WorldWideScience

Sample records for mosquito breeding habitats

  1. Pupal productivity & nutrient reserves of Aedes mosquitoes breeding in sewage drains & other habitats of Kolkata, India: Implications for habitat expansion & vector management

    Soumyajit Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The quality of breeding sites is reflected through the pupal productivity and the life history traits of Aedes mosquitoes. Using nutrient reserves and pupal productivity of Aedes as indicators, the larval habitats including sewage drains were characterized to highlight the habitat expansion and vector management. Methods: The pupae and adults collected from the containers and sewage drains were characterized in terms of biomass and nutrient reserves and the data were subjected to three way factorial ANOVA. Discriminant function analyses were performed to highlight the differences among the habitats for sustenance of Aedes mosquitoes. Results: Survey of larval habitats from the study area revealed significant differences (P<0.05 in the pupal productivity of Aedes among the habitats and months. Despite sewage drains being comparatively less utilized for breeding, the pupae were of higher biomass with corresponding adults having longer wings in contrast to other habitats. The nutrient reserve of the adults emerging from pupae of sewage drains was significantly higher (P<0.05, compared to other habitats, as reflected through the discriminant function analysis. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, sewage drains were equally congenial habitat as were plastic, porcelain and earthen habitats. Availability of Aedes immature in sewage drains poses increased risk of dengue, and thus vector control programme should consider inclusion of sewage drains as breeding habitat of dengue vector mosquitoes.

  2. Mapping urban and peri-urban breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes using a fuzzy analytical hierarchical process based on climatic and physical parameters.

    Sarfraz, Muhammad Shahzad; Tripathi, Nagesh K; Faruque, Fazlay S; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Souris, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats. PMID:25599639

  3. Mapping urban and peri-urban breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes using a fuzzy analytical hierarchical process based on climatic and physical parameters

    Muhammad Shahzad Sarfraz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats.

  4. The effect of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis [H-14] on emergence of Mansonia mosquitos from natural breeding habitat.

    Chang, M S; Ho, B C; Chan, K L

    1990-09-01

    The measurement of the ultimate effects of the microbial insecticides on mosquito density is best obtained by assessment of adult populations. The main aims of this study are: (1) to assess the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) FC Skeetal and Bactimos briquettes on the emergence rate of Mansonia bonneae developed from the introduced first-instar stage larvae and (2) to measure the effect of these two formulations of insecticides on Mansonia adult populations emerging from the natural breeding plots. Bti Skeetal and Bactimos briquettes at the lower applied dosages of 2.3 kg/ha and 1 briquette case/20 m2 respectively achieved 39-40% pupation rates and 31.5-34.2% adult emergence rates. At these low applied dosages, there was little or no direct effect on pupation from the surviving larvae and thereafter on the emergence of adults from the pupae. A two-fold increase in dosage, however, produced a drastic decline in the pupation rate and adult emergence rate. The rates dropped to 6.5% (pupation) and 4.3% (adult emergence) of the total larvae for Bactimos briquettes and to merely 1.5% (pupation) and 1.3% (adult emergence) of the total larvae for Skeetal. In studying the effect of Bti on the field populations of Mansonia mosquitos, two plots each were treated with Bactimos at 1 briquette case/10 m2 and Skeetal at 4.6 kg/ha. A wooden pyramid-shaped screened cage was placed on a cluster of host plants for a period of 2 weeks to trap the emerging adult mosquitoes. There were a total of 24 clusters of host plants in each plot.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1981631

  5. Application of remotely sensed multispectral data to automated analysis of marshland vegetation. Inference to the location of breeding habitats of the salt marsh mosquito (Aedes Sollicitans)

    Cibula, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The techniques used for the automated classification of marshland vegetation and for the color-coded display of remotely acquired data to facilitate the control of mosquito breeding are presented. A multispectral scanner system and its mode of operation are described, and the computer processing techniques are discussed. The procedures for the selection of calibration sites are explained. Three methods for displaying color-coded classification data are presented.

  6. Mosquito larval habitats and public health implications in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Adeleke, M A; Mafiana, C F; Idowu, A B; Adekunle, M F; Sam-Wobo, S O

    2008-04-01

    The larval habitats of mosquitoes were investigated in Abeokuta, Nigeria in order to determine the breeding sites of the existing mosquito fauna and its possible public health implications on the residents of the City. The habitats were sampled between August 2005 and July 2006 using plastic dippers and a pipette. The habitats were grouped as ground pools/ponds, gutters/open drains, tyres, domestic containers and treeholes/ leaf axils. Ten species of mosquitoes were encountered in the five habitats namely Mansonia africana, M. uniformis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. vittatus, Cx tigripes, Anopheles gambiae s.l., An. funestus and Eretmapodite clnysogaster. Ae. aegypti bred in all the habitats sampled while Cx quinquefasciatus bred in four habitats except tree holes/leaf axils. An. gambiae s.l and Ae. albopictus occurred in three habitats while other species bred only in one or two habitats. Ground pools and domestic containers recorded the highest number of species followed by gutters/open drains. Tree holes/leaf axils was the least preferred habitat with the lowest number of species occurrence. However, statistical analysis revealed non-significant difference in species occurrence in the five habitats. The availability of the habitats to support the breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles, which are known vectors of urban yellow fever, lymphatic filariasis and malaria suggest that the residents ofAbeokuta City are at risk of mosquito-borne diseases. It is important that residents of the City are enlighten on the environmental factors that contribute to mosquito breeding and that the Government should institute proper sanitation measures to reduce mosquito breeding sites. PMID:18846789

  7. Observations on anopheline breeding in relation to aquatic plants in different breeding habitats of Kheda (Gujarat).

    Kant, Rajni; Srivastava, H C

    2004-09-01

    Water bodies infested with aquatic vegetations may pose problems in mosquito control through bio-environmental methods. Paucity of information pertaining to association of mosquito breeding with aquatic vegetation was the basis for present investigation. The mosquito breeding sites infested with solitary/dominating plant community viz., Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphea neuchali, Trapa bispinosa, Lemna paucicostata, Trachelomonas spp., Azolla pinnata, Algae spp. and Cynodon dactylon were selected for the study. The investigation revealed that breeding of eleven anopheline species was associated with Eichhornia in different habitats followed by Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon (8 each), Ipomoea and Trapa (6), Lemna. and Nymphea (5), Azolla and Trachelomonas (4). An. subpictus was associated with all types of vegetation. An. annularis, An. nigerrimus and An. barbirostris were associated with nine plant species. An. culicifacies, the principal malaria vector was found breeding in association with seven aquatic plants and showed strong association with Cynodon, Hydrilla and algae. The species diversity in habitats infested with Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon seems to be most favourable for the breeding of An. culicifacies. It is suggested that thinning or removal of such vegetations at regular interval may help to reduce vector population and enhance the efficacy of biological control agents particularly the larvivorous fishes in such habitats. PMID:16509256

  8. Abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes in urban rivers proximate to their larval habitats.

    Ma, Minghai; Huang, Minsheng; Leng, Peien

    2016-11-01

    Whether ecological restoration of polluted urban rivers would provide suitable breeding habitats for some mosquitoes was not clear yet. It was therefore important to determine how altered river conditions influence mosquito ecology. Monthly data on water quality and larval density were obtained to determine the effects of river systems on the distribution and abundance of immature mosquitoes in two coastal cities in Eastern China. In total, 5 species within two genera of mosquitoes were collected and identified in habitat with vegetation from three positive rivers. Culex pipiens pallens was the most abundant and widely distributed species. A new species (Culex fuscanus) was reported in certain districts. Physico-chemical parameters of river water were important, but not the only, set of influences on immature mosquito breeding. Aquatic vegetation could increase the likelihood of mosquito breeding while artificial aeration might prevent the approach of mosquitoes. Slow-moving water might be a new potential marginal habitat type for some Culex and Aedes albopictus. Variation of river system with ecological restoration might influence the abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes. PMID:27515809

  9. Larval habitats of mosquito fauna in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke; Wasiu Olalekan Adebimpe; AbdulWasiu Oladele Hassan; Sunday Olukayode Oladejo; Ismail Olaoye; Ganiyu Olatunji Olatunde; Taiwo Adewole

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine the larval habitats of mosquito fauna and possible impact of land use/land cover changes on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern, Nigeria. Methods: All accessible larval habitats were surveyed between May and September, 2011 in Osogbo metropolis while Land Use/ Land cover of the city was analyzed using 2 Lansat Multispectral Scanner satellite imagery of SPOT 1986 and LANDSAT TM 2009. Results:A total of six species namely, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes vittatus, Anopheles gambiae complex, Culex quinquefasciatus and Eretmapodite chrysogaster were encountered during the study. The occurrence and contribution of disused tyres was significantly higher (P0.05). The accessible land use/land covered of the study area between 1986 and 2009 showed that the wet land coverage and settlement area increased from 0.19 to 9.09 hectare and 1.00 to 2.01 hectare respectively while the forest area decreased from 60.18 to 50.14 hectare. Conclusion: The contribution of the habitats coupled with the increasing rate of flooded environment which could provide ample breeding sites for mosquitoes call for sustained environmental sanitation and management in Osogbo metropolis.

  10. British container breeding mosquitoes: the impact of urbanisation and climate change on community composition and phenology.

    Townroe, Susannah; Callaghan, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abundance and phenology of mosquitoes breeding in experimental water butt containers were influenced by urbanisation. Mosquitoes in urban containers were less species-rich but present in significantly higher densities (100.4±21.3) per container than those in rural containers (77.7±15.1). Urban containers were dominated by Culex pipiens (a potential vector of West Nile Virus [WNV]) and appear to be increasingly exploited by Anopheles plumbeus (a human-biting potential WNV and malaria vector). Culex phenology was influenced by urban land use type, with peaks in larval abundances occurring earlier in urban than rural containers. Among other factors, this was associated with an urban heat island effect which raised urban air and water temperatures by 0.9°C and 1.2°C respectively. Further increases in domestic water storage, particularly in urban areas, in combination with climate changes will likely alter mosquito population dynamics in the UK. PMID:24759617

  11. British container breeding mosquitoes: the impact of urbanisation and climate change on community composition and phenology.

    Susannah Townroe

    Full Text Available The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abundance and phenology of mosquitoes breeding in experimental water butt containers were influenced by urbanisation. Mosquitoes in urban containers were less species-rich but present in significantly higher densities (100.4±21.3 per container than those in rural containers (77.7±15.1. Urban containers were dominated by Culex pipiens (a potential vector of West Nile Virus [WNV] and appear to be increasingly exploited by Anopheles plumbeus (a human-biting potential WNV and malaria vector. Culex phenology was influenced by urban land use type, with peaks in larval abundances occurring earlier in urban than rural containers. Among other factors, this was associated with an urban heat island effect which raised urban air and water temperatures by 0.9°C and 1.2°C respectively. Further increases in domestic water storage, particularly in urban areas, in combination with climate changes will likely alter mosquito population dynamics in the UK.

  12. Species Interactions Among Larval Mosquitoes: Context Dependence Across Habitat Gradients

    Juliano, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Biotic interactions involving mosquito larvae are context dependent, with effects of interactions on populations altered by ecological conditions. Relative impacts of competition and predation change across a gradient of habitat size and permanence. Asymmetrical competition is common and ecological context changes competitive advantage, potentially facilitating landscape-level coexistence of competitors. Predator effects on mosquito populations sometimes depend on habitat structure and on eme...

  13. Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey was initiated experimentally in 1947 and became operational in 1955. It is conducted cooperatively by the U.S....

  14. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim;

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero......, whereas the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the...

  15. Mosquito species and outdoor breeding places in residential areas in Malaysia.

    Saleeza, S N R; Norma-Rashid, Y; Azirun, M Sofian

    2013-11-01

    We conducted mosquito surveillance at outdoor breeding habitat in 459 households at 7 urban locations in Putrajaya, Malaysia from January to December 2010 to determine the predominant species and breeding locations. The most common species found at all locations was Aedes albopictus. Gardening utensils were the most common breeding sites. Of the 1,885 mosquito larvae specimens found, 1,774 (94.1%) were Ae. albopictus larvae, 84 (4%) were Ae. aegypti larvae and 27 (1%) were Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The Aedes index for each of the locations was higher than the goal set by the Ministry of Health for Malaysia. However, the container index at each of the locations was within the goal. The Breateau index was above the goal set by the Ministry of Health at Precinct 9B1 but the other locations were within the goal. PMID:24450233

  16. Overhead tank is the potential breeding habitat of Anopheles stephensi in an urban transmission setting of Chennai, India

    Thomas, Shalu; Ravishankaran, Sangamithra; Justin, Johnson A; Asokan, Aswin; Mathai, Manu T.; Valecha, Neena; Thomas, Matthew B; Eapen, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background Wells and overhead tanks (OHT) are the major breeding sources of the local malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi in the Indian city of Chennai; they play a significant role in vector breeding, and transmission of urban malaria. Many other man-made breeding habitats, such as cemented cisterns/containers, barrels or drums, sumps or underground tanks, and plastic pots/containers are maintained to supplement water needs, temporarily resulting in enhanced mosquito/vector breeding. Correla...

  17. Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes of the Genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Guilan Province, Iran

    S. Azari-Hamidian

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was carried out during April to December 2000 to study mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Prov¬ince of northern Iran. The mosquito larvae were collected by dipping method and larval habitat characteristics recorded ac¬cording to hydro-ecological features. In total, 3937 larvae of the genus Culex from 92 larval breeding sites were collected. Six spe¬cies of the genus Culex; Cx. mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. hortensis, and Cx. te...

  18. Studies on mosquitoes breeding in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria, northern Nigeria

    David A. Adebote

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Rainwater often collects in depressions on rocks to form pools that are ideal breeding sites of mosquito vectors of diseases. Knowledge on the existence of disease vectors in these remote and relatively inaccessible locations could improve epidemiologic understanding and control capabilities. This study identifies mosquito species, their relative abundance and physicochemical characteristics of breeding microhabitats in rock pools on four inselbergs in northern Nigeria.Methods: Soup ladle dipper was used to obtain representative samples of larval mosquitoes breeding in 141 rock pools on four inselbergs. Physicochemical parameters (depth, electrical conductivity, pH, surface area, temperature and total dissolved solids of the pools were determined. Larvae were preserved in 70% alcohol and identified microscopically to species using taxonomic keys. Statistical correlation analysis and ANOVA were used to test the associations between physicochemical parameters and mosquito abundance, and for differences amongst inselbergs. Results: Of 2991 larvae, five species of mosquito distributed in three genera (Anopheles, Aedes and Culex including Ae. vittatus (92.88%, An. ardensis (0.13%, An. distinctus (1.67%, An. wilsoni (0.13% and Cx. ingrami (5.18% bred in the rock pools, Up to five species occurred per pool in various conspecific and heterogeneric combinations. Except for Ae. vittatus, the physicochemical parameters of the pools correlate significantly with species abundance. Conclusion: Ae. vittatus, a potential vector of yellow fever in Nigeria breeds profusely in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria. For comprehensive vector implication and control, rock pools should be amongst the habitats of focus in yellow fever epidemiology.

  19. Comparison of adult mosquito community structure on various habitats

    ZHONG-CHENGYAN; HARRYZHONG

    2005-01-01

    The community structure of adult mosquitoes was compared from New Jersey light trap collections in six different types of habitats in Citrus County, Florida, USA. From October 1998 to December 2000, mosquitoes were collected three times a week from the following habitats (swamps, swamps and freshwater marshes, pine fiat-woods, pine fiat-woods and scrub, salt marshes, and salt marshes and mangroves). Mosquito density was highest in the swamps and freshwater marshes habitat, with an average of 95.65 specimens per trap.Density was lowest in the flatwoods and scrub habitat, with an average of 14.38 specimens per trap. Species dominance differed among habitats. Salt marshes produced the greatest aggregation index, while pine flatwoods produced the lowest. Conversely, diversity analysis showed that pine flatwoods had the greatest diversity, while salt marshes the lowest diversity. Similarity indices indicated that the adult mosquito communities from pine flatwoods and pine flatwoods and scrub were very similar (0.8583). The adult mosquito community of salt marshes was different from that of swamps and freshwater marshes (the similar index was 0.0217).

  20. Environmental characteristics of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in a malaria endemic area in Iran

    Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi; Hassan Vatandoost; Ahmad-Ali Hanafi-Bojd; Mehdi Zare; Reza Safari; Abdolrasul Mojahedi; Fatemeh Poorahmad-Garbandi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of environmental parameters of larval habitats on distribution and abundance of anopheline mosquitoes in Rudan county of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during the mosquito breeding season from February 2010 to October 2011. The anopheline larvae were collected using the standard dipping method. The specimens were identified using a morphological-based key. Simultaneously with larval collection, environmental parameters of the larval habitats including water current and turbidity, sunlight situation, and substrate type of habitats were recorded. Water samples were taken from breeding sites during larval collection. Before collection of samples, the water temperature was measured. The water samples were analysed for turbidity, conductivity, total alkalinity, total dissolved solid, pH and ions including chloride, sulphate, calcium, and magnesium. Statistical correlation analysis and ANOVA test were used to analyze the association between environmental parameters and larval mosquito abundance. Results: In total 2 973 larvae of the genus Anopheles were collected from 25 larval habitats and identified using morphological characters. They comprised of six species:An. dthali turkhudi (3.30%), and An. apoci (1.14%). The most abundant species was An. dthali which were collected from all of the study areas. Larvae of two malaria vectors, An. dthali and An. stephensi, co-existed and collected in a wide range of habitats with different physico-chemical parameters. The most common larval habitats were man-made sites such as sand mining pools with clean and still water. The anopheline mosquitoes also preferred permanent habitats in sunlight with sandy substrates. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between mean physico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, conductivity, total alkalinity, sulphate, chloride, and mosquito distribution and abundance. Conclusions: The results of this

  1. Habitat characterization and mapping of Anopheles maculatus (Theobald) mosquito larvae in malaria endemic areas in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.

    Rohani, A; Wan Najdah, W M A; Zamree, I; Azahari, A H; Mohd Noor, I; Rahimi, H; Lee, H L

    2010-07-01

    In Peninsular Malaysia, a large proportion of malaria cases occur in the central mountainous and forested parts of the country. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, we conducted entomological surveys to determine the type of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats of the vector Anopheles maculatus in malaria endemic areas in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus mosquitoes were collected from 49 breeding sites in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus preferred to breed in water pockets formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls. The most common larval habitats were shallow pools 5.0-15.0 cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and plants or floatage. The mosquito also preferred open or partially shaded habitats. Breeding habitats were generally located at 100-400 m from the nearest human settlement. Changes in breeding characteristics were also observed. Instead of breeding in slow flowing streams, most larvae bred in small water pockets along the river margin. PMID:21073056

  2. Bamboo stumps as mosquito larval habitats in Darjeeling Himalayas,India:A spatial scale analysis

    Gautam Aditya; Rakesh Tamang; Dipendra Sharma; Francis Subba; Goutam K.Saha

    2008-01-01

    Bamboo stumps can be a congenial breeding habitat of the mosquitoes.In view of this,a preliminary assessment of the dipteran immatures inhabiting the stumps of bamboo groves in the Darjeeling Himalayas was carried out at a spatial scale.Of the 104 stumps of Dendrocalamus hamiltoni surveyed,70 were found to host immatures of three dipteran species,the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the midges Chironomus sp.in varying densities.Though the stumps varied in diameter,in each stump on average 12.1 immatures were found.The abundance of the immatures was positively correlated with the diameter of the stumps (r = +0.382;P < 0.001) but negatively with the pH of the water present in the stumps (r = -0.336;P < 0.01).The coefficient of association was found to be +8.4 for the Ae.aegypti and Chironomus immatures,while in the rest of the species pair the association seemed to be independent.Thus it can be concluded that the stumps in the bamboo groves of Darjeeling Himalayas provides a favourable habitat for the mosquito and chironomid immatures.

  3. Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia

    Ahmad Rohani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

  4. Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes of the Genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae in Guilan Province, Iran

    S Azari-Hamidian

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during April to December 2000 to study mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Prov¬ince of northern Iran. The mosquito larvae were collected by dipping method and larval habitat characteristics recorded ac¬cording to hydro-ecological features. In total, 3937 larvae of the genus Culex from 92 larval breeding sites were collected. Six spe¬cies of the genus Culex; Cx. mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. hortensis, and Cx. terri¬tans were identified in the province and respectively comprised 10.3%, 47.2%, 2.2%, 31%, 6.5%, and 2.8% of the samples. Most of the larvae were collected from the natural habitats (75.6% such as river edges (6.5%, riverbed pools (28.2%, rain pools (47.8%, stream edges (9.4%, grasslands (1.9%, marshes (2.8%, and hoof-prints (3.4% and others from artificial habitats (24.4% including rice fields (32.1%, irrigation channels (7.1%, wells (16.4%, discarded concrete tubes (33.1%, dis¬carded tires (11.0%, and agricultural water-storage pools (0.3%. The ecology of Cx. pipiens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, which are the most prevalent species and potentially involved in the transmission of many pathogens to humans and domes¬ticated animals, must be extensively studied.

  5. Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes of the Genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae in Guilan Province, Iran

    S Azari-Hamidian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during April to December 2000 to study mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Prov¬ince of northern Iran. The mosquito larvae were collected by dipping method and larval habitat characteristics recorded ac¬cording to hydro-ecological features. In total, 3937 larvae of the genus Culex from 92 larval breeding sites were collected. Six spe¬cies of the genus Culex; Cx. mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. hortensis, and Cx. terri¬tans were identified in the province and respectively comprised 10.3%, 47.2%, 2.2%, 31%, 6.5%, and 2.8% of the samples. Most of the larvae were collected from the natural habitats (75.6% such as river edges (6.5%, riverbed pools (28.2%, rain pools (47.8%, stream edges (9.4%, grasslands (1.9%, marshes (2.8%, and hoof-prints (3.4% and others from artificial habitats (24.4% including rice fields (32.1%, irrigation channels (7.1%, wells (16.4%, discarded concrete tubes (33.1%, dis¬carded tires (11.0%, and agricultural water-storage pools (0.3%. The ecology of Cx. pipiens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, which are the most prevalent species and potentially involved in the transmission of many pathogens to humans and domes¬ticated animals, must be extensively studied.

  6. Studies on mosquitoes breeding in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria, northern Nigeria

    David A. Adebote; Sonnie J. Oniye; Yunus A. Muhammed

    2008-01-01

    Background & objectives: Rainwater often collects in depressions on rocks to form pools that are ideal breeding sites of mosquito vectors of diseases. Knowledge on the existence of disease vectors in these remote and relatively inaccessible locations could improve epidemiologic understanding and control capabilities. This study identifies mosquito species, their relative abundance and physicochemical characteristics of breeding microhabitats in rock pools on four inselbergs in northern Nigeri...

  7. Studies on breeding habitats and density of postembryonic immature filarial vector in a filarial endemic area

    Manas Paramanik; Indranil Bhattacharjee; Goutam Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To obtain a complete and systematic data about the breeding habitats and density of vector immatures (larvae & pupae) in a filarial endemic area. Methods: All the possible permanent and temporary water bodies were surveyed systematically. Four hundred samples were taken in each season from each type of habitats. Sampling was done with a 250 mL dipper and immature mosquitoes were identified following standard keys. Results: In summer, rainy and winter seasons, overall 49.64%, 44.64%, and 28.57% of the habitats were positive for immature filarial vector (Culex quinquefasciatus) respectively; 36.93%, 35.11%, and 21.18%of the samples were positive for immatures respectively and overall per dip densities (PDD) of them were 10.29, 10.18, and 4.40 respectively. In the study year overall PDD were much higher in open cesspits (19.53) and drains (17.24) than in other habitats. Peak PDD of vector immatures in Dobas (ditches), open cesspits and drains were in March whereas in paddy fields and temporary water bodies peak PPD were in September. Conclusion: Dobas, paddy fields, open cesspits, drains, and temporary water bodies were found to be the main breeding sites of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus in different months. Open cesspits and drains were suitable almost throughout the year with peak in summer. Dobas also act as a steady breeding site throughout the year, whereas temporary water bodies immerge as strong breeding site during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Information about the breeding habitats will be helpful to formulate a filarial vector control strategy and in turn to control the filarial diseases in the study area.

  8. Reclamation of mosquito breeding sites using Landsat-8 remote sensing data: A case study of Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

    Amusuk, Danboyi Joseph; Hashim, Mazlan; Beiranvand Pour, Amin

    2016-06-01

    It is believed by recent releases of World Health Organization (WHO) that more than half of the world's population (3.2 billion) live in areas that are at risk of malaria transmission. Although increased efforts are dramatically reducing the malaria burden in some places where the rate of new cases indicates a fall by 37% globally and 60% death rate. Unfortunately, the subSaharan Africa still shares 89% of malaria and 91% of malaria deaths. Essentially, attacking the causative vectors and reclamation of the vector breeding sites could be remarkable for the rolling back the malaria epidemic project. Consequently, it is essential to explore the possibility of using recent Landsat-8 data remote sensing data and applications of Geographic Information System (GIS) technique in contributing to the realization of this objective. This investigation used for identifying mosquito breeding habitat (Derelict Ponds) zones the application of supervised classification of the Landsat-8 image in conjunction with GIS layering which allowed identification of high risk prone regions for mosquito breeding habitat. The methodology delineated 10 spatial locations of the Derelict Ponds (DP) spread around the Birnin Kebbi urban environment. Moreover, the results combined with comparative analysis of the link between warm climatic (temperature and rainfall data) conditions and Malaria prevalence that is associated with urban poverty. This study indicates that the application of Landsat-8 data and GIS techniques can be a useful tool for planning and management of environmental health and mapping of hot spot environmental problem areas.

  9. Communications: Mosquito Habitats, Land Use, and Malaria Risk in Belize from Satellite Imagery

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery of northern Belize is used to examine the distribution of land use and breeding habitats of the malaria vector the Anopheles mosquito. A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats, and one, Eleocharis spp. marsh, is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of Typha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. Thus, land use induced expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat is potentially increasing malaria risk in Belize, and in other regions where Anopheles vestitipennis is a major malaria vector.

  10. Characterizing the relationship between Asian tiger mosquito abundance and habitat in urban New Jersey

    Ferwerda, Carolin

    2009-12-01

    Since its introduction to North America in 1987, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has spread rapidly. Due to its unique ecology and preference for container breeding sites, Ae. albopictus commonly inhabits urban/suburban areas and is often in close contact with humans. An aggressive pest, this mosquito species is a vector of multiple arboviruses. In order for mosquito control efforts to remain effective, control of this important vector must be guided by spatially explicit habitat models that aid in predicting mosquito outbreaks. Using linear regression, I determined the relationship between adult Ae. albopictus abundance and climate, census, and land use factors in nine urban/suburban study sites in central New Jersey. Systematically collected adult counts (females and males) from July to October 2008, served as estimates of abundance. Fine-scale land use/land cover data were obtained from object-oriented classifications of 2007 CIR orthophotos in Definiens eCognition. Mosquito abundance data were tested for spatial autocorrelation via Moran's I, semivariograms, and hotspot analysis in order to reveal consistent patterns in abundance. Spatial pattern analysis produced little evidence of consistent spatial autocorrelation, though several sites exhibited recurring hotspots, especially in areas near residential housing and vegetation. Stepwise multiple regression was able to explain 20-25 percent of variation in Ae. albopictus abundance at the 'backyard' or cell level and 72-78 percent of variation in abundance at the 'neighborhood' or study site level. Meteorological variables (temperature on the trap date and precipitation), census variables (vacant housing units and population density), and more detailed land use/land cover classes (deciduous woody vegetation, rights-of-way and vacant lots) were frequently selected in all eight models, though many other independent variables were included in the individual models. The results of the spatial statistics

  11. A multiscaled model of southwestern willow flycatcher breeding habitat

    Hatten, J.R.; Paradzick, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (SWFL; Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered songbird whose habitat has declined dramatically over the last century. Understanding habitat selection patterns and the ability to identify potential breeding areas for the SWFL is crucial to the management and conservation of this species. We developed a multiscaled model of SWTL breeding habitat with a Geographic Information System (GIS), survey data, GIS variables, and multiple logistic regressions. We obtained presence and absence survey data from a riverine ecosystem and a reservoir delta in south-central Arizona, USA, in 1999. We extracted the GIS variables from satellite imagery and digital elevation models to characterize vegetation and floodplain within the project area. We used multiple logistic regressions within a cell-based (30 X 30 m) modeling environment to (1) determine associations between GIS variables and breeding-site occurrence at different spatial scales (0.09-72 ha), and (2) construct a predictive model. Our best model explained 54% of the variability in breeding-site occurrence with the following variables: vegetation density at the site (0.09 ha), proportion of dense vegetation and variability in vegetation density within a 4.5-ha neighborhood, and amount of floodplain or flat terrain within a 41-ha neighborhood. The density of breeding sites was highest in areas that the model predicted to be most suitable within the project area and at an external test site 200 km away. Conservation efforts must focus on protecting not only occupied patches, but also surrounding riparian forests and floodplain to ensure long-term viability of SWTL. We will use the multiscaled model to map SWTL breeding habitat in Arizona, prioritize future survey effort, and examine changes in habitat abundance and quality over time.

  12. Role of wastewater irrigation in mosquito breeding in south Punjab, Pakistan

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Herrel, Nathaly; Amerasinghe, Felix P;

    2003-01-01

    Mosquito breeding within the wastewater irrigation system around the town of Haroonabad in the southern Punjab, Pakistan, was studied from July to September 2000 as part of a wider study of the costs and benefits of wastewater use in agriculture. The objective of this study was to assess the vector......-borne human disease risks associated with mosquito species utilizing wastewater for breeding. Mosquito larvae were collected on a fortnightly basis from components of the wastewater disposal system and irrigated sites. In total, 133 samples were collected, about equally divided between agricultural sites and...... quality and the presence of fauna and flora. Anophelines and Aedes mosquitos were mainly collected during the month of July, while Culex were collected in September. The prevalence of established vectors of human diseases such as An. stephensi (malaria), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (West Nile fever, Japanese...

  13. Long lasting persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. israelensis (Bti in mosquito natural habitats.

    Mathieu Tilquin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of chemical insecticides on the environment and human health have lead to the call for biological alternatives. Today, one of the most promising solutions is the use of spray formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti in insect control programs. As a result, the amounts of Bti spread in the environment are expected to increase worldwide, whilst the common belief that commercial Bti is easily cleared from the ecosystem has not yet been clearly established. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: In this study, we aimed to determine the nature and origin of the high toxicity toward mosquito larvae found in decaying leaf litter collected in several natural mosquito breeding sites in the Rhône-Alpes region. From the toxic fraction of the leaf litter, we isolated B. cereus-like bacteria that were further characterized as B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis using PCR amplification of specific toxin genes. Immunological analysis of these Bti strains showed that they belong to the H14 group. We finally used amplified length polymorphism (AFLP markers to show that the strains isolated from the leaf litter were closely related to those present in the commercial insecticide used for field application, and differed from natural worldwide genotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results raise the issue of the persistence, potential proliferation and environmental accumulation of human-spread Bti in natural mosquito habitats. Such Bti environmental persistence may lengthen the exposure time of insects to this bio-insecticide, thereby increasing the risk of resistance acquisition in target insects, and of a negative impact on non-target insects.

  14. The impact of encroachment of mangroves into saltmarshes on saltwater mosquito habitats.

    Dale, Pat; Eslami-Andargoli, Leila; Knight, Jon

    2013-12-01

    Will mangrove encroachment into saltmarshes affect saltwater mosquito habitats? To address this, we synthesized information from two perspectives: 1) at a detailed level, the immature mosquito habitat within mangroves; 2) at a more general or regional level, changes due to mangrove expansion into saltmarshes. This is a synthesis of two research projects. One showed that mosquito larval habitats in mangroves are complex, related to the detailed interactions between topography and tidal patterns and that not all parts of a mangrove forest are suitable habitat. The other, based on remote sensing and analysis of rainfall data, showed that mangrove encroachment in eastern Australia is related to both climate and human land use over several decades (1972-2004). An important question emerged: when mangroves encroach into saltmarshes will they displace saltmarsh immature mosquito habitats or will they replace them with mangrove ones? There is no simple answer: it will vary with climate change and sea level scenario and how these affect the system. We conclude that mosquito management, which is locally implemented, needs to be integrated with land use planning systems, which often operate at a more general level. PMID:24581363

  15. Adaptive breeding habitat selection: Is it for the birds?

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The question of why animals choose particular habitats has important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of organisms in the wild and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management. Habitats chosen by animals can influence fitness outcomes via the costs (e.g., predation risk) and benefits (e.g., food availability) of habitat use. Habitat preferences should therefore be under selection to favor those that confer fitness advantages (Clark and Shutler 1999). Indeed, prevailing theory suggests that the habitat preferences of animals should be adaptive, such that fitness is higher in preferred habitats (Hildén 1965, Southwood 1977, Martin 1998). However, studies have often identified apparent mismatches between observed habitat preferences and fitness outcomes across a wide variety of taxa (Valladares and Lawton 1991, Mayhew 1997, Kolbe and Janzen 2002, Arlt and Pärt 2007, Mägi et al. 2009). Certainly, one limitation of studies may be that assessment of “fitness” is typically constrained to fitness surrogates such as nest success rather than lifetime reproductive success or classic Fisherian fitness (Endler 1986). Nevertheless, important habitat choices such as nest sites influence the probability that temporarily sedentary, dependent young are discovered by enemies such as predators and parasites. We therefore expect, on average, to see congruence between evolved habitat preferences and relevant components of fitness (e.g., nest success). Here, we (1) review the prevalence of apparent mismatches between avian breeding-habitat preferences and fitness outcomes using nest-site selection as a focus; (2) describe several potential mechanisms for such mismatches, including anthropogenic, methodological, and ecological–evolutionary; and (3) suggest a framework for understanding the contexts in which habitat preferences represent adaptive decisions, with a primary focus on ecological information

  16. Species diversity of mosquito breeding in rubber plantations of Kerala, India.

    Sumodan, P K

    2012-06-01

    During south-west monsoon season, rubber plantations in Kerala have been found to provide ideal conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes. In a study conducted from June 2005 to September 2010 in Kannur, Wayanad, and Kozhikode districts, 12 species of mosquitoes in 6 genera--Aedes, Armigeres, Culex, Heizmannia, Toxorhynchites, and Verrallina--were found to breed in rain water-filled cups used for collecting rubber latex. The only vector species found was Aedes albopictus, known for its ability to transmit dengue and chikungunya. The combinations of species found associated in the latex cups is also presented. PMID:22894122

  17. Fauna and Larval Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran.

    Farahnaz Khoshdel-Nezamiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province.Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province.Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases.

  18. Prevalence of Malaria, Dengue, and Chikungunya Significantly Associated with Mosquito Breeding Sites

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Zulkifle, Mohammad; Sherwani, Arish Mohammad Khan; Ghosh, Susanta Kumar; Tiwari, Satyanarayan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To observe the prevalence of malaria, dengue, and chikungunya and their association with mosquito breeding sites. Methods: The study was observational and analytical. A total of 162 houses and 670 subjects were observed during the study period. One hundred forty-two febrile patients were eligible for the study. After obtaining informed consent from all febrile patients, 140 blood samples were collected to diagnose malaria, dengue, and chikungunya. Larval samples were collected by ...

  19. Evaluation of biological control agents for mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places

    Salim Abadi Yaser; Vatandoost Hassan; Rassi Yavar; Abai Mohammad Reza; Sanei Dehkordi Ali Reza; Paksa Azim

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the entomological impact of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places.Methods:A Latin square design with 4 replicates was performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on larva. The larvicide was applied at the dosage of 100 mg a.h/ha,Bacillus thuringiensis at the recommended dosage and 10 fishes per m2 were applied at 1í1 m2 artificial breeding sites. The larval densities for both anopheline and culicine were counted according to larvae /10 dippers prior and 24 h after application.Results:All three control agents are effective for mosquito density reduction, and the difference between the three agents and the control is significant (P<0.05). There is also significant difference among chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis andGambusia affinis.Bacillus thuringiensisexhibited more reduction on mosquito larval density than fish and larvicide (P<0.05).Conclusions:Bacillus thuringiensis in comparison with two other agents is the appropriate method for larviciding in the breeding places. Although long term assessing for biological activities as well as monitoring and mapping of resistance is required.

  20. Amendment Number 2 - Effects of Commercial Thinning in Slash Pine on Breeding Birds and Their Habitat

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A plan to determine the impact on breeding birds and their habitat of thinning by commercial harvest in the slash pine habitat type on St. Vincent Island. This plan...

  1. Mosquito species and their habitats in Zhangzhou, Fujian%福建省漳州地区蚊媒种类及孳生环境调查

    陈朱云; 方义亮; 谢汉国; 杨发柱; 徐保海

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mosquito species and breeding environment in Zhangzhou of Fujian, and to provide basis for prevention and control of mosquitoes and mosquito?borne diseases. Methods A series of combined larvae investigation methods, human bait method and ox?trap method were used. The mosquitoes were collected mainly in the residential area, mountain area and the port of six counties. Then they were classified and identified after larvae developing into adult. Results The mosquitoes were identified to 40 species, 9 genus and 3 subfamilies. They were 4 species of Anopheles, 12 Aedes, 14 Culex and 10 other mosquito genera. Uranotaenia koli Peyton et Klein was first reported in Fujian. Different mosquito species were captured in different parts. The largest number of mosquito species were in Nanjing and Pinghe, there were both 27 species. Eight types of mosquito breeding habitats were investigated. There were 15 species breeding in bamboo tube, 11 species from the pits formed by ravine streams water, 11 species in stone caves, and few from other breeding habitats. Conclusion There are many kinds of mosquitoes related to mosquito?borne diseases in Zhangzhou. The monitoring of mosquitoes for Dengue should be strengthened, and comprehensive management measures should be combined with breeding environment.%目的 掌握福建省漳州地区蚊虫种类以及孳生环境,为福建省蚊媒病的预防与控制提供依据.方法 采用幼虫调查法,结合人诱法、牛诱法,调查福建省漳州地区6个县,主要在居民区、山区和港口采集幼虫,饲养为成蚊后鉴定.结果 此次调查蚊种经鉴定隶属于3亚科9属40种,其中按蚊属4种,伊蚊属12种,库蚊属14种,其他蚊属10种,首次在福建地区报道捕获蓝带蚊属的科利蓝带蚊;不同地区捕获的蚊种不同,南靖和平和县捕获的蚊种数量最多,有27种;调查蚊媒8种孳生环境,其中竹筒孳生蚊虫有15种,山沟溪涧积水形

  2. Detection of potential mosquito breeding sites based on community sourced geotagged images

    Agarwal, Ankit; Chaudhuri, Usashi; Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Seetharaman, Guna

    2014-06-01

    Various initiatives have been taken all over the world to involve the citizens in the collection and reporting of data to make better and informed data-driven decisions. Our work shows how the geotagged images collected through the general population can be used to combat Malaria and Dengue by identifying and visualizing localities that contain potential mosquito breeding sites. Our method first employs image quality assessment on the client side to reject the images with distortions like blur and artifacts. Each geotagged image received on the server is converted into a feature vector using the bag of visual words model. We train an SVM classifier on a histogram-based feature vector obtained after the vector quantization of SIFT features to discriminate images containing either a small stagnant water body like puddle, or open containers and tires, bushes etc. from those that contain flowing water, manicured lawns, tires attached to a vehicle etc. A geographical heat map is generated by assigning a specific location a probability value of it being a potential mosquito breeding ground of mosquito using feature level fusion or the max approach presented in the paper. The heat map thus generated can be used by concerned health authorities to take appropriate action and to promote civic awareness.

  3. Epidemiological significance of the breeding of mosquitoes in discarded automobile tyres in Zaria, Northern Nigeria.

    Adebote, D A; Kogi, E; Oniye, S J; Akoje, F

    2011-09-01

    Waste automobile tyres are suitable receptacles of rainwater thus capable of supporting the breeding of vector mosquito species in close proximity to humans and altering disease transmission risks. Bionomics of mosquitoes in carelessly discarded tyres was explored to unravel species composition and abundance, physicochemical parameters of microhabitats and epidemiological significance. Of the 1179 larvae isolated from 90/212 (42.45%) positive tyres were ten species belonging to Aedes and Culex genera, including Aedes aegypti (46.56%), Culex albiventris (0.25%), Cx. cinereus (0.25%), Cx. grahami (0.68%), Cx. ingrami (1.44%), Cx. nebulosus (2.37%), Cx. mirificus (0.08%), Cx. pipiens pipiens (0.17%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (47.07%) and Cx. tigripes (1.10%). Abundance of the dominant Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), but was higher than those of the other eight species (P < 0.05). The microhabitat pH (range 5.20-9.50), total dissolved solids (range 15-802 ppm) and electrical conductivity (range 30-1603 microscm 1) were obtained in tyres. Abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus correlated positively and significantly with EC and TDS of breeding water (P < 0.05). The study revealed high potential of the transmission of filariasis and arboviruses including dengue and yellow fever by mosquitoes domiciled in waste tyres. PMID:23781631

  4. Extension of habitat of female blood-sucking mosquitoes in Solomenskiy district, Kiev

    N.P. Kilochytska

    2013-09-01

    2010 in Solomyanskyi district with measurement of temperature at the locations of collection. It turned out that the air temperature in the sheds was 2–4 °C lower than outside in the shade, in the basements lower by 4–11 °C, and in the cellars lower by 4–12 °C. Comparison of the temperature in the daytime habitats and number of mosquitoes found there showed a direct relation between the outdoor temperature and the number of mosquitoes in the daytime habitat on the premises. The data indicate that there is a tendency for the number of synanthropic blood-sucking mosquito species to increase owing to the occupation of domestic premises as a daytime habitat by those species of mosquitoes for which this phenomenon was not typical earlier. If global warming and the current trend to increase in summer temperatures persist, this can cause a deterioration of the epidemiological situation in the megalopolis.

  5. Household survey of container-breeding mosquitoes and climatic factors influencing the prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia

    Al Thabiany Aziz; Hamdan Ahmad; Wan Fatma Zuharah; Ahmad Saad Ramli; Fumio Miake; Hamady Dieng; Abu Hassan Ahmad; Jazem A Mahyoub; Abdulhafis M Turkistani; Hatabbi Mesed; Salah Koshike; Tomomitsu Satho; MR Che Salmah

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence. Methods: Monthly visits were performed between April 2008 and March 2009 to randomly selected houses. During each visit, mosquito larvae were collected from indoors and outdoors containers by either dipping or pipetting. Mosquitoes were morphologically identified. Data on temperature, relative humidity, rain/precipitations during the survey period was retrieved from governmental sources and analyzed. Results: The city was warmer in dry season (DS) than wet season (WS). No rain occurred at all during DS and even precipitations did fall, wetting events were much greater during WS. Larval survey revealed the co-breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles in a variety of artificial containers in and around homes. 32109 larvae representing 1st , 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stages were collected from 22618 container habitats. Culicines was far the commonest and Aedes genus was as numerous as the Culex population. Ae. aegypti larval abundance exhibited marked temporal variations, overall, being usually more abundant during WS. Ten types of artificial containers were found with developing larvae. 70% of these habitats were located indoors. 71.42% of indoor containers were permanent and 28.58% was semi-permanent during WS. Cement tanks was the only container type permanent during DS. Ae. aegypti larval indices (CI, HI, BI) recorded were greater during WS. Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicate a high risk of dengue transmission in the holy city.

  6. Breeding season habitat selection by ferruginous pygmy owls glaucidium brasilianum in central Argentina

    Campioni, Letizia; Sarasola, José Hernán; Santillán, M.; Reyes, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule The presence of Ferruginous Pygmy Owls Glaucidium brasilianum breeding in the xerophytic forest of Caldén Prosopis caldenia in central Argentina was slightly affected by forest maturity but neither by the structure of vegetation strata at the micro-habitat scale, nor by forest composition (mosaic of forest-grassland or shrubland) or proximity of water bodies at the macro-habitat scale. Aims To assess the habitat characteristics selected by Ferruginous Pygmy Owls during the breeding se...

  7. Further extension of the range of the rock pool mosquito, Aedes atropalpus, via tire breeding.

    Nawrocki, S J; Craig, G B

    1989-03-01

    In the past, Aedes atropalpus was limited to those areas of the eastern U.S. and Canada that had rivers or shorelines with large rocks containing rock pools. In the last 10 years, many new records of larval breeding in scrap tires have accumulated. We present records of larval breeding in non-rock pool containers for 54 counties; most are far from the original range. The species has not only found a new habitat but has greatly extended its range via commercial transport of scrap tires. PMID:2708986

  8. Mosquito Larval Habitats, Land Use, and Potential Malaria Risk in Northern Belize from Satellite Image Analyses

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of Anopheles mosquito habitats and land use in northern Belize is examined with satellite data. -A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats. Eleocharis spp. marsh is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of T-ha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. This expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat may in turn cause an increase in malaria risk in the region.

  9. Landscape determinants and remote sensing of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in the western Kenya highlands

    Beck Louisa

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past two decades the east African highlands have experienced several major malaria epidemics. Currently there is a renewed interest in exploring the possibility of anopheline larval control through environmental management or larvicide as an additional means of reducing malaria transmission in Africa. This study examined the landscape determinants of anopheline mosquito larval habitats and usefulness of remote sensing in identifying these habitats in western Kenya highlands. Methods Panchromatic aerial photos, Ikonos and Landsat Thematic Mapper 7 satellite images were acquired for a study area in Kakamega, western Kenya. Supervised classification of land-use and land-cover and visual identification of aquatic habitats were conducted. Ground survey of all aquatic habitats was conducted in the dry and rainy seasons in 2003. All habitats positive for anopheline larvae were identified. The retrieved data from the remote sensors were compared to the ground results on aquatic habitats and land-use. The probability of finding aquatic habitats and habitats with Anopheles larvae were modelled based on the digital elevation model and land-use types. Results The misclassification rate of land-cover types was 10.8% based on Ikonos imagery, 22.6% for panchromatic aerial photos and 39.2% for Landsat TM 7 imagery. The Ikonos image identified 40.6% of aquatic habitats, aerial photos identified 10.6%, and Landsate TM 7 image identified 0%. Computer models based on topographic features and land-cover information obtained from the Ikonos image yielded a misclassification rate of 20.3–22.7% for aquatic habitats, and 18.1–25.1% for anopheline-positive larval habitats. Conclusion One-metre spatial resolution Ikonos images combined with computer modelling based on topographic land-cover features are useful tools for identification of anopheline larval habitats, and they can be used to assist to malaria vector control in western Kenya

  10. Larval Habitats Diversity and Distribution of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species in the Republic of Moldova.

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K

    2015-11-01

    A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova. PMID:26364191

  11. Community structure of ground-water breeding mosquitoes driven by land use in a temperate wetland of Argentina.

    Cardo, María Victoria; Darío, Vezzani; Eduardo, Carbajo Aníbal

    2011-08-01

    Wetlands have traditionally been associated with harbouring mosquitoes, but the effect of the land use on their communities has not been thoroughly studied. We characterized the ground-water habitat availability and mosquito species richness and composition during a year-round survey in the predominant land uses (domestic areas, Salicaceae plantations, secondary forests and Scirpus giganteus marshes) of the Paraná Lower Delta, Argentina. Each land use presented a characteristically different number, composition, and diversity of ground-water habitats, and harboured mosquitoes throughout the year. Nearly half of the 824 habitats examined, consisting of 10 types, were positive for immatures. We identified 23 species from 7 genera, with Culex and Ochlerotatus species accounting for 81.7% of all samples. Species richness was significantly lower in marshes than in the other land uses. Some species such as Culex dolosus s.l. and Ochlerotatus crinifer exhibited no habitat-type restrictions, while Uranotaenia nataliae and Mansonia indubitans presented specific habitat requirements. Our results strongly suggest that land use within temperate wetlands drives species richness and composition of ground-water mosquito communities through larval habitat availability. PMID:21550332

  12. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  13. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    Kristen Healy

    Full Text Available Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical

  14. Endangered Roseate Tern Breeding and Staging Habitat Management and Enhancement Progress Report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals of this project are to enhance and protect roseate tern breeding and staging habitat to increase productivity, and improve survival of fledglings and...

  15. Endangered Roseate Tern Breeding and Staging Habitat Management and Enhancement Progress Report FY13

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals of this project are to enhance and protect roseate tern breeding and staging habitat to increase productivity, and improve survival of fledglings and...

  16. Endangered Roseate Tern Breeding and Staging Habitat Management and Enhancement Progress Report FY13-FY14

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals of this project are to enhance and protect roseate tern breeding and staging habitat to increase productivity, and improve survival of fledglings and...

  17. Slipping through the Cracks: Rubber Plantation Is Unsuitable Breeding Habitat for Frogs in Xishuangbanna, China

    Behm, Jocelyn E.; Yang, XiaoDong; Chen, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into agriculture may present a serious risk to amphibian diversity if amphibians are not able to use agricultural areas as habitat. Recently, in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province – a hotspot of frog diversity within China – two-thirds of the native tropical rainforests have been converted into rubber plantation agriculture. We conducted surveys and experiments to quantify habitat use for breeding and non-breeding life history activities of the native fro...

  18. A delay differential equation model for dengue transmission with regular visits to a mosquito breeding site

    Yaacob, Y.; Yeak, S. H.; Lim, R. S.; Soewono, E.

    2015-03-01

    Dengue disease has been known as one of widely transmitted vector-borne diseases which potentially affects millions of people throughout the world especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries. One of the main factors contributing in the complication of the transmission process is the mobility of people in which people may get infection in the places far from their home. Here we construct a delay differential equation model for dengue transmission in a closed population where regular visits of people to a mosquito breeding site out of their residency such as traditional market take place daily. Basic reproductive ratio of the system is obtained and depends on the ratio between the outgoing rates of susceptible human and infective human. It is shown that the increase of mobility with different variation of mobility rates may contribute to different level of basic reproductive ratio as well as different level of outbreaks.

  19. Impacts of anthropogenic activities and habitat degradation on breeding waterbirds

    ONMUŞ, Ortaç; SIKI, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of threats on breeding waterbirds in the Gediz Delta, Turkey. Breeding Bird Surveys were conducted in 2002 and 2006. The survey area comprised 305 UTM grids of 1 × 1 km2. Populations and distributions of breeding birds were compared between 2002 and 2006 for the UTM grids under threat and without any threat using paired samples t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and GIS. Urbanization, industrialization, pollution, overgrazing, disturbance, and illegal reed cutting ...

  20. Mosquito Vector Diversity across Habitats in Central Thailand Endemic for Dengue and Other Arthropod-Borne Diseases

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito divers...

  1. Immature Aedes mosquitoes colonize Culex quinquefasciatus breeding sites in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco

    Suzane Alves dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%, Aedes albopictus (0.03%, and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8% were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex.

  2. Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health

    Highlights: ► An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. ► Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. ► Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. ► Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that are most frequently disposed off contributed largely to the sustenance of Aedes mosquito population

  3. Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health

    Banerjee, Soumyajit, E-mail: soumyajitb@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Aditya, Gautam, E-mail: gautamaditya2001@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104 (India); Saha, Goutam K, E-mail: gkszoo@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that

  4. Mosquito larval habitat mapping using remote sensing and GIS: Implications of coalbed methane development and West Nile virus

    Zou, L.; Miller, S.N.; Schmidtmann, E.T. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Renewable Resources

    2006-09-15

    Potential larval habitats of the mosquito Culex tarsalis (Coquillett), implicated as a primary vector of West Nile virus in Wyoming, were identified using integrated remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) analyses. The study area is in the Powder River Basin of north central Wyoming, an area that has been undergoing a significant increase in coalbed methane gas extractions since the late 1990s. Large volumes of water are discharged, impounded, and released during the extraction of methane gas, creating aquatic habitats that have the potential to support immature mosquito development. Landsat TM and ETM + data were initially classified into spectrally distinct water and vegetation classes, which were in turn used to identify suitable larval habitat sites. This initial habitat classification was refined using knowledge-based GIS techniques requiring spatial data layers for topography, streams, and soils to reduce the potential for overestimation of habitat. Accuracy assessment was carried out using field data and high-resolution aerial photography commensurate with one of the Landsat images. The classifier can identify likely habitat for ponds larger than 0.8 ha (2 acres) with generally satisfactory results (72.1%) with a lower detection limit of approximate to 0.4 ha (1 acre). Results show a 75% increase in potential larval habitats from 1999 to 2004 in the study area, primarily because of the large increase in small coalbed methane water discharge ponds. These results may facilitate mosquito abatement programs in the Powder River Basin with the potential for application throughout the state and region.

  5. Breeding biology and habitat use of black ducks

    Owen, R.; Longcore, J.; Ringelman, J.; Reinecke, K.; Hendrix, K.

    1989-01-01

    Forested wetlands are Important habitats for black ducks nesting in the Northeast. Invertebrates, with their high protein content, are primary foods of females during egg laying and for rapidly growing ducklings. Beaver-created and modified wetlands provide excellent habitat for feeding as well as protective cover. As these wetlands age, their quality declines after 7-10 years, and waterfowl use diminishes. Wetland availability and quality should be considered when managing beaver.

  6. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  7. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Jennifer C. Rock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  8. Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter "flycatcher") is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in saltcedar

  9. Identifying breeding habitat for the iberian lynx: Inferences from a fine-scale spatial analysis

    Fernández, Néstor; Delibes, M.; Palomares, Francisco; Mladenoff, David

    2003-01-01

    Empirical landscape habitat models are valuable tools for addressing species conser vation issues in heterogeneous landscapes. These have been particularly useful for animal populations requiring extensive areas, like large mammalian carnivores. Although models are scale-dependent, they are often based exclusively on coarse-grained information on landscape structure and species distribution. However, accurate discrimination and qual- ity assessment of breeding habitats may require m...

  10. Larval mosquito habitat utilization and community dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Unlu, Isik; Obenauer, Peter; Hughes, Tony; Healy, Sean; Crepeau, Taryn; Farajollahi, Ary; Kesavaraju, Banu; Fonseca, Dina; Schoeler, George; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. japonicus (Theobald) are important container-inhabiting mosquitoes that transmit disease agents, outcompete native species, and continue to expand their range in the United States. Both species deposit eggs in natural and artificial containers and thrive in peridomestic environments. The goal of our study was to examine the types and characteristics of containers that are most productive for these species in the northeastern United States. In total, 306 containers were sampled in urban, suburban, and rural areas of New Jersey. Multiple biotic and abiotic factors were recorded in an attempt to identify variables associated with the productivity of each species. Based on pupal abundance and density of container types, results showed that tires, trash cans, and planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. albopictus, while planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. japonicus. Container color (black and gray), material (rubber), and type (tires) were correlated with species presence for Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus. These factors may play a role in the selection of oviposition sites by female mosquitoes or in the survival of their progeny. Differences in species composition and abundance were detected between areas classified as urban, suburban, and rural. In urban and suburban areas, Ae. albopictus was more abundant in container habitats than Ae. japonicus; however, Ae. japonicus was more abundant in rural areas, and when water temperatures were below 14 degrees C. Our results suggest many variables can influence the presence of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus in container habitats in northeastern United States. PMID:22897041

  11. Locating suitable habitats for West Nile Virus-infected mosquitoes through association of environmental characteristics with infected mosquito locations: a case study in Shelby County, Tennessee

    Bialkowska-Jelinska Elzbieta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its first detection in 2001, West Nile Virus (WNV poses a significant health risk for residents of Shelby County in Tennessee. This situation forced public health officials to adopt efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. Analyses that use environmental variables to find suitable habitats for WNV-infected mosquitoes have the potential to support these efforts. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, we identified areas of Shelby County that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV, based on similarity of environmental characteristics to areas where WNV was found. The environmental characteristics in this study were based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS data, such as elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, and precipitation. Results Our analyses produced maps of likely habitats of WNV-infected mosquitoes for each week of August 2004, revealing the areas that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV within the core of the Memphis urban area. By comparing neighbourhood social characteristics to the environmental factors that contribute to WNV infection, potential social drivers of WNV transmission were revealed in Shelby County. Results show that human population characteristics and housing conditions such as a high percentage of black population, low income, high rental occupation, old structures, and vacant housing are associated with the focal area of WNV identified for each week of the study period. Conclusion We demonstrated that use of the Mahalanobis Distance statistic as a similarity index to assess environmental characteristics is a potential raster-based approach to identify areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining the virus. This approach was also useful to monitor changes over time for likely locations of infected mosquito habitats. This technique is very helpful for authorities when making decisions related to an

  12. The survey in different habitat to the mosquito-vector in Yimeng mountain area%沂蒙山区蚊类传播媒介的生态学调查

    景晓; 常树珍; 张世水; 宫学诗; 赖世宏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To survey the different habitat to the species, distribution, habitat, behavior of mosquitoes in Yimeng mountain area for about twenty years,and provide local background data for killing mosquitoes. Methods Applying five ways :human baited net trap , catching with a net ,lamp baited trap, labor-hour methods and animal baited trap to catch the mosquitoes in different habitat. Results Mosquitoes collected were total subjected to 5 genera 28 species. Among them, 7 species as An. Lindosagi,Ae. Koreicus, Ae. Dorsalis,et al were new record. Mosquito larva breeded in different habitat. 11 species of the bloodsucking of mosquitoes were found,the bloodsucking of Culex pipiens pallens was wide-ranging. Conclusion When the infectious diseases caused by mosquito-vectors are continual changing at present, it is indispensable to continue strengthening the working of investigating mosquito, and consolidate achievements of eliminating the pests.%目的 通过对沂蒙山区蚊类生态习性近20年生态学调查,掌握不同生境蚊类的本底资料,为除害灭病提供科学依据.方法 选择取样点,用人帐法、网捕法、灯诱法、人工小时法、动物诱捕法等5种采集方法分别在不同生境中采集蚊虫成虫,分类计数.结果 共发现蚊类5属28种,其中环股按蚊、朝鲜伊蚊、背点伊蚊等7种为沂蒙山区新记录.蚊类的孳生地非常广泛,而不同蚊种在各种水质中又有不同的孳生特点.对11种常见蚊虫的嗜血习性进行了判断.结论 在当前蚊媒传播疾病不断发生变化的情况下,有必要继续加强对蚊类生态学的调查,以巩固除害灭病的成果.

  13. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii.

    Eunho Suh

    Full Text Available Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females.

  14. The Effects of Habitat Type and Volcanic Eruptions on the Breeding Demography of Icelandic Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus.

    Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Alves, José A; Sigurjónsdóttir, Hrefna; Hersteinsson, Páll; Gunnarsson, Tómas G

    2015-01-01

    Distinct preference of species for habitats is most often driven by long term differences in demographic rates between habitats. Estimating variation in those rates is key for developing successful conservation strategies. Stochastic events can interact with underlying variation in habitat quality in regulating demography but the opportunities to explore such interactions are rare. Whimbrels in Iceland show a strong preference for sparsely vegetated riverplains. Such habitats in Iceland face various threats, e.g., climate change, river regulation and spread of alien plant species. In this study we compared demographic parameters of breeding Whimbrels between riverplains and other habitats before, during and after volcanic eruption events to estimate the importance of the habitats for the species and the effect of ash deposit on breeding success. We found that an estimated minimum of 23% of the Icelandic population of Whimbrels and c. 10% of the world population of the species breed in riverplain habitats in Iceland. Whimbrels bred consistently at much higher densities in riverplain habitats than in other habitats and riverplains also had higher densities of pairs with fledglings although the proportion of successful breeders was similar between habitats. Predation by livestock may have had a considerable negative effect on breeding success on our study sites. Breeding was negatively affected by the volcanic activity, probably through the effects of ash on the invertebrate food supply, with breeding success being gradually worse closer to the eruption. Breeding success was equally affected by volcanism across habitats which differed in underlying habitat quality. This study gives an example of how populations can be regulated by factors which operate at different spatial scales, such as local variation in habitat quality and stochastic events which impact larger areas. PMID:26161860

  15. Efficacy of a mermithid nematode Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in controlling tree hole-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rubber plantation area of Kerala, India.

    Paily, K P; Chandhiran, K; Vanamail, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Jambulingam, P

    2013-03-01

    In rubber plantations, tree holes are one of the major types of breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes which transmit dengue and chikungunya. A mermithid nematode, Romanomermis iyengari, was evaluated in tree holes for its efficacy in controlling Aedes albopictus. Infection of mosquito larvae by the nematode was determined through microscopic examination on the next day of application, and evaluation of immature density of mosquito was done on the seventh day. After application of the infective stage of the nematode in a host-parasite ratio of 1:3 or 1:4, the infection rates on the different larval instars of mosquito were similar, 85.7-95.8 % in first to third instars and 79.3 % in fourth instar larvae or 100 and 92.9 %, respectively. Parasite burden varied from 1.1 to 2.4, respectively, among first and third instar larvae applied at 1:3. At 1:4, the parasite burden was between 1.6 (fourth instar) and 4 (second instar). The increase in parasite burden due to parasite density was significant in all the larval instars (P < 0.05). High parasite burden is detrimental to parasite recycling as it can cause premature mortality of the host. Hence, the dosage of 1:3 could be considered as suitable for rubber tree hole habitats. In the nematode-applied tree holes, there was a significant level (P < 0.05) of reduction in the immature density of A. albopictus, especially late instars and pupae, confirming the efficacy of R. iyengari in infecting the mosquito and controlling pupal emergence. PMID:23306387

  16. Mosquito vectors developing in atypical anthropogenic habitats: Global overview of recent observations, mechanisms and impact on disease transmission.

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N

    2016-01-01

    The major mosquito vectors of human diseases have co-evolved with humans over a long period of time. However, the rapid growth in human population and the associated expansion in agricultural activity and greater urbanisation have created ecological changes that have had a marked impact on biology of mosquito vectors. Adaptation of the vectors of malaria and important arbovial diseases over a much shorter time scale to the new types of preimaginal habitats recently created by human population growth and activity is highlighted here in the context of its potential for increasing disease transmission rates. Possible measures that can reduce the effects on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases are also outlined. PMID:27353577

  17. An Educational Interventional Study to Assess Awareness about Mosquito Breeding, Diseases Caused and Protective Measures Against them among Families Residing in an Urban Slum of Indore City

    Deepa Raghunath

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community participation plays an important role in control of Mosquito borne diseases. This study tries to assess impact of educational intervention on various aspects of mosquito borne diseases in an urban slum. Methodology: An educational interventional study was done in 200 families residing in a slum (Badi Gwaltoli which is in field practice area of Urban Health Centre attached to Department of Community Medicine of M.G.M.Medical College, Indore. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the Head of the family which studied their awareness and perception regarding breeding sites and biting habits of mosquitoes, diseases spread by them and personal protective measures used, followed by an educational intervention and post assessment. Data was entered into Microsoft excel spread sheet and analysed using SPSS version 20 software. Results: 46% of study population knew the correct breeding season of mosquitoes (monsoon season during pre-intervention and 68% of the population post- intervention (p- value 0.004. When asked at what time mosquitoes bite the most, maximum number (92% of people said that mosquitoes bite most in the evening and night, while only 6% and 2% were for morning and noon, respectively. Only 3.5% of the population who knew about breeding sites knew about artificial collections of water. Majority said mosquito breed in dirty stagnant water (78.5%. About 96%of the study population was aware that mosquitoes spread diseases. However, only 33.3%of respondents knew correctly about the diseases spread which improved to 68% in the post-intervention period (p-value=.000. 46% knew all the protection measures against mosquitoes in the pre-intervention which increased to 86% in the post intervention (p.value-.005. Conclusion: Awareness about Aedes mosquitoes and its habits is quite poor and many people still believe that only dirty water serves as a breeding place in mosquitoes. Regular IEC sessions

  18. Aquatic Insects of New York Salt Marsh Associated with Mosquito Larval Habitat and their Potential Utility as Bioindicators

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E.; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonom...

  19. Characteristics of malaria vector breeding habitats in Sri Lanka: relevance for environmental management

    Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F;

    1998-01-01

    In and around a village in the Anuradhapura District of Sri Lanka anopheline larvae were sampled from July 1994 to April 1996 in all surface water bodies. Samples positive for Anopheles culicifacies, the established vector of malaria in Sri Lanka, and for An. barbirostris, An. vagus, and An. varuna...... exposed clear water pools, was able to exploit habitats that were shaded and contained turbid water. Environmental management interventions to control An. culicifacies breeding have to take into account that the secondary vectors of malaria exploit other habitats and would not be affected by the...

  20. A study on container breeding mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thiruvananthapuram district, India

    K. Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The district of Thiruvananthapuram reports the maximum number of cases of dengue in the state of Kerala. To determine the larval diversity, density and breeding site preferences of Aedes mosquitoes, during pre-monsoon and monsoon periods in urban and rural areas of Thiruvananthapuram district. Methods: Based on the daily reports of dengue cases, 70 clusters were identified in Thiruvananthapuram district. A cross-sectional larval survey was done in the domestic and peri-domestic areas of 1750 houses, using the WHO standard techniques. The larval indices were calculated, and the larvae were identified by using taxonomic keys. Urban and rural differences and the variations during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons were also studied. Results: In the surveyed houses, 15% had mosquito breeding, with 88% having Aedes larvae. The house index, container index and the breteau index were 13.08, 13.28 and 16.57%, respectively. About 86% of the clusters were found positive for Aedes albopictus and 11% for Ae. aegypti. Aedes albopictus was distributed almost equally in rural and urban clusters, whereas the distribution of Ae. aegypti was significantly higher in urban areas (p = 0.03. The most common water holding containers found (outdoor were of plastic, followed by coconut shells. The breeding preference ratio was highest for tyres. Significantly lesser positivity was found for containers during monsoon period when compared to pre-monsoon period. Conclusion: The geographical distribution of Ae. albopictus is significantly high in peri-domestic areas and, therefore, its epidemiological role in the widespread disease occurrence needs to be studied. The discarded tyres being the most preferred breeding sites, where IEC activities will help in source reduction.

  1. Movements of Alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris) between small aquatic habitats (ruts) during the breeding season

    Kopecky, Oldrich; Vojar, Jiri; Denoël, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Many species with complex life cycles, such as caudate amphibians, migrate from terrestrial to aquatic habitats for reproduction. However, movements between reproductive ponds within a breeding season have rarely been studied and are usually considered to be limited. Our aim was to determine whether this pattern occurs frequently in Alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris) inhabiting complexes of small ruts on muddy forest tracks. We analysed capture-recapture data for individually marked newts as...

  2. Foraging movements and habitat niche of two closely related seabirds breeding in sympatry

    Afán, Isabel; Navarro, Joan; Cardador, Laura; Ramírez, Francisco; Kato, Akiko; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Forero, Manuela G.

    2014-01-01

    As central-place foragers, pelagic seabirds are constrained by spatiotemporal heterogeneity to find productive marine areas and compete for prey. We analysed 97 foraging trips to study the movement and oceanographic characteristics of foraging habitats of two different—yet closely related—species of shearwaters (Scopoli’s shearwater Calonectris diomedea and Cory’s shearwater C. borealis) breeding in sympatry in the Mediterranean. We combined various methodological approaches (GPS-tracking, sp...

  3. Greater shrub dominance alters breeding habitat and food resources for migratory songbirds in Alaskan arctic tundra.

    Boelman, Natalie T; Gough, Laura; Wingfield, John; Goetz, Scott; Asmus, Ashley; Chmura, Helen E; Krause, Jesse S; Perez, Jonathan H; Sweet, Shannan K; Guay, Kevin C

    2015-04-01

    Climate warming is affecting the Arctic in multiple ways, including via increased dominance of deciduous shrubs. Although many studies have focused on how this vegetation shift is altering nutrient cycling and energy balance, few have explicitly considered effects on tundra fauna, such as the millions of migratory songbirds that breed in northern regions every year. To understand how increasing deciduous shrub dominance may alter breeding songbird habitat, we quantified vegetation and arthropod community characteristics in both graminoid and shrub dominated tundra. We combined measurements of preferred nest site characteristics for Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) and Gambel's White-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) with modeled predictions for the distribution of plant community types in the Alaskan arctic foothills region for the year 2050. Lapland longspur nests were found in sedge-dominated tussock tundra where shrub height does not exceed 20 cm, whereas White-crowned sparrows nested only under shrubs between 20 cm and 1 m in height, with no preference for shrub species. Shrub canopies had higher canopy-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. small flies and spiders) but lower ground-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. large spiders and beetles). Since flies are the birds' preferred prey, increasing shrubs may result in a net enhancement in preferred prey availability. Acknowledging the coarse resolution of existing tundra vegetation models, we predict that by 2050 there will be a northward shift in current White-crowned sparrow habitat range and a 20-60% increase in their preferred habitat extent, while Lapland longspur habitat extent will be equivalently reduced. Our findings can be used to make first approximations of future habitat change for species with similar nesting requirements. However, we contend that as exemplified by this study's findings, existing tundra modeling tools cannot yet simulate the fine-scale habitat

  4. Larval Habitat Characteristics of the Genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae and a Checklist of Mosquitoes in Guilan Province, Northern Iran

    S Azari-Hamidian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. There is scattered pub­lished information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae in Iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern Iran.Methods: This cross sectional investigation was carried out to study the mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Province, northern Iran, during April–December 2000. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique. Larval habitat characteristics were recorded according to water situation (clear or turbid, vegetation, substrate type, sunlight situation, habitat situation (transient or permanent, running or stagnant, habitat type (natural or artificial, and water temperature. Results: In total, 1547 third- and fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles from 90 habitats were collected and morphologi­cally identified. Five species; Anopheles claviger, An.’hyrcanus’, An. maculipennis s.l., An. plumbeus, and An. su­perpictus were identified and respectively comprised 6.3%, 22.4%, 54.4%, 13.0%, and 3.9% of the samples. The mean and range temperatures of the larval habitat water were 19.6oC (n=14 (16–25oC, 22.6oC (n=53 (12–33oC, 23.8oC (n=52 (10–33oC, 11.5oC (n=12 (9–21oC, and 20.4oC (n=7 (12–26oC, respectively. There was a signifi­cant difference in the mean water temperatures (11.5–23.5oC of the larval habitats of different species (P=0.000. Most of the genus larvae were collected from natural habitats (86.9% such as river bed pools (46.4% and rain pools (33.1% with transient (98.3%, stagnant (99.5% and clear (95.3% water, with vegetation (69.9%, mud (42.0% or gravel (39.7% substrate in full sunlight (69.6% or shaded (22.7% area. A checklist of the province mosquitoes including 30 species and seven genera has been provided.Conclusion: The main larval habitats of the most abundant species, An.’hyrcanus’ and An

  5. Characterization of potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to urban land-use in Malindi, Kenya

    Keating Joseph

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study characterized Anopheles mosquito larval habitats in relation to ecological attributes about the habitat and community-level drainage potential, and investigated whether agricultural activities within or around urban households increased the probability of water body occurrence. Malindi, a city on the coast of Kenya, was mapped using global positioning system (GPS technology, and a geographic information system (GIS was used to overlay a measured grid, which served as a sampling frame. Grid cells were stratified according to the level of drainage in the area, and 50 cells were randomly selected for the study. Cross-sectional household and entomological surveys were conducted during November and December 2002 within the 50 grid cells. Chi-square analysis was used to test whether water bodies differed fundamentally between well and poorly drained areas, and multi-level logistic regression was used to test whether household-level agricultural activity increased the probability of water body occurrence in the grid cell. Results Interviews were conducted with one adult in 629 households. A total of 29 water bodies were identified within the sampled areas. This study found that characteristics of water bodies were fundamentally the same in well and poorly drained areas. This study also demonstrated that household-level urban agriculture was not associated with the occurrence of water bodies in the grid cell, after controlling for potential confounders associated with distance to the city center, drainage, access to resources, and population density. Conclusions Household-level urban agricultural activity may be less important than the other types of human perturbation in terms of mosquito larval habitat creation. The fact that many larvae were coming from few sites, and few sites in general were found under relatively dry conditions suggests that mosquito habitat reduction is a reasonable and attainable goal in Malindi.

  6. The effect of West Nile virus perceptions and knowledge on protective behavior and mosquito breeding in residential yards in Upstate New York

    Tuiten, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; McComas, K.; Harrington, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    A knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire combined with entomological surveys of residential mosquito-breeding sites were conducted in two Upstate New York neighborhoods. We tested the hypothesis that “correct” West Nile virus (WNV) knowledge and perceptions correspond with the use o

  7. Characterization of larval habitats for anopheline mosquitoes in a malarious area under elimination program in the southeast of Iran

    Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi; Hassan Vatandoost; Mehdi Zare

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of environmental characteristics of larval habitats on distribution and abundance of anopheline mosquitoes in Bashagard county, a malarious area in southeast of Iran. Methods: Larvae were collected monthly using the standard dipping method and identified using a morphological-based key. Environmental characteristics of the larval habitats were recorded. Water samples were taken from habitats during larval collection for physico-chemical characterization. Statistical analyses were performed. Results: In total 5150 anopheline larvae from 36 larval habitats were collected and identified. They comprised of six species: Anopheles culicifacies (29.36%), Anopheles moghulensis (25.20%),Anopheles dthali stephensi (5.01%). (18.02%), Anopheles superpictus (17.24%), Anopheles turkhudi (5.17%) and Anopheles The most common larval habitats were natural and clear water bodies such as riverbeds with sandy substrates and still water. Furthermore, the anopheline larvae were abundant in permanent and full sunlight habitats without vegetation and algae. Larval density was positively correlated with water temperature. Chemical characteristics including conductivity, total alkalinity, sulphate and chloride had significant effects on distribution and abundance of anopheline species.Conclusions:The result of this study indicates a correlation between some environmental characteristics and anopheline larvae abundance which can be considered for effective planning and implementing malaria elimination program in Iran.

  8. Water management for controlling the breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in rice irrigation schemes in Kenya

    Mutero, C M; Blank, H; Konradsen, F;

    2000-01-01

    . Intermittent irrigation was carried out on a weekly schedule, with flooded conditions from Saturday through Tuesday morning. Larval sampling at each plot was conducted every Monday and prior to draining of intermittently irrigated subplots on Tuesday. All the adult anopheline mosquitoes emerging from larvae...

  9. Breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan

    Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J;

    2001-01-01

    As part of investigations on potential linkages between irrigation and malaria transmission, all surface water bodies in and around three villages along an irrigation distributary in South Punjab, Pakistan, were surveyed for anopheline mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from April 1999 to March...

  10. Habitat selection by breeding waterbirds at ponds with size-structured fish populations

    Kloskowski, Janusz; Nieoczym, Marek; Polak, Marcin; Pitucha, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    Fish may significantly affect habitat use by birds, either as their prey or as competitors. Fish communities are often distinctly size-structured, but the consequences for waterbird assemblages remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of size structure of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) cohorts together with other biotic and abiotic pond characteristics on the distribution of breeding waterbirds in a seminatural system of monocultured ponds, where three fish age classes were separately stocked. Fish age corresponded to a distinct fish size gradient. Fish age and total biomass, macroinvertebrate and amphibian abundance, and emergent vegetation best explained the differences in bird density between ponds. Abundance of animal prey other than fish (aquatic macroinvertebrates and larval amphibians) decreased with increasing carp age in the ponds. Densities of ducks and smaller grebes were strongly negatively associated with fish age/size gradient. The largest of the grebes, the piscivorous great crested grebe ( Podiceps cristatus), was the only species that preferred ponds with medium-sized fish and was positively associated with total fish biomass. Habitat selection by bitterns and most rallids was instead strongly influenced by the relative amount of emergent vegetation cover in the ponds. Our results show that fish size structure may be an important cue for breeding habitat choice and a factor affording an opportunity for niche diversification in avian communities.

  11. Breeding bird populations of Irish peatlands : capsule peatlands are very important habitats for birds despite low species diversity

    Bracken, Fintan; Barry J. McMahon; Whelan, John

    2008-01-01

    Aims to describe the variation in breeding bird populations that occur on different types of Irish peatlands and their associated habitat characteristics. Methods: Bird abundance and diversity were compared between four peatland habitat types: fens; raised bogs; Atlantic blanket bogs; and montane blanket bogs at twelve study sites using transects. Various measures of habitat quality were also taken at each location. Results: Only 21 species were recorded during the study with Meadow Pip...

  12. Field irradiator gamma: pre-irradiation occurrence of breeding birds in three boreal habitats

    A trail census was conducted of the breeding birds found in three major habitats in the Field Irradiator Gamma area at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba. The area sampled was about 10.50 ha in size, and included 4.25 ha of upland forest, 4.75 ha of lowland conifers, and 1.50 ha of black spruce-tamarack bog. Forty-four species of birds were identified, of which 24 were considered to be resident in the study area. The highest population density was observed in the bog, followed by upland forest and lowland conifer respectively. In contrast, species diversity was greatest in the upland forest, while it decreased markedly in the relatively monotypic lowland conifer and bog habitats. (author)

  13. Successional mosquito dynamics in surrogate treehole and ground-container habitats in the northeastern United States: where does Aedes albopictus fit in?

    Johnson, B J; Sukhdeo, M V K

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed the risk of larval displacement of the eastern treehole mosquito, Aedes triseriatus, and the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens, by Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, during the establishment and successional stages of novel larval mosquito treehole and ground-container habitats in the state of New Jersey, U.S.A. Culex pipiens and Culex restuans were the first mosquito species to colonize ground-container habitats and were the dominant larval species throughout the study period, whereas Ae. albopictus was late to colonize ground habitats and accounted for less than 15% of weekly larval collections once established. Ae. albopictus had a much stronger community presence within treehole ovitraps; however, Ae. albopictus never reached the average larval densities of the expected primary colonizer, Ae. triseriatus. Throughout the study period, the weekly abundances of Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus were positively correlated and there were no significant differences between the abundances of each species. The larval dominance of Ae. triseriatus appears to be enhanced by the presence of Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis, a large predatory mosquito species. When Tx. rut. septentrionalis was present, mature larvae (3(rd) -4(th) instar) of Ae. albopictus were also present in only 16.7% of collections, whereas mature larvae of Ae. triseriatus were collected concurrently with Tx. rut. septentrionalis in 53.8% of collections. These data suggest that Ae. triseriatus is at a greater risk of displacement by Ae. albopictus than are Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans. PMID:23701622

  14. Breeding habitat selection by houbara bustard (Chlamydotis[undulata] macqueenii) in Mori, Xinjiang, China

    YANG Weikang(杨维康); QIAO Jianfang(乔建芳); Olivier Combreau; YAO Jun(姚军); GAO Xingyi(高行宜); ZHONG Wenqin(钟文勤)

    2002-01-01

    The breeding habitat selection by houbara bustards in Mori, Xinjiang, China duringthe breeding seasons from April to June 1998-2000 was studied. Most of habitats chosen forbreeding were short sub-shrubby and open areas close to high bushy patches. The nesting re-males clearly prefer Iow covered areas and avoid densely covered and high vegetation sites. Thenumber of herb species was significantly smaller at nest sites than at randomly selected sites.Only the distance to the closest fox den contributed the most to discrimination between successfuland predated nests. The average distance to the closest fox den was significantly longer at suc-cessful nests than at depredated nests. Vegetative density, plant species richness, topography anddistance to the closest fox den are possibly the most important factors that determined the nestsites selection of houbara bustard. The displaying males clearly prefer Iow covered areas andavoid densely covered and high vegetation sites. The vegetation density and number of plant spe-cies at display sites was significantly lower than that at randomly selected sites. The average dis-tance to the closest bushy patch was significantly shorter at display sites than at random sites.Plant species richness, vegetative density, vegetative cover and distance to the bushy patches arepossibly the most important factors for the display sites selection of houbara bustard.

  15. Diet and foraging habitats of non-breeding white storks (Ciconia ciconia in Bulgaria

    Milchev Boyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of non-breeding White Storks was studied by pellet analysis and included mainly insects (99.9%, n=28947 with a predominance of grasshoppers (Orthoptera, 76.1%, and beetles (Coleoptera, 26.1%. The bush crickets Decticus albifrons/verrucivorus were the most numerous prey (29.9% by items, occurring in almost all pellets (98% occurrence in pellets, n=147 and predominating in half of them (49.7%. The grasshopper associations in the pellets specify foraging mainly in mesophytic grasslands that usually replace abandoned fields and overgrown pastures with a low level of grazing. The xerophytic grass-shrubby habitats, not rare on stony terrains, were of less importance, providing around 20% by prey. The typical aquatic inhabitants and the use of carrion around villages were exceptions in the study diet. The number of innutritious materials in the pellets rose when the White Storks hunted on nippy and agile grasshoppers and decreased when the main pray was slower beetles taken from the ground. The roosting of non-breeding White Storks disappeared when their preferred feeding habitats were ploughed up in the following years.

  16. Breeding Guild Determines Frog Distributions in Response to Edge Effects and Habitat Conversion in the Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B; Beard, Karen H; Crump, Martha L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil's Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i) 200 m inside the forest, ii) 50 m inside the forest, iii) at the forest edge, and iv) 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types). By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders) was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm) and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog distributions in

  17. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring

    Whitehouse, Michael J.; Harrison, Nancy M.; Julia Mackenzie; Shelley A Hinsley

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England – mi...

  18. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia

    Shiff Clive

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation data (DEM were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight

  19. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  20. The ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) in Aligudarz County (Luristan province, western Iran)

    Hamid Amani; Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi; Hamid Kassiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine ecology and characteristics of the larval habitats of the genus Anopheles (Dipetra: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County, western Iran.Methods:larvae ecology in seven rural districts, Aligudarz County, from late April to late November 1997. Larvae were captured using the dipping method. Larval breeding places characteristics were noted according to water situation (turbid or clean, stagnant or running), substrate type, site type (man-made or natural), sunlight situation, site situation (transient or permanent, with or without vegetation). This descriptive cross-sectional research was carried out to study the anopheline Results: A total of 9 620 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Anopheles from 115 breeding places in 22 villages were captured, which belonged to the following species: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles d’thali, Anopheles apoci, Anopheles superpictus (forms A and B), Anopheles marterii sogdianus, Anopheles turkhodi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles claviger. Anopheles stephensi,Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles superpictus (93.18%) was the most prevailed one and dispersed over the entire region. Larval habitats consisted of nine natural and three artificial larval habitats. The most important larval habitats were river edges (54.8%), rice fields (12.2%), and grassland (8.7%) with permanent or transient, stagnant or running and clean water, with or without vegetation, sand or mud substrate in full sunlight area.Conclusions:Regarding this research, river edges and rice fields are the most important S.L and Anopheles apoci were collected for the first time in this county. breeding places of malaria vectors in Aligudarz County. It is worthy of note in larvicidal programs.

  1. Modeling direct and indirect climate change impacts on ecological networks : a case study on breeding habitat of Dutch meadow birds

    van Dijk, Jerry; Van Der Vliet, Roland E.; De Jong, Harm; Zeylmans Van Emmichoven, Maarten J.; Van Hardeveld, Henk A.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Wassen, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Climate change can directly affect habitats within ecological networks, but may also have indirect effects on network quality by inducing land use change. The relative impact of indirect effects of climate change on the quality of ecological networks currently remains largely unknown. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the relative impact of direct and indirect effects of climate change on a network of breeding habitat of four meadow bird species (Black-tailed g...

  2. A study on container breeding mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thiruvananthapuram district, India

    K. Vijayakumar; T. K. Sudheesh Kumar; Zinia T Nujum; Farook Umarul; Anu Kuriakose

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The district of Thiruvananthapuram reports the maximum number of cases of dengue in the state of Kerala. To determine the larval diversity, density and breeding site preferences of Aedes mosquitoes, during pre-monsoon and monsoon periods in urban and rural areas of Thiruvananthapuram district. Methods: Based on the daily reports of dengue cases, 70 clusters were identified in Thiruvananthapuram district. A cross-sectional larval survey was done in the domestic and ...

  3. Habitat selection of breeding brown eared-pheasants (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in Xiaowutaishan National Nature Reserve,Hebei Province,China

    Dongming LI; Shiping GAO; Yuefeng WU; Lihan SUN; Shubin GUO; Jili LI

    2009-01-01

    From April to July of 2003-2005,we investigated habitat selection of breeding brown eared-pheasants (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in the Xiaowutaishan National Nature Reserve,Hebei Province.Our results show that brown eared-pheasants preferred deciduousconiferous mixed or deciduous forests with altitudes ranging from 1600 to 2200 m,steep gradients of slopes and medium or high positions on slopes.Moreover,they preferred habitats with more tree species,larger diameters at the breast height,more density and cover of trees and habitats with more types of grasses,high density and cover of grasses,but with fewer types of shrubs and lower density and cover of shrubs.They had larger territories in the early breeding stage than in the late breeding stage.There were significant differences in diameters at the breast height of trees,average height of trees,cover of trees,density of shrubs,cover of shrubs,aspect,distance to path,distance to water,distance to forest edge (P < 0.01,respectively),density of trees,type of shrubs,height of shrubs,type of grasses,density of grasses and proportion of bareness (P < 0.05,respectively).The result of the principal component analysis suggested that the principal components among the 23 habitat factors were the average height of trees,density of trees,diameters at the breast height of trees,density of shrubs,cover of shrubs and density of grasses.The differences in habitat selection of brown eared-pheasants between early breeding and late breeding stages may correlate with the dynamics of ambient environmental conditions,the reproductive behavior and energy requirements in their sub-stages of breeding.

  4. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring.

    Whitehouse, Michael J; Harrison, Nancy M; Mackenzie, Julia; Hinsley, Shelley A

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England--mixed deciduous woodland, riparian and urban habitat. Production, measured as brood biomass, was significantly lower in 2012 compared with the previous 9 years, with the decrease in productivity relatively greatest in woodland habitat. Production was related to hatch delay, i.e. birds not initiating incubation immediately after clutch completion, which was more common in 2012 than in previous years. The best predictor of hatch delay was daytime temperature (not nighttime minimum temperature) and rainfall, which convincingly reflected low growth and activity of caterpillar prey. We found that birds breeding in riparian and urban habitats were less vulnerable to the extremes of weather than those breeding in mixed deciduous woodland. PMID:24058694

  5. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring.

    Michael J Whitehouse

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England--mixed deciduous woodland, riparian and urban habitat. Production, measured as brood biomass, was significantly lower in 2012 compared with the previous 9 years, with the decrease in productivity relatively greatest in woodland habitat. Production was related to hatch delay, i.e. birds not initiating incubation immediately after clutch completion, which was more common in 2012 than in previous years. The best predictor of hatch delay was daytime temperature (not nighttime minimum temperature and rainfall, which convincingly reflected low growth and activity of caterpillar prey. We found that birds breeding in riparian and urban habitats were less vulnerable to the extremes of weather than those breeding in mixed deciduous woodland.

  6. Habitat Relationships of Three Grassland Breeding Bird Species: Broadscale Comparisons and Hayfield Management Implications

    Joseph J. Nocera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalized recommendations for the conservation of birds in agro-ecosystems have been elusive because studies are often of a local nature, and do not compare source data against those from other regions. In this study, we developed geographically broad habitat relationship models to provide conservation prescriptions for three species that breed in farmed grasslands: Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis, and Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus. We develop models from our study in Nova Scotia, Canada and confront them with independent data from Wisconsin, USA pastures and Iowa, USA restored prairies. Vegetation that was higher and denser in the prebreeding season was linked to increased occupancy rates and abundance of Bobolinks in each study region. Providing tall spring grass is easily accomplished by not cutting late in the previous year. Savannah Sparrows were instead associated with shorter and sparser spring grass, which highlights the need to simultaneously provide heterogeneous habitat for otherwise ecologically similar species. Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrows were more likely to occur, and be numerous, in areas with greater availability of drainage ditches. They and several other species would benefit from provision of ditches with adequate vegetation to promote occupancy. By combining these with other well-established recommendations, such as a delayed first harvest, a greater net conservation benefit can be realized from these working landscapes.

  7. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and s...

  8. Breeding Guild Determines Frog Distributions in Response to Edge Effects and Habitat Conversion in the Brazil’s Atlantic Forest

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B.; Beard, Karen H.; Crump, Martha L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil’s Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i) 200 m inside the forest, ii) 50 m inside the forest, iii) at the forest edge, and iv) 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types). By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders) was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm) and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog distributions in

  9. Ecology of mosquitoes of Midwestern Nigeria

    Godwin R.A. Okogun, Jude C. Anosike, Anthony N. Okere & Bethran E.B. Nwoke

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The ecology and distribution of various mosquito species is important inthe determination of mosquito vector abundance and associated diseases prevalence. The distributionof various mosquito genera in natural and artificial habitats and their relative species abundancewas studied between August 2002 and July 2003 in three foci (Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi comprisingthe Esan and Etsako regions of Midwestern Nigeria.Methods: Sampling was carried out by the method of Hopkins (1952 by dipping using a pipette orladle depending on container types. Pooled contents of smaller containers were sampled with a pondnet. All breeding sources of mosquito larvae were grouped into five (5 depending on their nature,constitution and the physiochemical properties. Artificial mosquito cultures were also carried out infour different container types; plastics, metal cans, earthenware pots and bamboo strips, in parts oftwo different macro habitats subdivided into area of high human activities (AHHA and areas ofderived/secondary vegetation (ADSV. Environmental temperatures, rainfall and relative humiditywere monitored during the study.Results: The present study revealed 17 mosquito species belonging to three genera (Anopheles,Culex and Aedes which are potential vectors of four human diseases in the areas surveyed. A total of736 mosquito larvae were encountered in artificial sources and 568 larvae were harvested from naturalsources. Pools, plastics and metal cans were the predominant artificial sources of mosquito larvae.Conclusion: The contribution of human activities and increasing environmental modification to thebreeding of human disease vector mosquitoes is of importance and selective vector control measuresincluding larviciding are recommended particularly before onset of rainy season

  10. Distribution and habitat characterization of the recently introduced invasive mosquito Aedes koreicus [Hulecoeteomyia koreica], a new potential vector and pest in north-eastern Italy

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Martini, Simone; Dal Pont, Marco; Delai, Nicola; Ferro Milone, Nicola; Mazzucato, Matteo; Soppelsa, Fabio; Cazzola, Luigi; Cazzin, Stefania; Ravagnan, Silvia; Ciocchetta, Silvia; Russo, Francesca; Capelli, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    Background The container breeding species belonging to the genus Aedes (Meigen) are frequently recorded out of their place of origin. Invasive Aedes species are proven or potential vectors of important Arboviruses and their establishment in new areas pose a threat for human and animal health. A new species of exotic mosquito was recorded in 2011 in north-eastern Italy: Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus [Hulecoeteomyia koreica]. The aim of this study was to characterize the biology, the environment and...

  11. Effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation on sea ice breeding habitats of harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus) across the North Atlantic

    Friedlaender, Ari S.; Johnston, David W.; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2010-07-01

    Harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus) are an abundant and commercially exploited species of phocid seal in the North Atlantic. Harp seals are entirely dependent on annual sea ice for breeding purposes and the distribution, abundance, and constitution of sea ice in this region are subject to tremendous interannual variability. As such, harp seal population dynamics are likely intimately tied to climate variability and global change. We used satellite-derived images of sea ice cover to determine trends in available habitat at the four major harp seal breeding areas in the North Atlantic, and assessed linkages amongst sea ice conditions and variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during 1978-2006. The White Sea breeding area had the highest annual ice concentrations, while the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Front regions were the most variable over time. We confirmed a consistent positive correlation between the NAO index and the amount of sea ice cover in Western North Atlantic breeding areas off Canada. Furthermore, we found an opposite and consistent negative correlation between the NAO and sea ice cover in the eastern-most breeding areas, leading to an out-of-phase signal between the Western and Eastern (particularly the White Sea) North Atlantic. These results indicate that sea ice dynamics in the breeding regions of harp seals are controlled, to some extent, by the phase of the NAO and its effects on weather across the North Atlantic. Previous studies indicate that poor ice conditions can have negative effects on harp seal survival and the consistent relationships between breeding habitat and NAO conditions that are described here have implications for both the biology and management of harp seal populations.

  12. The effect of water turbidity on the near-surface water temperature of larval habitats of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    K. P. Paaijmans; Takken, W.; Githeko, A.K.; Jacobs, A. F. G.

    2008-01-01

    Water temperature is an important determinant in many aquatic biological processes, including the growth and development of malaria mosquito (Anopheles arabiensis and A. gambiae) immatures. Water turbidity affects water temperature, as suspended particles in a water column absorb and scatter sunlight and hence determine the extinction of solar radiation. To get a better understanding of the relationship between water turbidity and water temperature, a series of semi-natural larval habitats (d...

  13. Present and future projections of habitat suitability of the Asian tiger mosquito, a vector of viral pathogens, from global climate simulation.

    Proestos, Y; Christophides, G K; Ergüler, K; Tanarhte, M; Waldock, J; Lelieveld, J

    2015-04-01

    Climate change can influence the transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) through altering the habitat suitability of insect vectors. Here we present global climate model simulations and evaluate the associated uncertainties in view of the main meteorological factors that may affect the distribution of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), which can transmit pathogens that cause chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever and various encephalitides. Using a general circulation model at 50 km horizontal resolution to simulate mosquito survival variables including temperature, precipitation and relative humidity, we present both global and regional projections of the habitat suitability up to the middle of the twenty-first century. The model resolution of 50 km allows evaluation against previous projections for Europe and provides a basis for comparative analyses with other regions. Model uncertainties and performance are addressed in light of the recent CMIP5 ensemble climate model simulations for the RCP8.5 concentration pathway and using meteorological re-analysis data (ERA-Interim/ECMWF) for the recent past. Uncertainty ranges associated with the thresholds of meteorological variables that may affect the distribution of Ae. albopictus are diagnosed using fuzzy-logic methodology, notably to assess the influence of selected meteorological criteria and combinations of criteria that influence mosquito habitat suitability. From the climate projections for 2050, and adopting a habitat suitability index larger than 70%, we estimate that approximately 2.4 billion individuals in a land area of nearly 20 million km(2) will potentially be exposed to Ae. albopictus. The synthesis of fuzzy-logic based on mosquito biology and climate change analysis provides new insights into the regional and global spreading of VBDs to support disease control and policy making. PMID:25688015

  14. Present and Future Projections of Habitat Suitability of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, a Vector of Viral Pathogens, from Global Climate Simulations.

    Proestos, Y.; Christophides, G.; Erguler, K.; Tanarhte, M.; Waldock, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can influence the transmission of vector borne diseases (VBDs) through altering the habitat suitability of insect vectors. Here we present global climate model simulations and evaluate the associated uncertainties in view of the main meteorological factors that may affect the distribution of the Asian Tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), which can transmit pathogens that cause Chikungunya, Dengue fever, yellow fever and various encephalitides. Using a general circulation model (GCM) at 50 km horizontal resolution to simulate mosquito survival variables including temperature, precipitation and relative humidity, we present both global and regional projections of the habitat suitability up to the middle of the 21st century. The model resolution of 50 km allows evaluation against previous projections for Europe and provides a basis for comparative analyses with other regions. Model uncertainties and performance are addressed in light of the recent CMIP5 ensemble climate model simulations for the RCP8.5 concentration pathway and using meteorological re-analysis data (ERA-Interim/ECMWF) for the recent past. Uncertainty ranges associated with the thresholds of meteorological variables that may affect the distribution of Ae. albopictus are diagnosed using fuzzy-logic methodology, notably to assess the influence of selected meteorological criteria and combinations of criteria that influence mosquito habitat suitability. From the climate projections for 2050, and adopting a habitat suitability index larger than 70%, we estimate that about 2.4 billion individuals in a land area of nearly 20 million square kilometres will potentially be exposed to Ae. albopictus. The synthesis of fuzzy-logic based on mosquito biology and climate change analysis provides new insights into the regional and global spreading of VBDs to support disease control and policy making.

  15. 石家庄市蚊幼虫孳生情况调查%Investigation of breeding situation of mosquito larvae in urban area of Shijiazhuang, China

    赵志清; 翟士勇; 侯雨丰

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查石家庄市区蚊幼虫孳生情况,为蚊虫防制提供科学依据.方法 于2011年7-8月对小型积水和容器积水采用直接观察法,大中型水体采用目测法结合捞勺法调查孳生情况;同时采集阳性积水或水体中的蚊幼虫带回实验室鉴定.结果 大中型水体广场喷泉池、公园景观水域(人工湖)、民心河(环城人工河),平均阳性率为10.94%;各类小型积水和容器积水1120处,蚊幼虫孳生阳性221处,阳性率在6.35%~38.46%之间,平均阳性率为19.73%.蚊幼虫孳生优势种群为白纹伊蚊和淡色库蚊,其中白纹伊蚊占42.74%,淡色库蚊占35.55%.结论 石家庄市不同水体蚊虫孳生各具特点,为蚊虫防制和治理策略制定提供了依据.%Objective To investigate the breeding situation of mosquito larvae in the urban area of Shijiazhuang,China and to provide scientific evidence for mosquito control.Methods Direct observation was used to investigate the breeding of mosquitoes in small collected waters and container waters,and visual observation combined with scoop sampling were used to investigate the breeding of mosquitoes in large and medium-sized water bodies.Water containing mosquito larvae or mosquito larvae in water were collected and taken back to the laboratory to be classified.Results The mean positive rate was 10.94% in the large and medium-sized water bodies,such as square fountains,park landscape waters (artificial lake),and Minxin River,while 221 positive sites were found in 1120 small collected waters and container waters,with a mean positive rate of 19.73% (6.35%-38.46%).The dominant species were Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens,accounting for 42.74% and 35.55%,respectively.Conclusion Mosquito control strategy should be varied with the different chacateristics of various breeding places.

  16. Effects of breeding versus winter habitat loss and fragmentation on the population dynamics of a migratory songbird.

    Taylor, Caz M; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2016-03-01

    Many migratory species are in decline and understanding these declines is challenging because individuals occupy widely divergent and geographically distant habitats during a single year and therefore populations across the range are interconnected in complex ways. Network modeling has been used to show, theoretically, that shifts in migratory connectivity patterns can occur in response to habitat or climate changes and that habitat loss in one region can affect sub-populations in regions that are not directly connected. Here, we use a network model, parameterized by integrating long-term monitoring data with direct tracking of -100 individuals, to explain population trends in the rapidly declining Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and to predict future trends. Our model suggests that species-level declines in Wood Thrush are driven primarily by tropical deforestation in Central America but that protection of breeding habitat in some regions is necessary to prevent shifts in migratory connectivity and to sustain populations in all breeding regions. The model illustrates how shifts in migratory connectivity may lead to unexpected population declines in key regions. We highlight current knowledge gaps that make modeling full life-cycle population demographics in migratory species challenging but also demonstrate that modeling can inform conservation while these gaps are being filled. PMID:27209785

  17. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  18. Effect of habitat type and nest-site characteristics on the breeding performance of Great and Blue Tits (Parus major and P. caeruleus) in a Mediterranean landscape

    Sanz, Juan José; García-Navas, Vicente; Ruiz-Peinado, Juan V.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to coniferous forests, deciduous woodlands have often been considered a more suitable habitat for Blue and Great Tits. We compared reproductive parameters of both species in oak woodland and pine plantation patches within a Mediterranean landscape. We found no inter-habitat differences in breeding traits of Blue Tits, but clutches of Great Tits were larger and were laid earlier in the oak woodland than in the pine plantations. However, the breeding success of Great Tit...

  19. The Importance of Maintaining Upland Forest Habitat Surrounding Salamander Breeding Ponds: Case Study of the Eastern Tiger Salamander in New York, USA

    Valorie Titus; Dale Madison; Timothy Green

    2014-01-01

    Most amphibians use both wetland and upland habitats, but the extent of their movement in forested habitats is poorly known. We used radiotelemetry to observe the movements of adult and juvenile eastern tiger salamanders over a 4-year period. Females tended to move farther from the breeding ponds into upland forested habitat than males, while the distance a juvenile moved appeared to be related to body size, with the largest individuals moving as far as the adult females. Individuals chose re...

  20. Aquatic insects of New York salt marsh associated with mosquito larval habitat and their potential utility as bioindicators.

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonomic survey of salt marsh aquatic insects on Long Island, New York, USA and to evaluate their utility for non-target pesticide impacts and environmental biomonitoring. A total of 18 species from 11 families and five orders were collected repeatedly during the five month study period. Diptera was the most diverse order with nine species from four families, followed by Coleoptera with four species from two families, Heteroptera with three species from three families, then Odonata and the hexapod Collembola with one species each. Water boatmen, Trichocorixa verticalis Fieber (Heteroptera: Corixidae) and a shore fly, Ephydra subopaca Loew (Diptera: Ephydridae), were the two most commonly encountered species. An additional six species; Anurida maritima Guérin-Méneville (Collembola: Neanuridae), Mesovelia mulsanti White (Heteroptera: Mesovelidae), Enochrus hamiltoni Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Tropisternus quadristriatus Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Dasyhelea pseudocincta Waugh and Wirth (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and Brachydeutera argentata Walker (Diptera: Ephydridae), were found regularly. Together with the less common Erythrodiplax berenice Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae), these nine species were identified as the most suitable candidates for pesticide and environmental impact monitoring due to abundance, position in the food chain, and extended seasonal occurrence. This study represents a first step towards developing an insect-based index of biological integrity for

  1. Rainforest birds: A land manager's guide to breeding bird habitat in young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest

    Altman, Bob; Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This document (hereafter Guide) has been prepared to assist land managers interested in conducting conservation and management activities to benefit breeding birds associated with young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest. Audiences targeted for use of the Guide include land trusts, watershed councils, non-commercial private land owners, forest products companies, land-managing conservation organizations, government agencies, tribes, and First Nations. We hope the Guide will be a useful and valuable tool to support any of the variety of reasons to manage for bird habitat in young conifer forests (for example, regulatory, biodiversity, bird conservation, and forest certification standards).

  2. Breeding Behaviour of Eurasian Marsh Harriers (Circus aeruginosus L., 1758; Aves, Accipitridae Nesting on Three Habitats in Eastern Poland

    Ignacy Kitowski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding behaviour of Eurasian marsh harriers Circus aeruginosus pairs nesting in marshes, water reservoir and fish pond of SE Poland were compared. Harriers nesting on the marshes were most efficient during aerial prey transfers, which could suggest that the habitat was taken by experienced, better quality birds when set against the ones occupying nests on the ponds and reservoir. Additional evidence that higher quality birds nested on marshes is that egg laying was earlier there. Marsh Harriers performed U-shape undulation, in the nestling period and these appeared more intense for marsh nesters as well.

  3. Integrating Shrubland and Grassland breeding bird habitat management at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2005

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a series of reports and emails that attempt to answer the question “Is it possible to integrate grassland breeding bird and shrub land bird management in...

  4. - Vigilancia y control en criaderos temporales y permanentes de culícidos en Villa Clara (Vigilance and control in temporal and permanent breeding ground of mosquitoes in Villa Clara

    Janhad L. Rodríguez Mendieta

    2006-07-01

    developed in the Provincial Unit of Vigilance and Vectors Against fight in Villa Clara province, between the first July to first November 2005. For the same was graphically represented the 304 permanent and 218 temporal breeding ground of mosquitoes; distributed in the 13 municipalities of this province. Were taken shows of water body (28 breeding ground existence in the 13 municipalities of the province that to detect the Density of Larva according the methodology of ladle. Were determined the species main of mosquitoes that habitat in the province and were compared two methods (Temephos 2% and fish of control for this vectors, determining the cost – risk of Temephos 2%, the Bacillus thurigiensis and fish as mosquitoes control thorough a consideration. Were primary dates process in the computerized system Excel of packet Office XP and that statistic process of effectively of each treatment was use the test of proportions comparison of packet Statgraphics plus 4.1, both systems sustained in WindowsÒ. The results showing that the mosquitoes species more disseminated in the province are: Anopheles albimanus, Aedes mediovitatus, Aedes scapularis, Aedes confinis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex nigripalpus and Culex corniger; besides, the results demonstrating the superiority of control with fish on the Temephos control, already that is more efficient (99% versus 87% that p < 0.01 in the mosquitoes control. The fish control (no spending in CUC and $ 1 035.08 MN is more economic than Temephos (847 500 CUC and $ 12 490.96 MN and than Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc and $ 8 280.64 MN. Was conclude that the fish constitute a control effective that the mosquitoes people, recommended the use of fish for all benefice that this represent.

  5. Climate change, breeding date and nestling diet: how temperature differentially affects seasonal changes in pied flycatcher diet depending on habitat variation.

    Burger, Claudia; Belskii, Eugen; Eeva, Tapio; Laaksonen, Toni; Mägi, Marko; Mänd, Raivo; Qvarnström, Anna; Slagsvold, Tore; Veen, Thor; Visser, Marcel E; Wiebe, Karen L; Wiley, Chris; Wright, Jonathan; Both, Christiaan

    2012-07-01

    1. Climate warming has led to shifts in the seasonal timing of species. These shifts can differ across trophic levels, and as a result, predator phenology can get out of synchrony with prey phenology. This can have major consequences for predators such as population declines owing to low reproductive success. However, such trophic interactions are likely to differ between habitats, resulting in differential susceptibility of populations to increases in spring temperatures. A mismatch between breeding phenology and food abundance might be mitigated by dietary changes, but few studies have investigated this phenomenon. Here, we present data on nestling diets of nine different populations of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca, across their breeding range. This species has been shown to adjust its breeding phenology to local climate change, but sometimes insufficiently relative to the phenology of their presumed major prey: Lepidoptera larvae. In spring, such larvae have a pronounced peak in oak habitats, but to a much lesser extent in coniferous and other deciduous habitats. 2. We found strong seasonal declines in the proportions of caterpillars in the diet only for oak habitats, and not for the other forest types. The seasonal decline in oak habitats was most strongly observed in warmer years, indicating that potential mismatches were stronger in warmer years. However, in coniferous and other habitats, no such effect of spring temperature was found. 3. Chicks reached somewhat higher weights in broods provided with higher proportions of caterpillars, supporting the notion that caterpillars are an important food source and that the temporal match with the caterpillar peak may represent an important component of reproductive success. 4. We suggest that pied flycatchers breeding in oak habitats have greater need to adjust timing of breeding to rising spring temperatures, because of the strong seasonality in their food. Such between-habitat differences can have

  6. Unravelling the annual cycle in a migratory animal: breeding-season habitat loss drives population declines of monarch butterflies.

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Norris, D Ryan; Martin, Tara G

    2015-01-01

    Threats to migratory animals can occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. Populations of the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America have declined over the last 21 years. Three hypotheses have been posed to explain the decline: habitat loss on the overwintering grounds in Mexico, habitat loss on the breeding grounds in the United States and Canada, and extreme weather events. Our objectives were to assess population viability, determine which life stage, season and geographical region are contributing the most to population dynamics and test the three hypotheses that explain the observed population decline. We developed a spatially structured, stochastic and density-dependent periodic projection matrix model that integrates patterns of migratory connectivity and demographic vital rates across the annual cycle. We used perturbation analysis to determine the sensitivity of population abundance to changes in vital rate among life stages, seasons and geographical regions. Next, we compared the singular effects of each threat to the full model where all factors operate concurrently. Finally, we generated predictions to assess the risk of host plant loss as a result of genetically modified crops on current and future monarch butterfly population size and extinction probability. Our year-round population model predicted population declines of 14% and a quasi-extinction probability (5% within a century. Monarch abundance was more than four times more sensitive to perturbations of vital rates on the breeding grounds than on the wintering grounds. Simulations that considered only forest loss or climate change in Mexico predicted higher population sizes compared to milkweed declines on the breeding grounds. Our model predictions also suggest that mitigating the negative effects of genetically modified crops results in higher population size and lower extinction

  7. Species Composition and Relative Abundance of Mosquitoes in Swat, Pakistan

    Ikram Ilahi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae was conducted in Swat Pakistan, from April to September during 2000. The survey involved the sampling of both, adult and immature stages of mosquitoes, and recovered a total of 21 species in five genera. Sampling of adult mosquitoes involved Pyrethrum spray collections, Man-biting collections, and Animal-biting collection. Immature stages of mosquitoes were collected from variety of habitats including springs, irrigation channels, rice fields, marshes, temporary pools, construction pools, agriculture pools, river margins, ditches, waste water drains, wells and tree holes. During the study most of the species built up their populations in June, July and August, while a few increased their populations in September. During the survey of immature stages, from a total of 138 samples taken, Cx. quinquefasciatus showed maximum frequency of occurrence (recovered from 48 samples followed by An. maculatus (17 samples, Cx. pseudovishnui (14 samples, An. annularis and An. stephensi (13 samples each, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus (11 samples, An. splendidus (5 samples and Cx. theileri (4 samples. The rest of the species occurred infrequently. The observations on habitat specificity of different species of mosquitoes showed the rice fields as the most favorable site for mosquito breeding (harboring 12 species followed by river margins (five species and temporary pools and springs (four species each. During this study Ae. aegypti was recovered from tyres in Mingora; it was not reported earlier from Swat.

  8. Web mapping GIS: GPS under the GIS umbrella for Aedes species dengue and chikungunya vector mosquito surveillance and control

    M. Palaniyandi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito nuisance and the mosquito borne diseases have become major important challenging public health problems in India especially in the fast developing city like Pondicherry urban agglomeration. The Pondicherry government has been implemented full-fledged mosquito control measures, however, dengue and chikungunya epidemics was accelerating trend in Pondicherry for the recent years, and therefore, the directorate of public health, Pondicherry was requested vector control research centre (VCRC, to conduct a mosquito control evaluation survey. A team of field staff of VCRC headed by the author, Pondicherry, have conducted a detailed reconnaissance survey for collecting the site specifications of houses and the streetwise mosquito data for analyzing the density of vector mosquitoes in the wards / blocks and delineating the areas vulnerable to disease epidemics in the urban areas. The GPS GARMIN 12 XL was used to collect the field data. The ARC GIS 10.0 software was used to map the site locations (houses with mosquito’s data. The digital map of block boundary of Pondicherry was used for mapping purpose. A systematic grid sampling was applied to conduct a rapid survey for mapping Aedes species mosquito genic condition in the urban areas and the coordinates of sites of house information with breeding habitats positive in the grid sectors was collected using GPS, and the mean value of positive habitats was analyzed by quintiles method for mapping. The four blocks were selected for Aedes mosquito survey where the mosquito problem was identified as comparatively high, four numbers of wards were selected from each block, and the 40 number of houses was selected with 100 meter interval distance for mosquito breeding survey in the domestic and peripheral domestic areas in each wards. The problematic areas were identified, highlighted and recommended for web mapping GIS for Aedes mosquito surveillance continuously for monitoring the mosquito control

  9. Effects of breeding habitat (woodland versus urban) and metal pollution on the egg characteristics of great tits (Parus major).

    Hargitai, Rita; Nagy, Gergely; Nyiri, Zoltán; Bervoets, Lieven; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2016-02-15

    In an urban environment, birds are exposed to metals, which may accumulate in their tissues and cause oxidative stress. Female birds may eliminate these pollutants through depositing them into eggs, thus eggs become suitable bioindicators of pollution. In this study, we aimed to analyse whether eggshell spotting pattern, egg volume, eggshell thickness and egg yolk antioxidant (lutein, tocopherol, retinol and selenium) levels were related to the breeding area (woodland versus urban) and the metal levels in the eggshell of a small passerine species, the great tit (Parus major). In the urban habitat, soil and eggshells contained higher concentrations of metals, and soil calcium level was also higher than that in the woodland. Eggshell spotting intensity and egg volume did not differ between eggs laid in the woodland and the urban park, and these traits were not related to the metal levels of the eggshell, suggesting that these egg characteristics are not sensitive indicators of metal pollution. A more aggregated eggshell spotting distribution indicated a higher Cu concentration of the eggshell. We found that eggshells were thinner in the less polluted woodland habitat, which is likely due to the limited Ca availability of the woodland area. Great tit eggs laid in the urban environment had lower yolk lutein, retinol and selenium concentrations, however, as a possible compensation for these lower antioxidant levels, urban females deposited more tocopherol into the egg yolk. It appears that females from different breeding habitats may provide similar antioxidant protection for their offspring against oxidative damage by depositing different specific dietary antioxidants. Egg yolk lutein and retinol levels showed a negative relationship with lead concentration of the eggshell, which may suggest that lead had a negative impact on the amount of antioxidants available for embryos during development in great tits. PMID:26657247

  10. Breeding loggerhead marine turtles Caretta caretta in Dry Tortugas National Park, USA, show high fidelity to diverse habitats near nesting beaches

    Hart, Kristen M.; Zawada, David G.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Fujisaki, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to identify in-water habitat used by individuals in the smallest North-west Atlantic subpopulation of adult nesting loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta during the breeding season. During 2010, 2011 and 2012 breeding periods, a total of 20 adult females used habitats proximal to nesting beaches with various levels of protection within Dry Tortugas National Park. We then used a rapid, high-resolution, digital imaging system to map habitat adjacent to nesting beaches, revealing the diversity and distribution of available benthic cover. Turtle behaviour showing measurable site-fidelity to these diverse habitats has implications for managing protected areas and human activities within them. Protecting diverse benthic areas adjacent to loggerhead turtle nesting beaches here and elsewhere could provide benefits for overall biodiversity conservation.

  11. Habitat traits and species interactions differentially affect abundance and body size in pond-breeding amphibians.

    Ousterhout, Brittany H; Anderson, Thomas L; Drake, Dana L; Peterman, William E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2015-07-01

    In recent studies, habitat traits have emerged as stronger predictors of species occupancy, abundance, richness and diversity than competition. However, in many cases, it remains unclear whether habitat also mediates processes more subtle than competitive exclusion, such as growth, or whether intra- and interspecific interactions among individuals of different species may be better predictors of size. To test whether habitat traits are a stronger predictor of abundance and body size than intra- and interspecific interactions, we measured the density and body size of three species of larval salamanders in 192 ponds across a landscape. We found that the density of larvae was best predicted by models that included habitat features, while models incorporating interactions among individuals of different species best explained the body size of larvae. Additionally, we found a positive relationship between focal species density and congener density, while focal species body size was negatively related to congener density. We posit that salamander larvae may not experience competitive exclusion and thus reduced densities, but instead compensate for increased competition behaviourally (e.g. reduced foraging), resulting in decreased growth. The discrepancy between larval density and body size, a strong predictor of fitness in this system, also highlights a potential shortcoming in using density or abundance as a metric of habitat quality or population health. PMID:25643605

  12. Invasive parasites, habitat change and heavy rainfall reduce breeding success in Darwin's finches.

    Cimadom, Arno; Ulloa, Angel; Meidl, Patrick; Zöttl, Markus; Zöttl, Elisabet; Fessl, Birgit; Nemeth, Erwin; Dvorak, Michael; Cunninghame, Francesca; Tebbich, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Invasive alien parasites and pathogens are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide, which can contribute to the extinction of endemic species. On the Galápagos Islands, the invasive parasitic fly Philornis downsi poses a major threat to the endemic avifauna. Here, we investigated the influence of this parasite on the breeding success of two Darwin's finch species, the warbler finch (Certhidea olivacea) and the sympatric small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus), on Santa Cruz Island in 2010 and 2012. While the population of the small tree finch appeared to be stable, the warbler finch has experienced a dramatic decline in population size on Santa Cruz Island since 1997. We aimed to identify whether warbler finches are particularly vulnerable during different stages of the breeding cycle. Contrary to our prediction, breeding success was lower in the small tree finch than in the warbler finch. In both species P. downsi had a strong negative impact on breeding success and our data suggest that heavy rain events also lowered the fledging success. On the one hand parents might be less efficient in compensating their chicks' energy loss due to parasitism as they might be less efficient in foraging on days of heavy rain. On the other hand, intense rainfalls might lead to increased humidity and more rapid cooling of the nests. In the case of the warbler finch we found that the control of invasive plant species with herbicides had a significant additive negative impact on the breeding success. It is very likely that the availability of insects (i.e. food abundance)is lower in such controlled areas, as herbicide usage led to the removal of the entire understory. Predation seems to be a minor factor in brood loss. PMID:25248092

  13. PREDICTING HABITAT SUITABILITY FOR TWO BREEDS OF CATTLE (ENGLISH AND SPANISH) IN NORTHEASTERN OREGON PRAIRIE ECOSYSTEMS

    Eastern Oregon cattle distribution was studied with global positioning (GPS) collars for 2 years on the Zumwalt prairie in the spring and fall and Hells Canyon during the winter to determine distribution and habitat selection differences between Spanish bred (Corriente X Longhorn) and English bred c...

  14. Invasive Parasites, Habitat Change and Heavy Rainfall Reduce Breeding Success in Darwin's Finches

    Cimadom, Arno; Ulloa, Angel; Meidl, Patrick; Zöttl, Markus; Zöttl, Elisabet; Fessl, Birgit; Nemeth, Erwin; Dvorak, Michael; Cunninghame, Francesca; Tebbich, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Invasive alien parasites and pathogens are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide, which can contribute to the extinction of endemic species. On the Galápagos Islands, the invasive parasitic fly Philornis downsi poses a major threat to the endemic avifauna. Here, we investigated the influence of this parasite on the breeding success of two Darwin's finch species, the warbler finch (Certhidea olivacea) and the sympatric small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus), on Santa Cruz Island in 2010...

  15. Climate Impacts on Sea Turtle Breeding Phenology in Greece and Associated Foraging Habitats in the Wider Mediterranean Region

    Morreale, Stephen J.; Saba, Vincent S.; Panagopoulou, Aliki; Margaritoulis, Dimitris; Spotila, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtles are vulnerable to climate change impacts in both their terrestrial (nesting beach) and oceanic habitats. From 1982 to 2012, air and sea surface temperatures at major high use foraging and nesting regions (n = 5) of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) nesting in Greece have steadily increased. Here, we update the established relationships between sea surface temperature and nesting data from Zakynthos (latitude: 37.7°N), a major nesting beach, while also expanding these analyses to include precipitation and air temperature and additional nesting data from two other key beaches in Greece: Kyparissia Bay (latitude: 37.3°N) and Rethymno, Crete (latitude: 35.4°N). We confirmed that nesting phenology at Zakynthos has continued to be impacted by breeding season temperature; however, temperature has no consistent relationship with nest numbers, which are declining on Zakynthos and Crete but increasing at Kyparissia. Then using statistically downscaled outputs of 14 climate models assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), we projected future shifts in nesting for these populations. Based on the climate models, we projected that temperature at the key foraging and breeding sites (Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Crete, Gulf of Gabès and Zakynthos/Kyparissia Bay; overall latitudinal range: 33.0°—45.8°N) for loggerhead turtles nesting in Greece will rise by 3–5°C by 2100. Our calculations indicate that the projected rise in air and ocean temperature at Zakynthos could cause the nesting season in this major rookery to shift to an earlier date by as much as 50–74 days by 2100. Although an earlier onset of the nesting season may provide minor relief for nest success as temperatures rise, the overall climatic changes to the various important habitats will most likely have an overall negative impact on this population. PMID:27332550

  16. Human residential status and habitat quality affect the likelihood but not the success of lapwing breeding in an urban matrix.

    Roche, Dylan V; Cardilini, Adam P A; Lees, Daniel; Maguire, Grainne S; Dann, Peter; Sherman, Craig D H; Weston, Michael A

    2016-06-15

    Wildlife living in the suburbs faces the challenge of dealing with human presence and yard management (including the occurrence of pets) which vary at the scale of the house block. This study examined the influence of ecological factors (e.g. extent of grass and food availability) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. human activity and garden usage) on breeding site choice and reproductive success of the ground-nesting masked lapwing Vanellus miles on Phillip Island, Australia. Lapwings nested less frequently in residential properties (high levels of human usage) compared with vacant blocks and holiday houses. They were also more likely to breed on properties with high food availability and larger areas of grass. None of these variables influenced clutch size or the probability of eggs hatching, although larger clutches and higher hatching rates tended to be associated with more food. This study shows that, for an urban exploiting species, habitat quality is not homogenous at the scale of the house block, and that human activity is avoided by a species generally considered highly tolerant of people. PMID:26971220

  17. A Sequence of Flushing and Drying of Breeding Habitats of Aedes aegypti (L.) Prior to the Low Dengue Season in Singapore

    Seidahmed, Osama M. E.; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2016-01-01

    In dengue-endemic areas, transmission shows both a seasonal and interannual variability. To investigate how rainfall impacts dengue seasonality in Singapore, we carried out a longitudinal survey in the Geylang neighborhood from August 2014 to August 2015. The survey comprised of twice-weekly random inspections to outdoor breeding habitats and continuous monitoring for positive ones. In addition, observations of rainstorms were collected. Out of 6824 inspected habitats, 67 contained Aedes aegypti, 11 contained Aedes albopictus and 24 contained Culex spp. The main outdoors habitat of Aedes aegypti was storm drains (54/67). We found that 80% of breeding sites in drains (43/54) were lost after intense rainstorms related to the wet phase of the Northeast monsoon (NE) between November 2014 and early January 2015. Subsequently, 95% (41/43) of these flushed drains had dried out during the dry phase of the NE in late January-February 2015. A return in the outdoor breeding of Aedes aegypti was observed after the onset of Southwest monsoon (SW) between May and August 2015. There was also a reduction in productivity of breeding habitats for larvae and pupae after the onset of the NE. In wet equatorial regions like Singapore, rainfall varies with the monsoons. A monsoon-driven sequence of flushing and drying shapes the outdoor seasonal abundance of Aedes aegypti. This finding can be used to optimize vector control strategies and better understand dengue in the context of climate change. PMID:27459322

  18. A Sequence of Flushing and Drying of Breeding Habitats of Aedes aegypti (L.) Prior to the Low Dengue Season in Singapore.

    Seidahmed, Osama M E; Eltahir, Elfatih A B

    2016-07-01

    In dengue-endemic areas, transmission shows both a seasonal and interannual variability. To investigate how rainfall impacts dengue seasonality in Singapore, we carried out a longitudinal survey in the Geylang neighborhood from August 2014 to August 2015. The survey comprised of twice-weekly random inspections to outdoor breeding habitats and continuous monitoring for positive ones. In addition, observations of rainstorms were collected. Out of 6824 inspected habitats, 67 contained Aedes aegypti, 11 contained Aedes albopictus and 24 contained Culex spp. The main outdoors habitat of Aedes aegypti was storm drains (54/67). We found that 80% of breeding sites in drains (43/54) were lost after intense rainstorms related to the wet phase of the Northeast monsoon (NE) between November 2014 and early January 2015. Subsequently, 95% (41/43) of these flushed drains had dried out during the dry phase of the NE in late January-February 2015. A return in the outdoor breeding of Aedes aegypti was observed after the onset of Southwest monsoon (SW) between May and August 2015. There was also a reduction in productivity of breeding habitats for larvae and pupae after the onset of the NE. In wet equatorial regions like Singapore, rainfall varies with the monsoons. A monsoon-driven sequence of flushing and drying shapes the outdoor seasonal abundance of Aedes aegypti. This finding can be used to optimize vector control strategies and better understand dengue in the context of climate change. PMID:27459322

  19. Breeding habitat selection of an endangered species in an arid zone: the case of Alytes dickhilleni Arntzen & García-París, 1995

    Andrés Egea-Serrano

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental variables on the selection of a particular water body as breeding habitat by Alytes dickhilleni was studied in the southeastern and most arid zone of its distribution range. From November 2002 to October 2003, 50 water bodies were monitored in the south east of the Iberian Peninsula. Environmental data were submitted to a stepwise logistic regression analysis at macrohabitat, water body typology and microhabitat scales in order to establish the main factors influencing the use of a given water body as breeding habitat by this species. Statistical analysis showed that the reproduction of Alytes dickhilleni is associated with the macrohabitat variable topography, and the water body typology. This species breeds mainly in permanent water bodies located in mountainous topography in the study area. These results should be taken into account when populations of this species are subjected to management and/or recovery programmes in arid areas.

  20. [The systems organization of the breeding behavior of the moose in its natural habitat].

    Bogomolova, E M; Kurochkin, Iu A

    1995-01-01

    The complex organisation of moose sexual interrelations in natural environment is analysed from the systems point of view. To achieve the useful result--the well-timed fertilization of the all matured females on the given territory by the most strongest males--every year in autumn the multiorganismic system of interaction is formed, including the correspondent behavioural activities of local receptive females and males of different strength and different age. This system includes the sub-system of "rang establishment" between the males (detecting the strongest males), which works mainly at the beginning of rut, and the sub-system of mating. The features of species-specific behaviour are described, which assist to animals mutual detection in the forest, as well as their specific communication during the rut. The special attention is devoted to the role of olfactory and acoustic signals. The details of the forming, existing and disintegration of stable breeding couples are discussed and the breeding ritual itself is described, which ensures the achievement of the synchronisation of high sexual excitation in male and female. By means of long distance bioradiotelemetry the dynamics of heart and breathing rate were investigated as the indicators of animals emotional states on the different stages of their sexual behaviour. PMID:8525679

  1. Assessing habitat use by breeding great blue herons (Ardea herodias) on the upper Mississippi River, USA

    Kirsch, E.M.; Ickes, B.; Olsen, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 7,610 to 3,175 pairs of Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) nested along 420 river km of the Uppert Mississippi River (UMR) from 1993 to 2003. Numbers declined precipitously in the mid-1990s stabilizing somewhat in the early 2000s. The average number of nests in colonies was 349 (SD = 283). Annual colony turn over rate for the eleven year period was 0.15 and ranged from 0.06 to 0.29 each year. The number of years that a colony was active was positively correlated with the average number of nests present while the colony was active. Of the eight colonies active in 1993 that averaged more than 349 nests, four were abandoned by 2003. Only one colony grew to greater than 349 nests during the study period. Custer et al. (2004) suggested that herons on the UMR may be limited by forage resources or foraging habitat and social factors, as evidenced by the even spacing of colonies that reflects the maximum feeding range of herons on the river. To rule out nesting and foraging habitat limitation, landscape habitat features of terrestrial and aquatic areas were examined for colony areas and areas without colonies. Available fish monitoring data were used to examine potential interactions between herons and forage resources. Colony areas did not differ from areas without colonies in any habitat feature. Indices of potential heron forage fish increased from 1993 to 2002, although low indices of fish abundance in 1993 were likely influenced by flood conditions that year. Although fish availability to herons is related to flows and water levels, available data suggested that herons did not negatively impact their potential forage base. Numbers of herons were not correlated with indices of fish abundance from the preceding year on a pool-wide scale. Indices of fish abundance were higher within 5 km of colonies than farther than 5 km from colonies, and indices of fish abundance increased from June through August both near and far from colonies. Numbers of herons and

  2. Fusion of High Resolution Aerial Multispectral and LiDAR Data: Land Cover in the Context of Urban Mosquito Habitat

    Willem J. D. van Leeuwen; Hartfield, Kyle A.; Landau, Katheryn I.

    2011-01-01

    Remotely sensed multi-spectral and -spatial data facilitates the study of mosquito-borne disease vectors and their response to land use and cover composition in the urban environment. In this study we assess the feasibility of integrating remotely sensed multispectral reflectance data and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-derived height information to improve land use and land cover classification. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analyses were used to compare and contrast the enha...

  3. The Importance of Maintaining Upland Forest Habitat Surrounding Salamander Breeding Ponds: Case Study of the Eastern Tiger Salamander in New York, USA

    Valorie Titus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most amphibians use both wetland and upland habitats, but the extent of their movement in forested habitats is poorly known. We used radiotelemetry to observe the movements of adult and juvenile eastern tiger salamanders over a 4-year period. Females tended to move farther from the breeding ponds into upland forested habitat than males, while the distance a juvenile moved appeared to be related to body size, with the largest individuals moving as far as the adult females. Individuals chose refugia in native pitch pine—oak forested habitat and avoided open fields, roads, and developed areas. We also observed a difference in potential predation pressures in relation to the distance an individual moved from the edge of the pond. Our results support delineating forested wetland buffer zones on a case-by-case basis to reduce the impacts of concentrated predation, to increase and protect the availability of pitch pine—oak forests near the breeding pond, and to focus primarily on the habitat needs of the adult females and larger juveniles, which in turn will encompass habitat needs of adult males and smaller juveniles.

  4. Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae, a predator of container breeding mosquitoes

    D Dominic Amalraj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

  5. Anopheline (Diptera:Culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central Sri Lanka

    Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T;

    1997-01-01

    A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank....... A clear progression in breeding habitat use from stream bed to tank bed and drainage area pools was seen in An. culicifacies during the premonsoon period. Environmental management measures to reduce or modify these habitats could potentially decrease malaria. transmission....

  6. Laboratory evaluation of Mesocyclops annulatus (Wierzejski, 1892 (Copepoda: Cyclopidea as a predator of container-breeding mosquitoes in Argentina

    María V Micieli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In laboratory bioassays we tested the predatory capacity of the copepod Mesocyclops annulatus on Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens larvae. A single adult female of M. annulatus caused 51.6% and 52.3% mortality of 50 first instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively, in a 72 h test period. When alternative food was added to the containers, mortality rates declined to 16% and 10.3% for Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively. When 50 first instar larvae of each of the two mosquito species tested were placed together with a single adult female of M. annulatus, mortality rates were 75.5% for Ae. aegypti larvae and 23.5% for Cx. pipiens larvae in a three day test period. Different density of adult females of M. annulatus ranged from 5 to 25 females produced mortality rates of Ae. aegypti first instar larvae from 50% to 100% respectively. When a single adult female of M. annulatus was exposed to an increasing number of first-instar Ae. aegypti larvae ranging from 10 to 100, 100% mortality was recorded from 1 to 25 larvae, then mortality declined to 30% with 100 larvae. The average larvae killed per 24 h period by a single copepod were 29.

  7. Between a rock and a hard place: habitat selection in female-calf humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae Pairs on the Hawaiian breeding grounds.

    Rachel Cartwright

    Full Text Available The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-tourism and whale watching industry. Our aim was to establish current trends in habitat preference in female-calf humpback whale pairs within this region, focusing specifically on the busy, eastern portions of the channel. We used an equally-spaced zigzag transect survey design, compiled our results in a GIS model to identify spatial trends and calculated Neu's Indices to quantify levels of habitat use. Our study revealed that while mysticete female-calf pairs on breeding grounds typically favor shallow, inshore waters, female-calf pairs in the Au'au Channel avoided shallow waters (<20 m and regions within 2 km of the shoreline. Preferred regions for female-calf pairs comprised water depths between 40-60 m, regions of rugged bottom topography and regions that lay between 4 and 6 km from a small boat harbor (Lahaina Harbor that fell within the study area. In contrast to other humpback whale breeding grounds, there was only minimal evidence of typical patterns of stratification or segregation according to group composition. A review of habitat use by maternal females across Hawaiian waters indicates that maternal habitat choice varies between localities within the Hawaiian Islands, suggesting that maternal females alter their use of habitat according to locally varying pressures. This ability to respond to varying environments may be the key that allows wildlife species to persist in regions where human activity and critical habitat overlap.

  8. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Márcio Goulart Mocellin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07% and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18% were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  9. Analysis of humpback whale sounds in shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea: An indication of breeding habitat

    Madan M Mahanty; Latha G; Thirunavukkarasu A

    2015-06-01

    The primary objective of this work was to present the acoustical identification of humpback whales, detected by using an autonomous ambient noise measurement system, deployed in the shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the period January to May 2011. Seven types of sounds were detected. These were characteristically upsweeps and downsweeps along with harmonics. Sounds produced repeatedly in a specific pattern were referred to as phrases (PQRS and ABC). Repeated phrases in a particular pattern were referred to as themes, and from the spectrographic analysis, two themes (I and II) were identified. The variation in the acoustic characteristics such as fundamental frequency, range, duration of the sound unit, and the structure of the phrases and themes are discussed. Sound units were recorded from mid-January to mid-March, with a peak in February, when the mean SST is ∼ 28°C, and no presence was recorded after mid-March. The temporal and thematic structures strongly determine the functions of the humpback whale song form. Given the use of song in the SEAS, this area is possibly used as an active breeding habitat by humpback whales during the winter season.

  10. A behavioral mechanism underlying ecological divergence in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Bouyer, Jérémy; Morand, Serge; Besansky, Nora J.; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Simard, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive selection mediated by predation on aquatic immature stages has been proposed as a major force driving ecological divergence and fostering speciation between the M and S molecular forms of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. In the dry savannahs of West Africa where both molecular forms co-occur, the S form thrives in temporary pools filled with rainwater, whereas the M form preferentially breeds in permanent freshwater habitats where predator pressure is higher. Here, ...

  11. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Holyoak, Marcel; Meese, Robert J; Graves, Emily E

    2014-01-01

    In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent investigation. The method we

  12. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Marcel Holyoak

    Full Text Available In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent

  13. Finding Aedes aegypti in a natural breeding site in an urban zone, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the description of how nine Aedes aegypti larvae were found in a natural breeding site in the Pinheiros neighborhood, city of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The record was conducted in December 2014, during an entomological surveillance program of dengue virus vectors, with an active search of potential breeding sites, either artificial or natural. Finding Ae. aegypti larvae in a tree hole shows this species’ ability to use both artificial and natural environments as breeding sites and habitats, which points towards the importance of maintaining continuous surveillance on this mosquito in all kinds of water-holding containers. PMID:26982959

  14. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs. PMID:26517655

  15. Eco-virological survey of Aedes mosquito larvae in selected dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia

    A. Rohani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectivesi: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus in the Aedes vectors is now a well-documented phenomenon reported from many parts of the endemic areas in the world, which played an important role in initiating and maintaining the outbreak in human populations. This study investigated the factors affecting breeding habitats and the relationship with transovarial dengue virus in larvae of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Methods: Larval surveillance was conducted in dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia from 2008 until 2009. Sampling was carried out based on habitat type, water condition (substrate type, canopy coverage, temperature and pH at breeding habitats. RT-PCR was performed to detect presence of transovarial dengue virus in larvae collected in the study areas. Results: A total of 789 breeding habitats were identified during this study and the majority of these breeding sites were plastic containers (57.46%. Aedes albopictus dominated most of the water condition surveyed, while Ae. aegypti indicated preference toward habitats with clear water. Aedes aegypti was selective in selecting ovipositional sites compared to Ae. albopictus where shaded areas were shown to be the most preferred. From a total of 363 mosquito larvae pools, 23 (6.3% pools were positive for dengue virus where 18 of them were from Ae. albopictus and five were from Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae pools. Interpretation & conclusion: This study indicated the presence of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the field. This study also showed that combination of water conditions, canopy coverage, temperature and pH of breeding habitats were the factors affecting the larval population. The study suggested that larval survey programme could serve as a tool not only to monitor the local dengue vector distribution but also to provide objective information for taking appropriate action by the community against dengue

  16. Using Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen to Mark Wild Populations of Anopheles and Aedes Mosquitoes in South-Eastern Tanzania

    Opiyo, Mercy A.; Hamer, Gabriel L.; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Auckland, Lisa D.; Majambere, Silas; Okumu, Fredros O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Marking wild mosquitoes is important for understanding their ecology, behaviours and role in disease transmission. Traditional insect marking techniques include using fluorescent dyes, protein labels, radioactive labels and tags, but such techniques have various limitations; notably low marker retention and inability to mark wild mosquitoes at source. Stable isotopes are gaining wide spread use for non-invasive marking of arthropods, permitting greater understanding of mosquito dispersal and responses to interventions. We describe here a simple technique for marking naturally-breeding malaria and dengue vectors using stable isotopes of nitrogen (15N) and carbon (13C), and describe potential field applications. Methods We created man-made aquatic mosquito habitats and added either 15N-labelled potassium nitrate or 13C-labelled glucose, leaving non-adulterated habitats as controls. We then allowed wild mosquitoes to lay eggs in these habitats and monitored their development in situ. Pupae were collected promptly as they appeared and kept in netting cages. Emergent adults (in pools of ~4 mosquitoes/pool) and individually stored pupae were desiccated and analysed using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS). Findings Anopheles gambiae s.l and Aedes spp. from enriched 13C and enriched 15N larval habitats had significantly higher isotopic levels than controls (P = 0.005), and both isotopes produced sufficient distinction between marked and unmarked mosquitoes. Mean δ15N for enriched females and males were 275.6±65.1 and 248.0±54.6, while mean δ15N in controls were 2.1±0.1 and 3.9±1.7 respectively. Similarly, mean δ13C for enriched females and males were 36.08±5.28 and 38.5±6.86, compared to -4.3±0.2 and -7.9±3.6 in controls respectively. Mean δ15N and δ13C was significantly higher in any pool containing at least one enriched mosquito compared to pools with all unenriched mosquitoes, P<0.001. In all cases, there were variations in standardized

  17. Fish breeding and habitat

    Ramaiah, N.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.11_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.11_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content...-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  18. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina, Brasil.I - Distribuição por habitat Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra da Bocaina National Park, Brazil. I - Habitat distribution

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer a influência exercida por três diferentes biótopos em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina (PNSB sobre a fauna local de mosquitos. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas capturas mensais em ambiente silvestre e domiciliar, em isca humana, durante três diferentes períodos do dia, pelo período de 24 meses consecutivos, de janeiro de 1991 a dezembro de 1992. RESULTADOS: Foram capturados 11.808 espécimes adultos, pertencentes a 28 espécies. Ru. reversa e An. cruzii foram predominantes, respectivamente 52,5% e 17,9% do total de mosquitos. Ru. reversa representou 59,4% do total de espécimes no ambiente de mata fechada, seguida por Ru. frontosa com 10,5% e An. cruzii com 9,9%. No ambiente formado por campos de altitude e matas de galeria, o An. cruzii predominou com 48,1%, seguido por Ru. reversa com 28,1%. No ambiente modificado pelo homem, o An. cruzii predominou com 73,7% dos espécimes. Coquillettidia chrysonotum foi a única que se apresentou preferencialmente nesse biótopo: 14,9% no intra, 19,4% no peri e 65,7% no extradomicílio. An. cruzii e Ru. reversa foram constantes em todos os ambientes ao longo do ano. CONCLUSÕES: Com exceção de Cq. chrysonotum, com preferência pelo ambiente modificado pelo homem, os mosquitos apresentam hábitos assinantrópicos no PNSB. An. cruzii, embora assinantrópico, se aproxima e adentra o domicílio para realizar a hematofagia. A presença do Ae. serratus no extra e peridomicílio reforça a importância epidemiológica como vetora potencial de arboviroses. Os Sabethini apresentaram-se exclusivamente silvestres.OBJECTIVE: To assess the mosquito fauna in Serra da Bocaina National Park (PNSB, by collecting information through a general survey, and investigating the population behavior in habitats within the park with different vegetation. METHODS: Human bait collections were conducted once a month for both the forest and households, in diurnal and nocturnal periods, three time a day

  19. Habitat use by the Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps (Gruiformes: Otididae in breeding and non-breeding seasons in Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    S.B. Munjpara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps, a threatened and endemic species of the Indian subcontinent, is declining in its natural habitats. The Great Indian Bustard is a bird of open land and was observed using the grasslands habitat (73%, followed by areas covered with Prosopis (11%. In the grasslands, the communities dominated with Cymbopogon martinii were utilized the highest, while those dominated by Aristida adenemsoidis were least utilized. As Cymbopogon martinii is non-palatable, we infer that it does not attract livestock and herdsmen resulting in minimum movement and trampling that favors the Great Indian Bustard.

  20. Leaf-Associated Bacterial and Fungal Taxa Shifts in Response to Larvae of the Tree Hole Mosquito, Ochlerotatus triseriatus

    Kaufman, Michael G.; Chen, Shicheng; Walker, Edward D

    2008-01-01

    Larvae of the eastern tree hole mosquito, Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say), and related container-breeding species are known to feed upon substrate-associated microorganisms. Although the importance of these microbial resources to larval growth has been established, almost nothing is known about the taxonomic composition and dynamics of these critical microbial food sources. We examined bacterial and fungal community compositional changes on oak leaves tethered in natural tree hole habitats of ...

  1. [Breeding habitat characteristics of red-crowned crane at Zhalong of Northeast China: a multi-scale approach based on TM and ASAR image data].

    Liu, Chun-Yue; Jiang, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Hou, Yun-Qiu; Lu, Jun

    2012-02-01

    Based on the Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR HH/HV imagery data and by using the GPS data of red-crowned crane nesting sites (n = 28) at Zhalong National Nature Reserve of Northeast China, the models of the breeding habitat selection of red-crowned crane at the Reserve were established by binary Logistic regression to identify the key variables for the habitat selection at eight spatial scales (30-240 m). The relative performance of the two models based on the Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR HH/HV databases was compared, and the prediction capacity of the models across the eight scales was approached. The overall precisions of the two models were satisfactory (> or = 69.0%). At scale 30 m, only variable TCA_2 entered with negative value into the model based on Landsat TM database, which indicated that the crane at this scale avoided selecting higher density reed marshes. At scales 60-120 m, the variable PCA_2 entered with positive value into the two models, indicating that the crane at these scales had higher demand of high density reed marshes to improve its concealment. At scale 90 m, the variable HV backward scatting coefficient also entered into the combined model, which indicated that water condition was the important factor for the habitat selection of the crane at this scale. At scales > 120 m, the texture information of the two satellite sensors started to be involved into the two models, indicating that at larger scales, the crane had decreasing demand on the vegetation features for its breeding habitat selection but increasing sensitivity to the anthropogenic disturbance factors. The introduction of ASAR variables into the models increased the prediction accuracy of the models markedly at all scales. PMID:22586977

  2. Persistent oscillations and backward bifurcation in a malaria model with varying human and mosquito populations: implications for control.

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Teboh-Ewungkem, Miranda I; Ngwa, Gideon A

    2015-06-01

    We derive and study a deterministic compartmental model for malaria transmission with varying human and mosquito populations. Our model considers disease-related deaths, asymptomatic immune humans who are also infectious, as well as mosquito demography, reproduction and feeding habits. Analysis of the model reveals the existence of a backward bifurcation and persistent limit cycles whose period and size is determined by two threshold parameters: the vectorial basic reproduction number Rm, and the disease basic reproduction number R0, whose size can be reduced by reducing Rm. We conclude that malaria dynamics are indeed oscillatory when the methodology of explicitly incorporating the mosquito's demography, feeding and reproductive patterns is considered in modeling the mosquito population dynamics. A sensitivity analysis reveals important control parameters that can affect the magnitudes of Rm and R0, threshold quantities to be taken into consideration when designing control strategies. Both Rm and the intrinsic period of oscillation are shown to be highly sensitive to the mosquito's birth constant λm and the mosquito's feeding success probability pw. Control of λm can be achieved by spraying, eliminating breeding sites or moving them away from human habitats, while pw can be controlled via the use of mosquito repellant and insecticide-treated bed-nets. The disease threshold parameter R0 is shown to be highly sensitive to pw, and the intrinsic period of oscillation is also sensitive to the rate at which reproducing mosquitoes return to breeding sites. A global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveals that the ability of the mosquito to reproduce and uncertainties in the estimations of the rates at which exposed humans become infectious and infectious humans recover from malaria are critical in generating uncertainties in the disease classes. PMID:24992885

  3. Habitat Use, Spatial Relationships, and Censusing Techniques of Breeding Eastern Black Rails (Laterallus jamaicensis jamaicensis) in Northern Florida

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project proposed this report will provide data on the habitats of the eastern black rail through the use of radio telemetry, vegetative samples, and weekly...

  4. 贵阳腐霉灭蚊能力持效性研究%A Study on Persistence of Pythium guiyangense in Mosquito Breeding Environment

    杨虓; 王艳辉; 苏晓庆

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究贵阳腐霉灭蚊能力的持效性。方法:(1)用贵阳腐霉菌丝体连续感染2批蚊幼虫,观察2批蚊幼虫的死亡率及感染率,计算感染率;(2)采用室外人工模拟法,设立对照组、贵阳腐霉组、贵阳腐霉加Bti组、贵阳腐霉加真菌D组、和贵阳腐霉加Bti和真菌D组,加入贵阳腐霉后第111天和273天分别加入2~3龄蚊幼虫(哨位蚊)48 h后取出,观察蚊幼虫死亡情况及感染率;(3)于菜地蓄水池中投入贵阳腐霉菌丝体悬液,并于投入前及投入后第5、15、30、57及122天记录蚊幼虫数,观察感染情况;(4)在Bti致死的蚊幼虫中加入贵阳腐霉菌,观察贵阳腐霉的腐生情况。结果:(1)3株贵阳腐霉的感染力有不同,但是在第2批实验中蚊虫的校正感染率、单碗最高感染率和单碗最低感染率均明显高于第1批(P<0.05);(2)在室外模拟水体实验中,纯贵阳腐霉组及其他含贵阳腐霉组第111天哨位蚊全部死亡,对照组蚊虫无死亡;第273天仅纯贵阳腐霉组的哨位蚊死亡,显微镜下观察死亡虫体均布满贵阳腐霉菌丝;(3)菜地蓄水池实验结果显示,投放贵阳腐霉菌丝体第5天蚊虫密度较投放前明显减少,投放第15天时偶见蚊幼虫,投放第30及57天时基本上看不见蚊幼虫,第122天见大量死蚊,显微镜下观察蚊体有真菌感染;(4)腐生实验发现被Bti杀死的蚊幼虫尸体长满贵阳腐霉的菌丝,产生大量孢子囊,并释放游动孢子。结论:贵阳腐霉在水体中可长期制约蚊虫,持效期最长达273 d。%Objective:To study the persistehce of virulehce of Pythium guiyangense(Pg). Meth-ods:(1)Usihg the fuhgal mycelia to ihfect 2 batches of mosquito larvae cohsecutively,ahd to com-pare their mortality rates ahd ihfectioh rates;(2)usihg sehtihel mosquitoes to mohitor the fuhgal viru-lehce to mosquito larvae ih lohg-term ih

  5. Opposing effects on glutathione and reactive oxygen metabolites of sex, habitat, and spring date, but no effect of increased breeding density in great tits (Parus major).

    Isaksson, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative stress (i.e., more oxidants than antioxidants) has been proposed as a proximate currency in life-history trade-offs, which if studied in an ecological setting allow a more realistic perspective on the origin and evolution of trade-offs. Therefore, the aim here was to investigate the impact of ecological and individual factors for variation in markers of oxidative stress using both experimental and correlational data. Total glutathione (tGSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), plasma antioxidant capacity (OXY), and plasma-reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were measured in more than 700 breeding great tits (Parus major). The main results revealed a pronounced sex difference, with females having lower ROM and OXY, but higher tGSH compared with males. In addition, birds breeding in the evergreen areas had higher tGSH compared with those in the deciduous habitat, but the experimentally manipulated breeding density had no significant effect on any of the redox markers. Independent of the sex differences, the larger the reproductive investment the lower the ROM of both males and females. Taken together, the extracellular markers - ROM and OXY - revealed similar results and were highly correlated. Interestingly, the direction of their effects was in the opposite direction to the endogenously synthesized tGSH and GSSG. This highlights the need to combine extracellular markers with endogenously synthesized antioxidants to understand its implications for the origin and evolution of trade-offs in an ecological setting. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a proximate currency in life-history trade-offs, which if studied in an ecological setting allow a more realistic perspective on the origin and evolution of trade-offs. Here multiple markers of oxidative stress were analysed in wild great tits. The results reveal that the endogenously synthesized antioxidant glutathione and markers of plasma oxidative stress are affected in opposing directions with regard to sex

  6. 澜沧江下游地区蚊虫种类、分布及其孳生习性调查%Investigation of mosquito species,distributions and larva breeding habits in the low treaches of Lancangjiang River in Yunnan

    王丕玉; 周红宁; 吴超; 郭晓芳; 顾云安; 董利民

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the mosquito species, distributions and their larva breeding habits in the losw reaches of Lancangjiang River. Methods Adult mosquitoes were collected by lamp-traps,cower shed catches and human landing catches in the daytime, and mosquito larvae were collected from different breeding sites. Results Totally of 26 754 mosquitoes of 33 species in 7 genera were collected from 2 counties in the low reaches of Lancangjiang River by using Lamp-traps. Totally of 10 494 mosquitoes of 24 species in 5 genera were caught from Simao County and 409 mosquitoes of 14 species in 5 genera were gotten from the ocunties of Mengla,Menghai and Menglian. There 6 051 mosquito larvae of 40 species in 10 genera were collected. Conclusion There are polenty of mosquito species in the low reaches of Lancangjian River,and different mosquito species prefer different breeding habits. The predominant mosquito species are Culex tritaenorhynchus,followed by Anopheles sinensis and Aedes albopictos, that are widely distributed.%目的 弄清澜沧江下游地区蚊虫种类、分布及其幼虫孳生习性.方法 蚊虫成蚊采用牛圈诱蚊灯诱捕法、人工牛圈捕捉和人饵白天诱捕方法.采集幼虫采用勺和吸管等方法在各类蚊虫孳生地捕捞幼虫.结果 调查澜沧江下游地区2个县,用诱蚊灯捕获蚊虫26 754只,隶属7属33种,在思茅共捕获咸蚊10 494只,隶属5属24种,在勐腊、勐海和孟连县调查,共捕获蚊虫409只,隶属5属14种;幼虫调查,共捕获蚊虫6 051只,隶属3亚科,10属40种.结论 澜沧江下游地区蚊虫种类繁多,不同的蚊种有不同的孳生习性,优势蚊种为三带喙库蚊,中华按蚊、白纹伊蚊属次优势蚊种,以上3种蚊虫种群密度高,分布较广.

  7. Inter-epidemic abundance and distribution of potential mosquito vectors for Rift Valley fever virus in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania

    Clement N. Mweya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. Objective: To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mosquitoes were sampled both outdoors and indoors using the Centre for Disease Control (CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnets baited with attractants. Outdoor traps were placed in proximity with breeding sites and under canopy in banana plantations close to the sleeping places of animals. Results: A total of 1,823 mosquitoes were collected, of which 87% (N=1,588 were Culex pipiens complex, 12% (N=226 Aedes aegypti, and 0.5% (N=9 Anopheles species. About two-thirds (67%; N=1,095 of C. pipiens complex and nearly 100% (N=225 of A. aegypti were trapped outdoors using Mosquito Magnets. All Anopheles species were trapped indoors using CDC light traps. There were variations in abundance of C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti among different ecological and vegetation habitats. Over three quarters (78% of C. pipiens complex and most (85% of the A. aegypti were trapped in banana and maize farms. Both C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti were more abundant in proximity with cattle and in semi-arid thorn bushes and lower Afro-montane. The highest number of mosquitoes was recorded in villages that were most affected during the RVF epidemic of 2007. Of the tested 150 pools of C. pipiens complex and 45 pools of A. aegypti, none was infected with RVF virus. Conclusions: These results provide insights into unique habitat characterisation relating to mosquito abundances and distribution in RVF epidemic-prone areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania.

  8. Mosquito population regulation and larval source management in heterogeneous environments.

    David L Smith

    Full Text Available An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM. We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats' carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%. Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides.

  9. Spatial ecology and habitat selection of Little Owl Athene noctua during the breeding season in Central European farmland

    Šálek, Martin; Lövy, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2012), s. 328-338. ISSN 0959-2709 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Little Owl * home range size * habitat use * compositional analysis * grasslands * short-sward vegetation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2012

  10. Modeling direct and indirect climate change impacts on ecological networks : a case study on breeding habitat of Dutch meadow birds

    Van Dijk, Jerry; Van Der Vliet, Roland E.; De Jong, Harm; Zeylmans Van Emmichoven, Maarten J.; Van Hardeveld, Henk A.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Wassen, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Climate change can directly affect habitats within ecological networks, but may also have indirect effects on network quality by inducing land use change. The relative impact of indirect effects of climate change on the quality of ecological networks currently remains largely unknown. Objec

  11. Breeding ecology and related life-history traits of the hoatzin, Opisthocomus hoazin, in a primary rainforest habitat

    Müllner, Antje

    2005-01-01

    The hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) is an enigmatic bird that lives in the riparian lowlands of northern South America. Among its peculiar attributes are 1) microbial foregut fermentation, unique in birds, to convert plant cellulose in the foliage which it consumes into simple sugars, 2) an ongoing debate about the puzzling taxonomic position, although a relationship to the Cuculiformes appears likely, 3) adaptive wing claws in the young which are used for climbing, and 4) co-operative breeding...

  12. Algae and blue-green algae as mosquito food

    Rettich, František; Popovský, Jiří; Cepák, Vladimír

    2001-01-01

    Ten genera of cyanophytes and 73 genera of algae were found in the guts of Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Culiseta larvae collected in various breeding places of the Elbe-Lowland (Bohemia) and Prague. The quality and quantity of blue-green algae and algae found in mosquito guts depended on their presence in the water of mosquito breeding places and on the feeding type (filter fieders, scrapers) of mosquito larvae. Chlorophycean algae possesing cell wall with sporopollenin and algae with a mucila...

  13. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  14. Bdelloid rotifer, Philodina species in the breeding containers of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Muniaraj, M; Arunachalam, N; Paramasivan, R; Mariappan, T; Philip Samuel, P; Rajamannar, V

    2012-12-01

    The vector mosquitoes of dengue and chikungunya fever, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have adapted to feed on humans and undergo larval and pupal development in natural and artificial freshwater collections. Although several studies reported, still, much information is required to understand the successful survival of Aedes mosquitoes in small temporary containers. In an investigation conducted in the chikungunya affected areas of Kerala state, India, the presence of Bdelloid rotifer, Philodina in 95% of breeding habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was recorded. The role of Philodina in the breeding containers was investigated. It was found that while in control the number of Philodina was found increasing in the water sample during the study period of seven days, the number found decreased in the containers with larvae of Aedes. The gut content analysis also confirmed the presence of the rotating wheel, corona of Philodina in some of the specimen suggests its role as major larval food. PMID:23202612

  15. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Gabrielle E. Sakolsky-Hoopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.

  16. The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control

    Adrias Araceli Q

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently

  17. The effect of water physical quality and water level changes on the occurrence and density of larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes around the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, Central Ethiopia

    S. Kibret

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae and on the spatial and temporal formation of larval breeding habitats were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is in close proximity to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data from the weekly larval collections showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of A. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitats than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitats (F=16.97, pF=6.03, pA. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation (F=15.75, pF=10.56, pAnopheles larvae with water temperature of the breeding habitat and daily minimum atmospheric temperature (r=0.541, pr=0.604, pr=0.605, pAnopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes in the vicinity. The proliferation of suitable breeding habitats around the reservoir villages is strongly associated with reservoir water level changes. This is particularly important for A. pharoensis and A. arabiensis which are important vectors of malaria in the area. Further investigation on the species diversity, physical and chemical habitat characteristics and

  18. Time budgets of Tibetan eared pheasants during the non-breeding season in an alpine scrub habitat

    Xin LU; Guangmei ZHENG

    2009-01-01

    Time allocations of the group-living Tibetan eared pheasants Crossoptilon harmani with and without supplementary food were investigated by full-day sampling from winter through spring in an alpine scrub zone, south Tibet. At a flock scale, both the different food-supply flocks displayed similar daily patterns of activity, foraging in the morning and evening, and resting around midday. In terms of individual activity, either foraging or resting was highly synchronous with the flock's. Non-provisioned birds spent more time feeding and less resting in midwinter than in late autumn. In early spring as climates became wanner and day longer, however, non-provisioned birds did not decrease their feeding efforts significantly but the provisioned birds did. Across the non-breeding seasons, the provisioned birds (relying on nutrition-rich artificial food) devoted less time to feeding and more to resting than did the non-previsioned ones (relying on nutrition-poor plant roots). Multivariate analysis showed increased food supply and ambient temperature resulted in a reduced foraging effort. However, the fact that the non-provisioned birds can save daily time for resting even in the cold short-day length mid-winter indicated that they faced no energetic constraint. Thus, protecting shelter vegetation rather than providing extra food is suggested to be important for long-term survival of the endangered galliform birds.

  19. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

  20. Efficacy of IGR compound Starycide 480 SC (Triflumuron against mosquito larvae in clear and polluted water

    C.P. Batra, P.K. Mittal, T. Adak & M.A. Ansari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: An environmental friendly formulation Starycide 480 SC (Triflumuron–OMS-2015 , a new insect growth regulator with chitin synthesis inhibitor type mode of action wasevaluated against mosquito larvae in laboratory and small-scale field trials carried out in and aroundDelhi.Methods: The formulation was tested in laboratory for its bio-efficacy against late III instar mosquitolarvae of different species using WHO bioassay procedure. In the field formulation was sprayed atdoses of 0.3, 0.5 and 1 ppm (g/m3 in the natural breeding habitats of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes.The impact was assessed by monitoring densities of larvae by dipper and observing the reductionin larval density and inhibition of adult emergence.Results: In the laboratory, formulation was more effective against larvae of Anopheles stephensi andAedes aegypti than Culex quinquefasciatus, but it produced 100% inhibition of adult emergence forall mosquito species at a concentration of 0.02 ppm. In the field trials, formulation did not produce100% reduction in the density of late stage larvae even at 1 ppm (g/m3, the highest dose tested, butit resulted in 100% inhibition of pupal formation of both Anopheles and Culex spp in different typesof habitats for 3–7 weeks even at a lower dose of 0.5 ppm.Interpretation & conclusion : Application of triflumuron in the natural breeding habitats in bothclean and polluted water @ 0.5 ppm (g/m3 resulted in complete inhibition of adult emergence of bothAnopheles and Culex spp for 3–7 weeks. This formulation may be tested in large-scale field trials forfurther use in the vector control programme.

  1. Mathematical model in controlling dengue transmission with sterile mosquito strategies

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose a mathematical model for controlling dengue disease transmission with sterile mosquito techniques (SIT). Sterile male introduced from lab in to habitat to compete with wild male mosquito for mating with female mosquito. Our aim is to displace gradually the natural mosquito from the habitat. Mathematical model analysis for steady states and the basic reproductive ratio are performed analytically. Numerical simulation are shown in some different scenarios. We find that SIT intervention is potential to controlling dengue spread among humans population

  2. Monitoring population and environmental parameters of invasive mosquito species in Europe.

    Petrić, Dušan; Bellini, Romeo; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Rakotoarivony, Laurence Marrama; Schaffner, Francis

    2014-01-01

    To enable a better understanding of the overwhelming alterations in the invasive mosquito species (IMS), methodical insight into the population and environmental factors that govern the IMS and pathogen adaptations are essential. There are numerous ways of estimating mosquito populations, and usually these describe developmental and life-history parameters. The key population parameters that should be considered during the surveillance of invasive mosquito species are: (1) population size and dynamics during the season, (2) longevity, (3) biting behaviour, and (4) dispersal capacity. Knowledge of these parameters coupled with vector competence may help to determine the vectorial capacity of IMS and basic disease reproduction number (R0) to support mosquito borne disease (MBD) risk assessment. Similarly, environmental factors include availability and type of larval breeding containers, climate change, environmental change, human population density, increased human travel and goods transport, changes in living, agricultural and farming habits (e.g. land use), and reduction of resources in the life cycle of mosquitoes by interventions (e.g. source reduction of aquatic habitats). Human population distributions, urbanisation, and human population movement are the key behavioural factors in most IMS-transmitted diseases. Anthropogenic issues are related to the global spread of MBD such as the introduction, reintroduction, circulation of IMS and increased exposure to humans from infected mosquito bites. This review addresses the population and environmental factors underlying the growing changes in IMS populations in Europe and confers the parameters selected by criteria of their applicability. In addition, overview of the commonly used and newly developed tools for their monitoring is provided. PMID:24739334

  3. Impacts of the creation, expansion and management of English wetlands on mosquito presence and abundance - developing strategies for future disease mitigation.

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing in Europe, partly due to the incursion of a number of invasive species known to be vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, but also due to the involvement of native species in the transmission of West Nile virus and malaria. For some of these pathogens, there is a risk of the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases that were once widespread in Europe, but declined partly due to large-scale land-drainage projects. Some mosquito species exploit container habitats as breeding sites in urban areas; an adaptation to human-made micro-habitats resulting from increased urbanisation. However, many species thrive in natural wetland ecosystems. Owing to the impacts of climate change there is an urgent need for environmental adaptation, such as the creation of new wetlands to mitigate coastal and inland flooding. In some cases, these initiatives can be coupled with environmental change strategies to protect a range of endangered flora and fauna species by enhancing and extending wetland landscapes, which may by driven by European legislation, particularly in urban areas. This paper reviews field studies conducted in England to assess the impact of newly created wetlands on mosquito colonisation in a) coastal, b) urban and c) arable reversion habitats. It also considers the impact of wetland management on mosquito populations and explores the implications of various water and vegetation management options on the range of British mosquito species. Understanding the impact of wetland creation and management strategies on mosquito prevalence and the potential risk of increasing the levels of nuisance or disease vector species will be crucial in informing health and well-being risk assessments, guiding targeted control, and anticipating the social effects of extreme weather and climate change. Although new wetlands will certainly extend aquatic habitats for mosquitoes, not all species will become a major nuisance or a vector

  4. 山东省淄博市不同生境流行性乙型脑炎传播媒介蚊虫监测%Monitoring of mosquito vectors of Japanese encephalitis in different habitats of Zibo, Shandong

    景晓; 刘桂芳; 王敏; 林小娟; 石志凯; 王广营; 司海霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 对淄博市的淄川区和高青县不同生境流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)传播媒介蚊虫进行比较监测,调查当地突发乙脑病例的传播媒介蚊虫种类,为进一步防治乙脑提供依据.方法 用人帐法、网捕法、灯诱法、人工小时法,分别在稻田、畜禽舍、住宅区3种不同生境采集蚊虫,分类计数,以50只为单位放入液氮罐中带回实验室进行病毒分离;记录当地温度、湿度、风速等环境气候因素.结果 在3种生境中共捕获成蚊5属7种3116只,以稻田数量居多,占捕蚊总数的61.6%,畜禽舍次之,占24.1%,住宅区最少,占14.3%;三带喙库蚊、淡色库蚊是当地优势蚊种,分别占捕获总数的66.1%和19.1%.淄川区无稻田,淡色库蚊数量居多,占43.6%,三带喙库蚊次之,占34.0%.高青县以稻田为主,三带喙库蚊最多,占68.5%,淡色库蚊次之,占24.9%.入帐法捕获的蚊虫最多,占62.4%,灯诱法次之,占16.6%,人工小时法占14.6%,网捕法仅占6.4%.三带喙库蚊和淡色库蚊的叮刺高峰在日落后0.5~1 h达到活动高峰,持续约0~40 min,淡色库蚊的叮刺高峰迟20 min.结论 三带喙库蚊可能是当地乙脑的主要传播媒介,在进行野外蚊虫种类和数量监测时,应以人帐法和灯诱法为主,辅以网捕法和人工小时法.%Objective To survey the species, distribution, habitat, behavior of vectors of Japanese encephalitis in Zichuan district and Caoqing county of Zibo, Shandong. Methods The human baited net traps, mosquito nets, lamp baited traps and labor - hour methods were employed to investigate the mosquito counts of three habitats - rice field, domestic fowls shed, and household. The environmental factors were documented. Fifty mosquitoes from each group were preserved in liquid-nitrogen jars for viral isolation under laboratory settings. Results Of the 3116 mosquitoes collected, 7 species of 5 genera were found. Most mosquitoes were captured from

  5. ECOLOGY OF NON-BREEDING AND BREEDING CRESTED CARACARAS (CARACARA CHERIWAY) IN FLORIDA

    Dwyer, James Fitzgerald

    2010-01-01

    Like many species, Floridaâ s population of Northern Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway, hereafter â caracaraâ ) is likely declining due to loss of breeding habitat. Consequently, management-oriented restrictions on landscape modification are applied where breeding occurs, but management rarely is extended beyond breeding areas. Focusing management on breeding areas can be effective if all caracaras occupy breeding areas, all breeding areas are detected, and no intermittent breeding oc...

  6. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia

    Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew & Teshome Gebre-Michael

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia andelsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporalvariation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anophelinemosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course ofthe Ethiopian Rift Valley.Methods: Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables(water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables were measured, characterized andanalyzed.Results: Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV of anopheline larvae collected throughout thestudy period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus. Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis andAn. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logisticregression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vectorspecies. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquaticvegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly andpositively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies.Conclusion: Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintainedby perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vectorcontrol operations.

  7. Habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western Kenya highlands

    Atieli Harrysone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. Methods A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in hilltops and along the seasonal streams in the Sigalagala area of Kakamega district, western Kenya. Water availability in the habitats was followed up daily from August 3, 2006 to February 23, 2007. A habitat is defined as stable when it remains aquatic continuously for at least 12 d. Mosquito larvae were observed weekly. Frequencies of aquatic, stable and larvae positive habitats were compared between the hilltop and seasonal stream area using χ2-test. Factors affecting the presence/absence of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the highlands were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Topography significantly affected habitat availability and stability. The occurrence of aquatic habitats in the hilltop was more sporadic than in the stream area. The percentage of habitat occurrences that were classified as stable during the rainy season is 48.76% and 80.79% respectively for the hilltop and stream area. Corresponding frequencies of larvae positive habitats were 0% in the hilltop and 5.91% in the stream area. After the rainy season, only 23.42% of habitat occurrences were stable and 0.01% larvae positive habitats were found in the hilltops, whereas 89.75% of occurrences remained stable in the stream area resulting in a frequency of 12.21% larvae positive habitats. The logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between habitat stability and larval occurrence and indicated that habitat surface area was negatively affecting the

  8. Development of biodegradable aluminium carboxymethylcellulose matrices for mosquito larvicides.

    Mathew, Nisha; Kalyanasundaram, Muthuswami

    2004-07-01

    The use of ecofriendly biodegradable controlled-release formulations of mosquito larvicides could reduce the frequency of application and losses due to degradation of the insecticide compared with conventional formulations. Among the 20 matrices developed by entrapping the organophosphorus mosquito larvicide, fenthion, in carboxymethylcellulose ionotropically cross-linked with aluminium ions which were studied for release profiles, two matrices, CRF3b and CRF5b, were found to be stable for 16 and 14 weeks under simulated field conditions. The average concentration of fenthion released per week ranged from 0.06 to 3.5 mg litre(-1) for CRF3b and 0.09 to 2.72 mg litre(-1) for CRF5b. Of these two formulations, CRF3b was the more stable, maintaining the concentration of the active ingredient at the level required to effect mosquito control. The cumulative release of fenthion per pellet was 80% from CRF3b and 72% from CRF5b. Based on the study with fenthion, two similar matrices for triflumuron, a benzoylphenylurea insect growth regulator, STAR3b and STAR5b were developed. These matrices were stable up to 16 weeks with the average concentration of triflumuron released per week ranging from 0.05 to 3.44 mg litre(-1) for STAR3b and 0.07 to 2.71 mg litre(-1) for STARSb. The cumulative release of triflumuron per pellet was 75% from STAR3b and 76% from STAR5b. From the results of this study under simulated conditions, it is estimated that the application of four pellets of either fenthion or triflumuron per square metre of the breeding surface may play a useful role in controlling Culex quinquefasciatus Say in larval habitats for about 4 months. PMID:15260300

  9. 扎龙湿地丹顶鹤繁殖生境变化驱动因素分析%Driver analysis of breeding habitat change of red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) in Zhalong wetland

    李明阳; 张称意; 吴军; 徐婷

    2012-01-01

    Understanding drivers of breeding habitat change of endangered species is the premise of making of wildlife protection plan. Nest site data of red-crowned crane ( Grus japonensis) inl996 and 2004, remote sensing images of Land-sat TM and DMSP/OLS night time light intensity data at the same periods were collected as the main information source, while the ecological niche model of maximum entropy method ( Maxent) was applied to predict breeding habitat of the crane. Then scenario analysis and spatial hot spots exploration were used to study the drivers of breeding habitat change of red-crowned crane. Research results showed that: ( 1 ) the area proportion of good and medium quality habitat were dramatically decreased by 2. 87 % and 5. 59 % respectively, while the spatial distribution of high quality breeding habitat for the crane with suitability above 0. 90 were less aggregated and more fragmented; ( 2 ) the human disturbance had cage effect on the habitat of endangered bird, while the climate change made the distribution center shift to places with better environmental condition; ( 3 ) the hot spots with significantly increased habitat suitability were located at places with improved hydrological and growing conditions of marsh plant, while the cold spots located at places with deteriorated environmental factors.%以扎龙湿地1996、2004年丹顶鹤巢址数据、同期Landsat TM遥感图像及DMSP/OLS夜间灯光亮度数据为主要信息源,通过最大熵法(Maxent)生态位模型,建立丹顶鹤繁殖生境预测模型,采用情景分析、空间热点探测,研究丹顶鹤繁殖生境变化驱动因素.结果表明:与1996年相比,2004年质量好、质量中等的丹顶鹤繁殖生境面积比例分别下降了2.87%、5.59%,高质量丹顶鹤繁殖生境(适宜性概率>0.90)空间聚集性减弱,破碎化趋势增强;人类干扰对丹顶鹤繁殖生境的影响主要体现在囚笼效应,而气候变化则驱使丹顶鹤繁殖生境分布中心

  10. Do the Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged Warbler Exhibit Species-specific Differences in their Breeding Habitat Use?

    David S. Maehr; Laura L. Patton; Joseph E. Duchamp; Songlin Fei; Jonathan W. Gassett; Jeffery L. Larkin

    2010-01-01

    We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera) on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elev...

  11. Environmental predictors of the occurrence of ground water mosquito immatures in the Paraná Lower Delta, Argentina.

    Cardo, M V; Vezzani, D; Carbajo, A E

    2011-09-01

    Characterizing mosquito larval habitats is essential for understanding the complex interactions between immatures and the biotic and abiotic components of their environment. Using generalized linear mixed models, we studied the environmental predictors of the presence of three ubiquitous mosquito species breeding in ground water habitats in the Paraná Lower Delta, Argentina. During a year-round survey, 34.1% of the 419 ground water habitats inspected were positive for either Culex dolosus s.l. (Lynch Arribálzaga 1891), Aedes crinifer (Theobald 1903), or Culex intrincatus Brèthes 1916. Univariate analysis showed that the former two occurred throughout the year, whereas the latter during the summer and fall. Ae. crinifer and Cx. intrincatus were more frequently collected in secondary forests, whereas Cx. dolosus s.l. was homogeneously distributed among land uses. Best generalized linear mixed models included the sampling period and landscape variables in different combinations for each species. Spatial dependence of the data was evident for Cx. dolosus s.l. and Ae. crinifer. Our results showed that the most widespread species presented different spatio-temporal distribution patterns, related with land use, anthropic intervention, and seasonality, highlighting the complexity of the wetland under study. This methodological approach could aid in the selection of priority areas for vector control and disease risk management. PMID:21936317

  12. Characterisation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in Córdoba, Argentina

    Marta Grech

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in Córdoba city. Every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. Data regarding the water depth, temperature and pH, permanence, the presence of aquatic vegetation and the density of collected mosquito larvae were recorded. Data on the average air temperatures and accumulated precipitation during the 15 days prior to each sampling date were also obtained. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected throughout the study period and were generally most abundant in the summer season. Generalised linear mixed models indicated the average air temperature and presence of dicotyledonous aquatic vegetation as variables that served as important predictors of larval densities. Additionally, permanent breeding sites supported high larval densities. In Córdoba city and possibly in other highly populated cities at the same latitude with the same environmental conditions, control programs should focus on permanent larval habitats with aquatic vegetation during the early spring, when the Cx. quinquefasciatus population begins to increase.

  13. Habitat Appraisal by Vermont Electric Power Company

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Declines in habitat availability have been associated with population declines in bird species breeding in early successional forest and shrubland habitats....

  14. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of Mayotte.

    Gilbert Le Goff

    Full Text Available A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species

  15. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera

  16. Mosquito Bite Prevention For Travelers

    Mosquito Bite Prevention for Travelers Mosquitoes spread many types of viruses and parasites that can cause diseases ... be available. Protect yourself and your family from mosquito bites. Here’s how: Keep mosquitoes out of your ...

  17. First molecular identification of Dirofilaria spp. (Onchocercidae) in mosquitoes from Serbia.

    Kurucz, Kornélia; Kepner, Anett; Krtinic, Bosiljka; Zana, Brigitta; Földes, Fanni; Bányai, Krisztián; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Kemenesi, Gábor

    2016-08-01

    Dirofilariosis is a common and widespread veterinary health issue in several European countries with notable zoonotic potential. The causative agents are Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens nematoda species which are transmitted by different mosquito vectors. Similar to other mosquito-borne infections, the knowledge about mosquito species involved in disease transmission is crucial for the complex understanding of local transmission cycles. Since there is no available data on mosquito species, potentially involved in disease transmission from Serbia, 6369 female mosquito individuals were retrospectively tested for Dirofilaria nematodes, collected from 13 localities in Vojvodina province, Serbia, in 2013. Altogether, 8.33 % of tested pools showed positivity, composed of five mosquito species, mainly, Culex pipiens and Aedes vexans. D. immitis and D. repens were both detected from multiple localities, during the whole period of mosquito breeding season, which provides the first data on local transmission characteristics regarding mosquitoes from the Balkans. PMID:27193348

  18. The impact of vegetation characteristics and prey availability on breeding habitat use and diet of Little Owls Athene noctua in Central European farmland

    Šálek, Martin; Riegert, J.; Křivan, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 57 (2010), s. 495-503. ISSN 0006-3657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Central Europe * diet composition * habitat choice * insect prey Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2010

  19. Does stress response predict return rate in a migratory bird species? A study of American redstarts and their non-breeding habitat

    Angelier, Frédéric; Holberton, Rebecca L; Marra, Peter P.

    2009-01-01

    In vertebrates, the adrenocortical stress response activates an emergency life-history stage, which is thought to promote survival by helping individuals escape life-threatening situations. Although the adrenocortical stress response promotes many behavioural and physiological changes, it remains unclear whether this stress response actually translates into higher survival in wild vertebrates. We measured the adrenocortical stress response of non-breeding American redstarts (Setophaga ruticil...

  20. Play the Mosquito Game

    ... Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games ... that is transmitted to humans by a female mosquito's bite. Read More » The Nobel Prize The 1902 ...

  1. Mosquito, adult (image)

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  2. 安徽省夏秋季蚊类初步调查%Primary investigation of mosquito population composition in Anhui province

    侯银续; 吴明生; 张家林; 张跃玉; 陆群; 王晓敏; 苏宝; 魏永; 吴丽琴; 于修贵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify the population composition, distribution and biology of mosquitoes in Anhui province as evidence for the development of control strategies against mosquito - borne diseases. Methods Mosquito were captured or collected by the man-hour or light trap methods. Results From August to September 2009, 2086 mosquitoes were captured, which belonged to 10 species, 5 subgenera, 4 genera and 2 subfamily. The dominant species was Culex tritaeruorhynchus (67.79%), and Cx. Pipiens pollens (12.03%), Cx. Bitaeniorhynchus (11.79%), Armigeres subalbatus (5.03%) and Anopheles sinensis (1.58%) were commonly seen in summer. The mosquito populations varied in different habitats. Conclusion The mosquito population composition was dependent on habitat type, breeding resources, climate and geographic factors. Hence, effective mosquito control strategies should be tailored to local mosquito population structures.%目的 初步掌握安徽省蚊虫的分布特点及生态习性,为蚊虫及蚊媒疾病的防制工作提供科学依据.方法 诱蚊灯法及人工小时法.结果 本次调查共诱捕成蚊2086只,分属2亚科4属5亚属10种.夏秋季节三带喙库蚊为优势蚊种(67.79%),淡色库蚊(12.03%)、二带喙库蚊(11.79%)、骚扰阿蚊(5.03%)和中华按蚊(1.58%)为该季节的常见蚊种.不同地区和生境蚊类种群结构差异较大.结论 研究区域蚊类种群结构除与气候条件和地理区划有关外,还与孳生环境类型和生境多样性有很大关系,因此在灭蚊工作中必须根据当地蚊类种群结构,并结合实际情况才能有效控制蚊虫和蚊媒疾病.

  3. Controlling Mosquitoes Outside

    2016-08-09

    Mosquitoes can carry viruses, like West Nile, Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. In this podcast, Mr. Hubbard will teach you and his neighbor, Laura, ways to help reduce the number of mosquitoes outside your home. Tips include eliminating areas of standing water where mosquitoes lay eggs and using larvicides to kill young mosquitoes.  Created: 8/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/9/2016.

  4. Potential for Loss of Breeding Habitat for Imperiled Mountain Yellow-legged Frog ( Rana muscosa) in High Sierra Nevada Mountain Water Bodies due to Reduced Snowpack: Interaction of Climate Change and an Introduced Predator

    Lacan, I.; Matthews, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    Year to year variation in snowpack (20-200% average) and summer rain create large fluctuations in the volume of water in ponds and small lakes of the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada. These water bodies are critical habitat for the imperiled mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa, which has decreased in abundance by 90% during the past century, due in part to the loss of suitable habitat and introduction of a fish predator (trout, Oncorhynchus spp.). Climate change is predicted to reduce the amount of snowpack, potentially impacting amphibian habitats throughout the Sierra Nevada by further reducing the lake and pond water levels and resulting in drying of small lakes during the summer. Mountain yellow-legged frogs are closely tied to water during all life stages, and are unique in having a three- to four-year tadpole phase. Thus, tadpole survival and future recruitment of adult frogs requires adequate water in lakes and ponds throughout the year, but larger lakes are populated with fish that prey on frogs and tadpoles. Thus, most successful frog breeding occurs in warm, shallow, fishless ponds that undergo wide fluctuations in volume. These water bodies would be most susceptible to the potential climate change effects of reduced snowpack, possibly resulting in lower tadpole survival. This study explores the link between the changes in water availability -- including complete pond drying -- and the abundance and recruitment of mountain yellow-legged frog in Dusy Basin, Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA. We propose using the low-snowpack years (1999, 2002, 2004) as comparative case studies to predict future effects of climate change on aquatic habitat availability and amphibian abundance and survival. To quantify the year to year variation and changes in water volume available to amphibians, we initiated GPS lake mapping in 2002 to quantify water volumes, water surface area, and shoreline length. We tracked these changes by repeated mapping of

  5. Reproduction of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Santa Cruz, Santiago island, Cape Verde Islands

    Duarte, Elves Heleno; Correia, Edson Eugénio; Varela, Caetano Eane; Varela, António

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are dipterous insects with an important role in the transmission of diseases like malaria and dengue. During a dengue fever outbreak in the Cape Verde Islands in 2009, several studies were undertaken to support vector control. The present study was carried out in the district of Santa Cruz, Santiago island, to evaluate previous measures taken to control mosquito populations. Results show that mosquitoes use domestic water containers to breed. Barrels, drums and pots were all used. ...

  6. A Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in Relation to Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Disease in Western Australia

    Potter, Abbey; Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    On average, more than 1,000 individuals will acquire a mosquito-borne disease in Western Australia (WA) each year. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in relation to mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease have not yet been investigated within Australia. A randomized telephone survey of 2,500 households across 12 regions in WA was undertaken between February and May 2014. The aim of the survey was to obtain baseline KAP data surrounding mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in different regions of WA, across a range of age groups and between males and females. The results of this survey indicate that the majority of respondents are aware of the potential for mosquitoes in WA to transmit Ross River virus, while awareness of other endemic mosquito-borne diseases remains limited. Common misconceptions exist in relation to exotic mosquito-borne diseases, with respondents incorrectly identifying malaria and dengue as endemic diseases in WA. The survey also highlighted a range of important issues, such as limited awareness of the potential for backyard breeding in domestic containers, occupational exposure to mosquitoes in regions with a large employment base in the mining and resources sector, increased exposure to mosquitoes as a result of participation in outdoor recreational activities in the north of the State, and reduced awareness of mosquito-borne disease in individuals aged 18–34 years. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of a new communication strategy by the Department of Health, to further raise awareness of mosquito-borne disease in WA. The data will then provide a baseline against which to compare future survey results, facilitating the rigorous evaluation of new communication efforts. PMID:26973827

  7. A Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in Relation to Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Disease in Western Australia.

    Potter, Abbey; Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    On average, more than 1,000 individuals will acquire a mosquito-borne disease in Western Australia (WA) each year. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in relation to mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease have not yet been investigated within Australia. A randomized telephone survey of 2,500 households across 12 regions in WA was undertaken between February and May 2014. The aim of the survey was to obtain baseline KAP data surrounding mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in different regions of WA, across a range of age groups and between males and females. The results of this survey indicate that the majority of respondents are aware of the potential for mosquitoes in WA to transmit Ross River virus, while awareness of other endemic mosquito-borne diseases remains limited. Common misconceptions exist in relation to exotic mosquito-borne diseases, with respondents incorrectly identifying malaria and dengue as endemic diseases in WA. The survey also highlighted a range of important issues, such as limited awareness of the potential for backyard breeding in domestic containers, occupational exposure to mosquitoes in regions with a large employment base in the mining and resources sector, increased exposure to mosquitoes as a result of participation in outdoor recreational activities in the north of the State, and reduced awareness of mosquito-borne disease in individuals aged 18-34 years. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of a new communication strategy by the Department of Health, to further raise awareness of mosquito-borne disease in WA. The data will then provide a baseline against which to compare future survey results, facilitating the rigorous evaluation of new communication efforts. PMID:26973827

  8. Multi-scale habitat selection in highly territorial bird species: Exploring the contribution of nest, territory and landscape levels to site choice in breeding rallids (Aves: Rallidae)

    Jedlikowski, Jan; Chibowski, Piotr; Karasek, Tomasz; Brambilla, Mattia

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection often involves choices made at different spatial scales, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, and studies that investigate the relative importance of individual scales are rare. We investigated the effect of three spatial scales (landscape, territory, nest-site) on the occurrence pattern of little crake Zapornia parva and water rail Rallus aquaticus at 74 ponds in the Masurian Lakeland, Poland. Habitat structure, food abundance and water chemical parameters were measured at nests and random points within landscape plots (from 300-m to 50-m radius), territory (14-m) and nest-site plots (3-m). Regression analyses suggested that the most relevant scale was territory level, followed by landscape, and finally by nest-site for both species. Variation partitioning confirmed this pattern for water rail, but also highlighted the importance of nest-site (the level explaining the highest share of unique variation) for little crake. The most important variables determining the occurrence of both species were water body fragmentation (landscape), vegetation density (territory) and water depth (at territory level for little crake, and at nest-site level for water rail). Finally, for both species multi-scale models including factors from different levels were more parsimonious than single-scale ones, i.e. habitat selection was likely a multi-scale process. The importance of particular spatial scales seemed more related to life-history traits than to the extent of the scales considered. In the case of our study species, the territory level was highly important likely because both rallids have to obtain all the resources they need (nest site, food and mates) in relatively small areas, the multi-purpose territories they defend.

  9. Do the Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged Warbler Exhibit Species-specific Differences in their Breeding Habitat Use?

    David S. Maehr

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elevations and with greater percentages of grass and canopy cover. Mean territory size (minimum convex polygon was 1.3 ha (se = 0.1 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 1.7 ha (se = 0.3 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 2.1 ha (se = 0.3 for Blue-winged Warbler. Territory overlap occurred within and between species (18 of n = 73 territories, 24.7%. All Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers established territories that included an edge between reclaimed mine land and mature forest, as opposed to establishing territories in open grassland/shrubland habitat. The mean distance territories extended from a forest edge was 28.0 m (se = 3.8 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 44.7 m (se = 5.7 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 33.1 m (se = 6.1 for Blue-winged Warbler. Neither territory size nor distances to forest edges differed significantly between Golden-winged Warbler in presence or absence of Blue-winged Warbler. According to Monte Carlo analyses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings and saplings, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia saplings were indicative of sites with only Golden-winged Warblers. Sericea lespedeza, goldenrod (Solidago spp., clematis vine (Clematis spp., and blackberry (Rubus spp. were indicative of sites where both species occurred. Our findings complement recent genetic studies and add

  10. Pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes

    NANNAN LIU; QIANG XU; FANG ZHU; LEE ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Repeated blood feedings throughout their life span have made mosquitoes ideal transmitters of a wide variety of disease agents. Vector control is a very important part of the current global strategy for the control of mosquito-associated diseases and insecticide application is the most important component in this effort. Pyrethroids, which account for 25% of the world insecticide market, are currently the most widely used insecticides for the indoor control of mosquitoes and are the only chemical recommended for the treatment of mosquito nets, the main tool for preventing malaria in Africa. However, mosquito-borne diseases are now resurgent, largely because of insecticide resistance that has developed in mosquito vectors and the anti-parasite drug resistance of parasites. This paper reviews our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing metabolic detoxification and the development of target site insensitivity that leads to pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes.

  11. Repovoamento de criadouros de Biomphalaria glabrata após tratamento com niclosamida Repopulation of breeding habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata after treatment with niclosamide

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos foram feitos no laboratório e no campo nos anos de 1980 a 1984, objetivando detectar as causas do repovoamento de criadouros de Biomphalaria glabrata após tratamento com niclosamida. Os bioensaios no laboratório mostraram que a suscetibilidade à niclosamida emulsionável de B. glabrata coletada mensalmente em um sistema de valas de irrigação, variou durante o ano. As concentrações letais CL90 foram 0,15 mgl-1 a 0,60 mgl-1, apresentando diferenças significantes estatisticamente (p Experiments were undertaken both in the laboratory and in the field between 1980-1984 to evaluate the causes of repopulation of breeding places of Biomphalaria glabrata following treatment with Niclosamide. Laboratory bioassays showed that the susceptibility to emulsifiable Niclosamide of B. glabrata collected monthly from an irrigation ditch system varied during the year. Lethal concentrations (LC90 ranged between 0.15 mg/l-1 and 0.60 mg/l-1. Statistically significant differences (alpha=0.01 were evident between the months of May/82 and January/83 and December/82 and January/83, and were related to snail nutrition. In the field two types of foci of B. glabrata were treated with 10 ppm of Niclosamide. The first one consisted of a reservoir of 12000 1 of water in which 14.5% of snails were infected with Schistosoma mansoni. One application of molluscicide followed by cleaning of the reservoir eliminated all the snails. The second one consisted of an irrigation system in which 5.6% of the snails were infected with S. mansoni. One application of molluscicide without cleaning the ditches reduced the density of snails by 98%. The causes of the survival of 2.0% of the snails in the ditches are discussed in relation to the substratum of the breeding places and the treatment technique.

  12. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Mosquito ... español ¡Ay! ¡Me picó un mosquito! What's a Mosquito? A mosquito (say: mus-KEE-toe) is an ...

  13. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait

    José Lopes; Ana L. Lozovei

    1996-01-01

    With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion) sp. e Aedes fluviati...

  14. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait

    José Lopes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion sp. e Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 and showed shong anthopophilia and a high degree of adaptation to humam environment. On the cantray, the species that showed lilth adaptation to such ambients or to the geoclimatic conditions of the region were: Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto, 1922; An. parvus (Chagas, 1907; An. lutzii Cruzi, 1901, Culex amazonensis (Lutz, 1905; Cx. chidesteri; Psorophora confinnis (Linch Arribalzaga, 1891; Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856; Ps. cingulata (Fabricius, 1805 e Aedes scapularis. Although Anopheles argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827; Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, 1906; Cx. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906 and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, 1823, were captured in little numbers, it is knowntht they an mosquito of human surroundings. These mosquitos showed a plak of feeding activity directly related to sunset bat did not have a bimodal behaviour. Anophelinae were in general more active in spring while Culex Linnaeus, 1758; Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905; Aedes Meigen, 1818; Mansonia Blanchard, 1901 e Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827 were more active in summer.

  15. Efecto de la calidad del agua de criaderos de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) sobre la patogenicidad e infectividad de las zoosporas del hongo Leptolegnia chapmanii (Straminipila: Peronosporomycetes)

    Sebastian A. Pelizza; López Lastra, Claudia C.; Arnaldo Maciá; Vilma Bisaro; Juan J García

    2009-01-01

    Effect of water quality in mosquito breeding sites on the pathogenicity and infectivity of zoospores from the fungus Leptolegnia chapmanii (Straminipila: Peronosporomycetes). The fungus Leptolegnia chapmanii is highly pathogenic to mosquito larvae in Argentina. We studied if physical and chemical characteristics of the water from mosquito breeding sites affect pathogenicity, and the infectivity of zoospores of L. chapmanii. Water samples were taken from pools filled by rains, urban ditches wi...

  16. The primary investigation of mosquitoes population and density at Yunfu port%云浮口岸蚊类种群及密度首次调查

    刘传鸽; 罗琳; 胡龙飞; 邓继棠; 马泽征; 侯捷; 张友

    2012-01-01

    目的 掌握云浮口岸蚊类的种群构成、不同生境密度分布和季节消长变化,以及云浮地区白纹伊蚊刺叮节律情况,为口岸蚊类及蚊媒传染病的有效防制提供依据.方法 在蚊类易孳生和栖息地点,采用电动吸蚊器、诱蚊灯和灭蚊磁场捕捉成蚊,采用勺捞法采集幼虫和蛹,待羽化为成蚊后进行分类鉴定;成蚊密度调查选择有代表性的生态环境,采用人工小时法监测.结果 2011年5-11月共捕获成蚊42 367只,采集各龄期幼虫和蛹3680只,经鉴定隶属3亚科8属12种;优势蚊种依次为三带喙库蚊、致倦库蚊和白纹伊蚊;成蚊季节消长呈双峰型,5、6月为第一个高峰期,8月为第二个高峰期;白纹伊蚊昼夜都有刺叮活动,一天中有3个刺叮高峰,白天刺叮活动显著高于晚上.结论 本次调查是云浮口岸地区的首次蚊类调查,较准确地反映了云浮口岸地区在自然条件下蚊类种群的基本情况,为进一步的蚊类监测和防治工作提供了基础数据.%Objective To investigate the mosquito population, density and distribution in different habitats at Yunfu port in Guangdong province, and to provide the scientific evidence for controlling mosquito and vector - bom infectious diseases. Methods Labour hour method, CDC light traps and mosquito magnet were taken for the survey of adult mosquitoes, scoop dipping method for the survey of larvaes and pupaes which would be identified after captured at the mosquito breeding site. The density of adult mosquitoes was obtained by monitoring mosquitoes with labour hour method in typical habitat. Results A total of 42 367 adult mosquitoes and 3680 larvaes were collected from May to November in 2011, which belong to 3 subfamily, 8 genera and 12 species. The dominant species are Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. pipiens quinquefascuitus and Aedes albopictus successively. There were two peaks of adult mosquitoes density from May to November. The first is

  17. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1998

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1979

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1979. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  19. Final Performance Report : Snowy Plover Breeding Distribution

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of breeding populations and nesting habitat of the snowy plover were conducted from January to August, 1989 along the Gulf Coast of Florida and Alabama....

  20. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1987

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1987. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1999

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1999. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  2. Mosquito Immunity against Arboviruses

    Shuzhen Sim; Natapong Jupatanakul; George Dimopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundam...

  3. Rationalizing Historical successes of malaria control in Africa in terms of mosquito resource availabilty management

    Killeen, G.F.; Seyoum, A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental management of mosquito resources is a promising approach with which to control malaria, but it has seen little application in Africa for more than half a century. Here we present a kinetic model of mosquito foraging for aquatic habitats and vertebrate hosts that allows estimation of ma

  4. The use of remote sensing in mosquito control

    1973-01-01

    The technology of remote sensing, developed by the space program for identification of surface features from the vantage point of an aircraft or satellite, has substantial application in precisely locating mosquito breeding grounds. Preliminary results of the NASA technology working cooperatively with a city government agency in solving this problem are discussed.

  5. Biology and behaviour of male mosquitoes in relation to new approaches to control disease transmitting mosquitoes

    Lees, R S; Knols, B.; Bellini, R; M. Q. Benedict; Bheecarry, A.; Bossin, H.C.; Chadee, D.D.; Charlwood, J.; Dabiré, R.K.; Djogbenou, L.; Eyir-Yawson, A.; Gato, R.; Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Hassan, M.M.; Khan, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The enormous burden placed on populations worldwide by mosquito-borne diseases, most notably malaria and dengue, is currently being tackled by the use of insecticides sprayed in residences or applied to bednets, and in the case of dengue vectors through reduction of larval breeding sites or larviciding with insecticides thereof. However, these methods are under threat from, amongst other issues, the development of insecticide resistance and the practical difficulty of maintaining long-term co...

  6. Alguns aspectos da ecologia dos mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) de uma área de planície (granjas Calábria), em Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: V. Criadouros Some aspects of the ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of an area of plains (granjas Calábria), in Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro: V. Breeding places

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira; Rosemarie Heyden; Teresa Fernandes da Silva

    1986-01-01

    Apresentamos os resultados de observações sobre os criadouros dos mosquitos, que realizamos numa fazenda - Granjas Calábria, da Baixada de Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, no período de agosto de 1981 a julho de 1983. A maioria das espécies locais preferiu coleções líquidas no solo, particularmente as de caráter natural, não deixando, entretanto, de procurar aquelas propiciadas pelas atividades humanas. Os criadouros transitórios foram mais freqüentados por Culex saltanensis e pelas espécies da t...

  7. Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection

    David Durrheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas.Results: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30 cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms.Discussion: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.

  8. The Knowledge and Experience of Dengue Mosquitoes among Housewives.

    Atik Triratnawati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF prevention programs in Semarang, were focused through controlling mosquito breeding sites (PSN, but the implementation of PSN was not become a habit in every household. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and experience of dengue mosquitoes among housewives in the endemic villages.The research was using qualitative methods. Subjects of the study were 17 housewives which selected by purposive sampling. The data collection was carried in Sendangmulyo village, Semarang, through observation, focus groups discussions, and indepth interviews. The techniques used to test data validity were triangulation and member checking method. Data were analyzed using content analysis approached. The results showed that housewives classifying mosquito based on time occurrence whether the presence of mosquito in environment was perceived naturally. Unoptimalized PSN behavior was based on the lack of housewives knowledge on larvae development stages. Mosquito was not considered as a threatening because night mosquito biting was directly more disturbing rather than day mosquitoes’. Health promotion program could increase dasa wisma cadres knowledge and skill, particularly on mosquito life cycle and the correct stages of PSN behavior. This study did not distinguish the demographic characteristics of informants. Further reserch could explore it or develop media based on local knowledge and experience.

  9. Controlling Mosquitoes Indoors

    2016-08-23

    Mosquitoes can carry viruses, like West Nile and Zika. In this podcast, Mr. Hubbard teaches his neighbors, the Smith family, ways to help reduce the number of mosquitoes inside their home.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  10. How Mosquitoes Detect People

    ... mosquito-borne diseases are endemic,” Ray says. — by Carol Torgan, Ph.D. Related Links Targeting the Mosquito's ... Assistant Editors: Vicki Contie, Tianna Hicklin, Ph.D., Carol Torgan, Ph.D. NIH Research Matters is a ...

  11. UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Highlights: •Mosquito tolerance to temephos is induced by PAHs and UV exposure. •Toxicity of fluoranthene for mosquito Malpighian tubules cells is induced by UV. •Fluoranthene crystallizes in mosquito Malpighian tubules upon UV exposure. •Mixture of two PAHs is less toxic for mosquitoes than each PAHs separately. •Combination of abiotic parameters (PAHs and UV) affect mosquito physiology. -- Abstract: Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species–ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis–Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on

  12. UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Tetreau, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.tetreau@gmail.com [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France); Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud’homme, Sophie M.; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Mosquito tolerance to temephos is induced by PAHs and UV exposure. •Toxicity of fluoranthene for mosquito Malpighian tubules cells is induced by UV. •Fluoranthene crystallizes in mosquito Malpighian tubules upon UV exposure. •Mixture of two PAHs is less toxic for mosquitoes than each PAHs separately. •Combination of abiotic parameters (PAHs and UV) affect mosquito physiology. -- Abstract: Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species–ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis–Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on

  13. Transmission of tularemia from a water source by transstadial maintenance in a mosquito vector

    Bäckman, Stina; Näslund, Jonas; Forsman, Mats; Thelaus, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are thought to function as mechanical vectors of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica (F. t. holarctica) causing tularemia in humans. We investigated the clinical relevance of transstadially maintained F. t. holarctica in mosquitoes. Aedes egypti larvae exposed to a fully virulent F. t. holarctica strain for 24 hours, were allowed to develop into adults when they were individually homogenized. Approximately 24% of the homogenates tested positive for F. t. DNA in PCR. Mice injected with the mosquito homogenates acquired tularemia within 5 days. This novel finding demonstrates the possibility of transmission of bacteria by adult mosquitoes having acquired the pathogen from their aquatic larval habitats.

  14. Arbovirus Prevalence in Mosquitoes, Kenya

    LaBeaud, A. Desiree; Sutherland, Laura J.; Muiruri, Samuel; Muchiri, Eric M.; Gray, Laurie R; Zimmerman, Peter A; Hise, Amy G.; King, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the many mosquito species that harbor arboviruses in Kenya. During the 2006–2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in North Eastern Province, Kenya, exophilic mosquitoes were collected from homesteads within 2 affected areas: Gumarey (rural) and Sogan-Godud (urban). Mosquitoes (n = 920) were pooled by trap location and tested for Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. The most common mosquitoes trapped belonged to the genus Culex (75%). Of 105 mosquito pools teste...

  15. UV light and urban pollution: bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species-ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further

  16. PERCEPTIONS REGARDING MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASES IN AN URBAN AREA OF RAJKOT CITY

    Amul B. Patel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquito borne diseases is a growing urban problem because of unplanned urbanization, industrialization and excessive population growth coupled with rural to urban migration. For developing a suitable and effective health education strategy, it is inevitable to understand the level of knowledge of the community, their attitude and practices regarding mosquito borne diseases. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in an urban field practice area of Urban Health Centre in Rajkot city. Total 500 houses were selected for study by systematic random sampling. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire during transmission season of vector borne diseases. The results were analyzed using the SPSS 17 software. Results: 90% respondents agreed that mosquitoes are a problem. 30.4% didn’t know breeding sites of mosquitoes. Only 11.6% of people associated clean water collections with mosquito breeding. Regarding diseases transmitted by mosquito, 62% answered malaria, 37.4% were not aware and 8.8% people mentioned about Filariasis, Dengue or Japanese encephalitis. 4.7% granted mosquito control as responsibility of community. 61.4 % were using repellents for prevention against mosquito bites and 39% not taking any preventive measure. 67.8% consulted private practitioner for treatment. Conclusion: Intensified efforts towards creating public awareness and mobilizing the community regarding the preventive measures they can take are needed. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 45-47

  17. Population trend and breeding biology of Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus in a natural vegetation site in northeast Spain

    Limiñana, Rubén; Surroca Royo, Martín; Miralles, Stephan; Urios, Vicente; Jiménez, Juan (O.F.M.), trad

    2004-01-01

    Capsule: Reproductive output in a natural habitat was higher than in birds breeding in cereal crops, highlighting the importance of natural habitats for the species. Aims: To evaluate breeding in a natural habitat in inland Castellon province, Spain, and compare breeding parameters with other European populations. Methods: Breeding population size in inland Castellon was recorded between 1981 and 2003. A logistic growth model was used to describe population increase. We also calculated clu...

  18. Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Shoo Bryson; Govella Nicodem J; Chaki Prosper P; Hemed Abdullah; Tanner Marcel; Fillinger Ulrike; Killeen Gerry F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP) in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs) to detect mosquito...

  19. Physiological breeding.

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  20. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  1. Distribution and occurrence of mosquito species in the municipal areas of Imo State, Nigeria

    Ifeyinwa Celestina MGBEMENA; Tochi EBE

    2012-01-01

    A study of the ecology of drainage - breeding mosquito vectors was conducted in the three urban centers (Owerri, Orlu and Okigwe) of Imo State, Nigeria. Four drainage sites located around markets, residential, stream and hotel premises were selected in each urban centre. Dipping method of sampling was employed and a total of 8,820 mosquitoes comprising eight species namely; Aedes aegypti, Aedes vittatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tigripes, Culex horridus, Culex cinereus, Culex annuliorus ...

  2. "MOSQUITO FAUNA OF IRAN 2- CULEX (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE "

    M. Aaim

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the mosquito fauna of Iran, and to prepare the temporal as well as the spatial distribution of the Iranian mosquitoes, a comprehensive study has started since 1981. In this program in which more than 60.000 mosquito larvae, from different breeding sites has been studied, 15 species of Culex are reported. These are;Cx. arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. laticinctus, Cx.mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx.pusillus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. sitiens, Cx. territans, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. univittatus. Culex antennatus Cx. impudicus, Cx. modestus. Cx. torrentium and Cx. vegans which have been reported previously by other workers form Iran have not been found. Since the report on Cx. torrentium and Cx. vegans from Iran has been based solely on larvae, their presence can not be regarded certain due to the great overlap of morphological characters with Cx. pipiens.

  3. Mosquito repellents in frog skin

    Williams, C. R.; Smith, B.P.C; Best, S.M.; Tyler, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin secretions to confirm the existence of mosquito repellent properties. Litoria caerulea secretions were assessed for mosquito repellency by topical a...

  4. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals. PMID:27171195

  5. Transfer of toxin genes to alternate bacterial hosts for mosquito control

    Sergio Orduz

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vector of serious human and animal diseases, such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, among others. The use of biological control agents has provide an environmentally safe and highly specific alternative to the use of chemical insecticides in the control of vector borne diseases. Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus produce toxic proteins to mosquito larvae. Great progress has been made on the biochemical and molecular characterization of such proteins and the genes encoding them. Nevertheless, the low residuality of these biological insecticides is one of the major drawbacks. This article present some interesting aspects of the mosquito larvae feeding habits and review the attempts that have been made to genetically engineer microorganisms that while are used by mosquito larvae as a food source should express the Bacillus toxin genes in order to improve the residuality and stability in the mosquito breeding ponds.

  6. Progress report: Waterfowl breeding ground aerial surveys in southern Saskatchewan: 1960

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey and Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1960. The...

  7. Progress report: Waterfowl breeding ground aerial surveys in southern Manitoba: 1957

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey and Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1957. The...

  8. Habitat hydrology and geomorphology control the distribution of malaria vector larvae in rural Africa.

    Andrew J Hardy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Larval source management is a promising component of integrated malaria control and elimination. This requires development of a framework to target productive locations through process-based understanding of habitat hydrology and geomorphology. METHODS: We conducted the first catchment scale study of fine resolution spatial and temporal variation in Anopheles habitat and productivity in relation to rainfall, hydrology and geomorphology for a high malaria transmission area of Tanzania. RESULTS: Monthly aggregates of rainfall, river stage and water table were not significantly related to the abundance of vector larvae. However, these metrics showed strong explanatory power to predict mosquito larval abundances after stratification by water body type, with a clear seasonal trend for each, defined on the basis of its geomorphological setting and origin. CONCLUSION: Hydrological and geomorphological processes governing the availability and productivity of Anopheles breeding habitat need to be understood at the local scale for which larval source management is implemented in order to effectively target larval source interventions. Mapping and monitoring these processes is a well-established practice providing a tractable way forward for developing important malaria management tools.

  9. Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions

    Yan-Jang S. Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations.

  10. Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2013-09-15

    Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes. PMID:23911355