Although urban agriculture (UA) in the developing world may enhance nutrition and local economies, it may also lead to higher densities of mosquito breeding sites and, consequently, to increased transmission of malarial parasites. If targeted interventions against malaria vectors are to be successful in urban areas, the habitats that support Anopheles breeding need to be identified and detected. Mosquito breeding sites have recently been characterised, and the factors associated with productive Anopheles habitats identified, in market gardens of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Two surveys were conducted in seven vegetable-production areas, one towards the end of the rainy season and one during the dry season. A standardized methodology was used for habitat characterisation and the detection of Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae. Overall, 454 and 559 potential mosquito-breeding sites were recorded in the rainy-season and dry-season surveys, respectively. In the rainy season, Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae were found in 29.7% and 5.5% of the potential breeding sites, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages in the dry season were 24.3% and 8.6%. The potential breeding sites in an agricultural zone on the periphery of Abidjan were those least likely to be positive for Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae whereas 'agricultural trenches' between seedbeds were the sites most likely to be positive. In a spatially-explicit Bayesian multivariate logistic-regression model, although one out of every five such wells was also found to harbour Anopheles larvae, irrigation wells were found to be the least productive habitats, of those sampled, for pupae. In the study area, simple and cost-effective strategies of larval control should be targeted at agricultural trenches, ideally with the active involvement of local stakeholders (i.e. urban farmers and urban agricultural extension services). PMID:21144184
Matthys, B; Koudou, B G; N'Goran, E K; Vounatsou, P; Gosoniu, L; Koné, M; Gissé, G; Utzinger, J
It is intuitive that vector-borne disease exposure risk is related to proximity to sources of vector breeding, but this aspect rarely receives empirical testing. The population of Western Australia (WA) is increasing rapidly, with many new residential developments proposed in close proximity to mosquito breeding habitat. However, potential mosquito-borne disease risks for future residents are given little consideration by planning authorities. The Peel region is one of the fastest growing regions in WA and regularly experiences a large number of cases of the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease with epidemics occuring in the region every few years. A spatial analysis of RRV disease data in the Peel region was undertaken to determine the risk associated with proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to create buffers between 1 and 6?km from the breeding habitat. The number of cases per 1000 dwellings in each buffer was calculated between 2002/03 to 2011/12 for years with >100 cases across all buffers (n=5) in addition to the cumulative rate over the entire period in each buffer. Residents living within 1?km of a mosquito breeding habitat had a significantly higher rate of RRV disease compared to the background rate across the Peel region in all individual years investigated. The cumulative data over the 10-year study period showed that residents in the 1- and 2-km buffers had a significantly higher rate, whereas those living between 3 and 6?km away did not. This study demonstrates an increased mosquito-borne disease risk associated with living in close proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat in a rapidly expanding region of WA and highlights the importance of considering mosquito-borne disease risks when planning authorities assess new residential development applications. Known mosquito breeding wetlands should be incorporated into land use planning scheme maps to ensure that they are accurately delineated and the implications are considered when planning decisions are made. PMID:25700045
Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J; Lindsay, Michael D A
The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats. PMID:25599639
Sarfraz, Muhammad Shahzad; Tripathi, Nagesh K; Faruque, Fazlay S; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Souris, Marc
A survey was carried out during post-monsoon period (1988-89) in villages of Dhaulana Primary Health Centre, Distt. Ghaziabad (U.P.) to evaluate the utility of Azolla pinnata for the control of mosquito breeding in different habitats. Results of the survey revealed that pools, ponds, wells, rice fields and drains were infested with Azolla. Infestation rate and intensity of infestation varied from habitat to habitat. Maximum infestation (36.5%) was observed in pools and minimum (3.7%) in rice fields. Anopheline breeding was almost completely suppressed (0-1.6/dip) in pools, wells and ponds completely covered with Azolla. The breeding of Culex spp. was not completely inhibited in any habitat, though reduction in immature density was observed in comparison to control. The role of Azolla in controlling mosquito breeding and its association with the blue green algae which fixes nitrogen is discussed. PMID:1680758
Ansari, M A; Sharma, V P
A survey was conducted to evaluate the number of tree-hole breeding mosquito species and their distribution in the six principal woodland types in Israel. Out of approximately 3,000 mature trees examined, only 38 contained holes that retained water for extended periods of time, and breeding mosquitoes were observed in 27 of them. Two specialized tree-hole breeders, Aedes pulchritarsis Rondani and Aedes geniculatus Oliver, were found breeding at several sites in northern Israel, always at locations 500 m above sea level (a.s.l) and with high annual precipitation. Aedes albopictus Skuse which, in Israel, is known as an opportunistic container breeder, was found in this study to have adapted remarkably well to breeding in tree holes and was found in most forest types investigated and in most tree species which had adequate tree holes. Two other species, Culiseta annulata Schrank and Culex pipiens Linnaeus instars, were found in one of the tree holes, but did not survive to reach maturity. PMID:22548543
Müller, Günter C; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Junnila, Amy; Schlein, Yosef
Water bodies infested with aquatic vegetations may pose problems in mosquito control through bio-environmental methods. Paucity of information pertaining to association of mosquito breeding with aquatic vegetation was the basis for present investigation. The mosquito breeding sites infested with solitary/dominating plant community viz., Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphea neuchali, Trapa bispinosa, Lemna paucicostata, Trachelomonas spp., Azolla pinnata, Algae spp. and Cynodon dactylon were selected for the study. The investigation revealed that breeding of eleven anopheline species was associated with Eichhornia in different habitats followed by Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon (8 each), Ipomoea and Trapa (6), Lemna. and Nymphea (5), Azolla and Trachelomonas (4). An. subpictus was associated with all types of vegetation. An. annularis, An. nigerrimus and An. barbirostris were associated with nine plant species. An. culicifacies, the principal malaria vector was found breeding in association with seven aquatic plants and showed strong association with Cynodon, Hydrilla and algae. The species diversity in habitats infested with Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon seems to be most favourable for the breeding of An. culicifacies. It is suggested that thinning or removal of such vegetations at regular interval may help to reduce vector population and enhance the efficacy of biological control agents particularly the larvivorous fishes in such habitats. PMID:16509256
Kant, Rajni; Srivastava, H C
Mosquitoes are principal vectors of major vector-borne diseases. They are widely found throughout urban and rural areas in Malaysia. They are responsible for various vector-borne diseases such as dengue, malaria, filariasis and encephalitis. A total of 158 mosquito larvae specimens were collected from the National Zoo, Malaysia, from 11 types of breeding habitats during the study period from end of May 2007 to July 2007. Aedes albopictus was the predominant species (35.4%), followed by Tripteroides aranoides (26.6%), Lutzia halifaxii (11.4%), Aedes alboscutellatus (10.1%), Aedes caecus (8.9%), Armigeres spp. (4.4%), Malaya genurostris (2.5%) and Culex vishnui (0.6%). It is important to have a mosquito free environment in a public place like the zoo. Routine larval surveillance should be implemented for an effective mosquito control program in order to reduce mosquito population. PMID:25801269
Muhammad-Aidil, R; Imelda, A; Jeffery, J; Ngui, R; Wan Yusoff, W S; Aziz, S; Lim Y, A L; Rohela, M
The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abundance and phenology of mosquitoes breeding in experimental water butt containers were influenced by urbanisation. Mosquitoes in urban containers were less species-rich but present in significantly higher densities (100.4±21.3) per container than those in rural containers (77.7±15.1). Urban containers were dominated by Culex pipiens (a potential vector of West Nile Virus [WNV]) and appear to be increasingly exploited by Anopheles plumbeus (a human-biting potential WNV and malaria vector). Culex phenology was influenced by urban land use type, with peaks in larval abundances occurring earlier in urban than rural containers. Among other factors, this was associated with an urban heat island effect which raised urban air and water temperatures by 0.9°C and 1.2°C respectively. Further increases in domestic water storage, particularly in urban areas, in combination with climate changes will likely alter mosquito population dynamics in the UK. PMID:24759617
Townroe, Susannah; Callaghan, Amanda
Background & objectives: A preliminary survey of larval mosquito habitats and temporal variationin mosquito diversity in the hill town of Darjeeling, India was made during 2003, for a qualitativeand quantitative assessment of mosquito distribution.Methods: The possible larval habitats of mosquitoes were surveyed and the species diversity in thesites positive for mosquito larvae was noted. Bi-weekly sampling from a particular habitat wascarried out to reveal the temporal variation in mosquito ...
Gautam Aditya, B.
Survey of larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes was conducted in Ocamo in the State of Amazonas, southern Venezuela. The sampled habitats belonged to three different hydrological types: lagoons (26 habitats), forest pools including flooded forest (16 habitats), and forest streams (4 habitats). Out of 46 habitats surveyed, 31 contained anopheline larvae. Six species were found: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles peryassui, Anopheles punctimacula, and Anopheles mediopunctatus. Anopheles triannulatus was the most abundant species. Significantly higher numbers of anopheline larvae, in general, and of An. triannulatus specifically were found in lagoons with submersed macrophytes and sparse emergent graminoids than in forest pools with detritus. PMID:10672542
Rejmánková, E; Rubio-Palis, Y; Villegas, L
The abundance, richness and diversity of anopheline and culicid mosquitoes associated with their habitats, season, and physico-chemical quality of water were surveyed along six districts of Mizoram, North Eastern Himalayan region. The productivity of permanent and temporary habitat types was quantified by carrying out weekly larval sampling using a standard dipping method for a period of three years. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H'), Evenness index (Heve), similarity measures cluster analysis and MANOVA. In total, 5 genera and 20 species of mosquitoes were identified: Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles barbirostris and Anopheles vagus were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 39.71%, 29.39% and 14.52% of total mosquito individuals sampled, respectively. Anopheles sp. diversity was lowest in Lunglei district (H'=0.48) and highest in Aizawl (H'=2.03), whereas Culex sp. diversity was lowest in Lawngtlai (H'=0.38), and highest in Aizawl (H'=2.99) and Kolasib (H'=2.13). This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes of Mizoram. Mosquito larvae were present in both temporary and permanent habitats suitable for breeding with monthly variations dependent on rainfall intensity, temperature, humidity and location. Early instars were more abundant significantly (PMANOVA) with pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, phosphates and chlorides concentration of water. This information will be essential for designing and implementing mosquito larval control programs. PMID:24795213
Vanlalruia, Khawling; Senthilkumar, Nachimuthu; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ideally larval control activities should be targeted at sites that generate the most adult vectors, thereby reducing operational costs. Despite the plethora of potential mosquito breeding sites found in the floodplains of the Gambia River, about 150 km from its mouth, during the rainy season, only a small proportion are colonized by anophelines on any day. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of larval habitats most frequently and most densely populated by anopheline larvae and to estimate the numbers of adults produced in different habitats. Methods A case-control design was used to identify characteristics of sites with or without mosquitoes. Sites were surveyed for their physical water properties and invertebrate fauna. The characteristics of 83 sites with anopheline larvae (cases and 75 sites without (controls were collected between June and November 2005. Weekly adult productivity was estimated with emergence traps in water-bodies commonly containing larvae. Results The presence of anopheline larvae was associated with high invertebrate diversity (Odds Ratio, OR 11.69, 95% CI 5.61–24.34, p Anopheles gambiae adults compared with rice fields, floodwater areas close to the edge of the floodplain or close to the river, and stream fringes. Pools were characterized by high water temperature and turbidity, low conductivity, increased presence of algae, and absence of tidal water. Conclusion There are few breeding sites that produce a high number of adult vectors in the middle reaches of the river in The Gambia, whereas those with low productivity are larger in area and can be found throughout the rainy season. Even though risk factors could be identified for the presence and density of larvae and productivity of habitats, the results indicate that anti-larval interventions in this area of The Gambia cannot be targeted in space or time during the rainy season.
van Loon Emiel
Darwin, in the tropical north of Australia, is subject to high numbers of mosquitoes and several mosquito-borne diseases. Many of Darwin's residential areas were built in close proximity to tidally influenced swamps, where long-term storm-water run-off from nearby residences into these swamps has led to anthropogenic induced ecological change. When natural wet-dry cycles were disrupted, bare mud-flats and mangroves were transformed into perennial fresh to brackish-water reed swamps. Reed swamps provided year-round breeding habitat for many mosquito species, such that mosquito abundance was less predictable and seasonally dependent, but constant and often occurring in plague proportions. Drainage channels were constructed throughout the wetlands to reduce pooled water during dry-season months. This study assesses the impact of drainage interventions on vegetation and mosquito ecology in three salt-marshes in the Darwin area. Findings revealed a universal decline in dry-season mosquito abundance in each wetland system. However, some mosquito species increased in abundance during wet-season months. Due to the high expense and potentially detrimental environmental impacts of ecosystem and non-target species disturbance, large-scale modifications such as these are sparingly undertaken. However, our results indicate that some large scale environmental modification can assist the process of wetland restoration, as appears to be the case for these salt marsh systems. Drainage in all three systems has been restored to closer to their original salt-marsh ecosystems, while reducing mosquito abundances, thereby potentially lowering the risk of vector-borne disease transmission and mosquito pest biting problems. PMID:22476689
Jacups, Susan; Warchot, Allan; Whelan, Peter
Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.
The mosquito control potential of the silicone-based monomolecular film Aquatain Mosquito Formula (AMF) was investigated in field tests against the backyard mosquitoes Aedes notoscriptus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Plastic tubs, with and without emergent aquatic vegetation (Cyperus alternifolius), were sampled weekly for 2 wk prior to an application of Aquatain and up to 6 wk postapplication. The mean abundance of mosquito larvae and pupae was compared between pre- and postapplication periods as well as between treatment and control tubs. There was a significant reduction in the abundance of immature stages of both Ae. notoscriptus and Cx. quinquefasciatus within 48 h of application, and the mean weekly abundance of larvae of both species was significantly lower in treatment tubs compared with control tubs for up to 6 wk postapplication. Egg rafts, larvae, and pupae were not detected in treatment tubs until 5 wk postapplication. The results indicate that AMF holds great potential for mosquito control in backyard habitats. PMID:22533087
Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C
A survey of container-breeding mosquitoes was conducted on urban islands (Big Coppitt Key, Rockland Key, Key West, and Stock Island) and rural islands (Big Pine Key, Cudjoe Key, Little Torch Key, No Name Key, Ramrod Key, Saddlebunch Keys, Sugarloaf Key, and Summerland Key) within the Florida Keys. Five mosquito species were collected: Aedes aegypti, Culex nigripalpus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. salinarius, and Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. Plastic buckets, trash cans, and discarded plastic containers most commonly were found to be mosquito breeding sites. Many containers were used by more than 1 mosquito species. More containers holding water were found in the rural areas than in the urban areas. The percentage of wet containers with mosquitoes did not differ between the rural and urban areas. PMID:11804461
Hribar, L J; Smith, J M; Vlach, J J; Verna, T N
Full Text Available The increase in mosquito populations following extreme weather events poses a major threat to humans because of mosquitoes’ ability to carry disease-causing pathogens, particularly in low-lying, poorly drained coastal plains vulnerable to tropical cyclones. In areas with reservoirs of disease, mosquito abundance information can help to identify the areas at higher risk of disease transmission. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS, mosquito abundance is predicted across the City of Chesapeake, Virginia. The mosquito abundance model uses mosquito light trap counts, a habitat suitability model, and dynamic environmental variables (temperature and precipitation to predict the abundance of the species Culiseta melanura, as well as the combined abundance of the ephemeral species, Aedes vexans and Psorophora columbiae, for the year 2003. Remote sensing techniques were used to quantify environmental variables for a potential habitat suitability index for the mosquito species. The goal of this study was to produce an abundance model that could guide risk assessment, surveillance, and potential disease transmission. Results highlight the utility of integrating field surveillance, remote sensing for synoptic landscape habitat distributions, and dynamic environmental data for predicting mosquito vector abundance across low-lying coastal plains. Limitations of mosquito trapping and multi-source geospatial environmental data are highlighted for future spatial modeling of disease transmission risk.
A. Scott Bellows
In Tunisia, malaria transmission has been interrupted since 1980. However, the growing number of imported cases and the persistence of putative vectors stress the need for additional studies to assess the risk of malaria resurgence in the country. In this context, our aim was to update entomological data concerning Anopheles mosquitoes in Tunisia. From May to October of 2012, mosquito larval specimens were captured in 60 breeding sites throughout the country and identified at the species level using morphological keys. Environmental parameters of the larval habitats were recorded. Specimens belonging to the An. maculipennis complex were further identified to sibling species by the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA)-internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In total, 647 Anopheles larvae were collected from 25 habitats. Four species, including An. labranchiae, An. multicolor, An. sergentii, and An. algeriensis, were morphologically identified. rDNA-ITS2 PCR confirmed that An. labranchiae is the sole member of the An. maculipennis complex in Tunisia. An. labranchiae was collected throughout northern and central Tunisia, and it was highly associated with rural habitat, clear water, and sunlight areas. Larvae of An. multicolor and An. sergentii existed separately or together and were collected in southern Tunisia in similar types of breeding places. PMID:25561567
Tabbabi, Ahmed; Boussès, Philippe; Rhim, Adel; Brengues, Cécile; Daaboub, Jabeur; Ben-Alaya-Bouafif, Nissaf; Fontenille, Didier; Bouratbine, Aïda; Simard, Frédéric; Aoun, Karim
Water temperature is an important determinant of the growth and development of malaria mosquito immatures. To gain a better understanding of the daily temperature dynamics of malaria mosquito breeding sites and of the relationships between meteorological variables and water temperature, three clear water pools (diameter × depth: 0·16 × 0·04, 0·32 × 0·16 and 0·96 × 0·32 m) were created in Kenya. Continuous water temperature measurements at various depths were combined with weather da...
Paaijmans, K. P.; Jacobs, A. F. G.; Takken, W.; Heusinkveld, B. G.; Githeko, A. K.; Dicke, M.; Holtslag, A. A. M.
The presence of cyanobacteria generally decreased the effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 (BTI) as a mosquito larvicide. The effect was more pronounced when the mosquito larvae were exposed to BTI in the presence of several cyanobacterial strains. No synergistic or antagonistic effect between the ?-endotoxin from BTI and the hepatotoxin from cyanobacteria was seen. Neurotoxic cyanobacterial strains caused very fast paralysis in mosquito larvae; the decreases in the effectiveness of BTI when tested in combination with a neurotoxic strain might be due to the effect of this paralytic action on the feeding rate of the mosquito larvae. PMID:24419936
Abdel-Hameed, A; Kiviranta, J; Sivonen, K; Niemelä, S; Carlberg, G
Remote sensing techniques are becoming increasingly important for identifying mosquito habitats, investigating malaria epidemiology and assisting malaria control. Here, Simon Hay, Bob Snow and David Rogers review the development of these techniques, from aerial photographic identification of mosquito larval habitats on the local scale through to the space-based survey of malaria risk over continental areas using increasingly sophisticated airborne and satellite-sensor technology. They indicat...
Hay, Si; Snow, Rw; Rogers, Dj
Full Text Available In Brazil the numbers of malaria are cause for concern, especially in the “Legal Amazon” region, where climatic conditions favor the development of the mosquito transmitter. One of the regions with a high infection rate is the Juruá valley. The breeding of the vectors are not well characterized, as well as species of mosquitoes present in each one. In the present work, five types of breeding-sites: excavations, fish-farm tanks, reservoirs, lagoons and creeks were identified and a total of 10 species of Anopheles collected. The highest abundance was of An. peryassui (31%, An. triannulatus (28.3% and An. darlingi (22.5%.
1.?Habitat use can influence individual performance in a wide range of animals, either immediately or through carry-over effects in subsequent seasons. Given that many animal species also show consistent individual differences in reproductive success, it seems plausible that individuals may have consistent patterns of habitat use representing individual specializations, with concomitant fitness consequences. 2.?Stable-carbon isotope ratios from a range of tissues were used to discern individual consistency in habitat use along a terrestrial-aquatic gradient in a long-distance migrant, the Bewick's swan (Cygnus columbianus bewickii). These individual specialisations represented isotopic breadth of the population for the majority of individuals and were seen to persist throughout autumn migration and overwintering until aquatic habitats were no longer available. 3.?Individual foraging specialisations were then used to demonstrate two consecutive carry-over effects associated with macroscale habitat segregation: consequences of breeding season processes for autumn habitat use; and consequences of autumn habitat use for future reproductive success. Adults that were successful breeders in the year of capture used terrestrial habitats significantly more than adults that were not successful, revealing a substantial cost of reproduction and extended parental care. Use of aquatic habitats during autumn was, however, associated with increased body condition prior to spring migration; and increased subsequent breeding success in adults that had been unsuccessful the year before. Yet adults that were successful breeders in the year of capture remained the most likely to be successful the following year, despite their use of terrestrial habitats. 4.?Our results uniquely demonstrate not only individual foraging specializations throughout the migration period, but also that processes during breeding and autumn migration, mediated by individual consistency, may play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of long-distance migrants. These findings, therefore, highlight the importance of long-term consistency to our understanding of habitat function, interindividual differences in fitness, population dynamics and the evolution of migratory strategies. PMID:22272688
Hoye, Bethany J; Hahn, Steffen; Nolet, Bart A; Klaassen, Marcel
Abstract Background In the past two decades the east African highlands have experienced several major malaria epidemics. Currently there is a renewed interest in exploring the possibility of anopheline larval control through environmental management or larvicide as an additional means of reducing malaria transmission in Africa. This study examined the landscape determinants of anopheline mosquito larval habitats and usefulness of remote sensing in identifying these habitats in western Kenya h...
Beck Louisa; Schmidt Cindy; Kitron Uriel; Bian Ling; Feng Chen-chieh; Li Li; Minakawa Noboru; Munga Stephen; Mushinzimana Emmanuel; Zhou Guofa; Githeko Andrew K; Yan Guiyun
The question of why animals choose particular habitats has important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of organisms in the wild and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management. Habitats chosen by animals can influence fitness outcomes via the costs (e.g., predation risk) and benefits (e.g., food availability) of habitat use. Habitat preferences should therefore be under selection to favor those that confer fitness advantages (Clark and Shutler 1999). Indeed, prevailing theory suggests that the habitat preferences of animals should be adaptive, such that fitness is higher in preferred habitats (Hildén 1965, Southwood 1977, Martin 1998). However, studies have often identified apparent mismatches between observed habitat preferences and fitness outcomes across a wide variety of taxa (Valladares and Lawton 1991, Mayhew 1997, Kolbe and Janzen 2002, Arlt and Pärt 2007, Mägi et al. 2009). Certainly, one limitation of studies may be that assessment of “fitness” is typically constrained to fitness surrogates such as nest success rather than lifetime reproductive success or classic Fisherian fitness (Endler 1986). Nevertheless, important habitat choices such as nest sites influence the probability that temporarily sedentary, dependent young are discovered by enemies such as predators and parasites. We therefore expect, on average, to see congruence between evolved habitat preferences and relevant components of fitness (e.g., nest success). Here, we (1) review the prevalence of apparent mismatches between avian breeding-habitat preferences and fitness outcomes using nest-site selection as a focus; (2) describe several potential mechanisms for such mismatches, including anthropogenic, methodological, and ecological–evolutionary; and (3) suggest a framework for understanding the contexts in which habitat preferences represent adaptive decisions, with a primary focus on ecological information theory. We largely focus on habitat selection as a behavioral process at the scale of individuals (e.g., Robertson and Hutto 2006), rather than at the scale of population-level patterns (Fretwell and Lucas 1970, Morris 2003, Johnson 2007). However, these two scales cannot be wholly divorced from one another, as we will discuss.
Chalfoun, Anna D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.
Landscape fragmentation often increases contact between humans, wildlife, and potential disease vectors. We examined how adult host-seeking mosquitoes respond to small-scale habitat differences within southern Great Plains cross-timber habitat mosaics in northern Oklahoma consisting of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginianus L.) woodlands, mixed-deciduous woodlands, and adjacent grasslands. Mosquitoes responded most markedly to an overall grassland-woodland habitat gradient, with species separating by habitat based largely on tree density. Differences in abundance of host-seeking females occurred at fine spatial scales, sometimes varying dramatically over distances as little as 200 m when tree density changed abruptly. Tree type was not as important as tree density, although the West Nile virus vector Culex tarsalis Coquillett showed a greater affinity for areas containing eastern red cedar than for deciduous woodlands. The invasive Aedes albopictus Skuse showed equal affinity for both tree types. Conversion of grassland habitats in the Great Plains to more vegetated environments associated with humans (towns and homesteads) and the invasion of grasslands by eastern red cedar may change the species composition of mosquito, bird, and mammal assemblages and potentially alter arbovirus exposure for humans. PMID:24843927
O'Brien, Valerie A; Reiskind, Michael H
Human activities have been causing dramatic and unprecedented changes to the Earth's ecosystems, and are a primary factor associated with biological invasions. Disturbed and fragmented habitats allow some vector mosquitoes to thrive. The New Zealand landscape has been extensively modified since the arrival of humans, and there is accumulating evidence that the distribution of mosquitoes is being altered as a result of anthropogenic environmental changes. This study aimed to assess whether forest habitat size affected the community composition of mosquitoes, and whether the density of the introduced brushtail possum would benefit exotic mosquito species that feed primarily on mammal hosts. Extensive sampling of the mosquito community was carried out using dry ice-baited light traps, oviposition traps, and larval surveys. The results provided the first experimental evidence in New Zealand that changes in forest habitat size affect the indigenous and introduced mosquito fauna differently. The proportion of native species making up the mosquito community appears to be steadily reduced as native forest habitats become smaller. In contrast, the opposite pattern appears to occur for the introduced vector Aedes notoscriptus. Although there was a trend indicating that possums may have a negative impact on a native species (Culex pervigilans), the impact of these animals on the mosquito fauna remains unclear. The evidence suggests that the conservation of large pristine forest ecosystems in New Zealand could have human health implications. PMID:19444520
Derraik, José G B
Background & objectives: Malaria is the most important mosquito-borne disease in Iran. It is endemic in southto southeastern part of the country. Knowledge about bio-ecology of vectors will support authorities for appropriatemanagement of the disease. Bashagard district is one of the main endemic areas for malaria in south of Iran.This study was conducted to determine anopheline fauna, diversity and affinity in the area, characterization oflarval habitats, and mapping their potential distribu...
A A Hanafi-bojd, H. Vatandoost
A significant increase in the number of reported cases of La Crosse virus (LACV) infections in eastern Tennessee has occurred in the last ten years. The objective of this study was to determine the abundance and habitat preferences of the potential vectors of LACV in this region. Adult host-seeking mosquitoes were collected using CO(2)-baited CDC light traps and a series of human-landing catches in eastern Tennessee from 2004 to 2006. A total of 4,200 female mosquitoes of 23 species was collected by CO(2)-baited CDC trapping at ten sites during the study period. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was the most abundant mosquito collected at all sites and vegetation types, with the ratios of total Ae. albopictus to Ae. triseriatus (Say) females collected being 2.1:1 in 2004, 3.8:1 in 2005, and 4.9:1 in 2006. Ten species were collected during a series of human-landing catches made at four different sites; one probable and three confirmed case sites of LACV infections, totaling 528 female mosquitoes. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species collected, with a 4:1 ratio of Ae. albopictus to Ae. triseriatus females. Aedes albopictus exhibited two clear peaks of "landing" activity, one in the early morning and one in the late afternoon or early evening. Simple and multiple regression analyses of the predictors of the number of mosquitoes collected showed that populations of Ae. albopictus were three times more likely to be collected overall than Ae. triseriatus. Species (Ae. albopictus), vegetation (residential), and the previous cumulative precipitation for the four weeks prior to collection were significantly (P mosquitoes collected by CO(2)-baited CDC trapping. Aedes albopictus was also more likely to be collected than Ae. triseriatus at confirmed cases of LACV infections. PMID:20836807
Haddow, Andrew D; Gerhardt, Reid R; Jones, Carl J; Odoi, Agricola
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes commute between blood-meal hosts and water. Thus, heterogeneity in human biting reflects underlying spatial heterogeneity in the distribution and suitability of larval habitat as well as inherent differences in the attractiveness, suitability and distribution of blood-meal hosts. One of the possible strategies of malaria control is to identify local vector species and then attack water bodies that contain their larvae. Methods Biting and host seeking, not oviposition, have been the focus of most previous studies of mosquitoes and malaria transmission. This study presents a mathematical model that incorporates mosquito oviposition behaviour. Results The model demonstrates that oviposition is one potential factor explaining heterogeneous biting and vector distribution in a landscape with a heterogeneous distribution of larval habitat. Adult female mosquitoes tend to aggregate around places where they oviposit, thereby increasing the risk of malaria, regardless of the suitability of the habitat for larval development. Thus, a water body may be unsuitable for adult mosquito emergence, but simultaneously, be a source for human malaria. Conclusion Larval density may be a misleading indicator of a habitat's importance for malaria control. Even if mosquitoes could be lured to oviposit in sprayed larval habitats, this would not necessarily mitigate – and might aggravate – the risk of malaria transmission. Forcing mosquitoes to fly away from humans in search of larval habitat may be a more efficient way to reduce the risk of malaria than killing larvae. Thus, draining, fouling, or filling standing water where mosquitoes oviposit can be more effective than applying larvicide.
In 2004, gravid-trap infusions made from commercially available garden products were compared in field assays to determine their attractiveness to ovipositing female mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted simultaneously at a residential site and at an auto salvage yard in Lee County, AL, each site having an abundance of container-breeding mosquitoes. Several infusion types were initially screened, from which the following 4 infusions were selected to be compared using gravid traps for their attractiveness to mosquitoes under field conditions: oak leaves, pine straw, red (dyed) hardwood mulch, and composted manure. Culex quinquefasciatus was the only species collected in greater numbers with gravid traps than with light traps, and the difference was more than 5-fold at both study sites. Gravid traps collected (mean +/- SD) 3.1 +/- 4.3 and 6.9 +/- 11.5 Cx. quinquefasciatus females at the residential and auto salvage sites, respectively. The response of Cx. quinquefasciatus females to infusions tested was variable, and no single infusion was consistently more attractive throughout the experiment. Gravid traps collected 1.7 +/- 1.9 and 4.7 +/- 4.4 Aedes albopictus females, 0.3 +/- 1.4 and 0.5 +/- 1.3 Cx. nigripalpus females, and 0.3 +/- 0.9 and 0.2 +/- 0.8 Cx. restuans females at the residential and auto salvage sites, respectively. Roughly 5-, 20- and 10-fold the numbers of females of Aedes albopictus, Cx. nigripalpus, and Cx. restuans were collected by light traps than by gravid traps at both sites. Aedes albopictus females did not demonstrate a preference for any of the infusions tested. Significant difference among infusions for Cx. restuans and Cx. nigripalpus were detected on just 1 trap-night. On this occasion, traps with red (dyed) hardwood mulch collected significantly more females of Cx. restuans and Cx. nigripalpus than did traps with other infusions. This work indicates that gravid traps are effective tools for collecting Cx. quinquefasciatus females, and a wide variety of organic materials may be used to produce infusions that can be used to attract ovipositing container-breeding mosquitoes. PMID:18666531
Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Mullen, Gary R
Dengue disease has been known as one of widely transmitted vector-borne diseases which potentially affects millions of people throughout the world especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries. One of the main factors contributing in the complication of the transmission process is the mobility of people in which people may get infection in the places far from their home. Here we construct a delay differential equation model for dengue transmission in a closed population where regular visits of people to a mosquito breeding site out of their residency such as traditional market take place daily. Basic reproductive ratio of the system is obtained and depends on the ratio between the outgoing rates of susceptible human and infective human. It is shown that the increase of mobility with different variation of mobility rates may contribute to different level of basic reproductive ratio as well as different level of outbreaks.
Yaacob, Y.; Yeak, S. H.; Lim, R. S.; Soewono, E.
Full Text Available Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. [...] Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%), Aedes albopictus (0.03%), and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8%) were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex.
Suzane Alves dos, Santos; Rosângela Maria Rodrigues, Barbosa.
Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%), Aedes albopictus (0.03%), and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8%) were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex. PMID:25626658
Santos, Suzane Alves Dos; Barbosa, Rosângela Maria Rodrigues
Outbreaks, epidemics and endemic conditions make dengue a disease that has emerged as a major threat in tropical and sub-tropical countries over the past 30 years. Dengue fever creates a growing burden for public health systems and has the potential to affect over 40% of the world population. The problem being investigated is to identify the highest and lowest areas of dengue risk. This paper presents "Similarity Search", a geospatial analysis aimed at identifying these locations within Kenya. Similarity Search develops a risk map by combining environmental susceptibility analysis and geographical information systems, and then compares areas with dengue prevalence to all other locations. Kenya has had outbreaks of dengue during the past 3 years, and we identified areas with the highest susceptibility to dengue infection using bioclimatic variables, elevation and mosquito habitat as input to the model. Comparison of the modelled risk map with the reported dengue epidemic cases obtained from the open source reporting ProMED and Government news reports from 1982-2013 confirmed the high-risk locations that were used as the Similarity Search presence cells. Developing the risk model based upon the bioclimatic variables, elevation and mosquito habitat increased the efficiency and effectiveness of the dengue fever risk mapping process. PMID:25545930
Attaway, David F; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Falconer, Allan; Manca, Germana; Rosenshein Bennett, Lauren; Waters, Nigel M
apsule Taller and sheltered cliffs located in rugged areas are selected for breeding and only some life history traits fit the predictions of the so?called ‘insular’ syndrome. Aims To analyse the density and nesting habitat preferences of Buzzards on the island of Tenerife, and describe the life history traits of this population. Methods Density was studied by intensive field searching for all established pairs in a well?defined area. Habitat features of breeding territories w...
Rodri?guez, Beneharo; Siverio, Felipe; Rodri?guez, Airam; Siverio, Manuel; Herna?ndez, Jose? J.; Figuerola, Jordi
Abstract Background Since its first detection in 2001, West Nile Virus (WNV) poses a significant health risk for residents of Shelby County in Tennessee. This situation forced public health officials to adopt efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. Analyses that use environmental variables to find suitable habitats for WNV-infected mosquitoes have the potential to support these efforts. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, we identified areas of S...
Bialkowska-Jelinska Elzbieta; Ozdenerol Esra; Taff Gregory N
Efficacy of a mermithid nematode Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in controlling tree hole-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rubber plantation area of Kerala, India.
In rubber plantations, tree holes are one of the major types of breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes which transmit dengue and chikungunya. A mermithid nematode, Romanomermis iyengari, was evaluated in tree holes for its efficacy in controlling Aedes albopictus. Infection of mosquito larvae by the nematode was determined through microscopic examination on the next day of application, and evaluation of immature density of mosquito was done on the seventh day. After application of the infective stage of the nematode in a host-parasite ratio of 1:3 or 1:4, the infection rates on the different larval instars of mosquito were similar, 85.7-95.8 % in first to third instars and 79.3 % in fourth instar larvae or 100 and 92.9 %, respectively. Parasite burden varied from 1.1 to 2.4, respectively, among first and third instar larvae applied at 1:3. At 1:4, the parasite burden was between 1.6 (fourth instar) and 4 (second instar). The increase in parasite burden due to parasite density was significant in all the larval instars (P?nematode-applied tree holes, there was a significant level (P?infecting the mosquito and controlling pupal emergence. PMID:23306387
Paily, K P; Chandhiran, K; Vanamail, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Jambulingam, P
Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la Unidad Provincial de Vigilancia y Lucha Antivectorial de la provincia de Villa Clara, en el período comprendido entre el primero de julio al primero de noviembre del 2005. Para el mismo se representaron gráficamente los 304 criaderos permanentes y 218 temporales de culícidos; distribuidos en los 13 municipios de dicha provincia. Se tomaron muestras de cuerpos de agua (28 criaderos existentes en los 13 municipios de la provincia para detectar la Densidad Larvaria según la metodología del cucharón. Se determinaron las principales especies de culícidos que habitan en la provincia y se compararon dos métodos (Temephos al 2% y peces de control para estos vectores, determinándose el costo – riesgo del Temephos al 2%, el Bacillus thurigiensis y los peces como métodos de control de mosquitos mediante una ponderización. Los datos primarios se procesaron en el sistema computarizado Excel del paquete Office XP y para el procesamiento estadístico de la efectividad de cada tratamiento se empleó la prueba de comparación de proporciones del paquete Statgraphics plus 4.1, ambos sistemas sustentados en WindowsÒ. Los resultados muestran que las especies de mosquitos más difundidas en la provincia son: el Anopheles albimanus, el Aedes mediovitatus, el Aedes scapularis, el Aedes confinis, el Culex quinquefasciatus, el Culex nigripalpus y el Culex corniger; además, los resultados demuestran la superioridad del control con peces sobre el control con Temephos ya que es más eficiente (99% versus 87% para p < 0.01 en el control de culícidos. La vigilancia con peces (no gastos en divisas y $ 1 035.08 MN es más económica que el Temephos (847 500 CUC y $ 12 490.96 MN y que el Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc y $ 8 280.64 MN. Se concluye que los peces constituyen un efectivo control para las poblaciones de culícidos, recomendando el uso de los mismos por todos los beneficios que estos representan This work was developed in the Provincial Unit of Vigilance and Vectors Against fight in Villa Clara province, between the first July to first November 2005. For the same was graphically represented the 304 permanent and 218 temporal breeding ground of mosquitoes; distributed in the 13 municipalities of this province. Were taken shows of water body (28 breeding ground existence in the 13 municipalities of the province that to detect the Density of Larva according the methodology of ladle. Were determined the species main of mosquitoes that habitat in the province and were compared two methods (Temephos 2% and fish of control for this vectors, determining the cost – risk of Temephos 2%, the Bacillus thurigiensis and fish as mosquitoes control thorough a consideration. Were primary dates process in the computerized system Excel of packet Office XP and that statistic process of effectively of each treatment was use the test of proportions comparison of packet Statgraphics plus 4.1, both systems sustained in WindowsÒ. The results showing that the mosquitoes species more disseminated in the province are: Anopheles albimanus, Aedes mediovitatus, Aedes scapularis, Aedes confinis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex nigripalpus and Culex corniger; besides, the results demonstrating the superiority of control with fish on the Temephos control, already that is more efficient (99% versus 87% that p < 0.01 in the mosquitoes control. The fish control (no spending in CUC and $ 1 035.08 MN is more economic than Temephos (847 500 CUC and $ 12 490.96 MN and than Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc and $ 8 280.64 MN. Was conclude that the fish constitute a control effective that the mosquitoes people, recommended the use of fish for all benefice that this represent.
Janhad L. Rodríguez Mendieta
Our aim was to investigate the oviposition and larval habitats of the saltwater mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mangrove forest system in subtropical Queensland, Australia. Eggshells (indicators of oviposition) and larvae were sampled in three habitat classes that were depicted in a schematic model. Two classes were in depressions or basins, either with hummocks or dense pneumatophore substrates, both of which retained water after tidal flooding. The third class was i...
Knight, Jon; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat; Phinn, Stuart
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that are most frequently disposed off contributed largely to the sustenance of Aedes mosquito population in the city. This calls for a strict legislation towards disposal as well as enhanced management of the household wastes. A link between the wastes disposed and subsequent conversion to the mosquito larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population and possibility of dengue epidemics if the existing management practices are not improved.
Banerjee, Soumyajit, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Aditya, Gautam, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104 (India); Saha, Goutam K, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India)
Highlights: ? An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. ? Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. ? Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. ? Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the gnificant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that are most frequently disposed off contributed largely to the sustenance of Aedes mosquito population in the city. This calls for a strict legislation towards disposal as well as enhanced management of the household wastes. A link between the wastes disposed and subsequent conversion to the mosquito larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population and possibility of dengue epidemics if the existing management practices are not improved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its first detection in 2001, West Nile Virus (WNV poses a significant health risk for residents of Shelby County in Tennessee. This situation forced public health officials to adopt efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. Analyses that use environmental variables to find suitable habitats for WNV-infected mosquitoes have the potential to support these efforts. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, we identified areas of Shelby County that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV, based on similarity of environmental characteristics to areas where WNV was found. The environmental characteristics in this study were based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS data, such as elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, and precipitation. Results Our analyses produced maps of likely habitats of WNV-infected mosquitoes for each week of August 2004, revealing the areas that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV within the core of the Memphis urban area. By comparing neighbourhood social characteristics to the environmental factors that contribute to WNV infection, potential social drivers of WNV transmission were revealed in Shelby County. Results show that human population characteristics and housing conditions such as a high percentage of black population, low income, high rental occupation, old structures, and vacant housing are associated with the focal area of WNV identified for each week of the study period. Conclusion We demonstrated that use of the Mahalanobis Distance statistic as a similarity index to assess environmental characteristics is a potential raster-based approach to identify areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining the virus. This approach was also useful to monitor changes over time for likely locations of infected mosquito habitats. This technique is very helpful for authorities when making decisions related to an integrated mosquito management plan and targeted health education outreach.
Efectividad y supervivencia de Romanomermis culicivorax en criaderos naturales de larvas de mosquitos / Effectiveness and survival of Romanomermis culicivorax in natural breeding sites of mosquito larvae
Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Díptera: Culicidae) son transmisores de agentes causales de paludismo, dengue y encefalitis del Nilo occidental y causan fuertes molestias a los humanos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto de aplicar 500 y 1000 nemátodos, Romanomermis culicivorax Ross y Smith, p [...] or metro cuadrado en poblaciones de larvas de Anopheles albimanus Wiedeman, Culex nigipalpus Theobald y Uranotaenia sapphirina Oster-Sacken, para su control en 13 criaderos naturales. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con arreglo factorial de dos factores (dos dosis de nemátodos y tres especies de mosquitos). La dosis de 500 nemátodos causó 74.3-87.8 % de parasitismo en larvas de las tres especies; la dosis de 1000 causó 77.2-96.9 % de parasitismo, con un incremento del parasitismo al aumentar la dosis de nemátodos (p Abstract in english Mosquitoes (Díptera: Culicidae) transmit causal agents of malaria, dengue and western Nile encephalitis, besides being extremely annoying for humans. The objective of this study was to determine the control effect of releasing 500 and 1000 Romanomermis culicivorax Ross and Smith nematodes per square [...] meter into larval populations of Anopheles albimanus Wiedeman, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, and Uranotenia sapphiriuna Oster-Sacken in 13 natural breeding sites. The experimental design was completely randomized with a factorial arrangement of two factors (two dosages of nematodes and three species of mosquitoes). The doses of 500 nematodes m-2 caused 74.3-87.8 % parasitism in larvae of the three species; the dose of 1000 nematodes m-2 caused 77.2-96.9 % parasitism; that is, parasitism was higher with the higher dose of nematodes (p
Rafael, Pérez-Pacheco; Alberto, Santamarina-Mijares; Alfonso, Vásquez-López; Sabino H., Martínez-Tomás; Javier, Suárez-Espinosa.
The Yellow River Delta, a stopover site, has become one of the breeding sites of oriental white storks (Ciconia boyciana) in China, with 28 breeding pairs. To gain insight into the characteristics of foraging habitat use during the breeding season, we surveyed the foraging habitats in 2009 and 2010. In 2009, using a quadrat sampling technique, we surveyed 74 quadrats in two breeding phases. Fourteen variables were analyzed with DCA. Oriental white storks mainly foraged in the reed swamp of recovered wetlands during the early breeding phase (70.29%), and in the reed swamp of unrecovered area during the late phase (32.74%), and in the open water of recovered wetlands (29.95%). The variation in proportional habitat use was not significant in the two breeding phases. Differences of the foraging sites in the two phases were extremely significant in terms of plant density, distance from nest, and distance from highway. In 2010, the storks also mainly used the reed wetlands for foraging (87.00%). The top three parameters on the first axis with the highest scores were distance from nest, plant height, plant coverage; on the second axis, the top three variables with the highest scores were plant density, number of other waterbird species, and water depth. These results showed that there are differences in the foraging habitat use of oriental white storks in the early and the late breeding phases. It is favorable for the breeding of oriental white storks to recover the reed wetland and to preserve a certain area of open water habitats. PMID:23829216
Zhou, Lizhi; Xue, Weiwei; Zhu, Shuyu; Shan, Kai; Chen, Junlin
The distribution and monthly abundance of mosquito larvae in released water, drainage canals and sewage water tanks in Ismailia governorate were investigated. The results obtained indicated the presence of five culicine (Culex. pipiens, Cx. pusillus, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. theleri and Ochlerotatus. caspius) and two anopheline (Anopheles. multicolor and An. pharoensis) mosquito species. Significantly higher larval density was recorded in sewage water (n= 5534; 46.08%) as compared with released water (n = 2903; 24.17%) and drainage water (n= 3573; 29.75%). Culex pipiens was the most dominant mosquito species in the three habitats. The effects of environmental parameters including pH, biological and chemical oxygen demands, day time water temperature, plant growth, salinity, total organic matter and concentrations of heavy metals on larval population density were investigated. The positive correlations observed between heavy metals concentrations in the three habitats suggested relative uniformity of the sources of metal pollutants. Culex pipiens larvae demonstrated high tolerance to elevated levels of heavy metals in sewage water and compensatory effects of high nutrient levels generally associated with sewage or domestic waste. High densities of culicine larvae were accompanied by low density of anopheline larvae. This was attributed to water chemistry & competitive interactions. PMID:24260817
Bahgat, Iman Mohamed
Density-dependent breeding performance due to habitat heterogeneity has been shown to regulate populations of territorial species, since the progressive occupation of low quality territories as breeding density increases may cause a decline in the mean per capita fecundity of a population while variation in fecundity increases. Although the preemptive use of sites may relegate low quality individuals to sites of progressively lower suitability, few studies on density dependence have tried to ...
Carrete, Martina; Sa?nchez-zapata, Jose? A.; Tella, Jose? Luis; Gil-sa?nchez, J. M.; Moleo?n, M.
Mortality of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks attributed to West Nile virus (WNV) prompted field studies on the bionomics of mosquitoes on a wildlife refuge in northern Montana. One component of these studies was to identify blood meal sources for Culex tarsalis, the primary vector of WNV in the region, and the potential bridge vectors Aedes vexans and Culiseta inornata. To accomplish this, 3 methods were evaluated to collect bloodfed mosquitoes: a gasoline powered aspirator, CO2-baited light traps, and fiber pots in shelterbelts consisting of stands of deciduous trees and shrubs and marshes along the lake edge. Fiber pots were also deployed in open fields of prairie grasses. Overall, fiber pots were the most efficient method for collecting engorged Cx. tarsalis and Cs. inornata, largely due to shorter sampling and processing times. Aedes vexans was not collected in fiber pots but was more abundant in aspiration samples than the other 2 species. The optimal location for collecting Cx. tarsalis was dependent on trapping method. Aspirations and fiber pot placements collected more Cx. tarsalis in shelterbelts, while CO2-baited light traps collected more Cx. tarsalis in the marsh habitat. Sixteen avian and 4 mammalian hosts were identified from bloodfed Cx. tarsalis with 46 blood meals derived from birds and 49 from mammals. Aedes vexans and Cs. inornata fed predominantly on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus), respectively. Humans were identified as hosts in 33% of engorged Cx. tarsalis, 4% of engorged Ae. vexans, and 18% of engorged Cs. inornata. PMID:23923324
Friesen, Kristina M; Johnson, Gregory D
Recently, in several areas of the Middle East, a sharp increase of cutaneous leishmaniasis was observed in suburbs of larger towns including Jerusalem. In some of these areas, poor housing conditions and unsuitable waste management was suspected to provide ideal conditions for sand fly breeding, but hard data on diurnal resting sites and breeding habitats of most sand fly species are scant. In this study, we chose 16 sites on both slopes and the bottom of a natural valley in the Judean Desert to conduct a survey of sand fly distribution with emergence traps. Altogether, 1,261 sand flies, 52%Phlebotomus syriacus, 22%P. sergenti, 14%P. papatasi and 12%P. tobbi were caught. About two thirds of the flies caught were resting, while the other third emerged from breeding sites. All four species showed clear preferences for resting and breeding sites, but generally, most sand flies were breeding in the more humid habitats, namely the bottom of the valley, the adjacent north facing slope, terraces on the north facing slope, and caves. The vegetation cover also appeared to be important for resting habitats; on the bottom of the valley more than six times as many sand flies were collected in areas covered by dense vegetation than in areas with low vegetation cover. P. sergenti seemed also to better tolerate the drier habitats, which might explain the abundance of this species in the arid Judean Desert. PMID:21366775
Müller, Günter C; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Rybalov, Leonid; Schlein, Yosef
Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.
Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.
Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.
Jennifer C. Rock
The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonom...
Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E.; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: The district of Thiruvananthapuram reports the maximum number of cases of dengue in the state of Kerala. To determine the larval diversity, density and breeding site preferences of Aedes mosquitoes, during pre-monsoon and monsoon periods in urban and rural areas of Thiruvananthapuram district. Methods: Based on the daily reports of dengue cases, 70 clusters were identified in Thiruvananthapuram district. A cross-sectional larval survey was done in the domestic and peri-domestic areas of 1750 houses, using the WHO standard techniques. The larval indices were calculated, and the larvae were identified by using taxonomic keys. Urban and rural differences and the variations during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons were also studied. Results: In the surveyed houses, 15% had mosquito breeding, with 88% having Aedes larvae. The house index, container index and the breteau index were 13.08, 13.28 and 16.57%, respectively. About 86% of the clusters were found positive for Aedes albopictus and 11% for Ae. aegypti. Aedes albopictus was distributed almost equally in rural and urban clusters, whereas the distribution of Ae. aegypti was significantly higher in urban areas (p = 0.03. The most common water holding containers found (outdoor were of plastic, followed by coconut shells. The breeding preference ratio was highest for tyres. Significantly lesser positivity was found for containers during monsoon period when compared to pre-monsoon period. Conclusion: The geographical distribution of Ae. albopictus is significantly high in peri-domestic areas and, therefore, its epidemiological role in the widespread disease occurrence needs to be studied. The discarded tyres being the most preferred breeding sites, where IEC activities will help in source reduction.
Monitoring, surveillance, and vector control of West Nile virus have received much attention and public resources in North America following the occurrence of human cases in 1999. With increased frequency of mosquito prevention and control programs, investigation of long-term ecological effects of larvicides used on wetland invertebrate communities is necessary. Before these effects can be examined, the variation among ponds and wetlands in features other than larviciding history needs to be examined. In a study on Bacillus thuringienisis israelensis (Bti), in the Township of East Gwillimbury and surrounding area, located in Southern Ontario, Canada, 18 wetlands were repeatedly sampled over a 5 month period. Physical habitat features, water chemistry (i.e. temperature, pH, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen), and metal and ion concentrations were measured and Principal Component Analysis was used to determine how ecosystem descriptors varied and covaried among ponds. Results showed sites with high sodium and chloride concentrations were positively correlated with both submerged and herbaceous plants in sandy environments and relatively high pHs. Based on these results, we predict weak effects of larvicide treatment on pond invertebrate communities relative to other natural and anthropogenic factors.
Marcus, M. A.; Bailey, R. C.
Full Text Available Understanding the temporal and spatial scale at which habitat alteration impacts populations is important for conservation and management. Amphibians have declined more than other vertebrates, and pond-breeding species are particularly susceptible to habitat loss and fragmentation because they have terrestrial and aquatic life stages. One approach to management of pond-breeding species is protection of core upland habitat surrounding the breeding pond. We used genetic variation as an indicator of population status in a common amphibian species, spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum, to determine how amount of suitable upland habitat relates to population status in the greater Charlotte, North Carolina, USA metropolitan area. We developed candidate models to evaluate the relative influence of historical and contemporary forested habitat availability on population genetic variation at two spatial scales of upland area (164 m and 2000 m at four time intervals over the past seven decades (1938, 1978, 1993, 2005. We found that historical land cover best predicted contemporary allelic richness. Inbreeding coefficient and observed heterozygosity were not effectively predicted by forest cover at either spatial or temporal scales. Allelic richness was best predicted at the smaller spatial scale in the 1993 time interval. Predicting and understanding how future landscape configuration affects genetic variation of common and rare species is imperative for the conservation of amphibian and other wildlife populations.
Jeremiah R. Alexander
Because population size is sensitive to changes in adult survival, adult survival may be buffered against environmental variability. Philopatry may be adaptive in changing environments, but it could also constrain breeding habitat selection under changing conditions such as shifting predation regimes. Habitat preference and quality could become decoupled in long-lived philopatric species that evolved in stable environments when suddenly faced by increased adult predation risk, as dispersal may be triggered by past reproductive failure. We evaluated whether the Baltic eider (Somateria m. mollissima) population may currently face a predation-induced ecological trap. Eiders are philopatric and nest on open and forested islands. We hypothesized that open-nesting females would be disproportionately affected by increased predation. We compared female annual survival in these two habitats in 1996-2010. We also tested for effects of time trends, winter severity (NAO), female body condition, and habitat-specific predation pressure on survival. Our results revealed the lowest survival recorded for this species (? = 0.720), and survival on open islands was significantly lower (? = 0.679) than on forested islands (? = 0.761). Nonetheless, only 0.7 % of females changed breeding habitat type despite ample availability of alternative islands, and breeding phenology in both habitats was similar. Female survival increased with body condition, while it was unrelated to winter climate and stable over time. Open islands had a higher predation pressure on incubating females. Breeding philopatry results in a predator-mediated ecological trap for open-nesting eiders. Our results contribute to explaining the drastic decline of the Baltic eider population. PMID:22700063
Ekroos, Johan; Öst, Markus; Karell, Patrik; Jaatinen, Kim; Kilpi, Mikael
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Used vehicle tires are a source of mosquito vectors and a means of their introduction and expansion. With the aim of assessing the effects of urbanisation on the main mosquito vectors in temperate Argentina, the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. were studied in used tires [...] from highly urbanised cities to low-urbanised small towns in Buenos Aires. Immatures of both species accounted for 96% of the 9,722 individuals collected; the total individuals collected represented seven species. The percentage of water-filled tires containing mosquitoes [container index (CI)] was 33% and the percentage of infested sites [site index (SI)] was 65.2%. These indexes decreased significantly from low to high urbanisation levels for both mosquito species. The relative abundance (RA) of Ae. aegypti immatures was slightly higher toward large cities, but showed no difference for Cx. pipiens. The CI of shaded tires was significantly higher than the CI of exposed tires for both mosquito species. There was no difference in RA values between shaded and sunlit tires. The CI and the SI were highest during the summer across the urbanisation levels, except for Cx. pipiens, which continued to increase during the autumn in small towns. Results related to urbanisation gradient, sunlit exposure and seasonality are discussed.
Alejandra, Rubio; María Victoria, Cardo; Darío, Vezzani.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study characterized Anopheles mosquito larval habitats in relation to ecological attributes about the habitat and community-level drainage potential, and investigated whether agricultural activities within or around urban households increased the probability of water body occurrence. Malindi, a city on the coast of Kenya, was mapped using global positioning system (GPS technology, and a geographic information system (GIS was used to overlay a measured grid, which served as a sampling frame. Grid cells were stratified according to the level of drainage in the area, and 50 cells were randomly selected for the study. Cross-sectional household and entomological surveys were conducted during November and December 2002 within the 50 grid cells. Chi-square analysis was used to test whether water bodies differed fundamentally between well and poorly drained areas, and multi-level logistic regression was used to test whether household-level agricultural activity increased the probability of water body occurrence in the grid cell. Results Interviews were conducted with one adult in 629 households. A total of 29 water bodies were identified within the sampled areas. This study found that characteristics of water bodies were fundamentally the same in well and poorly drained areas. This study also demonstrated that household-level urban agriculture was not associated with the occurrence of water bodies in the grid cell, after controlling for potential confounders associated with distance to the city center, drainage, access to resources, and population density. Conclusions Household-level urban agricultural activity may be less important than the other types of human perturbation in terms of mosquito larval habitat creation. The fact that many larvae were coming from few sites, and few sites in general were found under relatively dry conditions suggests that mosquito habitat reduction is a reasonable and attainable goal in Malindi.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: The number and productivity of larval habitats ultimately determine thedensity of adult mosquitoes. The biological and physicochemical conditions at the larval habitataffect larval development hence affecting the adult body size. The influence of biological and physicochemicalcharacteristics on the body size of Anopheles gambiae was assessed in Jaribuni village,Kilifi district along the Kenyan Coast.Methods: Ten cages measuring 1 × 1 × 1 m (1 m3 with a netting material were placed in 10 differentaquatic habitats, which were positive for anopheline mosquito larvae. Emergent mosquitoes werecollected daily by aspiration and the wing lengths were determined by microscopy. In the habitats,physicochemical parameters were assessed: pH, surface debris, algae and emergent plants, turbidity,substrate, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate and chlorophyll a content.Results: A total of 685 anopheline and culicine mosquitoes were collected from the emergent cages.Only female mosquitoes were considered in this study. Among the Anopheles spp, 202 were An.gambiae s.s., eight An. arabiensis, two An. funestus, whereas the Culex spp was composed of 214Cx. quinquefasciatus, 10 Cx. tigripes, eight Cx. annulioris and one Cx. cumminsii. The mean winglength of the female An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes was 3.02 mm (n = 157, while that of An. arabiensiswas 3.09 mm (n = 9. There were no associations between the wing lengths and the environmentaland chemical parameters, except for a positive correlation between wing length of An. gambiae andchlorophyll a content (r = 0.622. The day on which the mosquitoes emerged was not significant forthe anopheline (p = 0.324 or culicine mosquitoes (p = 0.374, because the mosquito emerged fromthe cages on a daily basis.Interpretation & conclusion: In conclusion, there was variability in production of emergent mosquitoesfrom different habitats, which means that there should be targeted control on these habitatsbased on productivity.
Joseph M. Mwangangi, Charles M. Mbogo, Ephantus J. Muturi, Joseph G. Nzovu, Ephantus W. Kabiru, John I. Githure, Robert J. Novak , John C. Beier
Mosquitoes are vectors of major diseases. Auto-dissemination recently proved very efficient to control Aedes species, using adult females contaminated with dissemination stations of juvenile hormone to treat breeding habitats, but cannot be used at large scales. Here we propose to combine it to the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to create a new control concept, named 'boosted SIT' that might enable the area-wide eradication of mosquitoes and many other vectors and insect pests. PMID:24746400
Bouyer, Jérémy; Lefrançois, Thierry
This study assessed the relationship among land use, riparian vegetation,and avian populations at two spatial scales. Our objective was to compare the vegetated habitat in riparian corridors with breeding bird guilds in eight Rhode Island subwatersheds along a range of increasing residential land use. Riparian habitats were characterized with fine-scale techniques (used field transects to measure riparian vegetation structure and plant species richness) at the reach spatial scale,and with coarse-scale landscape techniques (a Geographic Information System to document land-cover attributes) at the subwatershed scale. Bird surveys were conducted in the riparian zone,and the observed bird species were separated into guilds based on tolerance to human disturbance,habitat preference,foraging type, and diet preference. Bird guilds were correlated with riparian vegetation metrics,percent impervious surface,and percent residential land use,revealing patterns of breeding bird distribution. The number of intolerant species predominated below 12%residential development and 3% impervious surface,whereas tolerant species predominated above these levels.Habitat guilds of edge,forest, and wetland bird species correlated with riparian vegetation. This study showed that the application of avian guilds at both stream reach and subwatershed scales offers a comprehensive assessment of effects from disturbed habitat,but that the subwatershed scale is a more efficient method of evaluation for environmental management. PMID:16738815
Lussier, Suzanne M; Enser, Richard W; Dasilva, Sara N; Charpentier, Michael
We analyzed characteristics of wetland habitats used by breeding black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (M. perspicillata) in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada based on satellite telemetry data collected in the spring and summer. During 2002 and 2004, nine black scoters (four males, five females) were tracked to breeding areas in Quebec, Manitoba, and Northwest Territories. In addition, in 2001?04, seven surf scoters (three males, four females) were tracked to breeding areas in Labrador, Quebec, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Based on satellite telemetry data, locations of black and surf scoters in breeding areas were not significantly different in regard to latitude and longitude. Presumed breeding areas were manually plotted on topographic maps and percent cover type and water were estimated. Breeding habitat of black scoters was significantly different than that for surf scoters, with black scoters mainly using open (tundra) areas (44%) and surf scoters using mainly forest areas (66%). Surf scoters presumed breeding areas were at significantly higher elevations than areas used by black scoters. Some breeding areas were associated with islands, but the role of islands for breeding areas is equivocal. These results aid in the identification of potentially critical breeding areas and provide a baseline classification of breeding habitats used by these two species.
Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.; Altmann, S.H.
This study elucidated the relationships between larval habitat soil-substrate Organic Matter Content (OMC) and immature development of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae S.L. Day-old larvae of the mosquito were reared in media substrated with typical soil samples (i.e., sandy, silt, clayey and loamy soils), from established anopheline breeding sites, to provide a gradient in soil-substrate OMC. The OMC of the soil samples were determined by ignition to a constant weight; while the developing A. gambiae mosquitoes in the culture media were monitored daily for survivorship and duration of immature life stages. The results indicated significant (p soil types (range = 11.21 +/- 2.91% in sandy to 29.83 +/- 2.96% in loamy soils). However, though Daily Larval Survival Rates (DLSR) were relatively high (range = 95.21 +/- 2.96 to 96.70 +/- 1.44%), as influenced by OMC, such values were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the soil-substrate types; results contrary to those of Larval Success Rates (LSR) (i.e., range = 52.07 +/- 13.64 to 74.39 +/- 6.60%). Daily Pupation Rate (DPR) of the mosquitoes varied significantly among the soil-substrates, ranging from 13.87 +/- 2.39% in clayey to 25.00 +/- 4.30% in loamy substrates. Soil-substrate OMC significantly extended the Duration of Immature Life Stages (DILS) of the mosquitoes only in the sandy soil type (range = 12.76 +/- 1.74 to 15.81 +/- 2.40 days). On the whole, DILS was inversely related to soil-substrate OMC. Cross-correlational analysis revealed significant positive association among most of the variables tested. The findings of this study should serve as baseline information for the development of effective environmental management strategies for malaria larval-vector control. PMID:24171275
Olayemi, I K; Ojo, V O
Climate warming is affecting the Arctic in multiple ways, including via increased dominance of deciduous shrubs. Although many studies have focused on how this vegetation shift is altering nutrient cycling and energy balance, few have explicitly considered effects on tundra fauna, such as the millions of migratory songbirds that breed in northern regions every year. To understand how increasing deciduous shrub dominance may alter breeding songbird habitat, we quantified vegetation and arthropod community characteristics in both graminoid and shrub dominated tundra. We combined measurements of preferred nest site characteristics for Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) and Gambel's White-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) with modeled predictions for the distribution of plant community types in the Alaskan arctic foothills region for the year 2050. Lapland longspur nests were found in sedge-dominated tussock tundra where shrub height does not exceed 20 cm, whereas White-crowned sparrows nested only under shrubs between 20 cm and 1 m in height, with no preference for shrub species. Shrub canopies had higher canopy-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. small flies and spiders) but lower ground-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. large spiders and beetles). Since flies are the birds' preferred prey, increasing shrubs may result in a net enhancement in preferred prey availability. Acknowledging the coarse resolution of existing tundra vegetation models, we predict that by 2050 there will be a northward shift in current White-crowned sparrow habitat range and a 20-60% increase in their preferred habitat extent, while Lapland longspur habitat extent will be equivalently reduced. Our findings can be used to make first approximations of future habitat change for species with similar nesting requirements. However, we contend that as exemplified by this study's findings, existing tundra modeling tools cannot yet simulate the fine-scale habitat characteristics that are critical to accurately predicting future habitat extent for many wildlife species. PMID:25294359
Boelman, Natalie T; Gough, Laura; Wingfield, John; Goetz, Scott; Asmus, Ashley; Chmura, Helen E; Krause, Jesse S; Perez, Jonathan H; Sweet, Shannan K; Guay, Kevin C
Laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the role of larval habitat-derived microorganisms in the production of semiochemicals for oviposition site selection by Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto mosquitoes. Dual-choice bioassays with gravid females were conducted in standard mosquito cages. Field-collected or laboratory-reared mosquitoes, individually or in groups, were offered a choice between unmodified (water or soil from a natural breeding site) or modified substrates (filte...
Sumba, L. A.; Guda, T. O.; Deng, A. L.; Hassanali, A.; Beier, J. C.; Knols, B. G. J.
Sand flies belonging to the genus Sergentomyia Franca & Parrot, 1920, are hematophagous insects feeding mostly on reptiles and birds, but some species feed also on mammals including humans. Sergentomyia spp. frequently comprise the vast majority of sand flies trapped along with Phlebotomus spp., the vectors of mammalian leishmaniasis. Within the framework of a project on the ecology and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia, putative breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies were studied. Large horizontal sticky traps (LHSTs) covered with sand fly-proof mesh were deployed over cracked vertisol and related habitats for up to 3 nights, and emerging sand flies were collected daily. Emergence traps (ETs) were also adapted to sample other putative breeding sites including tree trunks, termite mounds, rock piles and vertical river banks. Productive breeding sites were identified in the trunks and roots systems of trees, vertisol fields, cracks and burrows in vertisol dry river banks and termite mounds. Emerging flies were also collected form a stone wall and a rock pile situated inside a village. Significantly more Sergentomyia spp. were trapped in vertisols by ETs deployed over root system than in open fields. Similarly, more sand flies emerged from cracks in the vertisol in fallow Sorghum than in fallow sesame fields. Productive breeding sites were characterized by stable micro-climatic conditions. Species composition of emerging sand flies varied with habitat, season and geographical location. PMID:24841132
Moncaz, Aviad; Kirstein, Oscar; Gebresellassie, Araya; Lemma, Wossenseged; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha; Belay, Shewaye; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon
Freshwater ecosystems are positioned at low levels in the landscape and receive large inputs of diverse plant-based detritus, a major source of energy for consumers in aquatic ecosystems. We conducted field experiments in Urbana, IL to determine the independent and combined effects of leaves of common tree species including the northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), and common hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.) on the performance of container-dwelling mosquitoes, especially Culex restuans Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae). We tested the hypothesis that leaf species have asymmetric effects on adult mosquito production and longevity. Hackberry followed by combined leaf treatments and maple produced the greatest number of pupae, whereas oak leaves produced the fewest. Leaf treatments had no significant effects on adult female sizes but female longevity was significantly lower in oak leaf treatments compared with the other leaf treatments. These findings support the hypothesis that leaf species identity influences the performance of container-dwelling mosquitoes with potential consequences for the transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:23068161
Muturi, Ephantus J; Allan, Brian F; Ricci, James
Despite numerous studies on breeding dispersal, it is still unclear how habitat heterogeneity and previous nesting success interact to determine nest-site fidelity at various spatial scales. In this context, we investigated factors affecting breeding dispersal in greater snow geese (Anser caerulescens atlanticus), an Arctic breeding species nesting in two contrasting habitats (wetlands and mesic tundra) with variable pattern of snowmelt at the time of settlement in spring. From 1994 to 2005, we monitored the nesting success and breeding dispersal of individually marked females. We found that snow geese showed a moderate amount of nest-site fidelity and considerable individual variability in dispersal distance over consecutive nesting attempts. This variability can be partly accounted for by the annual timing of snowmelt. Despite this environmental constraint, habitat differences at the colony level consistently affected nesting success and settlement patterns. Females nesting in wetlands had higher nesting success than those nesting in mesic tundra. Moreover, geese responded adaptively to spatial heterogeneity by showing fidelity to their nesting habitat, independently of snowmelt pattern. From year to year, geese were more likely to move from mesic to high-quality wetland habitat, regardless of previous nesting success and without cost on their subsequent nesting performance. The unpredictability of snowmelt and the low cost of changing site apparently favour breeding-site dispersal although habitat quality promotes fidelity at the scale of habitat patches. PMID:17938972
Lecomte, Nicolas; Gauthier, Gilles; Giroux, Jean-François
Changes in habitat suitable for breeding of two sympatric raptor species (Haliaeetus albicilla and Aquila pomarina) were analysed along one of the most important breeding sites in Croatia for both species. The habitat suitability modelling was used to assess the influence of forestry practice during 2000-2006 using the known data on nesting places along research area. The four most important variables for lesser spotted eagle were elevation, distance from the nearest pasture, vertical distance to the nearest channel network and broadleaved forest placement (second axis from the principal component analysis of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) index of MODIS images; November-March). The variables where white-tailed eagles showed greatest shift from overall habitat characteristics in the research area were broadleaved forest (second axis from the principal component analysis of the EVI index), height above the sea level, distance from the small settlements, vertical distance to channel network - all with negative loadings. The results clearly reveal the disproportion of suitable forests for raptors that were cut down in comparison to maturation of suitable forests. PMID:21800060
Radovi?, Andreja; Jelaska, Sven D
For migratory songbirds nesting in northern temperate forests, a short breeding season demands that males rapidly establish territories. Because critical insect and vegetation resources are unavailable during spring arrival, we suggest that conspecifics serve as settlement cues for males new to a local population. To test conspecific attraction, we conducted playback experiments with American redstarts Setophaga ruticilla. Experimental results demonstrate that song playbacks strongly attract conspecifics, recruiting an average of 4.2 additional males per plot; adult males new to our sites increased, while yearling males failed to respond. Yearlings arrived 6 to 10 days later than adults, raising the possibility that yearlings responded to songs of early arriving adults rather than to playbacks. Our work indicates that conspecific attraction is an important mechanism for breeding habitat selection in an established population of a migratory forest songbird, but the effect is moderated by age, reproductive experience and arrival timing. PMID:17148397
Hahn, Beth A; Silverman, Emily D
We studied density, habitat selection and reproduction of Barbary Falcons Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides on Tenerife Island during 2004 and 2005. A total of 26 breeding pairs were counted, all of them occupying natural cliffs around the island. Density observed was 1.27 pairs/100 km2, and was positively correlated with cliff availability. Mean distance between neighbouring pairs was 5869 ± 3338 m, ranging from 1388-13 610 m; in some areas this value was as low as 2062 ± 673 m. Tenerife stil...
Rodri?guez, Beneharo; Siverio, Manuel; Rodri?guez, Airam; Siverio, Felipe
A trail census was conducted of the breeding birds found in three major habitats in the Field Irradiator Gamma area at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba. The area sampled was about 10.50 ha in size, and included 4.25 ha of upland forest, 4.75 ha of lowland conifers, and 1.50 ha of black spruce-tamarack bog. Forty-four species of birds were identified, of which 24 were considered to be resident in the study area. The highest population density was observed in the bog, followed by upland forest and lowland conifer respectively. In contrast, species diversity was greatest in the upland forest, while it decreased markedly in the relatively monotypic lowland conifer and bog habitats. (author)
Full Text Available A yearlong (Jul-10 to June-11 intensive survey was conducted to document the diversity and density of different mosquito species, breeding habitats and their status at different park in Dhaka city. A total of 11 species of mosquito were identified from the six study areas. The recorded species were An. annularis, An. culicifacies, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Mn. annulifera, Mn. uniformis, Tx. splendidus. Aedes albopictus (38.18% and Ar. subalbatus (37.47% were the predominant mosquito species followed by Cx. quinquefasciatus. Others species were found in moderate percentage. Lowest density of Cx. fuscocephala (0.6% was recorded among the collected mosquito species from the different study area. The highest percentages of mosquito were found in Botanical garden (28.68% followed by Ramna park, Zia uddyan, Baldha garden, Suhrawardy uddyan, and Osmani uddyan (6.67%. Fifteen different larval habitats were found in the study areas. Majority of the mosquito species was found to breed in pond. High density of Ae. albopictus mosquito were found in all study areas, which is the secondary vector of dengue viruses. Principal dengue vector mosquito, Ae. aegypti were found only in Baldha garden. Ar. subalbatus was also a dominant mosquito species in the entire site.
The breeding of larvae of Aedes aegypti, Aedes simpsoni, and Eretmapodites quinquevittatus in empty shells of Achatina fulica was studied in the coastal zone of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The average density of shells was estimated to be 228 per ha. From 11 to 35% were positive for mosquito larvae. A. aegypti were found in 82-84% of positive shells; A. simpsoni in 8-13%. On Msasani peninsula, during the 3-month rainy season April-June 1970, the larval density of A. aegypti in shells was estimated at 1 100 per ha, that of A. simpsoni and E. quinquevittatus being estimated at 60 and 280 larvae per ha, respectively.Empty shells of A. fulica may contain up to 250 ml of water (average: 56.5 ml). The number of larvae per shell varies from 1 to 35 (average: 8.4) and it was estimated that, depending on the availability of food, and other factors, approximately 10 ml of water are required per larva. Viable eggs of A. aegypti were still to be found in 4% of the shells at the end of the dry season. PMID:4148745
Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and s...
Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.
We studied the aquatic mosquito habitats in and around enzootic foci of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEE) in western Venezuela. Specimens were sampled for 5 mo in three types of vegetation: tall lowland tropical forests, short inundated/secondary growth forests, and pastures/herbaceous vegetation around forests. Ground pools, flooded pastures, swamps, ponds, and canals predominated. We used a multivariate statistical approach to quantitatively assess the relationships of mosquito species with broad categories of the landscape, and with environmental variables within each aquatic habitat. Twenty-four mosquito species in the genera Aedes, Psorophora, Culex, Mansonia, and Uranotaenia were collected. Species richness was higher in the tall forests than in other types of vegetation. Discriminant Function Analysis showed a strong association between landscape category and mosquito species assemblage and identified Culex erraticus Dyar & Knab and Mansonia titillans Walker as indicator species of open areas, and Aedes serratus Theobald as an indicator of tall forests. M. titillans, Uranotaenia geometrica Theobald, Cx. erraticus, and Culex dunni Dyar were associated with unshaded, warm, vegetated waters in flooded pastures and swamps, whereas Ae. serratus, Aedes fulvus (Wiedemann), Psorophora albipes Theobald, Psorophora ferox (Humboldt), Culex caudelli Dyar & Knab, and Culex pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin were associated with small, shaded ground pools within the tall forests. Culex coronator Dyar & Knab was associated with partially exposed sites within short forests. These results allowed us to interpret better our previous studies on mosquito adult spread in the study area and their possible role as VEEV disseminators. PMID:15962775
Alfonzo, Dayaleth; Grillet, Maria E; Liria, Jonathan; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C; Barrera, Roberto
Abstract Background Topographic parameters such as elevation, slope, aspect, and ruggedness play an important role in malaria transmission in the highland areas. They affect biological systems, such as larval habitats presence and productivity for malaria mosquitoes. This study investigated whether the distribution of local spatial malaria vectors and risk of infection with malaria parasites in the highlands is related to topography. Methods Four villages each measuring 9 Km2 lying between 14...
Atieli Harrysone E; Zhou Guofa; Lee Ming-Chieh; Kweka Eliningaya J; Afrane Yaw; Mwanzo Isaac; Githeko Andrew K; Yan Guiyun
Full Text Available The diet of non-breeding White Storks was studied by pellet analysis and included mainly insects (99.9%, n=28947 with a predominance of grasshoppers (Orthoptera, 76.1%, and beetles (Coleoptera, 26.1%. The bush crickets Decticus albifrons/verrucivorus were the most numerous prey (29.9% by items, occurring in almost all pellets (98% occurrence in pellets, n=147 and predominating in half of them (49.7%. The grasshopper associations in the pellets specify foraging mainly in mesophytic grasslands that usually replace abandoned fields and overgrown pastures with a low level of grazing. The xerophytic grass-shrubby habitats, not rare on stony terrains, were of less importance, providing around 20% by prey. The typical aquatic inhabitants and the use of carrion around villages were exceptions in the study diet. The number of innutritious materials in the pellets rose when the White Storks hunted on nippy and agile grasshoppers and decreased when the main pray was slower beetles taken from the ground. The roosting of non-breeding White Storks disappeared when their preferred feeding habitats were ploughed up in the following years.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation data (DEM were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight against malaria in Zambia and other regions with seasonal transmission. This work shows that, in areas of seasonal malaria transmission, incorporating terrain-based landscape models to the planning stages of vector control allows for the exclusion of significant portions of landscape that would be unsuitable for water to accumulate and for mosquito larvae occupation. With increasing free availability of satellite imagery such as SRTM and LandSat, the development of satellite imagery-based prediction models is becoming more accessible to vector management coordinators.
Full Text Available A common assumption about malaria, dengue, and other mosquito-borne infections is that the two main components of the risk of human infection-the rate at which people are bitten (human biting rate and the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious-are positively correlated. In fact, these two risk factors are generated by different processes and may be negatively correlated across space and time in heterogeneous environments. Uneven distribution of blood-meal hosts and larval habitat creates a spatial mosaic of demograPhic sources and sinks. Moreover, mosquito populations fluctuate temporally, forced by environmental variables such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity. These sources of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of mosquito populations generate variability in the human biting rate, in the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious, and in the risk of human infection. To understand how heterogeneity affects the epidemiology of mosquito-borne infections, we developed a set of simple models that incorporate heterogeneity in a stepwise fashion. These models predict that the human biting rate is highest shortly after the mosquito densities peak, near breeding sites where adult mosquitoes emerge, and around the edges of areas where humans are aggregated. In contrast, the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious reflects the age structure of mosquito populations; it peaks where old mosquitoes are found, far from mosquito breeding habitat, and when mosquito population density is declining. Finally, we show that estimates for the average risk of infection that are based on the average entomological inoculation rate are strongly biased in heterogeneous environments.
Smith David L
Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)
Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)
We modeled surface wetness at high resolution, using a dynamic hydrology model, to predict flood and swamp water mosquito abundances. Historical meteorologic data, as well as topographic, soil, and vegetation data, were used to model surface wetness and identify potential fresh and swamp water breeding habitats in two northern New Jersey watersheds. Surface wetness was positively associated with the subsequent abundance of the dominant floodwater mosquito species, Aedes vexans, and the swamp ...
Shaman, Jeffrey; Stieglitz, Marc; Stark, Colin; Le Blancq, Sylvie; Cane, Mark
Full Text Available Land managers often respond to declining numbers of target species by creating additional areas of habitat. If these habitats are also subject to human disturbance, then their efforts may be wasted. The European Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus is a ground-nesting bird that is listed as a species of European Conservation Concern. It appears to be susceptible to human disturbance during the breeding season. We examined habitat use and reproductive success over 10 years in a breeding population on 1335 ha of managed land in Nottinghamshire, England. The study site was divided into a heavily disturbed section and a less disturbed section of equal habitat availability, forming a natural long-term experiment. The site is open to the public, and visitor numbers approximately doubled during the study. We found that overall Nightjar density was significantly lower and there were significantly fewer breeding pairs in the heavily disturbed habitat compared with the less disturbed habitat. However, average breeding success per pair, in terms of eggs and fledglings produced, was not significantly different between the two sections across years. Our findings suggest that human recreational disturbance may drastically alter settlement patterns and nest site selection of arriving females in some migratory ground-nesting species and may reduce the utility of apparently suitable patches of remnant and created habitat. Land managers should bear this in mind when creating new areas of habitat that will also be accessible to the public. Our study also highlights the value of long-term population monitoring, which can detect trends that short-term studies may miss.
We studied the diversity of Aedes breeding sites in various urban, suburban, and rural areas over time between February 2009 and February 2010 in the dengue endemic areas of Penang Island, Malaysia. We categorized the breeding sites and efficiency, and identified the key breeding containers. Among the 3 areas, the rural areas produced the highest container index (55), followed by suburban (42) and urban (32) areas. The numbers of key premises and containers were significantly higher (P < 0.000) in rural areas. The class 1 containers were identified as the key containers with higher productivity and efficiency, although class 2 and class 4 are the highest in numbers. Aedes aegypti immatures were found mostly in drums, water reservoirs, and polyethylene sheets, while mixed breeding was more common in buckets and empty paint cans in urban and suburban areas. Aedes albopictus was found mainly in miscellaneous containers such as drums, empty paint cans, and covers in all areas. The main potential containers indoors were drums, water reservoirs, and empty paint cans, and containers outdoors included empty paint cans, drums, and polyethylene sheets. PMID:23687853
Saifur, Rahman G M; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Dieng, Hamady; Salmah, Md Rawi Che; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Satho, Tomomitsu
Full Text Available The mosquito nuisance and the mosquito borne diseases have become major important challenging public health problems in India especially in the fast developing city like Pondicherry urban agglomeration. The Pondicherry government has been implemented full-fledged mosquito control measures, however, dengue and chikungunya epidemics was accelerating trend in Pondicherry for the recent years, and therefore, the directorate of public health, Pondicherry was requested vector control research centre (VCRC, to conduct a mosquito control evaluation survey. A team of field staff of VCRC headed by the author, Pondicherry, have conducted a detailed reconnaissance survey for collecting the site specifications of houses and the streetwise mosquito data for analyzing the density of vector mosquitoes in the wards / blocks and delineating the areas vulnerable to disease epidemics in the urban areas. The GPS GARMIN 12 XL was used to collect the field data. The ARC GIS 10.0 software was used to map the site locations (houses with mosquito’s data. The digital map of block boundary of Pondicherry was used for mapping purpose. A systematic grid sampling was applied to conduct a rapid survey for mapping Aedes species mosquito genic condition in the urban areas and the coordinates of sites of house information with breeding habitats positive in the grid sectors was collected using GPS, and the mean value of positive habitats was analyzed by quintiles method for mapping. The four blocks were selected for Aedes mosquito survey where the mosquito problem was identified as comparatively high, four numbers of wards were selected from each block, and the 40 number of houses was selected with 100 meter interval distance for mosquito breeding survey in the domestic and peripheral domestic areas in each wards. The problematic areas were identified, highlighted and recommended for web mapping GIS for Aedes mosquito surveillance continuously for monitoring the mosquito control measures in the Pondicherry urban areas and the other parts of the urban areas in the country.
Phlebotomine sand flies transmit Leishmania, phlebo-viruses and Bartonella to humans. A prominent gap in our knowledge of sand fly biology remains the ecology of their immature stages. Sand flies, unlike mosquitoes do not breed in water and only small numbers of larvae have been recovered from diverse habitats that provide stable temperatures, high humidity and decaying organic matter. We describe studies designed to identify and characterize sand fly breeding habitats in a Judean Desert focu...
Moncaz, Aviad; Faiman, Roy; Kirstein, Oscar; Warburg, Alon
Climate change can influence the transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) through altering the habitat suitability of insect vectors. Here we present global climate model simulations and evaluate the associated uncertainties in view of the main meteorological factors that may affect the distribution of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), which can transmit pathogens that cause chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever and various encephalitides. Using a general circulation model at 50 km horizontal resolution to simulate mosquito survival variables including temperature, precipitation and relative humidity, we present both global and regional projections of the habitat suitability up to the middle of the twenty-first century. The model resolution of 50 km allows evaluation against previous projections for Europe and provides a basis for comparative analyses with other regions. Model uncertainties and performance are addressed in light of the recent CMIP5 ensemble climate model simulations for the RCP8.5 concentration pathway and using meteorological re-analysis data (ERA-Interim/ECMWF) for the recent past. Uncertainty ranges associated with the thresholds of meteorological variables that may affect the distribution of Ae. albopictus are diagnosed using fuzzy-logic methodology, notably to assess the influence of selected meteorological criteria and combinations of criteria that influence mosquito habitat suitability. From the climate projections for 2050, and adopting a habitat suitability index larger than 70%, we estimate that approximately 2.4 billion individuals in a land area of nearly 20 million km(2) will potentially be exposed to Ae. albopictus. The synthesis of fuzzy-logic based on mosquito biology and climate change analysis provides new insights into the regional and global spreading of VBDs to support disease control and policy making. PMID:25688015
Proestos, Y; Christophides, G K; Ergüler, K; Tanarhte, M; Waldock, J; Lelieveld, J
Full Text Available Generalized recommendations for the conservation of birds in agro-ecosystems have been elusive because studies are often of a local nature, and do not compare source data against those from other regions. In this study, we developed geographically broad habitat relationship models to provide conservation prescriptions for three species that breed in farmed grasslands: Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis, and Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus. We develop models from our study in Nova Scotia, Canada and confront them with independent data from Wisconsin, USA pastures and Iowa, USA restored prairies. Vegetation that was higher and denser in the prebreeding season was linked to increased occupancy rates and abundance of Bobolinks in each study region. Providing tall spring grass is easily accomplished by not cutting late in the previous year. Savannah Sparrows were instead associated with shorter and sparser spring grass, which highlights the need to simultaneously provide heterogeneous habitat for otherwise ecologically similar species. Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrows were more likely to occur, and be numerous, in areas with greater availability of drainage ditches. They and several other species would benefit from provision of ditches with adequate vegetation to promote occupancy. By combining these with other well-established recommendations, such as a delayed first harvest, a greater net conservation benefit can be realized from these working landscapes.
Joseph J. Nocera
Full Text Available Abstract Background As the ecology of mosquito larvae can be complex there is need to develop a rational framework for undertaking larval ecological studies. Local environmental characteristics, such as altitude, climate and land use, can significantly impact on phenology and population dynamics of mosquito larvae, and indirectly affect the dynamics of mosquito-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing an integrated approach to larval source management under the distinct ecological settings. Methods The study was conducted in two highland villages and one village, at a lower altitude, in the Lake Victoria basin, where malaria is endemic and transmitted by the same Anopheles mosquito species. In each village the stability of mosquito larval habitats was classified as either temporary or permanent. The productivity of these habitat types was quantified by carrying out weekly larval sampling using a standard dipping method for a period of two years. During sampling the physical characteristic of the larval habitat, including the vegetation cover were noted. Ambient temperature, rainfall and relative humidity were recorded on a 21 × Micro-datalogger in each study site. Results Anopheles gambiae sensu lato larvae were found in all study sites. Anopheles arabiensis was more abundant (93% in Nyalenda (Lake Victoria basin and Fort Ternan (highland area; 71%. In Lunyerere (highland area, An. gambiae sensu stricto comprised 93% of the total An. gambiae s.l. larvae. Larvae of An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were present in both temporary and permanent habitats with monthly variations dependent on rainfall intensity and location. Anopheles larvae were more likely to be found in man-made as opposed to natural habitats. Grassy habitats were preferred and were, therefore, more productive of Anopheles larvae compared to other habitat types. Weekly rainfall intensity led to an increase or decrease in mosquito larval abundance depending on the location. Conclusion The majority of mosquito breeding habitats were man made in all sites. Both temporary and permanent habitats were suitable for An. gambiae breeding. In Fort Ternan temporary sites were favoured for mosquito breeding above permanent sites. Significant differences in larval abundance were found depending on weekly rainfall intensity. Larval source management programmes should target permanent and temporary habitats equally and work closely with land and home owners as a majority of the breeding habitats are man made.
Mukabana Wolfgang R
We used radio-telemetry to study the movements and habitat use of Western toads (Bufo boreas) in the Targhee National Forest in southeastern Idaho. Eighteen toads (10 male and 8 female) that bred in a seasonally flooded pond, were fitted with radio-transmitters, tracked, and their movements mapped and analyzed with global positioning and geographic information systems. We also analyzed their patterns of habitat selection at micro- and macro-scales by comparing sites used by toads with randomly selected sites. After breeding, two male and six female toads left the breeding pond and used terrestrial habitats extensively. Male and female toads showed different patterns of movement and habitat use, although all toads seemed to behave in ways that reduced loss of body water (e.g., such as traveling on nights of high humidity). Male toads traveled shorter distances from the pond than females (581 ± 98 m and 1105 ± 272 m, respectively). Female toads used terrestrial habitats extensively and were selective of cover types (e.g., shrub) that provided greater protection from dehydration. Female toads also preferred certain habitat edges and open forests over forests with closed canopies or clearcuts. Information from this study can assist land managers in establishing protective buffers and managing forests for the protection of toad populations.
Bartelt, Paul E.; Peterson, Charles R.; Klaver, Robert W.
We used occupancy and productivity data collected at 67 cliffs used for nesting from 1972 to 1999 to assess patterns of distribution and nest-site selection in an increasing population of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in central West Greenland. Peregrine Falcons breeding at traditionally occupied cliffs used for nesting had significantly lower variation in productivity and thus these cliffs were better quality sites. This indicates that Peregrine Falcons occupied cliffs according to a pattern of despotic distribution. Falcons breeding at cliffs that were consistently occupied during the breeding season had higher average productivity and lower variation in productivity than falcons at inconsistently occupied cliffs, and thus consistent occupancy also was indicative of cliff quality. Features of high quality habitat included tall cliffs, greater change in elevation from the lowest point within 3 km of the cliff to the cliff top (elevation gain), and protection from weather on the eyrie ledge. Spacing of suitable and occupied cliffs also was an important feature, and the best cliffs generally were more isolated. Increased spacing was likely a mechanism for reducing intraspecific competition. Our results suggest that Peregrine Falcons use a resource defense strategy to compete for better quality habitats and may use spacing and physical features of a nest site to identify good quality breeding habitat. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.
Wightman, C.S.; Fuller, M.R.
Results are presented of observations on the breeding places of mosquitoes, carried out in a coastal lowland farm--Granjas Calábria, in Jacarepguá, city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The majority of species preferred breeding places on the ground, chiefly the natural ones, but also developed in those originated from human activities. Cx. saltanensis and the species belonging to the Aedini tribe, such as Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Ps. ciliata, Ps. confinnis and Ps. pseudomelanota were more abundant in temporary breeding places, while Ma. titillans, Cx. amazonensis, Cx. chidesteri, Cx. bidens, Cx. declarator, Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. plectoporpe occurred usually in the permanent ones. Some species were collected in natural recipients: Cx. ocellatus, the Cx. (Microculex), Ph. davisi, Ph. deanei and Wy. forcipenis, in bromeliads; Ae. terrens, Cx. imitator and Cx. gairus, in tree-holes; and Wy. leucostigma, in the submerged Typha dominguensis leaf axils. Cx. gairus was found for the first time breeding in artificial containers, which were also preferred by Cx. corniger, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Li. durhami. PMID:2883555
Lourenço-de-Oliveira, R; Heyden, R; da Silva, T F
Purpose of the Guide This document (hereafter Guide) has been prepared to assist land managers interested in conducting conservation and management activities to benefit breeding birds associated with young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest. Audiences targeted for use of the Guide include land trusts, watershed councils, non-commercial private land owners, forest products companies, land-managing conservation organizations, government agencies, tribes, and First Nations. We hope the Guide will be a useful and valuable tool to support any of the variety of reasons to manage for bird habitat in young conifer forests (for example, regulatory, biodiversity, bird conservation, and forest certification standards). Information provided in the Guide is intended to support both the development of conservation or management plans and the implementation of on-the-ground management activities that have the potential to benefit breeding bird populations. The degree to which a land manager is willing or able to manage for bird habitat is a decision based on many factors which are beyond the scope of the Guide. We assume users of the Guide already have an interest in managing for bird habitat as one of several objectives that land managers must typically balance. However, it is not our purpose in the Guide to discuss integration of bird habitat management with other management objectives. Our objective is simply to provide those interested in bird conservation with information and recommendations on: * the habitat conditions and features needed by breeding bird species, and * how breeding bird species respond to particular management activities. Much of the information on breeding bird habitat is presented in tabular format in the appendices. Because the latitudinal and elevational coverage of the Guide is extensive, there can be considerable variation in the habitat types and conditions with which bird species are associated. Thus, it is important to recognize that the habitat relationships of a species may vary throughout the Pacific Northwest. Information presented in the appendices that categorizes bird-habitat relationships should not be regarded as absolute, but should be used as a tool to help prioritize conservation efforts toward species that have a significant degree of association with habitat parameters, such as forest type or successional stage. An underlying premise of the Guide is that forest management has a direct and significant influence on bird populations. Consequently, manipulation of forest conditions as part of forest management can be designed and implemented to achieve bird conservation objectives (Busing and Garman, 2002; Lehmkuhl and others, 2002). It is not our intent to describe all the potential forest management activities that could be conducted to achieve the desired habitat conditions for birds. Those need to be determined locally by assessing the most ecologically appropriate management at each site. However, to assist land managers, the Guide offers some basic forest management activities that are widely accepted for achieving habitat conditions and features which benefit breeding birds.
Altman, Bob; Hagar, Joan
Effects of wildfire on amphibians are complex, and some species may benefit from the severe disturbance of stand-replacing fire. Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA increased in occurrence after fires in 2001 and 2003. We used radio telemetry to track adult B. boreas in a mosaic of terrestrial habitats with different burn severities to better understand factors related to the post-fire pulse in breeding activity. Toads used severely burned habitats more than expected and partially burned habitats less than expected. No toads were relocated in unburned habitat, but little of the study area was unburned and the expected number of observations in unburned habitat was boreas and preference for open habitats may predispose this species to exploit recently disturbed landscapes. The long-term consequences of fire suppression likely have had different effects in different parts of the range of B. boreas. More information is needed, particularly in the northern Rocky Mountains, where toads are more likely to occupy habitats that have diverged from historic fire return intervals. Copyright ?? 2008. C. Gregory Guscio. All rights reserved.
Guscio, C.G.; Hossack, B.R.; Eby, L.A.; Corn, P.S.
The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonomic survey of salt marsh aquatic insects on Long Island, New York, USA and to evaluate their utility for non-target pesticide impacts and environmental biomonitoring. A total of 18 species from 11 families and five orders were collected repeatedly during the five month study period. Diptera was the most diverse order with nine species from four families, followed by Coleoptera with four species from two families, Heteroptera with three species from three families, then Odonata and the hexapod Collembola with one species each. Water boatmen, Trichocorixa verticalis Fieber (Heteroptera: Corixidae) and a shore fly, Ephydra subopaca Loew (Diptera: Ephydridae), were the two most commonly encountered species. An additional six species; Anurida maritima Guérin-Méneville (Collembola: Neanuridae), Mesovelia mulsanti White (Heteroptera: Mesovelidae), Enochrus hamiltoni Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Tropisternus quadristriatus Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Dasyhelea pseudocincta Waugh and Wirth (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and Brachydeutera argentata Walker (Diptera: Ephydridae), were found regularly. Together with the less common Erythrodiplax berenice Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae), these nine species were identified as the most suitable candidates for pesticide and environmental impact monitoring due to abundance, position in the food chain, and extended seasonal occurrence. This study represents a first step towards developing an insect-based index of biological integrity for salt marsh health assessment. PMID:22957707
Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V
Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae was conducted in Swat Pakistan, from April to September during 2000. The survey involved the sampling of both, adult and immature stages of mosquitoes, and recovered a total of 21 species in five genera. Sampling of adult mosquitoes involved Pyrethrum spray collections, Man-biting collections, and Animal-biting collection. Immature stages of mosquitoes were collected from variety of habitats including springs, irrigation channels, rice fields, marshes, temporary pools, construction pools, agriculture pools, river margins, ditches, waste water drains, wells and tree holes. During the study most of the species built up their populations in June, July and August, while a few increased their populations in September. During the survey of immature stages, from a total of 138 samples taken, Cx. quinquefasciatus showed maximum frequency of occurrence (recovered from 48 samples followed by An. maculatus (17 samples, Cx. pseudovishnui (14 samples, An. annularis and An. stephensi (13 samples each, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus (11 samples, An. splendidus (5 samples and Cx. theileri (4 samples. The rest of the species occurred infrequently. The observations on habitat specificity of different species of mosquitoes showed the rice fields as the most favorable site for mosquito breeding (harboring 12 species followed by river margins (five species and temporary pools and springs (four species each. During this study Ae. aegypti was recovered from tyres in Mingora; it was not reported earlier from Swat.
This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.
LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.
In California, local mosquito and vector control districts have successfully controlled mosquito and vector-borne diseases by improving drainage patterns and applying pesticides. The Bay-Delta Conservation Plan, which is a proposed habitat conservation plan for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay-Delta estuary, proposes to add over 70,000 acres of habitat in the Delta to improve conditions for threatened and endangered aquatic and terrestrial species. This habitat could also be a suitable mosquito breeding habitat, which will be located in close proximity to urban and suburban communities. Wetland management practices and continued pesticide applications in the Delta could mitigate the effects of a new mosquito breeding habitat. Recent legal developments, however, require districts to obtain and comply with Clean Water Act permits, which restrict the application of pesticides in or near waters of the United States. Moreover, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has taken the first step in a rulemaking process that could further limit or prohibit the use of certain vector control pesticides in the Delta. In the near term and until less harmful methods for mosquito control are available, local vector control districts' application of mosquito control pesticides should be exempt from Clean Water Act permit requirements. PMID:23856372
Siptroth, Stephen M; Shanahan, Richard P
Abstract Background Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. Methods A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in h...
Atieli Harrysone; Munga Stephen; Afrane Yaw; Yakob Laith; Zhou Guofa; Himeidan Yousif E; El-Rayah El-Amin; Githeko Andrew K; Yan Guiyun
Dengue and Saint Louis encephalitis virus are among the most important emerging viruses transmitted by mosquitoes at the global scale, and from 2009 onward both diseases have reached temperate Argentina. To test whether the urbanization level can be used as a predictor for the infestation levels of container-breeding mosquito vectors, we searched for Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens in 8400 water-filled containers from 14 cemeteries of Buenos Aires Province and we used generalized linear models to relate positive containers with the impervious area quantified inside (internal PIA) and outside (external PIA) cemeteries. The best model for Ae. aegypti explained 91% of the variability and included the season, the internal PIA and the external PIA at 1km as a quadratic function, showing a parabolic response peaking in ?75%. Regarding the infestation levels of Cx. pipiens, the final model explained 75% of the variability and included only the season. In view of these results, the percentage of impervious area efficiently predicted the infestation levels of Ae. aegypti but not of Cx. pipiens. Considering the worldwide relevance of the former in dengue transmission, the simple quantification of imperviousness proposed herein provides a helpful basis for vector surveillance and control in urbanized areas. PMID:24071380
Rubio, A; Cardo, M V; Carbajo, A E; Vezzani, D
Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about t...
Adrias Araceli Q; Matias Jonathan R
From 1991 to 1998 breeding birds were surveyed in two study plots (11.2 and 8.3 ha) of the town of Solothurn, Central Plateau of Switzerland. The paper presents the results and relates habitat structure elements to species diversity On individual properties. Over the whole study period, 31 species were found in each area. Thirteen species were recorded as breeders in all years in both areas. Average number of territories was 125 for the study area 'Vorstad'(11.2 territories per ...
Sattler, Thomas; Tobler, Michael
Full Text Available Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of mosquito larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir in central Ethiopia between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is located close to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data, derived from weekly larval collections, showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of An. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitat than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitat. The density of An. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation. There was also a positive correlation between the occurrence of Anopheles larvae with the water and daily minimum atmospheric temperature. Similarly at Ejersa, over the sampling period, there was a positive correlation between falling reservoir water levels and the number of positive breeding habitats. These results confirm that physical characteristics of the water bodies play an important role in the species composition, total Anopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes. Suitable breeding habitat in the vicinity of the reservoir village was strongly associated with the reservoir. This is particularly important for An. pharoensis and An. gambiae s.l. which are important vectors of malaria in the area.
Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of mosquito larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir in central Ethiopia between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is located close to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data, derived from weekly larval collections, showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of An. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitat than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitat. The density of An. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation. There was also a positive correlation between the occurrence of Anopheles larvae with the water and daily minimum atmospheric temperature. Similarly at Ejersa, over the sampling period, there was a positive correlation between falling reservoir water levels and the number of positive breeding habitats. These results confirm that physical characteristics of the water bodies play an important role in the species composition, total Anopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes. Suitable breeding habitat in the vicinity of the reservoir village was strongly associated with the reservoir. This is particularly important for An. pharoensis and An. gambiae s.l. which are important vectors of malaria in the area.
Teklu, B. M.; Tekie, H.; McCartney, M.; Kibret, S.
This study was conducted to assess the relationship of land use, riparian vegetation, and avian populations. Our objective was to compare indicators of condition for vegetated riparian corridors with the composition of breeding bird populations in eight Rhode Island subwatersheds...
Historical geological events and climatic changes are believed to have played important roles in shaping the current distribution of species. However, sympatric species may have responded in different ways to such climatic fluctuations. Here we compared genetic structures of two corvid species, the Azure-winged Magpie Cyanopica cyanus and the Eurasian Magpie Pica pica, both widespread but with different habitat dependence and some aspects of breeding behavior. Three mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns were used to examine their co-distributed populations in East China and the Iberian Peninsula. Both species showed deep divergences between these two regions that were dated to the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene. In the East Chinese clade of C. cyanus, populations were subdivided between Northeast China and Central China, probably since the early to mid-Pleistocene, and the Central subclade showed a significant pattern of isolation by distance. In contrast, no genetic structure was found in the East China populations of P. pica. We suggest that the different patterns in the two species are at least partly explained by ecological differences between them, especially in habitat preference and perhaps also breeding behavior. These dissimilarities in life history traits might have affected the dispersal and survival abilities of these two species differently during environmental fluctuations. PMID:22842292
Zhang, Ruiying; Song, Gang; Qu, Yanhua; Alström, Per; Ramos, Raül; Xing, Xiaoying; Ericson, Per G P; Fjeldså, Jon; Wang, Haitao; Yang, Xiaojun; Kristin, Anton; Shestopalov, Alexander M; Choe, Jae Chun; Lei, Fumin
Threats to migratory animals can occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. Populations of the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America have declined over the last 21 years. Three hypotheses have been posed to explain the decline: habitat loss on the overwintering grounds in Mexico, habitat loss on the breeding grounds in the United States and Canada, and extreme weather events. Our objectives were to assess population viability, determine which life stage, season and geographical region are contributing the most to population dynamics and test the three hypotheses that explain the observed population decline. We developed a spatially structured, stochastic and density-dependent periodic projection matrix model that integrates patterns of migratory connectivity and demographic vital rates across the annual cycle. We used perturbation analysis to determine the sensitivity of population abundance to changes in vital rate among life stages, seasons and geographical regions. Next, we compared the singular effects of each threat to the full model where all factors operate concurrently. Finally, we generated predictions to assess the risk of host plant loss as a result of genetically modified crops on current and future monarch butterfly population size and extinction probability. Our year-round population model predicted population declines of 14% and a quasi-extinction probability (5% within a century. Monarch abundance was more than four times more sensitive to perturbations of vital rates on the breeding grounds than on the wintering grounds. Simulations that considered only forest loss or climate change in Mexico predicted higher population sizes compared to milkweed declines on the breeding grounds. Our model predictions also suggest that mitigating the negative effects of genetically modified crops results in higher population size and lower extinction risk. Recent population declines stem from reduction in milkweed host plants in the United States that arise from increasing adoption of genetically modified crops and land-use change, not from climate change or degradation of forest habitats in Mexico. Therefore, reducing the negative effects of host plant loss on the breeding grounds is the top conservation priority to slow or halt future population declines of monarch butterflies in North America. PMID:24903085
Flockhart, D T Tyler; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Norris, D Ryan; Martin, Tara G
The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-tourism and whale watching industry. Our aim was to establish current trends in habitat preference in female-calf humpback whale pairs within this region, focusing specifically on the busy, eastern portions of the channel. We used an equally-spaced zigzag transect survey design, compiled our results in a GIS model to identify spatial trends and calculated Neu's Indices to quantify levels of habitat use. Our study revealed that while mysticete female-calf pairs on breeding grounds typically favor shallow, inshore waters, female-calf pairs in the Au'au Channel avoided shallow waters (Lahaina Harbor) that fell within the study area. In contrast to other humpback whale breeding grounds, there was only minimal evidence of typical patterns of stratification or segregation according to group composition. A review of habitat use by maternal females across Hawaiian waters indicates that maternal habitat choice varies between localities within the Hawaiian Islands, suggesting that maternal females alter their use of habitat according to locally varying pressures. This ability to respond to varying environments may be the key that allows wildlife species to persist in regions where human activity and critical habitat overlap. PMID:22666432
Cartwright, Rachel; Gillespie, Blake; Labonte, Kristen; Mangold, Terence; Venema, Amy; Eden, Kevin; Sullivan, Matthew
Full Text Available Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006. Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP. Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA, where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (Las ballenas jorobadas viajan a aguas tropicales para reproducirse y criar a sus ballenatos. Es importante entender las características oceanográficas que influencian su distribución para lograr una planificación efectiva de áreas marinas protegidas con hábitats críticos para estos cetáceos. Este estudio examina la relación entre la profundidad, la pendiente del suelo oceánico y la distribución de estas ballenas, usando avistamientos del 2005 y 2006 en la costa Pacífica de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica (temporada de reproducción del sur y norte en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Usamos Análisis de Factores de Nicho Ecológico (ENFA por sus siglas en inglés, donde los índices de Marginalidad y Tolerancia ilustran las restricciones en uso de hábitat. En una escala local, factores físicos como la profundidad y la pendiente definen el hábitat crítico de reproducción y cría de M. novaeangliae. Las divergencias entre las medias de las sub-muestras y la media global del área de estudio en ambas variables eco-geográficas, determinan las limitaciones en requerimientos de hábitat en aspectos topográficos como la profundidad (>100 m y la pendiente del fondo (>10%, localizando los hábitat críticos para reproducción y cría dentro de la plataforma continental. Los planes y propuestas para un sistema de áreas marinas protegidas deben de considerar la conectividad de la isla del Caño y la Bahía de Drake, así como la extensión de los límites marinos del Parque Nacional Corcovado.
Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las ballenas jorobadas viajan a aguas tropicales para reproducirse y criar a sus ballenatos. Es importante entender las características oceanográficas que influencian su distribución para lograr una planificación efectiva de áreas marinas protegidas con hábitats críticos para estos cetáceos. Este es [...] tudio examina la relación entre la profundidad, la pendiente del suelo oceánico y la distribución de estas ballenas, usando avistamientos del 2005 y 2006 en la costa Pacífica de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica (temporada de reproducción del sur y norte en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental). Usamos Análisis de Factores de Nicho Ecológico (ENFA por sus siglas en inglés), donde los índices de Marginalidad y Tolerancia ilustran las restricciones en uso de hábitat. En una escala local, factores físicos como la profundidad y la pendiente definen el hábitat crítico de reproducción y cría de M. novaeangliae. Las divergencias entre las medias de las sub-muestras y la media global del área de estudio en ambas variables eco-geográficas, determinan las limitaciones en requerimientos de hábitat en aspectos topográficos como la profundidad (>100 m) y la pendiente del fondo (>10%), localizando los hábitat críticos para reproducción y cría dentro de la plataforma continental. Los planes y propuestas para un sistema de áreas marinas protegidas deben de considerar la conectividad de la isla del Caño y la Bahía de Drake, así como la extensión de los límites marinos del Parque Nacional Corcovado. Abstract in english Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic [...] features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006). Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA), where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (
L, Oviedo; M, Solís.
Remotely sensed multi-spectral and -spatial data facilitates the study of mosquito-borne disease vectors and their response to land use and cover composition in the urban environment. In this study we assess the feasibility of integrating remotely sensed multispectral reflectance data and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-derived height information to improve land use and land cover classification. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analyses were used to compare and contrast the enha...
Leeuwen, Willem J. D.; Hartfield, Kyle A.; Landau, Katheryn I.
The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-tourism and whale watching industry. Our aim was to establish current trends in habitat preference in female-calf humpback whale pairs within this region, focusing specifically on the busy, eastern ...
Cartwright, Rachel; Gillespie, Blake; Labonte, Kristen; Mangold, Terence; Venema, Amy; Eden, Kevin; Sullivan, Matthew
Drastic reduction of populations of univoltine temporary pool mosquitoes followed impoundment of breeding areas by beavers. Mosquito populations persist at very low levels over a 10-year period with no evidence of mosquito development in the impoundment. PMID:1357092
Butts, W L
Invasive alien parasites and pathogens are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide, which can contribute to the extinction of endemic species. On the Galápagos Islands, the invasive parasitic fly Philornis downsi poses a major threat to the endemic avifauna. Here, we investigated the influence of this parasite on the breeding success of two Darwin's finch species, the warbler finch (Certhidea olivacea) and the sympatric small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus), on Santa Cruz Island in 2010 and 2012. While the population of the small tree finch appeared to be stable, the warbler finch has experienced a dramatic decline in population size on Santa Cruz Island since 1997. We aimed to identify whether warbler finches are particularly vulnerable during different stages of the breeding cycle. Contrary to our prediction, breeding success was lower in the small tree finch than in the warbler finch. In both species P. downsi had a strong negative impact on breeding success and our data suggest that heavy rain events also lowered the fledging success. On the one hand parents might be less efficient in compensating their chicks' energy loss due to parasitism as they might be less efficient in foraging on days of heavy rain. On the other hand, intense rainfalls might lead to increased humidity and more rapid cooling of the nests. In the case of the warbler finch we found that the control of invasive plant species with herbicides had a significant additive negative impact on the breeding success. It is very likely that the availability of insects (i.e. food abundance)is lower in such controlled areas, as herbicide usage led to the removal of the entire understory. Predation seems to be a minor factor in brood loss. PMID:25248092
Cimadom, Arno; Ulloa, Angel; Meidl, Patrick; Zöttl, Markus; Zöttl, Elisabet; Fessl, Birgit; Nemeth, Erwin; Dvorak, Michael; Cunninghame, Francesca; Tebbich, Sabine
From April to July of 2000 and 2001, the authors studied the foraging habitat selection of Otis tarda dybowskil in the southeast Keerqin of Inner Mongolia by sampling method. The results showed that whether at burned or at non-burned grassland, the foraging habitat of Otis tarda dybowski had the same feature in vegetation structure, the plant height was about 13 cm on average, with the highest of 30 cm, and there were abundant species of plants and insects with big density that the bird favored to eat. The bird more concerned with the abundance of plants at burned grassland, while that of insects at non-burned grassland. PMID:15943365
Zhao, Jiang; Wan, Dongmei; Wang, Haitao; Gao, Wei
This article summarizes current knowledge of mosquito biology. It presents basic information on mosquito morphology, geographic distribution, systematic classification, life cycles, host preference, and public and veterinary health importance. Mosquitoes belong to the order Diptera, family Culicid...
Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07% and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18% were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.
Márcio Goulart Mocellin
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importanc [...] e as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.
Márcio Goulart, Mocellin; Taynãna César, Simões; Teresa Fernandes Silva do, Nascimento; Maria Lucia França, Teixeira; Leon Philip, Lounibos; Ricardo Lourenço de, Oliveira.
For migratory songbirds nesting in northern temperate forests, a short breeding season demands that males rapidly establish territories. Because critical insect and vegetation resources are unavailable during spring arrival, we suggest that conspecifics serve as settlement cues for males new to a local population. To test conspecific attraction, we conducted playback experiments with American redstarts Setophaga ruticilla. Experimental results demonstrate that song playbacks strongly attract ...
Hahn, Beth A.; Silverman, Emily D.
Full Text Available Studies were carried out in 2010 by mean of simplified version of the mapping method. The study area (395 ha was located close to the city centre. It comprised a mosaic of urbanized habitats, with a clear dominance of green areas, such as parks (41.1 ha, gardens, cemeteries and tree clumps. A total of 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the whole study area. The most common (<25 pairs/100 ha were Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Apus apus and Columba livia. Numerous (7-15 pairs/100 ha were also the following species: Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Serinus serinus, Turdus merula and Pica pica. Insectivorous birds were the most common birds constituting 63.3%, and granivorous -32.6% of all pairs recorded. Most birds nested in tree holes (39.3%, in/on buildings (30.2% and in trees/shrubs (25.6%. Distribution of breeding pairs of 23 bird species was presented on maps. Population trends for 17 species were documented. Rapid increase in numbers of Turdus pilaris, Corvus cornix and Phoenicurus phoenicurus and decrease of Pica pica were recorded.
The diet of non-breeding White Storks was studied by pellet analysis and included mainly insects (99.9%, n=28947) with a predominance of grasshoppers (Orthoptera, 76.1%), and beetles (Coleoptera, 26.1%). The bush crickets Decticus albifrons/verrucivorus were the most numerous prey (29.9% by items), occurring in almost all pellets (98% occurrence in pellets, n=147) and predominating in half of them (49.7%). The grasshopper associations in the pellets specify foraging mainly in mesophytic...
Milchev Boyan; Chobanov Dragan; Simov Nikolay
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faste [...] r with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id) and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars) than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr) of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR) of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.
D, Dominic Amalraj; N, Sivagnaname; PK, Das.
Full Text Available Most amphibians use both wetland and upland habitats, but the extent of their movement in forested habitats is poorly known. We used radiotelemetry to observe the movements of adult and juvenile eastern tiger salamanders over a 4-year period. Females tended to move farther from the breeding ponds into upland forested habitat than males, while the distance a juvenile moved appeared to be related to body size, with the largest individuals moving as far as the adult females. Individuals chose refugia in native pitch pine—oak forested habitat and avoided open fields, roads, and developed areas. We also observed a difference in potential predation pressures in relation to the distance an individual moved from the edge of the pond. Our results support delineating forested wetland buffer zones on a case-by-case basis to reduce the impacts of concentrated predation, to increase and protect the availability of pitch pine—oak forests near the breeding pond, and to focus primarily on the habitat needs of the adult females and larger juveniles, which in turn will encompass habitat needs of adult males and smaller juveniles.
Full Text Available Background & objectivesi: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus in the Aedes vectors is now a well-documented phenomenon reported from many parts of the endemic areas in the world, which played an important role in initiating and maintaining the outbreak in human populations. This study investigated the factors affecting breeding habitats and the relationship with transovarial dengue virus in larvae of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Methods: Larval surveillance was conducted in dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia from 2008 until 2009. Sampling was carried out based on habitat type, water condition (substrate type, canopy coverage, temperature and pH at breeding habitats. RT-PCR was performed to detect presence of transovarial dengue virus in larvae collected in the study areas. Results: A total of 789 breeding habitats were identified during this study and the majority of these breeding sites were plastic containers (57.46%. Aedes albopictus dominated most of the water condition surveyed, while Ae. aegypti indicated preference toward habitats with clear water. Aedes aegypti was selective in selecting ovipositional sites compared to Ae. albopictus where shaded areas were shown to be the most preferred. From a total of 363 mosquito larvae pools, 23 (6.3% pools were positive for dengue virus where 18 of them were from Ae. albopictus and five were from Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae pools. Interpretation & conclusion: This study indicated the presence of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the field. This study also showed that combination of water conditions, canopy coverage, temperature and pH of breeding habitats were the factors affecting the larval population. The study suggested that larval survey programme could serve as a tool not only to monitor the local dengue vector distribution but also to provide objective information for taking appropriate action by the community against dengue vectors.
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m. PMID:20411719
Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan
Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from january 1985 to december 1986, studies were carried out on mosquitoes living in the internodes of bamboo in two distinct regions, the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar and the First Plateau, both in the state of Paraná, Brazil. These dendricolous habitats are very different from other recorded mosquito breeding sites. The internodes of the green, living bamboo are closed reservoirs of water with only some small, lateral holes made by boring insects Eucalyptra barbara Schaus, 1894 and Eucalyptra fumida Schaus, 1894 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and other animals. The water in the internodes derives from the bamboo itself. These are the first observations of this breeding behavior. Some females entirely enter the hole to oviposit while others dont't. Similar, artificially constructed habitats were studied at the same time by producing transvere openings and introducing water into the reservoir. Seventeen species of dendricolous mosquitoes were observed utilizing this unique habitat. Additional studies have elaborated other behavioral aspects of these mosquitoes.
Ana Leuch Lozovei
Background: Community participation plays an important role in control of Mosquito borne diseases. This study tries to assess impact of educational intervention on various aspects of mosquito borne diseases in an urban slum. Methodology: An educational interventional study was done in 200 families residing in a slum (Badi Gwaltoli) which is in field practice area of Urban Health Centre attached to Department of Community Medicine of M.G.M.Medical College, Indore. A pretested semi-structured q...
Deepa Raghunath; Ak, Bhagwat; Sanjay Dixit; Sk, Guleri; Chetan Panwar; Chetan Patidar; Deepak Hindal; Karuna Tiwari
West Nile virus (WNV) could be introduced into Germany via migratory birds originating from Africa or southern Europe and subsequently transmitted to indigenous birds, humans, or horses by mosquitoes. Neither the virus itself nor antibodies against WNV have yet to be found in mosquitoes and horses, whereas antibodies have been detected in migrating birds and in humans that were in close contact with birds. At present, the West Nile virus itself has yet to be detected in Germany. This investigation was conducted primarily in major bird breeding, resting, and roosting habitats (hotspots) in the Upper Rhine Valley. Adult mosquitoes were trapped using CO2-baited Encephalitis Vector Surveillance (EVS)-traps and were tested for WNV by the VecTest WNV Antigen Assay. In 2007 and 2008, a total of 11,073 host-seeking adult female mosquitoes (13 species) were tested, and all tests were negative for WNV. Statistical calculations could be performed only where sufficient numbers of mosquitoes were trapped. For these sites, WNV infection among mosquitoes could be ruled out with 80% certainty. For the evaluation of the WNV situation in Germany, the results of this investigation are a further indication that the virus has not yet arrived. PMID:20618659
Timmermann, Ute; Becker, Norbert
Nearly 30% of emerging infectious disease events are caused by vector-borne pathogens with wildlife origins. Their transmission involves a complex interplay among pathogens, arthropod vectors, the environment and host species, and they pose a risk for public health, livestock and wildlife species. Examining habitat associations of vector species known to transmit infectious diseases, and quantifying spatio-temporal dynamics of mosquito vector communities is one aspect of the holistic One Health approach that is necessary to develop effective control measures. A survey was conducted from May to August, 2010 of the abundance and diversity of mosquito species occurring in the mixed-grass prairie habitat of the Smoky Hills of Kansas. This region is an important breeding ground for North America's grassland nesting birds and, as such, it could represent an important habitat for the enzootic amplification cycle of avian malaria and infectious encephalitides, as well as spill-over events to humans and livestock. A total of 11 species, belonging to the three genera Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex, was collected during this study. Aedes nigromaculis, Ae. sollicitans, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Culex salinarius, and Cx. tarsalis accounted for 98% of the collected species. Multiple linear regression models suggested that mosquito abundances in the grasslands of the central Great Plains were explained by meteorological and environmental variables. Temporal dynamics in mosquito abundances were well supported by models that included maximum and minimum temperature indices (adjusted R(2) = 0.73). Spatial dynamics of mosquito abundances were best explained by a model containing the following environmental variables (adjusted R(2) =0.37): ground curvature, topographic wetness index, distance to woodland, and distance to road. The mosquito species we detected are known vectors for infectious encephalitides, including West Nile virus. Understanding the microhabitat characteristics of these mosquito species in a grassland ecosystem will aid in the control and management of these disease vectors. PMID:24581350
Ganser, Claudia; Wisely, Samantha M
Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. Objective To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mosquitoes were sampled both outdoors and indoors using the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and Mosquito Magnets baited with attractants. Outdoor traps were placed in proximity with breeding sites and under canopy in banana plantations close to the sleeping places of animals. Results A total of 1,823 mosquitoes were collected, of which 87% (N=1,588) were Culex pipiens complex, 12% (N=226) Aedes aegypti, and 0.5% (N=9) Anopheles species. About two-thirds (67%; N=1,095) of C. pipiens complex and nearly 100% (N=225) of A. aegypti were trapped outdoors using Mosquito Magnets. All Anopheles species were trapped indoors using CDC light traps. There were variations in abundance of C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti among different ecological and vegetation habitats. Over three quarters (78%) of C. pipiens complex and most (85%) of the A. aegypti were trapped in banana and maize farms. Both C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti were more abundant in proximity with cattle and in semi-arid thorn bushes and lower Afro-montane. The highest number of mosquitoes was recorded in villages that were most affected during the RVF epidemic of 2007. Of the tested 150 pools of C. pipiens complex and 45 pools of A. aegypti, none was infected with RVF virus. Conclusions These results provide insights into unique habitat characterisation relating to mosquito abundances and distribution in RVF epidemic-prone areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. PMID:25613346
Mweya, Clement N.; Kimera, Sharadhuli I.; Mellau, Lesakit S. B.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.
Full Text Available Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. Objective: To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mosquitoes were sampled both outdoors and indoors using the Centre for Disease Control (CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnets baited with attractants. Outdoor traps were placed in proximity with breeding sites and under canopy in banana plantations close to the sleeping places of animals. Results: A total of 1,823 mosquitoes were collected, of which 87% (N=1,588 were Culex pipiens complex, 12% (N=226 Aedes aegypti, and 0.5% (N=9 Anopheles species. About two-thirds (67%; N=1,095 of C. pipiens complex and nearly 100% (N=225 of A. aegypti were trapped outdoors using Mosquito Magnets. All Anopheles species were trapped indoors using CDC light traps. There were variations in abundance of C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti among different ecological and vegetation habitats. Over three quarters (78% of C. pipiens complex and most (85% of the A. aegypti were trapped in banana and maize farms. Both C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti were more abundant in proximity with cattle and in semi-arid thorn bushes and lower Afro-montane. The highest number of mosquitoes was recorded in villages that were most affected during the RVF epidemic of 2007. Of the tested 150 pools of C. pipiens complex and 45 pools of A. aegypti, none was infected with RVF virus. Conclusions: These results provide insights into unique habitat characterisation relating to mosquito abundances and distribution in RVF epidemic-prone areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania.
Clement N. Mweya
Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. gelidus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, known vectors of Japanese encephalitis (JE), are distributed in rice agroecosystems in Asian countries. Very few integrated studies on the breeding habitats of rice-field mosquitoes, including JE vectors, have been conducted in Vietnam. We investigated the mosquito fauna and potential predators in 8 rice growing areas in the Mekong Delta region of southern Vietnam, during the wet and dry seasons of 2009. Mosquitoes and their predators were collected from a variety of aquatic habitats (rice fields, ponds, wetlands, shrimp ponds, ditches, canals, and rivers). We collected 936 Culex spp. (354 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 240 Cx. vishnui s.l., 189 Cx. fuscocephala, and 42 Cx. gelidus), 33 Uranotaenia, 25 Anopheles, and 9 Mimomyia (4 Mi. chamberlaini) in the dry season. During the rainy season, we collected 1,232 Culex spp. (132 Cx. vishnui s.l., 66 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 9 Cx. gelidus, 4 Cx. fuscocephala, and 2 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 236 Anopheles spp. (40 An. vagus and 1 An. sinensis), and 7 Uranotaenia (3 Ur. lateralis). Heteroptera such as Micronecta, Veliidae, and Pleidae were abundant and widely distributed in both seasons. Based on a stepwise generalized linear model, the abundance of mosquitoes and their predators in rice fields was high when the rice plant length was short and water depth was shallow. Therefore, the use of insecticides during the earlier stages of rice growth should be avoided in order to preserve the predator populations. PMID:22329270
Ohba, Shin-Ya; Huynh, T T Trang; Le, Loan Luu; Ngoc, Huu Tran; Hoang, San Le; Takagi, Masahiro
Based on the Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR HH/HV imagery data and by using the GPS data of red-crowned crane nesting sites (n = 28) at Zhalong National Nature Reserve of Northeast China, the models of the breeding habitat selection of red-crowned crane at the Reserve were established by binary Logistic regression to identify the key variables for the habitat selection at eight spatial scales (30-240 m). The relative performance of the two models based on the Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR HH/HV databases was compared, and the prediction capacity of the models across the eight scales was approached. The overall precisions of the two models were satisfactory (> or = 69.0%). At scale 30 m, only variable TCA_2 entered with negative value into the model based on Landsat TM database, which indicated that the crane at this scale avoided selecting higher density reed marshes. At scales 60-120 m, the variable PCA_2 entered with positive value into the two models, indicating that the crane at these scales had higher demand of high density reed marshes to improve its concealment. At scale 90 m, the variable HV backward scatting coefficient also entered into the combined model, which indicated that water condition was the important factor for the habitat selection of the crane at this scale. At scales > 120 m, the texture information of the two satellite sensors started to be involved into the two models, indicating that at larger scales, the crane had decreasing demand on the vegetation features for its breeding habitat selection but increasing sensitivity to the anthropogenic disturbance factors. The introduction of ASAR variables into the models increased the prediction accuracy of the models markedly at all scales. PMID:22586977
Liu, Chun-Yue; Jiang, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Hou, Yun-Qiu; Lu, Jun
Population genetics of the mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), a major vector of arboviruses (e.g. Barmah Forest, Ross River), were investigated to obtain an indirect estimate of mosquito dispersal characteristics in typical habitats of Aedes vigilax in south-east Queensland: on the off-shore islands of Moreton Bay and on the mainland where disjunct breeding populations of Ae. vigilax are distributed along intertidal marsh. Six allozyme loci were assessed for genetic differentiation between samples from 11 localities. Significant larval variation between some breeding sites was attributed to site-specific selection. Nonsignificant genetic differentiation was found among collections of adult mosquitoes caught in light traps throughout the study area (exceeding 60x27 km), indicating widespread dispersal. As distances of < or = 9 km over water did not appear to act as effective barriers to Ae. vigilax dispersal, localized control activities applied to Ae. vigilax breeding sites are unlikely to be effective against the vagile adult population. Therefore, the contiguous shires programme of broad acre control is endorsed to prevent the spread of arboviruses carried by Ae. vigilax PMID:10608232
Chapman, H F; Hughes, J M; Jennings, C; Kay, B H; Ritchie, S A
This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…
Bowman, James S.; And Others
Full Text Available Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.
Gabrielle E. Sakolsky-Hoopes
Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252
Rey, Jorge R; Walton, William E; Wolfe, Roger J; Connelly, C Roxanne; O'Connell, Sheila M; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E; Laderman, Aimlee D
We examined how oceanographic and terrestrial features influence marine habitat selection by radio-tagged marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus), and how selection varies temporally, geographically and with respect to reproductive status. Murrelet marine habitat selection was simultaneously affected by sea surface temperature and nearshore environment characteristics, as well as distance to nest site for breeders, with lesser influence by physical oceanographic features. Marbled murrele...
Alguns aspectos da ecologia dos mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae de uma área de planície (granjas Calábria, em Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: V. Criadouros Some aspects of the ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae of an area of plains (granjas Calábria, in Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: V. Breeding places
Full Text Available Apresentamos os resultados de observações sobre os criadouros dos mosquitos, que realizamos numa fazenda - Granjas Calábria, da Baixada de Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, no período de agosto de 1981 a julho de 1983. A maioria das espécies locais preferiu coleções líquidas no solo, particularmente as de caráter natural, não deixando, entretanto, de procurar aquelas propiciadas pelas atividades humanas. Os criadouros transitórios foram mais freqüentados por Culex saltanensis e pelas espécies da tribo Aedini, como Aedes scapularis, Aedes taeniorhynchus, Psorophora ciliata e Psorophora confinnis, enquanto os de caráter permanente foram mananciais de formas imaturas de Mansonia titillans, Culex amazonensis, Culex chidesteri, Culex bidens, Culex declarator, Culex nigripalpus e Culex plectoporpe. Algumas espécies foram coletadas em recipientes naturais: Culex ocellatus, os Culex (Microculex, Phoniomyia davisi, Phoniomyia deanei e Wyeomyia forcipenis, em bromélias; Aedes terrens, Culex gairus e Culex imitador, em buraco em árvore; e Wyeomyia leucostigma, em axilas submersas das folhas de taboas (Thypha dominguensis. Culex gairus foi encontrado pela primeira vez criando em recipientes artificiais, locais também preferidos por Culex corniger, Culex quinquefasciatus e Limatus durhami.Results are presented of observations on the breeding places of mosquitoes, carried out in a coastal lowland farm - Granjas Calábria, in JAcarepaguá, city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The majority of species preferred breeding places on the ground, chiefly the natural ones, but also developed in those originated from human activities. Cx. saltanensis and the species belonging to the Aedini tribe, such as Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Ps. ciliata, Ps. confinnis and Ps. Pseudomelanota were more abundant in temporary breeding places, while Ma. titillans, Cx. amazonensis, Cx. chidesteri, Cx. bidens, Cx. declarator, cx. nigipalpus and Cx. plectoporpe occurred usually in the permanent ones. Some species were collected in natural recipients: Cx. ocellatus, the Cx. (Microculex, Ph davisi, Ph. deanei and Wy. forcipenis, in bromeliads, Ae. terrens, Cx. imitator and Cx. gairus, in tree-holes; and Wy. leucostigma, in the submerged Typha dominguensis leaf axils. Cx. gairus was found for the first time breeding in artificial containers, which were also preferred by Cx. corniger, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Li. durhaml.
Alguns aspectos da ecologia dos mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) de uma área de planície (granjas Calábria), em Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: V. Criadouros / Some aspects of the ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of an area of plains (granjas Calábria), in Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: V. Breeding places
Full Text Available Apresentamos os resultados de observações sobre os criadouros dos mosquitos, que realizamos numa fazenda - Granjas Calábria, da Baixada de Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, no período de agosto de 1981 a julho de 1983. A maioria das espécies locais preferiu coleções líquidas no solo, particularmente as d [...] e caráter natural, não deixando, entretanto, de procurar aquelas propiciadas pelas atividades humanas. Os criadouros transitórios foram mais freqüentados por Culex saltanensis e pelas espécies da tribo Aedini, como Aedes scapularis, Aedes taeniorhynchus, Psorophora ciliata e Psorophora confinnis, enquanto os de caráter permanente foram mananciais de formas imaturas de Mansonia titillans, Culex amazonensis, Culex chidesteri, Culex bidens, Culex declarator, Culex nigripalpus e Culex plectoporpe. Algumas espécies foram coletadas em recipientes naturais: Culex ocellatus, os Culex (Microculex), Phoniomyia davisi, Phoniomyia deanei e Wyeomyia forcipenis, em bromélias; Aedes terrens, Culex gairus e Culex imitador, em buraco em árvore; e Wyeomyia leucostigma, em axilas submersas das folhas de taboas (Thypha dominguensis). Culex gairus foi encontrado pela primeira vez criando em recipientes artificiais, locais também preferidos por Culex corniger, Culex quinquefasciatus e Limatus durhami. Abstract in english Results are presented of observations on the breeding places of mosquitoes, carried out in a coastal lowland farm - Granjas Calábria, in JAcarepaguá, city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The majority of species preferred breeding places on the ground, chiefly the natural ones, but also developed in those [...] originated from human activities. Cx. saltanensis and the species belonging to the Aedini tribe, such as Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Ps. ciliata, Ps. confinnis and Ps. Pseudomelanota were more abundant in temporary breeding places, while Ma. titillans, Cx. amazonensis, Cx. chidesteri, Cx. bidens, Cx. declarator, cx. nigipalpus and Cx. plectoporpe occurred usually in the permanent ones. Some species were collected in natural recipients: Cx. ocellatus, the Cx. (Microculex), Ph davisi, Ph. deanei and Wy. forcipenis, in bromeliads, Ae. terrens, Cx. imitator and Cx. gairus, in tree-holes; and Wy. leucostigma, in the submerged Typha dominguensis leaf axils. Cx. gairus was found for the first time breeding in artificial containers, which were also preferred by Cx. corniger, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Li. durhaml.
Ricardo, Lourenço-de-Oliveira; Rosemarie, Heyden; Teresa Fernandes da, Silva.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently transported in the absence of water in the form of hibernating embryos. Once introduced either as embryos or juveniles in ponds, the annual killifish can effectively reduce the larval population because of its aggressive predatory activity.
Adrias Araceli Q
A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most freque...
Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M.; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent
Successful management practices of avian populations depend on understanding relationships between birds and their habitat, especially in rare habitats, such as riparian areas of the desert Southwest. Remote-sensing technology has become popular in habitat modeling, but most of these models focus on single species, leaving their applicability to understanding broader community structure and function largely untested. We investigated the usefulness of two Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) habitat models to model avian abundance and species richness on the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona. Although NDVI was positively correlated with our bird metrics, the amount of explained variation was low. We then investigated the addition of vegetation metrics and other remote-sensing metrics to improve our models. Although both vegetation metrics and remotely sensed metrics increased the power of our models, the overall explained variation was still low, suggesting that general avian community structure may be too complex for NDVI models.
McFarland, Tiffany Marie; van Riper, Charles, III
The vector mosquitoes of dengue and chikungunya fever, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have adapted to feed on humans and undergo larval and pupal development in natural and artificial freshwater collections. Although several studies reported, still, much information is required to understand the successful survival of Aedes mosquitoes in small temporary containers. In an investigation conducted in the chikungunya affected areas of Kerala state, India, the presence of Bdelloid rotifer, Philodina in 95% of breeding habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was recorded. The role of Philodina in the breeding containers was investigated. It was found that while in control the number of Philodina was found increasing in the water sample during the study period of seven days, the number found decreased in the containers with larvae of Aedes. The gut content analysis also confirmed the presence of the rotating wheel, corona of Philodina in some of the specimen suggests its role as major larval food. PMID:23202612
Muniaraj, M; Arunachalam, N; Paramasivan, R; Mariappan, T; Philip Samuel, P; Rajamannar, V
Full Text Available Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae and on the spatial and temporal formation of larval breeding habitats were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is in close proximity to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data from the weekly larval collections showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of A. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitats than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitats (F=16.97, pF=6.03, pA. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation (F=15.75, pF=10.56, pAnopheles larvae with water temperature of the breeding habitat and daily minimum atmospheric temperature (r=0.541, pr=0.604, pr=0.605, pAnopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes in the vicinity. The proliferation of suitable breeding habitats around the reservoir villages is strongly associated with reservoir water level changes. This is particularly important for A. pharoensis and A. arabiensis which are important vectors of malaria in the area. Further investigation on the species diversity, physical and chemical habitat characteristics and impact of water holding capacity of the soil need to be done to generate detailed baseline data which will serve as a basis for proper water management activities for malaria risk mitigation.
Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em áreas do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Brasil: 1 Distribuição por hábitat Mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae ecology in the Iguaçu National Park, Brazil: 1 Habitat distribution
Full Text Available Estabelecemos a influência exercida pela cobertura vegetal de quatro diferentes biótopos em áreas do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu (PNI sobre a fauna local de mosquitos. Realizaram-se capturas bimestrais, em isca humana e armadilha Shannon, em três diferentes períodos do dia, em ambiente silvestre e domiciliar, durante 24 meses consecutivos. Dentre os 20.273 espécimes de fêmeas adultas capturadas, pertencentes a 44 espécies, Ochlerotatus serratus (10,3%, Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9,7%, Mansonia titillans (9,6% e Chagasia fajardoi (8,8% foram predominantes. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia theobaldi, Wyeomyia aporonoma e Wy. confusa ocorreram exclusivamente em áreas com vegetação bem preservada e densa configuração. Culex nigripalpus, Oc. pennai, Oc. serratus, Sabethes purpureus e Sa. albiprivus foram capturados nos três biótopos essencialmente silvestres. Na mata no entorno da represa foram capturadas principalmente An. albitarsis s.l., An. galvaoi, An. evansae, An. fluminensis, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Cq. juxtamansonia, Wy. quasilongirostris e Onirion personatum. As espécies que apresentaram maiores incidências na área sob ação antrópica foram Ch. fajardoi, Cq. fasciolata, Cq. nitens e Ma. titillans.A study of the mosquito fauna in the Iguaçu National Park focused on population behavior in four biotopes with different types of plant cover inside the Park. Systematic bimonthly diurnal and nocturnal human bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted in both forest and domiciliary environments over the course of 24 months. A total of 20,273 adult mosquito specimens belonging to 44 species were collected: Ochlerotatus serratus (10.3%, Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9.7%, Mansonia titillans (9.6%, and Chagasia fajardoi (8.8% were the most frequently captured mosquitoes. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia theobaldi, Wyeomyia aporonoma, and Wy. confusa were captured almost exclusively in well-preserved areas with dense forest cover. Culex nigripalpus, Oc. pennai, Oc. serratus, Sabethes purpureus, and Sa. albiprivus were captured in three essentially sylvatic biotopes. Species captured in the forest areas around a dam were: An. albitarsis s.l., An. galvaoi, An. evansae, An. fluminensis, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Cq. juxtamansonia, Wy. quasilongirostris, and Onirion personatum, Ch. fajardoi, Cq. fasciolata, Cq nitens, and Ma. titillans were the most frequently captured species in a residential area.
Anthony Érico Guimarães
Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) em áreas do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Brasil: 1 Distribuição por hábitat / Mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) ecology in the Iguaçu National Park, Brazil: 1 Habitat distribution
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estabelecemos a influência exercida pela cobertura vegetal de quatro diferentes biótopos em áreas do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu (PNI) sobre a fauna local de mosquitos. Realizaram-se capturas bimestrais, em isca humana e armadilha Shannon, em três diferentes períodos do dia, em ambiente silvestre e do [...] miciliar, durante 24 meses consecutivos. Dentre os 20.273 espécimes de fêmeas adultas capturadas, pertencentes a 44 espécies, Ochlerotatus serratus (10,3%), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9,7%), Mansonia titillans (9,6%) e Chagasia fajardoi (8,8%) foram predominantes. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia theobaldi, Wyeomyia aporonoma e Wy. confusa ocorreram exclusivamente em áreas com vegetação bem preservada e densa configuração. Culex nigripalpus, Oc. pennai, Oc. serratus, Sabethes purpureus e Sa. albiprivus foram capturados nos três biótopos essencialmente silvestres. Na mata no entorno da represa foram capturadas principalmente An. albitarsis s.l., An. galvaoi, An. evansae, An. fluminensis, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Cq. juxtamansonia, Wy. quasilongirostris e Onirion personatum. As espécies que apresentaram maiores incidências na área sob ação antrópica foram Ch. fajardoi, Cq. fasciolata, Cq. nitens e Ma. titillans. Abstract in english A study of the mosquito fauna in the Iguaçu National Park focused on population behavior in four biotopes with different types of plant cover inside the Park. Systematic bimonthly diurnal and nocturnal human bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted in both forest and domiciliary environments ov [...] er the course of 24 months. A total of 20,273 adult mosquito specimens belonging to 44 species were collected: Ochlerotatus serratus (10.3%), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9.7%), Mansonia titillans (9.6%), and Chagasia fajardoi (8.8%) were the most frequently captured mosquitoes. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia theobaldi, Wyeomyia aporonoma, and Wy. confusa were captured almost exclusively in well-preserved areas with dense forest cover. Culex nigripalpus, Oc. pennai, Oc. serratus, Sabethes purpureus, and Sa. albiprivus were captured in three essentially sylvatic biotopes. Species captured in the forest areas around a dam were: An. albitarsis s.l., An. galvaoi, An. evansae, An. fluminensis, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Cq. juxtamansonia, Wy. quasilongirostris, and Onirion personatum, Ch. fajardoi, Cq. fasciolata, Cq nitens, and Ma. titillans were the most frequently captured species in a residential area.
Anthony Érico, Guimarães; Catarina Macedo, Lopes; Rubens Pinto de, Mello; Jeronimo, Alencar.
In traditional vector surveillance systems, adult mosquito density and the rate of mosquito-human host contact are estimated from the mosquito numbers captured in mechanical traps. But the design of the traps, their placement in the habitat and operating time, microclimate, and other environmental factors bias mosquito responses such that trapped mosquito numbers may be at variance with the numbers actually making human contact. As an alternative to mechanical traps, direct measurement of landing mosquito density enables real-time estimation of the mosquito-human-host-contact parameter. Based on this paradigm, we studied methods to measure mosquito landing responses to a human host. Our results showed: (a) an 18% difference (P0.55) in the average number of Ae. albopictus landing on the arm (8.6±1.6min(-1)) compared with the leg (9.2±2.5min(-1)) of the same human subject; (d) differences among day-to-day landing patterns for the mosquito species we studied but measurable periodicity (Ptemperature (Pdew point temperature (P<0.0001) for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results from this study were used to develop a procedure for safely and accurately measuring mosquito landing density on a human subject. PMID:24769003
Barnard, Donald R; Dickerson, Catherine Z; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R
Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae and on the spatial and temporal formation of larval breeding habitats were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is in close proximity to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data from the weekly larval collections showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of A. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitats than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitats (F=16.97, pmosquitoes in the vicinity. The proliferation of suitable breeding habitats around the reservoir villages is strongly associated with reservoir water level changes. This is particularly important for A. pharoensis and A. arabiensis which are important vectors of malaria in the area. Further investigation on the species diversity, physical and chemical habitat characteristics and impact of water holding capacity of the soil need to be done to generate detailed baseline data which will serve as a basis for proper water management activities for malaria risk mitigation.
Teklu, B. M.; Tekie, H.; McCartney, M.; Kibret, S.
Ro?. 22, ?. 3 (2012), s. 328-338. ISSN 0959-2709 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Little Owl * home range size * habitat use * compositional analysis * grasslands * short-sward vegetation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2012
Šálek, Martin; Lövy, M.
Cyanobacteria associated with Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann larval habitats from southern Chiapas, Mexico, were isolated and identified from water samples and larval midguts using selective medium BG-11. Larval breeding sites were classified according to their hydrology and dominant vegetation. Cyanobacteria isolated in water samples were recorded and analyzed according to hydrological and vegetation habitat breeding types, and mosquito larval abundance. In total, 19 cyanobacteria species were isolated from water samples. Overall, the most frequently isolated cyanobacterial taxa were Phormidium sp., Oscillatoria sp., Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis, Lyngbya lutea, P. animalis, and Anabaena cf. spiroides. Cyanobacteria were especially abundant in estuaries, irrigation canals, river margins and mangrove lagoons, and more cyanobacteria were isolated from Brachiaria mutica, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Hymenachne amplexicaulis habitats. Cyanobacteria were found in habitats with low to high An. albimanus larval abundance, but Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis was associated with habitats of low larval abundance. No correlation was found between water chemistry parameters and the presence of cyanobacteria, however, water temperature (29.2-29.4 degrees C) and phosphate concentration (79.8-136.5 ppb) were associated with medium and high mosquito larvae abundance. In An. albimanus larval midguts, only six species of cyanobacteria were isolated, the majority being from the most abundant cyanobacteria in water samples. PMID:12495179
Vázquez-Martínez, M Guadalupe; Rodríguez, Mario H; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Méndez-Sanchez, José D; Bond-Compeán, J Guillermo; Cold-Morgan, Michelle
To enable a better understanding of the overwhelming alterations in the invasive mosquito species (IMS), methodical insight into the population and environmental factors that govern the IMS and pathogen adaptations are essential. There are numerous ways of estimating mosquito populations, and usually these describe developmental and life-history parameters. The key population parameters that should be considered during the surveillance of invasive mosquito species are: (1) population size and dynamics during the season, (2) longevity, (3) biting behaviour, and (4) dispersal capacity. Knowledge of these parameters coupled with vector competence may help to determine the vectorial capacity of IMS and basic disease reproduction number (R0) to support mosquito borne disease (MBD) risk assessment. Similarly, environmental factors include availability and type of larval breeding containers, climate change, environmental change, human population density, increased human travel and goods transport, changes in living, agricultural and farming habits (e.g. land use), and reduction of resources in the life cycle of mosquitoes by interventions (e.g. source reduction of aquatic habitats). Human population distributions, urbanisation, and human population movement are the key behavioural factors in most IMS-transmitted diseases. Anthropogenic issues are related to the global spread of MBD such as the introduction, reintroduction, circulation of IMS and increased exposure to humans from infected mosquito bites. This review addresses the population and environmental factors underlying the growing changes in IMS populations in Europe and confers the parameters selected by criteria of their applicability. In addition, overview of the commonly used and newly developed tools for their monitoring is provided. PMID:24739334
Petri?, Dušan; Bellini, Romeo; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Rakotoarivony, Laurence Marrama; Schaffner, Francis
The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing in Europe, partly due to the incursion of a number of invasive species known to be vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, but also due to the involvement of native species in the transmission of West Nile virus and malaria. For some of these pathogens, there is a risk of the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases that were once widespread in Europe, but declined partly due to large-scale land-drainage projects. Some mosquito species exploit container habitats as breeding sites in urban areas; an adaptation to human-made micro-habitats resulting from increased urbanisation. However, many species thrive in natural wetland ecosystems. Owing to the impacts of climate change there is an urgent need for environmental adaptation, such as the creation of new wetlands to mitigate coastal and inland flooding. In some cases, these initiatives can be coupled with environmental change strategies to protect a range of endangered flora and fauna species by enhancing and extending wetland landscapes, which may by driven by European legislation, particularly in urban areas. This paper reviews field studies conducted in England to assess the impact of newly created wetlands on mosquito colonisation in a) coastal, b) urban and c) arable reversion habitats. It also considers the impact of wetland management on mosquito populations and explores the implications of various water and vegetation management options on the range of British mosquito species. Understanding the impact of wetland creation and management strategies on mosquito prevalence and the potential risk of increasing the levels of nuisance or disease vector species will be crucial in informing health and well-being risk assessments, guiding targeted control, and anticipating the social effects of extreme weather and climate change. Although new wetlands will certainly extend aquatic habitats for mosquitoes, not all species will become a major nuisance or a vector concern as a result. Understanding how the design and management of wetlands might exacerbate mosquito densities is crucial if we are to manage nuisance mosquitoes and control vector species in the event of a disease outbreak. This entomological evidence-base will ensure that control strategies achieve optimal efficacy at minimal cost. PMID:25779287
Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander Gc
The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing in Europe, partly due to the incursion of a number of invasive species known to be vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, but also due to the involvement of native species in the transmission of West Nile virus and malaria. For some of these pathogens, there is a risk of the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases that were once widespread in Europe, but declined partly due to large-scale land-drainage projects. Some mosquito species exploit container habitats as breeding sites in urban areas; an adaptation to human-made micro-habitats resulting from increased urbanisation. However, many species thrive in natural wetland ecosystems. Owing to the impacts of climate change there is an urgent need for environmental adaptation, such as the creation of new wetlands to mitigate coastal and inland flooding. In some cases, these initiatives can be coupled with environmental change strategies to protect a range of endangered flora and fauna species by enhancing and extending wetland landscapes, which may by driven by European legislation, particularly in urban areas. This paper reviews field studies conducted in England to assess the impact of newly created wetlands on mosquito colonisation in a) coastal, b) urban and c) arable reversion habitats. It also considers the impact of wetland management on mosquito populations and explores the implications of various water and vegetation management options on the range of British mosquito species. Understanding the impact of wetland creation and management strategies on mosquito prevalence and the potential risk of increasing the levels of nuisance or disease vector species will be crucial in informing health and well-being risk assessments, guiding targeted control, and anticipating the social effects of extreme weather and climate change. Although new wetlands will certainly extend aquatic habitats for mosquitoes, not all species will become a major nuisance or a vector concern as a result. Understanding how the design and management of wetlands might exacerbate mosquito densities is crucial if we are to manage nuisance mosquitoes and control vector species in the event of a disease outbreak. This entomological evidence-base will ensure that control strategies achieve optimal efficacy at minimal cost. PMID:25889666
Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander Gc
Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae. Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera Kerteszia- with the upper limit of 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2 550 m were the highest records in the Central- Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2 252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2 000 m. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 245-254. Epub 2010 March 01.
Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas) y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reprod [...] ucción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae). Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia) podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia) en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m. Abstract in english Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availab [...] ility of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera Kerteszia- with the upper limit of 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2 550 m were the highest records in the Central- Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2 252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2 000 m. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1): 245-254. Epub 2010 March 01.
Juan-Carlos, Navarro; Fabiola, Del Ventura; Adriana, Zorrilla; Jonathan, Liria.
Wyoming big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis A. t. Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young) communities provide structure and forbs and insects needed by greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus) for growth and survival. We evaluated forb, insect, and soil responses at six mowed and 19 prescribed burned sites compared to 25, paired and untreated reference sites. Sites were classified by treatment type, soil type, season, and decade of treatment (sites burned during 1990-1999 and sites burned or mowed during 2000-2006). Our objective was to evaluate differences in ten habitat attributes known to influence sage-grouse nesting and brood rearing to compare responses among treatment scenarios. Contrary to desired outcomes, treating Wyoming big sagebrush through prescribed burning or mowing may not stimulate cover or increase nutrition in food forbs, or increase insect abundance or indicators of soil quality compared with reference sites. In some cases, prescribed burning showed positive results compared with mowing such as greater forb crude protein content (%), ant (Hymenoptera; no./trap), beetle (Coleoptera/no./trap), and grasshopper abundance (Orthoptera; no./sweep), and total (%) soil carbon and nitrogen, but of these attributes, only grasshopper abundance was enhanced at burned sites compared with reference sites in 2008. Mowing did not promote a statistically significant increase in sage-grouse nesting or early brood-rearing habitat attributes such as cover or nutritional quality of food forbs, or counts of ants, beetles, or grasshoppers compared with reference sites.
Hess, Jennifer E.; Beck, Jeffrey L.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Despite the increasing number of reported autochthonous malaria cases in Nouakchott and the identification of Anopheles arabiensis as the major malaria vector in this Saharan city, anopheline larval habitats have never been identified so far. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize anopheline larval habitats in Nouakchott. Methods: During September and October 2012, samples from pools of rainwater, water discharged from standpipes and household drinking water tanks in the districts of Dar Naim, Teyarett and Arafat were analyzed for the presence/absence of anopheline larvae and physicochemical characterization of breeding habitats. Results: Of the 51 prospected water bodies, eight consisting of seven water discharged from standpipes and one household drinking water tank were productive for Anopheles sp. All emerged anopheline mosquitoes from the positive dipping were morphologically identified as members of the An. gambiae complex. Multivariate regression analyses showed that a salinity up to 0.1 g/l and a shaded situation were respectively protective factors against high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI [0.44-0.87], p = 0.0052 and adjusted odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI [0.44-0.71, p <0.0001] and a pH up to 7.61 was a risk factor for high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56, 95% CI [1.25-1.95], p = 0.0001. Interpretation & conclusion: The study demonstrated in Nouakchott that despite an arid and dry climate, human practices have contributed to the establishment of favourable environmental conditions for the development of anopheline mosquitoes and, therefore, maintaining malaria transmission in this Saharan city. The core malaria vector control intervention as the use of long-lasting insecicidal nets (LLINs could be complemented in Nouakchott by larval source control. In this area, appropriate larval control measures may be recommended in line with an integrated vector management (IVM approach.
O. Ahmedou Salem Mohamed Salem
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia andelsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporalvariation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anophelinemosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course ofthe Ethiopian Rift Valley.Methods: Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables(water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables were measured, characterized andanalyzed.Results: Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV of anopheline larvae collected throughout thestudy period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus. Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis andAn. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logisticregression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vectorspecies. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquaticvegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly andpositively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies.Conclusion: Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintainedby perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vectorcontrol operations.
Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew & Teshome Gebre-Michael
Background The auto-dissemination approach has been shown effective at treating cryptic refugia that remain unaffected by existing mosquito control methods. This approach relies on adult mosquito behavior to spread larvicide to breeding sites at levels that are lethal to immature mosquitoes. Prior studies demonstrate that ‘dissemination stations,’ deployed in mosquito-infested areas, can contaminate adult mosquitoes, which subsequently deliver the larvicide to breeding sites. In some situations, however, preventative measures are needed, e.g., to mitigate seasonal population increases. Here we examine a novel approach that combines elements of autocidal and auto-dissemination strategies by releasing artificially reared, male mosquitoes that are contaminated with an insecticide. Methodology Laboratory and field experiments examine for model-predicted impacts of pyriproxyfen (PPF) directly applied to adult male Aedes albopictus, including (1) the ability of PPF-treated males to cross-contaminate females and to (2) deliver PPF to breeding sites. Principal Findings Similar survivorship was observed in comparisons of PPF-treated and untreated males. Males contaminated both female adults and oviposition containers in field cage tests, at levels that eliminated immature survivorship. Field trials demonstrate an ability of PPF-treated males to transmit lethal doses to introduced oviposition containers, both in the presence and absence of indigenous females. A decline in the Ae. albopictus population was observed following the introduction of PPF-treated males, which was not observed in two untreated field sites. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that, in cage and open field trials, adult male Ae. albopictus can tolerate PPF and contaminate, either directly or indirectly, adult females and immature breeding sites. The results support additional development of the proposed approach, in which male mosquitoes act as vehicles for insecticide delivery, including exploration of the approach with additional medically important mosquito species. The novelty and importance of this approach is an ability to safely achieve auto-dissemination at levels of intensity that may not be possible with an auto-dissemination approach that is based on indigenous females. Specifically, artificially-reared males can be released and sustained at any density required, so that the potential for impact is limited only by the practical logistics of mosquito rearing and release, rather than natural population densities and the self-limiting impact of an intervention upon them. PMID:25590626
Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Dobson, Stephen L.
We investigated the role of heavy rain on container-inhabiting mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations, and how different species may have adapted to such conditions. Rains were created with a rain simulator calibrated to natural rain intensities in the habitats of two important vector species: Aedes aegypti (L.) from northern Thailand and Culex pipiens L. from New York state, USA. Immature stages of Ae. aegypti were able to resist the flushing effect of rain better than Cx. pipiens. This difference was most dramatic during the pupal stage. Fourth instars of Ae. aegypti were not affected by flushing when exposed for longer rain intervals (30 versus 60 min) or at a colder water temperature (24 versus 16 degrees C). In contrast, significantly more Cx. pipiens larvae flushed out with longer rain exposure. Warmer water temperatures also increased the proportion of Cx. pipiens flushed out, but mostly at the longest exposure time. Container position (tilted at a 7 degrees angle or level) did not affect proportions of fourth instars flushed out for both species. More accurate models of vector-borne diseases can be developed by incorporating the described effects of rain on container-breeding mosquito populations. Such models may provide more realistic assessments of disease risk and ensure optimal use of limited financial resources of mosquito control agencies. PMID:18283939
Koenraadt, C J M; Harrington, L C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. Methods A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in hilltops and along the seasonal streams in the Sigalagala area of Kakamega district, western Kenya. Water availability in the habitats was followed up daily from August 3, 2006 to February 23, 2007. A habitat is defined as stable when it remains aquatic continuously for at least 12 d. Mosquito larvae were observed weekly. Frequencies of aquatic, stable and larvae positive habitats were compared between the hilltop and seasonal stream area using ?2-test. Factors affecting the presence/absence of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the highlands were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Topography significantly affected habitat availability and stability. The occurrence of aquatic habitats in the hilltop was more sporadic than in the stream area. The percentage of habitat occurrences that were classified as stable during the rainy season is 48.76% and 80.79% respectively for the hilltop and stream area. Corresponding frequencies of larvae positive habitats were 0% in the hilltop and 5.91% in the stream area. After the rainy season, only 23.42% of habitat occurrences were stable and 0.01% larvae positive habitats were found in the hilltops, whereas 89.75% of occurrences remained stable in the stream area resulting in a frequency of 12.21% larvae positive habitats. The logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between habitat stability and larval occurrence and indicated that habitat surface area was negatively affecting the occurrence of An. gambiae larvae. While An. gambiae and An. funestus larvae occurred throughout the study period along the streams, a total of only 15 An. gambiae larvae were counted in the hilltops, and no An. funestus were found. Moreover, no larvae managed to develop into adults in the hilltops, and the density of adult An. gambiae was consistently low, averaging at 0.06 females per house per survey. Conclusion The occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the hilltop area was uncommon as a result of the low availability and high instability of habitats. To optimize the cost-effectiveness of malaria interventions in the western Kenya highlands, larval control should be focused primarily along the streams, as these are likely the only productive habitats at high altitude.
Current strategy of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) comprises the general approach of environmentally friendly control measures. With regard to mosquitoes it includes first of all application of microbial insecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) delta-endotoxins as well as the reduction of breeding habitats and natural enemy augmentation. It can be achieved thorough implementation of the interdisciplinary program, i. e., understanding of mosquito vector ecology, the appropriate vector-diseases (e. g., malariometric) measurements and training of local personnel responsible for mosquito abatement activities, as well as community involvement. Biocontrol methods as an alternative to chemical insecticides result from the sustainability development concept, growing awareness of environmental pollution and the development of insecticide-resistant strains of vector-mosquito populations in many parts of the world. Although sustainable trends are usually considered in terms of the monetary and training resources within countries, environmental concerns are actually more limiting factors for the duration of an otherwise successful vector control effort. In order to meet these new needs, increasing efforts have been made in search of and application of natural enemies, such as parasites, bacterial pathogens and predators which may control populations of insect vectors. The biological control agent based on the bacterial toxins Bti and Bs has been used in the Wroc?aw's University and Municipal Mosquito Control Programs since 1998. In West-Africa biocontrol appears to be an effective and safe tool to combat malaria in addition to bed-nets, residual indoor spraying and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria parasites which are the major tools in the WHO Roll Back Malaria Program. IVM studies carried out 2005-2008 in Cotonou (Benin) as well those in Wroc?aw Irrigated Fields during the last years include the following major steps: 1. Mapping of all breeding sites in the project area and recording data in a geographical information system (GIS/relational database). All districts, streets and houses are numbered for quick reference during the operation; 2. Studying mosquito vector bionomics, migration and vectorial capacity in the project area, before, during and after the routine Bti treatments; 3. Assessment of the optimum for effective larvicide insecticide dosages at major breeding sites against the different target mosquito species; 4. Implementation of the microbial control agents in the integrated routine program. Adaptation of the application equipment to the local situation, training of the field staff, and routine treatments; 5. Conducting surveillance of vector-disease (e. g., malariometric) parameters in the control and experimental area before, during, and after the application of biocontrol agents. PMID:20209805
Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Lonc, Elzbieta; Becker, Norbert
Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, carried out in the Camargue region (France, we combined entomological data with geomatic and modelling tools to assess whether the location of breeding sites may explain the spatial distribution of adult mosquitoes. The species studied are important and competent disease vectors in Europe: Culex modestus Ficalbi and Cx. pipiens Linnaeus (West Nile virus, Anopheles atroparvus Van Thiel, a former Plasmodium vector, and An. melanoon Hackett, competent to transmit Plasmodium. Using a logistic regression model, we first evaluated which land cover variables determined the presence of Culex and Anopheles larva. The resulting probability map of larval presence then was used to project the average probability of finding adults in a buffer area. This was compared to the actual number of adults collected, providing a quantitative assessment of adult dispersal ability for each species. Results The distribution of Cx. modestus and An. melanoon is mainly driven by the repartition of irrigated farm fields and reed beds, their specific breeding habitats. The presence of breeding sites explained the distribution of adults of both species. The buffer size, reflecting the adult dispersal ability, was 700 m for Cx. modestus and 1000 m for An. melanoon. The comparatively stronger correlation observed for Cx. modestus suggested that other factors may affect the distribution of adult An. melanoon. We did not find any association between Cx. pipiens larval presence and the biotope due to the species' ubiquist character. Conclusion By applying the same method to different species, we highlighted different strengths of association between land cover (irrigated farm fields and reed beds, larval presence and adult population distribution. This paper demonstrates the power of geomatic tools to quantify the spatial organization of mosquito populations, and allows a better understanding of links between landcover, breeding habitats, presence of immature mosquito populations and adult distributions for different species.
UNLABELLED: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Anopheles plumbeus has been recognized as a minor vector for human malaria in Europe since the beginning of the 20th century. In recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited novel breeding sites, including large and organically rich man-made containers, with consequently larger mosquito populations in close vicinity to humans. This lead to investigate whether current populations of An. plumbeus would be able to efficiently t...
Schaffner, Francis; Thie?ry, Isabelle; Kaufmann, Christian; Zettor, Agne?s; Lengeler, Christian; Mathis, Alexander; Bourgouin, Catherine
We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera) on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elev...
Maehr, David S.; Patton, Laura L.; Duchamp, Joseph E.; Songlin Fei; Gassett, Jonathan W.; Larkin, Jeffery L.
The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciproc...
Smith, Todd G.; Ferguson, Laura V.
Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species. PMID:23967314
Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G; Hall, Michael W; Neufeld, Josh D; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E
Alguns aspectos da ecologia dos mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) de uma área de planície (granjas Calábria), em Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: V. Criadouros Some aspects of the ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of an area of plains (granjas Calábria), in Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: V. Breeding places
Apresentamos os resultados de observações sobre os criadouros dos mosquitos, que realizamos numa fazenda - Granjas Calábria, da Baixada de Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, no período de agosto de 1981 a julho de 1983. A maioria das espécies locais preferiu coleções líquidas no solo, particularmente as de caráter natural, não deixando, entretanto, de procurar aquelas propiciadas pelas atividades humanas. Os criadouros transitórios foram mais freqüentados por Culex saltanensis e pelas ...
Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira; Rosemarie Heyden; Teresa Fernandes da Silva
Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait
With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion) sp. e Aedes fluviat...
José Lopes; Lozovei, Ana L.
Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait
Full Text Available With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion sp. e Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 and showed shong anthopophilia and a high degree of adaptation to humam environment. On the cantray, the species that showed lilth adaptation to such ambients or to the geoclimatic conditions of the region were: Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto, 1922; An. parvus (Chagas, 1907; An. lutzii Cruzi, 1901, Culex amazonensis (Lutz, 1905; Cx. chidesteri; Psorophora confinnis (Linch Arribalzaga, 1891; Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856; Ps. cingulata (Fabricius, 1805 e Aedes scapularis. Although Anopheles argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827; Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, 1906; Cx. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906 and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, 1823, were captured in little numbers, it is knowntht they an mosquito of human surroundings. These mosquitos showed a plak of feeding activity directly related to sunset bat did not have a bimodal behaviour. Anophelinae were in general more active in spring while Culex Linnaeus, 1758; Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905; Aedes Meigen, 1818; Mansonia Blanchard, 1901 e Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827 were more active in summer.
The West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne infection that can be fatal to humans, equines, and avians, among others. WNV was first introduced to the United States in 1999 and is rapidly spreading across the country. Urban catch basins are thought to be prime breeding sites for mosquitoes, especially those identified as WNV carriers. The pilot study reported here was conducted in a city in southeastern Pennsylvania where there are 70,000 catch basins. The purpose of the study was 1) to determine whether catch basins are breeding sites for mosquitoes and 2) to test the effectiveness of a larvicide that uses a bacteria, Bacillus sphaericus, to eliminate mosquitoes in urban catch basins. The two-pronged study determined that catch basins are ideal locations for mosquitoes, especially Culex pipiens, and that B. sphaericus is an effective larvicide. PMID:15794460
Raval-Nelson, Palak; Soin, Ketki; Tolerud, Suzy
Ro?. 2010, ?. 57 (2010), s. 495-503. ISSN 0006-3657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Central Europe * diet composition * habitat choice * insect prey Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2010
Šálek, Martin; Riegert, J.; K?ivan, V.
Full Text Available Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas.Results: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30 cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms.Discussion: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.
Mosquito abundance and bionomics were studied intensively during summer and spring at two residential communities of contrasting economic status. Culex quinquefasciatus was the most abundant adult and immature mosquito collected in both communities, followed by Culiseta incidens, Culex stigmatosoma, and Culex tarsalis. Cx. stigmatosoma and Cx. tarsalis were more abundant in CO2 traps hung in tree canopy than at ground level and fed most frequently on birds. Cx. quinquefasciatus was abundant in both ground level and tree canopy CO2 traps and fed on both mammals and birds. Cs. incidens was collected most frequently by ground level CO2 traps and fed primarily on dogs. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cs. incidens readily exploited peridomestic breeding sources, and resting adults were aggregated at houses with positive breeding sources. Although Cx. stigmatosoma and Cx. tarsalis larvae were collected primarily at peripheral breeding sources, the dispersion of resting adults was still clumped at houses within both communities. Mosquitoes were most abundant in the more affluent community due to an increased number of breeding sites created by automatic watering devices and poorly managed peripheral drainage channels. Resident opinion of recent mosquito annoyance was not related to the presence of mosquito breeding sources or the abundance of either resting or host-seeking mosquitoes. PMID:1970608
Reisen, W K; Meyer, R P; Tempelis, C H; Spoehel, J J
In Mediterranean dry grasslands, grazing by domestic animals is an important agricultural activity on dry grasslands. Several bird species occur in these grazed habitats and are now experiencing a near continuous decline. We investigated the impact of livestock grazing on the threatened little bustard (Tetrax tetrax L.). The study was conducted at the NATURA 2000 Site/Important Bird Area of Cabrela, Portugal. Our main goals were to investigate responses of little bustard territorial males and...
Faria, Nuno; Rabac?a, Joa?o E.; Morales, Manuel B.
Initiated in 1995, the Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas (WBBA) is an on-going project to document all bird species breeding in the state of Wisconsin. A project of the Wisconsin Society for Ornithology, WBBA documents the presence and breeding status of bird species detected within a selected 5km x 5km area, as well as (optionally) the estimated abundance of the species and the type of habitat in which it was detected. The results of this ambitious initiative are now available in the form of online Species Distribution Maps and multiple species summaries. While not all maps have been error-checked, these color maps offer detailed images showing confirmed and probable breeding locations for Wisconsin's several hundred species of breeding birds. In addition to the maps, the site provides a section on WBBA methods, numerous bird identification images, and a Casual Observation Form. A select list of links (to other states's Breeding Bird Atlas projects) rounds out the site.
Natural breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti in the Caribbean region were reviewed by conducting larval surveys in Trinidad. Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands and referring to records from the Mosquitoes of Middle America project. Twelve types of natural habitats were recorded: rock holes (9.7%), calabashes (2.4%), tree holes (19.5%), leaf axils (4.8%), bamboo joints (14.9%), papaya stumps (7.3%), coconut shells (4.8%), bromeliads (7.3%), ground pools (14.9%), coral rock holes (9.7%), crab holes (2.4%), and conch shells (7.3%), of which the coconut shell and calabash habitats were new to the Caribbean. The countries having the highest prevalence of natural habitats were Trinidad. Puerto Rico, and Jamaica, with 9 types (22.0%), 7 types (17.0%), and 6 types (14.6%), respectively. The distribution of natural habitats of Ae. aegypti in the Caribbean region is discussed in relation to vector control measures. PMID:9599318
Chadee, D D; Ward, R A; Novak, R J
Potential for Loss of Breeding Habitat for Imperiled Mountain Yellow-legged Frog ( Rana muscosa) in High Sierra Nevada Mountain Water Bodies due to Reduced Snowpack: Interaction of Climate Change and an Introduced Predator
Year to year variation in snowpack (20-200% average) and summer rain create large fluctuations in the volume of water in ponds and small lakes of the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada. These water bodies are critical habitat for the imperiled mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa, which has decreased in abundance by 90% during the past century, due in part to the loss of suitable habitat and introduction of a fish predator (trout, Oncorhynchus spp.). Climate change is predicted to reduce the amount of snowpack, potentially impacting amphibian habitats throughout the Sierra Nevada by further reducing the lake and pond water levels and resulting in drying of small lakes during the summer. Mountain yellow-legged frogs are closely tied to water during all life stages, and are unique in having a three- to four-year tadpole phase. Thus, tadpole survival and future recruitment of adult frogs requires adequate water in lakes and ponds throughout the year, but larger lakes are populated with fish that prey on frogs and tadpoles. Thus, most successful frog breeding occurs in warm, shallow, fishless ponds that undergo wide fluctuations in volume. These water bodies would be most susceptible to the potential climate change effects of reduced snowpack, possibly resulting in lower tadpole survival. This study explores the link between the changes in water availability -- including complete pond drying -- and the abundance and recruitment of mountain yellow-legged frog in Dusy Basin, Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA. We propose using the low-snowpack years (1999, 2002, 2004) as comparative case studies to predict future effects of climate change on aquatic habitat availability and amphibian abundance and survival. To quantify the year to year variation and changes in water volume available to amphibians, we initiated GPS lake mapping in 2002 to quantify water volumes, water surface area, and shoreline length. We tracked these changes by repeated mapping of water surface and volume (bathymetry) during the summer, and concurrently counting all the life stages (adults, subadults, tadpoles) of frogs. As a baseline in this analysis, we present 2002 data when pond volume declined 40-100% during summer in three breeding lakes. The lakes that completely dried up in 2002 were repopulated by adults in 2003 but showed no recruitment of metamorphosed frogs from previous year's tadpoles. The lakes that retained water -- even if they underwent a large reduction in water volume (-60%), surface area (-70%) and shoreline length (-70%) during the summer -- show consistent tadpole-to-subadult recruitment in the following year (2003). Similar results are obtained using frog counts from 1999-2000 and 2004-2005 and estimates of water volume in those years. Our results suggest that more frequent summer drying of small ponds -- as may be induced by climate change -- will severely reduce frog recruitment. When combined with the invasive fish that prevent frog breeding in larger lakes, such effect of climate change may cause loss of local frog populations, and push the entire species towards extinction.
Lacan, I.; Matthews, K. R.
Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species-ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further investigation to know in which condition they can affect the efficacy of insecticide-based vector control strategies in the field. PMID:24275062
Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane
Full Text Available We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elevations and with greater percentages of grass and canopy cover. Mean territory size (minimum convex polygon was 1.3 ha (se = 0.1 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 1.7 ha (se = 0.3 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 2.1 ha (se = 0.3 for Blue-winged Warbler. Territory overlap occurred within and between species (18 of n = 73 territories, 24.7%. All Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers established territories that included an edge between reclaimed mine land and mature forest, as opposed to establishing territories in open grassland/shrubland habitat. The mean distance territories extended from a forest edge was 28.0 m (se = 3.8 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 44.7 m (se = 5.7 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 33.1 m (se = 6.1 for Blue-winged Warbler. Neither territory size nor distances to forest edges differed significantly between Golden-winged Warbler in presence or absence of Blue-winged Warbler. According to Monte Carlo analyses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings and saplings, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia saplings were indicative of sites with only Golden-winged Warblers. Sericea lespedeza, goldenrod (Solidago spp., clematis vine (Clematis spp., and blackberry (Rubus spp. were indicative of sites where both species occurred. Our findings complement recent genetic studies and add another factor for examining Golden-winged Warbler population decline. Further, information from our study will aid land managers in manipulating habitat for the Golden-winged Warbler.
David S. Maehr
Full Text Available The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciprocal nature of this relationship is exploited by various blood parasites that use mechanical, salivary or trophic transmission to pass from mosquitoes to frogs. It is important to investigate the involvement of mosquitoes, frogs and parasites in this interaction in order to understand the consequences of anthropogenic actions, such as implementing biocontrol efforts against mosquitoes, and to determine potential causes of the global decline of amphibian species.
Todd G. Smith
Prevalence of various aquatic vegetation and their role in supporting vector breeding were studied by drawing plant samples from natural fresh water habitats in Shertallai region which is endemic for Brugia malayi. As many as 30 aquatic plant species were identified in addition to the most abundant and preferred host plants such as Pistia stratiotes, Salvinia molesta and Eichhornia crassipes which are of major concern due to their contribution for vector proliferation. Fallow lands and paddy fields recorded relatively a higher number of plant species. Natural breeding of Mansonia, the vector mosquitos was observed in 16 of them. Using the data on the prevalence, proportion of samples positive for Mansonia breeding and immature density, two indices viz, natural hospitability Index (NH) and Mansonia host plant Index (MHI) were developed for each plant species. Ranking of these plants in relation to Mansonia breeding was done based on these indices. Monochoria vaginalis has been identified to be one of the most important auxiliary host plant. Three grasses viz, Hygrorhiza aristata, Sacciolepis interrupta and Leersia hexandra were found to support all the three species of Mansonia viz, Ma. annulifera, Ma. uniformis and Ma. indiana with considerable immature density. The inclusion of these plants for weed/vector control is emphasized. PMID:7667728
Krishnamoorthy, K; Rajendran, G; Panicker, K N
The impact of emergent macrophyte species and crepuscular sprinkler disturbance on mosquito abundance over a 2-year period was measured in wetland mesocosms. Mosquito oviposition and abundance of immature mosquitoes and aquatic invertebrates were monitored in monotypic plots of small-stature (height of mature stands 2 m) California bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus) without or with daily sprinkler showers to deter mosquito egg laying. Relative to wetlands without operational sprinklers, oviposition by culicine mosquitoes was reduced by > 99% and immature mosquito abundance was reduced by > 90% by crepuscular sprinkler applications. Mosquito abundance or distribution in wetlands did not differ between the two bulrush species subjected to the sprinkler treatment. Alkali bulrush wetlands without daily sprinkler treatments contained more egg rafts but significantly fewer mosquito larvae than did California bulrush wetlands. Predaceous damselfly naiads were 3-5 times more abundant in alkali bulrush than in California bulrush. Stem density, rate of spread, and autumnal mortality of alkali bulrush were higher than for California bulrush. Replacement of large emergent macrophytes by smaller species may enhance the efficacy of integrated mosquito management programs to reduce mosquito-transmitted disease cycles associated with multipurpose constructed wetlands used worldwide for water reclamation and habitat restoration. PMID:24581369
Popko, David A; Walton, William E
The development of population genetic structure in ice-breeding seal species is likely to be shaped by a combination of breeding habitat and life-history characteristics. Species that return to breed on predictable fast-ice locations are more likely to exhibit natal fidelity than pack-ice-breeding species, which in turn facilitates the development of genetic differentiation between subpopulations. Other aspects of life history such as geographically distinct vocalizations, female gregariousness, and the potential for polygynous breeding may also facilitate population structure. Based on these factors, we predicted that fast-ice-breeding seal species (the Weddell and ringed seal) would show elevated genetic differentiation compared to pack-ice-breeding species (the leopard, Ross, crabeater and bearded seals). We tested this prediction using microsatellite analysis to examine population structure of these six ice-breeding species. Our results did not support this prediction. While none of the Antarctic pack-ice species showed statistically significant population structure, the bearded seal of the Arctic pack ice showed strong differentiation between subpopulations. Again in contrast, the fast-ice-breeding Weddell seal of the Antarctic showed clear evidence for genetic differentiation while the ringed seal, breeding in similar habitat in the Arctic, did not. These results suggest that the development of population structure in ice-breeding phocid seals is a more complex outcome of the interplay of phylogenetic and ecological factors than can be predicted on the basis of breeding substrate and life-history characteristics. PMID:18494764
Davis, Corey S; Stirling, Ian; Strobeck, Curtis; Coltman, David W
Traditional environmental management programmes require extensive coverage of larval habitats to reduce drastically the emergence of adult mosquitoes. Recent studies have highlighted the impact of reduced availability of aquatic habitats on mosquito foraging for hosts and oviposition sites. In this study, we developed an agent-based model to track the status and movement of mosquitoes individually. Mosquito foraging was represented as a two-stage process: random flight when the resource was not within the mosquito's perception range and directional flight to the resource when it was detected. Three scenarios of targeted source reduction were devised to eliminate all aquatic habitats within certain distances of human habitations. For comparison, three non-targeted source reductions randomly eliminated the same numbers of aquatic habitats as their corresponding targeted scenarios. Our results show that the elimination of habitats within 100m, 200m and 300m of surrounding houses resulted in 13%, 91% and 94% reductions in malaria incidence, respectively; compared with -3%, 19% and 44%, respectively, for the corresponding conventional interventions. These findings indicate that source reduction might not require coverage of extensive areas, as previously thought, and that the distance to human habitations can be used for habitat targeting. PMID:19200566
Gu, Weidong; Novak, Robert J
Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity. PMID:24581370
Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias
Full Text Available Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program—REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores—has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes—collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2—and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III. Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs.
Hugo C. Osório
The Marine Corps Recruit Depot on Parris Island, SC, is surrounded by tidal salt marshes, which are breeding habitats for many pestiferous biting flies. Knowledge of biting fly behavior patterns is needed to develop effective pest management strategies in urban areas adjacent to salt marshes. We measured biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) and mosquito (Culicidae) seasonal abundance and diel activity patterns on Parris Island using CO(2)-baited suction traps from November 2001 - November 2004. Of the three biting midge species collected, Culicoides furens was most abundant (86.2% of total) and was present in high numbers from late March to November. Culicoides hollensis (12.0% of total) was present during spring and fall but absent in summer and winter; and Culicoides melleus (1.7% of total) was present in spring through fall but absent in winter. Abundance of C. furens had a positive linear correlation with air temperature and rainfall. There were nonlinear correlations between air temperature and C. hollensis and C. melleus numbers, which were most abundant at moderate temperatures. Of 18 mosquito species collected, the most abundant were Aedes taeniorhynchus (42.7% of total), Aedes sollicitans (26.3% of total), Culex salinarius (15.6% of total), Culex quinquefasciatus (7.3% of total), and Aedes vexans (5.7% of total); other species comprised soil moisture. Activity of most biting midges and mosquitoes were highest the first two hours following sunset. Species of biting flies were present in all months, suggesting that year-round control measures are necessary to reduce exposure to potential disease vectors and nuisance biting. PMID:20836813
Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Clark, James W; Brodeur, Robert M; de Szalay, Ferenc A
In the last 10 years dengue has spread markedly through Latin America and the Caribbean (Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Barbados, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil). The mosquito Aedes aegypti has taken advantage of increased urbanization and crowding to transmit the dengue virus. The mosquito infests tires, cans, and water jars near dwellings. The female mosquito practices multiple, interrupted feeding. Thus, mosquito infesting and feeding practices facilitate dengue transmission in crowded conditions. Factors contributing to the spread of dengue include numbers of infected and susceptible human hosts, strain of dengue virus, size of mosquito population, feeding habits, time from infection to ability to transmit virus for both vector and host, likelihood of virus transmission from human to mosquito to human, and temperature (which affects vector distribution, size, feeding habits, and extrinsic incubation period). Public health models may use simulation models to help them plan or evaluate the potential impact of different intervention strategies and/or of environmental changes (e.g., global warming). Other factors contributing to the dengue epidemic are international travel, urbanization, population growth, crowding, poverty, a weakened public health infrastructure, and limited support for sustained disease control programs. Molecular epidemiology by nucleic acid sequence analysis is another sophisticated technique used to study infectious diseases. It showed that dengue type 3 isolated from Panama and Nicaragua in 1994 was identical to that responsible for the major dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Sri Lanka and India in the 1980s. Public health officials must remember three priorities relevant to dengue and other emerging infections: the need to strengthen surveillance efforts, dedicated and sustained involvement in prevention and control needs at the local level, and a strong public health infrastructure at the international, national, and local levels to maintain support for surveillance and control activities. PMID:8622446
Lifson, A R
In the spring 2006, a flood emergency occurred in the Olomouc region after a rapid snow thaw, with the formation of multiple periodic pools and overflows persisting for long periods. In the floodplain forests, as expected, mass occurrence of adult mosquitoes was observed, infesting the nearby villages. The mosquito emergency continued until August and mosquitoes of both the spring species, in particular, Ochlerotatus cantans, and summer species were implicated in it. To control this emergency, aerial application of VectoBac G larvicide granules based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (BTI) at a dose of 6.4 kg/ha was used for the first time in the Olomouc region. Its efficacy was close to 100 % for the treated water areas. The effect was clearly evident in the communities situated in the vicinity of the treated breeding grounds. Nevertheless, not all breeding grounds and blind stream meanders could be treated aerially. As a result, mosquitoes from the untreated breeding grounds caused an emergency in the nearby communities where insecticide aerosols had to be applied on a large scale, even repeatedly in some cases. The treatment of the mosquito breeding grounds with BTI based larvicide granules proved to be an effective and fully selective approach to controlling mosquitoes. Although the technology is exacting and requires professional and organizational skills, it is expected that, in the Czech Republic, this environmentally friendly approach to mosquito control will replace the large scale use of non-selective chemical aerosol insecticides. The public health protection, administrative and legislative authorities should be active in promoting the use of specific BTI based larvicides for the treatment of mosquito breeding grounds, even if located in protected areas, whenever it is needed for mosquito control in emergencies. PMID:17593805
Chmela, J; Mazánek, L; Nakládal, Z; Pesáková, L; Halirová, R
The finding of Sabethes purpureus larvae and pupae in tree holes both in urban and forest environments in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, Salta Province, Argentina, is reported, together with information on the larval habitat. Tree holes were sampled monthly from January to March or April of 2011, 2012, and 2013 along sidewalks, in public access areas, and in 3 sites within forested areas outside the city, selected along an urban gradient in Orán. Sabathes purpureus was most frequently found in low numbers and with other mosquito species. A higher proportion of tree holes was positive in the urban compared to the forest environment, although there were no significant differences in abundances or densities per hole. To our best knowledge, this paper reports the species for the first time breeding in an urban environment, and extends its geographical distribution from the Atlantic and Paranaense forests to the Southern Andean Yungas in northwestern Argentina. PMID:24772679
Mangudo, Carolina; Aparicio, Juan P
Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations.
Yan-Jang S. Huang
Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes. PMID:23911355
Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane
The susceptibility of Anopheles mosquitoes to Plasmodium infections relies on complex interactions between the insect vector and the malaria parasite. A number of studies have shown that the mosquito innate immune responses play an important role in controlling the malaria infection and that the strength of parasite clearance is under genetic control, but little is known about the influence of environmental factors on the transmission success. We present here evidence that the composition of the vector gut microbiota is one of the major components that determine the outcome of mosquito infections. A. gambiae mosquitoes collected in natural breeding sites from Cameroon were experimentally challenged with a wild P. falciparum isolate, and their gut bacterial content was submitted for pyrosequencing analysis. The meta-taxogenomic approach revealed a broader richness of the midgut bacterial flora than previously described. Unexpectedly, the majority of bacterial species were found in only a small proportion of mosquitoes, and only 20 genera were shared by 80% of individuals. We show that observed differences in gut bacterial flora of adult mosquitoes is a result of breeding in distinct sites, suggesting that the native aquatic source where larvae were grown determines the composition of the midgut microbiota. Importantly, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in the mosquito midgut correlates significantly with the Plasmodium infection status. This striking relationship highlights the role of natural gut environment in parasite transmission. Deciphering microbe-pathogen interactions offers new perspectives to control disease transmission. PMID:22693451
Boissière, Anne; Tchioffo, Majoline T; Bachar, Dipankar; Abate, Luc; Marie, Alexandra; Nsango, Sandrine E; Shahbazkia, Hamid R; Awono-Ambene, Parfait H; Levashina, Elena A; Christen, Richard; Morlais, Isabelle
Infrastructure degradation in many post-industrial cities has increased the availability of potential mosquito habitats, including container habitats that support infestations of invasive disease-vectors. This study is unique in examining both immature and adult mosquito abundance across the fine-scale variability in socio-economic condition that occurs block-to-block in many cities. We hypothesized that abundant garbage associated with infrastructure degradation would support greater mosquito production but instead, found more mosquito larvae and host-seeking adults (86%) in parcels across the higher socio-economic, low-decay block. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens were 5.61 (p mosquito production, which occurred during the 5th hottest July on record. Containers associated with human residence were more likely to hold water and contain immature mosquitoes. We propose that mosquito production switches from rain-fed unmanaged containers early in the season to container habitats that are purposefully shaded or watered by mid-season. This study suggests that residents living in higher socioeconomic areas with low urban decay may be at greater risk of mosquito-borne disease during peak mosquito production when local container habitats are effectively decoupled from environmental constraints. PMID:24651396
Becker, Brian; Leisnham, Paul T; LaDeau, Shannon L
Full Text Available Infrastructure degradation in many post-industrial cities has increased the availability of potential mosquito habitats, including container habitats that support infestations of invasive disease-vectors. This study is unique in examining both immature and adult mosquito abundance across the fine-scale variability in socio-economic condition that occurs block-to-block in many cities. We hypothesized that abundant garbage associated with infrastructure degradation would support greater mosquito production but instead, found more mosquito larvae and host-seeking adults (86% in parcels across the higher socio-economic, low-decay block. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens were 5.61 (p < 0.001 and 4.60 (p = 0.001 times more abundant, respectively. Most discarded (garbage containers were dry during peak mosquito production, which occurred during the 5th hottest July on record. Containers associated with human residence were more likely to hold water and contain immature mosquitoes. We propose that mosquito production switches from rain-fed unmanaged containers early in the season to container habitats that are purposefully shaded or watered by mid-season. This study suggests that residents living in higher socioeconomic areas with low urban decay may be at greater risk of mosquito-borne disease during peak mosquito production when local container habitats are effectively decoupled from environmental constraints.
This online Flash game gets learners thinking like geneticists in order to breed a border collie puppy with select traits, including coat color, coat length, and ear length. Progressive levels of play encourage learners as they move from novice to master breeders. Learners can click on the Why button to learn more about genes and dog breeding.
How the conventional breeding method of backcross breeding is done.This is the seventh of a series of seven animations that detail theprocess of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Gun.)
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus activity is an important cause of viral encephalitis in Southeast Asia. In Malaysia, JEV activity has been first detected in Culex gelidus in 1976. Since then, no study has fully addressed the seasonal dynamics of this mosquito. As irrigated rice production expands, the incidence of JEV vectors, particularly Cx. gelidus is expected to increase. We surveyed Penang Island to determine the breeding patterns of Cx. gelidus and their potential insect predators, in relation to habitat/niche and rice growing period. Six rice fields proper (RFP) and related drainage canals (DC) were visited through three cultivation cycles (CCs) over 17 months. Weekly visits were performed to each of the 36 sites and mosquito larvae and aquatic insects were sampled from RFP and DCs using dippers. Culex gelidus was abundant in RFP and almost absent in DCs. Its densities usually were high during the first and 3rd CC and when the RFs were in Fp, Pp and Gp. In DCs, the mosquito was abundant during Mp, e.g., 2nd CC. Predators, especially those belonging to the families Corixidae, Coenagrionidae and Dytiscidae, were more present in RFP. Predator numbers usually were high during the first CC; in some cases predator abundance peaked during other CCs, e.g., corixids and dysticids. In RFP, neither corixids nor coenagrionids showed any positive correlation with densities of Cx. gelidus. However, dytiscids' population peaked when the mosquito densities were on the rise. These observations suggest that Cx. gelidus is active during the period of rice cultivation. Operational vector control through bio-control or with insecticides near the end of the rice cultivation season in RFP may prove beneficial in reducing the density of Cx. gelidus, but also the amount of bio-agent or insecticide applied on riceland. PMID:21399580
Abu Hassan, A; Hamady, D; Tomomitsu, S; Michael, B; Jameel S L, A S
Abstract Background An important determinant of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission is the spatial distribution of vectors. The primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) in Illinois are Culex pipiens Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald. In urban environments, these mosquitoes commonly oviposit in roadside storm water catch basins. However, use of this habitat is inconsistent, with abundance of larvae varying significantly across catch basins at a fine spatial scale. Meth...
Gardner Allison M; Anderson Tavis K; Hamer Gabriel L; Johnson Dana E; Varela Kate E; Walker Edward D; Ruiz Marilyn O
A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats. PMID:19440962
Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C
Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se hizo una prospección de copépodos en La Plata, Argentina, con los objetivos de caracterizar la comunidad local de copépodos larvívoros en sitios de cría de mosquitos, e identificar nuevas especies depredadoras de los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens. La diversi [...] dad de ciclopoides larvívoros fue máxima en charcos permanentes. Se examinó la depredación por sexos y edad, la selectividad por especies de mosquito, y la tasa de depredación diaria durante cinco días en Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus y Mesocyclops longisetus. Los copépodos hembra presentaron la capacidad depredadora más alta. No se encontró preferencia por alguna especie de mosquito. De acuerdo al potencial de depredación en general, los copépodos se ordenan así: D. uruguayensis Abstract in english Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cy [...] clopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus. Female copepods presented the highest predatory capacity. No predatory preference for mosquito species was found. According to overall predation potential, copepods were ranked as follows: D. uruguayensis
María C, Tranchida; María V, Micieli; Arnaldo, Maciá; Juan J, García.
Dengue fever is a serious problem in Mexico and vector control has not been effective enough at preventing outbreaks. Malaria is largely under control, but it is important that new control measures continue to be developed. Novaluron, a novel host-specific insect growth regulator and chitin synthesis inhibitor, has proved to be effective against agricultural pests, but its efficacy against larval mosquito vectors under field conditions remains unknown. In accordance with the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, phase I, II and III studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and residual effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC, Makhteshim, Beer-Sheva, Israel) on the malaria vectors Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus Skuse and the nuisance mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Laboratory susceptibility tests yielded diagnostic concentrations for all five target species. Field trials to identify the optimum field dosage of Novaluron against Anopheles mosquitoes were carried out under semi-natural conditions in artificial plots and in vessels with wild mosquitoes. Efficacy was measured by monitoring mortality of larvae and pupae and the percentage of inhibition of emergence from floating cages. Dosages of Novaluron for field tests were based on pupal LC(99) (lethal concentration 99%) of An. pseudopunctipennis (0.166 mg/L) in plots and average pupal LC(99) of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (0.55 mg/L). At all dosages tested, Novaluron significantly reduced larval populations of An. albimanus, Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus by approximately 90%, inhibited adult emergence of An. albimanus and An. pseudopunctipennis by approximately 97% for almost 4 months in experimental plots, and inhibited adult emergence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus by approximately 97% for up to 14 weeks. Recommended dosages of Novaluron for non-container breeding and container breeding mosquitoes are 0.166 mg/L and 0.55 mg/L, respectively. Overall, the residual effect was more sustained than that of temephos. The lowest dosage of Novaluron had less of an impact on non-target organisms than did temephos. Small-scale field trials in natural breeding sites treated with Novaluron at 0.6 L/ha eliminated adult emergence of An. albimanus and Cx. coronator for 8 weeks. For phase III studies, Novaluron was tested at the local and village levels, applying the optimum field rate to all natural breeding habitats within 1 km of a pair of neighbouring villages. Village-scale trials of Novaluron at 0.6 L/ha reduced An. albimanus larval populations for at least 8 weeks and, more importantly, sharply reduced the densities of adult host-seeking mosquitoes approaching houses. We conclude that Novaluron is effective and environmentally safer than temephos. PMID:17199749
Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Valdez-Delgado, K M
This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.
Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.
Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes breeding in containers in and around human houses were surveyed in Halmahela villages, the North Moluccas, Indonesia. Adults reared from larvae found in containers and those reared from eggs collected by ovitraps revealed the dominance of Aedes scutellaris (Walker) in residential areas. Breeding of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was confirmed in a few coastal villages with high human densities.
This radio broadcast features an interview with George O'Meara, the world's foremost expert on mosquitoes, who studies mosquito biology and dispenses fun facts (such as: only female mosquitoes bite). There are descriptions of the most aggressive mosquito species, how to tell female mosquitoes from males, and a discussion of landing rates of mosquitoes in the Everglades National Park. The clip is 5 minutes and 30 seconds in length.
Bacillus sphaericus (Bsph) Neide has been recognized as an effective mosquito larvicide since its discovery 20 years ago. Various strains of this agent, such as 2362, 2297, 1593, and C3-41, have been developed, formulated, and field-evaluated against mosquito larvae in different countries. Their high efficacy in controlling mosquitoes breeding in various habitats, especially those in polluted water, has been documented. However, resistance to Bsph has been reported in Culex pipiens complex in both laboratory colonies and natural populations. During our field trials on Bsph water-dispersible granules (WDG) against natural populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus Say in a low-income community, Nonthaburi Province, Thailand, control failure occurred within 4 months after 5 treatments using VectoLex WDG at the dosages of 50-200 mg/m2. The suspected Bsph-resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were collected and colonized in the laboratory, from which the late stage larvae of generations F14 through F17 were used in bioassays to elucidate the resistance profile. A high level of Bsph resistance was documented in this colony as compared with the susceptible mosquitoes from the same area in Thailand or from California, USA. The resistance ratios (RR) at LC50, depending on reference colonies, were 21,100-28,100-fold against Bsph WDG or greater than 125,000-200,000-fold against Bsph technical-grade material. These Bsph-resistant mosquitoes, however, were completely susceptible to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, (Bti) preparations, LC50 ranging from 0.017 ppm for technical material with 7000 ITU/mg to 0.052 ppm for water-dispersible granules with 3000 ITU/mg. The RR to mixtures of Bsph + Bti in this highly Bsph-resistant mosquitoes increased steadily upon the increase of Bsph ratios in the mixtures from 50, 75, 90, 95 to 99%. The resistance levels to the mixtures with various ratios of Bsph and Bti, however, were substantially lower than that in Bsph alone, suggesting addition of Bti to Bsph substantially enhanced the mosquitocidal activity (synergism) against these highly Bsph-resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus. Moderate tolerance to low levels of resistance to Bsph/Bti recombinant (RR 7.29-12.75 at LC50 and 5.15-13.40 at LC90) was also noted in this Bsph-resistant population. PMID:15669382
Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S
Urban wetlands are being created in the UK as part of sustainable urban drainage strategies, to create wetland habitats lost during development, to provide a habitat for protected species, and to increase the public's access to 'blue-space' for the improvement of health and well-being. Sewage treatment reedbeds are also being incorporated into newly constructed wetlands to offer an alternative approach to dealing with sewage. This field study aims to provide the first UK evidence of how such newly constructed aquatic habitats are colonized by mosquitoes. A number of new aquatic habitats were surveyed for immature mosquitoes every fortnight over the first two years following wetland construction. The majority of mosquitoes collected were Culex sp. and were significantly associated with the sewage treatment reedbed system, particularly following storm events and sewage inflow. Other more natural aquatic habitats that were subject to cycles of drying and re-wetting contributed the majority of the remaining mosquitoes colonizing. Colonization of permanent habitats was slow, particularly where fluctuations in water levels inhibited emergent vegetation growth. It is recommended that during the planning process for newly constructed wetlands consideration is given on a case-by-case basis to the impact of mosquitoes, either as a cause of nuisance or as potential vectors. Although ornithophagic Culex dominated in this wetland, their potential role as enzootic West Nile virus vectors should not be overlooked. PMID:25424253
Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C
Larval ecology is an important aspect of the population dynamics of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), the vectors of malaria. Anopheles larvae live in pools of stagnant water and adult fitness may be correlated with the nutritional conditions under which larvae develop. A study was conducted in Mbita, Western Kenya, to investigate how properties of the soil substrate of Anopheles gambiae breeding pools can influence development of this mosquito species. An. gambiae eggs from an established colony were dispensed into experimental plastic troughs containing soil samples from a range of natural Anopheles larval habitats and filtered Lake Victoria water. The duration of larval development (8-15 days), pupation rate (0-79%), and adult body size (20.28-26.91 mm3) varied among different soil types. The total organic matter (3.61-21.25%), organic carbon (0.63-7.18%), and total nitrogen (0.06-0.58%) levels of the soils were positively correlated with pupation rate and negatively correlated with development time and adult body size. PMID:17249359
Pfaehler, O; Oulo, D O; Gouagna, L C; Githure, J; Guerin, P M
Adult mosquitoes were collected with CDC traps baited with CO2, and potential breeding sites were surveyed for immature stages. Morphological identification of 1,432 adult mosquitoes and 85 larvae revealed the presence of 10 species: Anopheles atroparvus, An. algeriensis, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex modestus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. univittatus, Culiseta longiareolata, Aedes caspius and Ae. detritus. Adult mosquito peak densities were recorded in July, contrasting with null larval breeding in the same month in the surveyed biotopes. Most abundant species were Cx. pipiens (52%, Cx. theileri (29% and Ae. caspius (11%. Lagoon Salgados and Quinta das Salinas, exhibited the highest similarity of culicid fauna, despite being most distant from each other, Female mosquitoes (1,249 specimens screened by RT-PCR, did not reveal WNV products. However, previous detection of WNV activity in this area, susceptible to re-introductions, demands for continued vigilance.
A one-year study of the proliferation of mosquito in a Pistia stratiotes-based waste stabilization ponds in Cameroon revealed that Mansonia and Culex were the main breeding genera with about 55% and 42% of the total imagoes respectively. Though the ponds represent a favorable breeding ground for mosquitoes, only 0.02% of captured imagoes was Anopheles gambiae, suggesting that this wastewater treatment plant does not significantly contribute to the development of the malaria vector in the area. Gambusia sp. introduced to control mosquito population in the ponds acclimatized relatively well in most of the ponds (B3-B7) and their feeding rate without any diet ranged from 15.0 to 50.2 larvae/day for a single fish. PMID:16114683
Kengne Noumsi, I M; Akoa, A; Atangana Eteme, R; Nya, J; Ngniado, P; Fonkou, T; Brissaud, F
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Changes in weather patterns especially rainfall affects the distribution and densities of mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to describe mosquito aquatic habitats, to determine larval abundance, species composition, and habitat types found in Kasayani village of Kibwezi division.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted in Kasayani village in Kibwezi division to determine species composition, larval abundance, and habitat types found in this village. This survey was conducted during the rainy season in November and December 2006 and during the dry season in February and March 2007. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique and a total of 24 habitats were sampled. The primary habitats identified were water reservoir tanks, puddles, temporary pools, and tyre tracks. Results: A total of 2660 mosquito larvae were collected of which 2140 (80.45% were culicines, 503 (18.91% were Anopheles and 17 (0.64% were pupae. For culicines, 1787 (83.5% were categorized as early instars and 353 (16.5% were as late instars while in the Anopheles, 425 (84.49% were classified as early instars and 78 (15.51% were late instars. Morphological identification of the III and IV instar larvae by use of microscopy yielded 16.24% (n = 70 Anopheles gambiae complex, 1.16% (n = 5 An. funestus, 0.70% (n = 3 An. coustani, 42.46% (n = 183 Culex quinquefasciatus, 6.26% (n = 27 Cx. duttoni, and 33.18% (n = 143 Ae. aegypti. Puddles, tyre tracks and pools had highly turbid water while water reservoir tanks had clear water. Anopheles gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus were found in all habitat categories while Ae. aegypti were found only in water storage tanks. Interpretation & conclusion: The mosquito larval densities indicate that the inhabitants of this village are at risk of mosquito-borne diseases including malaria, which is one of the greatest causes of morbidity and mortality in this area. Furthermore, mosquito control measures targeting both the mosquito immatures and adults should be enhanced especially during the rainy season to ensure maximum protection of the inhabitants.
Joseph M. Mwangangi
Estructura y fenología reproductiva de una población remanente de Adesmia bijuga Phil., Fabaceae, en un hábitat costero mediterráneo perturbado de Chile central / Structure and breeding phenology of a remaining population of Adesmia bijuga Phil., Fabaceae, in a mediterranean coastal habitat disturbed of central Chile
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english In this note we examine the population structure and breeding phenology of Adesmia bijuga Phil. The area of development of the study was Curepto, Maule Región, central Chile. Our results indicate a high vulnerability of local extinction of the studied population due low population size and disturbed [...] habitat. Flowering and fructification of individuals exists, nevertheless absence of seedlings suggesting restrictions to the regeneration in the population of A. bijuga. It is recommended to continue with the research. Actions of conservation ex situ for the species are realized by the botanical garden of the Talca University.
PERSY, GÓMEZ; STEFFEN, HAHN; JOSÉ, SAN MARTÍN.
The mode of sclerotization of Aedes aegypti pupal and adult cuticle was examined by employing biochemical and radioactive techniques. During larval-pupal metamorphosis, tyrosine is converted to tanning precursors and is incorporated into aryl-amino adducts and beta-crosslinks. The major hydrolysis product of beta-crosslinks in pupal cases is identified to be arterenone. Examination of tanning modes in five different mosquito species shows that the ratio of quinone to beta-sclerotization not only differs within the life stages of the insects, but also differs between species. PMID:3817100
Sugumaran, M; Semensi, V
Recently, designer mutts like the Labradoodle -- a cross between a Labarador retriever and a poodle -- have become popular. A listener wanted to know if some kinds of dogs are just too different to make puppies. This Science Update explores the cross breeding of species.
Climate can strongly influence the population dynamics of disease vectors and is consequently a key component of disease ecology. Future climate change and variability may alter the location and seasonality of many disease vectors, possibly increasing the risk of disease transmission to humans. The mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus is a concern across the southern United States because of its role as a West Nile virus vector and its affinity for urban environments. Using established relationships between atmospheric variables (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito development, we have created the Dynamic Mosquito Simulation Model (DyMSiM) to simulate Cx. quinquefasciatus population dynamics. The model is driven with climate data and validated against mosquito count data from Pasco County, Florida and Coachella Valley, California. Using 1-week and 2-week filters, mosquito trap data are reproduced well by the model ( P Center for Atmospheric Research CCSM3 general circulation model, we applied temperature and precipitation offsets to the climate data at each location to evaluate mosquito population sensitivity to possible future climate conditions. We found that temperature and precipitation shifts act interdependently to cause remarkable changes in modeled mosquito population dynamics. Impacts include a summer population decline from drying in California due to loss of immature mosquito habitats, and in Florida a decrease in late-season mosquito populations due to drier late summer conditions.
Morin, Cory W.; Comrie, Andrew C.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae is a potential malaria vector commonly present at low altitudes in remote areas in Reunion Island. Little attention has been paid to the environmental conditions driving larval development and abundance patterns in potential habitats. Two field surveys were designed to determine whether factors that discriminate between aquatic habitats with and without An. arabiensis larvae also drive larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats. Methods In an initial preliminary survey, a representative sample of aquatic habitats that would be amenable to an intensive long-term study were selected and divided into positive and negative sites based on the presence or absence of Anopheles arabiensis larvae. Subsequently, a second survey was prompted to gain a better understanding of biotic and abiotic drivers of larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats in the two studied locations. In both surveys, weekly sampling was performed to record mosquito species composition and larval density within individual habitats, as well as in situ biological characteristics and physico-chemical properties. Results Whilst virtually any stagnant water body could be a potential breeding ground for An. arabiensis, habitats occupied by their immatures had different structural and biological characteristics when compared to those where larvae were absent. Larval occurrence seemed to be influenced by flow velocity, macrofauna diversity and predation pressure. Interestingly, the relative abundance of larvae in man-made habitats (average: 0.55 larvae per dip, 95%CI [0.3–0.7] was significantly lower than that recorded in naturally occurring ones (0.74, 95%CI [0.5–0.8]. Such differences may be accounted for in part by varying pressures that could be linked to a specific habitat. Conclusions If the larval ecology of An. arabiensis is in general very complex and factors affecting breeding site productivity sometimes not easy to highlight, our results, however, highlight lower populations of An. arabiensis immatures compared to those reported in comparable studies conducted in the African continent. Overall, this low larval abundance, resulting from both abiotic and biotic factors, suggests that vector control measures targeting larval habitats are likely to be successful in Reunion, but these could be better implemented by taking environmental variability into account.
Foraging behavior often reflects food availability in predictable ways. For example, in habitats where food availability is high, predators should attack prey more often and move more slowly than in habitats where food availability is low. To assess relative food availability and habitat quality, I studied the foraging behavior of breeding Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) in two forest habitat types, cypress-gum swamp forest and coastal-plain levee forest. I quantified foraging behavior with focal animal sampling and continuous recording during foraging bouts. I measured two aspects of foraging behavior: 1) prey attack rate (attacks per minute), using four attack maneuvers (glean, sally, hover, strike), and 2) foraging speed (movements per minute), using three types of movement (hop, short flight [???1 m], long flight [>1 m]). Warblers attacked prey more often in cypress-gum swamp forest than in coastal-plain levee forest. Foraging speed, however, was not different between habitats. I also measured foraging effort (% time spent foraging) and relative frequency of attack maneuvers employed in each habitat; neither of these variables was influenced by forest type. I conclude that Prothonotary Warblers encounter more prey when foraging in cypress-gum swamps than in coastal-plain levee forest, and that greater food availability results in higher density and greater reproductive success for birds breeding in cypress-gum swamp.
In this activity, learners build a model of a self-sustaining habitat (growing grass and beans from seeds). They come to understand the natural conditions which promote plant, animal and human growth, and explore such questions as: What are the parts of a habitat? What are the habitat's sources of energy, food and water? How do the parts of a habitat work together? This activity can be found on pages 35-36 of the activity guide.
Full Text Available Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cyclopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus. Female copepods presented the highest predatory capacity. No predatory preference for mosquito species was found. According to overall predation potential, copepods were ranked as follows: D. uruguayensis Se hizo una prospección de copépodos en La Plata, Argentina, con los objetivos de caracterizar la comunidad local de copépodos larvívoros en sitios de cría de mosquitos, e identificar nuevas especies depredadoras de los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens. La diversidad de ciclopoides larvívoros fue máxima en charcos permanentes. Se examinó la depredación por sexos y edad, la selectividad por especies de mosquito, y la tasa de depredación diaria durante cinco días en Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus y Mesocyclops longisetus. Los copépodos hembra presentaron la capacidad depredadora más alta. No se encontró preferencia por alguna especie de mosquito. De acuerdo al potencial de depredación en general, los copépodos se ordenan así: D. uruguayensis < A. robustus < M. albidus < M. longisetus. También se evaluó la tolerancia a la desecación del hábitat y la capacidad de resistir en agua de contenedores artificiales. D. uruguayensis y A. robustus sobrevivieron en condiciones de sequía, pero D. uruguayensis presentó menor supervivencia en agua de floreros de cementerio. M. albidus no sobrevivió condiciones de sequía y no toleró el agua extraída de contenedores artificiales. Los ciclopoides neotropicales D. uruguayensis and A. robustus son buenos candidatos y merecen investigación ulterior como agentes de control biológico de mosquitos.
María C Tranchida
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically-modified (GM mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. Methods The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. Results Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was preferred; however a transgenic release that satisfied certain requirements was usually acceptable. Conclusions Although there were some dissenters, the majority of participants were pragmatic towards a release of GM mosquitoes. An array of social and cultural issues associated with malaria, mosquitoes and genetic engineering became apparent. If these can be successfully addressed, then social acceptance among the populations surveyed seems promising.
The abundance and species composition of adult mosquitoes collected by carbon dioxide-baited suction traps and gravid traps in western Los Angeles County, CA, were compared before and during a strong El Niño--Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle from December 1996 until November 1999. Following El Niño conditions in the winter 1997-1998, adult host-seeking mosquito abundance during spring was twice that observed during spring 1997 and species composition favored cool-weather mosquitoes such as Culiseta incidens and Culex tarsalis. The comparatively cool temperatures from early April until early June and increased rainfall of the 1998 El Niño negatively affected warm-weather mosquitoes such as Culex quinquefasciatus that inhabit eutrophic habitats such as urban storm drains. Gravid mosquito abundance during the early summer following El Niño conditions also increased 2- to 3-fold relative to 1997, but gravid mosquito species composition was not significantly affected by ENSO cycles, reflecting an inherent bias of gravid traps to collect predominantly Cx. quinquefasciatus. Relative to spring 1997, host-seeking and gravid mosquito abundances were reduced 3- to 7-fold from March until June 1999 under the comparatively dry La Niña conditions. The increased abundance and prolonged host-seeking activity of Cx. tarsalis during the spring and early summer following a strong El Niño may have a significant impact on public health in urban southern California because this mosquito is an important arbovirus vector and constructed wetlands in urban areas may increase suitable, comparatively permanent developmental sites for important mosquito vectors such as Cx. tarsalis that are usually rare in urban environments. PMID:18697303
Heft, David E; Walton, William E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding sites under natural field conditions provided 98.1% reduction of Anopheles larvae on day 1; thereafter 100% reduction was recorded up to week 1 and more than 80% reduction up to week 3, while percent reduction against Culex larvae was 95.5% on day 1, and thereafter 80% reduction was achieved up to week 3. The formulation also showed 95.1% and, 99.7% reduction of Aedes larvae on day 1 and day 2 respectively; thereafter 100% larval control was observed up to day 7. Conclusion The neem oil formulation was found effective in controlling mosquito larvae in different breeding sites under natural field conditions. As neem trees are widely distributed in India, their formulations may prove to be an effective and eco-friendly larvicide, which could be used as an alternative for malaria control.
Dua Virendra K
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the major vector-borne diseases in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region, posing a threat to human health. In rural and suburban areas, traditional rice farming and intensive pig breeding provide an ideal environment for both mosquito development and the transmission of JEV among human beings. Combining surveillance data for mosquito vectors, human JE cases, and environmental conditions in Changsha, China, 2004-2009, generalized threshold models were constructed to project the mosquito and JE dynamics. Temperature and rainfall were found to be closely associated with mosquito density at 1, and 4month lag, respectively. The two thresholds, maximum temperature of 22-23°C for mosquito development and minimum temperature of 25-26°C for JEV transmission, play key roles in the ecology of JEV. The model predicts that, in the upper regime, a 1g/m(3) increase in absolute humidity would on average increase human cases by 68-84%. A shift in mosquito species composition in 2007 was observed, and possibly caused by a drought. Effective predictive models could be used in risk management to provide early warnings for potential JE transmission. PMID:25771078
Tian, Huai-Yu; Bi, Peng; Cazelles, Bernard; Zhou, Sen; Huang, Shan-Qian; Yang, Jing; Pei, Yao; Wu, Xiao-Xu; Fu, Shi-Hong; Tong, Shi-Lu; Wang, Huan-Yu; Xu, Bing
The enormous burden placed on populations worldwide by mosquito-borne diseases, most notably malaria and dengue, is currently being tackled by the use of insecticides sprayed in residences or applied to bednets, and in the case of dengue vectors through reduction of larval breeding sites or larviciding with insecticides thereof. However, these methods are under threat from, amongst other issues, the development of insecticide resistance and the practical difficulty of maintaining long-term community-wide efforts. The sterile insect technique (SIT), whose success hinges on having a good understanding of the biology and behaviour of the male mosquito, is an additional weapon in the limited arsenal against mosquito vectors. The successful production and release of sterile males, which is the mechanism of population suppression by SIT, relies on the release of mass-reared sterile males able to confer sterility in the target population by mating with wild females. A five year Joint FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project brought together researchers from around the world to investigate the pre-mating conditions of male mosquitoes (physiology and behaviour, resource acquisition and allocation, and dispersal), the mosquito mating systems and the contribution of molecular or chemical approaches to the understanding of male mosquito mating behaviour. A summary of the existing knowledge and the main novel findings of this group is reviewed here, and further presented in the reviews and research articles that form this Acta Tropica special issue. PMID:24252487
Lees, Rosemary Susan; Knols, Bart; Bellini, Romeo; Benedict, Mark Q; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Bossin, Hervé Christophe; Chadee, Dave D; Charlwood, Jacques; Dabiré, Roch K; Djogbenou, Luc; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Gato, René; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Lemperiere, Guy; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Pitts, R Jason; Simard, Frederic; Gilles, Jeremie R L
Cubiertas de auto abandonadas como sitios de cría de Culex eduardoi (Diptera: Culicidae en el Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola, Provincia de Buenos Aires Discarded car tires as breeding sites of Culex eduardoi (Diptera: Culicidae in the Pereyra Iraola Provincial Park, Buenos Aires Province
Full Text Available El conocimiento sobre la fauna de mosquitos que se cría en cubiertas de auto es realmente escaso en Argentina. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar una población de inmaduros de Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia en una acumulación de cubiertas abandonadas en un bosque suburbano de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Entre noviembre 2009 y mayo 2010, se recolectaron mensualmente larvas de mosquitos en 27 cubiertas de auto abandonadas en un sector boscoso del Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola. Se recolectaron en total 1.009 larvas del tercer y cuarto estadio de Cx. eduardoi, y el índice de contenedores (IC global fue 66,3% (106/160. Culex eduardoi estuvo presente durante todos los meses, aunque el IC difirió significativamente (x²(6 = 15,11; p The knowledge about tire-breeding mosquitoes is truly scarce in Argentina. The objective of this study was to characterize a population of immatures of Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia, from a pile of abandoned tires located in a suburban forest of Buenos Aires Province. Between November 2009 and May 2010, mosquito larvae were monthly collected in 27 abandoned tires within a woody area of the Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola. A total of 1009 third and fourth instar larvae of Cx. eduardoi were collected, and the overall container index (CI was 66.3% (106/160. Culex eduardoi was collected every month but the CI differed significantly (x²(6 = 15.11; p < 0.05, reaching maximum values in November and December (76 and 92.5% respectively. In spring, the relative abundance of larvae was also the highest, and the mean number of larvae collected per habitat was 9.5 (min. 3.5 in March; max.15.1 in November. Other mosquito species such as Cx. pipiens Linneo and Toxorhynchites theobaldi Dyar & Knab were also found in the studied containers. The present findings contribute with novel knowledge on culicids of tires in Argentina.
If you could live anywhere in the world, where would you live? Do you think you could survive anywhere in the world or in any habitat? What types of adaptations might help you survive in your dream habitat? Many places seem great to visit, but you won't know if it's the place for you unless you know the characteristics of the habitat. This lesson will encourage your students to research habitats and adaptations that allow plants and animals to survive in their natural environments.
Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue, diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, and azadirachtin, an ecdysone agonist, are three insect growth regulators (IGRs) considered as selective and effective insecticides for mosquitoes. Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) is a mosquito-parasitic mermithid that can provide biological control against many medically important mosquito species. The compatibility of these two control tactics was tested by evaluating the sublethal effects of exposure to IGR on nematode developmental stages (preparasitic, parasitic, and preparasitic + parasitic) using Culex pipiens larvae as the host. Sublethal concentrations of IGRs were 90 % emergence inhibition of host mosquito. Preparasitic exposure to pyriproxyfen, azadirachtin, and diflurbenzuron had no effect on infectivity, parasite load, sex ratio, or male size but reduced nematode female length and increased male sex ratio at one parasite/larva. When IGRs treatments were made against the parasitic and preparasitic + parasitic stages, pyriproxyfen and azadirachtin reduced R. iyengari infectivity, parasite load, and male nematode length, whereas pyriproxyfen exposure increased male sex ratio and reduced the female R. iyengari length. Thus, IGRs have significant negative impacts on different stages of mosquito mermithid that can destabilize the balance of host-parasite population interaction. Therefore, IGRs should be used with caution in mosquito habitats where these parasites have established. PMID:23180130
Suman, Devi Shankar; Brey, Christopher W; Wang, Yi; Sanad, Manar; Shamseldean, Muhammed S M; Gaugler, Randy
Fluctuaciones estacionales y temporales de la densidad larvaria de Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) y familias de insectos asociados al hábitat en El Granzón, Parroquia San Isidro, municipio Sifontes del estado Bolívar, Venezuela / Seasonal and temporal fluctuations of larval densites of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) and insects associated to the habitat in San Isidro Parish, Sifontes municipality, Bolívar state, Venezuela
Full Text Available Anopheles darlingi Root ha sido considerado en condiciones naturales como el principal vector de la malaria humana en América del sur y también en Venezuela, principalmente en los estados Bolívar y Amazonas, donde se produce el 90% de la malaria del país. Durante un mes (Junio de 1999) se realizaron [...] muestreos en criaderos de mosquitos en siete localidades del área minera de San Isidro municipio Sifontes, estado Bolívar. Los sitios de muestreo fueron clasificados a priori en cuatro tipos de hábitat larvario: quebradas, lagunas, ríos, pantanos (herbáceo o arbóreo). En cada criadero se tomaron 30 muestras con un cucharón para colectar larvas de Anopheles. Simultáneamente al muestreo de larvas se midieron cuatro variables físico-químicas del criadero: pH, oxígeno disuelto, temperatura y profundidad del criadero. Asimismo, en un criadero de An. darlingi (quebrada con sombra), ubicado en la localidad de El Granzón, se llevó a cabo un estudio longitudinal, durante un año entre Julio de 1999 y Junio del 2000. En dicho criadero, se colectaron mensualmente larvas de An. darlingi e insectos acuáticos asociados. Las correlaciones entre la precipitación acumulada, la abundancia de estos insectos y la abundancia de larvas de An. darlingi, se establecieron mediante el análisis no paramétrico de correlación de Spearman (Spearman rank correlation). En el hábitat seleccionado, los resultados del análisis revelaron la presencia de una correlación negativa y significativa entre la abundancia de larvas de An. darlingi y la precipitación acumulada el mes anterior a la colecta. En esa misma localidad, la precipitación acumulada el mes anterior a la colecta, se correlacionó positivamente con la abundancia de la familia Naucoridae (Hemiptera). Asimismo, la abundancia de larvas de An. darlingi presentó una correlación negativa y significativa con la abundancia de la familia Naucoridae. En este hábitat (quebrada del Granzón), la densidad de larvas An. darlingi fue mayor en los meses de menor precipitación, aunque tanto en la época de menor precipitación como en la temporada lluviosa, hubo presencia de larvas de esta especie. Por otro lado, el criadero típico de An. darlingi, donde éste presentó su mayor abundancia y hubo presencia de larvas durante todo el año, fue clasificado como “Quebrada con sombra”. Esta presentó mucha sombra (90-100%), abundante materia orgánica sumergida o flotante (hojarasca, palitos, hojas, semillas), profundidad promedio de 65,22 cm, un pH promedio de 6,16, contenido medio de oxigeno disuelto de 6,40 g/L y una temperatura promedio del agua de 26ºC. Abstract in english Anopheles darlingi Root has been considered under natural conditions as human malaria’s principal vector in South America. In Venezuela, Amazonas and Bolivar States, it is responsible for 90 % of malaria cases reported in the country. Field surveys and mosquito larvae sampling of mosquito breeding s [...] ites in mining areas, were carried out in seven localities of Sifontes county, Bolívar state during one month, between 2 and 29 June 1999. The breeding sites were a priori classified into four larval habitat categories: lagoons, streams, rivers and herbaceous swamps. At each breeding site, 30 dips for mosquito larvae samples were made. Simultaneously with mosquito larvae sampling, four selected variables of water were measured: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and water depth. On the other hand, a longitudinal study was carried out in the typical An. darlingi breeding site (shaded streams) in El Granzón (Sifontes county). Field surveys of mosquito larvae and aquatic insects were carried out in the same breeding site over a one-year period (July, 1999 to June, 2000). At this breeding site, Anopheles larvae and aquatic insects were collected monthly. During the study, 12 samples were taken from this larval habitat of An. darlingi. Seasonal and temporal variations of An. darlingi larvae and aquatic insects were determined. Relationships among the rain in the previous month, abundanc
Jesús, Berti-Moser; Julio, González-Rivas; Edith, Navarro.
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a public health educational campaign to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats. Three communities each, within two New Jersey counties, were randomly selected to receive: (1 both education and mosquito control, (2 education only, and (3 no education or mosquito control. Four separate educational events included a 5-day elementary school curriculum in the spring, and three door to door distributions of educational brochures. Before and after each educational event, the numbers of mosquito-larval container habitats were counted in 50 randomly selected homes per study area. Container surveys allowed us to measure source reduction behavior. Although we saw reductions in container habitats in sites receiving education, they were not significantly different from the control. Our results suggest that traditional passive means of public education, which were often considered the gold standard for mosquito control programs, are not sufficient to motivate residents to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats.
This protocol describes mosquito rearing in the insectary. The insectary rooms are maintained at 28°C and ~80% humidity, with a 12 hr. day/night cycle. For this procedure, you'll need mosquito cages, 10% sterile sucrose solution, paper towels, beaker, whatman filter paper, glass feeders, human blood and serum, water bath, parafilm, distilled water, clean plastic trays, mosquito food (described below), mosquito net to cover the trays, vacuum, and a collection chamber to collect...
Das, Suchismita; Garver, Lindsey; Dimopoulos, George
Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. Th...
Mehta, D.; Garg, Anand; Mehta, Naveen K.
Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in tr...
Erickson, Sara M.; Xi, Zhiyong; Mayhew, George F.; Ramirez, Jose L.; Aliota, Matthew T.; Christensen, Bruce M.; Dimopoulos, George
Among dipterans of medical and veterinary importance, the mosquitoes (Culicidae) play the most important role both as vectors and nuisance insects. Mass occurrence of floodwater mosquito species in the flooded area in Wroc?aw district (Lower Silesia, Poland) in 1997 has enhanced the already existed problem of mosquito control. A successful model of control strategy for the city based on the currently recommended integrated methodologies with special emphasis on preventive treatment of aquatic larvae with microbial insecticides has been conducted. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis-based formulations replaced chemicals to control Culex pipiens and Culiseta annulata--two dominant species out of eight noticed during field study in Wroc?aw area in the years 1998-2000. Use of Bti larvicide or other biocontrol agent, conserving biodiversity, requires collecting entomological data, mapping and treating all breeding sources as well as the designing appropriate strategies every year. PMID:16865970
Lonc, Elzbieta; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Gomu?kiewicz, Boles?aw
The spread of exotic mosquito species into new environments can introduce shifts in mosquito populations and potentially alter public health risks to mosquito-borne diseases. The successful establishment of exotic species may occur due to their competitive advantage over other cohabitating species. We hypothesized that the recently introduced exotic mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) would be a more effective competitor than Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett) and Aedes triseriatus (Say), and an equal competitor to Culex pipiens (L.) based on larval abundance data within tire habitats. Impacts of competition were measured using the larval developmental rate and survival of larvae, adult mortality, wing length, and sex ratio. We found that intraspecific competition acted strongest against Ae. japonicus versus the other three resident mosquito species by delaying larval development and increasing adult mortality. Interspecific competition was generally weak and significant main effects were only detected for species and density. Overall, our results show that larval competition between Ae. japonicus and the three resident species was weak when present, indicating that other ecological or behavioral factors may be influencing the invasion success for Ae. japonicus in North America. PMID:22493844
Hardstone, Melissa C; Andreadis, Theodore G
Full Text Available Abstract Research on sterile mosquito technology from 1955 to the 1980s provided a substantial body of knowledge on propagation and release of sterile mosquitoes. Radiation sterilisation and chemosterilisation have been used effectively to induce dominant lethality and thereby sterilise important mosquito vectors in the laboratory. Experimental releases of chemosterilised males provided complete control of Anopheles albimanus in a small breeding population (14-15 sq km in El Salvador. Releases of radiation sterilised males failed to control either Aedes aegypti or Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the USA. Releases of radiation-sterilised and chemosterilised male Culex quinquefasciatus in the USA and India were successful in some instances. Development of genetic sexing systems for Anopheles and improved physical separation methods for Culex have made it possible to rear and release males almost exclusively (> 99% minimizing the release of potential vectors, the females. Factors that affected efficacy in some field programmes included reduction of competitiveness by radiation, immigration of fertilized females from outside the release zones, and inability of laboratory-bred males to perform in the wild. Despite significant progress, institutional commitments to carry the process further were generally lacking in the late 1970s and until recently. Now, with renewed interest and support for further assessment of this technology, this paper summarizes the current knowledge base, prioritizes some areas of investigation, and challenges scientists and administrators to maintain an awareness of progress, remain realistic about the interpretation of new findings, and make decisions about the sterile insect technique on the basis of informed scientific documentation. Areas recommended for priority research status include the establishment of genetic sexing mechanisms that can be transferred to other mosquito species, re-examination of radiation sterilisation, aerial release technology and mass rearing.
Knols Bart GJ
Mosquito-borne diseases cause significant public health burden and are widely re-emerging or emerging. Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the spread of mosquito-borne disease in diverse populations and geographies are ongoing modelling challenges. We propose a hybrid network-patch model for the spread of mosquito-borne pathogens that accounts for individual movement through mosquito habitats, extending the capabilities of existing agent-based models (ABMs) to include vector-borne diseases. The ABM are coupled with differential equations representing 'clouds' of mosquitoes in patches accounting for mosquito ecology. We adapted an ABM for humans using this method and investigated the importance of heterogeneity in pathogen spread, motivating the utility of models of individual behaviour. We observed that the final epidemic size is greater in patch models with a high risk patch frequently visited than in a homogeneous model. Our hybrid model quantifies the importance of the heterogeneity in the spread of mosquito-borne pathogens, guiding mitigation strategies. PMID:25648061
Manore, Carrie A; Hickmann, Kyle S; Hyman, James M; Foppa, Ivo M; Davis, Justin K; Wesson, Dawn M; Mores, Christopher N
Four commercially available spatial repellent devices were tested in a rice-land habitat near Stuttgart, AR, after semi-field level assessments had been made at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture in Gainesville, FL. OFF! Clip-On(metofluthrin), Mosquito Cognito (linalool), No-Pest Strip (dichlorvos), and ThermaCELL (d-cisltrans allethrin) were selected for this study from >20 candidate products. The units based on metofluthrin, linalool, or d-cisltrans allethrin significantly reduced captures of 1 or more of the mosquito species at surrogate human sites (unlit Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps with CO2 and octenol). Among the mosquito species analyzed statistically (Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Culex erraticus, and Psorophora columbiae), there were significantly different responses (up to 84% reduction) to individual products, suggesting that combinations of certain spatial repellents might provide significantly greater protection. PMID:24772674
Dame, David A; Meisch, Max V; Lewis, Carolyn N; Kline, Daniel L; Clark, Gary G
Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This...
Akankali, J. A.; Seighabo, E. I.; Abowei, J. F. N.
Field surveys of mosquito breeding sites on the Pacific coastal plain and foothill regions of southern Chiapas, Mexico, were carried out in the dry and wet seasons of 1988. At each site, selected environmental variables were measured or estimated, presence and percent cover of aquatic plants recorded, a water sample collected for subsequent analyses, and 10-30 dips made for mosquito larvae. Logistic regression and discriminant analyses revealed that the occurrence of Anopheles albimanus larvae in both the wet and dry seasons was positively associated with planktonic algae and negatively associated with altitude. In the dry season, An. albimanus larvae were largely restricted to the margins of permanent water bodies and were associated with the presence of floating plants, particularly Eichhornia crassipes. During the wet season An. albimanus larvae were positively associated with emergent plants, particularly seasonally flooded Cyperaceae, and phosphorus (PO4) concentrations, and were negatively associated with abundant filamentous algae, high levels of total suspended solids (TSS) and Salvinia. In the dry season, An. pseudopunctipennis larvae were positively associated with filamentous algae, altitude and the presence of Heteranthera if encountered in a riverine setting, and were negatively associated with water depth. During the wet season, flooding eliminated typical flood plain An. pseudopunctipennis habitats, and larvae were rarely encountered. PMID:2098467
Savage, H M; Rejmankova, E; Arredondo-Jim'enez, J I; Roberts, D R; Rodr'iguez, M H
1. The booted eagle Hieraaetus pennatus is a poorly known and scarce raptor that breeds in Spain. In Donana National Park (south-west Spain) its population has increased from only six breeding pairs in the early 1980s to about 150 today. 2. In order to guide habitat management for this raptor in Donana National Park, we related nesting habitat selection to breeding success. 3. Birds withstood some human disturbance when nesting, choosing sites closer to pastures besides marshes, footpaths and...
Sua?rez, S.; Balbonti?n, Javier; Ferrer, Miguel
- Mosquitoes play a significant role globally in the transmission of so-called vector-borne diseases- In the Netherlands, native mosquitoes are capable of transmitting infectious disease. This has not resulted in outbreaks of disease over the last 50 years.- The establishment of exotic mosquito species could pose risks to public health, especially in the case of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus).- Several organisations are working together to prevent the establishment of exotic mosquitoes in the Netherlands.- A plan for controlling native mosquito species is also currently being developed. PMID:25761288
Brandwagt, D A H; Stroo, C J; Braks, M A H; Fanoy, E B
Full Text Available Background & objective: Urban malaria is on the rise in Nigeria due to rapid industrialisation anddevelopmental activities. A study was undertaken in Lagos, Nigeria to study the Anopheles breedingin polluted water bodies.Methods: Anopheles larval breeding habitats were surveyed and water samples from 24 larval breedingsites from four strategic areas in urban Lagos were analysed. The relationship between eight abioticvariables (pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, hardness, nitrate, total dissolved solids, turbidity andoil and density of Anopheles larvae were investigated. The levels of heavy metals (Zn, Co, Cu, Pb,Mn, Fe, Hg and Ni pollution were analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.Results: Morphological and PCR analysis of 2358 anopheline larvae revealed only the presence oftwo members of the Anopheles gambiae complex consisting of 93.1% Anopheles gambiae s.s. and6.9% An. arabiensis. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant association betweenoccurrence of An. arabiensis larvae and two independent variables: pH and turbidity but not for An.gambiae s.s. The levels of three heavy metals: Fe, Cu and Pb from more than half of the sites surveyedwere three times higher than the values obtained in natural breeding sites of An. gambiae s.s. from arural area of Lagos. Over 85% of An. gambiae s.s. larvae were found in water bodies characterisedby low dissolved oxygen (900 uS/cm, turbidity (>180 FAU, oil(>11 mg/L and heavy metals: Fe, Cu, and Pb (>0.4 mg/L.Interpretation & conclusion: These results indicate that An. gambiae s.s. is adapting to a wide rangeof water pollution in this urban area. The survival of the mosquito in widespread polluted waterbodies across Lagos metropolis could be responsible for the rise in the incidence of malaria.
T.S. Awolola, A.O. Oduola, J.B. Obansa, N.J. Chukwurar & J.P. Unyimadu
Full Text Available Abstract Background In western Kenya, malaria remains one of the major health problems and its control remains an important public health measure. Malaria control is by either use of drugs to treat patients infected with malaria parasites or by controlling the vectors. Vector control may target the free living adult or aquatic (larval stages of mosquito. The most commonly applied control strategies target indoor resting mosquitoes. However, because mosquitoes spend a considerable time in water, targeting the aquatic stages can complement well with existing adult control measures. Methods Larval source management (LSM of malaria vectors was examined in two villages i.e. Fort Ternan and Lunyerere, with the aim of testing strategies that can easily be accessed by the affected communities. Intervention strategies applied include environmental management through source reduction (drainage of canals, land levelling or by filling ditches with soil, habitat manipulation (by provision of shading from arrow root plant, application of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti and the use of predatory fish, Gambusia affinis. The abundance of immature stages of Anopheles and Culex within intervention habitats was compared to that within non-intervention habitats. Results The findings show that in Fort Ternan no significant differences were observed in the abundance of Anopheles early and late instars between intervention and non-intervention habitats. In Lunyerere, the abundance of Anopheles early instars was fifty five times more likely to be present within non-intervention habitats than in habitats under drainage. No differences in early instars abundance were observed between non-intervention and habitats applied with Bti. However, late instars had 89?% and 91?% chance of being sampled from non-intervention rather than habitats under drainage and those applied with Bti respectively. Conclusion Most of these interventions were applied in habitats that arose due to human activities. Involvement of community members in control programs would be beneficial in the long term once they understand the role they play in malaria transmission. Apart from the need for communities to be educated on their role in malaria transmission, there is a need to develop and test strategies that can easily be accessed and hence be used by the affected communities. The proposed LSM strategies target outdoor immature mosquitoes and hence can complement well with control measures that target indoor resting vectors. Therefore inclusion of LSM in Integrated Vector Management (IVM program would be beneficial.
Imbahale Susan S
Azolla (Salviniales: Azollaceae) is known to reduce oviposition and adult emergence of a number of mosquito species. Several species of Azolla are reportedly indigenous to Tanzania. However, the potential of Azolla as a biocontrol agent against malaria mosquitoes has not been evaluated in the country. This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess mosquito larval productivity in irrigated rice-fields infested with Azolla in Mvomero District, Tanzania. A systematic larval sampling covering all open water bodies along designed transect was carried in rice-fields. Larval density was estimated by dipping water bodies with or without Azolla. The degree of Azolla coverage was categorized as 0%, 80%. Larvae densities were categorised as low ( or = 500/m2) productivity. A total of 120 water bodies were surveyed and 105 (87.5%) had Azolla microphyla and A. pinnata at varying degrees of coverage. Of the total 105 water bodies with Azolla, 80 (76.2%) had a green Azolla mat, and 25 (23.8%) a brown Azolla mat. Eighty-eight (73.3%) of the sites were infested with anophelines and 109 (90.8%) with culicine larvae. Seventy percent of all water bodies contained anophelines and culicines in sympatric breeding, while 20.8% and 3.3% had only culicines and anophelines, respectively. The majority (82%) of mosquito breeding sites were found in area with Azolla substrate. Mosquito larva productivity was low in sites with highest (>80%) Azolla coverage. Seventy-two (81.8%) of the anopheline and 90 (82.6%) culicine breeding sites were infested with Azolla. Water bodies infested with green Azolla were more productive than those covered by brown coloured Azolla substrates for both culicines (13%) and anophelines (8%). Of the 1537 field collected larvae that hatched to adult stage, 646 (42.03%) were Anopheles gambiae s.l., 42 (2.73%) were An. funestus and 769 (50.03%) were Culex quinquefasciatus. These findings suggest that the mosquito productivity is low when the Azolla coverage is high (>80%). The promotion of Azolla in mosquito control should take into consideration the degree of Azolla coverage. PMID:19445100
Mwingira, V S; Mayala, B K; Senkoro, K P; Rumisha, S F; Shayo, E H; Mlozi, M R S; Mboera, L E G
Spinosad is a naturally derived biorational insecticide with an environmentally favourable toxicity profile, so we investigated its potency against mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). By laboratory bioassays of a suspension concentrate formulation of spinosad (Tracer), the 24 h lethal concentration (LC50) against Aedes aegypti (L.) third and fourth instars was estimated at 0.025 p.p.m. following logit regression. The concentration-mortality response of third- and fourth-instar Anopheles albimanus Weidemann did not conform to a logit model. The LC50 value of spinosad in Anopheles albimanus was 0.024 p.p.m. by quadratic linear regression. A field trial in southern Mexico demonstrated that spinosad 1 p.p.m. compared with the standard temephos (Abate) 1% granules 100 g/m3 water prevented Ae. aegypti breeding in plastic containers of water for 8 weeks; at 10 p.p.m. spinosad prevented breeding for > 22 weeks. In another field trial, spinosad at 5 p.p.m. and temephos both completely eliminated reproduction of Ae. aegypti for 13 weeks. In contrast, the bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti, Vectobac) AS) performed poorly with just 2 weeks of complete inhibition of Ae. aegypti breeding. Spinosad also effectively prevented breeding of Culex mosquitoes and chironomids in both trials to a degree similar to that of temephos. We conclude that spinosad merits evaluation as a replacement for organophosphate or Bti treatment of domestic water tanks in Mesoamerica. We also predict that spinosad is likely to be an effective larvicide for treatment of mosquito breeding sites. PMID:15009445
Bond, J G; Marina, C F; Williams, T
In many species mature individuals delay independent reproduction and may help others to reproduce. This behaviour is often explained through ecological constraints, although recently attention has also been paid to the variation in habitat quality. If the quality of vacant habitat influences the fitness trade-off between delaying reproduction and breeding independently, individuals should delay reproduction when conditions for breeding are poor. Yet, no study has experimentally manipulated h...
Covas, Rita; Doutrelant, Claire; Du Plessis, Morne? A.
A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November) ditches were plugged near the...
Leisnham, Paul T.; Sarah Sandoval-Mohapatra
Interactions between invasive species can have important consequences for the speed and impact of biological invasions. Containers occupied by the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse, may be sensitive to invasive plants whose leaves fall into this larval habitat. To examine the potential for interactions between invasive leaf species and larval A. albopictus, we conducted a field survey of leaf material found with A. albopictus in containers in Palm Beach County, Florida and measured de...
Reiskind, Michael H.; Zarrabi, Ali A.; Lounibos, L. Philip
Urban malaria cases are becoming common in Africa as more people move into cities and industrialization proceeds. While many species of Anopheles mosquitoes vector malaria in rural areas, only a few are found within cities. The success of anthropophilic species in cities, such as members of the An. gambiae complex, may be explained by limitations on colonization by predator species in urban environments. Habitats that are temporal or structurally simple have lower predator survivorship in a v...
Carlson, John; Keating, Joseph; Mbogo, Charles M.; Kahindi, Samuel; Beier, John C.
Mosquitoes act as vectors for a wide range of viral and parasitic infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, Chickungunya, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus in humans as well as in animals. Although a wide range of insecticides are used to control mosquitoes, it has only resulted in development of resistance to such insecticides. The evolution of insecticide resistance and lack of vaccines for many mosquito-borne diseases have made these arthropods highly harmf...
Guruprasad, Nadipinayakanahalli Munikrishnappa; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Puttaraju, Hosagavi Puttegowda
Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes...
George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.
Full Text Available A study of the ecology of drainage - breeding mosquito vectors was conducted in the three urban centers (Owerri, Orlu and Okigwe of Imo State, Nigeria. Four drainage sites located around markets, residential, stream and hotel premises were selected in each urban centre. Dipping method of sampling was employed and a total of 8,820 mosquitoes comprising eight species namely; Aedes aegypti, Aedes vittatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tigripes, Culex horridus, Culex cinereus, Culex annuliorus and Anopheles gambiae were encountered; in Owerri and Orlu with Cx. cinereus being completely absent in Okigwe. Cx. quinquefasciatus was predominantly present in all drainage sites with the highest occurrence of 4,474(50.74% followed by Aedes aegypti 1814 (20.57%, An .gambiae 945(10.71%, Cx. tigripes 484 (5.48% Ae. vittatus 420 (4.76%, Cx. horridus 264 (02.99%, Cx. cinereus 261 (2.96%, Cx. annuliorus 159 (1.88%. Of all sites sampled, market drainages had the highest abundance of mosquitoes which was significantly higher than (ANOVA, P? 0.05 those found in the residential, streams and hotel premises. Residential drainages recorded the second highest density followed by stream/vegetation drainages and hotel drainages which had the least. The abundance and distribution of mosquitoes in Owerri (130.06 the State Capital was significantly higher (ANOVA, P? 0.05 than those for Orlu (93.44 and Okigwe (52.13. The mosquito species identified in this study are of public health importance and there is an urgent need to desilt and clean up these drainages for free flow of water. This will not only rid these species of breeding sites but also free the State of the diseases associated with these organisms.
Ifeyinwa Celestina MGBEMENA
Due to its geo-climatic conditions, Algeria represents a biodiversity hotspot, with sheep breeds well adapted to a patchwork of extremely heterogeneous harsh habitats. The importance of this peculiar genetic reservoir increases as climate change drives the demand for new adaptations. However, the expansion of a single breed (Ouled-Djellal) which occurred in the last decades has generated a critical situation for the other breeds; some of them are being subjected to uncontrolled cross-breeding with the favored breed and/or to marginalization (effective size contraction). This study investigated genetic diversity within and among six of the nine Algerian breeds, by use of 30 microsatellite markers. Our results showed that, in spite of the census contraction experienced by most of the considered breeds, genetic diversity is still substantial (average gene diversity ranging 0.68 to 0.76) and inbreeding was not identified as a problem. However, two breeds (Rembi and Taâdmit) appeared to have lost most of their genetic originality because of intensive cross-breeding with Ouled-Djellal. Based on the above evidence, we suggest Hamra, Sidaoun, and D’man as breeds deserving the highest priority for conservation in Algeria. PMID:25875832
Ciani, Elena; Kdidi, Samia; Aouissat, Miloud; Dhimi, Laziz; Lafri, Mohamed; Maftah, Abderrahman; Mehtar, Nadhira
In Europe, mosquito-related public health concerns are growing due to the increasing spread of invasive mosquito species and the recent emergence of mosquito-borne arboviruses. A vital backbone in the assessment of these issues is detailed knowledge of the mosquito fauna, i.e. regional mosquito inventories. It was therefore decided to intensify nationwide investigations on the occurrence and distribution of mosquitoes in Germany in order to update old records and to detect possible faunal changes. This paper is focussing on a densely populated metropolitan region, the federal state of Hamburg and its adjacent environs, taking two historical baseline inventories into consideration, spanning almost 100 years of mosquito research in Hamburg. In the period between 2010 and 2014, more than 10,000 juvenile, neonate and adult mosquito specimens were sampled and trapped at 105 sites in Hamburg and its environs, of which about 60% have been identified to species level, resulting in a total of 33 recorded species. Of these, Anopheles algeriensis, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus nigrinus and Ochlerotatus sticticus are new to the area. The most common species in Hamburg are Culex pipiens/torrentium and Ochlerotatus annulipes/cantans. In contrast, two previously common species, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus excrucians, were not detected. Despite substantial environmental changes due to reconstruction, urbanisation and renaturation in the Hamburg metropolitan region in recent decades, there has been remarkably little change within the mosquito fauna during the last century. PMID:24870250
Krüger, A; Börstler, J; Badusche, M; Lühken, R; Garms, R; Tannich, E
Full Text Available Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been applied successfully in some agricultural pest control programs in the past, but in many cases, success has not been sustainable in the long run. Various attempts have been made to duplicate this limited success SIT application in agriculture to other areas of applications, particularly in vector control. For example, a recent mosquito control program has been initiated in Malaysia to eliminate dengue-mosquitoes Aedes aegypti by releasing large amount of genetically modified GM male mosquitoes into the field to outcompete the wild male mosquitoes. Field experimental data that has been made available in the literature is limited, rendering it difficult to make independent assessment on its short-term efficacy and long-term sustainability of this GM control strategy. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of GM mosquito in controlling dengue mosquito population by means of model simulations via DEER (Dengue Encephalitis Eradication Routines. Preliminary results indicate negative conclusion regarding the effectiveness of GM mosquitoes in controlling wild A. aegypti population over the long-term. Essentially, significant reduction of wild mosquito population is possible only if large over-flooding ratios are applied. Further, repeated releases must be maintained over an infinite time horizon to continue to sustain low population of mosquitoes. Major difficulty remains to be resolved. In particular, in-depth costbenefit analysis on this control program is essential to ensure long-term institutional and social support.
Teh Su Yean
Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the e...
Hallauer, Arnel R.
How many of you all grew up on a cattle farm? This is a diagram that we will use to tell some advantages and disadvantages about beef cattle as we study different beef breeds. Diagram Advantages and Disadvantages of beef cattle breeds The first website that we will look at for the identification of beef cattle breeds is The Beef Site. Choose three breeds and look for some advantages ...
After the repeated demonstration of Dirofilaria repens infections in German dogs, D. repens and Dirofilaria immitis DNA was detected in mosquitoes trapped in 2011, 2012 and 2013 in northeastern and southwestern Germany within the framework of culicid monitoring projects. As temperature is the most important factor dictating the extrinsic development of dirofilarial larvae in the potential vector, data of the German Weather Service (DWD) were analysed for the regions where the positive mosquitoes had been collected. Based on the mean daily temperatures recorded by weather stations most closely to the collection sites of the mosquitoes, it can be concluded that the mosquitoes were trapped in time periods that allowed for the completion of the developmental cycle of the worms in the mosquitoes and a subsequent transmission to a vertebrate host. The results of this study confirm the principal climatic suitability of certain German regions for the establishment of natural dirofilarial transmission cycles. Moreover, the theoretical climatic considerations, together with findings of D. repens infections in German dogs and mosquitoes, strongly suggest that the continuing spread of at least D. repens from its traditional habitats in the Mediterranean has reached southwestern and northeastern Germany. PMID:24906992
Sassnau, R; Czajka, C; Kronefeld, M; Werner, D; Genchi, C; Tannich, E; Kampen, H
The ability of nest predation to influence habitat settlement decisions in birds is widely debated, despite its importance in limiting fitness. Here, we experimentally manipulated nest predation risk across a landscape and asked the question, do migratory birds assess and respond to variation in nest predation risk when choosing breeding habitats? We examined habitat preference by quantifying the density and settlement date of eight species of migratory passerines breeding in areas with and without intact nest predator communities. We found consistently more individuals nesting in areas with reduced nest predation than in areas with intact predator assemblages, although predation risk had no influence on settlement or breeding phenology. Additionally, those individuals occupying safer nesting habitats exhibited increased singing activity. These findings support a causal relationship between habitat choice and nest predation risk and suggest the importance of nest predation risk in shaping avian community structure and breeding activity. PMID:17109323
Fontaine, J J; Martin, T E
Spatially explicit information is increasingly available for infectious disease modeling. However, such information is reluctantly or inappropriately incorporated. My dissertation research uses spatially explicit data to assess relationships between landscape and mosquito species distribution and discusses challenges regarding accurate predictive risk modeling. The goal of my research is to use remotely sensed environmental information and spatial statistical methods to better understand mosquito-borne disease epidemiology for improvement of public health responses. In addition to reviewing the progress of spatial infectious disease modeling, I present four research projects. I begin by evaluating the biases in surveillance data and build up to predictive modeling of mosquito species presence. In the first study I explore how mosquito surveillance trap types influence estimations of mosquito populations. Then. I use county-based human surveillance data and landscape variables to identify risk factors for West Nile virus disease. The third study uses satellite-based vegetation indices to identify spatial variation among West Nile virus vectors in an urban area and relates the variability to virus transmission dynamics. Finally, I explore how information from three satellite sensors of differing spatial and spectral resolution can be used to identify and distinguish mosquito habitat across central Connecticut wetlands. Analyses presented here constitute improvements to the prediction of mosquito distribution and therefore identification of disease risk factors. Current methods for mosquito surveillance data collection are labor intensive and provide an extremely limited, incomplete picture of the species composition and abundance. Human surveillance data offers additional challenges with respect to reporting bias and resolution, but is nonetheless informative in identifying environmental risk factors and disease transmission dynamics. Remotely sensed imagery supports mosquito and human disease surveillance data by providing spatially explicit, line resolution information about environmental factors relevant to vector-borne disease processes. Together, surveillance and remotely sensed environmental data facilitate improved description and modeling of disease transmission. Remote sensing can be used to develop predictive maps of mosquito distribution in relation to disease risk. This has implications for increased accuracy of mosquito control efforts. The projects presented in this dissertation enhance current public health capacities by examining the applications of spatial modeling with respect to mosquito-borne disease.
Brown, Heidi E.
Declining grassland breeding bird populations have led to increased efforts to assess habitat quality, typically by estimating density or relative abundance. Because some grassland habitats may function as ecological traps, a more appropriate metric for determining quality may be breeding success. Between 1994 and 2003 we gathered data on the nest fates of Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna), Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorous), and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) in a series o...
Norment, Christopher J.; Runge, Michael C.; Morgan, Michael R.
The Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea) is an endemic subspecies of rock ptarmigan inhabiting the high Arctic archipelagos of Svalbard and Franz Josefs Land. This ptarmigan species exists at low population densities, with little interannual variations in population numbers, and limited habitat for breeding with less than 5 % of the land area in Svalbard constituting medium to high quality breeding habitat. Unander and Steen (1985) hypothesized, based on a descriptive study, that...
Pedersen, A?shild Ønvik; Soininen, Eeva M.; Unander, Sigmund; Willebrand, Maria Ho?rnell; Fuglei, E.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles plumbeus has been recognized as a minor vector for human malaria in Europe since the beginning of the 20th century. In recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited novel breeding sites, including large and organically rich man-made containers, with consequently larger mosquito populations in close vicinity to humans. This lead to investigate whether current populations of An. plumbeus would be able to efficiently transmit Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most deadly form of malaria. Methods Anopheles plumbeus immatures were collected from a liquid manure pit in Switzerland and transferred as adults to the CEPIA (Institut Pasteur, France where they were fed on P. falciparum gametocytes produced in vitro. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes served as controls. Development of P. falciparum in both mosquito species was followed by microscopical detection of oocysts on mosquito midguts and by sporozoite detection in the head/thorax by PCR and microscopy. Results A total of 293 wild An. plumbeus females from four independent collections successfully fed through a membrane on blood containing P. falciparum gametocytes. Oocysts were observed in mosquito midguts and P. falciparum DNA was detected in head-thorax samples in all four experiments, demonstrating, on a large mosquito sample, that An. plumbeus is indeed receptive to P. falciparum NF54 and able to produce sporozoites. Importantly, the proportion of sporozoites-infected An. plumbeus was almost similar to that of An. gambiae (31 to 88% An. plumbeus versus 67 to 97% An. gambiae. However, the number of sporozoites produced was significantly lower in infected An. plumbeus. Conclusion The results show that a sample of field-caught An. plumbeus has a moderate to high receptivity towards P. falciparum. Considering the increased mobility of humans between Europe and malaria endemic countries and changes in environment and climate, these data strongly suggest that An. plumbeus could act as a vector for malaria and thus significantly contribute to increasing the malaria transmission risk in Central-Western Europe. In locations showing high vulnerability to the presence of gametocyte carriers, the risk of transmission of malaria by An. plumbeus should be considered.
Burning mosquito coils indoors generates smoke that can control mosquitoes effectively. This practice is currently used in numerous households in Asia, Africa, and South America. However, the smoke may contain pollutants of health concern. We conducted the present study to characterize the emissions from four common brands of mosquito coils from China and two common brands from Malaysia. We used mass balance equations to determine emission rates of fine particles (particulate matter pollutant concentrations resulting from burning mosquito coils could substantially exceed health-based air quality standards or guidelines. Under the same combustion conditions, the tested Malaysian mosquito coils generated more measured pollutants than did the tested Chinese mosquito coils. We also identified a large suite of volatile organic compounds, including carcinogens and suspected carcinogens, in the coil smoke. In a set of experiments conducted in a room, we examined the size distribution of particulate matter contained in the coil smoke and found that the particles were ultrafine and fine. The findings from the present study suggest that exposure to the smoke of mosquito coils similar to the tested ones can pose significant acute and chronic health risks. For example, burning one mosquito coil would release the same amount of PM(2.5) mass as burning 75-137 cigarettes. The emission of formaldehyde from burning one coil can be as high as that released from burning 51 cigarettes. PMID:12948883
Liu, Weili; Zhang, Junfeng; Hashim, Jamal H; Jalaludin, Juliana; Hashim, Zailina; Goldstein, Bernard D
Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...
The discovery and development of novel insecticides for vector control is a primary focus of toxicology research conducted at the Mosquito and Fly Research Unit, Gainesville, FL. Targeting critical genes/proteins in mosquitoes using RNA interference (RNAi) is being investigated as a method to devel...
The tadpole shrimp (TPS), Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae) is a potential biological control agent for immature mosquitoes breeding in ephemeral habitats. The occurrence of TPS eggs in soil and their hatch were investigated in 11 flood-irrigated date gardens in the Coachella Valley of southern California in 1999. Each garden was sampled several times after the rows were recently irrigated. All these date gardens harbored from very few to a large number of eggs in the soil. Overall, the average density of total eggs on ranches with clay loam soil was significantly higher than that on ranches with silt loam soil. The average densities of total eggs were significantly lower on the ranches that were disked compared to those on the ranches that were undisked before sampling. Two types of eggs were found and designated as "fresh" (yellowish to brownish) and "old" (blackish) eggs. This is the first time that these dimorphic eggs have been reported. The density of fresh eggs was lower than that of old eggs in most soil samples. The date gardens with high egg densities were sampled for determination of vertical occurrence, where soil was sampled up to 38.5 cm deep. Fresh eggs were recovered from soil in depths up to 25.6 cm, but the densities progressively declined with depth. The old eggs, however, were recovered from all soil depths studied, and there was no obvious relationship between soil depth and their density. This pattern of vertical occurrence of TPS eggs is the result of frequent disking for weed control and fruit harvest. Hatch of TPS eggs in surface soil samples ranged from 0 to 7.2 per 100 g dried soil. Hatch of viable eggs had an inverse relationship with soil depth. No TPS hatched out from the soil samples taken deeper than 15.4 cm. Fresh and old eggs distinguished by color were subjected to hatching tests. Fresh eggs exhibited high hatch, with hatching rates of 35.5-45.0% and 40.2-60.3% for the 1st and 1st plus the 2nd hydrations respectively. The old eggs, however, did not hatch at all. These findings provide quantitative information with regard to occurrence of natural TPS populations in flood irrigated agricultural fields, which could serve as a potential regulatory force of immature mosquito populations sharing ephemeral habitats with TPS. PMID:12125864
Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S
Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases to human. There are several measures for control of larvae. As part of Integrated Vector Management (IVM program, the utility of floating layers of polystyrene beads (EPS is a potential alternative in habitats of mosquito larva. EPS beads prevent oviposition of mosquito as well as killing the immature stages by forming a tick layer on the water surface. They are cheap, environmentally safe and do not need frequent application and remain on the surface of water for long time. The objective of the current study was to asses the effectiveness of two types of polystyrene beads of (EPS and (SWAP for control of mosquito larvae under laboratory conditions."nMethods: Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were used for experimental purposes. In each tray 250 larvae of late 3rd and early 4th instars were introduced. The experiment was conducted on 4 replicates for An. stephensi, Cu. quinquefasciatus and combination of both. Emerging of adult mosquitoes were calculated every day until the end of experiments."nResults: Mortality rate and Inhibition of Emerge (IE for Cu. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and combination of both species was 97.8%, 100% and 99.07%, respectively using EPS. In average, EPS was able to kill 98.9% of larvae. The figures with SWAP were 63%, 91.05% and 72.65%, respectively. The average mortality for mosquitoes was 75.57%"nConclusion: EPS and SWAP beads can be very effective and practical for elimination of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus under the laboratory conditions.
Full Text Available Two genera of Microsporidia were found infecting mosquito larvae in three localities on the Pacific coast of Choco. Vavraia sp. (Microsporida: Pleistophoridae was found in larvae of Wyeomyia circumcincta, W. simmsi and Anopheles albimanus collected from plants of the Bromeliacea family in Arusí y Joví. Amblyospora sp. (Microsporida: Amblyosporidae was found parasitizingAedes angustivittatuslarvae COllectedfrom a terrestrial breeding pond in the locality of Nuqur. Morphology of the spores of the two parasites under light microscopy is described, as well as preliminary data on host range when exposed to laboratory rearad Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles albimanus. Their rola in mosquito control is discussed.Se reportan dos géneros de microsporidia que parasitan larvas de mosquitos en criaderos naturales de tres localidades en la costa Pacffica Chocoana. Vavraia sp. (Microsporida: Pleistophoridae parásita larvas de Wyeomyia circumcincta, de Wyeomya simmsi y de Anopheles neivai, recolectadas en las rosetas de especies de la familia Bromeliaceae en las localidades de Arusí y Joví. Amblyospora sp. (Microsporida: Amblyosporidae parásita larvas deAedes angustivittatusde criaderos terrestres semipermanentes en la localidad de Nuquí. Se describe la morfología de estos dos microsporidia al microscopio óptico. Estudios preliminares de infección en larvas de Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus yAnopheles albimanus, criadas en laboratorio, indican que Vavraia sp. infecta las tres especies, con preferencia a Culex quinquefasciatus. Las larvas expuestas a esporas de Amblyospora sp. no presentaron infección. Se discute el posible papel de estos dos géneros en el control de las poblaciones de mosquitos.
Zuluaga Juan S.
Despite a marked increase in the focus toward biodiversity conservation in fragmented landscapes, studies that confirm species breeding success are scarce and limited. In this paper, we asked whether local (area of forest patches) and landscape (amount of suitable habitat surrounding of focal patches) factors affect the breeding success of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Tokyo, Central Japan. The breeding success of raccoon dogs is easy to judge as adults travel with pups during th...
Soga, Masashi; Koike, Shinsuke
1. Researchers often use the spatial distribution of insect offspring as a measure of adult oviposition preferences, and then make conclusions about the consequences of these preferences for population growth and the relationship between life-history traits (e.g. oviposition preference and offspring performance). However, several processes other than oviposition preference can generate spatial patterns of offspring density (e.g. dispersal limitations, spatially heterogeneous mortality rates). Incorrectly assuming that offspring distributions reflect oviposition preferences may therefore compromise our ability to understand the mechanisms determining population distributions and the relationship between life-history traits. 2. The purpose of this study was to perform an empirical study at the whole-system scale to examine the movement and oviposition behaviours of the eastern tree hole mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say) and test the importance of these behaviours in determining population distribution relative to other mechanisms. 3. A mark-release-recapture experiment was performed to distinguish among the following alternative hypotheses that may explain a previously observed aggregated distribution of tree hole mosquito offspring: (H(1)) mosquitoes prefer habitats with particular vegetation characteristics and these preferences determine the distribution of their offspring; (H(2)) mosquitoes distribute their eggs randomly or evenly throughout their environment, but spatial differences in developmental success generate an aggregated pattern of larval density; (H(3)) mosquitoes randomly colonize habitats, but have limited dispersal capability causing them to distribute offspring where founder populations were established; (H(4)) wind or other environmental factors may lead to passive aggregation, or spatial heterogeneity in adult mortality (H(5)), rather than dispersal, generates clumped offspring distributions. 4. Results indicate that the distribution of tree hole mosquito larvae is determined in part by adult habitat selection (H(1)), but do not exclude additional effects from passive aggregation (H(4)), or spatial patterns in adult mortality (H(5)). 5. This research illustrates the importance of studying oviposition behaviour at the population scale to better evaluate its relative importance in determining population distribution and dynamics. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of linking behavioural and population dynamics for understanding evolutionary relationships among life-history traits (e.g. preference and offspring performance) and predicting when behaviour will be important in determining population phenomena. PMID:18177335
Ellis, Alicia M
Population trends represent a minimum amount of information required to assess the conservation status of a species. However, understanding and detecting trends can be complicated by variation among habitats and regions, and by dispersal connecting habitats through source-sink dynamics. We analyzed trends in breeding populations between habitats and regions to better understand the overall dynamics of a species' decline. Specifically, we analyzed historical trends in breeding populations of t...
Graves, Emily E.; Holyoak, Marcel; Rodd Kelsey, T.; Meese, Robert J.
The NASA Ames Ecosystem Science and Technology Branch and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases are conducting research to detect Rift Valley fever (RVF) vector habitats in eastern Africa using active and passive remote-sensing. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) calculated from Landsat TM and SPOT data is used to characterize the vegetation common to the Aedes mosquito. Relationships have been found between the highest NDVI and the 'dambo' habitat areas near Riuru, Kenya on both wet and dry data. High NDVI values, when combined with the vegetation classifications, are clearly related to the areas of vector habitats. SAR data have been proposed for use during the rainy season when optical systems are of minimal use and the short frequency and duration of the optimum RVF mosquito habitat conditions necessitate rapid evaluation of the vegetation/moisture conditions; only then can disease potential be stemmed and eradication efforts initiated.
Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Linthicum, K. G.; Bailey, C. L.; Sebesta, P.
Full Text Available Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This article reviews the wild sources of fish seeds, some cultivable fishes. carp breeding, relationship between the endocrine system and gonad development, function of the Central Nervous System (CNS in propagation, influence of ecological conditions on gonad development, artificial propagation of common carp, natural induced spawning, salmon culture and an innovation in the sea to educate fish breeders, fish genetics and fish culturist in other to facilitate their productivity.
_Urban Habitats_, published by the Center for Urban Restoration Ecology (CURE), is "a peer-reviewed, fully indexed scientific journal written and edited for a wide audience of researchers, restoration ecologists, park and preserve managers, government officials, and naturalists." The premier issue of this e-journal (focused on urban flora worldwide) is available online, and researchers are encouraged to submit articles and multimedia resources for future issues (detailed submission guidelines provided). CURE is a joint project of Rutgers University and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Lambornella clarki (Ciliophora: Tetrahymenidae), an endoparasite of Aedes sierrensis (Diptera: Culicidae), is dispersed by infected adult mosquitoes. Invasion of the ovaries induces parasitically castrated females to exhibit oviposition behavior and thereby actively disperse ciliates through deposition into water. Oviposition behavior of infected females is prolonged and mimics that of normal gravid females in their first gonotropic cycle. Adults of both sexes also passively disperse ciliates by dying on water surfaces, and infected adults are more likely to die on water than uninfected adults. Ciliates dispersed by infected adults can infect larvae and form desiccation-resistant cysts. Parasite-induced dispersal by hosts, desiccation-resistant cysts, an active host-seeking infective stage, and high infection and mortality rates all indicate significant biological control potential for these and related ciliates against container-breeding mosquitoes. PMID:3094006
Egerter, D E; Anderson, J R; Washburn, J O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health issue in much of the world, and the mosquito vectors which drive transmission are key targets for interventions. Mathematical models for planning malaria eradication benefit from detailed representations of local mosquito populations, their natural dynamics and their response to campaign pressures. Methods A new model is presented for mosquito population dynamics, effects of weather, and impacts of multiple simultaneous interventions. This model is then embedded in a large-scale individual-based simulation and results for local elimination of malaria are discussed. Mosquito population behaviours, such as anthropophily and indoor feeding, are included to study their effect upon the efficacy of vector control-based elimination campaigns. Results Results for vector control tools, such as bed nets, indoor spraying, larval control and space spraying, both alone and in combination, are displayed for a single-location simulation with vector species and seasonality characteristic of central Tanzania, varying baseline transmission intensity and vector bionomics. The sensitivities to habitat type, anthropophily, indoor feeding, and baseline transmission intensity are explored. Conclusions The ability to model a spectrum of local vector species with different ecologies and behaviours allows local customization of packages of interventions and exploration of the effect of proposed new tools.
Eckhoff Philip A
Ro?. 49, ?. 1 (2014), s. 83-92. ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : breeding success * coexistence * nest-habitat partitioning * nest site selection * predation * synurbization * urban habitat * thrushes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.478, year: 2013
Mikula, P.; Hromada, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Tryjanowski, P.
Previous Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) nesting studies conducted in areas containing a mixture of edge and continuous habitats have focused on edge habitats. Consequently, little is known about the potential contribution of continuous habitats to dove production. In this study we evaluated the relative importance of these two extensive habitat types by monitoring the habitat use and nest success of 59 radio-marked doves during 1990-1991 in central Missouri. Of 83 nests initiated by our marked sample, most (81.9%) were located in edge habitats. Although continuous habitats were selected less as nest sites, the proportion of successful nests did not differ significantly from that in edge habitats. Our data indicate that continuous habitats should not be considered marginal nesting habitat. If the intensity of use and nest success that we observed are representative regionally or nationally, continuous habitats could contribute substantially to annual Mourning Dove production because of the high availability of these habitats throughout much of the Mourning Dove breeding range.
Drobney, R.D.; Schulz, J.H.; Sheriff, S.L.; Fuemmeler, W.J.
Invertebrate hosts often bring forward their reproductive effort in response to a parasitic infection. This is widely interpreted as a host-driven response aimed at compensating for the expected losses in future fitness as a result of parasitism. Here we report that mosquitoes bring forward their oviposition schedule when they are infected with Plasmodium, a parasite known to severely curtail mosquito fecundity. This response could aim at compensating for a negative time-dependent effect of the parasite on mosquito fitness, as infected mosquitoes seem to display a strong and progressive decrease in the quality of the eggs they lay. In addition, we show that this shift in oviposition date is dependent on mosquito strain: a comparison of several isogenic mosquitoes strains, one insecticide-susceptible and two insecticide-resistant ones, reveals that only the former shift their oviposition strategy when infected. This pattern suggests the existence of a costly host-driven response to parasitism, as insecticide-resistant mosquitoes have been shown to be in generally poorer condition. PMID:25788485
Vézilier, J; Nicot, A; Gandon, S; Rivero, A
Hasty decisions are often made regarding the restoration of "altered" habitats, when in fact the ecological value of these habitats may be comparable to natural ones. To assess the "value" of altered mangrove-lined habitats for nekton, we sampled for 1 yr within three Tampa Bay wetlands. Species composition, abundance, and spatial distribution of nekton assemblages in permanent subtidal portions of natural tidal creeks and wetlands altered by construction of mosquito-control ditches and stormwater-drainage ditches were quantified through seasonal seine sampling. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance and ordination of nekton community data suggested differences in species composition and abundance between natural and altered habitat, though not consistently among the three wetlands. In many cases, mosquito ditches were more similar in assemblage structure to tidal creeks than to stormwater ditches. In general, mosquito ditches and stormwater ditches were the most dissimilar in terms of nekton community structure. These dissimilarities were likely due to differences in design between the two types of ditches. Mosquito ditches tend to fill in over time and are thus more ephemeral features in the landscape. In contrast, stormwater ditches are a more permanent altered habitat that remain open due to periodic flushing from heavy runoff. Results indicate that environmental conditions (e.g., salinity, current velocity, vegetative structure) may provide a more useful indication of potential habitat "value" for nekton than whether the habitat has been altered. The type of ditching is therefore more important than ditching per se when judging the habitat quality of these altered channels for fishes, shrimps and crabs. Planning should entail careful consideration of environmental conditions rather than simply restoring for restoration's sake.
Krebs, Justin M.; Brame, Adam B.; McIvor, Carole C.
Mass occurrence of mosquitoes can have an immense impact on the quality of life in areas such as the Upper Rhine Valley. Therefore, biological and environmental measures are applied to prevent mass development in many regions of Europe. Despite successful prevention measures, the risk of contracting mosquito-borne viral diseases, such as West Nile fever, should be discounted in Central Europe. The transport of mosquitoes (e.g., through tire trade or within containers) into Germany has to be prevented. Individuals (tourists and immigrants) infected with imported vector-borne pathogens and parasites must be diagnosed and treated immediately. Mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases know no borders, and their spread is also a consequence of high mobility and globalization. Therefore, mosquito control requires international cooperation. People's increased mobility and international trade play a more important role in the dissemination of the vectors and their pathogens/parasites than increasing temperatures. PMID:19030883
The purpose of this paper is to review the results in the literature that show the effect of area of forest on nesting migratory bird species, and to present the results of additional field work that we have conducted in forest habitats in western Maryland. These results indicate the area sensitivity of many long distance migrants. Because 80 to 95 percent of the breeding birds in the northeastern deciduous forest are neotropical migrants, the changes in bird species composition as a result of forest fragmentation can be immense. Management strategies based on habitat size are suggested to assist in maintaining communities of nesting migratory birds.
Anderson, S.H.; Robbins, C.S.
Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores
Full Text Available Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers as larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores. Este estudo investiga a distribuição espacial da fauna urbana e de Culicidae e informa o monitoramento entomológico de espécies que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval. Coletas de larvas de mosquitos foram realizadas no município paulista de Santa Bárbara d' Oeste entre os anos de 2004 e 2006, durante visitas casa-a-casa. Um total de 1.891 amostras foi considerado, com nove espécies diferentes coletadas. A distribuição das espécies foi avaliada através do método de krigagem estatística extrapolando as divisões administrativas do município. O método de coleta adotado no presente estudo está de acordo com os métodos sugeridos aos serviços de saúde municipais pelo Ministério da Saúde e pode, portanto, ser adotado pelas autoridades públicas de saúde no controle da doença e delimitação das áreas de risco. Além disso, este tipo de levantamento e análise pode ser empregado como vigilância entomológica de espécies de mosquitos vetores que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval em áreas urbanas.
Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera) from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control / Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera) em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores
Full Text Available Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera) em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores. Este estudo investiga a distribuição espacial da fauna urbana e de Culicidae e informa o monitoramento entomológico de espécies que usam [...] recipientes artificiais como habitat larval. Coletas de larvas de mosquitos foram realizadas no município paulista de Santa Bárbara d' Oeste entre os anos de 2004 e 2006, durante visitas casa-a-casa. Um total de 1.891 amostras foi considerado, com nove espécies diferentes coletadas. A distribuição das espécies foi avaliada através do método de krigagem estatística extrapolando as divisões administrativas do município. O método de coleta adotado no presente estudo está de acordo com os métodos sugeridos aos serviços de saúde municipais pelo Ministério da Saúde e pode, portanto, ser adotado pelas autoridades públicas de saúde no controle da doença e delimitação das áreas de risco. Além disso, este tipo de levantamento e análise pode ser empregado como vigilância entomológica de espécies de mosquitos vetores que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval em áreas urbanas. Abstract in english Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera) larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers a [...] s larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.
Rafael, Piovezan; Thiago Salomão de, Azevedo; Cláudio José, Von Zuben.
...Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Habitat Conservation Plan, and Receipt...availability of a draft environmental assessment (EA) under the authority of the National...behavioral patterns, including breeding, feeding, and sheltering. We may issue...
We examined the survivorship of Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae and habitat productivity in three major habitat types in the western Kenya highlands. The age-specific distribution was determined for larvae and pupae, and survivorship curves were constructed. Larval-to-pupal survivorship was 6.8% in drainage ditches, 4.3% in cow hoofprints, and 1.8% in disused goldmines, respectively. High mortality rates were observed in all developmental stages. The estimated daily survival rate was highest in drainage ditches (0.74), followed by cow hoofprints (0.71), and it was lowest in disused goldmines (0.62). Productivity of emerging An. gambiae adults was generally low in these larval habitats (1.35, 1.55, and 1.84 mosquitoes per m2 per wk in drainage ditches, disused goldmines, and cow hoofprints, respectively). In total, seven families of larval mosquito predators were identified from the larval habitats, including Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae, Corixidae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, Belostomatidae, and Cordulidae. Predator density in disused goldmines was significantly higher than that of other habitat types. Determination of the relative importance of predation, habitat stability and food contents on natural mosquito habitat productivity would help to design cost-effective vector control methods specifically targeted at the productive habitats. PMID:17915505
Munga, Stephen; Minakawa, Noboru; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun
The flexibility of insect wings confers aerodynamic benefits, but can also present a hazard if exposed to fog or dew. Fog can cause water to accumulate on wings, bending them into tight taco shapes and rendering them useless for flight. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use high-speed video to film the spontaneous folding of isolated mosquito wings due to the evaporation of a water drop. We predict shapes of the deformed wing using two-dimensional elastica theory, considering both surface tension and Laplace pressure. We also recommend fold-resistant geometries for the wings of flapping micro-aerial vehicles. Our work reveals the mechanism of insect wing folding and provides a framework for further study of capillarity-driven folding in both natural and biomimetic systems at small scales.
Dickerson, Andrew K.; Liu, Xing; Zhu, Ting; Hu, David L.
The Integrated Breeding Platform is a development being led by the Generation Challenge Programme (GCP), a part of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) which has a mission to bring scientists from different horizons and with different skills to work together, bridging the gap between upstream and applied research, so that biotechnology could have greater impact on plant breeding efficiency in developing countries.The Integrated Breeding Platform functions as a one-stop-shop to provide information, tools, services and training. Furthermore IBP hopes to provide developing countries with access to modern breeding technologies, breeding materials, and related information to facilitate their adoption of molecular breeding approaches and improve their plant breeding efficiency.This site provides educational and training opportunities to help people be able to better utilize the tools at the Integrated Breeding Platform, as well as to provide an online community area for webinars and discussion forums. In order to access the self-paced courses found at the left, you will need to click on the "Join Now" button found in the upper right corner of this page. Right now the courses are under development and not ready for participants. While you wait, you can view any materials found under the "lessons" or "animations/video" buttons.
This is the fourth in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal training in genetics or statistics but without any training in plant breeding also may benefit from taking these lessons.
To view additional success stories click on the link in the left menu Please click here to report your plant breeding success stories. Click on TCAP logo to see the Economic impact of USDA-NIFA small grains CAPsThe Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee (SCC 080) is the USDA-sponsored advisory group of representatives from land grant universities. The Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee represents national plant breeding with a focus on education in the broader sense, including providing information to the public and administrators, and encouraging the development of formal educational opportunities, continuing education, and lifelong learning. Mission: To provide a forum for leadership on issues and opportunities of strategic importance to national core competency in plant breeding research and education Membership: The PBCC members will consist of the representatives of the SCC-080 committee and others by request.
The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs
Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.
Immature Aedes mosquitoes were found in domestic, peridomestic, and tree hole habitats within three socioeconomic strata of Jodhpur, a city within an arid area of Rajasthan, India, endemic for dengue. Peridomestic habitats served as a persistent source of Aedes vectors, especially those used for watering cows for religious reasons that were located within high socioeconomic areas. Domestic (indoor) containers within low socioeconomic strata showed a higher container index (27.0%) than periurban areas with cattle sheds (14.3%) or high socioeconomic areas (18.1%). Mosquitoes were collected in tree holes at zoos and gardens supporting several species of monkeys. Six of 67 Aedes albopictus Skuse reared from immatures collected in tree holes tested positive for dengue antigen acquired through vertical transmission, possibly indicating a persistence mechanism for dengue virus within an urban environment. PMID:16619619
Joshi, Vinod; Sharma, R C; Sharma, Yogesh; Adha, Sandeep; Sharma, Keerti; Singh, Himmat; Purohit, Anil; Singhi, Manju
Phylogenetic evidence suggests that endemic and epidemic dengue viruses (DENV), transmitted among humans by the anthropophilic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, emerged when ancestral, sylvatic DENV transmitted among nonhuman primates by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes adapted to these peridomestic vectors. We tested this hypothesis by retrospectively examining evidence for adaptation of epidemic and endemic versus sylvatic strains of DENV-2 to Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. First and second-generation offspring of mosquitoes from different geographic regions in the Americas and Southeast Asia were tested for their susceptibility to epidemic/endemic and sylvatic DENV-2 isolates from West Africa, Southeast Asia, and Oceania. Both Aedes species were highly susceptible (up to 100% infected) to endemic/epidemic DENV-2 strains after ingesting artificial blood meals but significantly less susceptible (as low as 0%) to sylvatic DENV-2 strains. Our findings support the hypothesis that adaptation to peridomestic mosquito vectors mediated dengue emergence from sylvatic progenitor viruses. PMID:15504265
Moncayo, Abelardo C.; Fernandez, Zoraida; Ortiz, Diana; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou; Hartman, Sammie; Davis, C. Todd; Coffey, Lark; Mathiot, Christian C.; Tesh, Robert B.
Full Text Available Apresenta-se sucinta revisão do relacionamento entre as chamadas infecções emergentes e o conceito de vetores emergentes. Estes são entendidos não apenas no que concerne aos que são descritos como tais, de forma nova, mas também aqueles com acentuadas mudanças de comportamento. Os fatores específicos que propiciam esse fenômeno identificam-se à poderosa influência humana sobre o ambiente. Assim, aquele construído pelo homem e conhecido como antrópico representa a função de pressão seletiva que induz as populações vetoras a se adaptarem às novas circunstâncias. Nelas inclui-se fatores ecológicos ambientais, ou demográficos, que incrementam o contato com os novos comportamentos vetoriais. Relata-se o encontro de criadouros anômalos de mosquitos Culicidae nas Américas. A interpretação desses encontros é feita visando à vigilância epidemiológica. O significado dessa emergência ou reemergência pode se traduzir no aparecimento de problemas epidemiológicos. Sugere-se que, em sendo assim, a vigilância epidemiológica deva ser feita em grau global.A review is presented of the relationships between the so-called emerging infectious diseases and what may be defined as emerging vectors. These include not only those that have recently appeared but also those that present remarkable behavioral changes. Specific factors leading to that emergence can be associated with the powerful human influence on the environment. So the man-made, i.e. anthropic environment, exercises a selective pressure inducing vector populations to adapt to new circumstances. These may arise from ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that increase contact with the new vector. With this in mind, data on anomalous Culicidae breeding places in the Americas are reported. An interpretation of these findings is offered in the light of epidemiological surveillance. The question is whether vector emergence or re-emergence may constitute an epidemiological problem. Thus it is suggested that plane for all inclusive surveillance be prepared.
Oswaldo Paulo Forattini
Two mosquito species of the subgenus Stegomyia (genus Aedes) (Diptera: Culicidae) on the islands of Palau and Yap (Aedes dybasi Bohart and Aedes maehleri Bohart) are adapted to aquatic habitats occupied by Nepenthes pitcher plants. To reveal the origin of these pitcher plant mosquitoes, we attempted a molecular phylogenetic analysis with 11 Stegomyia species by using sequence data from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16SrRNA genes as well as the nuclear 28SrRNA gene. Ae. dybasi, a pitcher plant specialist, was sister to Aedes palauensis Bohart within the scutellaris group from the same islands. Ae. maehleri, an opportunistic pitcher plant mosquito, was in a distinct lineage related to the scutellaris group. The adaptation to pitcher plants could have occurred independently in these two species, and recent differentiation of the pitcher plant mosquito Ae. dybasi from the nonpitcher plant mosquito Ae. palauensis was suggested by a relatively small sequence divergence between these species. We also discuss the implications of this analysis for the phylogeny of some other Stegomyia species. PMID:17017211
Sota, Teiji; Mogi, Motoyoshi
Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been applied successfully in some agricultural pest control programs in the past, but in many cases, success has not been sustainable in the long run. Various attempts have been made to duplicate this limited success SIT application in agriculture to other areas of applications, particularly in vector control. For example, a recent mosquito control program has been initiated in Malaysia to eliminate dengue-mosquitoes Aedes aegypti by releasing large amount o...
Teh Su Yean; Koh Hock Lye; Yeap Kiew Lee
Full Text Available Abstract Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5?ppm (mg a.i./liter provided 6–8?weeks of effective control of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasiatus and Cx. coronator larvae, both in the dry season and the rainy season when mosquito populations increased markedly in southern Mexico. Spinosad continued to provide partial control of larvae for several weeks after initial recolonization of treated tires. The larvicidal performance of VectoBac 12AS (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was relatively poor with one week of complete control of Aedes spp. larvae and no discernible control of Culex spp., whereas the duration of larvicidal activity of 1% temephos mineral-based granules was intermediate between those of VectoBac and spinosad treatments. Populations of chironomids, ostracods and Toxorhynchites theobaldi were generally reduced in spinosad and temephos treatments, but were similar in control and VectoBac treatments. Conclusion The present study is the first to report spinosad as an effective larvicide against Cx. coronator, which is currently invading the southern United States. These results substantiate the use of spinosad as a highly effective mosquito larvicide, even in habitats such as unused car tires that can represent prolific sources of adult mosquitoes.
Marina Carlos F
Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica acerca del uso de dispositivos electroacústicos con supuesta acción repelente sobre las hembras de diferentes especies de mosquitos hematófagos. Se dan 15 referencias directas y 2 indirectas, en todas se concluye que estos dispositivos no protegen a quienes los [...] portan de las picadas de los mosquitos. Se dan los nombres de 9 de los dispositivos probados, así como de 16 de las principales especies de mosquitos presentes en las pruebas de campo. Estas pruebas de campo se han realizado en condiciones ecológicas muy diferentes, que van desde alaska hasta el África Ecuatorial. También se menciona el efecto potencialmente dañino al hombre de los dispositivos que emiten frecuencias a alta intensidad. Abstract in english A bibliographic review about the use of electroacustic devices with a supposed repellent action on the females of different species of hematophagous mosquitoes is presented. 15 direct references and 2 indirect ones are given, in which it is concluded that these devices do not protect those who have [...] them from the stings of mosquitoes. The names of 9 of the tested devices as well as of 16 of the main species of mosquitoes present in the field tests are mentioned. These tests have been carried out in very different ecological conditions from Alaska to Equatorial Africa. It is also stressed that the high intensity ultrasonic frequencies emitted by these devices produces a potentially harmful effect on man.
Frank, Coro; Silvia, Suárez.
Characterization of arboviruses at the interface of pristine habitats and anthropogenic landscapes is crucial to comprehensive emergent disease surveillance and forecasting efforts. In context of surveillance campaign in and around a West African rainforest, particles morphologically consistent with rhabdoviruses were identified in cell cultures infected with homogenates of trapped mosquitoes. RNA recovered from these cultures was used to derive the first complete genome sequence of a rhabdov...
Quan, Phenix-lan; Junglen, Sandra; Tashmukhamedova, Alla; Conlan, Sean; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Kurth, Andreas; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Egholm, Michael; Briese, Thomas; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ian Lipkin, W.
This ovitrap study examined the effects of altitude above sea level, tree species, and tree trunk diameter on the distribution of eggs of the 2 tree hole mosquitoes, Aedes hendersoni and Ae. triseriatus. Only tree species and trunk diameter affected the distribution significantly. Aedes hendersoni eggs were found more frequently associated with trees of border and sunny habitat, while Ae. triseriatus eggs were more frequently found in association with trees of mesic habitat. Oviposition of Ae. hendersoni occurred more often at trees with smaller diameter at breast height than did Ae. triseriatus. These differences in ovipositing frequency appear to be related to the microhabitat associated with different sample sites. PMID:3504894
Ballard, E M; Waller, J H; Knapp, F W
The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot diseasewhich is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs
Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of anopheline mosquitoes are largely distributed over emerged lands around the world and, within the tropics, few areas are without these insects, which are vectors of malaria parasites. Among the exceptions is the Seychelles archipelago in the western Indian Ocean. However, in the Aldabra island group, located in the extreme western portion of the archipelago, Anopheles gambiae s.l. was introduced, leading to massive proliferation and then elimination, with the most recent autochthonous malaria cases recorded in 1931. Methods In order to re-examine the absence of anopheline mosquitoes in the Seychelles, an entomological field survey was conducted in December 2008 at 17 sites on four granitic islands, including Mahé and Praslin, and ten sites on coralline atolls in the extreme west, including Aldabra. Results No evidence of larval or adult anophelines was found at the surveyed sites, which supports their absence in the Seychelles. Conclusions In the granitic islands of the Seychelles, the climate is favourable for anophelines. However, these islands are protected by their remoteness and prevailing seasonal winds. In addition, stagnant freshwater, required in anopheline larval development, is relatively uncommon on the granitic islands because of the steep slopes. In the southwestern atolls (Aldabra and Providence-Farquhar groups, the presence of a long dry season of up to nine months and the total absence of permanent natural freshwater prevents the breeding of anophelines and their successful colonization. The Seychelles does not have any native land mammals and like in other parts of the world (Antarctica, Iceland, New Caledonia, Central Pacific islands their absence is associated with the lack of anophelines. This suggests an obligatory relationship for anophelines to feed on terrestrial mammals, without alternative for blood-feeding sources, such as bats, birds and reptiles.
Goodman Steven M
Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases affect millions of people worldwide. In the United States, since 1999, West Nile Virus (WNV has infected 36,801 people and has caused the deaths of 1,580. In California, since 2002, nearly 3,600 people have been infected with WNV with an additional 124 fatalities. Analyses of remotely- and spatially-based data have proven to facilitate the study of mosquito-borne diseases, including WNV. This study proposes an efficient procedure to identify swimming pools that may serve as potential mosquito habitat. The procedure derives the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI from high resolution, multi-spectral imagery to detect the presence of surface water, and then incorporates vector-based data layers within a GIS to identify residential land parcels with detectable water. This study compared the parcels identified as having water (535 with parcels known to have swimming pools (682 resulting in an accuracy of 78.4%. Nineteen of the 147 land parcels with swimming pools had backyards with enough vegetation to obscure the presence of a swimming pool from the satellite. The remaining 128 parcels lacked enough surface water for the NDWI to indicate them as actually having surface water. It is likely then that swimming pools, associated with such parcels, may have enough water in them to provide adequate habitat for mosquitoes, and so field inspection by mosquito abatement personnel would be justified.
Stuart K. McFeeters
Background Although adult mosquito vectors of sylvatic arbovirus [yellow fever (YFV), dengue-2 (DENV-2) and chikungunya (CHIKV)] have been studied for the past 40 years in southeastern Senegal, data are still lacking on the ecology of larval mosquitoes in this area. In this study, we investigated the larval habitats of mosquitoes and characterized their seasonal and spatial dynamics in arbovirus foci. Methods We searched for wet microhabitats, classified in 9 categories, in five land cover classes (agriculture, forest, savannah, barren and village) from June, 2010 to January, 2011. Mosquito immatures were sampled monthly in up to 30 microhabitats of each category per land cover and bred until adult stage for determination. Results No wet microhabitats were found in the agricultural sites; in the remaining land covers immature stages of 35 mosquito species in 7 genera were sampled from 9 microhabitats (tree holes, fresh fruit husks, decaying fruit husks, puddles, bamboo holes, discarded containers, tires, rock holes and storage containers). The most abundant species was Aedes aegypti formosus, representing 30.2% of the collections, followed by 12 species, representing each more than 1% of the total, among them the arbovirus vectors Ae. vittatus (7.9%), Ae. luteocephalus (5.7%), Ae. taylori (5.0%), and Ae. furcifer (1.3%). Aedes aegypti, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Er. chrysogster and Ae. vittatus were the only common species collected from all land covers. Aedes furcifer and Ae. taylori were collected in fresh fruit husks and tree holes. Species richness and dominance varied significantly in land covers and microhabitats. Positive associations were found mainly between Ae. furcifer, Ae. taylori and Ae. luteocephalus. A high proportion of potential enzootic vectors that are not anthropophilic were found in the larval mosquito fauna. Conclusions In southeastern Senegal, Ae. furcifer and Ae. taylori larvae showed a more limited distribution among both land cover and microhabitat types than the other common species. Uniquely among vector species, Ae. aegypti formosus larvae occurred at the highest frequency in villages. Finally, a high proportion of the potential non-anthropophilic vectors were represented in the larval mosquito fauna, suggesting the existence of unidentified sylvatic arbovirus cycles in southeastern Senegal. PMID:23216815
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although adult mosquito vectors of sylvatic arbovirus [yellow fever (YFV, dengue-2 (DENV-2 and chikungunya (CHIKV] have been studied for the past 40 years in southeastern Senegal, data are still lacking on the ecology of larval mosquitoes in this area. In this study, we investigated the larval habitats of mosquitoes and characterized their seasonal and spatial dynamics in arbovirus foci. Methods We searched for wet microhabitats, classified in 9 categories, in five land cover classes (agriculture, forest, savannah, barren and village from June, 2010 to January, 2011. Mosquito immatures were sampled monthly in up to 30 microhabitats of each category per land cover and bred until adult stage for determination. Results No wet microhabitats were found in the agricultural sites; in the remaining land covers immature stages of 35 mosquito species in 7 genera were sampled from 9 microhabitats (tree holes, fresh fruit husks, decaying fruit husks, puddles, bamboo holes, discarded containers, tires, rock holes and storage containers. The most abundant species was Aedes aegypti formosus, representing 30.2% of the collections, followed by 12 species, representing each more than 1% of the total, among them the arbovirus vectors Ae. vittatus (7.9%, Ae. luteocephalus (5.7%, Ae. taylori (5.0%, and Ae. furcifer (1.3%. Aedes aegypti, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Er. chrysogster and Ae. vittatus were the only common species collected from all land covers. Aedes furcifer and Ae. taylori were collected in fresh fruit husks and tree holes. Species richness and dominance varied significantly in land covers and microhabitats. Positive associations were found mainly between Ae. furcifer, Ae. taylori and Ae. luteocephalus. A high proportion of potential enzootic vectors that are not anthropophilic were found in the larval mosquito fauna. Conclusions In southeastern Senegal, Ae. furcifer and Ae. taylori larvae showed a more limited distribution among both land cover and microhabitat types than the other common species. Uniquely among vector species, Ae. aegypti formosus larvae occurred at the highest frequency in villages. Finally, a high proportion of the potential non-anthropophilic vectors were represented in the larval mosquito fauna, suggesting the existence of unidentified sylvatic arbovirus cycles in southeastern Senegal.
The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan with the cooperation from the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) held the first international conference for nuclear cooperation in Asia in 1990 to enhance cooperation in the nuclear field with neighboring Asian countries and as a result, a consensus was to implement regional nuclear cooperation in the field of radioisotopes and radiation utilization for agriculture among other areas, and plant mutation breeding was approved as a common field of cooperation; and due to vast information generated by the group in the succeeding roundtable discussions of each workshop, it was held as a consensus that a database of plant mutation breeding - FNCA be established; a mutant stock repository be set up, and that a bench-top mutation breeding manual be published as a guide for the aspiring radiation mutation breeding novice
Full Text Available The island of Mauritius had not experienced any mosquito-borne diseases since the last malaria outbreak in the early 1980s. When the chikungunya fever epidemic affected the island in 2005-2006, the local population was unprepared against this mosquito-borne infection and officially 11, 000 people were affected. Authorities promptly set up public health campaigns and actively encouraged the public to take preventive actions against the mosquito vector. This study has been carried out to investigate whether the individual preventive interventions adopted to combat mosquitoes during the outbreak have been sustained two years following the outbreak in a specific rural locality. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Mauritius. Data was collected using a door-to-door household survey in a small rural locality of Mauritius in December 2008 and January 2009. One person per household was interviewed and the sample size was 172. Sustainability of individual preventive interventions was determined by assessing the preventive measures adopted by people against mosquitoes prior to, during, and two years following the outbreak. Elimination of mosquito breeding places was the most practiced preventive measure adopted by people in all outbreak periods as compared to preventive measures against mosquito bites within and outside the house. An increase in all individual preventive measures was observed during the outbreak followed by a slow decline two years following the outbreak. An important finding was that all post-outbreak preventive measures were sustained above the pre-outbreak levels, especially so in the case of source reduction interventions. Individual efforts in the inter-epidemic period are important to mitigate the spread of a mosquito-borne infection and it is encouraging to observe in this case study that although individual preventive measures decline with time after an outbreak they are still being sustained above the pre-outbreak levels.
Molecular insight and methods applied to plant breeding and germplasm enhancement is the goal of assisted breeding, also known as marker assisted breeding, marker assisted selection, molecular plant breeding, or genome-wide selection, among others. The basic idea is that most, if not all, heritable ...
New mosquito control strategies centred on the modifying of populations require knowledge of existing population densities at release sites and an understanding of breeding site ecology. Using a quantitative pupal survey method, we investigated production of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cairns, Queensland, Australia, and found that garden accoutrements represented the most common container type. Deliberately placed 'sentinel' containers were set at seven houses and sampled for pupae over 10 weeks during the wet season. Pupal production was approximately constant; tyres and buckets represented the most productive container types. Sentinel tyres produced the largest female mosquitoes, but were relatively rare in the field survey. We then used field-collected data to make estimates of per premises population density using three different approaches. Estimates of female Ae. aegypti abundance per premises made using the container-inhabiting mosquito simulation (CIMSiM) model [95% confidence interval (CI) 18.5-29.1 females] concorded reasonably well with estimates obtained using a standing crop calculation based on pupal collections (95% CI 8.8-22.5) and using BG-Sentinel traps and a sampling rate correction factor (95% CI 6.2-35.2). By first describing local Ae. aegypti productivity, we were able to compare three separate population density estimates which provided similar results. We anticipate that this will provide researchers and health officials with several tools with which to make estimates of population densities. PMID:23205694
Williams, C R; Johnson, P H; Ball, T S; Ritchie, S A
Spinosad consisting of spinosyn A and D is derived from a naturally occurring, soil-dwelling bacterium, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Spinosyns are neurotoxins that activate postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and cause rapid excitation of the insect nervous system and ultimately exhaustion and death of the targets. During the past 30 yr, numerous spinosad-based formulations have been developed and applied to control various arthropod pests of agricultural importance. Natular T-30 is a new slow-release formulation containing 8.33% spinosad for use in mosquito larval control programs. High-level larvicidal activity, as indicated by low LC50 and LC90 levels, was demonstrated against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the laboratory. Larvicidal efficacy was evaluated in semifield microcosms, field mesocosms, and underground storm drains. Fair performance against larval populations of Culex spp. and other mosquito species was achieved, although low efficacy during the initial few days posttreatment was encountered. This slow-release formulation will play an important role in controlling mosquitoes in persistent breeding sources. PMID:25118417
Su, Tianyun; Cheng, Min-Lee; Thieme, Jennifer
Full Text Available In 2008 there was a large outbreak of Chikungunya fever in the south of Thailand. Chikungunya fever is a febrile disease transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. The symptoms of this disease are a sudden onset of a fever, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, joint pain with or without swelling, low back pain and rash. In this study we study the effects of there being two species of Aedes mosquito (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus present. In this study, we assume that both the human and mosquito populations are constant. A dynamical model of Chikungunya fever is proposed and analyzed. The Routh-Hurwitz criteria are used to determine the stability of the model. The conditions which would lead to either the disease free equilibrium state or the disease endemic equilibrium state to exist is determined. The numerical simulations are done in order to illustrate the behaviors of transmission of disease for different values of parameters. It is shown that the destruction of breeding sites could be an effective method to control this disease.
Mosquito iridescent virus (MIV) is an icosahedric lipid-containing virus which affects mosquitoes of Aedes, Culex, Culizeta genera. Apart from mosquitoes and other insects, iridoviruses cause the mass death of fish and can cause huge losses for industrial fish breedings. The MIV virion consists of a core of the genetic material (double-stranded viral DNA) surrounded by a capsid (icosahedral protein shell) and further encased in a lipid envelope. The aim of the work was to determine the role of MIV virion constituents (lipids, capsid proteins, and viral DNA) in the formation of spectral properties of the whole MIV virions. Measured are UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence, fluorescence excitation, and phosphorescence spectra of MIV virions, their capsid proteins, lipids, and viral DNA dissolved in various buffers. It is shown that the UV absorption of MIV virions is caused by the absorption of all virion constituents such as capsid proteins, lipids, and viral DNA. The fluorescence of MIV virions at room temperature is mainly due to the fluorescence of capsid proteins. The spectra measured at low temperatures make it possible to identify the type of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) inside the virion thanks to the fact that the DNA and RNA phosphorescence spectra are radically different.
Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), a potential dengue vector, particularly in the foot-hill areas of the Western Ghat region of Kerala State has been found breeding for the first time in cocoa pods (Theobroma cacao) in India. Breeding in cocoa pods is considered an opportunistic adaptive behavior of the mosquito to maintain density in the absence of common breeding sites, especially latex-collecting cups in rubber plantations, during the monsoon periods. Vector breeding in cocoa pods was observed up to 8 m from the ground, and in both hanging and grounded pods, whose endocarp had been devoured by rodents. Ae. albopictus breeding in cocoa plant is discussed in relation to accentuating disease transmission risk. PMID:15532938
Hiriyan, J; Tyagi, B K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Oviposition-site choice is an essential component of the life history of all mosquito species. According to the oviposition-preference offspring-performance (P-P hypothesis, if optimizing offspring performance and fitness ensures high overall reproductive fitness for a given species, the female should accurately assess details of the heterogeneous environment and lay her eggs preferentially in sites with conditions more suitable to offspring. Methods We empirically tested the P-P hypothesis using the mosquito species Aedes albopictus by artificially manipulating two habitat conditions: diet (measured as mg of food added to a container and conspecific density (CD; number of pre-existing larvae of the same species. Immature development (larval mortality, development time to pupation and time to emergence and fitness (measured as wing length were monitored from first instar through adult emergence using a factorial experimental design over two ascending gradients of diet (2.0, 3.6, 7.2 and 20 mg food/300 ml water and CD (0, 20, 40 and 80 larvae/300 ml water. Treatments that exerted the most contrasting values of larval performance were recreated in a second experiment consisting of single-female oviposition site selection assay. Results Development time decreased as food concentration increased, except from 7.2 mg to 20.0 mg (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P?>?0.1. Development time decreased also as conspecific density increased from zero to 80 larvae (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P?. Combined, these results support the role of density-dependent competition for resources as a limiting factor for mosquito larval performance. Oviposition assays indicated that female mosquitoes select for larval habitats with conspecifics and that larval density was more important than diet in driving selection for oviposition sites. Conclusions This study supports predictions of the P-P hypothesis and provides a mechanistic understanding of the underlying factors driving mosquito oviposition site selection.
Background & objectives: DPE-28, a substituted diphenyl ether (2,6-ditertiarybutyl phenyl-2’,4’-dinitro phenyl ether) was reported to exhibit promising insect growth regulating activity against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis. A controlled release formulation (CRF) of DPE-28 has been developed to control Cx. quinquefasciatus in its breeding habitats. Toxicity of DPE-28, safety to non-target mosquito predators and the release profile of the CRF of DPE-28 are studied and discussed. Methods: The acute oral and dermal toxicity was tested in male and female Wistar rats as per the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines 425 and 402 respectively. The toxicity of DPE-28 to non-target predators was tested as per the reported procedure from this laboratory. The CRF of DPE-28 was prepared by following the reported procedure developed at this laboratory earlier. The concentration of DPE-28 released from the CRF was monitored by HPLC by constructing a calibration graph by plotting the peak area in the Y-axis and the concentration of DPE-28 in the X-axis. Results: DPE-28 has been tested for acute oral toxicity and found to be moderately toxic with LD50 value of 1098 mg/kg body weight (b.w). The results of the acute dermal toxicity and skin irritation studies reveal that DPE-28 is safe and non-irritant. DPE-28 when tested at 0.4 mg/litre against non-target mosquito predators did not produce any mortality. The release profile of the active ingredient DPE-28 from the CRF by HPLC technique showed that the average daily release (ADR) of DPE-28 ranged from 0.07 to 5.0 mg/litre during first four weeks. Thereafter the matrix started eroding and the ADR ranged from 5 to 11 mg/litre during the remaining 5 wk. The cumulative release of active ingredient showed that > 90 per cent of the active ingredient was released from the matrix. Interpretation & conclusions: The controlled release matrix of DPE-28 was thus found to inhibit the adult emergence (>80%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus for a period of nine weeks. The CRF of DPE-28 may play a useful role in field and may be recommended for mosquito control programme after evaluating the same under field conditions. PMID:21727665
Kalyanasundaram, M.; Mathew, Nisha; Elango, A.; Padmanabhan, V.
Mosquito host-seeking behavior and heterogeneity in host distribution are important factors in predicting the transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne infections such as dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, and West Nile virus. We develop and analyze a new mathematical model to describe the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the contact rate between mosquito vectors and hosts. The model includes odor plumes generated by spatially distributed hosts, wind velocity, and mosquito behavior based on ...
Cummins, Bree; Cortez, Ricardo; Foppa, Ivo M.; Walbeck, Justin; Hyman, James M.
BACKGROUND: Invasive aedine mosquito species have become a major issue in many parts of the world as most of them are recognised vectors or potentially involved in transmission of pathogens. Surveillance of these mosquitoes (e.g. Ae. aegypti, Yellow fever mosquito, Aedes albopictus, Asian tiger mosquito) is mainly done by collecting eggs using ovitraps and by identification of the larvae hatched in the laboratory. In order to replace this challenging and laborious procedure, we have evaluated...
Schaffner, Francis; Kaufmann, Christian; Pflu?ger, Valentin; Mathis, Alexander
Preserving large predators is important but challenging because these species are typically wide-ranging, select multiple habitats at different scales and often present spatial or habitat separation between the breeder and floater sectors of a population. In addition, most of our knowledge on raptor floaters' habitat requirements comes from large solitary species, whose floaters often occupy temporary settlement areas spatially separate from breeding locations. Here, we examine space and habi...
Tanferna, Alessandro; Lo?pez-jime?nez, L.; Blas, Julio; Hiraldo, F.; Sergio, Fabrizio
A dengue fever outbreak occurred near Matamoros, Mexico along the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the summer of 2005 following heavy rainfall from Tropical Storm Gert and Hurricane Emily. This outbreak exemplifies the need for monitoring soil moisture and mapping soil permeability factors affecting the breeding and distribution of mosquito species capable of spreading disease. For example, the Rio Grande delta of South Texas and North Tamaulipas Mexico is inhabited by over 50 native and invasive species of mosquitoes capable of hosting Malaria, West Nile Virus and other types of human and livestock infecting Encephalitis. They range in ecological habitats from coastal salt marshes to freshwater riparian wetlands, tree holes and/or urban containers, flooded agricultural fields, and the many irrigation canals and ditches present throughout our study area. For this study, water-saturated and flooded soils were mapped using a “soil moisture availability” index (Mo) based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images and surface radiant and/or kinetic temperature images derived from multi-temporal Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER imagery. In particular, the Landsat-7 imagery covers ten cloud-free or minimal cloud cover acquisition dates during drought and wet periods of 2002, prior to the scan-line corrector failure in 2003. This includes one date (August 18, 2002) of co-orbital swath coverage between Landsat and ASTER, acquired after the land fall and dissipation of Tropical Storm Bertha (August 09, 2002). ASTER image dates used include those before and after the land fall of Hurricane Emily on July 20, 2005. The resulting maps show the distribution of relatively permeable (i.e. sandier) and impermeable soil types, the latter of which are dominated by clay-rich soils deposited in remnant interdistributary channels as channel-fill, and overbank flood deposits along the modern Rio Grande delta and portions of the (remapped) Pleistocene Beaumont coastal deltaic plain. Pools of standing rain water on impermeable soils can become ideal habitats for mosquito ovipositing and larval development between storms, which in turn can pose a higher risk for infection to humans and livestock animals. Because clay and other fine-grained minerals strongly affect a soil’s physical and chemical properties such as porosity, permeability and surface sealing/crusting upon saturation, 211 soil samples were collected at approximately 3-5 km sample spacing. The mineralogy of both the distribution and relative abundance of kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite, for which we compare to ASTER remote sensing derived mineral maps based on drought period imagery (March 15, 2001), and airborne geophyisical data showing the distribution of radiometric K-bearing minerals (e.g. mainly illite/mica and orthoclase feldspar). The ASTER mineral maps show areas of clay-rich impermeable soils that are prone to ponding of standing water after storms. Our results show the utility of using remote sensing observations for mapping flood prone areas that may pose mosquito related health threats to both people and livestock on both sides of the border.
Hubbard, B. E.; Folger, H. W.; Page, W. R.
In this interview, George Dimopoulos focuses on the physiological mechanisms used by mosquitoes to combat Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infections. Explanation is given for how key refractory genes, those genes conferring resistance to vector pathogens, are identified in the mosquito and how this knowledge can be used to generate transgenic mosquitoes that are unable to carry the malaria parasite or dengue virus.
Domesticating anopheline species from wild isolates provides an important laboratory tool but requires detailed knowledge of their natural biology and ecology, especially the natural breeding habitats of immature stages. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal values of some parameters of Anopheles gambiae larval development, so as to design a standard rearing protocol of highland isolates, which would ensure: the biggest fourth instars, the highest pupae productivity, the shortest duration of the larval stage and the best synchronization of pupation. The density of larvae, the size of breeding water and the quantity of food supplied were tested for their effect on larval growth. Moreover, three cheap foodstuffs were selected and tested for their capability to improve the breeding yield versus TetraMin® as the standard control. The larval density was a very sensitive parameter. Its optimal value, which was found to be ?1?cm-2 surface area, yielded a daily pupation peak of 38.7% on day 8 post-oviposition, and a global pupae productivity of 78.7% over a duration range of three days. Anopheles gambiae's larval growth, survival and developmental synchronization were density-dependent, and this species responded to overcrowding by producing smaller fourth instars and fewer pupae, over elongated immature lifetime and duration range of pupae occurrence, as a consequence of intraspecific competition. While shallow breeding waters (larval development was observed. Increasing the daily food supply improved the pupae productivity but also boosted the water pollution level (which was assessed by the biological oxygen demand (BOD) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD)) up to a limit depending on the food quality, above which a rapid increase in larval mortality was recorded. The food quality that could substitute the manufactured baby fish food was obtained with weighed mixture of 1 wheat+1 shrimp+2 fish. On establishing an anopheline mosquito colony in the laboratory, special care should be taken to design and maintain the appropriate optimal values of larval density, water depth, daily diet quantity and nutritional quality. PMID:21208505
Tchuinkam, T; Mpoame, M; Make-Mveinhya, B; Simard, F; Lélé-Defo, E; Zébazé-Togouet, S; Tateng-Ngouateu, A; Awono-Ambéné, H-P; Antonio-Nkondjio, C; Njiné, T; Fontenille, D
We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of animals in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of animals for which we are responsible. When animals are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which breeding outcomes can be predi...
Flint, A. P. F.; Woolliams, J. A.
Understanding the patterns of spatial and temporal distribution in threshold habitats of highly migratory and endangered species is important for understanding their habitat requirements and recovery trends. Herein, we present new data about the distribution of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in neritic waters off the northern coast of Peru: an area that constitutes a transitional path from cold, upwelling waters to warm equatorial waters where the breeding habitat is located. Data w...
Guidino, Chiara; Llapapasca, Miguel A.; Silva, Sebastian; Alcorta, Belen; Pacheco, Aldo S.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI. Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with cow urine in both laboratory and field conditions have shown that cow urine left to age from 1-7 days has an influence on oviposition behavioural response in mosquitoes. The analysis of microbial colonies for decaying urine should be investigated along with its associated by-products.
Kweka Eliningaya J
The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola (hereon woodcock) is a wader adapted to woodland and farmland habitats. It is an important quarry species, widely hunted across Europe, but owing to its cryptic plumage and elusive nature, there exists only poor information concerning its natural history. As such, the conservation status of the woodcock remains uncertain. One area that is particularly lacking is knowledge of its ecology outside the breeding season. Generally, avian ecological studies h...
Powell, Adele; Gosler, Andrew; Hoodless, Andrew
Byron Breedlove reads his essay Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets about the art of James Whistler and the transmission of vector borne diseases. Created: 9/23/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 10/20/2014.
Baculoviruses found in mosquitoes have been assigned to the Nucleopolyhedroviruses and are of growing interest as they may represent a separate branch within the Baculoviridae that existed prior to the split of lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses and granuloviruses. They may also be ancestral to th...
Habitat suitability quantifies the relationship between species and habitat, and is evaluated according to the species? fitness (i.e. proportion of birth rate to death rate). Even though it might maximize evolutionary success, species are not always in habitat that optimizes fit...
The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the north-central U.S. and south-central Canada contains millions of small prairie wetlands that provide critical habitat to many migrating and breeding waterbirds. Due to their small size and the relatively dry climate of the region, these wetlands are considered at high risk for negative climate change effects as temperatures increase. To estimate the potential impacts of climate change on breeding waterbirds, we predicted current and future distributions...
Steen, Valerie; Skagen, Susan K.; Noon, Barry R.
The thermal environment has pronounced effects on the energy costs of thermoregulation and affects an animal's allocation of energy to self-maintenance and parental care. Consequently, the selection of reproductive periods, breeding habitats and nest-sites with a favourable microclimate can be advantageous, especially for birds breeding in harsh environments. In this study on Alpine Water Pipits (Anthus spinoletta), we evaluate the importance of spatial and temporal factors on thermoregulator...
Rauter, C.; Reyer, H. U.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo observou a dinâmica populacional dos mosquitos em açude eutrofizado na área rural de Paraíba do Sul, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram realizadas 12 coletas mensais de mosquitos imaturos pelo método da conchada em 9 m de borda, divididos em três postos (P1, P2 e P3), com 3 m de extensão ca [...] da. O posto P1 difere por não ter vegetação (capim, mato) na margem, alcançando ou penetrando e promovendo alguma sombra na água. Larvas L3, L4 e pupas foram isoladas para a obtenção dos adultos e identificação. Foram identificados 217 espécimes adultos de quatro espécies, com as seguintes constâncias e frequências: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) (83% e 40,6%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) evansae (Brèthes, 1926) (92% e 26,7%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia e Lopez, 1940) (83% e 14,3%) e Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901) (33% e 18,4%), com maiores frequências nos trimestres nov./dez./jan. (85,7%), maio/jun./jul. (75%), ago./set./out. (29,4%), ago./set./out. (23,5%) e, nos meses dezembro (88,4%), setembro (48,94), (38,3) e agosto (47,62), respectivamente. A presença do Culex quinquefasciatus (40%) e a elevada incidência de Daphinia sp., juntamente com os níveis de Nitrogênio orgânico (0,28 mg/L) e de Fósforo total (0,02 mg/L), indicam a eutrofização do açude. Houve diferença comparando os totais de anofelinos (A. avansae + A. rangeli) com os totais de culicini (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis) entre P1 e P2 (?² = 0,0097), e entre P1 para P3 (?² = 0,0005), mas não entre P2 e P3 (?² = 0,2045). A elevada frequência e a constância de C. quinquefasciatus confirmam esta ser uma boa espécie bioindicadora para ambientes eutrofizados e A. evansae apresentou boa potencialidade nesse nível trófico. A vegetação pode influir na dinâmica populacional dos anofelinos também em ambientes eutróficos. Abstract in english This study observed the mosquito population in a rural eutrophised dam. Larvae of L3 and L4 stages and pupae were dipped out during twelve month collections and the reared to the adult stage for identification. The collections were done along nine metres from the edge of the dam divided in three par [...] ts (P1, P2 and P3), each part being 3 m long. P1 did not have vegetation (grass) along its edge,which would reach or sink into the water to promote some shade on the marginal water. A total of 217 adults of four species was identified with the following constancies and frequencies: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) (83% and 40.6%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) evansae (Brèthes, 1926) (92% and 26.7%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia and Lopez, 1940) (83% and 14.3%) and Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901) (33% and 18.4%). C. quinquefasciatus, A. evansae, A. rangeli and C. nigripalpus were more frequent in the quarters Nov./Dec./Jan. (85.7%), May/June/July (75%), Aug./Sept./Oct. (29.4%) and Aug./Sept./Oct. (23.5%) particularly in the months of December (88.4%) Sept.tember (48.94), (38.3) and August (47.62) respectively. The presence of C. quinquefasciatus and the high incidence of Daphinia sp. and also the levels of Organic Nitrogen (0.28 mg/L) and of total Phosphorus (0.02 mg/L) are indications of the eutrophication of the dam. There was a difference regarding the total of Anopheles (A. avansae + A. rangeli) and Culex species (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis) between P1 and P2 (?² = 0.0097), P1 and P3 (?² = 0.0005), but not between P2 and P3 (?² = 0.2045).The high C. quinquefasciatus constancy and frequency were confirmed to be a good biological indicator for a eutrophised environment and A. evansae showed a good potential for this environment. Vegetation can be an important factor for anopheline population dynamic also in eutrophic breeding sites.
ED., Wermelinger; CV., Benigno; RNM., Machado; PH., Cabello; AM., Meira; AP., Ferreira; JC., Zanuncio.
Full Text Available This study observed the mosquito population in a rural eutrophised dam. Larvae of L3 and L4 stages and pupae were dipped out during twelve month collections and the reared to the adult stage for identification. The collections were done along nine metres from the edge of the dam divided in three parts (P1, P2 and P3, each part being 3 m long. P1 did not have vegetation (grass along its edge,which would reach or sink into the water to promote some shade on the marginal water. A total of 217 adults of four species was identified with the following constancies and frequencies: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823 (83% and 40.6%, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus evansae (Brèthes, 1926 (92% and 26.7%, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia and Lopez, 1940 (83% and 14.3% and Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901 (33% and 18.4%. C. quinquefasciatus, A. evansae, A. rangeli and C. nigripalpus were more frequent in the quarters Nov./Dec./Jan. (85.7%, May/June/July (75%, Aug./Sept./Oct. (29.4% and Aug./Sept./Oct. (23.5% particularly in the months of December (88.4% Sept.tember (48.94, (38.3 and August (47.62 respectively. The presence of C. quinquefasciatus and the high incidence of Daphinia sp. and also the levels of Organic Nitrogen (0.28 mg/L and of total Phosphorus (0.02 mg/L are indications of the eutrophication of the dam. There was a difference regarding the total of Anopheles (A. avansae + A. rangeli and Culex species (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis between P1 and P2 (?² = 0.0097, P1 and P3 (?² = 0.0005, but not between P2 and P3 (?² = 0.2045.The high C. quinquefasciatus constancy and frequency were confirmed to be a good biological indicator for a eutrophised environment and A. evansae showed a good potential for this environment. Vegetation can be an important factor for anopheline population dynamic also in eutrophic breeding sites.Este estudo observou a dinâmica populacional dos mosquitos em açude eutrofizado na área rural de Paraíba do Sul, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram realizadas 12 coletas mensais de mosquitos imaturos pelo método da conchada em 9 m de borda, divididos em três postos (P1, P2 e P3, com 3 m de extensão cada. O posto P1 difere por não ter vegetação (capim, mato na margem, alcançando ou penetrando e promovendo alguma sombra na água. Larvas L3, L4 e pupas foram isoladas para a obtenção dos adultos e identificação. Foram identificados 217 espécimes adultos de quatro espécies, com as seguintes constâncias e frequências: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823 (83% e 40,6%, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus evansae (Brèthes, 1926 (92% e 26,7%, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia e Lopez, 1940 (83% e 14,3% e Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901 (33% e 18,4%, com maiores frequências nos trimestres nov./dez./jan. (85,7%, maio/jun./jul. (75%, ago./set./out. (29,4%, ago./set./out. (23,5% e, nos meses dezembro (88,4%, setembro (48,94, (38,3 e agosto (47,62, respectivamente. A presença do Culex quinquefasciatus (40% e a elevada incidência de Daphinia sp., juntamente com os níveis de Nitrogênio orgânico (0,28 mg/L e de Fósforo total (0,02 mg/L, indicam a eutrofização do açude. Houve diferença comparando os totais de anofelinos (A. avansae + A. rangeli com os totais de culicini (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis entre P1 e P2 (?² = 0,0097, e entre P1 para P3 (?² = 0,0005, mas não entre P2 e P3 (?² = 0,2045. A elevada frequência e a constância de C. quinquefasciatus confirmam esta ser uma boa espécie bioindicadora para ambientes eutrofizados e A. evansae apresentou boa potencialidade nesse nível trófico. A vegetação pode influir na dinâmica populacional dos anofelinos também em ambientes eutróficos.
This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a traditional breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.
This interactive activity goes through the basic process used in a wheat breeding program. Crossing, genetic variation, selection and elements of DNA technology are discussed within this activity. The material is aimed towards high school or introductory life science undergraduate students.
Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of the effects of environmental factors on West Nile virus disease risk have yielded conflicting outcomes. The role of precipitation has been especially difficult to discern from existing studies, due in part to habitat and behavior characteristics of specific vector species and because of differences in the temporal and spatial scales of the published studies. We used spatial and statistical modeling techniques to analyze and forecast fine scale spatial (2000 m grid and temporal (weekly patterns of West Nile virus mosquito infection relative to changing weather conditions in the urban landscape of the greater Chicago, Illinois, region for the years from 2004 to 2008. Results Increased air temperature was the strongest temporal predictor of increased infection in Culex pipiens and Culex restuans mosquitoes, with cumulative high temperature differences being a key factor distinguishing years with higher mosquito infection and higher human illness rates from those with lower rates. Drier conditions in the spring followed by wetter conditions just prior to an increase in infection were factors in some but not all years. Overall, 80% of the weekly variation in mosquito infection was explained by prior weather conditions. Spatially, lower precipitation was the most important variable predicting stronger mosquito infection; precipitation and temperature alone could explain the pattern of spatial variability better than could other environmental variables (79% explained in the best model. Variables related to impervious surfaces and elevation differences were of modest importance in the spatial model. Conclusion Finely grained temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation and air temperature have a consistent and significant impact on the timing and location of increased mosquito infection in the northeastern Illinois study area. The use of local weather data at multiple monitoring locations and the integration of mosquito infection data from numerous sources across several years are important to the strength of the models presented. The other spatial environmental factors that tended to be important, including impervious surfaces and elevation measures, would mediate the effect of rainfall on soils and in urban catch basins. Changes in weather patterns with global climate change make it especially important to improve our ability to predict how inter-related local weather and environmental factors affect vectors and vector-borne disease risk. Local impact of temperature and precipitation on West Nile virus infection in Culex species mosquitoes in northeast Illinois, USA.
Although previous studies have related variations in environmental noise levels with alterations in communication behaviors of birds, little work has investigated the potential long-term implications of living or breeding in noisy habitats. However, noise has the potential to reduce fitness, both directly (because it is a physiological stressor) and indirectly (by masking important vocalizations and/or leading to behavioral changes). Here, we quantified acoustic conditions in active breeding territories of male Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Simultaneously, we measured four fitness indicators: cuckoldry rates, brood growth rate and condition, and number of fledglings produced (i.e., productivity). Increases in environmental noise tended to be associated with smaller brood sizes and were more strongly related to reductions in productivity. Although the mechanism responsible for these patterns is not yet clear, the breeding depression experienced by this otherwise disturbance-tolerant species indicates that anthropogenic noise may have damaging effects on individual fitness and, by extraction, the persistence of populations in noisy habitats. We suggest that managers might protect avian residents from potentially harmful noise by keeping acoustically dominant anthropogenic habitat features as far as possible from favored songbird breeding habitats, limiting noisy human activities, and/or altering habitat structure in order to minimize the propagation of noise pollution. PMID:23210314
Kight, Caitlin R; Saha, Margaret S; Swaddle, John P
Entomological surveillance was conducted in order to determine the abundance and to evaluate any changes of biological vectors or ecology, especially in the dengue outbreak areas. The abundance and breeding preference of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were conducted in selected dengue outbreak localities in three states of peninsular Malaysia namely Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, and Penang Island using ovitraps and larval survey method. It was determined that Ae. albopictus was predominant in most of the localities and found to breed more outdoor than indoor. A wide range of breeding foci were recorded in this study. It was also determined that ovitrap method was more effective to detect the presence of Aedes mosquitoes when the larval survey was at low rate of infestation. The abundance of Ae. albopictus in dengue outbreak localities emphasis that the vector control programme should also target this species together with the primary dengue vector, Ae. aegypti. PMID:25801254
Rozilawati, H; Tanaselvi, K; Nazni, W A; Mohd Masri, S; Zairi, J; Adanan, C R; Lee, H L
The mosquito Aedes albopictus, indigenous to Southeast Asia and nearby islands, has spread almost worldwide during recent decades. We confirm the invasion of this mosquito, first reported in Yamagata city in northeast Honshu, Japan in 2000. Previously, only Ae. japonicus japonicus had been collected in this place, but 2 years later, the population of Ae. albopictus had increased, so more than 80% of the total number of larval colonies there consisted of this species. In contrast to Yamagata's new residential area, now infested by Ae. albopictus, the original mosquito remains in the city but its habitats are generally closer to the surrounding mountains, where the normalized difference vegetation index is higher. The factors affecting the distribution of both species in Yamagata city were studied using geographical information systems (GIS) based on data derived from field surveys, aerial photographs, satellite images and digital maps. The range of Aedes mosquito habitats was estimated and visualised on polygon maps and no significant differences were noted when the polygon area was calculated by GIS software in comparison with the satellite images. Although Ae. j. japonicus was expected to be rapidly overrun by Ae. albopictus, this did not happen. Currently, both species coexist; not only in separate sites, but also simultaneously in various water bodies, where larvae from both species have frequently been seen. However, the competitive relationship between these two Aedes species within a warming environment is an issue that should be closely monitored. PMID:24893018
Nihei, Naoko; Komagata, Osamu; Mochizuki, Kan-ichiro; Kobayashi, Mutsuo
Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past decade the malaria control community has been successful in dramatically increasing the number of households that own mosquito nets. However, as many as half of nets already in households go unused. This study examines the factors associated with use of nets owned in Ghana. Methods The data come from an August 2008 survey in Ghana of households with a pregnant woman or a guardian of a child under five, conducted during the rainy season. 1796 households were included in this analysis, which generated a sample of 1,852 mosquito nets. Using each net owned as the unit of analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of net used last night with 23 potentially explanatory variables having to do with characteristics of the household, of the respondent, and of the net. Odds Ratios, p-values, and confidence intervals were calculated for each variable to develop an explanatory model. Results The final multivariate model consisted of 10 variables statistically associated with whether or not the net was used the prior night: rural location, lower SES, not using coils for mosquito control, fewer nets in the household, newer nets and those in better condition, light blue colour, higher level of education of the guardian of the child under five, knowing that mosquitoes transmit malaria, and paying for the net instead of obtaining it free of charge. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that net use would increase in Ghana if coloured nets were made available in mass distributions as well as in the commercial market; if programmes emphasize that malaria is caused only by night-biting mosquitoes, and that nets protect against mosquitoes better than coils and need to be used even if coils are burning; if donated nets are replaced more frequently so that households have nets that are in good condition; and if there were support for the commercial market so that those who can afford to purchase a net and want to choose their own nets can do so.
Baume Carol A
Spatial distribution of arboviral mosquito vectors (Diptera, Culicidae) in Vale do Ribeira in the South-eastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest / Distribuição espacial de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) vetores de arbovírus no Vale do Ribeira, sudeste da Mata Atlântica, Brasil
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Mosquitos são vetores de arbovírus que podem causar encefalites e febres hemorrágicas em humanos. Aedes serratus (Theobald), Aedes scapularis (Rondani), e Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt) são vetores potenciais de arbovírus e são abundantes no Vale do Ribeira, Mata Atlântica, sudeste do Estado de São [...] Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi inferir a distribuição espacial desses mosquitos e estimar o risco da exposição humana às picadas de mosquitos. Os resultados das análises indicaram que os humanos estão altamente expostos às picadas nos municípios de Cananéia, Iguape e Ilha Comprida. Nessas localidades a incidência de encefalite Rocio foi 2% na década de 1970. Adicionalmente, Ae. serratus, que foi recentemente implicado vetor do vírus da febre amarela no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, deveria ser alvo da vigilância entomológica no sudeste da Mata Atlântica. Considerando a extensão territorial do Brasil e as inerentes dificuldades em amostrar esse vasto território, a modelagem de habitat empregada nesse trabalho poderia ser utilizada para a vigilância de vetores de patógenos. Abstract in english Mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Aedes serratus (Theobald), Aedes scapularis (Rondani) and Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt) are potential vectors of arboviruses and are abundant in Vale do Ribeira, located in the Atlantic Forest in th [...] e southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of these mosquitoes and estimate the risk of human exposure to mosquito bites. Results of the analyses show that humans are highly exposed to bites in the municipalities of Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida. In these localities the incidence of Rocio encephalitis was 2% in the 1970s. Furthermore, Ae. serratus, a recently implicated vector of yellow fever virus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, should be a target for the entomological surveillance in the southeastern Atlantic Forest. Considering the continental dimensions of Brazil and the inherent difficulties in sampling its vast area, the habitat suitability method used in the study can be an important tool for predicting the distribution of vectors of pathogens.
Gabriel Zorello, Laporta; Milton Cezar, Ribeiro; Daniel Garkauskas, Ramos; Maria Anice Mureb, Sallum.
Spatial distribution of arboviral mosquito vectors (Diptera, Culicidae) in Vale do Ribeira in the South-eastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest / Distribuição espacial de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) vetores de arbovírus no Vale do Ribeira, sudeste da Mata Atlântica, Brasil
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Mosquitos são vetores de arbovírus que podem causar encefalites e febres hemorrágicas em humanos. Aedes serratus (Theobald), Aedes scapularis (Rondani), e Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt) são vetores potenciais de arbovírus e são abundantes no Vale do Ribeira, Mata Atlântica, sudeste do Estado de São [...] Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi inferir a distribuição espacial desses mosquitos e estimar o risco da exposição humana às picadas de mosquitos. Os resultados das análises indicaram que os humanos estão altamente expostos às picadas nos municípios de Cananéia, Iguape e Ilha Comprida. Nessas localidades a incidência de encefalite Rocio foi 2% na década de 1970. Adicionalmente, Ae. serratus, que foi recentemente implicado vetor do vírus da febre amarela no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, deveria ser alvo da vigilância entomológica no sudeste da Mata Atlântica. Considerando a extensão territorial do Brasil e as inerentes dificuldades em amostrar esse vasto território, a modelagem de habitat empregada nesse trabalho poderia ser utilizada para a vigilância de vetores de patógenos. Abstract in english Mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Aedes serratus (Theobald), Aedes scapularis (Rondani) and Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt) are potential vectors of arboviruses and are abundant in Vale do Ribeira, located in the Atlantic Forest in th [...] e southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of these mosquitoes and estimate the risk of human exposure to mosquito bites. Results of the analyses show that humans are highly exposed to bites in the municipalities of Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida. In these localities the incidence of Rocio encephalitis was 2% in the 1970s. Furthermore, Ae. serratus, a recently implicated vector of yellow fever virus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, should be a target for the entomological surveillance in the southeastern Atlantic Forest. Considering the continental dimensions of Brazil and the inherent difficulties in sampling its vast area, the habitat suitability method used in the study can be an important tool for predicting the distribution of vectors of pathogens.
Gabriel Zorello, Laporta; Milton Cezar, Ribeiro; Daniel Garkauskas, Ramos; Maria Anice Mureb, Sallum.
Spatial distribution of arboviral mosquito vectors (Diptera, Culicidae in Vale do Ribeira in the South-eastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest Distribuição espacial de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae vetores de arbovírus no Vale do Ribeira, sudeste da Mata Atlântica, Brasil
Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Aedes serratus (Theobald, Aedes scapularis (Rondani and Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt are potential vectors of arboviruses and are abundant in Vale do Ribeira, located in the Atlantic Forest in the southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of these mosquitoes and estimate the risk of human exposure to mosquito bites. Results of the analyses show that humans are highly exposed to bites in the municipalities of Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida. In these localities the incidence of Rocio encephalitis was 2% in the 1970s. Furthermore, Ae. serratus, a recently implicated vector of yellow fever virus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, should be a target for the entomological surveillance in the southeastern Atlantic Forest. Considering the continental dimensions of Brazil and the inherent difficulties in sampling its vast area, the habitat suitability method used in the study can be an important tool for predicting the distribution of vectors of pathogens.Mosquitos são vetores de arbovírus que podem causar encefalites e febres hemorrágicas em humanos. Aedes serratus (Theobald, Aedes scapularis (Rondani, e Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt são vetores potenciais de arbovírus e são abundantes no Vale do Ribeira, Mata Atlântica, sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi inferir a distribuição espacial desses mosquitos e estimar o risco da exposição humana às picadas de mosquitos. Os resultados das análises indicaram que os humanos estão altamente expostos às picadas nos municípios de Cananéia, Iguape e Ilha Comprida. Nessas localidades a incidência de encefalite Rocio foi 2% na década de 1970. Adicionalmente, Ae. serratus, que foi recentemente implicado vetor do vírus da febre amarela no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, deveria ser alvo da vigilância entomológica no sudeste da Mata Atlântica. Considerando a extensão territorial do Brasil e as inerentes dificuldades em amostrar esse vasto território, a modelagem de habitat empregada nesse trabalho poderia ser utilizada para a vigilância de vetores de patógenos.
Gabriel Zorello Laporta
The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)
Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather ...
Sudari? Aleksandra; Vratari? Marija; Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana; Matosa Maja
Full Text Available Insect vitellogenesis involves coordinated activities of the fat body and oocytes. We have studied these activities at the cellular level in the mosquito. During each vitellogenic cycle, the fat body undergoes three successive stages: 1 proliferation of biosynthetic organelles, 2 vitellogenin synthesis, 3 termination of vitellogenin synthesis and degradation of biosynthetic organelles by lysosomes. Analysis with monoclonal antibodies and radiolabelling demonstrated that the mosquito yolk protein consists of two subunits (200-kDa and 65-kDa. Both subunits are glycosylated, their carbohydrate moieties are composed of high-mannose oligosaccharides. The yolk protein subunits are derived from a single 220 kDa precursor detected by an in vitro translation. Oocytes become competent to internalize proteins as a result of juvenile hormone-mediated biogenesis of endocytotic organelles. The yolk protein is then accumulated by receptor-mediated endocytosis. A pathway of the yold protein and factors determining its routing in the oocyte have been studied.
Alexander S. Raikhel
Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km(2) that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America. PMID:23926146
Flockhart, D T Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Martin, Tara G; Hobson, Keith A; Wunder, Michael B; Norris, D Ryan
A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut) in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance) in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance. PMID:21049010
Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Chaves, Luis F; Ritchie, Scott A; Davis, Joe; Kitron, Uriel
This podcast reports on a humorous song that takes a look at a very serious human and equine disease. Written and performed by the MARU Health Angels Band, Bill Dietz, director of the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity at CDC, talks about the song, "Crab Hole Mosquito Blues", and the history behind it. Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 5/23/2011.
An approach based on mosquitoes carrying a conditional dominant lethal gene (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal, RIDL) is being developed to control the transmission of dengue viruses by vector population suppression. A transgenic strain, designated OX3604C, of the major dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, was engineered to have a repressible female-specific flightless phenotype. This strain circumvents the need for radiation-induced sterilization, allows genetic sexing resulting in male...
Wise Valdez, Megan R.; Nimmo, Derric; Betz, John; Gong, Hong-fei; James, Anthony A.; Alphey, Luke; Black, William C.
Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are increasing public health problems with an estimated 50–100 million new infections each year. Aedes aegypti is the major vector of dengue viruses in its range and control of this mosquito would reduce significantly human morbidity and mortality. Present mosquito control methods are not sufficiently effective and new approaches are needed urgently. A “sterile-male-release” strategy based on the release of mosquitoes carrying a conditional dominant ...
Fu, Guoliang; Lees, Rosemary S.; Nimmo, Derric; Aw, Diane; Jin, Li; Gray, Pam; Berendonk, Thomas U.; White-cooper, Helen; Scaife, Sarah; Kim Phuc, Hoang; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A.; Alphey, Luke
Wolbachia is a commonly occurring bacterium or symbiont that lives inside the cells of insects. Recently, Wolbachia was artificially introduced into the mosquito vector dengue virus that was naturally Wolbachia-free. Wolbachia limits the growth of a range of pathogens transmitted to humans, including viruses, bacteria and parasites inside the mosquito. This “pathogen protection” forms the basis of field trials to determine if releasing Wolbachia into wild mosquito populations could reduce...
Ye, Yixin H.; Woolfit, Megan; Rance?s, Edwige; O Neill, Scott L.; Mcgraw, Elizabeth A.
In September and November 1996 Romanomermis iyengari Welch, a parasite of larval mosquitoes, was released in 44 natural larval habitat sites of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald in an attempt to reduce the larval populations of this important malaria vector. The selected treatment sites ranged in size from 5 to 500 m². The study was carried out in Pochutla District of Oaxaca State, on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Chemical pesticides to reduce vector populations have been the principal to...
Santamarina Mijares Alberto; Pérez Pacheco Rafael; Tomás Martínez Sabino Honorio; Enrique Cantón Luis; Flores Ambrosio Gonzalo
According to traditional image, human habitat constitution is the result of natural inter-relations, the fundamental premise of the existence of natural resources, the climate, and the access to more developed proximities for commercial trading. Human habitat represents a complex system, with environmental values, having live and natural components that are inter-related. The dwelling is the fundamental component of the habitat and by relationship with the other components determines the leve...
Full Text Available According to traditional image, human habitat constitution is the result of natural inter-relations, the fundamental premise of the existence of natural resources, the climate, and the access to more developed proximities for commercial trading. Human habitat represents a complex system, with environmental values, having live and natural components that are inter-related. The dwelling is the fundamental component of the habitat and by relationship with the other components determines the level of habitation.
As a result of intensified globalization of international trade and of substantial travel activities, mosquito-borne exotic pathogens are becoming an increasing threat for Europe. In Germany some 50 different mosquito species are known, several of which have vector competence for pathogens. During the last few years a number of zoonotic arboviruses that are pathogenic for humans have been isolated from mosquitoes in Germany including Usutu, Sindbis and Batai viruses. In addition, filarial worms, such as Dirofilaria repens have been repeatedly detected in mosquitoes from the federal state of Brandenburg. Other pathogens, in particular West Nile virus, are expected to emerge sooner or later in Germany as the virus is already circulating in neighboring countries, e.g. France, Austria and the Czech Republic. In upcoming years the risk for arbovirus transmission might increase in Germany due to increased occurrence of new so-called "invasive" mosquito species, such as the Asian bush mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus or the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus. These invasive species are characterized by high vector competence for a broad range of pathogens and a preference for human blood meals. For risk assessment, a number of mosquito and pathogen surveillance projects have been initiated in Germany during the last few years; however, mosquito control strategies and plans of action have to be developed and put into place to allow early and efficient action against possible vector-borne epidemics. PMID:24781910
Becker, N; Krüger, A; Kuhn, C; Plenge-Bönig, A; Thomas, S M; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Tannich, E
Full Text Available Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and [...] highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission.
Ryan C, Smith; Joel, Vega-Rodríguez; Marcelo, Jacobs-Lorena.
Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes have been successfully genetically modified only once, despite the efforts of several laboratories to transform and establish a stable strain. We have developed a transient gene expression method, in Culex, that delivers plasmid DNA directly to the mosquito haemoly [...] mph and additional tissues. We were able to express DsRed2 fluorescent protein in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes by injecting plasmids directly into their thorax. The expression of DsRed2 in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes is an important stepping stone to genetic transformation and the potential use of new control strategies and genetic interactions.
Andre Barretto Bruno, Wilke; Sarah, Scaife; Luke, Alphey; Mauro Toledo, Marrelli.
Landscape connectivity is a key issue for biodiversity conservation. Many species have to refrain to move between scattered resources patches. This is particularly the case for the common frog, a widespread amphibian migrating between forest and aquatic habitats for breeding. Face to the growing need for maintaining connectivity between amphibians' habitat patches, the aim of this study is to provide a method based on habitat suitability modelling and graph theory to explore and analyze ecolo...
Decout, S.; Manel, S.; Miaud, C.; Luque, S.
Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chro...
Dirks, R.; Dun, K. P. M.; Snoo, B.; Berg, M.; Lelivelt, C. L. C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, J. P. C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J. W.; Jong, J. H. S. G. M.; Wijnker, T. G.
The India Habitat Centre(IHC) was created in New Delhi, India, to "provide a physical environment [to] serve as a catalyst for a synergetic relationship between individuals and institutions working in diverse habitat related areas." Their website gives visitors a generous glimpse into what it is like to enjoy such features as the "Habitat Film Club", "Habitat Learning Centre", and the "IHC Visual Arts Gallery". Like a multi-faceted community center, the IHC houses a "Habitat Library & Resource Centre" and offers a monthly "Habitat Walk", among other activities. The "Habitat Walk" gives community members the opportunity to visit various natural and historical sites, and provides several pages of background on the sites that visitors can download or print from the "Habitat Walk" link on the website. The center also reaches out and empowers the community by encouraging students and non-students to participate in their annual contest for the Habitat Young Visionary Award, a photography fellowship, and in the recent past, internships in a non-governmental organization.
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being used as a conservation tool for highly mobile marine vertebrates and the focus is typically on protecting breeding areas where individuals are aggregated seasonally. Yet movements during the non-breeding season can overlap with threats that may be equally as important to population dynamics. Thus understanding habitat use and movements of species during the non-breeding periods is critical for conservation. Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska...
Womble, Jamie N.; Gende, Scott M.
Recent declines in North American breeding populations have sparked great concern over the effects of habitat fragmentation. Neotropical migrant birds use and are influenced by two biomes during a single life span. Yet assessment of the relative importance of changes in tropical wintering areas versus temperate breeding areas is complicated by regional variation in rates and extent of habitat change. Landscape-level measurements of forest fragmentation derived from remotely-sensed data provide a means to compare the patterns of habitat modification on the wintering and breeding grounds of migrant birds. This study quantifies patterns of forest fragmentation in the Southern Appalachian Mountains and tropical Amazon and relates these patterns to the resource needs of neotropical migrant birds. Study sites were selected from remotely-sensed images to represent a range of forest fragmentation (highly fragmented landscape to continuous forest).
Pearson, S.M.; Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Offerman, H.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)
In this study, sugar-feeding was investigated as a possible means of re-introducing bacteria into mosquito midguts with the aim of identifying bacteria that are suitable for creating paratransgenic mosquitoes. In a paratransgenic approach, bacteria are utilised to deliver effector molecules capable of inhibiting pathogen development in the midgut of the vector. To determine if mosquitoes discriminate between sterile sugar solutions and sugar solutions with bacteria, a method for screening mos...
Lindh, J. M.; Terenius, O.; Eriksson-gonzales, K.; Knols, B. G. J.; Faye, I.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction To determine the faunal composition of immature culicids inhabiting a percolation tank in the landfill of Sapucaia, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, immature mosquitoes were collected over a two-day period during the third weeks of April, August and October 2011. Results The species [...] found were Culex usquatus, Lutzia bigoti, Anopheles argyritarsis and Limatus durhamii. This study is the first to report the colonization of eutrophic breeding sites by these species. Conclusions The oviposition behavior observed in this study suggests a secondary adaptation or change in habit to select eutrophic environments during the developmental stages of the observed species.
Jeronimo, Alencar; Fernanda, Morone; Cecilia Ferreira de, Mello; Helcio Reinaldo, Gil-Santana; Anthony Erico, Guimaraes.
Full Text Available Ao longo das duas últimas décadas, morbidade e mortalidade da malária e dengue e outros patógenos tem se tornado cada vez mais um problema de Saúde Pública. O aumento na distribuição geográfica de seus respectivos vetores é acompanhada pela emergência de doenças em novas áreas. Não estão disponíveis [...] drogas específicas suficientes e não há vacinas específicas para imunizar as populações alvo. As medidas de controle de mosquitos atuais falharam em atingir os objetivos propostos, principalmente devido à grande capacidade reprodutiva dos mosquitos e alta flexibilidade genômica. O controle químico se torna cada vez mais restrito devido a sua potencial toxicidade aos seres humanos, mortalidade de organismos não alvos, resistência a inseticida além de outros impactos ambientais. Novas estratégias de controle são necessárias. A técnica do inseto estéril (SIT) é um método de supressão populacional espécie específico e ambientalmente amigável, baseia-se na criação em massa, esterilização mediante irradiação e liberação de um grande número de insetos machos. Liberar insetos carregando um gene letal dominante (RIDL) oferece uma solução a muitas limitações impostas pela técnica do inseto estéril (SIT) que limitaram sua aplicação em mosquitos e ainda assim mantém suas características de ambientalmente amigável e espécie específica. A natureza auto-limitante de mosquitos estéreis tende a deixar alguns empecilhos para uso no campo, de certa forma, menos desafiadores quando comparados a sistemas auto-propagação, característicos de estratégias de substituição de população. Sistemas auto-limitantes estão mais próximos para uso no campo, portanto pode ser apropriado considerá-lo primeiro. A perspectiva de métodos de controle genéticos contra mosquitos vetores de doenças que acometem humanos está rapidamente se tornando uma realidade, muitas decisões terão de ser tomadas em âmbito nacional, regional e internacional com relação a aspectos étnicos, sociais, culturais e de biossegurança para o uso e liberação destes métodos de controle de vetores. Abstract in english Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific [...] therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisio