesocyclops annulatus on Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens larvae. A single adult female of M. annulatus caused 51.6% and 52.3% mortality of 50 first instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively, in a 72 h test period. When alternative food was added to the containers, mortality rates declined to 16% and 10.3% for Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively. When 50 first instar larvae of each of the two mosquito ...

Micieli, Mari?a V.; Gerardo Marti; Garci?a, Juan J.

2002-01-01

97

Unravelling the annual cycle in a migratory animal: breeding-season habitat loss drives population declines of monarch butterflies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Threats to migratory animals can occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. Populations of the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America have declined over the last 21 years. Three hypotheses have been posed to explain the decline: habitat loss on the overwintering grounds in Mexico, habitat loss on the breeding grounds in the United States and Canada, and extreme weather events. Our objectives were to assess population viability, determine which life stage, season and geographical region are contributing the most to population dynamics and test the three hypotheses that explain the observed population decline. We developed a spatially structured, stochastic and density-dependent periodic projection matrix model that integrates patterns of migratory connectivity and demographic vital rates across the annual cycle. We used perturbation analysis to determine the sensitivity of population abundance to changes in vital rate among life stages, seasons and geographical regions. Next, we compared the singular effects of each threat to the full model where all factors operate concurrently. Finally, we generated predictions to assess the risk of host plant loss as a result of genetically modified crops on current and future monarch butterfly population size and extinction probability. Our year-round population model predicted population declines of 14% and a quasi-extinction probability (5% within a century. Monarch abundance was more than four times more sensitive to perturbations of vital rates on the breeding grounds than on the wintering grounds. Simulations that considered only forest loss or climate change in Mexico predicted higher population sizes compared to milkweed declines on the breeding grounds. Our model predictions also suggest that mitigating the negative effects of genetically modified crops results in higher population size and lower extinction risk. Recent population declines stem from reduction in milkweed host plants in the United States that arise from increasing adoption of genetically modified crops and land-use change, not from climate change or degradation of forest habitats in Mexico. Therefore, reducing the negative effects of host plant loss on the breeding grounds is the top conservation priority to slow or halt future population declines of monarch butterflies in North America. PMID:24903085

Flockhart, D T Tyler; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Norris, D Ryan; Martin, Tara G

2014-06-01

98

Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for Marine Protected Areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las ballenas jorobadas viajan a aguas tropicales para reproducirse y criar a sus ballenatos. Es importante entender las características oceanográficas que influencian su distribución para lograr una planificación efectiva de áreas marinas protegidas con hábitats críticos para estos cetáceos. Este es [...] tudio examina la relación entre la profundidad, la pendiente del suelo oceánico y la distribución de estas ballenas, usando avistamientos del 2005 y 2006 en la costa Pacífica de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica (temporada de reproducción del sur y norte en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental). Usamos Análisis de Factores de Nicho Ecológico (ENFA por sus siglas en inglés), donde los índices de Marginalidad y Tolerancia ilustran las restricciones en uso de hábitat. En una escala local, factores físicos como la profundidad y la pendiente definen el hábitat crítico de reproducción y cría de M. novaeangliae. Las divergencias entre las medias de las sub-muestras y la media global del área de estudio en ambas variables eco-geográficas, determinan las limitaciones en requerimientos de hábitat en aspectos topográficos como la profundidad (>100 m) y la pendiente del fondo (>10%), localizando los hábitat críticos para reproducción y cría dentro de la plataforma continental. Los planes y propuestas para un sistema de áreas marinas protegidas deben de considerar la conectividad de la isla del Caño y la Bahía de Drake, así como la extensión de los límites marinos del Parque Nacional Corcovado. Abstract in english Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic [...] features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006). Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA), where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (

L, Oviedo; M, Solís.

2008-06-01

99

Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for Marine Protected Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006. Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP. Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA, where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (Las ballenas jorobadas viajan a aguas tropicales para reproducirse y criar a sus ballenatos. Es importante entender las características oceanográficas que influencian su distribución para lograr una planificación efectiva de áreas marinas protegidas con hábitats críticos para estos cetáceos. Este estudio examina la relación entre la profundidad, la pendiente del suelo oceánico y la distribución de estas ballenas, usando avistamientos del 2005 y 2006 en la costa Pacífica de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica (temporada de reproducción del sur y norte en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Usamos Análisis de Factores de Nicho Ecológico (ENFA por sus siglas en inglés, donde los índices de Marginalidad y Tolerancia ilustran las restricciones en uso de hábitat. En una escala local, factores físicos como la profundidad y la pendiente definen el hábitat crítico de reproducción y cría de M. novaeangliae. Las divergencias entre las medias de las sub-muestras y la media global del área de estudio en ambas variables eco-geográficas, determinan las limitaciones en requerimientos de hábitat en aspectos topográficos como la profundidad (>100 m y la pendiente del fondo (>10%, localizando los hábitat críticos para reproducción y cría dentro de la plataforma continental. Los planes y propuestas para un sistema de áreas marinas protegidas deben de considerar la conectividad de la isla del Caño y la Bahía de Drake, así como la extensión de los límites marinos del Parque Nacional Corcovado.

L Oviedo

2008-06-01

100

Mosquito Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Mosquito Control About Mosquitoes General Information Life Cycle Information on ... is Right for You DEET Pesticides for Mosquito Control Larvicides Adulticides Misting Systems Getting Help with Mosquito ...

101

Distribution of sex and age groups of ringed seals Pusa hispida in the fast-ice breeding habitat of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard  

OpenAIRE

Spatial distribution of various age- and sex groups of ringed seals (N = 94; 19 adult males, 33 adult females and 42 subadults) was studied in their fast-ice breeding habitat in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May 2004. Adult females occupied the inner, most stable ice area, while subadults were found predominantly in the outer parts of the fast-ice, where the ice conditions are more unstable. Adult males were scattered across these 2 areas; some were intermingled with breeding females while o...

Krafft, Bjørn A.; Kovacs, Kit M.; Lydersen, Christian

2007-01-01

102

The spatial distribution and size of rook (Corvus frugilegus) breeding colonies is affected by both the distribution of foraging habitat and by intercolony competition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explanations for the variation in the number of nests at bird colonies have focused on competitive or habitat effects without considering potential interactions between the two. For the rook, a colonial corvid which breeds seasonally but forages around the colony throughout the year, both the amount of foraging habitat and its interaction with the number of competitors from surrounding colonies are important predictors of colony size. The distance over which these effects are strongest indicates that, for rooks, colony size may be limited outside of the breeding season when colony foraging ranges are larger and overlap to a greater extent. PMID:10983832

Griffin, L R; Thomas, C J

2000-07-22

103

Breeding loggerhead marine turtles Caretta caretta in Dry Tortugas National Park, USA, show high fidelity to diverse habitats near nesting beaches  

Science.gov (United States)

We used satellite telemetry to identify in-water habitat used by individuals in the smallest North-west Atlantic subpopulation of adult nesting loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta during the breeding season. During 2010, 2011 and 2012 breeding periods, a total of 20 adult females used habitats proximal to nesting beaches with various levels of protection within Dry Tortugas National Park. We then used a rapid, high-resolution, digital imaging system to map habitat adjacent to nesting beaches, revealing the diversity and distribution of available benthic cover. Turtle behaviour showing measurable site-fidelity to these diverse habitats has implications for managing protected areas and human activities within them. Protecting diverse benthic areas adjacent to loggerhead turtle nesting beaches here and elsewhere could provide benefits for overall biodiversity conservation.

Hart, Kristen M.; Zawada, David G.; Sartain, Autumn R.; Fujisaki, Ikuko

2014-01-01

104

Habitat Requirements of Breeding Black-Backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in Managed, Unburned Boreal Forest  

OpenAIRE

We investigated home-range characteristics and habitat selection by Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in an unburned, boreal forest landscape managed by mosaic harvesting in Quebec, Canada. Habitat selection by this species was specifically examined to determine home-range establishment and foraging activities. We hypothesized that Black-backed Woodpeckers would respond to harvesting by adjusting their home-range size as a function of the amount of dead wood available. Twenty-two b...

Tremblay, Junior A.; Jacques Ibarzabal; Christian Dussault; Savard, Jean-pierre L.

2009-01-01

105

Effective Autodissemination of Pyriproxyfen to Breeding Sites by the Exophilic Malaria Vector Anopheles Arabiensis in Semi-Field Settings in Tanzania.  

OpenAIRE

Malaria vector control strategies that target adult female mosquitoes are challenged by the emergence of insecticide resistance and behavioural resilience. Conventional larviciding is restricted by high operational costs and inadequate knowledge of mosquito-breeding habitats in rural settings that might be overcome by the juvenile hormone analogue, Pyriproxyfen (PPF). This study assessed the potential for Anopheles arabiensis to pick up and transfer lethal doses of PPF from contamination site...

Lwetoijera, Dickson; Harris, Caroline; Kiware, Samson; Dongus, Stefan; Devine, Gregor J.; Mccall, Philip J.; Majambere, Silas

2014-01-01

106

Population interactions between Culex vishnui mosquitoes and their natural enemies in Pondicherry, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Population interactions among mosquitoes in the Culex vishnui subgroup, which are vectors of Japanese Encephalitis, and their natural enemies were studied in Pondicherry, India. We tested the hypothesis that the breakdown of interactions between the larvae and their natural enemies due to drought followed by rain was responsible for the sudden increase in the vector population above the threshold for disease transmission during the heavy rainy period. We randomly sampled mosquito larvae and their predators in different breeding habitats and subjected the mean densities of prey, predator, and mosquito larvae infected with parasites/pathogens to covariate analysis to understand the interaction between prey and their natural enemies in relation to environmental factors. In rice fields, neither prey nor predator showed any positive correlation with temperature, RH, or the number of rainy days. However, the pathogen/parasite of mosquito immatures showed a positive correlation with RH. Among the mosquito predators, notonectids exhibited a significant positive correlation with Cx. vishnui larvae. The parasitic Romanomermis iyengari and pathogenic Coelomomyces anopheliscus also showed positive correlations with immatures. No parasites and pathogens of mosquito larvae were recorded in shallow water pools (SWP) or cement tanks (CT) during the study period. Important predators recorded in SWP were notonectids, damselfly nymphs, Diplonychus indicus, and hydrophilids. Dragonfly nymphs, gerrids, and tadpole shrimps were recorded in CT. In CT, prey and their predators were positively correlated with RH and rainy days. In SWP, there was a highly significant correlation between prey, predators and environmental factors. We conclude that rice fields are a stable ecosystem where regular interaction occurs between larvae and their natural enemies and a sudden increase in mosquito populations is uncommon. In transient habitats, no such stability is present and they become more important as breeding habitats in terms of seasonality and number. Shallow water pools should be seriously considered for the control of these vectors. PMID:16859094

Das, P K; Sivagnaname, N; Amalraj, D Dominic

2006-06-01

107

50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife.  

Science.gov (United States)

...roosting and breeding.(3...features and structures within... (i) Breeding habitat...breeding population) consisting...habitat between breeding populations to maintain...include manmade structures...

2010-10-01

108

[Foraging habitat selection of Otis tarda dybowskil during its breeding season].  

Science.gov (United States)

From April to July of 2000 and 2001, the authors studied the foraging habitat selection of Otis tarda dybowskil in the southeast Keerqin of Inner Mongolia by sampling method. The results showed that whether at burned or at non-burned grassland, the foraging habitat of Otis tarda dybowski had the same feature in vegetation structure, the plant height was about 13 cm on average, with the highest of 30 cm, and there were abundant species of plants and insects with big density that the bird favored to eat. The bird more concerned with the abundance of plants at burned grassland, while that of insects at non-burned grassland. PMID:15943365

Zhao, Jiang; Wan, Dongmei; Wang, Haitao; Gao, Wei

2005-03-01

109

Aedes mosquito larvae collected from Ishigaki-jima and Taketomi-jima Islands in southern Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation of habitat preference for larval breeding sites by Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes which occur around human dwellings in Ishigaki-jima and Taketomi-jima Islands revealed that Ae. albopictus Skuse 1894 preferred pools in tires and boats and was distributed widely from the coast, inland. Although Ae. riversi Bohart & Ingram, 1946 and Ae. flavopictus miyarai (Tanaka et al, 1979) shared tree holes as larval breeding sites, Ae. riversi was collected near the ocean whereas Ae. flavopictus miyarai was collected inland. Ae. togoi Theobald, 1907 was collected near the coast and strongly preferred boats. Our study showed that habitat preference was different between four species of Aedes mosquito in Ishigaki-jima and Taketomi-jima Islands. PMID:23413700

Tsunoda, Takashi; Fukuchi, Atsuko; Nanbara, Sho; Higa, Yukiko; Takagi, Masahiro

2012-11-01

110

Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae, a predator of container breeding mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

D Dominic Amalraj

2005-12-01

111

Laboratory evaluation of Mesocyclops annulatus (Wierzejski, 1892 (Copepoda: Cyclopidea as a predator of container-breeding mosquitoes in Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In laboratory bioassays we tested the predatory capacity of the copepod Mesocyclops annulatus on Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens larvae. A single adult female of M. annulatus caused 51.6% and 52.3% mortality of 50 first instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively, in a 72 h test period. When alternative food was added to the containers, mortality rates declined to 16% and 10.3% for Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively. When 50 first instar larvae of each of the two mosquito species tested were placed together with a single adult female of M. annulatus, mortality rates were 75.5% for Ae. aegypti larvae and 23.5% for Cx. pipiens larvae in a three day test period. Different density of adult females of M. annulatus ranged from 5 to 25 females produced mortality rates of Ae. aegypti first instar larvae from 50% to 100% respectively. When a single adult female of M. annulatus was exposed to an increasing number of first-instar Ae. aegypti larvae ranging from 10 to 100, 100% mortality was recorded from 1 to 25 larvae, then mortality declined to 30% with 100 larvae. The average larvae killed per 24 h period by a single copepod were 29.

María V Micieli

2002-09-01

112

A behavioral mechanism underlying ecological divergence in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae  

OpenAIRE

Disruptive selection mediated by predation on aquatic immature stages has been proposed as a major force driving ecological divergence and fostering speciation between the M and S molecular forms of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. In the dry savannahs of West Africa where both molecular forms co-occur, the S form thrives in temporary pools filled with rainwater, whereas the M form preferentially breeds in permanent freshwater habitats where predator pressure is higher. Here, ...

Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Bouyer, Je?re?my; Morand, Serge; Besansky, Nora J.; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Simard, Fre?de?ric

2010-01-01

113

Population Densities of Birds Breeding in Urbanized Habitats in the Grabiszyn District in the City of Wroc?aw  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies were carried out in 2010 by mean of simplified version of the mapping method. The study area (395 ha was located close to the city centre. It comprised a mosaic of urbanized habitats, with a clear dominance of green areas, such as parks (41.1 ha, gardens, cemeteries and tree clumps. A total of 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the whole study area. The most common (<25 pairs/100 ha were Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Apus apus and Columba livia. Numerous (7-15 pairs/100 ha were also the following species: Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Serinus serinus, Turdus merula and Pica pica. Insectivorous birds were the most common birds constituting 63.3%, and granivorous -32.6% of all pairs recorded. Most birds nested in tree holes (39.3%, in/on buildings (30.2% and in trees/shrubs (25.6%. Distribution of breeding pairs of 23 bird species was presented on maps. Population trends for 17 species were documented. Rapid increase in numbers of Turdus pilaris, Corvus cornix and Phoenicurus phoenicurus and decrease of Pica pica were recorded.

Kopij Grzegorz

2014-11-01

114

Study of mosquito fauna in rice ecosystems around Hanoi, Northern Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Species of the Culex vishnui subgroup, Cx. fuscocephala and Cx. gelidus, which are known Japanese encephalitis (JE) vectors, are distributed in rice agroecosystems in Asian countries. Hence, although ecological studies of rice agroecosystems in northern Vietnam are necessary, very few integrated studies of breeding habitats of mosquitoes, including JE vectors, have been conducted. We carried out a field study and investigated the mosquito fauna in six rice production areas in northern Vietnam during the rainy and dry seasons of 2009. Mosquitoes and potential mosquito predators were collected from aquatic habitats by using larval dippers. We collected 1780 Culex individuals (including 254 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus; 113 Cx. vishnui, 58 Cx. vishnui complex, consisting of Cx. vishnui and Cx. pseudovishnui; 12 Cx. gelidus; 1 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus; and 1 Cx. fuscocephala), 148 Anopheles individuals (including 5 An. vagus), 1 Mansonia annulifera, and 1 Mimomyia chamberlaini during the rainy season. During the dry season, we collected 176 Culex individuals (including 33 Cx. vishnui, 24 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 8 Cx. vishnui complex, and 1 Cx. gelidus) and 186 Anopheles individuals (including 9 An. tessellatus, 2 An. kochi, and 2 An. barbumbrosus). We found mosquitoes in all aquatic habitats, namely, rice fields, ditches, ponds, wetlands, irrigation canals, and rice nurseries, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. vishnui complex were found in all the above six areas. Heteroptera such as Micronecta, Veliidae, and Pleidae were abundant and widely distributed in both the seasons. The abundance of mosquito larvae was higher in the rice fields, ditches, and ponds during the rainy season than during the dry season. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui complex, Cx. fuscocephala, and Cx. gelidus were abundant in rice agroecosystems (rice fields, ditches, ponds, and wetlands) in northern Vietnam, and their abundance was high during the rainy season. These findings deepen our understanding of mosquito ecology and strengthen mosquito control strategies to be applied in rice ecosystems Vietnam in the future. PMID:25445747

Ohba, Shin-Ya; Van Soai, Nguyen; Van Anh, Dinh Thi; Nguyen, Yen T; Takagi, Masahiro

2015-02-01

115

Ecology and habitat of breeding Northern Goshawks in the inland Pacific Northwest: A summary of research in the 1990s  

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During the 1990s, we conducted research on the distribution, productivity, and habitat relationships of Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in eastern Oregon and Washington. Our research was initiated primarily in response to concerns raised about the status of Northern Goshawks in the western US, and coincided with early attempts to list the species as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act and the publication of management guidelines for goshawks in the southwestern US. To develop baseline information on the status, distribution, and habitat relationships of goshawks in eastside forests (i.e., east of the Cascade Mountain Range) in the Pacific Northwest, we established study areas on three national forests in eastern Oregon in 1992, adding a fourth study area in central Washington in 1994. We focused on the breeding season and nesting habitat because of its primary importance to goshawk ecology and the logistical feasibility of finding nests. Density of breeding pairs ranged from 0.03-0.09/100 ha, and annual productivity ranged from 0.3-2.2 young fledged/nest. Goshawks selected forest stands with trees of larger diameter and greater canopy closure for nesting than available in the landscape. Occasionally nests could be found in large trees in open-canopied stands. As distance increased from the nest site, forest type and structure became more heterogeneous and the prevalence of older-seral-stage forest declined. Dry or wet openings were present in most territories, often within close proximity to nest stands. Goshawks ate a variety of mammalian and avian prey. Mammal species made up a larger portion of prey biomass on two of the national forests, but avian species appeared to be more prevalent in the diet of goshawks in the most northern study area. We recommend that the existing management guidelines for goshawks in the Southwest form a basis for management in the inland Pacific Northwest, particularly with regard to nested spatial concepts, emphasis on management of prey, and the use of silviculture to promote the development and replacement of old growth or late-seral-stage forest. Our research and management recommendations can be used in concert with the Southwestern management guidelines to establish a mix of vegetation structural stages to support goshawk populations, their prey, and other forest wildlife species specifically for the inland Pacific Northwest.

DeStefano, S.; McGrath, M.T.; Daw, S.K.; Desimone, S.M.

2006-01-01

116

Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?  

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Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07% and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18% were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

Márcio Goulart Mocellin

2009-12-01

117

Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importanc [...] e as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

Márcio Goulart, Mocellin; Taynãna César, Simões; Teresa Fernandes Silva do, Nascimento; Maria Lucia França, Teixeira; Leon Philip, Lounibos; Ricardo Lourenço de, Oliveira.

1171-11-01

118

The Importance of Maintaining Upland Forest Habitat Surrounding Salamander Breeding Ponds: Case Study of the Eastern Tiger Salamander in New York, USA  

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Full Text Available Most amphibians use both wetland and upland habitats, but the extent of their movement in forested habitats is poorly known. We used radiotelemetry to observe the movements of adult and juvenile eastern tiger salamanders over a 4-year period. Females tended to move farther from the breeding ponds into upland forested habitat than males, while the distance a juvenile moved appeared to be related to body size, with the largest individuals moving as far as the adult females. Individuals chose refugia in native pitch pine—oak forested habitat and avoided open fields, roads, and developed areas. We also observed a difference in potential predation pressures in relation to the distance an individual moved from the edge of the pond. Our results support delineating forested wetland buffer zones on a case-by-case basis to reduce the impacts of concentrated predation, to increase and protect the availability of pitch pine—oak forests near the breeding pond, and to focus primarily on the habitat needs of the adult females and larger juveniles, which in turn will encompass habitat needs of adult males and smaller juveniles.

Valorie Titus

2014-12-01

119

Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina, Brasil. I - Distribuição por habitat  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer a influência exercida por três diferentes biótopos em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina (PNSB sobre a fauna local de mosquitos. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas capturas mensais em ambiente silvestre e domiciliar, em isca humana, durante três diferentes períodos do dia, pelo período de 24 meses consecutivos, de janeiro de 1991 a dezembro de 1992. RESULTADOS: Foram capturados 11.808 espécimes adultos, pertencentes a 28 espécies. Ru. reversa e An. cruzii foram predominantes, respectivamente 52,5% e 17,9% do total de mosquitos. Ru. reversa representou 59,4% do total de espécimes no ambiente de mata fechada, seguida por Ru. frontosa com 10,5% e An. cruzii com 9,9%. No ambiente formado por campos de altitude e matas de galeria, o An. cruzii predominou com 48,1%, seguido por Ru. reversa com 28,1%. No ambiente modificado pelo homem, o An. cruzii predominou com 73,7% dos espécimes. Coquillettidia chrysonotum foi a única que se apresentou preferencialmente nesse biótopo: 14,9% no intra, 19,4% no peri e 65,7% no extradomicílio. An. cruzii e Ru. reversa foram constantes em todos os ambientes ao longo do ano. CONCLUSÕES: Com exceção de Cq. chrysonotum, com preferência pelo ambiente modificado pelo homem, os mosquitos apresentam hábitos assinantrópicos no PNSB. An. cruzii, embora assinantrópico, se aproxima e adentra o domicílio para realizar a hematofagia. A presença do Ae. serratus no extra e peridomicílio reforça a importância epidemiológica como vetora potencial de arboviroses. Os Sabethini apresentaram-se exclusivamente silvestres.

Guimarães Anthony Érico

2000-01-01

120

Host range of the parasite Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in Argentina mosquitoes.  

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Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Poinar and Camino 1986) is a nematode parasite of mosquitoes isolated from the Neotropical region. We investigated the host range of this parasite in mosquito populations for a better understanding of the dynamics of temporary breeding sites. Five grassy-pool habitats filled by rainwater were sampled from the summer 2007 through the fall 2008. Eight mosquito species were collected: Anopheles albitarsis, Culex chidesteri, Culex dolosus, Culex maxi, Aedes albifasciatus, Psorophora ciliata, Psorophora cyanescens, and Psorophora albigenu. Six of these species were parasitized: Cx. chidesteri, Cx. dolosus, Cx. maxi, Ae. albifasciatus, Ps. ciliata, and Ps. cyanescens. The occurrence of this mermithid in natural mosquito populations was increased from the end of winter to the end of the spring. Prevalence ranged from 11% to 100%. High levels of infections were registered only in Ae. albifasciatus larvae, the most abundant mosquito species (95%), followed by Cx. dolosus (2.7%). Strelkovimermis spiculatus completed its development in all infected mosquito larvae. The presence of S. spiculatus in six natural mosquito populations increases the number of susceptible species to 24. PMID:23701609

Achinelly, M F; Micieli, M V

2013-06-01

121

Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae), a predator of container breeding mosquitoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faste [...] r with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id) and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars) than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr) of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR) of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

D, Dominic Amalraj; N, Sivagnaname; PK, Das.

2005-12-01

122

Breeding ecology and nesting habitat associations of five marsh bird species in western New York  

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Nesting habitats and nest success of five species of marsh birds were studied during 1997 and 1998 at the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and the adjacent Oak Orchard and Tonawanda State Wildlife Management Areas (WMA) located in western New York. Nest searches located 18 American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), 117 Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), 189 Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), 23 Sora (Porzana carolina), and 72 Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola) nests. Average nest densities in 1998, our best nest searching year, ranged from 0.01/ha for Soras (N = 8) to 0.28/ha for Pied-billed Grebes (N = 160). Mayfield nest success estimates for Least Bittern were 80% (N = 16) in 1997 and 46% (N = 37) in 1998. Nest success estimates were 72% (N = 55) for Pied-billed Grebe, 43% (N = 6) for Sora, and 38% (N = 20) for Virginia Rail. Nests of all five species were located in ???70% emergent vegetation with a mean water depth of 24-56 cm and an average vegetation height that ranged from 69-133 cm. Logistic regression models were developed for each species using habitat variables at nest and random site locations. Each model was ranked with Akaike's Information Criterion for small sample size (AICc). In general, our best models indicated that increased emergent vegetation and horizontal cover with shallow water depths improved the odds of encountering marsh bird nests in the wetlands of western New York. We suggest that managing wetlands as a complex, at different stages of succession, would best benefit marsh bird species.

Lor, S.; Malecki, R.A.

2006-01-01

123

A review of data on abundance, trends in abundance, habitat use and diet of ice-breeding seals in the Southern Ocean  

OpenAIRE

The development of models of marine ecosystems in the Southern Ocean is becoming increasingly important as a means of understanding and managing impacts such as exploitation and climate change. Collating data from disparate sources, and understanding biases or uncertainties inherent in those data, are important first steps for improving ecosystem models. This review focuses on seals that breed in ice habitats of the Southern Ocean (i.e. crabeater seal, Lobodon carcinophaga; Ross seal, Ommatop...

Southwell, C.; Bengston, J.; Bester, M.; Blix, A. S.; Bornemann, H.; Boveng, P.; Cameron, M.; Forcada, J.; Laake, J.; Nordøy, E.; Plo?tz, J.; Rogers, T.; Southwell, D.; Steinhage, D.; Stewart, B. S.

2012-01-01

124

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to the risk of disease transmission in El Ismailia Governorate, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito were surveyed (Nov. 2009 - March 2010) in El Ismailia Governorate. Nine species were reported: Culex pipiens, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. antennatus, Anopheles tenebrosus, An. pharoensis, An. multicolor, Ochlerotatus detritus, Oc. caspius and Culiseta longiareolata. Culex pipiens was the predominant species (ca. 87% larvae and 57% adults). For the 3 common species, Cx. pipiens, Cx. perexiguus, and Cx. antennatus the following were examined: (1) the type and characteristics (temperature and pH) of the breeding habitats and their relation to the larval density and (2) the relation of adult indoor density to the indoor and outdoor temperature and RH. The abundance of mosquito vectors in El Ismailia with its old history of vector transmitted diseases contributes to the risk of mosquito borne disease transmission in this area. This would assist in the control activities. PMID:21980773

Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M; Soliman, Mohamed I; Kenawy, Mohamed A

2011-08-01

125

Use of a remote sensing-based geographic information system in the characterizing spatial patterns for Anopheles minimus A and C breeding habitats in western Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A remote sensing (RS)-based Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to characterize the breeding habitats of Anopheles minimus species A and C in five different districts of Kanchanaburi Province in western Thailand. The GIS and RS were used to monitor the area for the presence and absence of An. minimus A and C in five major land areas, forest, agriculture, urban, water and bare land. The results show that An. minimus A survives both in dense canopy forest and in open fields where agriculture is dominant. A scatter plot of land-use/land-cover for An. minimus, considering proximities to the forest and proximities to agriculture, suggests that An. minimus A has a wider habitat preference, ranging from dense canopy forest to open agricultural fields. A scatter plot for An. minimus C, on the other hand, showed a narrow habitat preference. A scatter plot for proximities performed on separate populations of An. minimus species A, one in the north and the other in the south, showed that there was an association in the northern population with the forest and in the southern population with agricultural areas. There were no statistically significant differences in the scatter plot of proximities to urban areas and water bodies with the An. minimus A north, south, and An. minimus C. LANDSAT TM satellite data classification was used to identify larval habitats that produce An. minimus A and C and analyze proximities between land-use/land-cover classes and locations of larval habitats. An. minimus A has a wide habitat preference, from dense canopy forest to open agricultural fields, while An. minimus C has a narrow habitat preference. PMID:16438139

Rongnoparut, Pornpimol; Ugsang, Donald M; Baimai, Visut; Honda, Kiyoshi; Sithiprasasna, Ratana

2005-09-01

126

Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae in areas with and without larviciding. Potential environmental and programmatic determinants of habitat detection coverage and detection sensitivity of mosquito larvae were recorded during guided walks with 64 different CORPs to assess the accuracy of data each had collected the previous day. Results CORPs reported the presence of 66.2% of all aquatic habitats (1,963/2,965, but only detected Anopheles larvae in 12.6% (29/230 of habitats that contained them. Detection sensitivity was particularly low for late-stage Anopheles (2.7%, 3/111, the most direct programmatic indicator of malaria vector productivity. Whether a CORP found a wet habitat or not was associated with his/her unfamiliarity with the area (Odds Ratio (OR [95% confidence interval (CI] = 0.16 [0.130, 0.203], P Conclusions Accessibility of habitats in urban settings presents a major challenge because the majority of compounds are fenced for security reasons. Furthermore, CORPs under-reported larvae especially where larvicides were applied. This UMCP system for larval surveillance in cities must be urgently revised to improve access to enclosed compounds and the sensitivity with which habitats are searched for larvae.

Shoo Bryson

2009-12-01

127

Hydrology and Mosquito Population Dynamics around a Hydropower Reservoir in Africa  

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Malaria is associated with dams because their reservoirs provide mosquitoes, the vector of malaria, with permanent breeding sites. The risk of contracting malaria is likely to be enhanced following the increasing trend of hydropower dam construction to satisfy the expanding energy needs in developing countries. A close examination of its adverse health impacts is critical in the design, construction, and operation phases. We will present results of extensive field studies in 2012 and 2013 around the Koka Reservoir, Ethiopia. The results uncover the importance of reservoir management especially after the rainy seasons. Furthermore, we show the capability of a newly modified hydrology, entomology and malaria transmission simulator, HYDREMATS (Bomblies et al, 2008), and its potential as a tool for evaluating environmental management strategies to control malaria. HYDREMATS was developed to represent how the hydrology in nearby villages is impacted by the reservoir system, and the role of different types of vector ecologies associated with different Anopheles mosquito species. The hydrology component of HYDREMATS simulates three different mosquito breeding habitats: rain-fed pools, groundwater pools, and shoreline water. The entomology component simulates the life cycles of An. funestus and An. arabiensis, the two main vectors around the reservoir. The model was calibrated over the 2012-2013 period. The impact of reservoir water level management on the mosquito population is explored based on numerical model simulations and field experiments.

Endo, N.; Eltahir, E. A.

2013-12-01

128

Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 6 - Breeding in empty conditions of rice fields in South-Eastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available Studies on culicid breeding in empty rice fields were carried out during the cultivation cycle from May to November 1993. This period corresponded to stages 1 and 2, when empty conditions prevailed. Breeding occurred in stage 1 and the first part of stage 2, corresponding respectively to fallow uncultivated and ploughing situations. No breeding was found to take place during the second part of stage 2 when transient floods and harrowing occurred. The predominant species were Aedes scapularis, Culex nigripalpus and Cx. mollis. The Pilosus Group of Culex (Melanoconion was found at lower densities. Some epidemiological considerations are presented.

Forattini Oswaldo Paulo

1994-01-01

129

Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropicenvironment: 5- Breeding of Anopheles albitarsis in flooded rice fields in South-Eastern Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Studies on breeding Anopheles albitarsis and association with rice growth in irrigated paddy fields were carried out during the rice cultivation cycle from December 1993 to March 1994. This period corresponded to the length of time of permanent paddy flooding. Breeding occurred in the early stage up until five weeks after transplantation when rice plant height was small. That inverse correlation may give potential direction to control measures.

Forattini Oswaldo Paulo; Kakitani Iná; Massad Eduardo; Marucci Daniel

1994-01-01

130

Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropic environment. 5--breeding of Anopheles albitarsis in flooded rice fields in south-eastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on breeding Anopheles albitarsis and association with rice growth in irrigated paddy fields were carried out during the rice cultivation cycle from December 1993 to March 1994. This period corresponded to the length of time of permanent paddy flooding. Breeding occurred in the early stage up until five weeks after transplantation when rice plant height was small. That inverse correlation may give potential direction to control measures. PMID:7660032

Forattini, O P; Kakitani, I; Massad, E; Marucci, D

1994-10-01

131

Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropicenvironment: 5- Breeding of Anopheles albitarsis in flooded rice fields in South-Eastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available Studies on breeding Anopheles albitarsis and association with rice growth in irrigated paddy fields were carried out during the rice cultivation cycle from December 1993 to March 1994. This period corresponded to the length of time of permanent paddy flooding. Breeding occurred in the early stage up until five weeks after transplantation when rice plant height was small. That inverse correlation may give potential direction to control measures.

Forattini Oswaldo Paulo

1994-01-01

132

Use of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) habitat models to predict breeding birds on the San Pedro River, Arizona  

Science.gov (United States)

Successful management practices of avian populations depend on understanding relationships between birds and their habitat, especially in rare habitats, such as riparian areas of the desert Southwest. Remote-sensing technology has become popular in habitat modeling, but most of these models focus on single species, leaving their applicability to understanding broader community structure and function largely untested. We investigated the usefulness of two Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) habitat models to model avian abundance and species richness on the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona. Although NDVI was positively correlated with our bird metrics, the amount of explained variation was low. We then investigated the addition of vegetation metrics and other remote-sensing metrics to improve our models. Although both vegetation metrics and remotely sensed metrics increased the power of our models, the overall explained variation was still low, suggesting that general avian community structure may be too complex for NDVI models.

McFarland, Tiffany Marie; van Riper, Charles, III

2013-01-01

133

North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control  

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Full Text Available Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.

Gabrielle E. Sakolsky-Hoopes

2012-12-01

134

North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

2012-01-01

135

Alguns aspectos da ecologia dos mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) de uma área de planície (granjas Calábria), em Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: V. Criadouros / Some aspects of the ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of an area of plains (granjas Calábria), in Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: V. Breeding places  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apresentamos os resultados de observações sobre os criadouros dos mosquitos, que realizamos numa fazenda - Granjas Calábria, da Baixada de Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, no período de agosto de 1981 a julho de 1983. A maioria das espécies locais preferiu coleções líquidas no solo, particularmente as d [...] e caráter natural, não deixando, entretanto, de procurar aquelas propiciadas pelas atividades humanas. Os criadouros transitórios foram mais freqüentados por Culex saltanensis e pelas espécies da tribo Aedini, como Aedes scapularis, Aedes taeniorhynchus, Psorophora ciliata e Psorophora confinnis, enquanto os de caráter permanente foram mananciais de formas imaturas de Mansonia titillans, Culex amazonensis, Culex chidesteri, Culex bidens, Culex declarator, Culex nigripalpus e Culex plectoporpe. Algumas espécies foram coletadas em recipientes naturais: Culex ocellatus, os Culex (Microculex), Phoniomyia davisi, Phoniomyia deanei e Wyeomyia forcipenis, em bromélias; Aedes terrens, Culex gairus e Culex imitador, em buraco em árvore; e Wyeomyia leucostigma, em axilas submersas das folhas de taboas (Thypha dominguensis). Culex gairus foi encontrado pela primeira vez criando em recipientes artificiais, locais também preferidos por Culex corniger, Culex quinquefasciatus e Limatus durhami. Abstract in english Results are presented of observations on the breeding places of mosquitoes, carried out in a coastal lowland farm - Granjas Calábria, in JAcarepaguá, city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The majority of species preferred breeding places on the ground, chiefly the natural ones, but also developed in those [...] originated from human activities. Cx. saltanensis and the species belonging to the Aedini tribe, such as Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Ps. ciliata, Ps. confinnis and Ps. Pseudomelanota were more abundant in temporary breeding places, while Ma. titillans, Cx. amazonensis, Cx. chidesteri, Cx. bidens, Cx. declarator, cx. nigipalpus and Cx. plectoporpe occurred usually in the permanent ones. Some species were collected in natural recipients: Cx. ocellatus, the Cx. (Microculex), Ph davisi, Ph. deanei and Wy. forcipenis, in bromeliads, Ae. terrens, Cx. imitator and Cx. gairus, in tree-holes; and Wy. leucostigma, in the submerged Typha dominguensis leaf axils. Cx. gairus was found for the first time breeding in artificial containers, which were also preferred by Cx. corniger, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Li. durhaml.

Ricardo, Lourenço-de-Oliveira; Rosemarie, Heyden; Teresa Fernandes da, Silva.

1986-09-01

136

The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently transported in the absence of water in the form of hibernating embryos. Once introduced either as embryos or juveniles in ponds, the annual killifish can effectively reduce the larval population because of its aggressive predatory activity.

Adrias Araceli Q

2010-05-01

137

Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Fauna of Qom Province, Iran  

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Background: There is very little information about the mosquito fauna of Qom Province, central Iran. By now only three species; Anopheles claviger, An. multicolor, and An. superpictus have been reported in the province. To study mosquito fauna and providing a primary checklist, an investigation was carried out on a collection of mosquitoes in this province.Methods: To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna, larval collections were carried out from different habitats on 19 occasions usi...

Saghafipour, A.; MR Abai; Farzinnia, B.; Nafar, R.; Ladonni, H.; Azari-hamidian, S.

2012-01-01

138

Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) em áreas do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Brasil: 1 ­ Distribuição por hábitat Mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) ecology in the Iguaçu National Park, Brazil: 1 ­ Habitat distribution  

OpenAIRE

Estabelecemos a influência exercida pela cobertura vegetal de quatro diferentes biótopos em áreas do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu (PNI) sobre a fauna local de mosquitos. Realizaram-se capturas bimestrais, em isca humana e armadilha Shannon, em três diferentes períodos do dia, em ambiente silvestre e domiciliar, durante 24 meses consecutivos. Dentre os 20.273 espécimes de fêmeas adultas capturadas, pertencentes a 44 espécies, Ochlerotatus serratus (10,3%), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9,7%)...

Anthony Érico Guimarães; Catarina Macedo Lopes; Rubens Pinto de Mello; Jeronimo Alencar

2003-01-01

139

Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em áreas do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Brasil: 1 ­ Distribuição por hábitat Mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae ecology in the Iguaçu National Park, Brazil: 1 ­ Habitat distribution  

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Full Text Available Estabelecemos a influência exercida pela cobertura vegetal de quatro diferentes biótopos em áreas do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu (PNI sobre a fauna local de mosquitos. Realizaram-se capturas bimestrais, em isca humana e armadilha Shannon, em três diferentes períodos do dia, em ambiente silvestre e domiciliar, durante 24 meses consecutivos. Dentre os 20.273 espécimes de fêmeas adultas capturadas, pertencentes a 44 espécies, Ochlerotatus serratus (10,3%, Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9,7%, Mansonia titillans (9,6% e Chagasia fajardoi (8,8% foram predominantes. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia theobaldi, Wyeomyia aporonoma e Wy. confusa ocorreram exclusivamente em áreas com vegetação bem preservada e densa configuração. Culex nigripalpus, Oc. pennai, Oc. serratus, Sabethes purpureus e Sa. albiprivus foram capturados nos três biótopos essencialmente silvestres. Na mata no entorno da represa foram capturadas principalmente An. albitarsis s.l., An. galvaoi, An. evansae, An. fluminensis, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Cq. juxtamansonia, Wy. quasilongirostris e Onirion personatum. As espécies que apresentaram maiores incidências na área sob ação antrópica foram Ch. fajardoi, Cq. fasciolata, Cq. nitens e Ma. titillans.A study of the mosquito fauna in the Iguaçu National Park focused on population behavior in four biotopes with different types of plant cover inside the Park. Systematic bimonthly diurnal and nocturnal human bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted in both forest and domiciliary environments over the course of 24 months. A total of 20,273 adult mosquito specimens belonging to 44 species were collected: Ochlerotatus serratus (10.3%, Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9.7%, Mansonia titillans (9.6%, and Chagasia fajardoi (8.8% were the most frequently captured mosquitoes. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia theobaldi, Wyeomyia aporonoma, and Wy. confusa were captured almost exclusively in well-preserved areas with dense forest cover. Culex nigripalpus, Oc. pennai, Oc. serratus, Sabethes purpureus, and Sa. albiprivus were captured in three essentially sylvatic biotopes. Species captured in the forest areas around a dam were: An. albitarsis s.l., An. galvaoi, An. evansae, An. fluminensis, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Cq. juxtamansonia, Wy. quasilongirostris, and Onirion personatum, Ch. fajardoi, Cq. fasciolata, Cq nitens, and Ma. titillans were the most frequently captured species in a residential area.

Anthony Érico Guimarães

2003-08-01

140

Cyanobacteria associated with Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in southern Mexico.  

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Cyanobacteria associated with Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann larval habitats from southern Chiapas, Mexico, were isolated and identified from water samples and larval midguts using selective medium BG-11. Larval breeding sites were classified according to their hydrology and dominant vegetation. Cyanobacteria isolated in water samples were recorded and analyzed according to hydrological and vegetation habitat breeding types, and mosquito larval abundance. In total, 19 cyanobacteria species were isolated from water samples. Overall, the most frequently isolated cyanobacterial taxa were Phormidium sp., Oscillatoria sp., Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis, Lyngbya lutea, P. animalis, and Anabaena cf. spiroides. Cyanobacteria were especially abundant in estuaries, irrigation canals, river margins and mangrove lagoons, and more cyanobacteria were isolated from Brachiaria mutica, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Hymenachne amplexicaulis habitats. Cyanobacteria were found in habitats with low to high An. albimanus larval abundance, but Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis was associated with habitats of low larval abundance. No correlation was found between water chemistry parameters and the presence of cyanobacteria, however, water temperature (29.2-29.4 degrees C) and phosphate concentration (79.8-136.5 ppb) were associated with medium and high mosquito larvae abundance. In An. albimanus larval midguts, only six species of cyanobacteria were isolated, the majority being from the most abundant cyanobacteria in water samples. PMID:12495179

Vázquez-Martínez, M Guadalupe; Rodríguez, Mario H; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Méndez-Sanchez, José D; Bond-Compeán, J Guillermo; Cold-Morgan, Michelle

2002-11-01

141

Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of wat...

Shiff Clive; Musapa Mulenga; Kamanga Aniset; Clennon Julie A; Glass Gregory E

2010-01-01

142

Breeding sites of Phlebotomus sergenti, the sand fly vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Judean Desert.  

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Phlebotomine sand flies transmit Leishmania, phlebo-viruses and Bartonella to humans. A prominent gap in our knowledge of sand fly biology remains the ecology of their immature stages. Sand flies, unlike mosquitoes do not breed in water and only small numbers of larvae have been recovered from diverse habitats that provide stable temperatures, high humidity and decaying organic matter. We describe studies designed to identify and characterize sand fly breeding habitats in a Judean Desert focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To detect breeding habitats we constructed emergence traps comprising sand fly-proof netting covering defined areas or cave openings. Large size horizontal sticky traps within the confined spaces were used to trap the sand flies. Newly eclosed male sand flies were identified based on their un-rotated genitalia. Cumulative results show that Phlebotomus sergenti the vector of Leishmania tropica rests and breeds inside caves that are also home to rock hyraxes (the reservoir hosts of L. tropica) and several rodent species. Emerging sand flies were also trapped outside covered caves, probably arriving from other caves or from smaller, concealed cracks in the rocky ledges close by. Man-made support walls constructed with large boulders were also identified as breeding habitats for Ph. sergenti albeit less important than caves. Soil samples obtained from caves and burrows were rich in organic matter and salt content. In this study we developed and put into practice a generalized experimental scheme for identifying sand fly breeding habitats and for assessing the quantities of flies that emerge from them. An improved understanding of sand fly larval ecology should facilitate the implementation of effective control strategies of sand fly vectors of Leishmania. PMID:22802981

Moncaz, Aviad; Faiman, Roy; Kirstein, Oscar; Warburg, Alon

2012-01-01

143

Forb, Insect, and Soil Response to Burning and Mowing Wyoming Big Sagebrush in Greater Sage-Grouse Breeding Habitat  

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Wyoming big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis A. t. Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young) communities provide structure and forbs and insects needed by greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus) for growth and survival. We evaluated forb, insect, and soil responses at six mowed and 19 prescribed burned sites compared to 25, paired and untreated reference sites. Sites were classified by treatment type, soil type, season, and decade of treatment (sites burned during 1990-1999 and sites burned or mowed during 2000-2006). Our objective was to evaluate differences in ten habitat attributes known to influence sage-grouse nesting and brood rearing to compare responses among treatment scenarios. Contrary to desired outcomes, treating Wyoming big sagebrush through prescribed burning or mowing may not stimulate cover or increase nutrition in food forbs, or increase insect abundance or indicators of soil quality compared with reference sites. In some cases, prescribed burning showed positive results compared with mowing such as greater forb crude protein content (%), ant (Hymenoptera; no./trap), beetle (Coleoptera/no./trap), and grasshopper abundance (Orthoptera; no./sweep), and total (%) soil carbon and nitrogen, but of these attributes, only grasshopper abundance was enhanced at burned sites compared with reference sites in 2008. Mowing did not promote a statistically significant increase in sage-grouse nesting or early brood-rearing habitat attributes such as cover or nutritional quality of food forbs, or counts of ants, beetles, or grasshoppers compared with reference sites.

Hess, Jennifer E.; Beck, Jeffrey L.

2014-04-01

144

Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to Decemb [...] er 1992). A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

Anthony Érico, Guimarães; Carla, Gentile; Catarina Macedo, Lopes; Rubens Pinto de, Mello.

2000-01-01

145

Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - habitat distribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992). A total of 24, 943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas. PMID:10656699

Guimarães, A E; Gentile, C; Lopes, C M; Mello, R P

2000-01-01

146

Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution  

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Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

Guimarães Anthony Érico

2000-01-01

147

Time budgets of Tibetan eared pheasants during the non-breeding season in an alpine scrub habitat  

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Full Text Available Time allocations of the group-living Tibetan eared pheasants Crossoptilon harmani with and without supplementary food were investigated by full-day sampling from winter through spring in an alpine shrub zone, south Tibet. At a flock scale, both the different food-supply flocks displayed similar daily patterns of activity, foraging in the morning and evening, and resting around midday. In terms of individual activity, either foraging or resting was highly synchronous with the flock’s. Non-provisioned birds spent more time feeding and less resting in midwinter than in late autumn. In early spring as climates became warmer and day longer, however, non-provisioned birds did not decrease their feeding efforts significantly but the provisioned birds did. Across the non-breeding seasons, the provisioned birds (relying on nutrition-rich artificial foods devoted less time to feeding and more to resting than did the non-provisioned ones (relying on nutrition-poor plant roots. Multivariate analysis showed increased food supply and ambient temperature resulted in a reduced foraging effort. However, the fact that the non-provisioned birds can save daily time for resting even in the cold short midwinter indicated that they faced no energetic constraint. Thus, protecting shelter vegetation rather than providing extra food is suggested to be important for long-term survival of the endangered galliform birds [Current Zoology 55(3:193–199,2009].

Xin LU

2009-06-01

148

Breeding Behaviour of Eurasian Marsh Harriers (Circus aeruginosus L., 1758; Aves, Accipitridae) Nesting on Three Habitats in Eastern Poland  

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Breeding behaviour of Eurasian marsh harriers Circus aeruginosus pairs nesting in marshes, water reservoir and fish pond of SE Poland were compared. Harriers nesting on the marshes were most efficient during aerial prey transfers, which could suggest that the habitat was taken by experienced, better quality birds when set against the ones occupying nests on the ponds and reservoir. Additional evidence that higher quality birds nested on marshes is that egg laying was earlier there. Mar...

Ignacy Kitowski

2006-01-01

149

Microhabitats de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em internódios de taquara na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Mosquitoes microhabitats (Diptera, Culicidae in bamboo internodes in Atlantic forest, Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from January 1985 to December 1986, a comparative study of mosquitoes preferences for breeding habitat was carried out in the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar, Paraná State, Brazil. To achieve it, 1875 bamboo internodes aligned vertically in live green, bamboo plants Merostachys speciosa Munro and Merostachys sp. were used, in which metabolic water was exuded from the plant itself, and presenting different size/pattern holes at their lateral walls, bored by the local sylvan fauna. Another group of 1200 individual internode traps was used as comparative element, carved out with a transversal cut by a saw, filled with local stream water and held in branches at different heights in the vegetal strata nearby. At both microhabitat types, a total of 17 culicid species was registered. Culex (Microculex neglectus Lutz, 1904, Cx. (Carrollia soperi Antunes & Lane, 1937, Sabethes (Sabethes batesi Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 and Sa. (Sabethinus melanonymphe (Dyar, 1924colonized exclusively live plant internodes, while Culex (Microculex elongatus Rozeboom & Lane, 1950, Cx. (Carrollia iridescens (Lutz, 1905, Cx. (Carrollia kompi Valencia,1973and Trichoprosopon (Trichoprosopon soaresi Dyar & Knab, 1907 bred only in internode traps. The remaining nine species colonized both habitats indistinctly. Quantitatively, was detected the abundance of 60.1% at live green internodes, against 39.9% for internode traps. Concerning the different patterns of bored live internode holes, 40.3% of the total computed specimens were collected in square or rectangular holes, 31.9% in two hole internodes, one minute circular, the other wider, and the remaining 28.8% of specimens distributed in other pattern type internodes. The mosquitoes breeding at these microhabitats fall in the culicid entomofauna specialized at locating and detecting peculiar and propitious mesogen conditions for breeding purposes.

Ana Leuch Lozovei

150

Measurement of landing mosquito density on humans.  

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In traditional vector surveillance systems, adult mosquito density and the rate of mosquito-human host contact are estimated from the mosquito numbers captured in mechanical traps. But the design of the traps, their placement in the habitat and operating time, microclimate, and other environmental factors bias mosquito responses such that trapped mosquito numbers may be at variance with the numbers actually making human contact. As an alternative to mechanical traps, direct measurement of landing mosquito density enables real-time estimation of the mosquito-human-host-contact parameter. Based on this paradigm, we studied methods to measure mosquito landing responses to a human host. Our results showed: (a) an 18% difference (Pnumber of female Aedes albopictus (Skuse) making initial contact with the skin (9.11±0.74min(-1)) compared with the number remaining on the skin for 5s (7.42±0.69min(-1)); (b) an increase (P0.55) in the average number of Ae. albopictus landing on the arm (8.6±1.6min(-1)) compared with the leg (9.2±2.5min(-1)) of the same human subject; (d) differences among day-to-day landing patterns for the mosquito species we studied but measurable periodicity (P<0.05) in each case when daily patterns were averaged for four or more diel periods; and (e) an effect on landing mosquito density from air temperature (P<0.0001) for Ae. albopictus and Cx. nigripalpus and dew point temperature (P<0.0001) for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results from this study were used to develop a procedure for safely and accurately measuring mosquito landing density on a human subject. PMID:24769003

Barnard, Donald R; Dickerson, Catherine Z; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R

2014-08-01

151

Characterization of anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae larval habitats in Nouakchott, Mauritania  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: Despite the increasing number of reported autochthonous malaria cases in Nouakchott and the identification of Anopheles arabiensis as the major malaria vector in this Saharan city, anopheline larval habitats have never been identified so far. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize anopheline larval habitats in Nouakchott. Methods: During September and October 2012, samples from pools of rainwater, water discharged from standpipes and household drinking water tanks in the districts of Dar Naim, Teyarett and Arafat were analyzed for the presence/absence of anopheline larvae and physicochemical characterization of breeding habitats. Results: Of the 51 prospected water bodies, eight consisting of seven water discharged from standpipes and one household drinking water tank were productive for Anopheles sp. All emerged anopheline mosquitoes from the positive dipping were morphologically identified as members of the An. gambiae complex. Multivariate regression analyses showed that a salinity up to 0.1 g/l and a shaded situation were respectively protective factors against high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI [0.44-0.87], p = 0.0052 and adjusted odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI [0.44-0.71, p <0.0001] and a pH up to 7.61 was a risk factor for high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56, 95% CI [1.25-1.95], p = 0.0001. Interpretation & conclusion: The study demonstrated in Nouakchott that despite an arid and dry climate, human practices have contributed to the establishment of favourable environmental conditions for the development of anopheline mosquitoes and, therefore, maintaining malaria transmission in this Saharan city. The core malaria vector control intervention as the use of long-lasting insecicidal nets (LLINs could be complemented in Nouakchott by larval source control. In this area, appropriate larval control measures may be recommended in line with an integrated vector management (IVM approach.

O. Ahmedou Salem Mohamed Salem

2013-12-01

152

Stable isotope analysis of larval mosquito diets in agricultural wetlands in the coastal plain of Georgia, U.S.A.  

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Previous studies have used C and N isotope ratios to investigate the use of different food resources such as plant and animal detritus by container-breeding mosquitoes. This study is the first to report on the potential food resources assimilated by larval mosquitoes in agricultural and reference wetlands. Larval mosquitoes (Diptera: Culcidae) were sampled, along with their potential food resources, from agricultural and reference wetland habitats throughout a seasonal hydroperiod. IsoSource mixing model results indicated that food resources had greater ?(15) N isotope values in agricultural wetlands compared with cypress-gum swamps. In February, Aedes vexans (Meigen) and Culex territans Walker larvae fed primarily on lower quality food resources (coarse particulate organic matter and sediment) based on C:N. In contrast, higher quality food resources (fine particulate organic matter) were utilized by Anopheles spp. throughout the study and by Psorophora columbiae (Dyer and Knab) in May. This research contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the food resources available and assimilated by larval mosquitoes in agricultural wetlands. PMID:25424257

Young, Gina Botello; Golladay, Stephen; Covich, Alan; Blackmore, Mark

2014-12-01

153

Habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western Kenya highlands  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. Methods A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in hilltops and along the seasonal streams in the Sigalagala area of Kakamega district, western Kenya. Water availability in the habitats was followed up daily from August 3, 2006 to February 23, 2007. A habitat is defined as stable when it remains aquatic continuously for at least 12 d. Mosquito larvae were observed weekly. Frequencies of aquatic, stable and larvae positive habitats were compared between the hilltop and seasonal stream area using ?2-test. Factors affecting the presence/absence of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the highlands were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Topography significantly affected habitat availability and stability. The occurrence of aquatic habitats in the hilltop was more sporadic than in the stream area. The percentage of habitat occurrences that were classified as stable during the rainy season is 48.76% and 80.79% respectively for the hilltop and stream area. Corresponding frequencies of larvae positive habitats were 0% in the hilltop and 5.91% in the stream area. After the rainy season, only 23.42% of habitat occurrences were stable and 0.01% larvae positive habitats were found in the hilltops, whereas 89.75% of occurrences remained stable in the stream area resulting in a frequency of 12.21% larvae positive habitats. The logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between habitat stability and larval occurrence and indicated that habitat surface area was negatively affecting the occurrence of An. gambiae larvae. While An. gambiae and An. funestus larvae occurred throughout the study period along the streams, a total of only 15 An. gambiae larvae were counted in the hilltops, and no An. funestus were found. Moreover, no larvae managed to develop into adults in the hilltops, and the density of adult An. gambiae was consistently low, averaging at 0.06 females per house per survey. Conclusion The occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the hilltop area was uncommon as a result of the low availability and high instability of habitats. To optimize the cost-effectiveness of malaria interventions in the western Kenya highlands, larval control should be focused primarily along the streams, as these are likely the only productive habitats at high altitude.

Atieli Harrysone

2009-10-01

154

Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia andelsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporalvariation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anophelinemosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course ofthe Ethiopian Rift Valley.Methods: Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables(water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables were measured, characterized andanalyzed.Results: Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV of anopheline larvae collected throughout thestudy period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus. Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis andAn. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logisticregression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vectorspecies. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquaticvegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly andpositively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies.Conclusion: Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintainedby perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vectorcontrol operations.

Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew & Teshome Gebre-Michael

2011-06-01

155

Aqueous neem extract versus neem powder on Culex quinquefasciatus: implications for control in anthropogenic habitats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Control programs using conventional insecticides to target anthropogenic mosquito habitats are very expensive because these habitats are widespread, particularly in cities of most African countries. Additionally, there are serious environmental concerns regarding large-scale application of most conventional insecticides. Clearly there is a need for alternative methods that are more effective, less expensive, and environmentally friendly. One such method would be the application of preparations made from parts of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Jussieu (Sapindales: Meliaceae). In this study, aqueous crude extracts and crude powder were prepared from different parts of neem, and the efficacies of the preparations on juvenile stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) were evaluated in the laboratory. When larvae were exposed to a concentration of 0.1 g/mL extract for 24 hours, percent mean mortality (± SE) was 72.7 plusmn; 1.8 for the bark, 68.7 ± 1.6 for fruits and 60 ± 1.6 for leaves. These means were not significantly different (?(2) = 4.12; df = 2; p = 0.127). At a concentration of 0.01 g/mL, > 95% of the larvae died within 24 hours of exposure to powdered neem leaf, but it took 120 hours to reach the same level of larval mortality in aqueous leaf extract. The crude extract slowly inhibited the growth and development of mosquitoes while the crude powder acted more as a barrier; the mosquitoes probably died from suffocation. However, both types of preparations can be made and used by local people to control mosquito breeding in anthropogenic habitats, especially in urbanized areas. PMID:22233153

Kudom, Andreas A; Mensah, Ben A; Botchey, Mary A

2011-01-01

156

The Knowledge and Experience of Dengue Mosquitoes among Housewives.  

OpenAIRE

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) prevention programs in Semarang, were focused through controlling mosquito breeding sites (PSN), but the implementation of PSN was not become a habit in every household. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and experience of dengue mosquitoes among housewives in the endemic villages.The research was using qualitative methods. Subjects of the study were 17 housewives which selected by purposive sampling. The data collection was carried in Sendan...

Atik Triratnawati; Aryani Pujiyanti

2011-01-01

157

Virtual mosquito  

Science.gov (United States)

3D virtual image of a mosquito (Family Culicidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ÃÂHelpÃÂ page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0002-11-30

158

Role of the repartition of wetland breeding sites on the spatial distribution of Anopheles and Culex, human disease vectors in Southern France  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, carried out in the Camargue region (France, we combined entomological data with geomatic and modelling tools to assess whether the location of breeding sites may explain the spatial distribution of adult mosquitoes. The species studied are important and competent disease vectors in Europe: Culex modestus Ficalbi and Cx. pipiens Linnaeus (West Nile virus, Anopheles atroparvus Van Thiel, a former Plasmodium vector, and An. melanoon Hackett, competent to transmit Plasmodium. Using a logistic regression model, we first evaluated which land cover variables determined the presence of Culex and Anopheles larva. The resulting probability map of larval presence then was used to project the average probability of finding adults in a buffer area. This was compared to the actual number of adults collected, providing a quantitative assessment of adult dispersal ability for each species. Results The distribution of Cx. modestus and An. melanoon is mainly driven by the repartition of irrigated farm fields and reed beds, their specific breeding habitats. The presence of breeding sites explained the distribution of adults of both species. The buffer size, reflecting the adult dispersal ability, was 700 m for Cx. modestus and 1000 m for An. melanoon. The comparatively stronger correlation observed for Cx. modestus suggested that other factors may affect the distribution of adult An. melanoon. We did not find any association between Cx. pipiens larval presence and the biotope due to the species' ubiquist character. Conclusion By applying the same method to different species, we highlighted different strengths of association between land cover (irrigated farm fields and reed beds, larval presence and adult population distribution. This paper demonstrates the power of geomatic tools to quantify the spatial organization of mosquito populations, and allows a better understanding of links between landcover, breeding habitats, presence of immature mosquito populations and adult distributions for different species.

Fontenille Didier

2011-05-01

159

Brazilian mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna: I. Anopheles species from Porto Velho, Rondônia state, western Amazon, Brazil / Fauna brasileira de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae): I. Espécies de Anopheles de Porto Velho, estado de Rondônia, oeste da Amazônia, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo contribui para o conhecimento de espécies de Anopheles, incluindo vetores de Plasmodium do oeste da Amazônia brasileira, em Porto Velho, no estado de Rondônia. Esta região vem passando por mudanças ambientais, como consequência de agricultura extensiva e projetos hidroelétricos que causa [...] m desmatamento, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de algumas espécies de mosquitos. Assim, a proposta deste estudo é registrar a presença de espécies de anofelinos na área, sendo conduzidas coletas de mosquitos em três locais, ao longo de uma linha de transmissão de energia elétrica. Cada uma das localidades foi amostrada três vezes, no período de 2010 a 2011. Os principais mosquitos adultos capturados em armadilhas de Shannon foram Anopheles darlingi, An. triannulatus, An. nuneztovari l.s., An.gilesi e An. costai. Assim como as formas larvárias Anopheles braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. darlingi, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. peryassui, An. nuneztovari l.s. e An. oswaldoi-konderi, coletadas em criadouros. Anopheles darlingi foi a espécie mais coletada na região. Em adição, discutiu-se sistemática de Culicidae, distribuição de fauna e aspectos da malária em ambientes modificados do oeste da Amazônia brasileira. Abstract in english This study contributes to knowledge of Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium from the western Brazilian Amazon in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. The sampling area has undergone substantial environmental changes as a consequence of agricultural and hydroelectric projects, which have caused [...] intensive deforestation and favored habitats for some mosquito species. The purpose of this study was to diagnose the occurrence of anopheline species from collections in three locations along an electric-power transmission line. Each locality was sampled three times from 2010 to 2011. The principal adult mosquitoes captured in Shannon trap were Anopheles darlingi, An. triannulatus, An. nuneztovari l.s., An.gilesi and An. costai. In addition, larvae were collected in ground breeding sites for Anopheles braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. darlingi, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. peryassui, An. nuneztovari l.s. and An. oswaldoi-konderi. Anopheles darlingi was the most common mosquito in the region. We discuss Culicidae systematics, fauna distribution, and aspects of malaria in altered habitats of the western Amazon.

Sirlei Antunes, Morais; Paulo Roberto, Urbinatti; Maria Anice Mureb, Sallum; Adriana Akemi, Kuniy; Gilberto Gilmar, Moresco; Aristides, Fernandes; Sandra Sayuri, Nagaki; Delsio, Natal.

2012-12-01

160

Native Argentinean cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda) as predators of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes  

OpenAIRE

Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cyclopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops ur...

Tranchida, Mari?a C.; Micieli, Mari?a V.; Arnaldo Maciá; Garci?a, Juan J.

2009-01-01

161

The Knowledge and Experience of Dengue Mosquitoes among Housewives.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF prevention programs in Semarang, were focused through controlling mosquito breeding sites (PSN, but the implementation of PSN was not become a habit in every household. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and experience of dengue mosquitoes among housewives in the endemic villages.The research was using qualitative methods. Subjects of the study were 17 housewives which selected by purposive sampling. The data collection was carried in Sendangmulyo village, Semarang, through observation, focus groups discussions, and indepth interviews. The techniques used to test data validity were triangulation and member checking method. Data were analyzed using content analysis approached. The results showed that housewives classifying mosquito based on time occurrence whether the presence of mosquito in environment was perceived naturally. Unoptimalized PSN behavior was based on the lack of housewives knowledge on larvae development stages. Mosquito was not considered as a threatening because night mosquito biting was directly more disturbing rather than day mosquitoes’. Health promotion program could increase dasa wisma cadres knowledge and skill, particularly on mosquito life cycle and the correct stages of PSN behavior. This study did not distinguish the demographic characteristics of informants. Further reserch could explore it or develop media based on local knowledge and experience.

Atik Triratnawati

2011-06-01

162

Does stress response predict return rate in a migratory bird species? A study of American redstarts and their non-breeding habitat  

OpenAIRE

In vertebrates, the adrenocortical stress response activates an emergency life-history stage, which is thought to promote survival by helping individuals escape life-threatening situations. Although the adrenocortical stress response promotes many behavioural and physiological changes, it remains unclear whether this stress response actually translates into higher survival in wild vertebrates. We measured the adrenocortical stress response of non-breeding American redstarts (Setophaga ruticil...

Angelier, Fre?de?ric; Holberton, Rebecca L.; Marra, Peter P.

2009-01-01

163

Mutation breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty years have passed since the establishment of gamma field as a major facility for irradiation in a radiation breeding field, and the duration of the accumulated irradiation was 100,000 hours as of 1980. New 50 varieties or more were grown by mutation breeding. This book deals with the outcome of mutation breeding for 20 years in view of seed breeding and methods for inducing mutation and breeding of vegetatively propagated plants and tree crops. (Namekawa, K.)

164

Olfaction in mosquitoes  

OpenAIRE

Female mosquitoes are vectors of diseases, affecting both livestock and humans. The host-seeking and identification behaviors of mosquitoes are mediated mainly by olfactory cues. The peripheral olfactory organs of mosquitoes which perceive olfactory cues are the antennae and maxillary palps. These appendages bear numerous hair shaped structures, sensilla, in which olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are housed. The ORNs detect and discriminate various odorant molecules and send information rega...

Ghaninia, Majid

2007-01-01

165

The importance of grazing regime in the provision of breeding habitat for grassland birds: The case of the endangered little bustard (Tetrax tetrax)  

OpenAIRE

In Mediterranean dry grasslands, grazing by domestic animals is an important agricultural activity on dry grasslands. Several bird species occur in these grazed habitats and are now experiencing a near continuous decline. We investigated the impact of livestock grazing on the threatened little bustard (Tetrax tetrax L.). The study was conducted at the NATURA 2000 Site/Important Bird Area of Cabrela, Portugal. Our main goals were to investigate responses of little bustard territorial males and...

Faria, Nuno; Rabac?a, Joa?o E.; Morales, Manuel B.

2012-01-01

166

Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait  

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Full Text Available With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion sp. e Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 and showed shong anthopophilia and a high degree of adaptation to humam environment. On the cantray, the species that showed lilth adaptation to such ambients or to the geoclimatic conditions of the region were: Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto, 1922; An. parvus (Chagas, 1907; An. lutzii Cruzi, 1901, Culex amazonensis (Lutz, 1905; Cx. chidesteri; Psorophora confinnis (Linch Arribalzaga, 1891; Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856; Ps. cingulata (Fabricius, 1805 e Aedes scapularis. Although Anopheles argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827; Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, 1906; Cx. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906 and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, 1823, were captured in little numbers, it is knowntht they an mosquito of human surroundings. These mosquitos showed a plak of feeding activity directly related to sunset bat did not have a bimodal behaviour. Anophelinae were in general more active in spring while Culex Linnaeus, 1758; Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905; Aedes Meigen, 1818; Mansonia Blanchard, 1901 e Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827 were more active in summer.

José Lopes

1996-01-01

167

Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana / Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. [...] galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion) sp. e Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904) and showed shong anthopophilia and a high degree of adaptation to humam environment. On the cantray, the species that showed lilth adaptation to such ambients or to the geoclimatic conditions of the region were: Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto, 1922); An. parvus (Chagas, 1907); An. lutzii Cruzi, 1901, Culex amazonensis (Lutz, 1905); Cx. chidesteri; Psorophora confinnis (Linch Arribalzaga, 1891); Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856); Ps. cingulata (Fabricius, 1805) e Aedes scapularis. Although Anopheles argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827; Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, 1906; Cx. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906 and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, 1823, were captured in little numbers, it is knowntht they an mosquito of human surroundings. These mosquitos showed a plak of feeding activity directly related to sunset bat did not have a bimodal behaviour. Anophelinae were in general more active in spring while Culex Linnaeus, 1758; Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905; Aedes Meigen, 1818; Mansonia Blanchard, 1901 e Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827 were more active in summer.

José, Lopes; Ana L, Lozovei.

168

Native Argentinean cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda) as predators of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cyclopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus. Female copepods presented the highest predatory capacity. No predatory preference for mosquito species was found. According to overall predation potential, copepods were ranked as follows: D. uruguayensis albidus albidus did not survive under dry conditions and did not tolerate water extracted from artificial containers. M. longisetus survival was not severely reduced after desiccation or breeding in water from flower vases. The Neotropical cyclopoids D. uruguayensis and A. robustus can be considered good candidates and merit further research as biological control agents for mosquitoes. PMID:20073334

Tranchida, María C; Micieli, María V; Maciá, Arnaldo; García, Juan J

2009-12-01

169

Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropicenvironment: 5- Breeding of Anopheles albitarsis in flooded rice fields in South-Eastern Brazil Estudos sobre mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) e ambiente antrópico: 5- Desenvolvimento de Anopheles albitarsis em campos de arroz irrigados na região sudeste do Brasil  

OpenAIRE

Studies on breeding Anopheles albitarsis and association with rice growth in irrigated paddy fields were carried out during the rice cultivation cycle from December 1993 to March 1994. This period corresponded to the length of time of permanent paddy flooding. Breeding occurred in the early stage up until five weeks after transplantation when rice plant height was small. That inverse correlation may give potential direction to control measures.Apresentam-se os resultados de observações ...

Oswaldo Paulo Forattini; Iná Kakitani; Eduardo Massad; Daniel Marucci

1994-01-01

170

Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas.Results: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30 cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms.Discussion: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.

David Durrheim

2012-08-01

171

Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae Fauna of Qom Province, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: There is very little information about the mosquito fauna of Qom Province, central Iran. By now only three species; Anopheles claviger, An. multicolor, and An. superpictus have been reported in the province. To study mosquito fauna and providing a primary checklist, an investigation was carried out on a collection of mosquitoes in this province.Methods: To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae fauna, larval collections were carried out from different habitats on 19 occasions using the standard dipping technique during spring and summer 2008 and 2009.Results: In total, 371 mosquito larvae were collected and morphologically identified including 14 species representing four genera: Anopheles claviger, An. marteri, An. turkhudi, An. superpictus, Culex arbieeni, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Cx. modestus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. territans, Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. subochrea, and Ochlerotatus caspius s.l. All species except for An. claviger and An. superpictus were collected for the first time in the province. All larvae were found in natural habitats. The association occasions and percentages of the mosquito larvae in Qom Province were discussed.Conclusion: There are some potential or proven vectors of different human and domesticated animal pathogens in Qom Province. The ecology of these species and the unstudied areas of Qom Province need to be investigated extensively.

A Saghafipour

2012-06-01

172

Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae Fauna of Qom Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: There is very little information about the mosquito fauna of Qom Province, central Iran. By now only three species; Anopheles claviger, An. multicolor, and An. superpictus have been reported in the province. To study mosquito fauna and providing a primary checklist, an investigation was carried out on a collection of mosquitoes in this province.Methods: To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae fauna, larval collections were carried out from different habitats on 19 occasions using the standard dipping technique during spring and summer 2008 and 2009. Results: In total, 371 mosquito larvae were collected and morphologically identified including 14 species representing four genera: Anopheles claviger, An. marteri, An. turkhudi, An. superpictus, Culex arbieeni, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Cx. modestus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. territans, Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. subochrea, and Ochlerotatus caspius s.l. All species except for An. claviger and An. superpictus were collected for the first time in the province. All larvae were found in natural habitats. The association occasions and percentages of the mosquito larvae in Qom Province were discussed.Conclusion: There are some potential or proven vectors of different human and domesticated animal pathogens in Qom Province. The ecology of these species and the unstudied areas of Qom Province need to be investigated extensively.

A Saghafipour

2012-06-01

173

UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Mosquito tolerance to temephos is induced by PAHs and UV exposure. •Toxicity of fluoranthene for mosquito Malpighian tubules cells is induced by UV. •Fluoranthene crystallizes in mosquito Malpighian tubules upon UV exposure. •Mixture of two PAHs is less toxic for mosquitoes than each PAHs separately. •Combination of abiotic parameters (PAHs and UV) affect mosquito physiology. -- Abstract: Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species–ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis–Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further investigation to know in which condition they can affect the efficacy of insecticide-based vector control strategies in the field

174

UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •Mosquito tolerance to temephos is induced by PAHs and UV exposure. •Toxicity of fluoranthene for mosquito Malpighian tubules cells is induced by UV. •Fluoranthene crystallizes in mosquito Malpighian tubules upon UV exposure. •Mixture of two PAHs is less toxic for mosquitoes than each PAHs separately. •Combination of abiotic parameters (PAHs and UV) affect mosquito physiology. -- Abstract: Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species–ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis–Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further investigation to know in which condition they can affect the efficacy of insecticide-based vector control strategies in the field.

Tetreau, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.tetreau@gmail.com [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France); Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud’homme, Sophie M.; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

2014-01-15

175

Culicinae mosquitoes in Sanandaj county, Kurdistan province, western Iran  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: This study aims at studying mosquito-borne diseases as the major publichealth threat in Iran. Sanandaj outskirts are considered suitable habitats for mosquito larvae. Inview of scanty reports on mosquito-borne disease implementation in this area, a study was undertakento determine the mosquito fauna and frequency of mosquito larvae at Sanandaj City.Methods: In order to study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae fauna, the samples were collectedfrom May to July 2009 using dipping and night catch methods in Sanandaj district, Kurdistanprovince, western Iran.Results: Three genera and 11 species of the Culicinae subfamily were identified—Aedes vexansMeigen, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l. Pallas (indicating new occurrence records for the province,Culex hortensis Ficalbi, Cx. pipiens Linnaeus, Cx. mimeticus Noe, Cx. theileri Theobald, Culisetalongiareolata Macquart, and Cs. subochrea Edwards.Interpretation & conclusion: Present study revealed that Ae. vexans and Ochlerotatus caspius s.lcaught had not been previously recorded in Kurdistan province, highlighting the deficient knowledgeof the fauna and distribution of Culicinae mosquitoes of this part of Iran

S.H. Moosa Kazemi

2010-06-01

176

Habitat use of breeding green turtles Chelonia mydas tagged in Dry Tortugas National Park: Making use of local and regional MPAs  

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Use of existing marine protected areas (MPAs) by far-ranging marine turtles can be determined using satellite telemetry. Because of a lack of information on MPA use by marine turtles in the Gulf of Mexico, we used satellite transmitters in 2010 and 2011 to track movements of 11 adult female breeding green turtles (Chelonia mydas) tagged in Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO), in the Gulf of Mexico, south Florida, USA. Throughout the study period, turtles emerged every 9–18 days to nest. During the intervals between nesting episodes (i.e., inter-nesting periods), the turtles consistently used a common core-area within the DRTO boundary, determined using individual 50% kernel-density estimates (KDEs). We mapped the area in DRTO where individual turtle 50% KDEs overlapped using the USGS Along-Track Reef-Imaging System, and determined the diversity and distribution of various benthic-cover types within the mapped area. We also tracked turtles post-nesting as they transited to foraging sites 5–282 km away from tagging beaches; these sites were located both within DRTO and in the surrounding area of the Florida Keys and Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), a regional MPA. Year-round residency of 9 out of 11 individuals (82%) both within DRTO and in the FKNMS represents novel non-migratory behavior, which offers an opportunity for conservation of this imperiled species at both local and regional scales. These data comprise the first satellite-tracking results on adult nesting green turtles at this remote study site. Additional tracking could reveal whether the distinct inter-nesting and foraging sites delineated here will be repeatedly used in the future by these and other breeding green turtles.

Hart, Kristen; Zawada, David G.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lidz, Barbara H.

2013-01-01

177

Repovoamento de criadouros de Biomphalaria glabrata após tratamento com niclosamida Repopulation of breeding habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata after treatment with niclosamide  

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Full Text Available Experimentos foram feitos no laboratório e no campo nos anos de 1980 a 1984, objetivando detectar as causas do repovoamento de criadouros de Biomphalaria glabrata após tratamento com niclosamida. Os bioensaios no laboratório mostraram que a suscetibilidade à niclosamida emulsionável de B. glabrata coletada mensalmente em um sistema de valas de irrigação, variou durante o ano. As concentrações letais CL90 foram 0,15 mgl-1 a 0,60 mgl-1, apresentando diferenças significantes estatisticamente (p Experiments were undertaken both in the laboratory and in the field between 1980-1984 to evaluate the causes of repopulation of breeding places of Biomphalaria glabrata following treatment with Niclosamide. Laboratory bioassays showed that the susceptibility to emulsifiable Niclosamide of B. glabrata collected monthly from an irrigation ditch system varied during the year. Lethal concentrations (LC90 ranged between 0.15 mg/l-1 and 0.60 mg/l-1. Statistically significant differences (alpha=0.01 were evident between the months of May/82 and January/83 and December/82 and January/83, and were related to snail nutrition. In the field two types of foci of B. glabrata were treated with 10 ppm of Niclosamide. The first one consisted of a reservoir of 12000 1 of water in which 14.5% of snails were infected with Schistosoma mansoni. One application of molluscicide followed by cleaning of the reservoir eliminated all the snails. The second one consisted of an irrigation system in which 5.6% of the snails were infected with S. mansoni. One application of molluscicide without cleaning the ditches reduced the density of snails by 98%. The causes of the survival of 2.0% of the snails in the ditches are discussed in relation to the substratum of the breeding places and the treatment technique.

Cecília Pereira de Souza

1991-08-01

178

Repovoamento de criadouros de Biomphalaria glabrata após tratamento com niclosamida / Repopulation of breeding habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata after treatment with niclosamide  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Experimentos foram feitos no laboratório e no campo nos anos de 1980 a 1984, objetivando detectar as causas do repovoamento de criadouros de Biomphalaria glabrata após tratamento com niclosamida. Os bioensaios no laboratório mostraram que a suscetibilidade à niclosamida emulsionável de B. glabrata c [...] oletada mensalmente em um sistema de valas de irrigação, variou durante o ano. As concentrações letais CL90 foram 0,15 mgl-1 a 0,60 mgl-1, apresentando diferenças significantes estatisticamente (p Abstract in english Experiments were undertaken both in the laboratory and in the field between 1980-1984 to evaluate the causes of repopulation of breeding places of Biomphalaria glabrata following treatment with Niclosamide. Laboratory bioassays showed that the susceptibility to emulsifiable Niclosamide of B. glabrat [...] a collected monthly from an irrigation ditch system varied during the year. Lethal concentrations (LC90) ranged between 0.15 mg/l-1 and 0.60 mg/l-1. Statistically significant differences (alpha=0.01) were evident between the months of May/82 and January/83 and December/82 and January/83, and were related to snail nutrition. In the field two types of foci of B. glabrata were treated with 10 ppm of Niclosamide. The first one consisted of a reservoir of 12000 1 of water in which 14.5% of snails were infected with Schistosoma mansoni. One application of molluscicide followed by cleaning of the reservoir eliminated all the snails. The second one consisted of an irrigation system in which 5.6% of the snails were infected with S. mansoni. One application of molluscicide without cleaning the ditches reduced the density of snails by 98%. The causes of the survival of 2.0% of the snails in the ditches are discussed in relation to the substratum of the breeding places and the treatment technique.

Cecília Pereira de, Souza; Nelymar Martineli, Mendes.

1991-08-01

179

UV light and urban pollution: bad cocktail for mosquitoes?  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species-ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further investigation to know in which condition they can affect the efficacy of insecticide-based vector control strategies in the field. PMID:24275062

Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

2014-01-01

180

PERCEPTIONS REGARDING MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASES IN AN URBAN AREA OF RAJKOT CITY  

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Full Text Available Background: Mosquito borne diseases is a growing urban problem because of unplanned urbanization, industrialization and excessive population growth coupled with rural to urban migration. For developing a suitable and effective health education strategy, it is inevitable to understand the level of knowledge of the community, their attitude and practices regarding mosquito borne diseases. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in an urban field practice area of Urban Health Centre in Rajkot city. Total 500 houses were selected for study by systematic random sampling. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire during transmission season of vector borne diseases. The results were analyzed using the SPSS 17 software. Results: 90% respondents agreed that mosquitoes are a problem. 30.4% didn?t know breeding sites of mosquitoes. Only 11.6% of people associated clean water collections with mosquito breeding. Regarding diseases transmitted by mosquito, 62% answered malaria, 37.4% were not aware and 8.8% people mentioned about Filariasis, Dengue or Japanese encephalitis. 4.7% granted mosquito control as responsibility of community. 61.4 % were using repellents for prevention against mosquito bites and 39% not taking any preventive measure. 67.8% consulted private practitioner for treatment. Conclusion: Intensified efforts towards creating public awareness and mobilizing the community regarding the preventive measures they can take are needed. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 45-47

Amul B. Patel

2011-04-01

181

Failed recruitment of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in a trace element-contaminated breeding habitat: direct and indirect effects that may lead to a local population sink.  

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We conducted a transplant study in which embryonic southern toads (Bufo terrestris) were held in a site polluted with coal ash (site AB; containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Se, and other elements) and a reference site (site R) through hatching and early larval development. To examine the remainder of the larval period, surviving larvae in AB were then transplanted to R and back-transplanted to AB, whereas surviving larvae from R were back-transplanted to R. Survival through early larval development was lower in AB than in R (34% versus 50%). However, site of hatching did not influence traits later in development (larval metabolic rate, larval morphology, duration of larval period, size at metamorphosis, or average hopping distance by metamorphs). Toads that spent the entire larval period in R had high rates of survival (70-94% of individuals transplanted after the embryonic period) regardless of where they spent the embryonic and early larval period. However, toads held in AB for the duration of the larval period suffered 100% mortality. Algal resources were scarce and their trace element concentrations high in AB compared to R, suggesting that mortality of larval toads resulted from a combination of direct toxicity (via sediment- and foodborne exposure) and indirect effects on resource abundance. The study suggests that the widespread practice of disposing of coal ash in open aquatic basins may result in sink habitats for some amphibian populations. PMID:11443372

Rowe, C L; Hopkins, W A; Coffman, V R

2001-04-01

182

Play the Mosquito Game  

Science.gov (United States)

... of Nobel Prizes and Laureates All Educational Productions Physics Prize Related Chemistry Prize Related Medicine Prize Related ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria ...

183

Population ecology of mosquitoes and the status of bancroftian filariasis in El Dakahlia Governorate, the Nile delta, Egypt.  

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Mosquitoes were surveyed (Oct. 2010 & Apr. - Oct. 2011) in some localities representing 13 centers of El-Dakahlia Governorate. Six mosquito species were collected: Culex pipiens, Cx. antennatus, Cx. perexiguus, Ochlerotatus detritus, Anopheles pharoensis and An. tenebrosus. Culex pipiens was predominating (ca 79% larvae, 51% adults). Culex antennatus and Cx. perexiguus were also common. Of the Four types of the breeding habitats, the drainage canals were the most productive (53.4% larvae). For the three common species, the compiled larval density increases as water temp. increased and decreases as pH increased while adult indoor density increases as indoor and outdoor temp. and indoor RH increased and decreases as outdoor RH increased. Cx. pipiens significantly associated with Cx. antennatus (CAB=0.88 & I=0.48) while Cx. antennatus has a moderate association with Cx. perexiguus (CAB=0.47 & I=0.36). Out of 908 examined blood samples from ten centers, 7.49% were infected with Wuchereria bancrofti. The highest infection rates in some centers were associated with high indoor densities of Cx. pipiens females, the main filariasis vector. The situation necessitates a wide vector control program to minimize lymphatic filariasis transmission in this Governorate. PMID:23697019

Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M; Soliman, Mohamed I; Kenawy, Mohamed A

2013-04-01

184

Notes on the occurrence and habitats of Sabethes purpureus in Salta Province, Argentina.  

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The finding of Sabethes purpureus larvae and pupae in tree holes both in urban and forest environments in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, Salta Province, Argentina, is reported, together with information on the larval habitat. Tree holes were sampled monthly from January to March or April of 2011, 2012, and 2013 along sidewalks, in public access areas, and in 3 sites within forested areas outside the city, selected along an urban gradient in Orán. Sabathes purpureus was most frequently found in low numbers and with other mosquito species. A higher proportion of tree holes was positive in the urban compared to the forest environment, although there were no significant differences in abundances or densities per hole. To our best knowledge, this paper reports the species for the first time breeding in an urban environment, and extends its geographical distribution from the Atlantic and Paranaense forests to the Southern Andean Yungas in northwestern Argentina. PMID:24772679

Mangudo, Carolina; Aparicio, Juan P

2014-03-01

185

Crustacean biodiversity as an important factor for mosquito larval control.  

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Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity. PMID:24581370

Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias

2013-12-01

186

Decreased Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to Mosquito Larvae after Contact with Leaf Litter  

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Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a bacterium producing crystals containing Cry and Cyt proteins, which are toxic for mosquito larvae. Nothing is known about the interaction between crystal toxins and decaying leaf litter, which is a major component of several mosquito breeding sites and represents an important food source. In the present work, we investigated the behavior of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxic crystals sprayed on leaf litter. In the presence of leaf litter, ...

Tetreau, Guillaume; Stalinski, Renaud; Kersusan, Dylann; Veyrenc, Sylvie; David, Jean-philippe; Reynaud, Ste?phane; Despre?s, Laurence

2012-01-01

187

Mosquito Surveillance for Prevention and Control of Emerging Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Portugal — 2008–2014  

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Full Text Available Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program—REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores—has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes—collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2—and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III. Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs.

Hugo C. Osório

2014-11-01

188

Mosquito surveillance for prevention and control of emerging mosquito-borne diseases in Portugal - 2008-2014.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program-REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)-has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes-collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2-and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs. PMID:25396768

Osório, Hugo C; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J

2014-11-01

189

[Effectiveness of aerial application of VectoBac G larvicide granules against mosquitoes in the Olomouc region in spring 2006].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the spring 2006, a flood emergency occurred in the Olomouc region after a rapid snow thaw, with the formation of multiple periodic pools and overflows persisting for long periods. In the floodplain forests, as expected, mass occurrence of adult mosquitoes was observed, infesting the nearby villages. The mosquito emergency continued until August and mosquitoes of both the spring species, in particular, Ochlerotatus cantans, and summer species were implicated in it. To control this emergency, aerial application of VectoBac G larvicide granules based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (BTI) at a dose of 6.4 kg/ha was used for the first time in the Olomouc region. Its efficacy was close to 100 % for the treated water areas. The effect was clearly evident in the communities situated in the vicinity of the treated breeding grounds. Nevertheless, not all breeding grounds and blind stream meanders could be treated aerially. As a result, mosquitoes from the untreated breeding grounds caused an emergency in the nearby communities where insecticide aerosols had to be applied on a large scale, even repeatedly in some cases. The treatment of the mosquito breeding grounds with BTI based larvicide granules proved to be an effective and fully selective approach to controlling mosquitoes. Although the technology is exacting and requires professional and organizational skills, it is expected that, in the Czech Republic, this environmentally friendly approach to mosquito control will replace the large scale use of non-selective chemical aerosol insecticides. The public health protection, administrative and legislative authorities should be active in promoting the use of specific BTI based larvicides for the treatment of mosquito breeding grounds, even if located in protected areas, whenever it is needed for mosquito control in emergencies. PMID:17593805

Chmela, J; Mazánek, L; Nakládal, Z; Pesáková, L; Halirová, R

2007-04-01

190

Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropicenvironment: 5- Breeding of Anopheles albitarsis in flooded rice fields in South-Eastern Brazil Estudos sobre mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae e ambiente antrópico: 5- Desenvolvimento de Anopheles albitarsis em campos de arroz irrigados na região sudeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available Studies on breeding Anopheles albitarsis and association with rice growth in irrigated paddy fields were carried out during the rice cultivation cycle from December 1993 to March 1994. This period corresponded to the length of time of permanent paddy flooding. Breeding occurred in the early stage up until five weeks after transplantation when rice plant height was small. That inverse correlation may give potential direction to control measures.Apresentam-se os resultados de observações sobre desenvolvimento da densidade larval de Anopheles albitarsis em criadouros representados por campos de arroz artificialmente irrigados, de dezembro de 1993 a março de 1994. Esse espaço de tempo correspondeu a período de inundação permanente iniciado com o transplante. Verificou-se relação inversa entre a densidade de larvas e a altura atingida pelas plantas de arroz. Assim, praticamente a produção das formas imaturas ocorreu ao longo das cinco primeiras semanas de inundação. O rendimento da margem dos campos de cultivo foi cerca do dobro daquele observado na área interna. Esse fenômeno não logrou explicação satisfatória apenas pelo fator insolação. Pode-se argumentar que a vegetação marginal, pela sua maior diversidade, possa oferecer maiores oportunidades de sobrevivência para as larvas, mediante abrigo e alimentação. De qualquer maneira, essas observações concordam com o verificado em outras regiões e possibilitam nortear a aplicação de eventuais medidas de controle.

Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

1994-10-01

191

Mediation of oviposition responses in the malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston by certain fatty acid esters.  

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The chemical factors involved in oviposition site selection by mosquitoes have become the focus of interest in recent years, and considerable attention is paid to the chemical cues influencing mosquito oviposition. Studies on synthetic oviposition attractants/repellents of long-chain fatty acid esters against Anopheles stephensi are limited. Screening and identification of chemicals which potentially attract/repel the gravid females to/or from oviposition site could be exploited for eco-friendly mosquito management strategies. The ester compounds demonstrated their ability to repel and attract the gravid A. stephensi females in the treated substrates. Significant level of concentration-dependent negative oviposition response of mosquitoes to octadecyl propanoate, heptadecyl butanoate, hexadecyl pentanoate, and tetradecyl heptanoate were observed. In contrast, decyl undecanoate, nonyl dodecanoate, pentyl hexadecanoate, and propyl octadecanoate elicited concentration-dependent positive oviposition responses from the gravid mosquitoes. Forcing a female to retain her eggs due to unavailability of a suitable oviposition site and attracting them to lay the eggs in a baited ovitraps shall ensure effective control of mosquito breeding and population buildup because the oviposition bioassay target the most susceptible stage of an insect life cycle. Treating relatively smaller natural breeding sites with an effective repellent and placing ovitraps containing an attractant in combination with insect-growth regulator (IGR)/insecticide would be a promising method of mosquito management. PMID:18795330

Sharma, Kavita R; Seenivasagan, T; Rao, A N; Ganesan, K; Agrawal, O P; Prakash, Shri

2009-01-01

192

Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.  

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Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes. PMID:23911355

Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

2013-09-15

193

Flavivirus-mosquito interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1-4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations. PMID:25421894

Huang, Yan-Jang S; Higgs, Stephen; Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L

2014-11-01

194

Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions  

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Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations.

Yan-Jang S. Huang

2014-11-01

195

[New findings of Anopheles mosquitoes in artificial containers].  

Science.gov (United States)

New findings of Anopheles mosquitoes in artificial containers are reported. In one, a plastic container served as a breeding place for Anopheles bellator larvae and, in another, four instar larvae of An. albitarsis s.l. were found in an abandoned toilet basin. Reflections are offered as to the selective pressure represented by the production, of an ever increasing scale, of disposable objects. PMID:10349154

Forattini, O P; Kakitani, I; Marques, G R; de Brito, M

1998-12-01

196

Adverse assessments of Gambusia affinis: an alternate view for mosquito control practitioners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adverse opinions on the introduction of Gambusia affinis for the control of larval mosquitoes are reviewed. The sources span a period of some 59 years and come from a variety of sources. The principal opposition to the introduction of G. affinis comes from ichthyologists, although some mosquito researchers have expressed concerns about the environmental impact of placing the fish in habitats to which it is not native. Questions concerning the appropriateness of using the fish are presented. PMID:8827587

Rupp, H R

1996-06-01

197

Relationships between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java, Indonesia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. Mosquito control is one aspect of an integrated malaria management programme. To focus resources on priority areas, information is needed about the vectors and their habitats. This research aimed to identify the relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java. Methods Study areas were selected in three topographic types in West Timor and Java. These were: coastal...

Ndoen Ermi; Wild Clyde; Dale Pat; Sipe Neil; Dale Mike

2010-01-01

198

How Mosquitoes Detect People  

Science.gov (United States)

... video): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7wijX9WZUpc Malaria Vaccine Found Safe and Protective: http://www.nih.gov/researchmatters/august2013/08192013malaria.htm Infection Makes Mosquitoes Immune to Malaria Parasites: http://www.nih.gov/researchmatters/may2013/05202013malaria. ...

199

50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife.  

Science.gov (United States)

...that provide: (i) Breeding habitat (i.e....of females in a core breeding population) consisting...provided by a diversity of plant species, including...having a diversity of plant species and age-classes...dispersal habitat between breeding populations to...

2010-10-01

200

New Zealand's northern mosquito survey, 1988-89.  

Science.gov (United States)

The latest mosquito survey of the warmer regions of New Zealand (NZ) sampled 2,304 larval mosquito habitats of all major categories. While revealing no evidence of new establishments of exotic mosquitoes, it produced important data revealing the underutilization of types of habitats that could be invaded now or in the future (especially if the "greenhouse effect" eventually causes even quite small rises in average temperatures and sea levels). Although long feared additions of malaria vectors to a fauna still lacking any species of Anopheles, or of essentially tropical arbovirus vectors from neighboring countries to the north and northeast, may not materialize failing climatic amelioration, a new danger appeared at the beginning of the 1988-89 Northern Mosquito Survey when Aedes albopictus was reported for the first time from Fiji. This vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever and Ross River virus has since been spreading widely on the archipelago's main island, Viti Levu, whence much air and sea traffic reaches NZ. Information presented and discussed herein strongly supports the continuance and improvement of international aircraft disinsection and other insect quarantine measures. PMID:1973449

Laird, M

1990-06-01

201

Awareness and practice about preventive method against mosquito bite in Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquito borne diseases are major public health problems in India. Gujarat is endemic for malaria and other mosquito borne diseases. Anopheles, Aedes and Culex are commonly seen in Gujarat. Therefore the efforts have been consistently made to educate the citizens of State on danger of mosquito bites. The present study was conducted to assess the awareness and practices of mosquito bite prevention methods among households of Central Gujarat district Vadodara. Total 311 families have participated in the study from UHTC area of the Medical college. Door to door visit was conducted to visit the all households. The study was conducted in the month of June 2009, which is observed as Anti-Malaria month in Gujarat. The pilot pre-tested structure questionnaire was used to collect the data. Study respondents were 57% male and 43% female. Almost 99% had knowledge about breeding places of mosquito, but poor knowledge about biting time (20%. 71% of participants knew that mosquito bite causes malaria. 39% 0f households were using mosquito net as protection against the bite, but only 10% were using insecticide treated bed net. There is need of increasing use of insecticide treated bed nets and continuous updating of knowledge about various aspects of mosquito bite.

Niraj Pandit

2010-07-01

202

Native Argentinean cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda) as predators of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se hizo una prospección de copépodos en La Plata, Argentina, con los objetivos de caracterizar la comunidad local de copépodos larvívoros en sitios de cría de mosquitos, e identificar nuevas especies depredadoras de los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens. La diversi [...] dad de ciclopoides larvívoros fue máxima en charcos permanentes. Se examinó la depredación por sexos y edad, la selectividad por especies de mosquito, y la tasa de depredación diaria durante cinco días en Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus y Mesocyclops longisetus. Los copépodos hembra presentaron la capacidad depredadora más alta. No se encontró preferencia por alguna especie de mosquito. De acuerdo al potencial de depredación en general, los copépodos se ordenan así: D. uruguayensis Abstract in english Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cy [...] clopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus. Female copepods presented the highest predatory capacity. No predatory preference for mosquito species was found. According to overall predation potential, copepods were ranked as follows: D. uruguayensis

María C, Tranchida; María V, Micieli; Arnaldo, Maciá; Juan J, García.

1059-10-01

203

Temporal and spatial stability of Anopheles gambiae larval habitat distribution in Western Kenya highlands  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Localized mosquito larval habitat management and the use of larvicides have been proposed as important control tools in integrated malaria vector management programs. In order to optimize the utility of these tools, detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution patterns of mosquito larval habitats is crucial. However, the spatial and temporal changes of habitat distribution patterns under different climatic conditions are rarely quantified and their impli...

Zhou Guofa; Yakob Laith; Bian Ling; Li Li*; Yan Guiyun

2009-01-01

204

Dog Breeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.

2004-07-05

205

A Visit to Florida's Mosquito Man  

Science.gov (United States)

This radio broadcast features an interview with George O'Meara, the world's foremost expert on mosquitoes, who studies mosquito biology and dispenses fun facts (such as: only female mosquitoes bite). There are descriptions of the most aggressive mosquito species, how to tell female mosquitoes from males, and a discussion of landing rates of mosquitoes in the Everglades National Park. The clip is 5 minutes and 30 seconds in length.

206

Protection from UV-B damage of mosquito larvicidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis expressed in Anabaena PCC 7120.  

Science.gov (United States)

A transgenic strain of the nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 protected expressed delta-endotoxin proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis from damage inflicted by UV-B, a sunlight component that penetrates Earth's ozone layer. This organism, which serves as a food source to mosquito larvae and could multiply in their breeding sites, may solve the environment-imposed limitations of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis as a mosquito biological control agent. PMID:12177745

Manasherob, Robert; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Xiaoqiang, Wu; Boussiba, Sammy; Zaritsky, Arieh

2002-09-01

207

Spatial distribution and habitat characterisation of Anopheles larvae along the Kenyan coast  

OpenAIRE

Background & objectives: A study was conducted to characterise larval habitats and to determine spatialheterogeneity of the Anopheles mosquito larvae. The study was conducted from May to June 1999 innine villages along the Kenyan coast.Methods: Aquatic habitats were sampled by use of standard dipping technique. The habitats werecharacterised based on size, pH, distance to the nearest house, coverage of canopy, surface debris, algaeand emergent plants, turbidity, substrate, and habitat type.Re...

Mwangangi, Joseph M.; Mbogo, Charles M.; Muturi, Ephantus J.; Nzovu, Joseph G.; Githure, John I.; Guiyun Yan; Noboru Minakawa; Robert Novak; Beier, John C.

2007-01-01

208

Linking mosquito infestation to resident socioeconomic status, knowledge, and source reduction practices in suburban Washington, DC.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eliminating water-holding containers where mosquitoes oviposit and develop (source reduction) can help manage urban disease-vector mosquitoes. Source reduction requires residents to be knowledgeable of effective practices and motivated to implement them. We tested relationships between demographics, resident knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), and mosquito infestation by administering larval mosquito surveys and KAP questionnaires in Washington, DC. Respondents who reported practicing source reduction had lower numbers of pupae-positive containers and Culex pipiens-positive containers, but not Aedes albopictus-positive containers or water-holding containers, in their yards. When controlling for numbers of water-holding containers in statistical models, residents who reported source reduction had lower numbers of A. albopictus-positive containers in addition to numbers of pupae-positive containers and C. pipiens-positive containers. These results suggest that while active container reduction may be effective at reducing C. pipiens and overall pupal production, it may be offset by other resident activities that add containers to yards, and that source reduction that involves mosquito habitat management without outright container removal can also be effective at reducing A. albopictus. Source reduction was related to respondent knowledge of mosquitoes and, in particular, specific knowledge of mosquito development, which both varied with demographics alongside respondent motivation to control mosquitoes. Respondents from high socioeconomic status households reported greater knowledge but lower motivation than respondents from middle and low socioeconomic-status households. We conclude that mosquito-related education will help promote community-based container management as part of integrated mosquito management programs, particularly in middle and low socioeconomic status neighborhoods with lower knowledge and high motivation. PMID:23377982

Dowling, Zara; Armbruster, Peter; LaDeau, Shannon L; DeCotiis, Mark; Mottley, Jihana; Leisnham, Paul T

2013-03-01

209

Mosquito repellents in frog skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin secretions to confirm the existence of mosquito repellent properties. Litoria caerulea secretions were assessed for mosquito repellency by topical application on mice. The secretions provided protection against host-seeking Culex annulirostris mosquitoes. Olfactometer tests using aqueous washes of skin secretions from L. caerulea and four other frog species were conducted to determine whether volatile components were responsible for repellency. Volatiles from Litoria rubella and Uperoleia mjobergi secretions were repellent to C. annulirostris, albeit not as repellent as a DEET control. The demonstration of endogenous insect repellents in amphibians is novel, and demonstrates that many aspects of frog chemical ecology remain unexplored. PMID:17148373

Williams, C R; Smith, B P C; Best, S M; Tyler, M J

2006-06-22

210

Door to Door Survey and Community Participation to Implement a New County Mosquito Control Program in Wayne County, North Carolina, USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community involvement in mosquito management programs provides more sustainable and effective organization and service. A door to door survey in Wayne County, NC carried out by student volunteers, resulted in 60 household responses. Residents had not previously experienced outreach from the county (88%, and 95% of them thought the student door to door survey was an effective form of outreach. One third of the residents thought mosquitoes were severe where they lived, but only 9% thought they had any containers in their yard that might breed mosquitoes. Only 15% of the residents were concerned about mosquito borne diseases. These responses provide evidence that outreach and education on mosquito control and diseases were necessary steps for future mosquito control community planning.

Timothy Kelley

2009-07-01

211

Geostatistical evaluation of integrated marsh management impact on mosquito vectors using before-after-control-impact (BACI) design  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In many parts of the world, salt marshes play a key ecological role as the interface between the marine and the terrestrial environments. Salt marshes are also exceedingly important for public health as larval habitat for mosquitoes that are vectors of disease and significant biting pests. Although grid ditching and pesticides have been effective in salt marsh mosquito control, marsh degradation and other environmental considerations compel a different app...

Dempsey Mary E; Iwanejko Tom; Rochlin Ilia; Ninivaggi Dominick V

2009-01-01

212

Identification of central Kenyan Rift Valley Fever virus vector habitats with Landsat TM and evaluation of their flooding status with airborne imaging radar  

Science.gov (United States)

Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne virus that affects livestock and humans in Africa. Landsat TM data are shown to be effective in identifying dambos, intermittently flooded areas that are potential mosquite breeding sites, in an area north of Nairobi, Kenya. Positive results were obtained from a limited test of flood detection in dambos with airborne high resolution L, C, and X band multipolarization SAR imagery. L and C bands were effective in detecting flooded dambos, but LHH was by far the best channel for discrimination between flooded and nonflooded sites in both sedge and short-grass environments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a combined passive and active remote sensing program for monitoring the location and condition of RVF vector habitats, thus making future control of the disease more promising.

Pope, K. O.; Sheffner, E. J.; Linthicum, K. J.; Bailey, C. L.; Logan, T. M.; Kasischke, E. S.; Birney, K.; Njogu, A. R.; Roberts, C. R.

1992-01-01

213

Native Argentinean cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda as predators of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cyclopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus. Female copepods presented the highest predatory capacity. No predatory preference for mosquito species was found. According to overall predation potential, copepods were ranked as follows: D. uruguayensis Se hizo una prospección de copépodos en La Plata, Argentina, con los objetivos de caracterizar la comunidad local de copépodos larvívoros en sitios de cría de mosquitos, e identificar nuevas especies depredadoras de los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens. La diversidad de ciclopoides larvívoros fue máxima en charcos permanentes. Se examinó la depredación por sexos y edad, la selectividad por especies de mosquito, y la tasa de depredación diaria durante cinco días en Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus y Mesocyclops longisetus. Los copépodos hembra presentaron la capacidad depredadora más alta. No se encontró preferencia por alguna especie de mosquito. De acuerdo al potencial de depredación en general, los copépodos se ordenan así: D. uruguayensis < A. robustus < M. albidus < M. longisetus. También se evaluó la tolerancia a la desecación del hábitat y la capacidad de resistir en agua de contenedores artificiales. D. uruguayensis y A. robustus sobrevivieron en condiciones de sequía, pero D. uruguayensis presentó menor supervivencia en agua de floreros de cementerio. M. albidus no sobrevivió condiciones de sequía y no toleró el agua extraída de contenedores artificiales. Los ciclopoides neotropicales D. uruguayensis and A. robustus son buenos candidatos y merecen investigación ulterior como agentes de control biológico de mosquitos.

María C Tranchida

2009-12-01

214

Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically-modified (GM mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. Methods The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. Results Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was preferred; however a transgenic release that satisfied certain requirements was usually acceptable. Conclusions Although there were some dissenters, the majority of participants were pragmatic towards a release of GM mosquitoes. An array of social and cultural issues associated with malaria, mosquitoes and genetic engineering became apparent. If these can be successfully addressed, then social acceptance among the populations surveyed seems promising.

Famenini Shannon

2010-05-01

215

Genetic methods for control of mosquitoes and biting flies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The earliest research efforts on using genetic methods for the control of mosquitoes and biting flies concentrated on the evaluation of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Several successful, but generally small scale, research efforts with mosquitoes clearly documented that either chemosterilized or radiation sterilized males were effective in causing a level of genetic load that would be sufficient for the reduction or eradication of natural populations of several species. Genetic sexing strains of several species of mosquitoes have been assembled, and this aspect of breeding specialty strains is not a limiting factor in the implementation of SIT. In the largest field experiment, conducted with Anopheles albimanus in El Salvador during the 1970s, a genetic sexing strain was used operationally in a factory that produced one million sterile males per day over a one year period. Technical problems that would require extensive research of a practical nature before the implementation of SIT for mosquito control involve primarily better means for the rearing, sterilization and distribution of the insects. A successful experiment was conducted to eliminate the stable fly on the island of St. Croix, the United States Virgin Islands, and since this work in the 1970s, genetic sexing strains have been developed. A considerable amount of effort was expended on the synthesis of chromosome aberrations for the control of mosquitoes. Although the results of experimental trials indigh the results of experimental trials indicated that aberration bearing insects could effectively inject a genetic load into the natural population, no large scale tests have ever been conducted to evaluate fully the real effectiveness of induced chromosomal aberrations. More recently, most of the research work in genetic control has been aimed at the use of recombinant DNA techniques for the development of new technology. All of these topics and an assessment of their value are discussed. (author). 30 refs

216

Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding sites under natural field conditions provided 98.1% reduction of Anopheles larvae on day 1; thereafter 100% reduction was recorded up to week 1 and more than 80% reduction up to week 3, while percent reduction against Culex larvae was 95.5% on day 1, and thereafter 80% reduction was achieved up to week 3. The formulation also showed 95.1% and, 99.7% reduction of Aedes larvae on day 1 and day 2 respectively; thereafter 100% larval control was observed up to day 7. Conclusion The neem oil formulation was found effective in controlling mosquito larvae in different breeding sites under natural field conditions. As neem trees are widely distributed in India, their formulations may prove to be an effective and eco-friendly larvicide, which could be used as an alternative for malaria control.

Dua Virendra K

2009-06-01

217

Mosquito age and dengue transmission  

Science.gov (United States)

This online portal features a research project funded by The Grand Challenges in Global Health Initiative to develop new strategies to control mosquitoes that transmit human disease. Specifically, the project is focused on a method to reduce dengue transmission using naturally occurring bacterial symbionts that reduce mosquito life span. The site includes a background of this work, participating research programs and researchers, project publications, current progress, news and events, and FAQs.

The Grand Challenges in Global Health Initiative

218

Chemicals of predatory mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) influence selection of oviposition site by Culex mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ovipositing insects may avoid aquatic sites where there is high predation risk to their offspring, but the proximate mechanisms that mediate avoidance behavior are poorly resolved. We conducted an experiment to determine whether mosquitoes would reduce oviposition rates in pools containing chemicals of the mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), a voracious predator that is widely employed to control mosquitoes. Experimental treatments consisted of outdoor pools that contained known concentrations of fish chemicals (low, medium, or high) or no fish chemicals (control). The pools were arranged in a randomized block design, and the number of mosquito larvae in each pool served as the response variable to estimate relative oviposition rate. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were the main colonizers of the pools. The mean number of larvae per pool differed among treatments (P = 0.026) and was about three times greater in control pools compared with those receiving medium and high concentrations of fish chemicals. Pairwise comparisons indicate that only medium and high treatments differed significantly from controls, suggesting that a threshold concentration exists below which mosquitoes cannot reliably detect predators. Our data suggest that the effectiveness of Gambusia affinis in controlling mosquitoes may be compromised if adult mosquitoes respond to fish stocking by shifting to nearby breeding sites that lack fish. We discuss issues conceming the use of Gambusia in biological control programs within the context of these new findings. PMID:12035927

Angelon, Kim A; Petranka, James W

2002-04-01

219

Molecular identification of avian haemosporidia in wild birds and mosquitoes on Tsushima Island, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated for the first time the prevalence of avian haemosporidia of genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon among birds and mosquitoes on Tsushima Island of Japan, which is located between Japan and the Korean Peninsula. Of 55 wild birds belonging to 33 species, 16 (29.1%) tested positive for haemosporidia as follows: Plasmodium spp. (11/55; 20.0%); Haemoproteus spp. (2/55; 3.6%); and Leucocytozoon spp. (3/55; 5.5%). A genetic lineage isolated from the Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) was identical to that of the known avian malaria parasite P. circumflexum. Several genetic lineages were identical or closely related to the parasite lineages that were previously detected in birds and mosquitoes in Japan and Korea. Another single identical genetic lineage was also detected in both migratory and resident birds. A total of 753 mosquitoes from 12 species were collected; and one fully fed Aedes albopictus was positive for avian Plasmodium(1/753; 0.13%) which is identical to a genetic lineage detected in both mosquitoes in Japan and birds in Korea. Blood-meal identifications of blood-fed mosquitoes showed direct contact between the mosquitoes and 4 species of mammals including humans, cattle, rodents and the endangered Tsushima leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilura). Migratory birds use Tsushima Island as a site for wintering, breeding and resting, and our results suggest the transmission of avian haematozoa between resident and migratory birds during their stay on Tsushima Island. PMID:23123824

Tanigawa, Momoko; Sato, Yukita; Ejiri, Hiroko; Imura, Takayuki; Chiba, Rei; Yamamoto, Hanae; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Tsuda, Yoshio; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

2013-01-01

220

Review: Improving our knowledge of male mosquito biology in relation to genetic control programmes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enormous burden placed on populations worldwide by mosquito-borne diseases, most notably malaria and dengue, is currently being tackled by the use of insecticides sprayed in residences or applied to bednets, and in the case of dengue vectors through reduction of larval breeding sites or larviciding with insecticides thereof. However, these methods are under threat from, amongst other issues, the development of insecticide resistance and the practical difficulty of maintaining long-term community-wide efforts. The sterile insect technique (SIT), whose success hinges on having a good understanding of the biology and behaviour of the male mosquito, is an additional weapon in the limited arsenal against mosquito vectors. The successful production and release of sterile males, which is the mechanism of population suppression by SIT, relies on the release of mass-reared sterile males able to confer sterility in the target population by mating with wild females. A five year Joint FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project brought together researchers from around the world to investigate the pre-mating conditions of male mosquitoes (physiology and behaviour, resource acquisition and allocation, and dispersal), the mosquito mating systems and the contribution of molecular or chemical approaches to the understanding of male mosquito mating behaviour. A summary of the existing knowledge and the main novel findings of this group is reviewed here, and further presented in the reviews and research articles that form this Acta Tropica special issue. PMID:24252487

Lees, Rosemary Susan; Knols, Bart; Bellini, Romeo; Benedict, Mark Q; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Bossin, Hervé Christophe; Chadee, Dave D; Charlwood, Jacques; Dabiré, Roch K; Djogbenou, Luc; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Gato, René; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Lemperiere, Guy; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Pitts, R Jason; Simard, Frederic; Gilles, Jeremie R L

2014-04-01

221

Understanding the Habitat Needs of the Declining Western Yellow-Billed Cuckoo  

Science.gov (United States)

The western yellow-billed cuckoo, once common along the streams and rivers of the American West, is now a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act. Most of the remaining breeding pairs are found in Arizona, California, and New Mexico. Research to understand the cuckoos' habitat needs by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Northern Arizona University scientists has shown that cuckoos in Arizona prefer breeding habitat dominated by native tree species, especially cottonwood-willow habitat bordered by mesquite bosque habitat. This research also revealed that the size of habitat patches matters - breeding cuckoos were found only in large, continuous areas of riparian habitat. These findings and the development of spatially explicit habitat models by USGS scientists will help resource managers conserve and manage riparian habitats needed to ensure the survival of the western yellow-billed cuckoo.

Johnson, Matthew J.

2009-01-01

222

Diffusion Model On The Efficacy Of Larvicide In Antilarval Operation Of Mosquito Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito control is being performed under chemical, biological and genetic and altogether it is called integrated vector control. In developing countries like India, chemical control has been given priority. Chemicals used as adulticide is becoming resistance among mosquitoes compared to larvicide. Further, the destruction of immature (larvae) stages of mosquitoes is as effective as its distribution is limited whereas adult mosquitoes turned to terrestrial mode of life and its distribution is based on its flight range, habitat, aggregation of man and animals. In this research paper, selective spray treatment over larvae of mosquitoes of a semi-infinite pool is analyzed using diffusion model. Spray chemical is conceived to spread on the surface with time and in space. A critical concentration of spray chemical is envisaged for assumed death of mosquito larvae. Diffusion is modeled Fick' law. Spray losses are lumped into a first order term. Analytical solution of the resulting partial differential equation for various values of diffusivity and loss rate constant are plotted and interpreted. The model would be useful to appraise beforehand how far and for how long spray would be effective and how much of spray chemical is required for effectiveness within specified distance and time.

Basker, P.; Kumar, T. Ramesh; Prabu, S. Milton; Hemalatha, S.; Elango, S.; Padmanabhan, P.; Asokan, R.

2008-01-01

223

Cooler Temperatures Destabilize RNA Interference and Increase Susceptibility of Disease Vector Mosquitoes to Viral Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The impact of global climate change on the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is the subject of extensive debate. The transmission of mosquito-borne viral diseases is particularly complex, with climatic variables directly affecting many parameters associated with the prevalence of disease vectors. While evidence shows that warmer temperatures often decrease the extrinsic incubation period of an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus), exposure to cooler temperatures often predisposes disease vector mosquitoes to higher infection rates. RNA interference (RNAi) pathways are essential to antiviral immunity in the mosquito; however, few experiments have explored the effects of temperature on the RNAi machinery. Methodology/Principal Findings We utilized transgenic “sensor” strains of Aedes aegypti to examine the role of temperature on RNA silencing. These “sensor” strains express EGFP only when RNAi is inhibited; for example, after knockdown of the effector proteins Dicer-2 (DCR-2) or Argonaute-2 (AGO-2). We observed an increase in EGFP expression in transgenic sensor mosquitoes reared at 18°C as compared with 28°C. Changes in expression were dependent on the presence of an inverted repeat with homology to a portion of the EGFP sequence, as transgenic strains lacking this sequence, the double stranded RNA (dsRNA) trigger for RNAi, showed no change in EGFP expression when reared at 18°C. Sequencing small RNAs in sensor mosquitoes reared at low temperature revealed normal processing of dsRNA substrates, suggesting the observed deficiency in RNAi occurs downstream of DCR-2. Rearing at cooler temperatures also predisposed mosquitoes to higher levels of infection with both chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Conclusions/Significance This data suggest that microclimates, such as those present in mosquito breeding sites, as well as more general climactic variables may influence the dynamics of mosquito-borne viral diseases by affecting the antiviral immunity of disease vectors. PMID:23738025

Adelman, Zach N.; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Wiley, Michael R.; Murreddu, Marta G.; Samuel, Glady Hazitha; Morazzani, Elaine M.; Myles, Kevin M.

2013-01-01

224

Habitat heterogeneity and prey selection of Aplocheilus panchax: an indigenous larvivorous fis  

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Full Text Available Objective: The ability of the native larvivorous fish Aplocheilus panchax (Hamilton, 1822 (Cyprinodontiformes:Aplocheilidae as predator of mosquito larvae was assessed under laboratory conditions using multiple prey andhabitat conditions.Methods: The consumption of larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae byA. panchax was evaluated in the presence of tubificid worms and chironomid larvae under complex and simplehabitat conditions. The number of mosquito larvae consumed in comparison to other prey types was noted andan index of prey selectivity was used to evaluate the preference for mosquito larvae.Results: Aphlocheilus panchax consumed 53 to 65 mosquito larvae in a three hour feeding bout contrast to 29–38 tubificid worms and 43–62 chironomid larvae depending on the habitat conditions. The prey consumptiondiffered significantly between the habitats and the prey type. The index of prey selectivity was positive for Cx.quinquefasciatus larvae over other alternative prey in all the habitat conditions.Conclusion: It is apparent from the study that the larvivorous fish A. panchax can be employed for biologicalregulation of mosquitoes in rice-fields and similar wetlands where the multiple prey choices are available undercomplex habitat conditions. However, field studies including other prey species will be required to substantiatethis finding

Barnali Manna , Gautam Aditya & Samir Banerjee

2011-09-01

225

Estacionalidad de la densidad larval del mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae) y otros insectos asociados a su hábitat en Sucre, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Anopheles aquasalis es considerado como el principal vector de malaria humana en el norte de Venezuela. El estudio longitudinal se llevó a cabo en áreas costeras de la Península de Paria, estado Sucre. El hábitat de las larvas de A. aquasalis fue clasificado como: manglar salobre y pantano herbáceo. [...] Muestreos para recolectar larvas de mosquitos e insectos asociados se realizaron mensualmente en ambos criaderos desde enero hasta diciembre de 1999 (30 muestras). Simultáneamente se midieron cinco variables seleccionadas del agua: conductividad, salinidad, oxígeno disuelto, temperatura y pH. En ambos criaderos de determinaron las variaciones estacionales y temporales de las larvas de A. aquasalis e insectos acuáticos. Para el período de estudio, la abundancia de larvas fue mayor en el manglar. El análisis de correspondencia mostró una fuerte relación entre algunos factores químicos del agua y la abundancia de las larvas. La abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis en ambas épocas, se correlacionó positivamente con la salinidad del agua, pH y conductividad, y negativamente con el oxígeno disuelto, en la estación seca. La presencia de larvas se correlacionó positivamente con la presencia de Avicennia germinans. En el manglar existió una asociación positiva entre la abundancia de larvas y la abundancia de la familia Scirtidae y una correlación negativa entre la abundancia de larvas y la precipitación mensual (Spearman), así como una correlación negativa significativa entre la abundancia de Gerridae y la precipitación mensual. En el pantano herbáceo, no había asociaciones significativas entre la abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis y la abundancia de otros insectos acuáticos asociados al hábitat. Abstract in english Larval seasonality of the mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae) and other insects associated to its habitat in Sucre, Venezuela. Anopheles aquasalis Curry is considered the main vector of human malaria in Northern Venezuela. A longitudinal study was carried out in the coastal areas of th [...] e Paria Peninsula, Sucre state. The larval habitats of A. aquasalis were classified as: 1- Brackish mangrove, and 2- Freshwater herbaceous swamp. Field surveys of mosquito larvae and aquatic insects were carried out in the same breeding sites over a one-year period, between January and December 1999. At each site, 30 samples of Anopheles larvae and aquatic insects were taken monthly. Simultaneously with mosquito larvae sampling, five selected variables of water were measured: conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH. Seasonal and temporal variations of A. aquasalis larvae and aquatic insects were determined in the two larval habitats. For the entire study period, the abundance of larvae was higher in the mangrove. Correspondence analysis showed a strong relation between some chemical factors of water and larval abundance. The abundance of A. aquasalis larvae in both seasons, was positively correlated with water salinity, pH and conductivity, and negatively with dissolved oxygen in the dry season. The presence of larvae was positively correlated with the presence of Avicenia germinans. In the mangrove there was a positive association between larvae abundance and Scirtidae family abundance and a negative correlation between larvae abundance and monthly precipitation (Spearman), as well as a significant negative correlation between Gerridae abundance and monthly precipitation. In the herbaceous swamp, there were not significant associations between A. aquasalis larvae abundance and abundance of others aquatic insects associated to habitat. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2): 777-787. Epub 2010 June 02.

Jesús, Berti; Julio, González; Edith, Navarro-Bueno; Evelin, Zoppi; Elizabeth, Gordon; Laura, Delgado.

2010-06-01

226

Estacionalidad de la densidad larval del mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae y otros insectos asociados a su hábitat en Sucre, Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anopheles aquasalis es considerado como el principal vector de malaria humana en el norte de Venezuela. El estudio longitudinal se llevó a cabo en áreas costeras de la Península de Paria, estado Sucre. El hábitat de las larvas de A. aquasalis fue clasificado como: manglar salobre y pantano herbáceo. Muestreos para recolectar larvas de mosquitos e insectos asociados se realizaron mensualmente en ambos criaderos desde enero hasta diciembre de 1999 (30 muestras. Simultáneamente se midieron cinco variables seleccionadas del agua: conductividad, salinidad, oxígeno disuelto, temperatura y pH. En ambos criaderos de determinaron las variaciones estacionales y temporales de las larvas de A. aquasalis e insectos acuáticos. Para el período de estudio, la abundancia de larvas fue mayor en el manglar. El análisis de correspondencia mostró una fuerte relación entre algunos factores químicos del agua y la abundancia de las larvas. La abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis en ambas épocas, se correlacionó positivamente con la salinidad del agua, pH y conductividad, y negativamente con el oxígeno disuelto, en la estación seca. La presencia de larvas se correlacionó positivamente con la presencia de Avicennia germinans. En el manglar existió una asociación positiva entre la abundancia de larvas y la abundancia de la familia Scirtidae y una correlación negativa entre la abundancia de larvas y la precipitación mensual (Spearman, así como una correlación negativa significativa entre la abundancia de Gerridae y la precipitación mensual. En el pantano herbáceo, no había asociaciones significativas entre la abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis y la abundancia de otros insectos acuáticos asociados al hábitat.Larval seasonality of the mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae and other insects associated to its habitat in Sucre, Venezuela. Anopheles aquasalis Curry is considered the main vector of human malaria in Northern Venezuela. A longitudinal study was carried out in the coastal areas of the Paria Peninsula, Sucre state. The larval habitats of A. aquasalis were classified as: 1- Brackish mangrove, and 2- Freshwater herbaceous swamp. Field surveys of mosquito larvae and aquatic insects were carried out in the same breeding sites over a one-year period, between January and December 1999. At each site, 30 samples of Anopheles larvae and aquatic insects were taken monthly. Simultaneously with mosquito larvae sampling, five selected variables of water were measured: conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH. Seasonal and temporal variations of A. aquasalis larvae and aquatic insects were determined in the two larval habitats. For the entire study period, the abundance of larvae was higher in the mangrove. Correspondence analysis showed a strong relation between some chemical factors of water and larval abundance. The abundance of A. aquasalis larvae in both seasons, was positively correlated with water salinity, pH and conductivity, and negatively with dissolved oxygen in the dry season. The presence of larvae was positively correlated with the presence of Avicenia germinans. In the mangrove there was a positive association between larvae abundance and Scirtidae family abundance and a negative correlation between larvae abundance and monthly precipitation (Spearman, as well as a significant negative correlation between Gerridae abundance and monthly precipitation. In the herbaceous swamp, there were not significant associations between A. aquasalis larvae abundance and abundance of others aquatic insects associated to habitat. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2: 777-787. Epub 2010 June 02.

Jesús Berti

2010-06-01

227

Mosquito Surveillance Revealed Lagged Effects of Mosquito Abundance on Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission: A Retrospective Study in Zhejiang, China  

OpenAIRE

Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008–2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs inciden...

Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

2014-01-01

228

A two-year survey on mosquitoes of Lebanon.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 6,500 mosquitoes were identified during a two-year survey (1999-2001) in Lebanon, and these belonged to twelve species: Culex pipiens, Cx. laticinctus, Cx. mimeticus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. judaicus, Aedes aegypti, Ae. cretinus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Oc. geniculatus, Oc. pulchritarsis, Culiseta longiareolata and Anopheles claviger. Culex pipiens was the most predominant species in Lebanon, collected indoors and outdoors. It was continuously abundant and active throughout the year. Culex judaicus was a small and rare mosquito and it is reported to occur for the first time in Lebanon. On the coastal areas, Ochlerotatus caspius was very common, and proved to be a complex of species as two forms were detected. One of the vectors of malaria, Anopheles claviger, was collected from May to September, from eight sites in Lebanon. Its breeding sites were restricted to fresh, cool, and clean water in pools and wells. Most of these breeding sites were in the populated Metn County where a few indigenous cases of malaria were reported from 1997-2000. This shows that the reported malaria cases were not imported, but caused by the bites of locally infected Anopheles females. PMID:16218210

Knio, K M; Markarian, N; Kassis, A; Nuwayri-Salti, N

2005-09-01

229

Classification of immature stage habitats of Culicidae (Diptera) collected in Córdoba, Argentina  

OpenAIRE

In order to classify mosquito immature stage habitats, samples were taken in 42 localities of Córdoba Province, Argentina, representing the phytogeographic regions of Chaco, Espinal and Pampa. Immature stage habitats were described and classified according to the following criteria: natural or artificial; size; location related to light and neighboring houses; vegetation; water: permanence, movement, turbidity and pH. Four groups of species were associated based on the habitat similarity by ...

Almiro?n, Walter R.; Brewer, Mireya E.

1996-01-01

230

Phagocytosis in mosquito immune responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anopheles mosquitoes are the only vectors of human malaria parasites. Mosquito-parasite interactions are critical for disease transmission and therefore are a potential target for malaria control strategies. Mosquitoes mount potent immune responses that efficiently limit proliferation of a variety of infectious agents, including microbial pathogens and malaria parasites. The recent completion of the Anopheles gambiae genome sequencing project combined with the development of the powerful RNA interference-based gene silencing helped to identify major players of the immune defenses and uncovered evolutionarily conserved mechanisms in the anti-bacterial and anti-Plasmodium responses. The anti-bacterial responses are based on phagocytosis at early steps of infections, followed, several hours later, by the synthesis of anti-microbial peptides. The principal regulators of anti-parasitic responses are predominantly synthesized by the mosquito blood cells; however, the exact molecular mechanisms of parasite killing remain unclear. Several regulators of phagocytosis are also required for efficient parasite killing. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the anti-bacterial and anti-parasitic responses, with the particular emphasis on the role of phagocytosis in mosquito immunity. PMID:17850478

Blandin, Stephanie A; Levashina, Elena A

2007-10-01

231

Protocol for Mosquito Rearing (A. gambiae)  

OpenAIRE

This protocol describes mosquito rearing in the insectary. The insectary rooms are maintained at 28°C and ~80% humidity, with a 12 hr. day/night cycle. For this procedure, you'll need mosquito cages, 10% sterile sucrose solution, paper towels, beaker, whatman filter paper, glass feeders, human blood and serum, water bath, parafilm, distilled water, clean plastic trays, mosquito food (described below), mosquito net to cover the trays, vacuum, and a collection chamber to collect...

Das, Suchismita; Garver, Lindsey; Dimopoulos, George

2007-01-01

232

Effects of within-patch heterogeneity on connectivity in pond-breeding amphibians studied by means of an individual-based model  

OpenAIRE

The metapopulation framework presumes the habitat of a local population to be continuous and homogenous, and patch area is often used as a proxy for population size. Many populations of pond-breeding amphibians are assumed to follow metapopulation dynamics, and connectivity is mostly measured between breeding ponds. However, the habitat of pond-breeding amphibians is not only defined by the pond but, typically, consists of a breeding pond surrounded by clusters of disjoint s...

-b Pontoppidan, M.; Nachman, G.

2013-01-01

233

Inhibition of malaria parasite development in mosquitoes by anti-mosquito-midgut antibodies.  

OpenAIRE

The mosquito midgut plays a central role in the development and subsequent transmission of malaria parasites. Using a rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, and the mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi, we investigated the effect of anti-mosquito-midgut antibodies on the development of malaria parasites in the mosquito. In agreement with previous studies, we found that mosquitoes that ingested antimidgut antibodies along with infectious parasites had significantly fewer oocysts than mosq...

Lal, A. A.; Schriefer, M. E.; Sacci, J. B.; Goldman, I. F.; Louis-wileman, V.; Collins, W. E.; Azad, A. F.

1994-01-01

234

Interspecific Competition of a New Invasive Mosquito, Culex coronator, and Two Container Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), Across Different Detritus Environments  

OpenAIRE

The mosquito Culex coronator (Dyar and Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae) has undergone rapid range expansion in the United States since 2003, with its historical distribution in the southwest expanding eastward to the Atlantic coast. Although Cx. coronator nominally use small natural aquatic habitats for development, the use of containers (e.g., tires) makes it potentially important as container invasive. To determine the potential ecological effects of Cx. coronator on resident container species, w...

Yee, D. A.; Skiff, J. F.

2014-01-01

235

Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP) in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource per...

Shoo Bryson; Govella Nicodem J; Chaki Prosper P; Hemed Abdullah; Tanner Marcel; Fillinger Ulrike; Killeen Gerry F

2009-01-01

236

Population structure of Pacific Common Eiders breeding in Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

We used satellite telemetry to study the migration routes and wintering areas of two allopatric breeding populations of Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) in Alaska: the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and the western Beaufort Sea coast. Only 6% (2 of 36) of females wintered within the wintering area of the other breeding population. Both breeding populations wintered in the closest available ice-free habitat, perhaps to minimize migratory distance. Two Beaufort Sea females wintered in areas used by Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta females, implying potential gene flow among breeding areas. Yet, we conclude that these two populations are largely geographically isolated throughout the annual cycle and the environmental factors influencing survival and reproduction likely differ between these groups of birds. Thus, regardless of the potential gene flow among breeding populations, we suggest that birds from these two breeding areas should be managed as separate populations. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

Petersen, M.R.; Flint, P.L.

2002-01-01

237

Modeling Future Conservation of Hawaiian Honeycreepers by Mosquito Management and Translocation of Disease-Tolerant Amakihi  

Science.gov (United States)

Avian malaria is an important cause of the decline of endemic Hawaiian honeycreepers. Because of the complexity of this disease system we used a computer model of avian malaria in forest birds to evaluate how two proposed conservation strategies: 1) reduction of habitat for mosquito larvae and 2) establishment of a low-elevation, malaria-tolerant honeycreeper (Hawaii Amakihi) to mid-elevation forests would affect native Hawaiian honeycreeper populations. We evaluated these approaches in mid-elevation forests, where malaria transmission is seasonal and control strategies are more likely to work. Our model suggests the potential benefit of larval habitat reduction depends on the level of malaria transmission, abundance of larval cavities, and the ability to substantially reduce these cavities. Permanent reduction in larval habitat of >80% may be needed to control abundance of infectious mosquitoes and benefit bird populations. Establishment of malaria-tolerant Amakihi in mid-elevation forests increases Amakihi abundance, creates a larger disease reservoir, and increases the abundance of infectious mosquitoes which may negatively impact other honeycreepers. For mid-elevation sites where bird populations are severely affected by avian malaria, malaria-tolerant Amakihi had little impact on other honeycreepers. Both management strategies may benefit native Hawaiian honeycreepers, but benefits depend on specific forest characteristics, the amount of reduction in larval habitat that can be achieved, and how malaria transmission is affected by temperature. PMID:23185375

Hobbelen, Peter H. F.; Samuel, Michael D.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.

2012-01-01

238

Limnological and botanical characterization of larval habitats for two primary malarial vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, in coastal areas of Chiapas State, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field surveys of mosquito breeding sites on the Pacific coastal plain and foothill regions of southern Chiapas, Mexico, were carried out in the dry and wet seasons of 1988. At each site, selected environmental variables were measured or estimated, presence and percent cover of aquatic plants recorded, a water sample collected for subsequent analyses, and 10-30 dips made for mosquito larvae. Logistic regression and discriminant analyses revealed that the occurrence of Anopheles albimanus larvae in both the wet and dry seasons was positively associated with planktonic algae and negatively associated with altitude. In the dry season, An. albimanus larvae were largely restricted to the margins of permanent water bodies and were associated with the presence of floating plants, particularly Eichhornia crassipes. During the wet season An. albimanus larvae were positively associated with emergent plants, particularly seasonally flooded Cyperaceae, and phosphorus (PO4) concentrations, and were negatively associated with abundant filamentous algae, high levels of total suspended solids (TSS) and Salvinia. In the dry season, An. pseudopunctipennis larvae were positively associated with filamentous algae, altitude and the presence of Heteranthera if encountered in a riverine setting, and were negatively associated with water depth. During the wet season, flooding eliminated typical flood plain An. pseudopunctipennis habitats, and larvae were rarely encountered. PMID:2098467

Savage, H M; Rejmankova, E; Arredondo-Jim'enez, J I; Roberts, D R; Rodr'iguez, M H

1990-12-01

239

Historical applications of induced sterilisation in field populations of mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Research on sterile mosquito technology from 1955 to the 1980s provided a substantial body of knowledge on propagation and release of sterile mosquitoes. Radiation sterilisation and chemosterilisation have been used effectively to induce dominant lethality and thereby sterilise important mosquito vectors in the laboratory. Experimental releases of chemosterilised males provided complete control of Anopheles albimanus in a small breeding population (14-15 sq km in El Salvador. Releases of radiation sterilised males failed to control either Aedes aegypti or Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the USA. Releases of radiation-sterilised and chemosterilised male Culex quinquefasciatus in the USA and India were successful in some instances. Development of genetic sexing systems for Anopheles and improved physical separation methods for Culex have made it possible to rear and release males almost exclusively (> 99% minimizing the release of potential vectors, the females. Factors that affected efficacy in some field programmes included reduction of competitiveness by radiation, immigration of fertilized females from outside the release zones, and inability of laboratory-bred males to perform in the wild. Despite significant progress, institutional commitments to carry the process further were generally lacking in the late 1970s and until recently. Now, with renewed interest and support for further assessment of this technology, this paper summarizes the current knowledge base, prioritizes some areas of investigation, and challenges scientists and administrators to maintain an awareness of progress, remain realistic about the interpretation of new findings, and make decisions about the sterile insect technique on the basis of informed scientific documentation. Areas recommended for priority research status include the establishment of genetic sexing mechanisms that can be transferred to other mosquito species, re-examination of radiation sterilisation, aerial release technology and mass rearing.

Knols Bart GJ

2009-11-01

240

Geostatistical evaluation of integrated marsh management impact on mosquito vectors using before-after-control-impact (BACI design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In many parts of the world, salt marshes play a key ecological role as the interface between the marine and the terrestrial environments. Salt marshes are also exceedingly important for public health as larval habitat for mosquitoes that are vectors of disease and significant biting pests. Although grid ditching and pesticides have been effective in salt marsh mosquito control, marsh degradation and other environmental considerations compel a different approach. Targeted habitat modification and biological control methods known as Open Marsh Water Management (OMWM had been proposed as a viable alternative to marsh-wide physical alterations and chemical control. However, traditional larval sampling techniques may not adequately assess the impacts of marsh management on mosquito larvae. To assess the effectiveness of integrated OMWM and marsh restoration techniques for mosquito control, we analyzed the results of a 5-year OMWM/marsh restoration project to determine changes in mosquito larval production using GIS and geostatistical methods. Methods The following parameters were evaluated using "Before-After-Control-Impact" (BACI design: frequency and geographic extent of larval production, intensity of larval production, changes in larval habitat, and number of larvicide applications. The analyses were performed using Moran's I, Getis-Ord, and Spatial Scan statistics on aggregated before and after data as well as data collected over time. This allowed comparison of control and treatment areas to identify changes attributable to the OMWM/marsh restoration modifications. Results The frequency of finding mosquito larvae in the treatment areas was reduced by 70% resulting in a loss of spatial larval clusters compared to those found in the control areas. This effect was observed directly following OMWM treatment and remained significant throughout the study period. The greatly reduced frequency of finding larvae in the treatment areas led to a significant decrease (~44% in the number of times when the larviciding threshold was reached. This reduction, in turn, resulted in a significant decrease (~74% in the number of larvicide applications in the treatment areas post-project. The remaining larval habitat in the treatment areas had a different geographic distribution and was largely confined to the restored marsh surface (i.e. filled-in mosquito ditches; however only ~21% of the restored marsh surface supported mosquito production. Conclusion The geostatistical analysis showed that OMWM demonstrated considerable potential for effective mosquito control and compatibility with other natural resource management goals such as restoration, wildlife habitat enhancement, and invasive species abatement. GPS and GIS tools are invaluable for large scale project design, data collection, and data analysis, with geostatistical methods serving as an alternative or a supplement to the conventional inference statistics in evaluating the project outcome.

Dempsey Mary E

2009-06-01

241

HERBAL CONTROL OF MOSQUITO LARVAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquitoes are the vectors for the dreadful diseases of mankind. For control of larval stages of mosquito, herbal plant extracts/ botanical insecticides are being tried. In the present study aqueous extract of some traditional medicinal herbal plants i.e. Neem (Azadirechta indica, Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, Turmeric (Curcuma longa, Tulasi (Ocimum santum, and Ginger (Zingiber officinale were tested for their Larvicidal activity. The successful attempt is made to kill the larvae, the premature stage of mosquitoes by using safe and socio-economical herbal plant extract mixtures. Ginger+Tobacco, Neem+Tobbaco and Ginger Neem, Turmeric, Tobacco and Tulasi showed highest larvicidal activity. The results obtained show that this plant material exhibited larvicidal activity and could be considered as potent natural larvicidal agent without any toxic effects.

Chaudhari Priyanka S, Chaudhari SV* Jangam Sampada, Shinde JS, Wankhede Sneha

2013-04-01

242

Biodiversidade de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) nos parques da cidade de São Paulo I / Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) survey in parks of São Paulo City I  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Diante da escassez de informações sobre mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) na cidade de São Paulo, foi proposto um projeto para estudar esse grupo de insetos nas áreas verdes representadas pelos parques municipais da cidade. Foram investigados 35 desses parques distribuídos nas regiões sul, norte e cent [...] ro-oeste da cidade, entre outubro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2011 em período diurno. Os imaturos foram coletados dos criadouros por meio de conchas entomológicas e bomba de sucção e os adultos foram capturados em seus abrigos por aspirador elétrico (bateria de 12V). A identificação e catalogação de espécimes foram feitas no Laboratório de Entomologia da Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo. Nesta primeira fase do projeto, coletou-se um total de 5.129 espécimes distribuídos em 11 gêneros e 41 categorias taxonômicas. Culex (Cux.) quinquefasciatus foi a espécie mais abundante. O gênero Aedes foi representado principalmente por Ae. (Och.) fluviatilis e Ae. (Ste.) albopictus. Ae. (Ste.) aegypti e Ae. (Och.)scapularis também foram frequentes em alguns parques. Os demais gêneros apresentaram-se pouco abundantes. Dos parques, 25,7% apresentaram mais de dez grupos, com destaque para o Anhanguera com 26; em contrapartida, 57,1% apresentaram cinco ou menos grupos. Apesar da pressão antrópica sobre esses ambientes, diversas espécies de culicídeos se utilizam destes habitats para a manutenção e refúgio de suas populações. É recomendado que estes ambientes estejam sob constante vigilância epidemiológica, visto que algumas das espécies coletadas possuem importância em saúde pública como vetoras de patógenos à população humana. Abstract in english Given the scarcity of information on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the city of São Paulo, led the authors to propose a project to investigate this group of insects in some of the green areas, represented by municipal parks. The captures were undertaken in 35 municipal parks in the south, north [...] and central-west of the city, between October 2010 and February 2011, during daylight. Immature forms were collected from breeding places with entomological ladles and suction pumps and adults from resting places with electric aspirators (12V battery). The identification of the specimens was undertaken in the Culicid laboratory of the Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo. In this first phase of the project, a total of 5,129 specimens distributed in 11 genera and 41 taxonomic categories were captured. Culex (Cux) quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species. The genus Aedes was represented mainly by Ae. (Och) fluviatilis and Ae. (Ste) albopictus. Ae. (Ste) aegypti and Ae. (Och) scapularis were frequent in some parks. Other genera were less abundant. Of the parks investigated, 25.7% presented more than ten groups of species, notably the Anhanguera with 26; on the other hand, 57.1% had five or fewer groups. Despite the anthropic pressure on these environments, several culicid species make use of these habitats as refuges. It is recommended that these environments be kept under constant epidemiological surveillance as some of the species collected constitute public health threats as pathogen vectors to the human population.

Antônio Ralph, Medeiros-Sousa; Walter, Ceretti-Junior; Paulo Roberto, Urbinatti; Delsio, Natal; Gabriela Cristina de, Carvalho; Marcia Bicudo de, Paula; Aristides, Fernandes; Maria Helena Silva Homem de, Mello; Rosane Correia de, Oliveira; Lilian Dias, Orico; Elisabeth Fernandes Bertoletti, Gonçalves; Mauro Toledo, Marrelli.

2013-03-01

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Novos encontros de anofelíneos em recipientes artificiais New findings of Anopheles mosquitoes in artificial containers  

OpenAIRE

Assinalam-se novos encontros de anofelíneos em recipientes artificiais. Um deles diz respeito a formas imaturas de Anopheles bellator em criadouros experimentais e outro é concernente ao achado de An. albitarsis l.s., em recipiente abandonado. Tecem-se considerações sobre a pressão seletiva representada pela produção, cada vez maior, de objetos descartáveis.New findings of Anopheles mosquitoes in artificial containers are reported. In one, a plastic container served as a breeding ...

Oswaldo Paulo Forattini; Iná Kakitani; Gisela Rita de Alvarenga Monteiro Marques; Marylene de Brito

1998-01-01

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A network-patch methodology for adapting agent-based models for directly transmitted disease to mosquito-borne disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito-borne diseases cause significant public health burden and are widely re-emerging or emerging. Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the spread of mosquito-borne disease in diverse populations and geographies are ongoing modelling challenges. We propose a hybrid network-patch model for the spread of mosquito-borne pathogens that accounts for individual movement through mosquito habitats, extending the capabilities of existing agent-based models (ABMs) to include vector-borne diseases. The ABM are coupled with differential equations representing 'clouds' of mosquitoes in patches accounting for mosquito ecology. We adapted an ABM for humans using this method and investigated the importance of heterogeneity in pathogen spread, motivating the utility of models of individual behaviour. We observed that the final epidemic size is greater in patch models with a high risk patch frequently visited than in a homogeneous model. Our hybrid model quantifies the importance of the heterogeneity in the spread of mosquito-borne pathogens, guiding mitigation strategies. PMID:25648061

Manore, Carrie A; Hickmann, Kyle S; Hyman, James M; Foppa, Ivo M; Davis, Justin K; Wesson, Dawn M; Mores, Christopher N

2015-12-01

245

Oviposition strategies of temporary pool mosquitoes in relation to weather, tidal regime and land use in a temperate wetland.  

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Wetlands have traditionally been associated with harbouring mosquitoes, a well-known nuisance and vectors of diseases. Within mosquito life cycle, oviposition is a determinant event by shaping their individual fitness and vectorial capacity. The study was conducted in one of the main temperate wetlands in South America. We used Generalized Linear Models to study the relation between temperature, precipitation, tidal regime, land use, microenvironment, and the occurrence of floodwater (Ochlerotatus and Psorophora spp.) and raft-laying (Culex and Uranotaenia spp.) mosquitoes using temporary pools as larval habitats. Pool occurrence was negatively associated with temperature, and positively related to precipitation and high tides. As regards the land use, it was lowest in domestic areas and plantations, intermediate in secondary forests, and highest in marshes. Each oviposition strategy was best modelled as a function of different environmental factors. The occurrence of floodwater mosquitoes was positively associated with high cumulative precipitation and low tide records. Raft-laying mosquitoes were related to low temperature records, while the effect of flooding varied with the land use. In view of these results, physical (water inputs and movement), chemical, and biological (egg and larval flushing, and predatory interactions) considerations are given to provide insight in the oviposition patterns of mosquitoes occurring in this complex wetland. We finally propose the generation of a tidal flow as a control measure against floodwater mosquitoes, which are the most anthropophilic in the study area. PMID:22647341

Cardo, M V; Vezzani, D; Carbajo, A E

2012-12-01

246

Field evaluation of four spatial repellent devices against Arkansas rice-land mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four commercially available spatial repellent devices were tested in a rice-land habitat near Stuttgart, AR, after semi-field level assessments had been made at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture in Gainesville, FL. OFF! Clip-On(metofluthrin), Mosquito Cognito (linalool), No-Pest Strip (dichlorvos), and ThermaCELL (d-cisltrans allethrin) were selected for this study from >20 candidate products. The units based on metofluthrin, linalool, or d-cisltrans allethrin significantly reduced captures of 1 or more of the mosquito species at surrogate human sites (unlit Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps with CO2 and octenol). Among the mosquito species analyzed statistically (Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Culex erraticus, and Psorophora columbiae), there were significantly different responses (up to 84% reduction) to individual products, suggesting that combinations of certain spatial repellents might provide significantly greater protection. PMID:24772674

Dame, David A; Meisch, Max V; Lewis, Carolyn N; Kline, Daniel L; Clark, Gary G

2014-03-01

247

Insecticide-resistant mosquitoes and malaria control.  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes strongly challenges the fight against mosquito-borne diseases, in particular malaria. In this paper, we formulate a system of nonlinear difference equations for malaria transmission cycle. Our model incorporates compartments for insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, where mutation is the only evolutionary force involved in the occurrence of resistant allele in the mosquito population. By deriving an epidemiological threshold, the global stability of the disease and the resistance-free fixed point is established for reduced recruitment rates of resistant mosquitoes. Furthermore, by employing numerical techniques, we showed that the mosquito-human transmission cycle of malaria and its prevalence could be impacted by mutation rate, the personal protection of hosts and the density of mosquitoes. Our results highlight that given a large mosquito population, the presence of even a small number of resistant mosquitoes to an insecticide could make the insecticide ineffective for malaria control. This suggests the need for effective insecticide management strategy, alternate mosquito control approaches, educating the public about personal protection and reduction of mosquito population in a given environment. PMID:24657875

Blayneh, Kbenesh W; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal

2014-06-01

248

Mosquito immatures in bamboo internodes in eastern Santa Catarina State, South Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae  

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Full Text Available Since mosquito immatures had been previously reported found in bamboo internodes in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, a study was conducted from January to March 2011 to evaluate the mosquito fauna associated with artificially drilled bamboos in eight localities in the eastern region of this state. Ninety-one mosquitoes of the following species were recorded: Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (1.1%, Culex soperi Antunes & Lane, 1937 (11.0%, Onirium personatum (Lutz, 1904 (6.6%, Sabethes aurescens (Lutz, 1905 (38.5%, Sa. identicus Dyar & Knab, 1907 (16.5%, Sa. intermedius Lutz, 1904 (3.3%, Sa. purpureus (Theobald, 1907 (1.1%, Trichoprosopon pallidiventer Lutz, 1905 (6.6%, Trichoprosopon soaresi Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 (2.2% and Wyeomyia limai Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 (24.2%. The finding of Ae. albopictus in perforated bamboos and the diversified mosquito fauna, whose biology is mostly poorly known, indicates the need of more detailed studies. Bamboo internodes constitute an important breeding place or mosquitoes of several species in the studied area. Sabethes intermedius and Culex soperi are reported for the first time in the state.

Gerson Azulim Müller

2014-03-01

249

Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants  

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Full Text Available Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. That is why it has been necessary to understand the various aspects of selected rural areas and consumption pattern for such a fast growing market i.e. mosquito repellants and rural buyers’ perception towards such urban products. The present paper aims to find out the factors influencing the purchase decisions of rural buyers for mosquito repellants and to study the perceptions of present and potential rural buyers' of selected mosquito repellant brands.

D. MEHTA

2010-06-01

250

A new larval tray and rack system for improved mosquito mass rearing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The requirement for efficient mosquito mass rearing technology has been one of the major obstacles preventing the large scale application of the Sterile Insect Technique against mosquitoes. At the Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (FAO/ IAEA) Insect Pest Control Laboratories we developed a larval rearing unit based on the use of a stainless steel rack that operates 50 thermoformed ABS plastic trays and is expected to be able to successfully rear 140,000-175,000 Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) adult mosquitoes per rack. The mechanized rearing unit is simple to handle, maintains minimal water temperature variation and negligible water evaporation and allows normal larval development. The mosquito mass-rearing tray was designed to provide a large surface area of shallow water that would closely mimic natural breeding sites. The trays stack into a dedicated rack structure and filling and draining were easily performed. The close stacking of the trays in the rack and the possibility to tightly line up several racks makes this rearing unit a valid solution for maximal use of the space thus reducing construction, heating, and cooling costs. The low amount of labor required to operate the system also reduces labor costs that represent one of the main expenditures in any mass rearing facility operation. Preliminary experiments performed on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) also confirm the possibility of successfully extending the use of this technology to other mosquito species. Our larval rearing unit could enhance any mosquito control strategy in which large-scale releases of mosquitoes are needed to suppress or replace natural populations. PMID:22679867

Balestrino, F; Benedict, M Q; Gilles, J R L

2012-05-01

251

Integrated mosquito larval source management reduces larval numbers in two highland villages in western Kenya  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In western Kenya, malaria remains one of the major health problems and its control remains an important public health measure. Malaria control is by either use of drugs to treat patients infected with malaria parasites or by controlling the vectors. Vector control may target the free living adult or aquatic (larval stages of mosquito. The most commonly applied control strategies target indoor resting mosquitoes. However, because mosquitoes spend a considerable time in water, targeting the aquatic stages can complement well with existing adult control measures. Methods Larval source management (LSM of malaria vectors was examined in two villages i.e. Fort Ternan and Lunyerere, with the aim of testing strategies that can easily be accessed by the affected communities. Intervention strategies applied include environmental management through source reduction (drainage of canals, land levelling or by filling ditches with soil, habitat manipulation (by provision of shading from arrow root plant, application of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti and the use of predatory fish, Gambusia affinis. The abundance of immature stages of Anopheles and Culex within intervention habitats was compared to that within non-intervention habitats. Results The findings show that in Fort Ternan no significant differences were observed in the abundance of Anopheles early and late instars between intervention and non-intervention habitats. In Lunyerere, the abundance of Anopheles early instars was fifty five times more likely to be present within non-intervention habitats than in habitats under drainage. No differences in early instars abundance were observed between non-intervention and habitats applied with Bti. However, late instars had 89?% and 91?% chance of being sampled from non-intervention rather than habitats under drainage and those applied with Bti respectively. Conclusion Most of these interventions were applied in habitats that arose due to human activities. Involvement of community members in control programs would be beneficial in the long term once they understand the role they play in malaria transmission. Apart from the need for communities to be educated on their role in malaria transmission, there is a need to develop and test strategies that can easily be accessed and hence be used by the affected communities. The proposed LSM strategies target outdoor immature mosquitoes and hence can complement well with control measures that target indoor resting vectors. Therefore inclusion of LSM in Integrated Vector Management (IVM program would be beneficial.

Imbahale Susan S

2012-05-01

252

Population size of snowy plovers breeding in North America  

Science.gov (United States)

Snowy Plovers (Charadrius nivosus) may be one of the rarest shorebirds in North America yet a comprehensive assessment of their abundance and distribution has not been completed. During 2007 and 2008, 557 discrete wetlands were surveyed and nine additional large wetland complexes sampled in México and the USA. From these surveys, a population of 23,555 (95% CI = 17,299 – 29,859) breeding Snowy Plovers was estimated. Combining the estimate with information from areas not surveyed, the total North American population was assessed at 25,869 (95% CI = 18,917 – 32,173). Approximately 42% of all breeding Snowy Plovers in North America resided at two sites (Great Salt Lake, Utah, and Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma), and 33% of all these were on wetlands in the Great Basin (including Great Salt Lake). Also, coastal habitats in central and southern Texas supported large numbers of breeding plovers. New breeding sites were discovered in interior deserts and highlands and along the Pacific coast of México; approximately 9% of the North American breeding population occurred in México. Because of uncertainties about effects of climate change and current stresses to breeding habitats, the species should be a management and conservation priority. Periodic monitoring should be undertaken at important sites to ensure high quality habitat is available to support the Snowy Plover population.

Thomas, Susan M.; Lyons, James E.; Andres, Brad A.; T-Smith, Elise Elliot; Palacios, Eduardo; Cavitt, John F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Fellows, Suzanne D.; Maty, Kendra; Howe, William H.; Mellink, Eric; Melvin, Stefani; Zimmerman, Tara

2012-01-01

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Invasive leaf resources alleviate density dependence in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus  

OpenAIRE

Interactions between invasive species can have important consequences for the speed and impact of biological invasions. Containers occupied by the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse, may be sensitive to invasive plants whose leaves fall into this larval habitat. To examine the potential for interactions between invasive leaf species and larval A. albopictus, we conducted a field survey of leaf material found with A. albopictus in containers in Palm Beach County, Florida and measured de...

Reiskind, Michael H.; Zarrabi, Ali A.; Lounibos, L. Philip

2009-01-01

254

A note on spatial and temporal distribution of Anopheline mosquitoes in Western Ghats, Southern India.  

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Full Text Available Mosquito faunal surveys were carried out in different habitats of 11 hill ranges of the Western Ghats between 2000 and 2012. Thirty three anopheline species were examined and recorded out of 8730 specimens belonging to subgenera Anopheles (12 and Cellia (21. Very low densities of malaria vectors Anopheles (Cellia fluviatilis (0.7% and An. (Cel. culicifacies (3.04% were also recorded.

A. Munirathinam

2014-06-01

255

Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes  

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Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ?80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes and repellence (ability to prevent ?80% of mosquito bites properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.

M. Zimba

2013-04-01

256

Distribution and occurrence of mosquito species in the municipal areas of Imo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A study of the ecology of drainage - breeding mosquito vectors was conducted in the three urban centers (Owerri, Orlu and Okigwe of Imo State, Nigeria. Four drainage sites located around markets, residential, stream and hotel premises were selected in each urban centre. Dipping method of sampling was employed and a total of 8,820 mosquitoes comprising eight species namely; Aedes aegypti, Aedes vittatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tigripes, Culex horridus, Culex cinereus, Culex annuliorus and Anopheles gambiae were encountered; in Owerri and Orlu with Cx. cinereus being completely absent in Okigwe. Cx. quinquefasciatus was predominantly present in all drainage sites with the highest occurrence of 4,474(50.74% followed by Aedes aegypti 1814 (20.57%, An .gambiae 945(10.71%, Cx. tigripes 484 (5.48% Ae. vittatus 420 (4.76%, Cx. horridus 264 (02.99%, Cx. cinereus 261 (2.96%, Cx. annuliorus 159 (1.88%. Of all sites sampled, market drainages had the highest abundance of mosquitoes which was significantly higher than (ANOVA, P? 0.05 those found in the residential, streams and hotel premises. Residential drainages recorded the second highest density followed by stream/vegetation drainages and hotel drainages which had the least. The abundance and distribution of mosquitoes in Owerri (130.06 the State Capital was significantly higher (ANOVA, P? 0.05 than those for Orlu (93.44 and Okigwe (52.13. The mosquito species identified in this study are of public health importance and there is an urgent need to desilt and clean up these drainages for free flow of water. This will not only rid these species of breeding sites but also free the State of the diseases associated with these organisms.

Ifeyinwa Celestina MGBEMENA

2012-05-01

257

Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes  

OpenAIRE

The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU) mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ?80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes) and repellence (ability to prevent ?80% of mosquito bites) properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was reco...

Zimba, M.; Mutambu, S. L.; Chiwade, T.; Makuwaza, A.; Lukwa, N.; Munosiyei, P.

2013-01-01

258

Improvised microinjection technique for mosquito vectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Background & objectives: Bio-manipulation technique is of primary importance during the development of transgenic mosquitoes. The study describes the variable factors that influence the viability of medically important mosquito vectors during microinjection. Methods: Three mosquito vectors belonging to the genus Aedes, Anopheles and Culex were microinjected at different developmental stages of their life cycle viz., egg, larvae, pupae and adult. Results: The improvisations revealed an increased survivability of biomanipulated mosquitoes during the embryonic and adult microinjection. The study of injecting larvae and pupae resulted in poor survivability. Interpretation & conclusions: The microinjection protocol was successfully tested on three important mosquito vectors. The critical period after biomanipulation which contributes heavily for the survivability factor was evaluated. The results provide a common protocol for biomanipulation of three mosquito vectors with enhanced survivability. PMID:23391792

Sampath, Kumar S.; Puttaraju, H. P.

2012-01-01

259

Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P?mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties. PMID:21947308

Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

2012-04-01

260

A grid-based infrastructure for ecological forecasting of rice land Anopheles arabiensis aquatic larval habitats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background For remote identification of mosquito habitats the first step is often to construct a discrete tessellation of the region. In applications where complex geometries do not need to be represented such as urban habitats, regular orthogonal grids are constructed in GIS and overlaid on satellite images. However, rice land vector mosquito aquatic habitats are rarely uniform in space or character. An orthogonal grid overlaid on satellite data of rice-land areas may fail to capture physical or man-made structures, i.e paddies, canals, berms at these habitats. Unlike an orthogonal grid, digitizing each habitat converts a polygon into a grid cell, which may conform to rice-land habitat boundaries. This research illustrates the application of a random sampling methodology, comparing an orthogonal and a digitized grid for assessment of rice land habitats. Methods A land cover map was generated in Erdas Imagine V8.7® using QuickBird data acquired July 2005, for three villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya. An orthogonal grid was overlaid on the images. In the digitized dataset, each habitat was traced in Arc Info 9.1®. All habitats in each study site were stratified based on levels of rice stage Results The orthogonal grid did not identify any habitat while the digitized grid identified every habitat by strata and study site. An analysis of variance test indicated the relative abundance of An. arabiensis at the three study sites to be significantly higher during the post-transplanting stage of the rice cycle. Conclusion Regions of higher Anopheles abundance, based on digitized grid cell information probably reflect underlying differences in abundance of mosquito habitats in a rice land environment, which is where limited control resources could be concentrated to reduce vector abundance.

Kakoma Ibulaimu I

2006-10-01

261

Malaria Mosquitoes Attracted by Fatal Fungus  

OpenAIRE

Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes...

George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

2013-01-01

262

Wolbachia-a foe for mosquitoes  

OpenAIRE

Mosquitoes act as vectors for a wide range of viral and parasitic infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, Chickungunya, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus in humans as well as in animals. Although a wide range of insecticides are used to control mosquitoes, it has only resulted in development of resistance to such insecticides. The evolution of insecticide resistance and lack of vaccines for many mosquito-borne diseases have made these arthropods highly harmf...

Guruprasad, Nadipinayakanahalli Munikrishnappa; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Puttaraju, Hosagavi Puttegowda

2014-01-01

263

Chemical odorant of colonial seabird repels mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The crested auklet, Aethia cristatella, emits a class of aldehydes shown to be potent invertebrate repellents when used by heteropterans against their predators. Our aim was to determine the efficacy of these aldehydes against mosquitoes in the laboratory. Synthetic analogues of the auklet odorant were strongly repellent to mosquitoes in controlled laboratory trials. Furthermore, the efficacy was similar to previous reports for commercial mosquito repellents. These results, in combination with a previously published study, show that constituents of the aldehyde odorant are broad spectrum in efficacy against ectoparasitic arthropods of birds. Our report is the first empirical evidence for an endogenous mosquito repellent in birds. PMID:16119555

Douglas, H D; Co, J E; Jones, T H; Conner, W E; Day, J F

2005-07-01

264

Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review  

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Full Text Available Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis.

Ernst-Jan Scholte

2004-06-01

265

Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis DNA findings in mosquitoes in Germany: temperature data allow autochthonous extrinsic development.  

Science.gov (United States)

After the repeated demonstration of Dirofilaria repens infections in German dogs, D. repens and Dirofilaria immitis DNA was detected in mosquitoes trapped in 2011, 2012 and 2013 in northeastern and southwestern Germany within the framework of culicid monitoring projects. As temperature is the most important factor dictating the extrinsic development of dirofilarial larvae in the potential vector, data of the German Weather Service (DWD) were analysed for the regions where the positive mosquitoes had been collected. Based on the mean daily temperatures recorded by weather stations most closely to the collection sites of the mosquitoes, it can be concluded that the mosquitoes were trapped in time periods that allowed for the completion of the developmental cycle of the worms in the mosquitoes and a subsequent transmission to a vertebrate host. The results of this study confirm the principal climatic suitability of certain German regions for the establishment of natural dirofilarial transmission cycles. Moreover, the theoretical climatic considerations, together with findings of D. repens infections in German dogs and mosquitoes, strongly suggest that the continuing spread of at least D. repens from its traditional habitats in the Mediterranean has reached southwestern and northeastern Germany. PMID:24906992

Sassnau, R; Czajka, C; Kronefeld, M; Werner, D; Genchi, C; Tannich, E; Kampen, H

2014-08-01

266

Evolution of plant breeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the essence of being art and science of manipulating plants for man. This review discusses theevolution of the concepts and the methods of plant breeding, here divided arbitrarily into selection based on phenotypes,breeding values and genotypes. No matter how big the pool of genetic information in recent years, the phenotype will continuesto be important in the present and future.

Arnel R. Hallauer

2011-01-01

267

Plant Breeding Techniques  

OpenAIRE

Seeds form the basis for agricultural production, but most organic growers know little about how their seedstocks have been produced. Within the organic movement the discussion on the compatibility of plant breeding techniques has been accelerated by the public discussion on genetic engineering. This decision-making is important to develop a framework for organic plant breeding and facilitate investment by breeding companies. This dossier explains all standard techniques used in modern plant ...

Wyss, E.; Lammerts Bueren, E. T.; Hulscher, M.; Haring, M.

2001-01-01

268

Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae in Europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria vector?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles plumbeus has been recognized as a minor vector for human malaria in Europe since the beginning of the 20th century. In recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited novel breeding sites, including large and organically rich man-made containers, with consequently larger mosquito populations in close vicinity to humans. This lead to investigate whether current populations of An. plumbeus would be able to efficiently transmit Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most deadly form of malaria. Methods Anopheles plumbeus immatures were collected from a liquid manure pit in Switzerland and transferred as adults to the CEPIA (Institut Pasteur, France where they were fed on P. falciparum gametocytes produced in vitro. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes served as controls. Development of P. falciparum in both mosquito species was followed by microscopical detection of oocysts on mosquito midguts and by sporozoite detection in the head/thorax by PCR and microscopy. Results A total of 293 wild An. plumbeus females from four independent collections successfully fed through a membrane on blood containing P. falciparum gametocytes. Oocysts were observed in mosquito midguts and P. falciparum DNA was detected in head-thorax samples in all four experiments, demonstrating, on a large mosquito sample, that An. plumbeus is indeed receptive to P. falciparum NF54 and able to produce sporozoites. Importantly, the proportion of sporozoites-infected An. plumbeus was almost similar to that of An. gambiae (31 to 88% An. plumbeus versus 67 to 97% An. gambiae. However, the number of sporozoites produced was significantly lower in infected An. plumbeus. Conclusion The results show that a sample of field-caught An. plumbeus has a moderate to high receptivity towards P. falciparum. Considering the increased mobility of humans between Europe and malaria endemic countries and changes in environment and climate, these data strongly suggest that An. plumbeus could act as a vector for malaria and thus significantly contribute to increasing the malaria transmission risk in Central-Western Europe. In locations showing high vulnerability to the presence of gametocyte carriers, the risk of transmission of malaria by An. plumbeus should be considered.

Schaffner Francis

2012-11-01

269

Diversidad larval de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en contenedores artificiales procedentes de una comunidad urbana de San José, Costa Rica / LARVAL DIVERSITY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN ARTIFICIAL CONTAINERS FROM AN URBAN COMMUNITY OF SAN JOSÉ, COSTA RICA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó una encuesta larval por mosquitos urbanos en contenedores artificiales intra y peridomiciliares en la comunidad "La Carpio", San José, Costa Rica. "La Carpio" es una comunidad que sufrió un brote de dengue en los últimos meses de la estación lluviosa de 2002. En 2003, fueron visitadas 369 [...] viviendas durante la estación seca y 582 en la lluviosa, para identificar los potenciales sitios de multiplicación de mosquitos. 1.160 contenedores fueron identificados y 152 de ellos (13,0%) estuvieron positivos por larvas de al menos una especie de mosquitos. La presencia de larvas de dos especies de mosquitos en un mismo contenedor fue observada en 9 contenedores (0,78%). Con el fin de estimar la diversidad larval de mosquitos, se calculó un índice de infestación por especie para cada tipo de contenedor. Cinco especies de larvas de mosquito fueron identificadas: Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, Cx. coronator y Limatus durhamii. Ae. aegypti fue la especie que se encontró con mayor frecuencia y fue la que mostró los índices de diversidad más altos para los contenedores identificados (p Abstract in english A larval survey of mosquitoes was performed in artificial containers from indoor and outdoor enviroments in the neighborhood "La Carpio", San José, Costa Rica. "La Carpio" is a community that suffered a dengue outbreak during the last months of the rainy season in 2002. During 2003, 582 and 369 hous [...] es were visited in the dry and rainy season, respectively, and the potencial mosquito breeding sites were searched for larvae. Of 1160 water containers identified, 152 (13.0%) were positive for at least one species of mosquito larvae and two mosquito species were found in 9 (0.78%) of the containers. In order to estimate the mosquito diversity, an infestation index by species (Ii) was calculated for each kind of container. Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, Cx. coronator, and Limatus durhamii were identified. Ae. aegypti was the most common species, and it showed the highest infestation index for all the containers (p

OLGER, CALDERÓN-ARGUEDAS; ADRIANA, TROYO; MAYRA E, SOLANO.

2004-07-01

270

Mosquito surveillance revealed lagged effects of mosquito abundance on mosquito-borne disease transmission: a retrospective study in Zhejiang, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008-2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue fever (DF) and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu). We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008-2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0-2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008-2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008-2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0-2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs. PMID:25393834

Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

2014-01-01

271

Toxicity and effects of mosquito larvicides methoprene and surface film (Agnique® MMF) on the development and fecundity of the tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the interactions of tadpole shrimp, a mosquito biological control agent, with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene and a monomolecular surface film. In laboratory assays, the tadpole shrimp (TPS) Triops newberryi (Packard) was able to tolerate high concentrations of methoprene without negative impacts on its growth, longevity, and fecundity when exposed to 1 to 10 mg/liter, or 90-900 fold, of the IE(90) levels against a laboratory colony of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The same held true in field trials when the habitats were treated with Altosid(®) Liquid Larvicide (Altosid(®) LL, 5% methoprene) at 0.3-1.2 liters/ha. or 1-4 fold of the label rates for mosquito control. However, some significant impacts on the TPS occurred when they were exposed to Agnique(®) Monomolecular Film (Agnique(®) MMF) at the label rates for mosquito control ranging from 1.89-9.45 liters/ha. under laboratory and field conditions. To avoid the negative impact of Agnique MMF on tadpole shrimp, it appears that 1.89 liters/ha. would be the maximum rate when Agnique MMF is used to control mosquitoes in the habitats where the TPS is employed as a biological control agent, or prevailing in the aquatic habitats with potential for suppressing mosquito larval populations. PMID:25424263

Su, Tianyun; Jiang, Yonxing; Mulla, Mir S

2014-12-01

272

Tritium breeding in fusion reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

273

Mosquito survey during West Nile virus outbreak 2012 in northeast Croatia.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the August and September 2012, seven human cases of the West Nile neuro-invasive disease were reported in Croatia. Medical entomology research on a potential vectors during the outbreak was supported by the Ministry of Health. A mosquito survey has been done in 64 sites in three eastern Croatian counties (Osijek-Baranja County, Vukovar-Srijem county and in Brod-Posavina county). Dry ice baited CDC traps were used for mosquito sampling in a period from the 10th to 25th September 2012. A total of 1785 mosquitoes were collected and 5 species were determined. The most numerous species were Aedes vexans with 1634 specimens, a Culex pipiens c., the potential vector of WNV, was present with 6.39%, in 114 specimens. That species was present in 43 out of 64 investigated sites. Vector control included both the control of mosquito larvae and the adults. Treatments have been done on 184 small breeding sites and on 2900 ha of an urban area. PMID:25144969

Merdi?, Enrih; Vignjevi?, Goran; Turi?, Natasa; Bogojevi?, Mirta Sudari?; Milas, Josip; Vru?ina, Ivana; Zahirovi?, Zeljko

2014-06-01

274

Mosquito coil emissions and health implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Burning mosquito coils indoors generates smoke that can control mosquitoes effectively. This practice is currently used in numerous households in Asia, Africa, and South America. However, the smoke may contain pollutants of health concern. We conducted the present study to characterize the emissions from four common brands of mosquito coils from China and two common brands from Malaysia. We used mass balance equations to determine emission rates of fine particles (particulate matter pollutant concentrations resulting from burning mosquito coils could substantially exceed health-based air quality standards or guidelines. Under the same combustion conditions, the tested Malaysian mosquito coils generated more measured pollutants than did the tested Chinese mosquito coils. We also identified a large suite of volatile organic compounds, including carcinogens and suspected carcinogens, in the coil smoke. In a set of experiments conducted in a room, we examined the size distribution of particulate matter contained in the coil smoke and found that the particles were ultrafine and fine. The findings from the present study suggest that exposure to the smoke of mosquito coils similar to the tested ones can pose significant acute and chronic health risks. For example, burning one mosquito coil would release the same amount of PM(2.5) mass as burning 75-137 cigarettes. The emission of formaldehyde from burning one coil can be as high as that released from burning 51 cigarettes. PMID:12948883

Liu, Weili; Zhang, Junfeng; Hashim, Jamal H; Jalaludin, Juliana; Hashim, Zailina; Goldstein, Bernard D

2003-09-01

275

Altered mangrove wetlands as habitat for estuarine nekton: are dredged channels and tidal creeks equivalent?  

Science.gov (United States)

Hasty decisions are often made regarding the restoration of "altered" habitats, when in fact the ecological value of these habitats may be comparable to natural ones. To assess the "value" of altered mangrove-lined habitats for nekton, we sampled for 1 yr within three Tampa Bay wetlands. Species composition, abundance, and spatial distribution of nekton assemblages in permanent subtidal portions of natural tidal creeks and wetlands altered by construction of mosquito-control ditches and stormwater-drainage ditches were quantified through seasonal seine sampling. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance and ordination of nekton community data suggested differences in species composition and abundance between natural and altered habitat, though not consistently among the three wetlands. In many cases, mosquito ditches were more similar in assemblage structure to tidal creeks than to stormwater ditches. In general, mosquito ditches and stormwater ditches were the most dissimilar in terms of nekton community structure. These dissimilarities were likely due to differences in design between the two types of ditches. Mosquito ditches tend to fill in over time and are thus more ephemeral features in the landscape. In contrast, stormwater ditches are a more permanent altered habitat that remain open due to periodic flushing from heavy runoff. Results indicate that environmental conditions (e.g., salinity, current velocity, vegetative structure) may provide a more useful indication of potential habitat "value" for nekton than whether the habitat has been altered. The type of ditching is therefore more important than ditching per se when judging the habitat quality of these altered channels for fishes, shrimps and crabs. Planning should entail careful consideration of environmental conditions rather than simply restoring for restoration's sake.

Krebs, Justin M.; Brame, Adam B.; McIvor, Carole C.

2007-01-01

276

An exploratory survey of malaria prevalence and people's knowledge, attitudes and practices of mosquito larval source management for malaria control in western Kenya  

OpenAIRE

A large proportion of mosquito larval habitats in urban and rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa are man-made. Therefore, community-based larval source management (LSM) could make a significant contribution to malaria control in an integrated vector management approach. Here we implemented an exploratory study to assess malaria prevalence and people's knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria transmission, its control and the importance of man-made aquatic habitats for the development ...

Imbahale, S. S.; Fillinger, U.; Githeko, A.; Mukabana, W. R.; Takken, W.

2010-01-01

277

Integration of georeferencing, habitat, sampling, and genetic data for documentation of wild plant genetic resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant genetic resource collections provide novel materials to the breeding and research communities. Availability of detailed documentation of passport, phenotypic, and genetic data increases the value of the genebank accessions. Inclusion of georeferenced sources, habitats, and sampling data in co...

278

Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera) from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control / Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera) em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera) em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores. Este estudo investiga a distribuição espacial da fauna urbana e de Culicidae e informa o monitoramento entomológico de espécies que usam [...] recipientes artificiais como habitat larval. Coletas de larvas de mosquitos foram realizadas no município paulista de Santa Bárbara d' Oeste entre os anos de 2004 e 2006, durante visitas casa-a-casa. Um total de 1.891 amostras foi considerado, com nove espécies diferentes coletadas. A distribuição das espécies foi avaliada através do método de krigagem estatística extrapolando as divisões administrativas do município. O método de coleta adotado no presente estudo está de acordo com os métodos sugeridos aos serviços de saúde municipais pelo Ministério da Saúde e pode, portanto, ser adotado pelas autoridades públicas de saúde no controle da doença e delimitação das áreas de risco. Além disso, este tipo de levantamento e análise pode ser empregado como vigilância entomológica de espécies de mosquitos vetores que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval em áreas urbanas. Abstract in english Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera) larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers a [...] s larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.

Rafael, Piovezan; Thiago Salomão de, Azevedo; Cláudio José, Von Zuben.

2012-09-01

279

Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers as larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores. Este estudo investiga a distribuição espacial da fauna urbana e de Culicidae e informa o monitoramento entomológico de espécies que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval. Coletas de larvas de mosquitos foram realizadas no município paulista de Santa Bárbara d' Oeste entre os anos de 2004 e 2006, durante visitas casa-a-casa. Um total de 1.891 amostras foi considerado, com nove espécies diferentes coletadas. A distribuição das espécies foi avaliada através do método de krigagem estatística extrapolando as divisões administrativas do município. O método de coleta adotado no presente estudo está de acordo com os métodos sugeridos aos serviços de saúde municipais pelo Ministério da Saúde e pode, portanto, ser adotado pelas autoridades públicas de saúde no controle da doença e delimitação das áreas de risco. Além disso, este tipo de levantamento e análise pode ser empregado como vigilância entomológica de espécies de mosquitos vetores que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval em áreas urbanas.

Rafael Piovezan

2012-09-01

280

CGIAR Integrated Breeding Platform  

Science.gov (United States)

The Integrated Breeding Platform is a development being led by the Generation Challenge Programme (GCP), a part of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) which has a mission to bring scientists from different horizons and with different skills to work together, bridging the gap between upstream and applied research, so that biotechnology could have greater impact on plant breeding efficiency in developing countries.The Integrated Breeding Platform functions as a one-stop-shop to provide information, tools, services and training.  Furthermore IBP hopes to provide developing countries with access to modern breeding technologies, breeding materials, and related information to facilitate their adoption of molecular breeding approaches and improve their plant breeding efficiency.This site provides educational and training opportunities to help people be able to better utilize the tools at the Integrated Breeding Platform, as well as to provide an online community area for webinars and discussion forums. In order to access the self-paced courses found at the left, you will need to click on the "Join Now" button found in the upper right corner of this page.  Right now the courses are under development and not ready for participants.  While you wait, you can view any materials found under the "lessons" or "animations/video" buttons.

281

BREEDING ECOLOGY OF HOODED CROW (CORVUS CORNIX L. POPULATIONS IN TRANSFORMED LANDSCAPES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The comparative analysis of hooded crow breeding ecology was performed for Zhitomir region in 2010-2011 in terms of rural and urban distinctions. Height of trees, tree species diversity in breeding biotopes, nest size, and breeding success of hooded crows were considered for agricultural and urban landscapes. Definite patterns of breeding ecology were estimated for urban and rural populations of hooded crows. On average, the breeding density of hooded crows was 7-8 individuals/km2in Zhitomir region.Positive correlation was found between the breeding density of hooded crows and degree of transformation and urbanization of landscape of Zhytomyr region. The main breeding habitats of hooded crows in the Zhitomir region were the wetland sites. Communities of urban birds were characterized by earlier terms of nest building, more higher position of nests in the trees and high diversity of tree breeding habitats. In urbanized landscape we determined high proportion of large (6 eggs and small clutches of hooded crow (3 eggs. On average the breeding success of crows in Zhytomyr region is 51.1%. We suggested that the main factor was high level of elimination of embryos and chicks of hooded crow. In urbanized landscapes the breeding success (50% is somewhat higher than that in rural areas (43.5%. This can be explained by specific features of ecological niches - in cities the bird communities have few natural predators that kill chicks and destroy clutches, and potentially have more available food resources.

Matsyura A.V.

2011-12-01

282

Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Soil of a Swiss Wetland Reserve after 22 Years of Mosquito Control?†  

OpenAIRE

Recurrent treatments with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis are required to control the floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans that breeds in large numbers in the wetlands of the Bolle di Magadino Reserve in Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Interventions have been carried out since 1988. In the present study, the spatial distribution of resting B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in the soil was measured. The B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis concentration was determined in soil samples...

Guidi, Valeria; Patocchi, Nicola; Lu?thy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

2011-01-01

283

Buffaloes breeding in Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

O. Bernardes

2010-02-01

284

Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

To view additional success stories click on the link in the left menu Please click here to report your plant breeding success stories.  Click on TCAP logo to see the Economic impact of USDA-NIFA small grains CAPsThe Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee (SCC 080) is the USDA-sponsored advisory group of representatives from land grant universities.  The Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee represents national plant breeding with a focus on education in the broader sense, including providing information to the public and administrators, and encouraging the development of formal educational opportunities, continuing education, and lifelong learning. Mission: To provide a forum for leadership on issues and opportunities of strategic importance to national core competency in plant breeding research and education Membership: The PBCC members will consist of the representatives of the SCC-080 committee and others by request. 

285

Agricultural ponds as alternative habitat for waterbirds: spatial and temporal patterns of abundance and management strategies  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The progressive lost of natural wetlands as a consequence of human activities has lead to the use of new habitats by the species linked to water presence. In Southeast Spain, thousands of irrigation ponds have been lately constructed to store water for agriculture and are used by waterbirds as an alternative habitat. For this study, breeding and wintering waterbirds were counted in a subset of irrigation ponds between 2002 and 2007. Breeding communities were more abundant ...

Sebastia?n-gonza?lez, Esther; Sa?nchez-zapata, Jose? Antonio; Botella, Francisco

2009-01-01

286

Relationships between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. Mosquito control is one aspect of an integrated malaria management programme. To focus resources on priority areas, information is needed about the vectors and their habitats. This research aimed to identify the relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java. Methods Study areas were selected in three topographic types in West Timor and Java. These were: coastal plain, hilly (rice field) and highland. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans identified to species level and counted. Results Eleven species were recorded, four of which were significant for malaria transmission: Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles sundaicus. Each species occupied different topographies, but only five were significantly associated: Anopheles annularis, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles subpictus (Java only) with hilly rice fields; Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles subpictus (West Timor only) with coastal areas. Conclusion Information on significant malaria vectors associated with specific topography is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. PMID:20796265

2010-01-01

287

Habitat correlates of wintering sea duck occurrence in southeast Alaska  

OpenAIRE

Southeast Alaska provides non-breeding habitat for >300,000 sea ducks, however little is known about habitat features that may influence their distribution within this area. We used an autologistic regression model to examine relationships between 10 species of sea ducks that winter in southeast Alaska [harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus), red breasted merganser (Mergus serrator), common merganser (Mergus merganser), bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), Barrow’s goldeneye (Bucephala is...

Gunn, Theodora

2009-01-01

288

California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) movement and habitat use: Implications for conservation  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonbreeding habitats are critically important for Rana draytonii, especially for individuals that breed in temporary bodies of water. We radiotracked 123 frogs to evaluate seasonal habitat use. Individual frogs were continuously tracked for up to 16 months. Some individuals remained at breeding ponds all year, but 66% of female and 25% of male frogs moved to nonbreeding areas, even when the breeding site retained water. Frogs at our main study site moved 150 m (median), roughly the distance to the nearest suitable nonbreeding area. The greatest straight-line distance traveled was 1.4 km, although the presumed distance traveled was 2.8 km. Females were more likely than males to move from permanent ponds (38% of females, 16% of males), but among dispersing frogs, males and females did not differ in distance moved. Some frogs left breeding sites shortly after oviposition (median = 12 days for females, 42.5 days for males), but many individuals remained until the site was nearly dry. Fog provided moisture for dispersal or migration throughout the summer. Our data demonstrate that maintaining populations of pond-breeding amphibians requires that all essential habitat components be protected; these include (1) breeding habitat, (2) nonbreeding habitat, and (3) migration corridors. In addition, a buffer is needed around all three areas to ensure that outside activities do not degrade any of the three habitat components. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

Fellers, G.M.; Kleeman, P.M.

2007-01-01

289

Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587

Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

2012-05-01

290

Wolbachia-a foe for mosquitoes  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquitoes act as vectors for a wide range of viral and parasitic infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, Chickungunya, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus in humans as well as in animals. Although a wide range of insecticides are used to control mosquitoes, it has only resulted in development of resistance to such insecticides. The evolution of insecticide resistance and lack of vaccines for many mosquito-borne diseases have made these arthropods highly harmful vectors. Recently, a novel approach to control mosquitoes by transinfection of life shortening maternally transmitted endo-symbiont Wolbachia wMelPop strain from fruitfly Drosophila into mosquito population has been developed by researchers. The wMelPop strain up-regulated the immune gene expression in mosquitoes thereby reducing the dengue and Chickungunya viral replication in Aedes aegypti, and also it significantly reduced the Plasmodium level in Anopheles gambiae. Here, we discuss the strategy of using Wolbachia in control of vector-borne diseases of mosquitoes.

Guruprasad, Nadipinayakanahalli Munikrishnappa; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Puttaraju, Hosagavi Puttegowda

2014-01-01

291

Influence of climate change on mosquito development and mosquito-borne diseases in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass occurrence of mosquitoes can have an immense impact on the quality of life in areas such as the Upper Rhine Valley. Therefore, biological and environmental measures are applied to prevent mass development in many regions of Europe. Despite successful prevention measures, the risk of contracting mosquito-borne viral diseases, such as West Nile fever, should be discounted in Central Europe. The transport of mosquitoes (e.g., through tire trade or within containers) into Germany has to be prevented. Individuals (tourists and immigrants) infected with imported vector-borne pathogens and parasites must be diagnosed and treated immediately. Mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases know no borders, and their spread is also a consequence of high mobility and globalization. Therefore, mosquito control requires international cooperation. People's increased mobility and international trade play a more important role in the dissemination of the vectors and their pathogens/parasites than increasing temperatures. PMID:19030883

Becker, Norbert

2008-12-01

292

Mutation breeding in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot diseasewhich is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

293

Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The water level of Lake Victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. This study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors. Methods The recent and past shorelines were estimated using landmarks and a satellite image. The locations of breeding habitats were recorded using a GPS unit during the high and low lake water periods. GIS was used to determine whether the breeding habitats were located on newly emerged land between the new and old shorelines. Results Over half of the breeding habitats existed on newly emerged land. Fewer habitats for the Anopheles gambiae complex were found during the low water level period compared to the high water period. However, more habitats for Anopheles funestus were found during the high water level period, and they were all located on the newly emerged land. Conclusion The recent reduction in water level of Lake Victoria has increased the amount of available habitat for A. funestus. The results suggest that the water drop has substantially affected the population of this malaria vector in the Lake Victoria basin, particularly because the lake has a long shoreline that may harbour many new breeding habitats.

Futami Kyoko

2008-07-01

294

Can mosquitoes fly in the rain?  

CERN Document Server

Collisions with raindrops are one of many obstacles insects face during flight. In this fluid dynamics video, we present a series of high-speed films of impacts between mosquitoes and raindrops. We also present drop impacts upon insect mimics, which are unsupported styrofoam balls of the same mass as mosquitoes. High-speed videography and particle tracking during collision are employed to determine the insect position versus time. We determine the magnitude of acceleration by considering the momentum transfer and impact duration. Experiments with live mosquitoes indicate a surprising ability to quickly recover flight post-collision, despite accelerations of 30-300 gravities over durations of 1 ms.

Dickerson, Andrew; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

2011-01-01

295

Mosquito immune defenses against Plasmodium infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The causative agent of malaria, Plasmodium, has to undergo complex developmental transitions and survive attacks from the mosquito's innate immune system to achieve transmission from one host to another through the vector. Here we discuss recent findings on the role of the mosquito's innate immune signaling pathways in preventing infection by the Plasmodium parasite, the identification and mechanistic description of novel anti-parasite molecules, the role that natural bacteria harbored in the mosquito midgut might play in this immune defense and the crucial parasite and vector molecules that mediate midgut infection. PMID:20026176

Cirimotich, Chris M; Dong, Yuemei; Garver, Lindsey S; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George

2010-04-01

296

Immature stages of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Collected during the autumn-winter period in Cordoba Province, Argentina  

OpenAIRE

Eggs, immature mosquito collections were made at Cosquin, La Calera ( Chaco phytogeographic region), Villa Allende and Villa del Rosario (Espinal phytogeographic region) during April/September of two consecutive years 1989, 1990. Specific immature habitats in each locality were identified and sampled monthly. Eggs and/or immatures of Aedes albifasciatus, Ae. fluviatilis, Anopheles albitarsis, culex acharistus, Cx. apicinus, Cx. bidens, Cx. coronator, Cx. chidesteri, Cx. dolosus, Cx. maxi, Cx....

Almiron, Walter R.; Brewer, Mireya E.

1994-01-01

297

Geographical distribution and evaluation of mosquito larvivorous potential of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell), a native fish of Gujarat, India  

OpenAIRE

Background & objectives: Certain indigenous fish can play potential role in vector control. The study recordeddistribution of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell) in its native habitats in Gujarat, India and evaluated its larval propensityfor Indian mosquito vectors.Methods: Fishes were surveyed in various districts of Gujarat and samples were collected from coastal habitatsand were identified to species. Physicochemical properties of water samples were analysed in the laboratory.Five laboratory acclim...

Yadav, Sarfarazul Haq Rajpal S.

2011-01-01

298

Spinosad: a biorational mosquito larvicide for use in car tires in southern Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5?ppm (mg a.i./liter provided 6–8?weeks of effective control of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasiatus and Cx. coronator larvae, both in the dry season and the rainy season when mosquito populations increased markedly in southern Mexico. Spinosad continued to provide partial control of larvae for several weeks after initial recolonization of treated tires. The larvicidal performance of VectoBac 12AS (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was relatively poor with one week of complete control of Aedes spp. larvae and no discernible control of Culex spp., whereas the duration of larvicidal activity of 1% temephos mineral-based granules was intermediate between those of VectoBac and spinosad treatments. Populations of chironomids, ostracods and Toxorhynchites theobaldi were generally reduced in spinosad and temephos treatments, but were similar in control and VectoBac treatments. Conclusion The present study is the first to report spinosad as an effective larvicide against Cx. coronator, which is currently invading the southern United States. These results substantiate the use of spinosad as a highly effective mosquito larvicide, even in habitats such as unused car tires that can represent prolific sources of adult mosquitoes.

Marina Carlos F

2012-05-01

299

Implementation in breeding programmes  

OpenAIRE

Genetic improvement is easy when selecting for one heritable and well-recorded trait at a time. Many industrialised national dairy herds have overall breeding indices that incorporate a range of traits balanced by their known or estimated economic value. Future breeding goals will contain more non-production traits and, in the context of this paper, traits associated with human health and cow robustness. The definition of Robustness and the traits used to predict it are currently fluid; howev...

Coffey, M. P.; Mcparland, S.; Bastin, Catherine; Wall, E.; Berry, D.; Veerkamp, R. P.

2013-01-01

300

Spatially targeting Culex quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats on modified land cover for implementing an Integrated Vector Management (IVM program in three villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous land cover modification is an important part of spatial epidemiology because it can help identify environmental factors and Culex mosquitoes associated with arbovirus transmission and thus guide control intervention. The aim of this study was to determine whether remotely sensed data could be used to identify rice-related Culex quinquefasciatus breeding habitats in three rice-villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya. We examined whether a land use land cover (LULC classification based on two scenes, IKONOS at 4 m and Landsat Thematic Mapper at 30 m could be used to map different land uses and rice planted at different times (cohorts, and to infer which LULC change were correlated to high density Cx. quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats. We performed a maximum likelihood unsupervised classification in Erdas Imagine V8.7® and generated three land cover classifications, rice field, fallow and built environment. Differentially corrected global positioning systems (DGPS ground coordinates of Cx. quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats were overlaid onto the LULC maps generated in ArcInfo 9.1®. Grid cells were stratified by levels of irrigation (well-irrigated and poorly-irrigated and varied according to size of the paddy. Results Total LULC change between 1988–2005 was 42.1 % in Kangichiri, 52.8 % in Kiuria and and 50.6 % Rurumi. The most frequent LULC changes was rice field to fallow and fallow to rice field. The proportion of aquatic habitats positive for Culex larvae in LULC change sites was 77.5% in Kangichiri, 72.9% in Kiuria and 73.7% in Rurumi. Poorly – irrigated grid cells displayed 63.3% of aquatic habitats among all LULC change sites. Conclusion We demonstrate that optical remote sensing can identify rice cultivation LULC sites associated with high Culex oviposition. We argue that the regions of higher Culex abundance based on oviposition surveillance sites reflect underlying differences in abundance of larval habitats which is where limited control resources could be concentrated to reduce vector larval abundance.

Githure John

2006-05-01

301

Slow Death by Many Mosquito Bites  

CERN Document Server

We study the dynamics of a single diffusing particle (a "man") with diffusivity $D_M$ that is attacked by another diffusing particle (a "mosquito") with fixed diffusivity $D_m$. Each time the mosquito meets and bites the man, the diffusivity of the man is reduced by a fixed amount, while the diffusivity of the mosquito is unchanged. The mosquito is also displaced by a small distance $\\pm a$ with respect to the man after each encounter. The man is defined as dead when $D_M$ reaches zero. At the moment when the man dies, his probability distribution of displacements $x$ is given by a Cauchy form, which asymptotically decays as $x^{-2}$, while the distribution of times $t$ when the man dies asymptotically decays as $t^{-3/2}$, which has the same form as the one-dimensional first-passage probability.

Redner, S

2014-01-01

302

Jute breeding in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evolution, domestication, variability and adaptation of fibre jutes in Bangladesh are described. Domestication of fibre jutes, in evolutionary terms, is recent and the spectrum of variability within them is narrow. Yield improvement by breeding has been minimal and the reasons for this are suggested. Recent germplasm collecting expeditions to the eastern hill tracts of Bangladesh have revealed wide-spectrum diversity among the vegetable jutes grown there. Variability among the vegetable types can be utilized to improve the fibre types and to this end various hybridization schemes have now been initiated by the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute. The initial breeding priority is yield per se but ideotype characteristics have been delineated. The objectives of the breeding programme are likely to become more specific as the agronomic worth of these characteristics becomes more clearly defined. The rationale for mutation breeding in jute has been the narrow-spectrum diversity within the fibre types; the wide-spectrum diversity among the hill tract vegetable jutes should, however, be exploited in imaginative hybridization programmes before resorting to large-scale mutation breeding programmes. Mutation breeding may, however, be a valuable tool for inducing changes in fibre quality characteristics when technologists identify new uses for jute and specify their requirements. At present, however, quality is assessed subjectively. (author) (author)

303

HUBUNGAN KARAKTERISTIK LINGKUNGAN BREEDING SITE DENGAN DENSITAS LARVA ANOPHELES DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS DURIKUMBA KECAMATAN KAROSSA KAB. MAMUJU TENGAH  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRAK Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Durikumba merupakan salah satu daerah yang endemis malaria dengan 460 jumlah kasus pada tahun 2011. Malaria adalah penyakit yang disebabkan protozoa obligat intraseluler. Terjadinya karena peningkatan kasus salah satunya disebabkan oleh Breeding Site yang berpotensi sebagai habitat larva Anopheles. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan karakteristik lingkungan pada Breeding Site dengan densitas larva Anopheles. Jenis penelitian adalah observasi...

Rahayu Rahman, Retski

2013-01-01

304

MODELING AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES  

OpenAIRE

Models can be useful at many different levels when considering complex issues such as biological control of mosquitoes. At an early stage, exploratory models are valuable in exploring the characteristics of an ideal biological control agent and for guidance in data collection. When more data are available, models can be used to explore alternative control strategies and the likelihood of success. There are few modeling studies that explicitly consider biological control in mosquitoes; however...

Lord, Cynthia C.

2007-01-01

305

Mosquito immune defenses against Plasmodium infection  

OpenAIRE

The causative agent of malaria, Plasmodium, has to undergo complex developmental transitions and survive attacks from the mosquito's innate immune system to achieve transmission from one host to another through the vector. Here we discuss recent findings on the role of the mosquito's innate immune signaling pathways in preventing infection by the Plasmodium parasite, the identification and mechanistic description of novel anti-parasite molecules, the role that natural bacteria harbored in the...

Cirimotich, Chris M.; Dong, Yuemei; Garver, Lindsey S.; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George

2010-01-01

306

Breeding biology of Megalops cyprinoides from Visakhapatnam coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on stages of maturity, gonado-somatic indices and breeding cycle from two different habitats viz., the polluted Harbour Waters and the unpolluted Yerragedda Mouth revealed that M. cyprinoides breeds twice a year i.e., during Jan-Jul and Dec-Jan. Size at first maturity was 18 cm. in females and 19 cm. in males at both the stations. Sex ratio was 1:1 at the polluted station and 1:1.1 at the unpolluted station indicating a slight domination of females. PMID:11500024

Padmaja, G; Rao, L M

2001-04-01

307

Modelling the spatial spread of a homing endonuclease gene in a mosquito population  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) exist naturally in many single-celled organisms and can show extremely strong genetic drive allowing them to spread through populations into which they are introduced. They are being investigated as tools to manipulate the populations of important vectors of human disease, in particular the mosquitoes that transmit malaria. Before HEGs can be deployed, it is important to study their spatial spread in order to design efficient release strategies.A spatially explicit model is developed to study the spread of a HEG through a landscape whose structure is defined by the distribution of mosquito breeding and feeding sites. The model is motivated by the biology of the major vectors of malaria in Africa. The conditions for spread, fixation and loss of two major types of HEG are explored in different landscapes.In landscapes where mosquito resources are abundant, the conditions for spread are well approximated by a mean-field model. Where a HEG imposes a genetic load, it can cause population extinction, though spatial models more often predict population suppression.In certain types of landscapes where mosquito resources are rare, an introduced HEG may be prevented from moving between local mosquito populations and so a simple release strategy is unlikely to be effective, yet if the HEG succeeds in spreading population extinction is a feasible outcome. Increasing the number of release sites at the expense of releasing fewer mosquitoes per site reduces the probability that a HEG will fail.Synthesis and applications. The model presented asks for the first time how the spatial structure of mosquito populations will influence the effectiveness of a technology that is being rapidly developed for vector control. If homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are to be used in this way, we have qualified the importance of accounting for landscape characteristics in both the execution and the expectation of their application. The next stage is to use the model to study the spread of HEGs through real landscapes where releases may take place, something that will be facilitated by the results of the present study.

North, Ace; Burt, Austin; Godfray, H Charles J; Buckley, Yvonne

2013-01-01

308

Staging ecology of black-tailed godwits in Portuguese rice fields and correlations with breeding season events  

OpenAIRE

Staging episodes are critical in the life-cycle of migratory species. The conditions found in the staging areas can affect the speed of the migration, the survival of individuals and ultimately their breeding success upon arrival in the breeding grounds. The continental black-tailed godwit Limosa 1. limosa is a long-lived migratory bird. This population breeds in the agricultural grasslands of northern Europe and winters in fresh water habitats in West Africa. During the pre-nuptial migration...

Lourenco, Pedro Miguel Gomes

2010-01-01

309

Repelentes electrónicos contra mosquitos: propaganda y realidad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica acerca del uso de dispositivos electroacústicos con supuesta acción repelente sobre las hembras de diferentes especies de mosquitos hematófagos. Se dan 15 referencias directas y 2 indirectas, en todas se concluye que estos dispositivos no protegen a quienes los portan de las picadas de los mosquitos. Se dan los nombres de 9 de los dispositivos probados, así como de 16 de las principales especies de mosquitos presentes en las pruebas de campo. Estas pruebas de campo se han realizado en condiciones ecológicas muy diferentes, que van desde alaska hasta el África Ecuatorial. También se menciona el efecto potencialmente dañino al hombre de los dispositivos que emiten frecuencias a alta intensidad.A bibliographic review about the use of electroacustic devices with a supposed repellent action on the females of different species of hematophagous mosquitoes is presented. 15 direct references and 2 indirect ones are given, in which it is concluded that these devices do not protect those who have them from the stings of mosquitoes. The names of 9 of the tested devices as well as of 16 of the main species of mosquitoes present in the field tests are mentioned. These tests have been carried out in very different ecological conditions from Alaska to Equatorial Africa. It is also stressed that the high intensity ultrasonic frequencies emitted by these devices produces a potentially harmful effect on man.

Frank Coro

1998-08-01

310

Repelentes electrónicos contra mosquitos: propaganda y realidad  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica acerca del uso de dispositivos electroacústicos con supuesta acción repelente sobre las hembras de diferentes especies de mosquitos hematófagos. Se dan 15 referencias directas y 2 indirectas, en todas se concluye que estos dispositivos no protegen a quienes los [...] portan de las picadas de los mosquitos. Se dan los nombres de 9 de los dispositivos probados, así como de 16 de las principales especies de mosquitos presentes en las pruebas de campo. Estas pruebas de campo se han realizado en condiciones ecológicas muy diferentes, que van desde alaska hasta el África Ecuatorial. También se menciona el efecto potencialmente dañino al hombre de los dispositivos que emiten frecuencias a alta intensidad. Abstract in english A bibliographic review about the use of electroacustic devices with a supposed repellent action on the females of different species of hematophagous mosquitoes is presented. 15 direct references and 2 indirect ones are given, in which it is concluded that these devices do not protect those who have [...] them from the stings of mosquitoes. The names of 9 of the tested devices as well as of 16 of the main species of mosquitoes present in the field tests are mentioned. These tests have been carried out in very different ecological conditions from Alaska to Equatorial Africa. It is also stressed that the high intensity ultrasonic frequencies emitted by these devices produces a potentially harmful effect on man.

Frank, Coro; Silvia, Suárez.

1998-08-01

311

Habitat selection by Black kite breeders and floaters: Implications for conservation management of raptor floaters  

OpenAIRE

Preserving large predators is important but challenging because these species are typically wide-ranging, select multiple habitats at different scales and often present spatial or habitat separation between the breeder and floater sectors of a population. In addition, most of our knowledge on raptor floaters' habitat requirements comes from large solitary species, whose floaters often occupy temporary settlement areas spatially separate from breeding locations. Here, we examine space and habi...

Tanferna, Alessandro; Lo?pez-jime?nez, L.; Blas, Julio; Hiraldo, F.; Sergio, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

312

Does foraging habitat quality affect reproductive performance in the Little Egret, Egretta garzetta?  

OpenAIRE

In order to understand the role of foraging habitat quality on fecundity parameters we measured habitat use, breeding parameters, and body condition of chicks in six colonies of Little Egrets in southern France. The foraging habitat available differed between colonies; it was mainly natural marshes around the Carrelet colony, agricultural lands (rice fields and dry crops) around the Agon colony, a mix of agricultural and natural lands around the Redon and Fiélouse colonies, a mix of natural ...

Martin, J. L.; Kayser, Y.; Lombardini, K.; Sandoz, A.; Sadoul, N.; Barbraud, C.; Tourenq, C.

2001-01-01

313

Why are anopheline mosquitoes not present in the Seychelles?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of anopheline mosquitoes are largely distributed over emerged lands around the world and, within the tropics, few areas are without these insects, which are vectors of malaria parasites. Among the exceptions is the Seychelles archipelago in the western Indian Ocean. However, in the Aldabra island group, located in the extreme western portion of the archipelago, Anopheles gambiae s.l. was introduced, leading to massive proliferation and then elimination, with the most recent autochthonous malaria cases recorded in 1931. Methods In order to re-examine the absence of anopheline mosquitoes in the Seychelles, an entomological field survey was conducted in December 2008 at 17 sites on four granitic islands, including Mahé and Praslin, and ten sites on coralline atolls in the extreme west, including Aldabra. Results No evidence of larval or adult anophelines was found at the surveyed sites, which supports their absence in the Seychelles. Conclusions In the granitic islands of the Seychelles, the climate is favourable for anophelines. However, these islands are protected by their remoteness and prevailing seasonal winds. In addition, stagnant freshwater, required in anopheline larval development, is relatively uncommon on the granitic islands because of the steep slopes. In the southwestern atolls (Aldabra and Providence-Farquhar groups, the presence of a long dry season of up to nine months and the total absence of permanent natural freshwater prevents the breeding of anophelines and their successful colonization. The Seychelles does not have any native land mammals and like in other parts of the world (Antarctica, Iceland, New Caledonia, Central Pacific islands their absence is associated with the lack of anophelines. This suggests an obligatory relationship for anophelines to feed on terrestrial mammals, without alternative for blood-feeding sources, such as bats, birds and reptiles.

Goodman Steven M

2011-02-01

314

Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) breeding habitat use in northern Sweden  

OpenAIRE

Alpine and arctic tundra regions are likely to retract as a result of climate warming and concerns have been raised over the status of the Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta). In Fennoscandia, the Rock Ptarmigan has low population abundance, and predictions based on harvest statistics show population declines throughout the range. In this study, we used a long-term opportunistic dataset of Rock Ptarmigan observations, environmental predictors derived from a digital vegetation map and a digital elev...

Pedersen, A?shild Ø.; Blanchet, Marie-anne; Ho?rnell-willebrand, Maria; Jepsen, Jane U.; Biuw, Martin; Fuglei, Eva

2013-01-01

315

Larval ecology of mosquitoes in sylvatic arbovirus foci in southeastern Senegal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although adult mosquito vectors of sylvatic arbovirus [yellow fever (YFV, dengue-2 (DENV-2 and chikungunya (CHIKV] have been studied for the past 40 years in southeastern Senegal, data are still lacking on the ecology of larval mosquitoes in this area. In this study, we investigated the larval habitats of mosquitoes and characterized their seasonal and spatial dynamics in arbovirus foci. Methods We searched for wet microhabitats, classified in 9 categories, in five land cover classes (agriculture, forest, savannah, barren and village from June, 2010 to January, 2011. Mosquito immatures were sampled monthly in up to 30 microhabitats of each category per land cover and bred until adult stage for determination. Results No wet microhabitats were found in the agricultural sites; in the remaining land covers immature stages of 35 mosquito species in 7 genera were sampled from 9 microhabitats (tree holes, fresh fruit husks, decaying fruit husks, puddles, bamboo holes, discarded containers, tires, rock holes and storage containers. The most abundant species was Aedes aegypti formosus, representing 30.2% of the collections, followed by 12 species, representing each more than 1% of the total, among them the arbovirus vectors Ae. vittatus (7.9%, Ae. luteocephalus (5.7%, Ae. taylori (5.0%, and Ae. furcifer (1.3%. Aedes aegypti, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Er. chrysogster and Ae. vittatus were the only common species collected from all land covers. Aedes furcifer and Ae. taylori were collected in fresh fruit husks and tree holes. Species richness and dominance varied significantly in land covers and microhabitats. Positive associations were found mainly between Ae. furcifer, Ae. taylori and Ae. luteocephalus. A high proportion of potential enzootic vectors that are not anthropophilic were found in the larval mosquito fauna. Conclusions In southeastern Senegal, Ae. furcifer and Ae. taylori larvae showed a more limited distribution among both land cover and microhabitat types than the other common species. Uniquely among vector species, Ae. aegypti formosus larvae occurred at the highest frequency in villages. Finally, a high proportion of the potential non-anthropophilic vectors were represented in the larval mosquito fauna, suggesting the existence of unidentified sylvatic arbovirus cycles in southeastern Senegal.

Diallo Diawo

2012-12-01

316

Assessing the sustainability of individual behavior change against mosquitoes after the outbreak of a vector-borne disease in Mauritius: a case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The island of Mauritius had not experienced any mosquito-borne diseases since the last malaria outbreak in the early 1980s. When the chikungunya fever epidemic affected the island in 2005-2006, the local population was unprepared against this mosquito-borne infection and officially 11, 000 people were affected. Authorities promptly set up public health campaigns and actively encouraged the public to take preventive actions against the mosquito vector. This study has been carried out to investigate whether the individual preventive interventions adopted to combat mosquitoes during the outbreak have been sustained two years following the outbreak in a specific rural locality. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Mauritius. Data was collected using a door-to-door household survey in a small rural locality of Mauritius in December 2008 and January 2009. One person per household was interviewed and the sample size was 172. Sustainability of individual preventive interventions was determined by assessing the preventive measures adopted by people against mosquitoes prior to, during, and two years following the outbreak. Elimination of mosquito breeding places was the most practiced preventive measure adopted by people in all outbreak periods as compared to preventive measures against mosquito bites within and outside the house. An increase in all individual preventive measures was observed during the outbreak followed by a slow decline two years following the outbreak. An important finding was that all post-outbreak preventive measures were sustained above the pre-outbreak levels, especially so in the case of source reduction interventions. Individual efforts in the inter-epidemic period are important to mitigate the spread of a mosquito-borne infection and it is encouraging to observe in this case study that although individual preventive measures decline with time after an outbreak they are still being sustained above the pre-outbreak levels.

Smita Goorah

2013-01-01

317

Raised houses reduce mosquito bites.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: In many parts of continental Africa house construction does not appear to impede entry of malaria vectors and, given their generally late biting cycle, the great majority of transmission takes place indoors. In contrast, many houses in São Tomé, 140 km off the coast of Gabon, are raised on stilts and built of wooden planks. Building on stilts is a time-honoured, but largely untested, way of avoiding mosquito bites. Exposure may also be affected by mosquito activity times and age composition of host-seeking females. A study was therefore undertaken on the island of São Tomé to determine if exposure to Anopheles gambiae, the only vector on the island, varied with house construction or time of the night. METHODS: A series of all-night landing collections were undertaken out of doors at ground level, inside houses at ground level, on the verandas of, and inside houses built on stilts. The gonotrophic age of an unselected sample of insects from the first three hours of landing collection (18:00-21:00) was determined by dissection. In addition, 1,149 miniature light-trap collections were obtained from 125 houses in the study area. Numbers collected were related to house construction. RESULTS: Biting of An. gambiae took place primarily outside at ground level. Less than one third of biting occurred inside houses. Houses built on stilts had half the number of An. gambiae in them compared to those built at ground level. Conversely houses with an eaves gap had more An. gambiae in them than houses without such a gap. Gonotrophic age did not affect house entry rates in An. gambiae. House construction affected Culex quinquefasciatus less than An. gambiae. Mean density per house, derived from a series of 1,490 randomly assigned light-trap collections, was over-dispersed with 18% of houses having 70% of the vectors. CONCLUSION: House construction plays an important role in determining exposure to malaria vectors in São Tomé. Neighbours can have very different exposure levels. Recommendations for improvement in control are given. PMID:14667242

Charlwood, J Derek; Pinto, Joao; Ferrara, Patrica R; Sousa, Carla A; Ferreira, Conceicao; Gil, Vilfrido; Do Rosário, Virgillo E

2003-12-10

318

Raised houses reduce mosquito bites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In many parts of continental Africa house construction does not appear to impede entry of malaria vectors and, given their generally late biting cycle, the great majority of transmission takes place indoors. In contrast, many houses in São Tomé, 140 km off the coast of Gabon, are raised on stilts and built of wooden planks. Building on stilts is a time-honoured, but largely untested, way of avoiding mosquito bites. Exposure may also be affected by mosquito activity times and age composition of host-seeking females. A study was therefore undertaken on the island of São Tomé to determine if exposure to Anopheles gambiae, the only vector on the island, varied with house construction or time of the night. Methods A series of all-night landing collections were undertaken out of doors at ground level, inside houses at ground level, on the verandas of, and inside houses built on stilts. The gonotrophic age of an unselected sample of insects from the first three hours of landing collection (18:00–21:00 was determined by dissection. In addition, 1,149 miniature light-trap collections were obtained from 125 houses in the study area. Numbers collected were related to house construction. Results Biting of An. gambiae took place primarily outside at ground level. Less than one third of biting occurred inside houses. Houses built on stilts had half the number of An. gambiae in them compared to those built at ground level. Conversely houses with an eaves gap had more An. gambiae in them than houses without such a gap. Gonotrophic age did not affect house entry rates in An. gambiae. House construction affected Culex quinquefasciatus less than An. gambiae. Mean density per house, derived from a series of 1,490 randomly assigned light-trap collections, was over-dispersed with 18% of houses having 70% of the vectors. Conclusion House construction plays an important role in determining exposure to malaria vectors in São Tomé. Neighbours can have very different exposure levels. Recommendations for improvement in control are given.

Gil Vilfrido

2003-12-01

319

Diet and density dependent competition affect larval performance and oviposition site selection in the mosquito species Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oviposition-site choice is an essential component of the life history of all mosquito species. According to the oviposition-preference offspring-performance (P-P hypothesis, if optimizing offspring performance and fitness ensures high overall reproductive fitness for a given species, the female should accurately assess details of the heterogeneous environment and lay her eggs preferentially in sites with conditions more suitable to offspring. Methods We empirically tested the P-P hypothesis using the mosquito species Aedes albopictus by artificially manipulating two habitat conditions: diet (measured as mg of food added to a container and conspecific density (CD; number of pre-existing larvae of the same species. Immature development (larval mortality, development time to pupation and time to emergence and fitness (measured as wing length were monitored from first instar through adult emergence using a factorial experimental design over two ascending gradients of diet (2.0, 3.6, 7.2 and 20 mg food/300 ml water and CD (0, 20, 40 and 80 larvae/300 ml water. Treatments that exerted the most contrasting values of larval performance were recreated in a second experiment consisting of single-female oviposition site selection assay. Results Development time decreased as food concentration increased, except from 7.2 mg to 20.0 mg (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P?>?0.1. Development time decreased also as conspecific density increased from zero to 80 larvae (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P?. Combined, these results support the role of density-dependent competition for resources as a limiting factor for mosquito larval performance. Oviposition assays indicated that female mosquitoes select for larval habitats with conspecifics and that larval density was more important than diet in driving selection for oviposition sites. Conclusions This study supports predictions of the P-P hypothesis and provides a mechanistic understanding of the underlying factors driving mosquito oviposition site selection.

Yoshioka Miho

2012-10-01

320

Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) asociados a guadua en los municipios de Anserma, Hispania y Jardín, Colombia / Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) associated to guadua in municipalities of Anserma, Hispania and Jardín, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El estudio de mosquitos de la subfamilia Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) en Colombia, ha sido limitado a pesar de su importancia en salud pública. El presente estudio determinó las especies de esta subfamilia colectadas en Guadua angustifolia en ecosistemas de influencia cafetera. Se resaltan tres ti [...] pos de criaderos: tocón, entrenudo perforado y recipiente. Se registraron nueve especies de las cuales dos son nuevos registros para Colombia (Orthopodomyia albicosta y Wyeomyia oblita), cinco son nuevos registros para los departamentos visitados (Culex secundus, Cx. antunesi, Limatus durhami, Trichoprosopon digitatum y Sabethes undosus) y dos (Trichoprosopon sp. del complejo Pallidiventer y Toxorhynchites sp.) se encuentran en proceso de estudio. Se determinó que existe relación entre las especies encontradas y el volumen de agua contenida y la altura sobre el nivel del suelo medida en los criaderos. De las especies reportadas, Tr. digitatum y Li. durhami están registradas en la literatura como posibles vectores de arbovirus. Toxorhynchites se destaca por agrupar especies cuyas larvas son depredadoras. Los resultados realzan la importancia de la guadua como criadero de diferentes mosquitos, incluyendo algunas especies importantes en salud pública. Abstract in english The study of culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia, has been limited even though this subfamily is important in public health. This study aimed to determine the species of Culicinae breeding in stands of Guadua angustifolia in areas with coffee plantations. Three breeding sites were d [...] istinguished: guadua stumps, perforated internodes and containers. Nine mosquito species were identified which two are new records for Colombia (Orthopodomyia albicosta, Wyeomyia oblita), five new records for the departments (Culex secundus, Cx. antunesi, Limatus durhami, Trichoprosopon digitatum and Sabethes undosus). Two others are under current study (Trichoprosopon sp. part of the Pallidiventer complex, and Toxorhynchites sp.). There was a relationship between the species found and the water volume and height above ground, measured for each of the breeding sites. Two of the species, Tr. digitatum and Li. durhami, are reported in literature as potential vectors of arboviral agents; Toxorhynchites is grouped with species whose larvae are predators. The results support an important role for guadua as breeding sites for various mosquitoes, including some species of public health importance.

JOVANY, BARAJAS G.; JUAN DAVID, SUAZA V.; CAROLINA, TORRES G.; GUILLERMO, LEÓN RÚA; SANDRA, URIBE-SOTO; CHARLES H., PORTER.

2013-06-01

321

How much habitat management is needed to meet mallard production objectives?  

Science.gov (United States)

We used results from simulation models to demonstrate the benefit-cost ratios of habitat management to increase the number of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) recruits produced. The models were applied to hypothetical 2-habitat landscapes comprised of managed and unmanaged habitat. Managed habitats were predator barrier fencing and CRP cover; unmanaged habitat was grassland. As the amount of managed cover increased, the production curve rose rapidly and leveled off. If 2 managed habitats are added to a landscape, the cover can compete for available nesting hens, thus negating the benefits of 1 of the covers. After converting benefits and costs to dollars, we determined the point at which maximum net benefit occurs. We present an equation that can be used to determine the maximum net benefit of a management treatment given the size of the breeding population and the values of costs and benefits. Our examples demonstrate that, on local areas, it is inefficient to spend money for habitat management once maximum net benefit has been attained. If desired production can not be attained efficiently on an area, the manager can invest effort on alternative areas with greater management potential. If recruitment is inadequate to maintain a stable population, managers should manage to increase recruitment before attempting to attract additional breeding pairs. If recruitment more than maintains the breeding population, managers should attempt to attract additional breeding pairs to the area.

Cowardin, L.M.; Shaffer, T.L.; Kraft, K.M.

1995-01-01

322

Remote Sensing Assessment of Soil Moisture, Soil Mineralogy and other Environmental Factors Influencing Mosquito-borne Infection Risks in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, U.S. - Mexico Border (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

A dengue fever outbreak occurred near Matamoros, Mexico along the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the summer of 2005 following heavy rainfall from Tropical Storm Gert and Hurricane Emily. This outbreak exemplifies the need for monitoring soil moisture and mapping soil permeability factors affecting the breeding and distribution of mosquito species capable of spreading disease. For example, the Rio Grande delta of South Texas and North Tamaulipas Mexico is inhabited by over 50 native and invasive species of mosquitoes capable of hosting Malaria, West Nile Virus and other types of human and livestock infecting Encephalitis. They range in ecological habitats from coastal salt marshes to freshwater riparian wetlands, tree holes and/or urban containers, flooded agricultural fields, and the many irrigation canals and ditches present throughout our study area. For this study, water-saturated and flooded soils were mapped using a “soil moisture availability” index (Mo) based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images and surface radiant and/or kinetic temperature images derived from multi-temporal Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER imagery. In particular, the Landsat-7 imagery covers ten cloud-free or minimal cloud cover acquisition dates during drought and wet periods of 2002, prior to the scan-line corrector failure in 2003. This includes one date (August 18, 2002) of co-orbital swath coverage between Landsat and ASTER, acquired after the land fall and dissipation of Tropical Storm Bertha (August 09, 2002). ASTER image dates used include those before and after the land fall of Hurricane Emily on July 20, 2005. The resulting maps show the distribution of relatively permeable (i.e. sandier) and impermeable soil types, the latter of which are dominated by clay-rich soils deposited in remnant interdistributary channels as channel-fill, and overbank flood deposits along the modern Rio Grande delta and portions of the (remapped) Pleistocene Beaumont coastal deltaic plain. Pools of standing rain water on impermeable soils can become ideal habitats for mosquito ovipositing and larval development between storms, which in turn can pose a higher risk for infection to humans and livestock animals. Because clay and other fine-grained minerals strongly affect a soil’s physical and chemical properties such as porosity, permeability and surface sealing/crusting upon saturation, 211 soil samples were collected at approximately 3-5 km sample spacing. The mineralogy of both the < 2 mm- and the < 2 micron-grain size fractions were then analyzed. The results show the distribution and relative abundance of kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite, for which we compare to ASTER remote sensing derived mineral maps based on drought period imagery (March 15, 2001), and airborne geophyisical data showing the distribution of radiometric K-bearing minerals (e.g. mainly illite/mica and orthoclase feldspar). The ASTER mineral maps show areas of clay-rich impermeable soils that are prone to ponding of standing water after storms. Our results show the utility of using remote sensing observations for mapping flood prone areas that may pose mosquito related health threats to both people and livestock on both sides of the border.

Hubbard, B. E.; Folger, H. W.; Page, W. R.

2010-12-01

323

A five-year integrated mosquito control project in Kavala (N. Greece)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The plain of the Nestos River is a coastal area of 25,000 ha of agricultural land irrigated by the day-regulated waters of the Nestos River. Rice fields (600 individual parcels of 1,900 ha of total surface) represent the most important breeding sites during summer (five larvicide applications on average). Abandoned agricultural land (over 200 fields of 900 ha) receiving occasionally irrigation water constitutes the second most productive mosquito-breeding site (1-2 applications). Approximately 1-2% of the total surface of 6,500 ha of corn cultivation fields is poorly drained and thus about 100 ha produce at least one generation of mosquitoes during the summer. Along its 25 kilometers of seashore, the area of Nestos comprises the lagoons of Kavala (extensive aquaculture), and the last part of the delta of the Nestos River, 11,500 ha of protected wetlands under the Ramsar convention. About 2,000 ha of these wetlands harbours plants such as Arthr. fruticosum, Sal. europea, Ael. littoralis, Ju. maritimus, Sc. maritimus, representing highly productive mosquito breeding sites (1-2 generations during the summer). Ecological mapping involved 3,200 individual vegetation polygons organised in 311 different sampling stations. Larvae sampling protocol was followed on a weekly basis for the individual and/or groups of parcels in the agricultural and natural environment. All the above information was systematically monitored and transferred to an ArcView (8.3)-GIS (Geogrtransferred to an ArcView (8.3)-GIS (Geographical Information System) database for further exploitation. In addition, mosquito breeding sites were recorded in the urban environment: within 9 villages, 2,300 individual residences were monitored and 1,070 cesspools were recorded, out of which more than 50% were producing mosquitoes (1-2 applications). In total 8,500 ha were treated with larvicides by using temephos and diflubenzuron (agricultural land), Bti (natural environment) and MMF-Agnique (urban environment). 70% of the applications were made by air using a spraying helicopter (Hiller) and a specially modified ultra-light motorized (Delta type) equipped with GPS (Geographical Positioning System). During the five years of application of the project, 17 species of mosquitoes have been identified, the most important being Ochlerotatus caspius and Anopheles spp. (human bait and CO2 traps). Nuisance has been considerably reduced since the beginning of the operations, when 1,000 bites/hour were not unusual. Evaluation of the project was made twice through 200 questionnaires in year 2000 and 180 questionnaires in year 2004. Local community is fully supporting the project: 90% of the people are willing to participate financially for the continuation of the project. (author)

324

Oral toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to adult mosquitoes.  

OpenAIRE

The solubilized entomotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis killed adult male and female mosquitoes of several genera and of various physiological states when it was administered orally. Adult mosquito mortality was further influenced when the preparation was contained in sucrose solution. The potential implication for the control of adult mosquitoes is discussed.

Klowden, M. J.; Bulla, L. A.

1984-01-01

325

Plant Breeding Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a traditional breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

326

Wheat Breeding Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a wheat breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.

327

Hop Cultivars and Breeding  

Science.gov (United States)

Pest management decision making in hops varies among cultivars. Historically, the primary objective of hop breeding programs has been to increase the yield or characteristics associated with either bittering (high alpha-acids) or aroma (unique volatile oil profiles) cultivars. Other factors consid...

328

Classification of immature stage habitats of Culicidae (Diptera collected in Córdoba, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to classify mosquito immature stage habitats, samples were taken in 42 localities of Córdoba Province, Argentina, representing the phytogeographic regions of Chaco, Espinal and Pampa. Immature stage habitats were described and classified according to the following criteria: natural or artificial; size; location related to light and neighboring houses; vegetation; water: permanence, movement, turbidity and pH. Four groups of species were associated based on the habitat similarity by means of cluster analysis: Aedes albifasciatus, Culex saltanensis, Cx. mollis, Cx. brethesi, Psorophora ciliata, Anopheles albitarsis, and Uranotaenia lowii (Group A; Cx. acharistus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. bidens, Cx. dolosus, Cx. maxi and Cx. apicinus (Group B; Cx. coronator, Cx. chidesteri, Mansonia titillans and Ps. ferox (Group C; Ae. fluviatilis and Ae. milleri (Group D. The principal component analysis (ordination method pointed out that the different types of habitats, their nature (natural or artificial, plant species, water movement and depth are the main characters explaining the observed variation among the mosquito species. The distribution of mosquito species by phytogeographic region did not affect the species groups, since species belonging to different groups were collected in the same region.

Walter R Almirón

1996-02-01

329

Classification of immature stage habitats of Culicidae (Diptera) collected in Córdoba, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In order to classify mosquito immature stage habitats, samples were taken in 42 localities of Córdoba Province, Argentina, representing the phytogeographic regions of Chaco, Espinal and Pampa. Immature stage habitats were described and classified according to the following criteria: natural or artif [...] icial; size; location related to light and neighboring houses; vegetation; water: permanence, movement, turbidity and pH. Four groups of species were associated based on the habitat similarity by means of cluster analysis: Aedes albifasciatus, Culex saltanensis, Cx. mollis, Cx. brethesi, Psorophora ciliata, Anopheles albitarsis, and Uranotaenia lowii (Group A); Cx. acharistus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. bidens, Cx. dolosus, Cx. maxi and Cx. apicinus (Group B); Cx. coronator, Cx. chidesteri, Mansonia titillans and Ps. ferox (Group C); Ae. fluviatilis and Ae. milleri (Group D). The principal component analysis (ordination method) pointed out that the different types of habitats, their nature (natural or artificial), plant species, water movement and depth are the main characters explaining the observed variation among the mosquito species. The distribution of mosquito species by phytogeographic region did not affect the species groups, since species belonging to different groups were collected in the same region.

Walter R, Almirón; Mireya E, Brewer.

1996-02-01

330

Classification of immature stage habitats of Culicidae (Diptera) collected in Córdoba, Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to classify mosquito immature stage habitats, samples were taken in 42 localities of Córdoba Province, Argentina, representing the phytogeographic regions of Chaco, Espinal and Pampa. Immature stage habitats were described and classified according to the following criteria: natural or artificial; size; location related to light and neighboring houses; vegetation; water; permanence, movement, turbidity and pH. Four groups of species were associated based on the habitat similarity by means of cluster analysis: Aedes albifasciatus, Culex saltanensis, Cx. mollis, Cx. brethesi, Psorophora ciliata, Anopheles albitarsis, and Uranotaenia lowii (Group A); Cx. acharistus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. bidens, Cx. dolosus, Cx. maxi and Cx. apicinus (Group B); Cx. coronator, Cx. chidesteri, Mansonia titillans and Ps. ferox (Group C); Ae. fluviatilis and Ae. milleri (Group D). The principal component analysis (ordination method) pointed out that the different types of habitats, their nature (natural or artificial), plant species, water movement and depth are the main characters explaining the observed variation among the mosquito species. The distribution of mosquito species by phytogeographic region did not affect the species groups, since species belonging to different groups were collected in the same region. PMID:8734943

Almirón, W R; Brewer, M E

1996-01-01

331

NASDA next generation aquatic habitat for space shuttle and ISS  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has more than 20 years of experience developing aquatic animal experiment facilities. We are now studying the next-generation aquatic animal experiment facility or the Aquatic Habitat (AQH) for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station use. A prototype breeding system was designed and tested. Medaka adult fish were able to mate and spawn in this closed circulatory breeding system, and the larvae grewto adult fish and spawned on the 45th day after hatching. The water quality-control system using nitrifying bacteria worked well throughout the medaka breeding test. For amphibians, we also conducted the African clawed toad ( Xenopus laevis) breeding test with the same specimen chambers, although a part of circulation loop was opened to air. Xenopus larvae grew and completed metamorphosis successfully in the small specimen chamber. The first metamorphic climax started on the 30th day and was completed on the 38th day.

Masukawa, M.; Ochiai, T.; Kamigaichi, S.; Ishioka, N.; Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Sakimura, T.

2003-10-01

332

Insecticide substitutes for DDT to control mosquitoes may be causes of several diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria continues to be a public health problem in Bangladesh, despite efforts in the 1960s to eradicate the vectors through the use of DDT. At one point, eradication of malaria was acclaimed but later on it reappeared. The use of DDT is no more legally allowed in Bangladesh, which has been officially replaced by a number organophosphates and/or synthetic pyrethroids and their combinations in addition to the integrated vector management (IVM) package. IVM being a community approach is still to go a long way to be mass popular. Adulticides, larvicides, residual sprays, mosquito coil, insecticide-impregnated curtain, aerosol, etc. still serve as the major weapons of mosquito control. Thus, mosquito control still mostly depends on chemical insecticides. Although the use of DDT is banned in Bangladesh, there are reports on its illegal use in different forms. Moreover, there is tons of leftover DDT in Bangladesh, which is likely to cause several diseases. As per one report, about 500 MTs of DDT stockpiles are lying in the Medical Sub-Depots at Chittagong for over a period of 26 years. DDT is a persistent organic pollutant pesticide, which can cause diseases like cancer, endocrine disorder, disruption of immune system, embryonic abnormality, reproductive disorder, etc. Other chemical insecticides, which are replacing DDT, are also not free of hazardous impacts. IVM thus appears to be a wise approach requiring concerted efforts for the management of mosquito to control malaria. Such an IVM comprises use of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. israelensis, methoprene, biocontrol agents, cleaning of breeding sites, pyrethroid-impregnated curtain, etc. Therefore, a wise effort should be adopted to completely stop the use of DDT, eliminate its stockpiles wherever they are in Bangladesh and to popularise the IVM, not the chemicals-based alternatives throughout the country. PMID:22956113

Rahman, Md Mahbubar

2013-04-01

333

Esbiothrin-impregnated ropes as mosquito repellent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Esbiothrin [(+/-)-3-allyl-2-methyl-4-oxocylopent-2-enyl-(+)-trans- chrysanthemate] is an improved isomeric composition of allethrin series and consists essentially of esters of chrysanthemic acid and allethrolone. Jute rope was impregnated with esbiothrin and the smoke from smouldering ropes was evaluated as mosquito repellent in human dwellings and cattlesheds with open doors and windows at different dosages. Esbiothrin-impregranted (500 ppm) ropes prevented the entry of more than 95% An. culicifacles and other anophelines, 90.9-88.8% Culex quinquefasciatus and 96-95.1% total mosquitoes in open rooms of houses and cattlesheds respectively. The impact of ropes was more pronounced on the biting rate of mosquitoes. Indoors and outdoors human baits seated at a distance of about 3 m from smouldering esbiothrin ropes experienced no bite at all from An. culicifacies. An iron mesh around the rope prevents fire hazards. PMID:1291341

Ansari, M A; Sharma, V P; Razdan, R K

1992-12-01

334

Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repellent properties of three plant extracts--essential oil (steam distillate) of Zanthoxylum limonella (fruits), Citrus aurantifolia (leaf) and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruits) were evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara) and coconut (Parachute) oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations--10, 20 and 30% of the repellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes than those in coconut oil. At 30% concentration, 296-304 min protection time was achieved by the test repellents in mustard oil base while repellents in coconut oil exhibited 223.5-245 min protection time at the same concentration. Oil of Z. limonella gave the highest protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes at all the concentrations than other herbal repellents tested both in mustard and coconut oil. PMID:15119071

Das, N G; Baruah, I; Talukdar, P K; Das, S C

2003-01-01

335

Fast breeding nuclear reactor installation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patent describes a closed-cycle cooling system for a fast-breeding nuclear reactor. The cooling flow is divided into two parts; one for the reactor core and one for the breeding section. A special feature of this system is that the outlet flow from the breeding section is mixed with the inlet for the reactor core

336

Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropic environment: 2 - Immature stages research at a rice irrigation system location in South-Eastern Brazil  

OpenAIRE

A relation between a rice irrigation system and mosquito breeding was established in a study undertaken at the Ribeira Valley Experimental Station, from January through December 1992. Flooding favoured Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) and Culex (Melanoconion) species, while empty paddies condition were propitious to Aedes scapularis and Culex (Culex) species. Compared with a more primitive area of the same region, several species showed high a degree of adaptation to the anthropic environment. Among...

Forattini Oswaldo Paulo; Kakitani Iná; Massad Eduardo; Marucci Daniel

1993-01-01

337

The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI. Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with cow urine in both laboratory and field conditions have shown that cow urine left to age from 1-7 days has an influence on oviposition behavioural response in mosquitoes. The analysis of microbial colonies for decaying urine should be investigated along with its associated by-products.

Kweka Eliningaya J

2011-09-01

338

Modelling releases of sterile mosquitoes with different strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

To prevent the transmissions of malaria, dengue fever, or other mosquito-borne diseases, one effective weapon is the sterile insect technique in which sterile mosquitoes are released to reduce or eradicate the wild mosquito population. To study the impact of the sterile insect technique on disease transmission, we formulate discrete-time mathematical models, based on difference equations, for the interactive dynamics of the wild and sterile mosquitoes, incorporating different strategies in releasing sterile mosquitoes. We investigate the model dynamics and compare the impact of the different release strategies. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate rich dynamical features of the models. PMID:25377433

Li, Jia; Yuan, Zhiling

2015-01-01

339

Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata in the presence of alternative preys  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872 on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. Methods: The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of P. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, the niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B were measured following Manly’s selectivity index (Si as an indicator of variation of such predation pattern in the presence of alternative prey types, like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms.Results: The consumption of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by individual P. reticulata ranged between 65 and 84 in a 3 h feeding period and varied with the size of fish (F2, 33 = 34.91; p<0.001. The selectivity coefficient revealed a significantly low preference for the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (0.16, CL: 0.05 – 0.27; p< 0.05 compared to the chironomid larvae and tubificid worms, when all the three prey types were present. The niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 and 0.69 to 0.93, respectively. The total consumption of all the prey types varied with the predator density, but the selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was significantly low in all the instances.Interpretation & conclusion: P. reticulata can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, with the consumption rate varying with the body size. P. reticulata fishes exhibit low preference for mosquito larvae as prey in the presence of alternative controphic preys like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. Though establishment and sustenance of P. reticulata in new habitats will be favoured by the presence of alternative preys, but vulnerability of mosquito larvae may be reduced with availability of multiple preys in natural conditions.

Barnali Manna

2008-08-01

340

An autodissemination station for the transfer of an insect growth regulator to mosquito oviposition sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

A prototype autodissemination station to topically contaminate oviposition-seeking container-dwelling mosquitoes with the insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, was developed and tested in the laboratory. Our test subject was the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), an urban species that colonizes small-volume cryptic larval habitats and is a skip ovipositor that visits multiple containers. The station consists of a water reservoir to attract gravid females, which is joined to a transfer chamber designed to contaminate visiting mosquitoes. The unit is easily constructed by moulding wet shredded cardboard using corn starch as a binder. The essential criteria that must be met to prove the efficacy of an autodissemination station require it to demonstrate effectiveness in attracting the target insect, in transferring the toxicant to the insect that will disperse the agent, and in facilitating the subsequent transfer of the toxicant from the insect to target habitats at a lethal concentration. Cage experiments demonstrated that the unit was readily accepted by gravid females as an oviposition site. A powder formulation of pyriproxyfen-impregnated silica particles adhered to visiting Ae. albopictus females (mean: 66 particles/female), although particles were lost over time. In cage (2.2 m(3) ) trials, pyriproxyfen-charged stations resulted in 100% inhibition of adult emergence, whereas in small-room (31.1 m(3) ) trials, 81% emergence inhibition was recorded. The venereal transfer of pyriproxyfen from contaminated males to virgin females was also observed, and pyriproxyfen was subsequently transferred to water-holding containers at concentrations that inhibited emergence. Key autodissemination station features include lack of maintenance requirements, biodegradable construction, low cost and low risk. PMID:21689125

Gaugler, R; Suman, D; Wang, Y

2012-03-01

341

Comparison between diflubenzuron and a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis- and Lysinibacillus sphaericus-based formulation for the control of mosquito larvae in urban catch basins in Switzerland.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field test was conducted to evaluate a commercial biolarvicide based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus to control mosquitoes breeding in catch basins in southern Switzerland. The efficacy and residual activity of the microbial mosquito larvicide applied at the recommended rate of 10 g per catch basin was compared to the currently used larvicide diflubenzuron. Both products provided a very good control activity (> 97% of reduction) of late instars (3rd and 4th instars) and pupae for 4 wk. However, only the microbial formulation controlled immature stages during the whole period of the trial, with > 98% of larval reduction. A single application of the microbial larvicide applied at 10 g per catch basin significantly reduced the number of immature mosquitoes for at least 70 days. The quantity of rainfall in the 48-h period before each sampling and the water temperature did not influence the efficacy of the treatments. Under the environmental conditions encountered in southern Switzerland, the larvicide tested may be a valid alternative to diflubenzuron to control mosquitoes in urban catch basins. The long-lasting control by the microbial larvicide further reduces the number of treatments required to keep the population of mosquitoes at low levels. PMID:23923328

Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

2013-06-01

342

Garlic breeding system innovations  

OpenAIRE

This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual sterility of garlic reduces its potential for improvement of desired traits. Restoring fertility in this crop, which has been vegetatively propagated for millenia, provides new genetic possibilities f...

Zheng, S. J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Fe?re?ol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H. D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

2007-01-01

343

Biotechnology in soybean breeding  

OpenAIRE

Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather ...

Sudari? Aleksandra; Vratari? Marija; Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana; Matosa Maja

2010-01-01

344

Mutation breeding in peas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

345

Biological assay methods for mosquito repellents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three biological assay procedures for repellents are currently documented in the literature: 1) ASTM E951-94, Laboratory testing of non-commercial repellent formulations on the skin. 2) ASTM E939-94, Field testing topical applications of compounds as repellents for medically important and pest arthropods. 1. Mosquitoes. 3) WHO/CTD/WHOPES/IC/96.1, Report of WHOPES informal consultation on the evaluation and testing of insecticides. One public draft set of repellent-testing guidelines is available on the internet: 4) USEPA OPPTS 810.3700, Product performance test guidelines. Insect repellents for human skin and outdoor premises. In practice, the outcome of a repellent bioassay using any of these procedures is affected by the absorption, penetration, and chemical modification of repellent on skin and by evaporation, abrasion, and perspiration. Other abiotic factors that influence mosquito responses to repellent stimuli are light, temperature, humidity, repellent dose, exposure time, and test-cage shape and size. Biotic variables in repellent bioassays are larval nutrition, carbohydrate availability for adult mosquitoes, age and parity of females, and differences in the innate attraction/ repellency of test subjects. Geographic location and seasonal and diel activity cycles in mosquitoes determine when and where repellents can be tested in the field. Critical knowledge of these sources of variation can be converted to improved precision and accuracy in repellent bioassays and the resulting information used to efficiently select new repellent compounds for toxicological evaluation and field testing. PMID:16921678

Barnard, Donald R

2005-12-01

346

Mosquito population dynamic (diptera: culicidae) in a eutrophised dam / Dinâmica populacional de mosquitos em açude eutrofizado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo observou a dinâmica populacional dos mosquitos em açude eutrofizado na área rural de Paraíba do Sul, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram realizadas 12 coletas mensais de mosquitos imaturos pelo método da conchada em 9 m de borda, divididos em três postos (P1, P2 e P3), com 3 m de extensão ca [...] da. O posto P1 difere por não ter vegetação (capim, mato) na margem, alcançando ou penetrando e promovendo alguma sombra na água. Larvas L3, L4 e pupas foram isoladas para a obtenção dos adultos e identificação. Foram identificados 217 espécimes adultos de quatro espécies, com as seguintes constâncias e frequências: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) (83% e 40,6%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) evansae (Brèthes, 1926) (92% e 26,7%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia e Lopez, 1940) (83% e 14,3%) e Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901) (33% e 18,4%), com maiores frequências nos trimestres nov./dez./jan. (85,7%), maio/jun./jul. (75%), ago./set./out. (29,4%), ago./set./out. (23,5%) e, nos meses dezembro (88,4%), setembro (48,94), (38,3) e agosto (47,62), respectivamente. A presença do Culex quinquefasciatus (40%) e a elevada incidência de Daphinia sp., juntamente com os níveis de Nitrogênio orgânico (0,28 mg/L) e de Fósforo total (0,02 mg/L), indicam a eutrofização do açude. Houve diferença comparando os totais de anofelinos (A. avansae + A. rangeli) com os totais de culicini (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis) entre P1 e P2 (?² = 0,0097), e entre P1 para P3 (?² = 0,0005), mas não entre P2 e P3 (?² = 0,2045). A elevada frequência e a constância de C. quinquefasciatus confirmam esta ser uma boa espécie bioindicadora para ambientes eutrofizados e A. evansae apresentou boa potencialidade nesse nível trófico. A vegetação pode influir na dinâmica populacional dos anofelinos também em ambientes eutróficos. Abstract in english This study observed the mosquito population in a rural eutrophised dam. Larvae of L3 and L4 stages and pupae were dipped out during twelve month collections and the reared to the adult stage for identification. The collections were done along nine metres from the edge of the dam divided in three par [...] ts (P1, P2 and P3), each part being 3 m long. P1 did not have vegetation (grass) along its edge,which would reach or sink into the water to promote some shade on the marginal water. A total of 217 adults of four species was identified with the following constancies and frequencies: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) (83% and 40.6%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) evansae (Brèthes, 1926) (92% and 26.7%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia and Lopez, 1940) (83% and 14.3%) and Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901) (33% and 18.4%). C. quinquefasciatus, A. evansae, A. rangeli and C. nigripalpus were more frequent in the quarters Nov./Dec./Jan. (85.7%), May/June/July (75%), Aug./Sept./Oct. (29.4%) and Aug./Sept./Oct. (23.5%) particularly in the months of December (88.4%) Sept.tember (48.94), (38.3) and August (47.62) respectively. The presence of C. quinquefasciatus and the high incidence of Daphinia sp. and also the levels of Organic Nitrogen (0.28 mg/L) and of total Phosphorus (0.02 mg/L) are indications of the eutrophication of the dam. There was a difference regarding the total of Anopheles (A. avansae + A. rangeli) and Culex species (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis) between P1 and P2 (?² = 0.0097), P1 and P3 (?² = 0.0005), but not between P2 and P3 (?² = 0.2045).The high C. quinquefasciatus constancy and frequency were confirmed to be a good biological indicator for a eutrophised environment and A. evansae showed a good potential for this environment. Vegetation can be an important factor for anopheline population dynamic also in eutrophic breeding sites.

ED., Wermelinger; CV., Benigno; RNM., Machado; PH., Cabello; AM., Meira; AP., Ferreira; JC., Zanuncio.

2012-11-01

347

Mosquito population dynamic (diptera: culicidae in a eutrophised dam Dinâmica populacional de mosquitos em açude eutrofizado  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study observed the mosquito population in a rural eutrophised dam. Larvae of L3 and L4 stages and pupae were dipped out during twelve month collections and the reared to the adult stage for identification. The collections were done along nine metres from the edge of the dam divided in three parts (P1, P2 and P3, each part being 3 m long. P1 did not have vegetation (grass along its edge,which would reach or sink into the water to promote some shade on the marginal water. A total of 217 adults of four species was identified with the following constancies and frequencies: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823 (83% and 40.6%, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus evansae (Brèthes, 1926 (92% and 26.7%, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia and Lopez, 1940 (83% and 14.3% and Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901 (33% and 18.4%. C. quinquefasciatus, A. evansae, A. rangeli and C. nigripalpus were more frequent in the quarters Nov./Dec./Jan. (85.7%, May/June/July (75%, Aug./Sept./Oct. (29.4% and Aug./Sept./Oct. (23.5% particularly in the months of December (88.4% Sept.tember (48.94, (38.3 and August (47.62 respectively. The presence of C. quinquefasciatus and the high incidence of Daphinia sp. and also the levels of Organic Nitrogen (0.28 mg/L and of total Phosphorus (0.02 mg/L are indications of the eutrophication of the dam. There was a difference regarding the total of Anopheles (A. avansae + A. rangeli and Culex species (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis between P1 and P2 (?² = 0.0097, P1 and P3 (?² = 0.0005, but not between P2 and P3 (?² = 0.2045.The high C. quinquefasciatus constancy and frequency were confirmed to be a good biological indicator for a eutrophised environment and A. evansae showed a good potential for this environment. Vegetation can be an important factor for anopheline population dynamic also in eutrophic breeding sites.Este estudo observou a dinâmica populacional dos mosquitos em açude eutrofizado na área rural de Paraíba do Sul, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram realizadas 12 coletas mensais de mosquitos imaturos pelo método da conchada em 9 m de borda, divididos em três postos (P1, P2 e P3, com 3 m de extensão cada. O posto P1 difere por não ter vegetação (capim, mato na margem, alcançando ou penetrando e promovendo alguma sombra na água. Larvas L3, L4 e pupas foram isoladas para a obtenção dos adultos e identificação. Foram identificados 217 espécimes adultos de quatro espécies, com as seguintes constâncias e frequências: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823 (83% e 40,6%, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus evansae (Brèthes, 1926 (92% e 26,7%, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia e Lopez, 1940 (83% e 14,3% e Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901 (33% e 18,4%, com maiores frequências nos trimestres nov./dez./jan. (85,7%, maio/jun./jul. (75%, ago./set./out. (29,4%, ago./set./out. (23,5% e, nos meses dezembro (88,4%, setembro (48,94, (38,3 e agosto (47,62, respectivamente. A presen?a do Culex quinquefasciatus (40% e a elevada incidência de Daphinia sp., juntamente com os níveis de Nitrogênio orgânico (0,28 mg/L e de Fósforo total (0,02 mg/L, indicam a eutrofização do açude. Houve diferença comparando os totais de anofelinos (A. avansae + A. rangeli com os totais de culicini (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis entre P1 e P2 (?² = 0,0097, e entre P1 para P3 (?² = 0,0005, mas não entre P2 e P3 (?² = 0,2045. A elevada frequência e a constância de C. quinquefasciatus confirmam esta ser uma boa espécie bioindicadora para ambientes eutrofizados e A. evansae apresentou boa potencialidade nesse nível trófico. A vegetação pode influir na dinâmica populacional dos anofelinos também em ambientes eutróficos.

ED. Wermelinger

2012-11-01

348

The evolution of intermittent breeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

A central issue in life history theory is how organisms trade off current and future reproduction. A variety of organisms exhibit intermittent breeding, meaning sexually mature adults will skip breeding opportunities between reproduction attempts. It's thought that intermittent breeding occurs when reproduction incurs an extra cost in terms of survival, energy, or recovery time. We have developed a matrix population model for intermittent breeding, and use adaptive dynamics to determine under what conditions individuals should breed at every opportunity, and under what conditions they should skip some breeding opportunities (and if so, how many). We also examine the effect of environmental stochasticity on breeding behavior. We find that the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) for breeding behavior depends on an individual's expected growth and mortality, and that the conditions for skipped breeding depend on the type of reproductive cost incurred (survival, energy, recovery time). In constant environments there is always a pure ESS, however environmental stochasticity and deterministic population fluctuations can both select for a mixed ESS. Finally, we compare our model results to patterns of intermittent breeding in species from a range of taxonomic groups. PMID:23076830

Shaw, Allison K; Levin, Simon A

2013-03-01

349

SCREENING OF BREEDING BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS THROUGH KARYOTYPING  

OpenAIRE

A study of chromosomal analysis for 200 breeding bulls of different breeds of cattle (Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Sahiwal and Cross-bred) and Nili-Ravi buffalo, maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad and Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki) was carried out. Micromethod was adopted for leukocyte culture and chromosomes were trapped at metaphase stage. The diploid number of chromosomes in all breeds of cattle was found to be 60 (58 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY), while ...

I Ahmad, K. Javed And A. Sattar

2004-01-01

350

Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis  

OpenAIRE

Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chro...

Dirks, R.; Dun, K. P. M.; Snoo, B.; Berg, M.; Lelivelt, C. L. C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, J. P. C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J. W.; Jong, J. H. S. G. M.; Wijnker, T. G.

2009-01-01

351

Advantages of larval control for African malaria vectors: Low mobility and behavioural responsiveness of immature mosquito stages allow high effective coverage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on sensitivity analysis of the MacDonald-Ross model, it has long been argued that the best way to reduce malaria transmission is to target adult female mosquitoes with insecticides that can reduce the longevity and human-feeding frequency of vectors. However, these analyses have ignored a fundamental biological difference between mosquito adults and the immature stages that precede them: adults are highly mobile flying insects that can readily detect and avoid many intervention measures whereas mosquito eggs, larvae and pupae are confined within relatively small aquatic habitats and cannot readily escape control measures. Presentation of the hypothesis We hypothesize that the control of adult but not immature mosquitoes is compromised by their ability to avoid interventions such as excito-repellant insecticides. Testing the hypothesis We apply a simple model of intervention avoidance by mosquitoes and demonstrate that this can substantially reduce effective coverage, in terms of the proportion of the vector population that is covered, and overall impact on malaria transmission. We review historical evidence that larval control of African malaria vectors can be effective and conclude that the only limitations to the effective coverage of larval control are practical rather than fundamental. Implications of the hypothesis Larval control strategies against the vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa could be highly effective, complementary to adult control interventions, and should be prioritized for further development, evaluation and implementation as an integral part of Rolling Back Malaria.

Knols Bart GJ

2002-06-01

352

Tamarix as habitat for birds: Implications for riparian restoration in the Southwestern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Exotic vegetation has become a major habitat component in many ecosystems around the world, sometimes dramatically changing the vegetation community structure and composition. In the southwestern United States, riparian ecosystems are undergoing major changes in part due to the establishment and spread of the exotic Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk). There are concerns about the suitability of Tamarix as habitat for birds. Although Tamarix habitats tend to support fewer species and individuals than native habitats, Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas data and Birds of North America accounts show that 49 species use Tamarix as breeding habitat. Importantly, the relative use of Tamarix and its quality as habitat vary substantially by geographic location and bird species. Few studies have examined how breeding in Tamarix actually affects bird survivorship and productivity; recent research on Southwestern Willow Flycatchers has found no negative effects from breeding in Tamarix habitats. Therefore, the ecological benefits and costs of Tamarix control are difficult to predict and are likely to be species specific and site specific. Given the likelihood that high-quality native riparian vegetation will not develop at all Tamarix control sites, restoration projects that remove Tamarix but do not assure replacement by high-quality native habitat have the potential to reduce the net riparian habitat value for some local or regional bird populations. Therefore, an assessment of potential negative impacts is important in deciding if exotic control should be conducted. In addition, measurable project objectives, appropriate control and restoration techniques, and robust monitoring are all critical to effective restoration planning and execution. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Sogge, M.K.; Sferra, S.J.; Paxton, E.H.

2008-01-01

353

Habitat Associations of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Transmission in Walton County Florida  

OpenAIRE

Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne virus is endemic to eastern North America. The ecology of EEEV in Florida differs from that in other parts of the United States; EEEV in the northeastern United States is historically associated with freshwater wetlands. No formal test of habitat associations of EEEV in Florida has been reported. Geographical Information Sciences (GIS) was used in conjunction with sentinel chicken...

Vander Kelen, Patrick T.; Downs, Joni A.; Burkett-cadena, Nathan D.; Ottendorfer, Christy L.; Hill, Kevin; Sickerman, Stephen; Hernandez, Jose?; Jinright, Joseph; Hunt, Brenda; Lusk, John; Hoover, Victor; Armstrong, Keith; Unnasch, Robert S.; Stark, Lillian M.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

2012-01-01

354

India Habitat Centre  

Science.gov (United States)

The India Habitat Centre(IHC) was created in New Delhi, India, to "provide a physical environment [to] serve as a catalyst for a synergetic relationship between individuals and institutions working in diverse habitat related areas." Their website gives visitors a generous glimpse into what it is like to enjoy such features as the "Habitat Film Club", "Habitat Learning Centre", and the "IHC Visual Arts Gallery". Like a multi-faceted community center, the IHC houses a "Habitat Library & Resource Centre" and offers a monthly "Habitat Walk", among other activities. The "Habitat Walk" gives community members the opportunity to visit various natural and historical sites, and provides several pages of background on the sites that visitors can download or print from the "Habitat Walk" link on the website. The center also reaches out and empowers the community by encouraging students and non-students to participate in their annual contest for the Habitat Young Visionary Award, a photography fellowship, and in the recent past, internships in a non-governmental organization.

355

Spatiotemporal monitoring of floodwater mosquito dispersal in Osijek, Croatia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper demonstrates the possibility of using geostatistics to monitor the dispersal of mosquitoes for mosquito control programs at the municipal level. The case study objective was to quantify the dispersal of floodwater mosquitoes from the natural marshland Kopacki rit into the city of Osijek, Croatia, and to analyze the main factors controlling it. Fifty thousand adult Aedes vexans, Ochlerotatus sticticus, and Ochlerotatus caspius mosquitoes were marked with a powdered fluorescent pigment and released from the southern part of Kopacki rit on April 28, 2004. Forty CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps were set in the area of the municipality of Osijek (171 km2) and were monitored for 10 days. A total of 582,471 mosquitoes were captured and examined in the laboratory. The mosquito counts from different sites were then interpolated using ordinary kriging and visualized dynamically to detect the dominant migrational directions. Mosquito dispersal and frequency were greatly influenced by wind speed (r = 0.82). The marked mosquitoes were found at 12 sites located from 1 km to 11.7 km away from the release point. The recapture rate was 0.044% (54% Oc. sticticus, 32% Ae. vexans, and 14% Oc. caspius). Based on the Lincoln index, the estimated total population size for floodwater mosquitoes in the study area ranged from 875 million to 2.0 billion mosquitoes. Limitations of the approach, recommendations for the improvement of the monitoring network, and spatial predictions are further discussed. PMID:17847840

Bogojevi?, Mirta Sudari?; Hengl, Tomislav; Merdi?, Enrih

2007-06-01

356

Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropic environment: 2 - Immature stages research at a rice irrigation system location in South-Eastern Brazil Estudos sobre mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) e ambiente antrópico: 2 - Pesquisa de formas adultas em sistema de irrigação para cultivo de arroz e emergência de Anopheles arbitarsis na região sudeste do Brasil  

OpenAIRE

A relation between a rice irrigation system and mosquito breeding was established in a study undertaken at the Ribeira Valley Experimental Station, from January through December 1992. Flooding favoured Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) and Culex (Melanoconion) species, while empty paddies condition were propitious to Aedes scapularis and Culex (Culex) species. Compared with a more primitive area of the same region, several species showed high a degree of adaptation to the anthropic environment. Among...

Oswaldo Paulo Forattini; Iná Kakitani; Eduardo Massad; Daniel Marucci

1993-01-01

357

Spatial distribution of arboviral mosquito vectors (Diptera, Culicidae in Vale do Ribeira in the South-eastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest Distribuição espacial de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae vetores de arbovírus no Vale do Ribeira, sudeste da Mata Atlântica, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Aedes serratus (Theobald, Aedes scapularis (Rondani and Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt are potential vectors of arboviruses and are abundant in Vale do Ribeira, located in the Atlantic Forest in the southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of these mosquitoes and estimate the risk of human exposure to mosquito bites. Results of the analyses show that humans are highly exposed to bites in the municipalities of Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida. In these localities the incidence of Rocio encephalitis was 2% in the 1970s. Furthermore, Ae. serratus, a recently implicated vector of yellow fever virus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, should be a target for the entomological surveillance in the southeastern Atlantic Forest. Considering the continental dimensions of Brazil and the inherent difficulties in sampling its vast area, the habitat suitability method used in the study can be an important tool for predicting the distribution of vectors of pathogens.Mosquitos são vetores de arbovírus que podem causar encefalites e febres hemorrágicas em humanos. Aedes serratus (Theobald, Aedes scapularis (Rondani, e Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt são vetores potenciais de arbovírus e são abundantes no Vale do Ribeira, Mata Atlântica, sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi inferir a distribuição espacial desses mosquitos e estimar o risco da exposição humana às picadas de mosquitos. Os resultados das análises indicaram que os humanos estão altamente expostos às picadas nos municípios de Cananéia, Iguape e Ilha Comprida. Nessas localidades a incidência de encefalite Rocio foi 2% na década de 1970. Adicionalmente, Ae. serratus, que foi recentemente implicado vetor do vírus da febre amarela no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, deveria ser alvo da vigilância entomológica no sudeste da Mata Atlântica. Considerando a extensão territorial do Brasil e as inerentes dificuldades em amostrar esse vasto território, a modelagem de habitat empregada nesse trabalho poderia ser utilizada para a vigilância de vetores de patógenos.

Gabriel Zorello Laporta

2012-02-01

358

Breeding bird community colonization of sown stands of native grasses in North Dakota  

Science.gov (United States)

Breeding passerine birds were studied in three native grass plantings of predominantly western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii) and green needlegrass (Stipa viridula) in south-central North Dakota during 1982-1984. A total of eight different species of passerines readily colonized this relatively new type of wildlife habitat during the second, third. and fourth growing seasons.

Higgins, K.F.; Arnold, T.W.; Barta, R.M.

1984-01-01

359

Costs of Reproduction in Breeding Female Mallards: Predation Risk during Incubation Drives Annual Mortality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effort expended on reproduction may entail future costs, such as reduced survival or fecundity, and these costs can have an important influence on life-history optimization. For birds with precocial offspring, hypothesized costs of reproduction have typically emphasized nutritional and energetic investments in egg formation and incubation. We measured seasonal survival of 3856 radio-marked female Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos from arrival on the breeding grounds through brood-rearing or cessation of breeding. There was a 2.5-fold direct increase in mortality risk associated with incubating nests in terrestrial habitats, whereas during brood-rearing when breeding females occupy aquatic habitats, mortality risk reached seasonal lows. Mortality risk also varied with calendar date and was highest during periods when large numbers of Mallards were nesting, suggesting that prey-switching behaviors by common predators may exacerbate risks to adults in all breeding stages. Although prior investments in egg laying and incubation affected mortality risk, most relationships were not consistent with the cost of reproduction hypothesis; birds with extensive prior investments in egg production or incubation typically survived better, suggesting that variation in individual quality drove both relationships. We conclude that for breeding female Mallards, the primary cost of reproduction is a fixed cost associated with placing oneself at risk to predators while incubating nests in terrestrial habitats.

David W. Howerter

2012-06-01

360

An assessment of bird habitat quality using population growth rates  

Science.gov (United States)

Survival and reproduction directly affect population growth rate (lambda) making lambda a fundamental parameter for assessing habitat quality. We used field data, literature review, and a computer simulation to predict annual productivity and lambda for several species of landbirds breeding in floodplain and upland forests in the Midwestern United States. We monitored 1735 nests of 27 species; 760 nests were in the uplands and 975 were in the floodplain. Each type of forest habitat (upland and floodplain) was a source habitat for some species. Despite a relatively low proportion of regional forest cover, the majority of species had stable or increasing populations in all or some habitats, including six species of conservation concern. In our search for a simple analog for lambda, we found that only adult apparent survival, juvenile survival, and annual productivity were correlated with lambda; daily nest survival and relative abundance estimated from point counts were not. Survival and annual productivity are among the most costly demographic parameters to measure and there does not seem to be a low-cost alternative. In addition, our literature search revealed that the demographic parameters needed to model annual productivity and lambda were unavailable for several species. More collective effort across North America is needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge of demographic parameters necessary to model both annual productivity and lambda. Managers can use habitat-specific predictions of annual productivity to compare habitat quality among species and habitats for purposes of evaluating management plans.

Knutson, M.G.; Powell, L.A.; Hines, R.K.; Friberg, M.A.; Niemi, G.J.

2006-01-01

361

Efficacy of an aerosol surface spray against container-breeding Aedes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of a residual insect surface spray against container-breeding mosquitoes was tested in Cairns, Australia. A formulation containing imiprothrin and cypermethrin (Mortein Plus Cockroach Lure 'n' Kill High Performance Surface Spray) was selected based on the label claim to "kill continuously for up to 6 months." A 1-sec spray was applied to the water and interior surface of partially flooded tires and terra-cotta pots. Treatments were paired with a control and replicated at 2 sites within 3 residential properties for a total of 6 replicates. All mosquito larvae were removed and counted weekly, and a representative sample was identified in the laboratory. Complete control of Aedes species was achieved for 4 and 5 months in all tires and pots, respectively. PMID:11480825

Ritchie, S A; Montgomery, B L; Walsh, I D; Long, S A; Hart, A J

2001-06-01

362

Chemical characteristics of breeding sites of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined chemical characteristics of the breeding sites of Culicoides species in Turkey. Soil samples containing pupae and larvae of Culicoides species were collected between January and December 2004 and fly emergence was recorded in the laboratory. Percent organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity and mineral constituents of habitat samples were quantified to determine habitat preferences of the emerging species. A total of 1623 mature Culicoides flies comprising 10 species emerged from soil samples collected from 8 different habitat types. A total of 856 (53%) flies were recovered from habitats containing mud rich in dung near water reservoirs, 288 (18%) from mud in reed sites, 279 (17%) from mud in swamps, 78 (5%) from mud along side the streams, 39 (2.4%) from mud around dams, 38 (2.3%) from mud near dripping water, 30 (2%) from mud in rain puddles and 15 (1.0%) from moist soil. While C. nubeculosus (Meigen) and C. puncticollis (Becker) were encountered more in mud rich in dung near water reservoirs and mud in swamps; C. gejgelensis Dzhafarov and C. festivipennis Kieffer were more common in mud alongside streams. C. circumscriptus Kieffer was encountered in most habitats and no Culicoides flies emerged from livestock dung samples and tree holes. The number of C. festivipennis Kieffer was significantly correlated with organic matter, P, K and Zn while the number of C. nubeculosus (Meigen) was significantly correlated with pH, P and K. PMID:20071082

Uslu, U?ur; Dik, Bilal

2010-04-19

363

Breeding tropical forages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.

L Jank

2011-01-01

364

Plant Breeding Graduate Student Community  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing the FutureWith the loss of plant breeding positions in the public sector, there has been a loss of the infrastructure that supports plant breeding training, including a reduction in professors with plant breeding expertise, a critical mass of students often too low to provide a stimulating learning environment, and the inability to offer courses with sufficient audience. Although studies support the positive impact of a strong community on learning, currently, students are often trained in isolation.  The PBTN has been established to mitigate isolation barriers that currently limit plant breeding education at most institutions and in most plant breeding work places around the world.  PBTN supports online course sharing (See list of courses).  The PBTN online graduate student community  is a place for students around the world to make contact with other plant breeding students, providing an opportunity  to exchange ideas, develop interpersonal skills (such as communication and collaboration) and build a plant breeding student community.If you have questions about the community, graduate work in plant breeding, or career oportunities, please contact us. Jamie ShermanDirector-TCAP graduate community and PBTNjsherman@montana.edu Mary BrakkeDirector-TCAP undergraduate communitybrakk001@umn.edu Deana Namuth-CovertDirector-Plant Breeding Training Network (PBTN)dcovert2@unl.edu  This community is funded by the Triticeae CAP project. 

365

Moving Targets and Biodiversity Offsets for Endangered Species Habitat: Is Lesser Prairie Chicken Habitat a Stock or Flow?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The US Fish and Wildlife Service will make an Endangered Species Act listing decision for the lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus; “LPC” in March 2014. Based on the findings of a single, Uzbek antelope study, conservation plans put forth for the LPC propose to modify and re-position habitat in the landscape through a series of temporary preservation/restoration efforts. We argue that for certain species, including the LPC, dynamic habitat offsets represent a dangerous re-interpretation of habitat provision and recovery programs, which have nearly-universally viewed ecosystem offsets (habitat, wetlands, streams, etc. as “stocks” that accumulate characteristics over time. Any effort to create a program of temporary, moving habitat offsets must consider species’ (1 life history characteristics, (2 behavioral tendencies (e.g., avoidance of impacted areas, nesting/breeding site fidelity, and (3 habitat restoration characteristics, including long temporal lags in reoccupation. If misapplied, species recovery programs using temporary, moving habitat risk further population declines.

Todd K. BenDor

2014-03-01

366

Radiation mutation breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected

367

Biotechnology in soybean breeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather will help provide new discoveries and contribute to improved nutritional value and yield enhancement through greater resistance to disease, herbicides and abiotic factors. In soybeans, biotechnology has and will continue to play a valuable role in public and private soybean breeding programs. Based on the availability and combination of conventional and molecular technologies, a substantial increase in the rate of genetic gain for economically important soybean traits can be predicted in the next decade. In this paper, a short review of technologies for molecular markers analysis in soybean is given as well as achievements in the area of genetic transformation in soybean.

Sudari? Aleksandra

2010-01-01

368

Northern Ireland Habitat Action Plans  

SCPinfonet

...ResourcesConserving BiodiversityWhat is Biodiversity?Northern Ireland Habitat Action PlansHabitat Delivery GroupsHAP CostingsNorthern Ireland's BiodiversityHabitatsSpeciesMarine ConservationBiodiversity...

369

Potential of medicinal plants in mosquito control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants have long history as important components in traditional medicine, and food of humans since ancient Egyptians and Chinese. Naturally occurring botanical compounds contain a broad range of chemical active ingredients can intervene in all biological processes of the mosquito, thus interrupt its life cycle and dispersal and reduce harms to humans and animals. Many medicinal plants were tested for their pesticide and repellent potential, as crude material, essential oils or individual active ingredients. This article reviewed studies on the efficacy of many well known and commonly used safe medicinal plants or their products in controlling the mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, An. stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus and the ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum, Ixodes scapularis and I. ricinus. Promising and encouraging results were obtained against these arthropod-vectors of zoonotic diseases. PMID:20503582

Fallatah, Sahar A B; Khater, Emad I M

2010-04-01

370

Ord River arboviruses--isolations from mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and thirty presumptive viruses have been isolated from 485 pools made from 23,872 mosquitoes collected in the Ord River area of North-West Australia. One hundred and eleven of the virus isolates isolates came from pools of Culex annulirostis, the dominant mosquito species caught in the vicinity of Kununurra. Forty-five of the viruses pathogenic for newborn mice have been further characterized-19 as Flaviviruses, 1 Alphavirus, 9 Koongol, 1 Mapputta and 15 non-haemagglutinating viruses of which 6 are Corripata. Thirty-seven isolates were from Culex annulirostis, 7 from Aedomyia catasticta and 1 from aedes tremulus. All Corriparta isolates were from Aedomyia catasticta. The Flaviviruses comprised 13 Kunjin and 6 MVE isolates. PMID:14613

Liehne, C G; Leivers, S; Stanley, N F; Alpers, M P; Paul, S; Liehne, P F; Chan, K H

1976-10-01

371

Novel Flaviviruses Detected in Different Species of Mosquitoes in Spain  

OpenAIRE

We report the characterization of three novel flaviviruses isolated in Spain. Marisma Mosquito virus, a novel mosquito borne virus, was isolated from Ochlerotatus caspius mosquitoes; Spanish Ochlerotatus flavivirus and Spanish Culex flavivirus, two novel insect flaviviruses, were isolated from Oc. caspius and Culex pipiens, re- spectively. During this investigation, we designed a sensitive RT-nested polymerase chain reaction method that amplifies a 1019bp fragmen...

Va?zquez, Ana; Sa?nchez-seco, Mari?a-paz; Palacios, Gustavo; Molero, Francisca; Reyes, Noelia; Ruiz, Santiago; Aranda, Carles; Marque?s, Eduard; Escosa, Raul; Moreno, Juana; Figuerola, Jordi; Tenorio, Antonio

2012-01-01

372

Cues of mosquito host finding and oviposition site selection  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work was to study odor cues that affect mosquito host seeking and oviposition behavior. Due to the vastness (and sometimes contradictions) of mosquito oviposition cues available in literature, I started by reviewing these cues, their source in nature, and their role in mosquito oviposition. Then, I tested the oviposition response of Aedes aegypti towards the contradictory oviposition odor p-cresol and its isomer m-cresol in different situations. p-cresol showed an ...

Afify, Ali

2014-01-01

373

Vector Competence of New Zealand Mosquitoes for Selected Arboviruses  

OpenAIRE

New Zealand (NZ) historically has been free of arboviral activity with the exception of Whataroa virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), which is established in bird populations and is transmitted by local mosquitoes. This naive situation is threatened by global warming, invasive mosquitoes, and tourism. To determine the threat of selected medically important arboviruses to NZ, vector competence assays were conducted using field collected endemic and introduced mosquito species. Four alphaviruses (T...

Kramer, Laura D.; Chin, Pam; Cane, Rachel P.; Kauffman, Elizabeth B.; Mackereth, Graham

2011-01-01

374

A role for endosomal proteins in alphavirus dissemination in mosquitoes  

OpenAIRE

Little is known about endosomal pathway proteins involved in arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) assembly and cell-to-cell spread in vector mosquitoes. UNC93A and Synaptic vesicle-2 (SV2) proteins are involved in intracellular transport in mammals. They show amino acid sequence conservation from mosquitoes to humans, and their transcripts are highly-enriched in Aedes aegypti during arbovirus infection. Transient gene silencing of SV2 or UNC93A in mosquitoes infected with the recombinant alphavi...

Campbell, Corey L.; Lehmann, Christopher J.; Gill, Sargeet S.; Dunn, W. A.; James, Anthony A.; Foy, Brian D.

2011-01-01

375

Advances in methods for colour marking of mosquitoes  

OpenAIRE

Background: Different techniques are available for colour marking insects and each technique may be suitable for different insect species. Mosquitoes can be marked to determine population size, distribution and flight distance or distinguish closely related species. In this study, two methods of colour marking mosquitoes were described in detail and the impact of both methods on the survival and host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was investigated. M...

Verhulst, N. O.; Loonen, J. A. C. M.; Takken, W.

2013-01-01

376

Wolbachia-Associated Bacterial Protection in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

OpenAIRE

Wolbachia is a commonly occurring bacterium or symbiont that lives inside the cells of insects. Recently, Wolbachia was artificially introduced into the mosquito vector dengue virus that was naturally Wolbachia-free. Wolbachia limits the growth of a range of pathogens transmitted to humans, including viruses, bacteria and parasites inside the mosquito. This “pathog