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Sample records for mosquito breeding habitats

  1. Spatial dispersion and characterisation of mosquito breeding habitats in urban vegetable-production areas of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Matthys, B; Koudou, B G; N'Goran, E K; Vounatsou, P; Gosoniu, L; Koné, M; Gissé, G; Utzinger, J

    2010-12-01

    Although urban agriculture (UA) in the developing world may enhance nutrition and local economies, it may also lead to higher densities of mosquito breeding sites and, consequently, to increased transmission of malarial parasites. If targeted interventions against malaria vectors are to be successful in urban areas, the habitats that support Anopheles breeding need to be identified and detected. Mosquito breeding sites have recently been characterised, and the factors associated with productive Anopheles habitats identified, in market gardens of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Two surveys were conducted in seven vegetable-production areas, one towards the end of the rainy season and one during the dry season. A standardized methodology was used for habitat characterisation and the detection of Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae. Overall, 454 and 559 potential mosquito-breeding sites were recorded in the rainy-season and dry-season surveys, respectively. In the rainy season, Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae were found in 29.7% and 5.5% of the potential breeding sites, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages in the dry season were 24.3% and 8.6%. The potential breeding sites in an agricultural zone on the periphery of Abidjan were those least likely to be positive for Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae whereas 'agricultural trenches' between seedbeds were the sites most likely to be positive. In a spatially-explicit Bayesian multivariate logistic-regression model, although one out of every five such wells was also found to harbour Anopheles larvae, irrigation wells were found to be the least productive habitats, of those sampled, for pupae. In the study area, simple and cost-effective strategies of larval control should be targeted at agricultural trenches, ideally with the active involvement of local stakeholders (i.e. urban farmers and urban agricultural extension services). PMID:21144184

  2. Breeding Habitats and Seasonal Prevalences of The Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes (Stg) spp. in Sulawesi, Indonesia and Okinawa, Japan.

    Hasanuddin, ishak

    2008-01-01

    Breeding habitats and seasonal prevalences of the dengue vector mosquitoes, Aedes (Stegomyia) species in and around human houses were suveyed from 1994 to 1996 in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The latter study was also carried out in Okonawa, Japan for comparative study. Aedes aegypti was dominant species indoors especially in the coastal villages of Barru, South Sulawesi in both, dry and rainy seasons. Aedes albopictus in outdoor containers increased in the rainy season mainly in the hill an...

  3. Mapping urban and peri-urban breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes using a fuzzy analytical hierarchical process based on climatic and physical parameters

    Muhammad Shahzad Sarfraz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats.

  4. Mapping urban and peri-urban breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes using a fuzzy analytical hierarchical process based on climatic and physical parameters.

    Sarfraz, Muhammad Shahzad; Tripathi, Nagesh K; Faruque, Fazlay S; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Souris, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats. PMID:25599639

  5. Spectral and spatial characterization of rice field mosquito habitat

    Wood, Byron L.; Beck, Louisa R.; Washino, Robert K.; Palchick, Susan M.; Sebesta, Paul D.

    1991-01-01

    Irrigated rice provides an ideal breeding habitat for Anopheles free-borni, the western malaria mosquito, throughout California. In a 1985 study, it was determined that early-season rice canopy development, as monitored using remotely sensed data, could be used to distinguish between high and low mosquito producing rice fields. This distinction could be made over two months prior to peak mosquito production. It was found that high-producing fields were located in an area characterized by a diversity of land use, including livestock pastures, whereas the low-producing fields were in an area devoted almost exclusively to the cultivation of rice. The ability to distinguish between high and low mosquito producing fields prior to peak mosquito production is important in terms of mosquito habitat surveillance and control.

  6. Application of remotely sensed multispectral data to automated analysis of marshland vegetation. Inference to the location of breeding habitats of the salt marsh mosquito (Aedes Sollicitans)

    Cibula, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The techniques used for the automated classification of marshland vegetation and for the color-coded display of remotely acquired data to facilitate the control of mosquito breeding are presented. A multispectral scanner system and its mode of operation are described, and the computer processing techniques are discussed. The procedures for the selection of calibration sites are explained. Three methods for displaying color-coded classification data are presented.

  7. Dry Season Refugia Breeding Ecology of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Minna, North Central Nigeria

    I.C.J. Omalu; B. Idris; I.K. Olayemi; O.M. Odeyemi

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out in Minna, Nigeria, to elucidate the dry season breeding ecology of mosquitoes in the area thus, providing a basis for all-year-round effective implementation of informed larviciding interventions. Mosquito larvae were sampled bi-weekly between the hours of 0800 and 1100 from randomly selected larval breeding habitats in the city, using a 350 mL capacity Dipper. The physical characteristics of the selected habitats were evaluated and related to larval productivity. T...

  8. Role of wastewater irrigation in mosquito breeding in south Punjab, Pakistan

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Herrel, Nathaly; Amerasinghe, Felix P; Ensink, Jeroen; van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    Mosquito breeding within the wastewater irrigation system around the town of Haroonabad in the southern Punjab, Pakistan, was studied from July to September 2000 as part of a wider study of the costs and benefits of wastewater use in agriculture. The objective of this study was to assess the vect...... provide a perennial source of water for vector mosquitos in semi-arid countries like Pakistan. Vector mosquitos exploit these sites if alternative breeding sites with better biological, physical, and chemical conditions are not abundant....... were two species of Culex, viz, Cx. quinquefasciatus (66.5% of culicines) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (20.1%). Aedes were not identified to species level. The occurrence of different species was linked to particular habitats and habitat characteristics such as physical water condition, chemical water...

  9. Distribution of mosquito larvae in various breeding sites in National Zoo Malaysia.

    Muhammad-Aidil, R; Imelda, A; Jeffery, J; Ngui, R; Wan Yusoff, W S; Aziz, S; Lim, Y A L; Rohela, M

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes are principal vectors of major vector-borne diseases. They are widely found throughout urban and rural areas in Malaysia. They are responsible for various vector-borne diseases such as dengue, malaria, filariasis and encephalitis. A total of 158 mosquito larvae specimens were collected from the National Zoo, Malaysia, from 11 types of breeding habitats during the study period from end of May 2007 to July 2007. Aedes albopictus was the predominant species (35.4%), followed by Tripteroides aranoides (26.6%), Lutzia halifaxii (11.4%), Aedes alboscutellatus (10.1%), Aedes caecus (8.9%), Armigeres spp. (4.4%), Malaya genurostris (2.5%) and Culex vishnui (0.6%). It is important to have a mosquito free environment in a public place like the zoo. Routine larval surveillance should be implemented for an effective mosquito control program in order to reduce mosquito population. PMID:25801269

  10. Role of wastewater irrigation in mosquito breeding in south Punjab, Pakistan.

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Herrel, Nathaly; Amerasinghe, Felix P; Ensink, Jeroen; van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2003-03-01

    Mosquito breeding within the wastewater irrigation system around the town of Haroonabad in the southern Punjab, Pakistan, was studied from July to September 2000 as part of a wider study of the costs and benefits of wastewater use in agriculture. The objective of this study was to assess the vector-borne human disease risks associated with mosquito species utilizing wastewater for breeding. Mosquito larvae were collected on a fortnightly basis from components of the wastewater disposal system and irrigated sites. In total, 133 samples were collected, about equally divided between agricultural sites and the wastewater disposal system. Overall, 17.3% of the samples were positive for Anopheles, 12.0% for Culex and 15.0% for Aedes. Four anopheline species, viz, Anopheles stephensi (84.3% of total anophelines), An. subpictus (11.8%), An. culicifacies (2.0%) and An. pulcherrimus (0.2%) were present, as were two species of Culex, viz, Cx. quinquefasciatus (66.5% of culicines) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (20.1%). Aedes were not identified to species level. The occurrence of different species was linked to particular habitats and habitat characteristics such as physical water condition, chemical water quality and the presence of fauna and flora. Anophelines and Aedes mosquitos were mainly collected during the month of July, while Culex were collected in September. The prevalence of established vectors of human diseases such as An. stephensi (malaria), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (Bancroftian filariasis, West Nile fever) in the wastewater system indicated that such habitats could contribute to vector-borne disease risks for human communities that are dependent upon wastewater use for their livelihoods. Wastewater disposal and irrigation systems provide a perennial source of water for vector mosquitos in semi-arid countries like Pakistan. Vector mosquitos exploit these sites if alternative breeding sites with better biological, physical, and chemical conditions are not abundant. PMID:12971517

  11. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero......, whereas the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the...

  12. Mosquito species and outdoor breeding places in residential areas in Malaysia.

    Saleeza, S N R; Norma-Rashid, Y; Azirun, M Sofian

    2013-11-01

    We conducted mosquito surveillance at outdoor breeding habitat in 459 households at 7 urban locations in Putrajaya, Malaysia from January to December 2010 to determine the predominant species and breeding locations. The most common species found at all locations was Aedes albopictus. Gardening utensils were the most common breeding sites. Of the 1,885 mosquito larvae specimens found, 1,774 (94.1%) were Ae. albopictus larvae, 84 (4%) were Ae. aegypti larvae and 27 (1%) were Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The Aedes index for each of the locations was higher than the goal set by the Ministry of Health for Malaysia. However, the container index at each of the locations was within the goal. The Breateau index was above the goal set by the Ministry of Health at Precinct 9B1 but the other locations were within the goal. PMID:24450233

  13. Dry Season Refugia Breeding Ecology of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Minna, North Central Nigeria

    I.C.J. Omalu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in Minna, Nigeria, to elucidate the dry season breeding ecology of mosquitoes in the area thus, providing a basis for all-year-round effective implementation of informed larviciding interventions. Mosquito larvae were sampled bi-weekly between the hours of 0800 and 1100 from randomly selected larval breeding habitats in the city, using a 350 mL capacity Dipper. The physical characteristics of the selected habitats were evaluated and related to larval productivity. The results indicated that Anopheles mosquitoes constituted 55.00% of all larvae collected, followed by Culex (36.29% and Aedes (17.49%. The patterns of mean monthly density distribution of the three mosquito Genera were similar, i.e., decreasing significantly (pAnopheles and Aedes preferring the Drains (24.40±5.13 and 14.20±5.12 larvae/sampling day, respectively and Culex mosquitoes encountered more frequently in the Swamps (16.80±6.22 larvae/sampling day. The Drains were the most productive habitats, accounting for over 50% larval production during the period, distantly followed by the Swamp (31.60±16.38 larvae/sampling day while, the densities of larvae in the Wells and Rivers were significantly low (7.40±7.79 and 3.40±5.24 larvae/sampling day, respectively. Again, in terms of physical attributes, the Drains were the most ideal habitat for larval development, been relatively small (diameter = 2.30±0.00 m; most shallow (depth = 0.14±0.01 m; warmest (27.52±0.48°C and nearest to human habitations (2.80±0.00 m. The epidemiological implications of these results were discussed and concluded that targeting dry season larviciding interventions at the productive larval breeding habitats will go a long way in reducing the menace of mosquito-borne diseases in Minna.

  14. Studies on mosquitoes breeding in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria, northern Nigeria

    David A. Adebote

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Rainwater often collects in depressions on rocks to form pools that are ideal breeding sites of mosquito vectors of diseases. Knowledge on the existence of disease vectors in these remote and relatively inaccessible locations could improve epidemiologic understanding and control capabilities. This study identifies mosquito species, their relative abundance and physicochemical characteristics of breeding microhabitats in rock pools on four inselbergs in northern Nigeria.Methods: Soup ladle dipper was used to obtain representative samples of larval mosquitoes breeding in 141 rock pools on four inselbergs. Physicochemical parameters (depth, electrical conductivity, pH, surface area, temperature and total dissolved solids of the pools were determined. Larvae were preserved in 70% alcohol and identified microscopically to species using taxonomic keys. Statistical correlation analysis and ANOVA were used to test the associations between physicochemical parameters and mosquito abundance, and for differences amongst inselbergs. Results: Of 2991 larvae, five species of mosquito distributed in three genera (Anopheles, Aedes and Culex including Ae. vittatus (92.88%, An. ardensis (0.13%, An. distinctus (1.67%, An. wilsoni (0.13% and Cx. ingrami (5.18% bred in the rock pools, Up to five species occurred per pool in various conspecific and heterogeneric combinations. Except for Ae. vittatus, the physicochemical parameters of the pools correlate significantly with species abundance. Conclusion: Ae. vittatus, a potential vector of yellow fever in Nigeria breeds profusely in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria. For comprehensive vector implication and control, rock pools should be amongst the habitats of focus in yellow fever epidemiology.

  15. British container breeding mosquitoes: the impact of urbanisation and climate change on community composition and phenology

    Townroe, Susannah; Callaghan, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abun...

  16. Characterization of water bodies for mosquito habitat using a multi-sensor approach

    Midekisa, A.; Wimberly, M. C.; Senay, G. B.

    2012-12-01

    Malaria is a major health problem in Ethiopia. Anopheles arabiensis, which inhabits and breeds in a variety of aquatic habitats, is the major mosquito vector for malaria transmission in the region. In the Amhara region of Ethiopia, mosquito breeding sites are heterogeneously distributed. Therefore, accurate characterization of aquatic habitats and potential breeding sites can be used as a proxy to measure the spatial distribution of malaria risk. Satellite remote sensing provides the ability to map the spatial distribution and monitor the temporal dynamics of surface water. The objective of this study is to map the probability of surface water accumulation to identify potential vector breeding sites for Anopheles arabiensis using remote sensing data from sensors at multiple spatial and temporal resolutions. The normalized difference water index (NDWI), which is based on reflectance in the green and the near infrared (NIR) bands were used to estimate fractional cover of surface water. Temporal changes in surface water were mapped using NDWI indices derived from MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09A1) for the period 2001-2012. Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery were used to train and calibrate model results from MODIS. Results highlighted interannual variation and seasonal changes in surface water that were observed from the MODIS time series. Static topographic indices that estimate the potential for water accumulation were generated from 30 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data. Integrated fractional surface water cover was developed by combining the static topographic indices and dynamic NDWI indices using Geographic Information System (GIS) overlay methods. Accuracy of the results was evaluated based on ground truth data that was collected on presence and absence of surface water immediately after the rainy season. The study provided a multi-sensor approach for mapping areas with a high potential for surface water accumulation that are potential breeding habitats for anopheline mosquitoes. The resulting products are useful for public health decision making towards effective prevention and control of the malaria burden in the Amhara region of Ethiopia.

  17. Analysing the generality of spatially predictive mosquito habitat models

    LI, Li; Bian, Ling; Yakob, Laith; Zhou, Guofa; YAN, GUIYUN

    2011-01-01

    The increasing spread of multi-drug resistant malaria in African highlands has highlighted the importance of malaria suppression through vector control. Its historical success has meant that larval control has been proposed as part of an integrated malaria vector control program. Due to high operation costs, larval control activities would benefit greatly if the locations of mosquito habitats could be identified quickly and easily, allowing for focal habitat source suppression. Several mosqui...

  18. Mosquito-Disseminated Pyriproxyfen Yields High Breeding-Site Coverage and Boosts Juvenile Mosquito Mortality at the Neighborhood Scale

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Zamora-Perea, Elvira; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Padilla-Torres, Samael D.; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2015-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne pathogens pose major public health challenges worldwide. With vaccines or effective drugs still unavailable for most such pathogens, disease prevention heavily relies on vector control. To date, however, mosquito control has proven difficult, with low breeding-site coverage during control campaigns identified as a major drawback. A novel tactic exploits the egg-laying behavior of mosquitoes to have them disseminate tiny particles of a potent larvicide, pyriproxyfen (...

  19. Fatty acids in anopheline mosquito larvae and their habitats.

    Komínková, Dana; Rejmánková, Eliška; Grieco, John; Achee, Nicole

    2012-12-01

    Larvae of the three important Central American malaria vectors, Anopheles albimanus, An. vestitipennis, and An. darlingi, are found in distinctly different habitats broadly defined by hydrology and aquatic vegetation, but little is known about the actual food quality and quantity of these habitats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are of special interest, because mosquitoes require 20:5?3 (EPA), 20:4?6 (ARA), and 22:6?3 (DHA) and without an adequate supply of these PUFAs they are not able to complete their life cycle. We collected samples of larvae and their corresponding habitats and analyzed their fatty acid (FA) composition to reveal if there are any species-specific and habitat-specific differences in FA composition, and if habitat FA differences can be linked to differences in the mosquito FA pattern and, ultimately, mosquito performance. We also assessed how FA of wild larvae compare to the laboratory-reared larvae. Habitats were generally low in essential PUFAs and there were no significant differences among the FA composition of habitat samples. There were significant differences in FA composition of larvae. An. darlingi contained significantly higher amounts of FA, specifically a higher content of ?-6 PUFA, represented mainly by the linoleic acid (18:2?-6). Large differences were found between field-collected and laboratory-reared An. vestitipennis larvae, especially in the content of PUFAs. The laboratory-reared larvae contained significantly more of the total FA, ?3 PUFA, and MUFA. The laboratory-reared larvae contained three to five times more essential PUFAs, EPA, and DHA. However, there were no differences in the total dry weight of the 4(th) instar larvae between the wild vs laboratory-reared larvae. Total FA in both larvae and habitats of An. albimanus and An. darlingi were positively correlated with the concentration of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC, PON) in their respective habitats, but no such correlation was found for An. vestitipennis. PUFA are a good indicator of nutritional quality, although factors controlling the success of anopheline development from larval habitats are likely to be more complex and would include the presence of predators, pathogens, and toxins as interacting factors. PMID:23181863

  20. Mosquito-Disseminated Pyriproxyfen Yields High Breeding-Site Coverage and Boosts Juvenile Mosquito Mortality at the Neighborhood Scale

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Zamora-Perea, Elvira; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Padilla-Torres, Samael D.; Luz, Sérgio L. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne pathogens pose major public health challenges worldwide. With vaccines or effective drugs still unavailable for most such pathogens, disease prevention heavily relies on vector control. To date, however, mosquito control has proven difficult, with low breeding-site coverage during control campaigns identified as a major drawback. A novel tactic exploits the egg-laying behavior of mosquitoes to have them disseminate tiny particles of a potent larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), from resting to breeding sites, thus improving coverage. This approach has yielded promising results at small spatial scales, but its wider applicability remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a four-month trial within a 20-month study to investigate mosquito-driven dissemination of PPF dust-particles from 100 ‘dissemination stations’ (DSs) deployed in a 7-ha sub-area to surveillance dwellings and sentinel breeding sites (SBSs) distributed over an urban neighborhood of about 50 ha. We assessed the impact of the trial by measuring juvenile mosquito mortality and adult mosquito emergence in each SBS-month. Using data from 1,075 dwelling-months, 2,988 SBS-months, and 29,922 individual mosquitoes, we show that mosquito-disseminated PPF yielded high coverage of dwellings (up to 100%) and SBSs (up to 94.3%). Juvenile mosquito mortality in SBSs (about 4% at baseline) increased by over one order of magnitude during PPF dissemination (about 75%). This led to a >10-fold decrease of adult mosquito emergence from SBSs, from approximately 1,000–3,000 adults/month before to about 100 adults/month during PPF dissemination. Conclusions/Significance By expanding breeding-site coverage and boosting juvenile mosquito mortality, a strategy based on mosquito-disseminated PPF has potential to substantially enhance mosquito control. Sharp declines in adult mosquito emergence can lower vector/host ratios, reducing the risk of disease outbreaks. This approach is a very promising complement to current and novel mosquito control strategies; it will probably be especially relevant for the control of urban disease vectors, such as Aedes and Culex species, that often cause large epidemics. PMID:25849040

  1. Identifying the most productive breeding sites for malaria mosquitoes in The Gambia

    van Loon Emiel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ideally larval control activities should be targeted at sites that generate the most adult vectors, thereby reducing operational costs. Despite the plethora of potential mosquito breeding sites found in the floodplains of the Gambia River, about 150 km from its mouth, during the rainy season, only a small proportion are colonized by anophelines on any day. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of larval habitats most frequently and most densely populated by anopheline larvae and to estimate the numbers of adults produced in different habitats. Methods A case-control design was used to identify characteristics of sites with or without mosquitoes. Sites were surveyed for their physical water properties and invertebrate fauna. The characteristics of 83 sites with anopheline larvae (cases and 75 sites without (controls were collected between June and November 2005. Weekly adult productivity was estimated with emergence traps in water-bodies commonly containing larvae. Results The presence of anopheline larvae was associated with high invertebrate diversity (Odds Ratio, OR 11.69, 95% CI 5.61–24.34, p Anopheles gambiae adults compared with rice fields, floodwater areas close to the edge of the floodplain or close to the river, and stream fringes. Pools were characterized by high water temperature and turbidity, low conductivity, increased presence of algae, and absence of tidal water. Conclusion There are few breeding sites that produce a high number of adult vectors in the middle reaches of the river in The Gambia, whereas those with low productivity are larger in area and can be found throughout the rainy season. Even though risk factors could be identified for the presence and density of larvae and productivity of habitats, the results indicate that anti-larval interventions in this area of The Gambia cannot be targeted in space or time during the rainy season.

  2. Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia

    Ahmad Rohani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

  3. Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes of the Genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae in Guilan Province, Iran

    S Azari-Hamidian

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during April to December 2000 to study mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Prov¬ince of northern Iran. The mosquito larvae were collected by dipping method and larval habitat characteristics recorded ac¬cording to hydro-ecological features. In total, 3937 larvae of the genus Culex from 92 larval breeding sites were collected. Six spe¬cies of the genus Culex; Cx. mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. hortensis, and Cx. terri¬tans were identified in the province and respectively comprised 10.3%, 47.2%, 2.2%, 31%, 6.5%, and 2.8% of the samples. Most of the larvae were collected from the natural habitats (75.6% such as river edges (6.5%, riverbed pools (28.2%, rain pools (47.8%, stream edges (9.4%, grasslands (1.9%, marshes (2.8%, and hoof-prints (3.4% and others from artificial habitats (24.4% including rice fields (32.1%, irrigation channels (7.1%, wells (16.4%, discarded concrete tubes (33.1%, dis¬carded tires (11.0%, and agricultural water-storage pools (0.3%. The ecology of Cx. pipiens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, which are the most prevalent species and potentially involved in the transmission of many pathogens to humans and domes¬ticated animals, must be extensively studied.

  4. Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes of the Genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae in Guilan Province, Iran

    S Azari-Hamidian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during April to December 2000 to study mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Prov¬ince of northern Iran. The mosquito larvae were collected by dipping method and larval habitat characteristics recorded ac¬cording to hydro-ecological features. In total, 3937 larvae of the genus Culex from 92 larval breeding sites were collected. Six spe¬cies of the genus Culex; Cx. mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. hortensis, and Cx. terri¬tans were identified in the province and respectively comprised 10.3%, 47.2%, 2.2%, 31%, 6.5%, and 2.8% of the samples. Most of the larvae were collected from the natural habitats (75.6% such as river edges (6.5%, riverbed pools (28.2%, rain pools (47.8%, stream edges (9.4%, grasslands (1.9%, marshes (2.8%, and hoof-prints (3.4% and others from artificial habitats (24.4% including rice fields (32.1%, irrigation channels (7.1%, wells (16.4%, discarded concrete tubes (33.1%, dis¬carded tires (11.0%, and agricultural water-storage pools (0.3%. The ecology of Cx. pipiens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, which are the most prevalent species and potentially involved in the transmission of many pathogens to humans and domes¬ticated animals, must be extensively studied.

  5. Ecology and habitat characterization of mosquitoes in Saudi Arabia.

    Khater, E I; Sowilem, M M; Sallam, M F; Alahmed, A M

    2013-09-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) contains many of the world's mosquito vectors of parasitic and arboviral diseases. However, few studies addressed their geographic distribution and larval habitat characteristics. We carried out a 14-months mosquito survey in three KSA regions: Makkah and Al-Baha (western) and Jezan (south-western). Larvae were collected by dipping from various water habitats and adults by CDC light and BG sentinel traps. Climatic conditions and physicochemical characteristics of collection sites were recorded. We collected a total of 3331 mosquitoes {larvae (n= 2766, 83%) and adults (n= 565, 17%)} of 21 species from six genera (8 Anopheles, 8 Culex, 1 Aedes and 3 others). Larval water habitats included streams, rocky pits, seepage, leakage and containers (plastic and concrete). Of the total larvae collected, 52% (n= 1439) were Anopheles, 44.3% (n= 1226) were Culex, 0.51% (n= 14) were Aedes aegypti and 3.1% (n= 87) were from four other species. The most abundant species were Culex tritaeniorhynchus (n=1008, ~36.3%) and Anopheles dthali (n= 976, ~35.3%). The medically-important species were Anopheles arabiensis (n= 128) and Anopheles sergenti (n= 58), vectors of malaria and Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus (n= 53) and Ae. aegypti (n= 14), vectors of arboviral diseases. Three species are new records in KSA and all from Jezan: Anopheles superpictus (n= 3), Culex duttoni (n= 1) and Culex mimeticus (n= 1), however the numbers were very low, which requires further investigations. Only two species were collected in the adult stage, Cx. quinquefasciatus (n= 561: 551 females and 10 males) from Makkah and Culex theileri (n= 4, all females) from Al-Baha. Only 3.8% (n= 21) of Cx. quinquefasciatus females were blood-fed. This study provides new information on the bionomics of 21 mosquito species in KSA including six dominant vector species and thus adds to the scarce data available on them. This information is essential to better understand mosquito population dynamics in relation to disease transmission and control. PMID:24189671

  6. Inventory of breeding-sites and species of Anopheline mosquitoes in the Juruá valley

    Rose Monnerat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil the numbers of malaria are cause for concern, especially in the “Legal Amazon” region, where climatic conditions favor the development of the mosquito transmitter. One of the regions with a high infection rate is the Juruá valley. The breeding of the vectors are not well characterized, as well as species of mosquitoes present in each one. In the present work, five types of breeding-sites: excavations, fish-farm tanks, reservoirs, lagoons and creeks were identified and a total of 10 species of Anopheles collected. The highest abundance was of An. peryassui (31%, An. triannulatus (28.3% and An. darlingi (22.5%.

  7. Effect of Leaf Type and Pesticide Exposure on Abundance of Bacterial Taxa in Mosquito Larval Habitats

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Orindi, Benedict O.; KIM, CHANG-HYUN

    2013-01-01

    Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poo...

  8. Ingestibility, Digestibility, and Engineered Biological Control Potential of Flavobacterium hibernum, Isolated from Larval Mosquito Habitats

    Chen, Shicheng; Michael G. Kaufman; Korir, Michelle L.; Walker, Edward D

    2014-01-01

    Flavobacterium hibernum, isolated from larval habitats of the eastern tree hole mosquito, A. triseriatus, remained suspended in the larval feeding zone much longer (8 days) than other bacteria. Autofluorescent protein markers were developed for the labeling of F. hibernum with a strong flavobacterial expression system. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged F. hibernum cells were quickly consumed by larval mosquitoes at an ingestion rate of 9.5 × 104/larva/h. The ingested F. hibernum c...

  9. Diversity and abundance of mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) in an urban park: larval habitats and temporal variation.

    Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio R; Ceretti-Júnior, Walter; de Carvalho, Gabriela C; Nardi, Marcello S; Araujo, Alessandra B; Vendrami, Daniel P; Marrelli, Mauro T

    2015-10-01

    Urban parks are areas designated for human recreation but also serve as shelter and refuge for populations of several species of native fauna, both migratory and introduced. In Brazil, the effect of annual climate variations on Aedes aegypti and dengue epidemics in large cities like São Paulo is well known, but little is known about how such variations can affect the diversity of mosquito vectors in urban parks and the risk of disease transmission by these vectors. This study investigates the influence of larval habitats and seasonal factors on the diversity and abundance of Culicidae fauna in Anhanguera Park, one of the largest remaining green areas in the city of São Paulo. Species composition and richness and larval habitats were identified. Seasonality (cold-dry and hot-rainy periods) and year were considered as explanatory variables and the models selection approach was developed to investigate the relationship of these variables with mosquito diversity and abundance. A total of 11,036 specimens from 57 taxa distributed in 13 genera were collected. Culex nigripalpus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus were the most abundant species. Bamboo internodes and artificial breeding sites showed higher abundance, while ponds and puddles showed greater richness. Significant relationships were observed between abundance and seasonality, with a notable increase in the mosquitos abundance in the warm-rainy periods. The Shannon and Berger-Parker indices were related with interaction between seasonality and year, however separately these predictors showed no relationship with ones. The increased abundance of mosquitoes in warm-rainy months and the fact that some of the species are epidemiologically important increase not only the risk of pathogen transmission to people who frequent urban parks but also the nuisance represented by insect bites. The findings of this study highlight the importance of knowledge of culicid ecology in green areas in urban environments. PMID:26259817

  10. Efficacy of neem chippings for mosquito larval control under field conditions

    Imbahale, Susan S; Mukabana, Wolfgang R

    2015-01-01

    Background An in depth understanding of mosquito breeding biology and factors regulating population sizes is fundamental for vector population control. This paper presents results from a survey of mosquito breeding habitats and the efficacy of neem chippings as a potential larvicide that can be integrated in mosquito control on Nyabondo Plateau in western Kenya. Results Six main mosquito habitat types namely artificial ponds, abandoned fish ponds, active fish ponds, open drains, temporary poo...

  11. Adaptive breeding habitat selection: Is it for the birds?

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The question of why animals choose particular habitats has important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of organisms in the wild and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management. Habitats chosen by animals can influence fitness outcomes via the costs (e.g., predation risk) and benefits (e.g., food availability) of habitat use. Habitat preferences should therefore be under selection to favor those that confer fitness advantages (Clark and Shutler 1999). Indeed, prevailing theory suggests that the habitat preferences of animals should be adaptive, such that fitness is higher in preferred habitats (Hildén 1965, Southwood 1977, Martin 1998). However, studies have often identified apparent mismatches between observed habitat preferences and fitness outcomes across a wide variety of taxa (Valladares and Lawton 1991, Mayhew 1997, Kolbe and Janzen 2002, Arlt and Pärt 2007, Mägi et al. 2009). Certainly, one limitation of studies may be that assessment of “fitness” is typically constrained to fitness surrogates such as nest success rather than lifetime reproductive success or classic Fisherian fitness (Endler 1986). Nevertheless, important habitat choices such as nest sites influence the probability that temporarily sedentary, dependent young are discovered by enemies such as predators and parasites. We therefore expect, on average, to see congruence between evolved habitat preferences and relevant components of fitness (e.g., nest success). Here, we (1) review the prevalence of apparent mismatches between avian breeding-habitat preferences and fitness outcomes using nest-site selection as a focus; (2) describe several potential mechanisms for such mismatches, including anthropogenic, methodological, and ecological–evolutionary; and (3) suggest a framework for understanding the contexts in which habitat preferences represent adaptive decisions, with a primary focus on ecological information theory. We largely focus on habitat selection as a behavioral process at the scale of individuals (e.g., Robertson and Hutto 2006), rather than at the scale of population-level patterns (Fretwell and Lucas 1970, Morris 2003, Johnson 2007). However, these two scales cannot be wholly divorced from one another, as we will discuss.

  12. Fauna and Larval Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran.

    Farahnaz Khoshdel-Nezamiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province.Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province.Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases.

  13. Amendment Number 2 - Effects of Commercial Thinning in Slash Pine on Breeding Birds and Their Habitat

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A plan to determine the impact on breeding birds and their habitat of thinning by commercial harvest in the slash pine habitat type on St. Vincent Island. This plan...

  14. Detection of potential mosquito breeding sites based on community sourced geotagged images

    Agarwal, Ankit; Chaudhuri, Usashi; Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Seetharaman, Guna

    2014-06-01

    Various initiatives have been taken all over the world to involve the citizens in the collection and reporting of data to make better and informed data-driven decisions. Our work shows how the geotagged images collected through the general population can be used to combat Malaria and Dengue by identifying and visualizing localities that contain potential mosquito breeding sites. Our method first employs image quality assessment on the client side to reject the images with distortions like blur and artifacts. Each geotagged image received on the server is converted into a feature vector using the bag of visual words model. We train an SVM classifier on a histogram-based feature vector obtained after the vector quantization of SIFT features to discriminate images containing either a small stagnant water body like puddle, or open containers and tires, bushes etc. from those that contain flowing water, manicured lawns, tires attached to a vehicle etc. A geographical heat map is generated by assigning a specific location a probability value of it being a potential mosquito breeding ground of mosquito using feature level fusion or the max approach presented in the paper. The heat map thus generated can be used by concerned health authorities to take appropriate action and to promote civic awareness.

  15. Breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan

    Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J; Mukhtar, M; van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F

    2001-01-01

    As part of investigations on potential linkages between irrigation and malaria transmission, all surface water bodies in and around three villages along an irrigation distributary in South Punjab, Pakistan, were surveyed for anopheline mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from April 1999 to March...... Anopheles larvae of six morphological types were collected from 2992 samples taken from irrigation/agricultural and village/domestic aquatic habitats. Anopheles subpictus Grassi sensu lato was by far the most abundant (74.3%), followed by An. culicifacies Giles s.l. (4.1%), An. stephensi Liston s.l. (2.......6%), An. pulcherrimus Theobald (1.8%), An. peditaeniatus Leicester (0.3%) and An. nigerrimus Giles (0.1%). The four most abundant species were significantly associated with waterlogged fields and communal village drinking-water tanks. Habitat characteristics most correlated with occurrence of anophelines...

  16. Community structure of ground-water breeding mosquitoes driven by land use in a temperate wetland of Argentina.

    Cardo, María Victoria; Darío, Vezzani; Eduardo, Carbajo Aníbal

    2011-08-01

    Wetlands have traditionally been associated with harbouring mosquitoes, but the effect of the land use on their communities has not been thoroughly studied. We characterized the ground-water habitat availability and mosquito species richness and composition during a year-round survey in the predominant land uses (domestic areas, Salicaceae plantations, secondary forests and Scirpus giganteus marshes) of the Paraná Lower Delta, Argentina. Each land use presented a characteristically different number, composition, and diversity of ground-water habitats, and harboured mosquitoes throughout the year. Nearly half of the 824 habitats examined, consisting of 10 types, were positive for immatures. We identified 23 species from 7 genera, with Culex and Ochlerotatus species accounting for 81.7% of all samples. Species richness was significantly lower in marshes than in the other land uses. Some species such as Culex dolosus s.l. and Ochlerotatus crinifer exhibited no habitat-type restrictions, while Uranotaenia nataliae and Mansonia indubitans presented specific habitat requirements. Our results strongly suggest that land use within temperate wetlands drives species richness and composition of ground-water mosquito communities through larval habitat availability. PMID:21550332

  17. Larval Habitats Diversity and Distribution of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species in the Republic of Moldova.

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K

    2015-11-01

    A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova. PMID:26364191

  18. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal against peridomestic mosquitoes. PMID:25255027

  19. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal against peridomestic mosquitoes. PMID:25255027

  20. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks.

    Björklund, Heidi; Valkama, Jari; Tomppo, Erkki; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m) around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists. PMID:26422684

  1. Habitat selection and movements of Piping Plover broods suggest a tradeoff between breeding stages

    Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Pearse, Aaron T.

    2015-01-01

    In precocial birds, adults select breeding areas using cues associated with habitat characteristics that are favorable for nesting success and chick survival, but there may be tradeoffs in habitat selection between these breeding stages. Here we describe habitat selection and intra-territory movements of 53 Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) broods (320 observations) during the 2007–2008 breeding seasons on mainland- and island-shoreline habitats at Lake Sakakawea, North Dakota, USA. We used remotely sensed habitat characteristics to separately examine habitat selection and movements at two spatiotemporal scales to account for potential confounding effects of nest-site selection on brood-rearing habitat used. The scales used were (1) the entire brood-rearing period within available brood-rearing areas and (2) 2-day observation intervals within age-specific discrete habitat selection choice sets. Analyses at both scales indicated that broods selected areas which were non-vegetated, moderately level, and nearer to the shoreline. Rate of brood movement increased with age up to 5 days, then stabilized; broods that hatched >50 m away from the shoreline moved toward the shoreline. Brood movements were greater when they were in vegetated areas, when the brood-rearing area was of greater topographic complexity, and when broods aged 6–25 days were further away from the shoreline. Using inferences from our results and those of previously published work, we postulate how a potential tradeoff in habitat selection between nesting and brood-rearing can contribute to an ecological trap in a novel habitat. This work, in the context of published works, suggests that plover breeding habitat is a complex of both nesting and brood-rearing habitats and provides a basis for making remotely sensed abundance estimates of suitable breeding habitat for Piping Plovers.

  2. A delay differential equation model for dengue transmission with regular visits to a mosquito breeding site

    Yaacob, Y.; Yeak, S. H.; Lim, R. S.; Soewono, E.

    2015-03-01

    Dengue disease has been known as one of widely transmitted vector-borne diseases which potentially affects millions of people throughout the world especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries. One of the main factors contributing in the complication of the transmission process is the mobility of people in which people may get infection in the places far from their home. Here we construct a delay differential equation model for dengue transmission in a closed population where regular visits of people to a mosquito breeding site out of their residency such as traditional market take place daily. Basic reproductive ratio of the system is obtained and depends on the ratio between the outgoing rates of susceptible human and infective human. It is shown that the increase of mobility with different variation of mobility rates may contribute to different level of basic reproductive ratio as well as different level of outbreaks.

  3. Dry season ecology of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in Baringo, Kenya

    Mbogo Charles C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-adult stages of malaria vectors in semi-arid areas are confronted with highly variable and challenging climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to determine which larval habitat types are most productive in terms of larval densities in the dry and wet seasons within semi-arid environments, and how vector species productivity is partitioned over time. Methods Larval habitats were mapped and larvae sampled longitudinally using standard dipping techniques. Larvae were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods. Physical characteristics of larval habitats, including water depth, turbidity, and presence of floating and emergent vegetation were recorded. Water depth was measured using a metal ruler. Turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperatures salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS were measured in the field using the hand-held water chemistry meters. Results Mean larval densities were higher in the dry season than during the wet season but the differences in density were not statistically significant (F = 0.04, df = 1, p = 0.8501. Significantly higher densities of larvae were collected in habitats that were shaded and holding turbid, temporary and still water. Presence of emergent or floating vegetation, habitat depth, habitat size and habitat distance to the nearest house did not significantly affect larval density in both villages. There was a weakly positive relationship between larval density and salinity (r = 0.19, p Conclusion Breeding of malaria vector mosquitoes in Baringo is driven by predominantly human-made and permanent breeding sites in which Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus breed at a low level throughout the year. Permanent water sources available during the dry season serve as inocula by providing "larval seed" to freshly formed rain-fed habitats during the rainy season. The highly localized and focal nature of breeding sites in these semi-desert environments provides a good opportunity for targeted larval control since the habitats are few, well-defined and easily traceable.

  4. Immature Aedes mosquitoes colonize Culex quinquefasciatus breeding sites in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco

    Suzane Alves dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%, Aedes albopictus (0.03%, and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8% were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex.

  5. Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health

    Highlights: ► An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. ► Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. ► Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. ► Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that are most frequently disposed off contributed largely to the sustenance of Aedes mosquito population in the city. This calls for a strict legislation towards disposal as well as enhanced management of the household wastes. A link between the wastes disposed and subsequent conversion to the mosquito larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population and possibility of dengue epidemics if the existing management practices are not improved.

  6. Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health

    Banerjee, Soumyajit, E-mail: soumyajitb@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Aditya, Gautam, E-mail: gautamaditya2001@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104 (India); Saha, Goutam K, E-mail: gkszoo@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that are most frequently disposed off contributed largely to the sustenance of Aedes mosquito population in the city. This calls for a strict legislation towards disposal as well as enhanced management of the household wastes. A link between the wastes disposed and subsequent conversion to the mosquito larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population and possibility of dengue epidemics if the existing management practices are not improved.

  7. Mosquito habitat and dengue risk potential in Kenya: alternative methods to traditional risk mapping techniques

    David F. Attaway

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks, epidemics and endemic conditions make dengue a disease that has emerged as a major threat in tropical and sub-tropical countries over the past 30 years. Dengue fever creates a growing burden for public health systems and has the potential to affect over 40% of the world population. The problem being investigated is to identify the highest and lowest areas of dengue risk. This paper presents “Similarity Search”, a geospatial analysis aimed at identifying these locations with- in Kenya. Similarity Search develops a risk map by combining environmental susceptibility analysis and geographical infor- mation systems, and then compares areas with dengue prevalence to all other locations. Kenya has had outbreaks of dengue during the past 3 years, and we identified areas with the highest susceptibility to dengue infection using bioclimatic variables, elevation and mosquito habitat as input to the model. Comparison of the modelled risk map with the reported dengue epi- demic cases obtained from the open source reporting ProMED and Government news reports from 1982-2013 confirmed the high-risk locations that were used as the Similarity Search presence cells. Developing the risk model based upon the bio- climatic variables, elevation and mosquito habitat increased the efficiency and effectiveness of the dengue fever risk mapping process.

  8. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  9. Ingestibility, digestibility, and engineered biological control potential of Flavobacterium hibernum, isolated from larval mosquito habitats.

    Chen, Shicheng; Kaufman, Michael G; Korir, Michelle L; Walker, Edward D

    2014-02-01

    Flavobacterium hibernum, isolated from larval habitats of the eastern tree hole mosquito, A. triseriatus, remained suspended in the larval feeding zone much longer (8 days) than other bacteria. Autofluorescent protein markers were developed for the labeling of F. hibernum with a strong flavobacterial expression system. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged F. hibernum cells were quickly consumed by larval mosquitoes at an ingestion rate of 9.5 × 10(4)/larva/h. The ingested F. hibernum cells were observed mostly in the foregut and midgut and rarely in the hindgut, suggesting that cells were digested and did not pass the gut viably. The NanoLuc luciferase reporter system was validated for quantitative larval ingestion rate and bacterial fate analyses. Larvae digested 1.87 × 10(5) cells/larva/h, and few F. hibernum cells were excreted intact. Expression of the GFP::Cry11A fusion protein with the P20 chaperone protein from Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 was successfully achieved in F. hibernum. Whole-cell bioassays of recombinant F. hibernum exhibited high larvicidal activity against A. triseriatus in microplates and in microcosms simulating tree holes. F. hibernum cells persisted in microcosms at 100, 59, 30, and 10% of the initial densities at days 1, 2, 3, and 6, respectively, when larvae were absent, while larvae consumed nearly all of the F. hibernum cells within 3 days of their addition to microcosms. PMID:24296502

  10. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Jennifer C. Rock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  11. Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter "flycatcher") is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in saltcedar habitats exhibit poorer nutritional condition or are suffering negative physiological affects. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2005.

  12. Urbanization Increases Aedes albopictus Larval Habitats and Accelerates Mosquito Development and Survivorship

    Li, Yiji; Kamara, Fatmata; Zhou, Guofa; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Li, Chunyuan; Liu, Yanxia; Zhou, Yanhe; Yao, Lijie; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aedes albopictus is a very invasive and aggressive insect vector that causes outbreaks of dengue fever, chikungunya disease, and yellow fever in many countries. Vector ecology and disease epidemiology are strongly affected by environmental changes. Urbanization is a worldwide trend and is one of the most ecologically modifying phenomena. The purpose of this study is to determine how environmental changes due to urbanization affect the ecology of Aedes albopictus. Methods Aquatic habitats and Aedes albopictus larval population surveys were conducted from May to November 2013 in three areas representing rural, suburban, and urban settings in Guangzhou, China. Ae. albopictus adults were collected monthly using BG-Sentinel traps. Ae. albopictus larva and adult life-table experiments were conducted with 20 replicates in each of the three study areas. Results The urban area had the highest and the rural area had the lowest number of aquatic habitats that tested positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Densities in the larval stages varied among the areas, but the urban area had almost two-fold higher densities in pupae and three-fold higher in adult populations compared with the suburban and rural areas. Larvae developed faster and the adult emergence rate was higher in the urban area than in suburban and rural areas. The survival time of adult mosquitoes was also longer in the urban area than it was in suburban and rural areas. Study regions, surface area, water depth, water clearance, surface type, and canopy coverage were important factors associated with the presence of Ae. albopictus larvae. Conclusions Urbanization substantially increased the density, larval development rate, and adult survival time of Ae. albopictus, which in turn potentially increased the vector capacity, and therefore, disease transmissibility. Mosquito ecology and its correlation with dengue virus transmission should be compared in different environmental settings. PMID:25393814

  13. Larval mosquito habitat utilization and community dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Unlu, Isik; Obenauer, Peter; Hughes, Tony; Healy, Sean; Crepeau, Taryn; Farajollahi, Ary; Kesavaraju, Banu; Fonseca, Dina; Schoeler, George; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. japonicus (Theobald) are important container-inhabiting mosquitoes that transmit disease agents, outcompete native species, and continue to expand their range in the United States. Both species deposit eggs in natural and artificial containers and thrive in peridomestic environments. The goal of our study was to examine the types and characteristics of containers that are most productive for these species in the northeastern United States. In total, 306 containers were sampled in urban, suburban, and rural areas of New Jersey. Multiple biotic and abiotic factors were recorded in an attempt to identify variables associated with the productivity of each species. Based on pupal abundance and density of container types, results showed that tires, trash cans, and planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. albopictus, while planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. japonicus. Container color (black and gray), material (rubber), and type (tires) were correlated with species presence for Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus. These factors may play a role in the selection of oviposition sites by female mosquitoes or in the survival of their progeny. Differences in species composition and abundance were detected between areas classified as urban, suburban, and rural. In urban and suburban areas, Ae. albopictus was more abundant in container habitats than Ae. japonicus; however, Ae. japonicus was more abundant in rural areas, and when water temperatures were below 14 degrees C. Our results suggest many variables can influence the presence of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus in container habitats in northeastern United States. PMID:22897041

  14. Does land irrigation actually reduce foraging habitat for breeding lesser kestrels? The role of crop types

    Ursúa, Esperanza; Serrano, David; Tella, José Luis

    2005-01-01

    The lesser kestrel is a Globally Threatened Species which large decline has been related to recent agricultural changes in European pseudo-steppes. Irrigation is considered as one of the major threats for this and other steppe birds, but the actual effects of irrigation on foraging habitat selection have been scarcely examined. We studied the selection of traditional dry cereal farming and irrigated habitats by foraging lesser kestrels during the breeding cycle, paying especial attention to p...

  15. The importance of micro-habitat in the breeding of Barn Owls Tyto alba

    Charter M.; Leshem Y.; Meyrom K.; Peleg O.; Roulin A.

    2012-01-01

    Capsule Habitat parameters associated with 706 Barn Owl (Tyto alba) nesting boxes in Israel were analysed. Pairs bred in 259 of the boxes. The intensity of agricultural practices at nestbox sites were shown to have only a weak effect on aspects of Barn Owl breeding in this region.

  16. Upland Habitat Quality and Historic Landscape Composition Influence Genetic Variation of a Pond-Breeding Salamander

    Jeremiah R. Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the temporal and spatial scale at which habitat alteration impacts populations is important for conservation and management. Amphibians have declined more than other vertebrates, and pond-breeding species are particularly susceptible to habitat loss and fragmentation because they have terrestrial and aquatic life stages. One approach to management of pond-breeding species is protection of core upland habitat surrounding the breeding pond. We used genetic variation as an indicator of population status in a common amphibian species, spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum, to determine how amount of suitable upland habitat relates to population status in the greater Charlotte, North Carolina, USA metropolitan area. We developed candidate models to evaluate the relative influence of historical and contemporary forested habitat availability on population genetic variation at two spatial scales of upland area (164 m and 2000 m at four time intervals over the past seven decades (1938, 1978, 1993, 2005. We found that historical land cover best predicted contemporary allelic richness. Inbreeding coefficient and observed heterozygosity were not effectively predicted by forest cover at either spatial or temporal scales. Allelic richness was best predicted at the smaller spatial scale in the 1993 time interval. Predicting and understanding how future landscape configuration affects genetic variation of common and rare species is imperative for the conservation of amphibian and other wildlife populations.

  17. Habitat characterization and spatial distribution of Anopheles sp. mosquito larvae in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) during an extended dry period

    Tanner Marcel; Premji Zul; Kiama Michael; Mtasiwa Deo; Sattler Michael A; Killeen Gerry F; Lengeler Christian

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Introduction By 2030, more than 50% of the African population will live in urban areas. Controlling malaria reduces the disease burden and further improves economic development. As a complement to treated nets and prompt access to treatment, measures targeted against the larval stage of Anopheles sp. mosquitoes are a promising strategy for urban areas. However, a precise knowledge of the geographic location and potentially of ecological characteristics of breeding sites is of major i...

  18. Effect of human disturbance on long-term habitat use and breeding success of the European Nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus

    Andrew Lowe; Amy C. Rogers; Kate L. Durrant

    2014-01-01

    Land managers often respond to declining numbers of target species by creating additional areas of habitat. If these habitats are also subject to human disturbance, then their efforts may be wasted. The European Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus) is a ground-nesting bird that is listed as a species of European Conservation Concern. It appears to be susceptible to human disturbance during the breeding season. We examined habitat use and reproductive success over 10 years in a breeding population...

  19. An Educational Interventional Study to Assess Awareness about Mosquito Breeding, Diseases Caused and Protective Measures Against them among Families Residing in an Urban Slum of Indore City

    Deepa Raghunath

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community participation plays an important role in control of Mosquito borne diseases. This study tries to assess impact of educational intervention on various aspects of mosquito borne diseases in an urban slum. Methodology: An educational interventional study was done in 200 families residing in a slum (Badi Gwaltoli which is in field practice area of Urban Health Centre attached to Department of Community Medicine of M.G.M.Medical College, Indore. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the Head of the family which studied their awareness and perception regarding breeding sites and biting habits of mosquitoes, diseases spread by them and personal protective measures used, followed by an educational intervention and post assessment. Data was entered into Microsoft excel spread sheet and analysed using SPSS version 20 software. Results: 46% of study population knew the correct breeding season of mosquitoes (monsoon season during pre-intervention and 68% of the population post- intervention (p- value 0.004. When asked at what time mosquitoes bite the most, maximum number (92% of people said that mosquitoes bite most in the evening and night, while only 6% and 2% were for morning and noon, respectively. Only 3.5% of the population who knew about breeding sites knew about artificial collections of water. Majority said mosquito breed in dirty stagnant water (78.5%. About 96%of the study population was aware that mosquitoes spread diseases. However, only 33.3%of respondents knew correctly about the diseases spread which improved to 68% in the post-intervention period (p-value=.000. 46% knew all the protection measures against mosquitoes in the pre-intervention which increased to 86% in the post intervention (p.value-.005. Conclusion: Awareness about Aedes mosquitoes and its habits is quite poor and many people still believe that only dirty water serves as a breeding place in mosquitoes. Regular IEC sessions informing community about mosquito-borne diseases will improve community participation.

  20. The Effects of Habitat Type and Volcanic Eruptions on the Breeding Demography of Icelandic Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus.

    Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Alves, José A; Sigurjónsdóttir, Hrefna; Hersteinsson, Páll; Gunnarsson, Tómas G

    2015-01-01

    Distinct preference of species for habitats is most often driven by long term differences in demographic rates between habitats. Estimating variation in those rates is key for developing successful conservation strategies. Stochastic events can interact with underlying variation in habitat quality in regulating demography but the opportunities to explore such interactions are rare. Whimbrels in Iceland show a strong preference for sparsely vegetated riverplains. Such habitats in Iceland face various threats, e.g., climate change, river regulation and spread of alien plant species. In this study we compared demographic parameters of breeding Whimbrels between riverplains and other habitats before, during and after volcanic eruption events to estimate the importance of the habitats for the species and the effect of ash deposit on breeding success. We found that an estimated minimum of 23% of the Icelandic population of Whimbrels and c. 10% of the world population of the species breed in riverplain habitats in Iceland. Whimbrels bred consistently at much higher densities in riverplain habitats than in other habitats and riverplains also had higher densities of pairs with fledglings although the proportion of successful breeders was similar between habitats. Predation by livestock may have had a considerable negative effect on breeding success on our study sites. Breeding was negatively affected by the volcanic activity, probably through the effects of ash on the invertebrate food supply, with breeding success being gradually worse closer to the eruption. Breeding success was equally affected by volcanism across habitats which differed in underlying habitat quality. This study gives an example of how populations can be regulated by factors which operate at different spatial scales, such as local variation in habitat quality and stochastic events which impact larger areas. PMID:26161860

  1. Aquatic Insects of New York Salt Marsh Associated with Mosquito Larval Habitat and their Potential Utility as Bioindicators

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonom...

  2. A study on container breeding mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thiruvananthapuram district, India

    K. Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The district of Thiruvananthapuram reports the maximum number of cases of dengue in the state of Kerala. To determine the larval diversity, density and breeding site preferences of Aedes mosquitoes, during pre-monsoon and monsoon periods in urban and rural areas of Thiruvananthapuram district. Methods: Based on the daily reports of dengue cases, 70 clusters were identified in Thiruvananthapuram district. A cross-sectional larval survey was done in the domestic and peri-domestic areas of 1750 houses, using the WHO standard techniques. The larval indices were calculated, and the larvae were identified by using taxonomic keys. Urban and rural differences and the variations during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons were also studied. Results: In the surveyed houses, 15% had mosquito breeding, with 88% having Aedes larvae. The house index, container index and the breteau index were 13.08, 13.28 and 16.57%, respectively. About 86% of the clusters were found positive for Aedes albopictus and 11% for Ae. aegypti. Aedes albopictus was distributed almost equally in rural and urban clusters, whereas the distribution of Ae. aegypti was significantly higher in urban areas (p = 0.03. The most common water holding containers found (outdoor were of plastic, followed by coconut shells. The breeding preference ratio was highest for tyres. Significantly lesser positivity was found for containers during monsoon period when compared to pre-monsoon period. Conclusion: The geographical distribution of Ae. albopictus is significantly high in peri-domestic areas and, therefore, its epidemiological role in the widespread disease occurrence needs to be studied. The discarded tyres being the most preferred breeding sites, where IEC activities will help in source reduction.

  3. Characterization of potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to urban land-use in Malindi, Kenya

    Keating Joseph

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study characterized Anopheles mosquito larval habitats in relation to ecological attributes about the habitat and community-level drainage potential, and investigated whether agricultural activities within or around urban households increased the probability of water body occurrence. Malindi, a city on the coast of Kenya, was mapped using global positioning system (GPS technology, and a geographic information system (GIS was used to overlay a measured grid, which served as a sampling frame. Grid cells were stratified according to the level of drainage in the area, and 50 cells were randomly selected for the study. Cross-sectional household and entomological surveys were conducted during November and December 2002 within the 50 grid cells. Chi-square analysis was used to test whether water bodies differed fundamentally between well and poorly drained areas, and multi-level logistic regression was used to test whether household-level agricultural activity increased the probability of water body occurrence in the grid cell. Results Interviews were conducted with one adult in 629 households. A total of 29 water bodies were identified within the sampled areas. This study found that characteristics of water bodies were fundamentally the same in well and poorly drained areas. This study also demonstrated that household-level urban agriculture was not associated with the occurrence of water bodies in the grid cell, after controlling for potential confounders associated with distance to the city center, drainage, access to resources, and population density. Conclusions Household-level urban agricultural activity may be less important than the other types of human perturbation in terms of mosquito larval habitat creation. The fact that many larvae were coming from few sites, and few sites in general were found under relatively dry conditions suggests that mosquito habitat reduction is a reasonable and attainable goal in Malindi.

  4. Socioeconomic status affects mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitat type availability and infestation level.

    Dowling, Zara; Ladeau, Shannon L; Armbruster, Peter; Biehler, Dawn; Leisnham, Paul T

    2013-07-01

    Mosquito populations are largely regulated by processes occurring at the larval stage. We sampled mosquito larval microhabitats (mostly water-holding containers) in six neighborhoods in the Washington, DC, area that varied in socioeconomic status (SES) and housing structure (row houses vs. stand-alone houses) to test associations among these neighborhood characteristics, microhabitat abundance and parameters, and mosquito occurrence and densities. Thirty-four percent (33.9%) of sampled microhabitats contained mosquito larvae, and 93.1% of larvae were Aedes albopictus Skuse or Culex pipiens L. Five specific container types (drains, corrugated flexible drainpipes, planters, garbage cans, and buckets) accounted for the majority of water-holding (56.0%) and mosquito-positive (50.6%) microhabitats sampled. We found no associations between SES or housing structure with total microhabitat abundance per yard, mosquito occurrence or mosquito densities per microhabitat. In contrast, container purpose varied with SES, with low SES neighborhoods having greater numbers of disused containers and lower numbers of functional containers than low and medium SES neighborhoods. Ae. albopictus were 83% more abundant in disused containers, whereas Cx. pipiens were more abundant in structural and functional containers, possibly owing to species-specific oviposition and development related to water quality. Ae. albopictus densities increased over the summer, whereas Cx. pipiens densities remained constant. Ae. albopictus is usually the dominant pest in urban areas in the eastern United States; therefore, integrated mosquito management programs should incorporate the elimination of disused containers to reduce its infestation and adult production, especially in low SES neighborhoods where they occur most frequently. PMID:23926774

  5. Boosting the sterile insect technique to control mosquitoes.

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Lefrançois, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of major diseases. Auto-dissemination recently proved very efficient to control Aedes species, using adult females contaminated with dissemination stations of juvenile hormone to treat breeding habitats, but cannot be used at large scales. Here we propose to combine it to the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to create a new control concept, named 'boosted SIT' that might enable the area-wide eradication of mosquitoes and many other vectors and insect pests. PMID:24746400

  6. Field irradiator gamma: pre-irradiation occurrence of breeding birds in three boreal habitats

    A trail census was conducted of the breeding birds found in three major habitats in the Field Irradiator Gamma area at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba. The area sampled was about 10.50 ha in size, and included 4.25 ha of upland forest, 4.75 ha of lowland conifers, and 1.50 ha of black spruce-tamarack bog. Forty-four species of birds were identified, of which 24 were considered to be resident in the study area. The highest population density was observed in the bog, followed by upland forest and lowland conifer respectively. In contrast, species diversity was greatest in the upland forest, while it decreased markedly in the relatively monotypic lowland conifer and bog habitats. (author)

  7. Diet and foraging habitats of non-breeding white storks (Ciconia ciconia in Bulgaria

    Milchev Boyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of non-breeding White Storks was studied by pellet analysis and included mainly insects (99.9%, n=28947 with a predominance of grasshoppers (Orthoptera, 76.1%, and beetles (Coleoptera, 26.1%. The bush crickets Decticus albifrons/verrucivorus were the most numerous prey (29.9% by items, occurring in almost all pellets (98% occurrence in pellets, n=147 and predominating in half of them (49.7%. The grasshopper associations in the pellets specify foraging mainly in mesophytic grasslands that usually replace abandoned fields and overgrown pastures with a low level of grazing. The xerophytic grass-shrubby habitats, not rare on stony terrains, were of less importance, providing around 20% by prey. The typical aquatic inhabitants and the use of carrion around villages were exceptions in the study diet. The number of innutritious materials in the pellets rose when the White Storks hunted on nippy and agile grasshoppers and decreased when the main pray was slower beetles taken from the ground. The roosting of non-breeding White Storks disappeared when their preferred feeding habitats were ploughed up in the following years.

  8. Water management for controlling the breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in rice irrigation schemes in Kenya

    Mutero, C M; Blank, H; Konradsen, F; Hoek, Wim van der

    2000-01-01

    irrigation. The total number of 4th instars was almost the same in the intermittently irrigated subplots and the irrigation system normally practised by the farmers. The failure to eliminate larval development up to the 4th instar in the former method was attributed to residual pools of water. Larval......An experiment to assess the impact of intermittent irrigation on Anopheles larval populations, rice yields and water use was conducted in the Mwea rice irrigation scheme in Kenya. Four water regimes including intermittent irrigation were tested in a complete randomized block experimental design....... Intermittent irrigation was carried out on a weekly schedule, with flooded conditions from Saturday through Tuesday morning. Larval sampling at each plot was conducted every Monday and prior to draining of intermittently irrigated subplots on Tuesday. All the adult anopheline mosquitoes emerging from larvae...

  9. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia

    Shiff Clive

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation data (DEM were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight against malaria in Zambia and other regions with seasonal transmission. This work shows that, in areas of seasonal malaria transmission, incorporating terrain-based landscape models to the planning stages of vector control allows for the exclusion of significant portions of landscape that would be unsuitable for water to accumulate and for mosquito larvae occupation. With increasing free availability of satellite imagery such as SRTM and LandSat, the development of satellite imagery-based prediction models is becoming more accessible to vector management coordinators.

  10. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  11. Modeling direct and indirect climate change impacts on ecological networks : a case study on breeding habitat of Dutch meadow birds

    Van Dijk, Jerry; Van Der Vliet, Roland E.; De Jong, Harm; Zeylmans Van Emmichoven, Maarten J.; Van Hardeveld, Henk A.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Martin J. Wassen

    2015-01-01

    Context: Climate change can directly affect habitats within ecological networks, but may also have indirect effects on network quality by inducing land use change. The relative impact of indirect effects of climate change on the quality of ecological networks currently remains largely unknown. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the relative impact of direct and indirect effects of climate change on a network of breeding habitat of four meadow bird species (Black-tailed g...

  12. Effect of human disturbance on long-term habitat use and breeding success of the European Nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus

    Andrew Lowe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land managers often respond to declining numbers of target species by creating additional areas of habitat. If these habitats are also subject to human disturbance, then their efforts may be wasted. The European Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus is a ground-nesting bird that is listed as a species of European Conservation Concern. It appears to be susceptible to human disturbance during the breeding season. We examined habitat use and reproductive success over 10 years in a breeding population on 1335 ha of managed land in Nottinghamshire, England. The study site was divided into a heavily disturbed section and a less disturbed section of equal habitat availability, forming a natural long-term experiment. The site is open to the public, and visitor numbers approximately doubled during the study. We found that overall Nightjar density was significantly lower and there were significantly fewer breeding pairs in the heavily disturbed habitat compared with the less disturbed habitat. However, average breeding success per pair, in terms of eggs and fledglings produced, was not significantly different between the two sections across years. Our findings suggest that human recreational disturbance may drastically alter settlement patterns and nest site selection of arriving females in some migratory ground-nesting species and may reduce the utility of apparently suitable patches of remnant and created habitat. Land managers should bear this in mind when creating new areas of habitat that will also be accessible to the public. Our study also highlights the value of long-term population monitoring, which can detect trends that short-term studies may miss.

  13. Mosquito breeding site water temperature observations and simulations towards improved vector-borne disease models for Africa.

    Asare, Ernest O; Tompkins, Adrian M; Amekudzi, Leonard K; Ermert, Volker; Redl, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An energy budget model is developed to predict water temperature of typical mosquito larval developmental habitats. It assumes a homogeneous mixed water column driven by empirically derived fluxes. The model shows good agreement at both hourly and daily time scales with 10-min temporal resolution observed water temperatures, monitored between June and November 2013 within a peri-urban area of Kumasi, Ghana. There was a close match between larvae development times calculated using either the model-derived or observed water temperatures. The water temperature scheme represents a significant improvement over assuming the water temperature to be equal to air temperature. The energy budget model requires observed minimum and maximum temperatures, information that is generally available from weather stations. Our results show that hourly variations in water temperature are important for the simulation of aquatic-stage development times. By contrast, we found that larval development is insensitive to sub-hourly variations. Modelling suggests that in addition to water temperature, accurate estimation of degree-day development time is very important to correctly predict the larvae development times. The results highlight the potential of the model to predict water temperature of temporary bodies of surface water. Our study represents an important contribution towards the improvement of weatherdriven dynamical disease models, including those designed for malaria early forecasting systems. PMID:27063735

  14. Mosquito breeding site water temperature observations and simulations towards improved vector-borne disease models for Africa

    Ernest O. Asare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An energy budget model is developed to predict water temperature of typical mosquito larval developmental habitats. It assumes a homogeneous mixed water column driven by empirically derived fluxes. The model shows good agreement at both hourly and daily time scales with 10-min temporal resolution observed water temperatures, monitored between June and November 2013 within a peri-urban area of Kumasi, Ghana. There was a close match between larvae development times calculated using either the model-derived or observed water temperatures. The water temperature scheme represents a significant improvement over assuming the water temperature to be equal to air temperature. The energy budget model requires observed minimum and maximum temperatures, information that is generally available from weather stations. Our results show that hourly variations in water temperature are important for the simulation of aquatic-stage development times. By contrast, we found that larval development is insensitive to sub-hourly variations. Modelling suggests that in addition to water temperature, accurate estimation of degree-day development time is very important to correctly predict the larvae development times. The results highlight the potential of the model to predict water temperature of temporary bodies of surface water. Our study represents an important contribution towards the improvement of weatherdriven dynamical disease models, including those designed for malaria early forecasting systems.

  15. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Dina M. Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and s...

  16. Predicting Risks to Wildlife Populations from Multriple Stressors: Mercury, Habitat Alteration and Common Loon Breeding in New Hampshire, USA

    We applied a generic approach to estimate and test predictions of population risks of mercury (Hg) exposure and habitat alteration on common loons (Gavia immer) breeding in New Hampshire (NH), USA. We developed a publically-accessible data system, integrating environmental data ...

  17. Habitat Relationships of Three Grassland Breeding Bird Species: Broadscale Comparisons and Hayfield Management Implications

    Joseph J. Nocera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalized recommendations for the conservation of birds in agro-ecosystems have been elusive because studies are often of a local nature, and do not compare source data against those from other regions. In this study, we developed geographically broad habitat relationship models to provide conservation prescriptions for three species that breed in farmed grasslands: Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis, and Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus. We develop models from our study in Nova Scotia, Canada and confront them with independent data from Wisconsin, USA pastures and Iowa, USA restored prairies. Vegetation that was higher and denser in the prebreeding season was linked to increased occupancy rates and abundance of Bobolinks in each study region. Providing tall spring grass is easily accomplished by not cutting late in the previous year. Savannah Sparrows were instead associated with shorter and sparser spring grass, which highlights the need to simultaneously provide heterogeneous habitat for otherwise ecologically similar species. Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrows were more likely to occur, and be numerous, in areas with greater availability of drainage ditches. They and several other species would benefit from provision of ditches with adequate vegetation to promote occupancy. By combining these with other well-established recommendations, such as a delayed first harvest, a greater net conservation benefit can be realized from these working landscapes.

  18. Breeding habitat of sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus on spoil heaps after coal mining

    Šálek, Miroslav; Hendrychová, Markéta; ?eho?, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Natural succession of spoil heaps after brown coal mining leads to the development of rich plant and invertebrate communities and therefore has been considered a proper alternative to conventional reclamation practice. Little is known, however, about the effects of these alternative approaches on vertebrate predators. This study analyses nest-site choice of the sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus on afforested spoil heaps in the brown coal basin of north-west Bohemia, Czech Republic. Nest places of sparrowhawks, numbers of their main prey (small birds) and habitat attributes were investigated in 2007 and 2008 on 28 individual spoil heaps that were either reclaimed by silviculture or spontaneously afforested. Our results revealed preferences of breeding sparrowhawks for spontaneously developed birch growths with diverse mosaics of tree clumps, open patches and edge structures, all providing for opportunities to hunt. In addition, the proximity of large forests positively influenced nest-site choice of sparrowhawks. Although small birds were more abundant on Successions than Reclamations, our results did not suggest that numbers of this main prey were of higher importance for the sparrowhawks than habitat components of prey availability. These results highlight the importance of spontaneous succession as a rehabilitation alternative in post-mining landscapes.

  19. Using a Remote Sensing/GIS Model to Predict Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Habitat along the Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Hatten, James R.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter SWFL) is a federally endangered bird (USFWS 1995) that breeds in riparian areas in portions of New Mexico, Arizona, southwestern Colorado, extreme southern Utah and Nevada, and southern California (USFWS 2002). Across this range, it uses a variety of plant species as nesting/breeding habitat, but in all cases prefers sites with dense vegetation, high canopy, and proximity to surface water or saturated soils (Sogge and Marshall 2000). As of 2005, the known rangewide breeding population of SWFLs was roughly 1,214 territories, with approximately 393 territories distributed among 36 sites in New Mexico (Durst et al. 2006), primarily along the Rio Grande. One of the key challenges facing the management and conservation of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher is that riparian areas are dynamic, with individual habitat patches subject to cycles of creation, growth, and loss due to drought, flooding, fire, and other disturbances. Former breeding patches can lose suitability, and new habitat can develop within a matter of only a few years, especially in reservoir drawdown zones. Therefore, measuring and predicting flycatcher habitat - either to discover areas that might support SWFLs, or to identify areas that may develop into appropriate habitat - requires knowledge of recent/current habitat conditions and an understanding of the factors that determine flycatcher use of riparian breeding sites. In the past, much of the determination of whether a riparian site is likely to support breeding flycatchers has been based on qualitative criteria (for example, 'dense vegetation' or 'large patches'). These determinations often require on-the-ground field evaluations by local or regional SWFL experts. While this has proven valuable in locating many of the currently known breeding sites, it is difficult or impossible to apply this approach effectively over large geographic areas (for example, the middle Rio Grande). The SWFL Recovery Plan (USFWS 2002) recognizes the importance of developing new approaches to habitat identification, and recommends the development of drainage-scale, quantitative habitat models. In particular, the plan suggests using models based on remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology that can capture the relatively dynamic habitat changes that occur in southwestern riparian systems. In 1999, Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD) developed a GIS-based model (Hatten and Paradzick 2003) to identify SWFL breeding habitat from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery and 30-m resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). The model was developed with presence/absence survey data acquired along the San Pedro and Gila rivers, and from the Salt River and Tonto Creek inlets to Roosevelt Lake in southern Arizona (collectively called the project area). The GIS-based model used a logistic regression equation to divide riparian vegetation into 5 probability classes based upon characteristics of riparian vegetation and floodplain size. This model was tested by predicting SWFL breeding habitat at Alamo Lake, Arizona, located 200 km from the project area (Hatten and Paradzick 2003). The GIS-based model performed as expected by identifying riparian areas with the highest SWFL nest densities, located in the higher probability classes. In 2002, AGFD applied the GIS-based model throughout Arizona, for riparian areas below 1,524 m (5,000 ft) elevation and within 1.6 km of perennial or intermittent waters (Dockens et al. 2004). Overall model accuracy (using probability classes 1-5, with class 5 having the greatest probability of nesting activity) for predicting the location of 2001 nest sites was 96.5 percent; accuracy decreased when fewer probability classes were defined as suitable. Map accuracy, determined from errors of commission, increased in higher probability classes in a fashion similar to errors of omission. Map accuracy, li

  20. The key breeding sites by pupal survey for dengue mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), in Guba, Cebu City, Philippines.

    Edillo, Frances E; Roble, Noel D; Otero, Nenito D

    2012-11-01

    We conducted this study to assess how well a pupal survey of dengue mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is able to target the most productive breeding sites. The study was carried out monthly during the rainy season (8 months) in 2008 in Cuba, Cebu City, Philippines. The hypotheses tested were: 1) most pupae of Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus were produced in a few types of breeding sites and 2) the most productive types of breeding sites for each species were the most abundant. Approximately 2,500 pupae were collected from 554 breeding sites in 279 houses. Thirty-eight point four percent of ten types of breeding sites were positive for Ae. aegypti, and 11.9% of nine types of sites were positive for Ae. albopictus. Plastic drums (40.2%), metal drums (29.6%), and plastic containers (10.5%) were the key sites for Ae. aegypti pupae, whereas bamboo stumps (28.5%), plastic drums (21.1%), and rubber tires (19.1%) were the key sites for Ae. albopictus. The most productive breeding sites for Ae. aegypti were common but not the most common for Ae. albopictus. These results are relevant for dengue vector control programs. PMID:23413699

  1. Ecology of mosquitoes of Midwestern Nigeria

    Godwin R.A. Okogun, Jude C. Anosike, Anthony N. Okere & Bethran E.B. Nwoke

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The ecology and distribution of various mosquito species is important inthe determination of mosquito vector abundance and associated diseases prevalence. The distributionof various mosquito genera in natural and artificial habitats and their relative species abundancewas studied between August 2002 and July 2003 in three foci (Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi comprisingthe Esan and Etsako regions of Midwestern Nigeria.Methods: Sampling was carried out by the method of Hopkins (1952 by dipping using a pipette orladle depending on container types. Pooled contents of smaller containers were sampled with a pondnet. All breeding sources of mosquito larvae were grouped into five (5 depending on their nature,constitution and the physiochemical properties. Artificial mosquito cultures were also carried out infour different container types; plastics, metal cans, earthenware pots and bamboo strips, in parts oftwo different macro habitats subdivided into area of high human activities (AHHA and areas ofderived/secondary vegetation (ADSV. Environmental temperatures, rainfall and relative humiditywere monitored during the study.Results: The present study revealed 17 mosquito species belonging to three genera (Anopheles,Culex and Aedes which are potential vectors of four human diseases in the areas surveyed. A total of736 mosquito larvae were encountered in artificial sources and 568 larvae were harvested from naturalsources. Pools, plastics and metal cans were the predominant artificial sources of mosquito larvae.Conclusion: The contribution of human activities and increasing environmental modification to thebreeding of human disease vector mosquitoes is of importance and selective vector control measuresincluding larviciding are recommended particularly before onset of rainy season

  2. Surveillance of mosquitoes in some selected parks and gardens of Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

    Kabirul Bashar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A yearlong (Jul-10 to June-11 intensive survey was conducted to document the diversity and density of different mosquito species, breeding habitats and their status at different park in Dhaka city. A total of 11 species of mosquito were identified from the six study areas. The recorded species were An. annularis, An. culicifacies, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Mn. annulifera, Mn. uniformis, Tx. splendidus. Aedes albopictus (38.18% and Ar. subalbatus (37.47% were the predominant mosquito species followed by Cx. quinquefasciatus. Others species were found in moderate percentage. Lowest density of Cx. fuscocephala (0.6% was recorded among the collected mosquito species from the different study area. The highest percentages of mosquito were found in Botanical garden (28.68% followed by Ramna park, Zia uddyan, Baldha garden, Suhrawardy uddyan, and Osmani uddyan (6.67%. Fifteen different larval habitats were found in the study areas. Majority of the mosquito species was found to breed in pond. High density of Ae. albopictus mosquito were found in all study areas, which is the secondary vector of dengue viruses. Principal dengue vector mosquito, Ae. aegypti were found only in Baldha garden. Ar. subalbatus was also a dominant mosquito species in the entire site.

  3. Distribution and habitat characterization of the recently introduced invasive mosquito Aedes koreicus [Hulecoeteomyia koreica], a new potential vector and pest in north-eastern Italy

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Martini, Simone; Dal Pont, Marco; Delai, Nicola; Ferro Milone, Nicola; Mazzucato, Matteo; Soppelsa, Fabio; Cazzola, Luigi; Cazzin, Stefania; Ravagnan, Silvia; Ciocchetta, Silvia; Russo, Francesca; Capelli, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    Background The container breeding species belonging to the genus Aedes (Meigen) are frequently recorded out of their place of origin. Invasive Aedes species are proven or potential vectors of important Arboviruses and their establishment in new areas pose a threat for human and animal health. A new species of exotic mosquito was recorded in 2011 in north-eastern Italy: Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus [Hulecoeteomyia koreica]. The aim of this study was to characterize the biology, the environment and...

  4. Rainforest Birds: A Land Manager's Guide to Breeding Bird Habitat in Young Conifer Forests in the Pacific Northwest

    Altman, Bob; Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the Guide This document (hereafter Guide) has been prepared to assist land managers interested in conducting conservation and management activities to benefit breeding birds associated with young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest. Audiences targeted for use of the Guide include land trusts, watershed councils, non-commercial private land owners, forest products companies, land-managing conservation organizations, government agencies, tribes, and First Nations. We hope the Guide will be a useful and valuable tool to support any of the variety of reasons to manage for bird habitat in young conifer forests (for example, regulatory, biodiversity, bird conservation, and forest certification standards). Information provided in the Guide is intended to support both the development of conservation or management plans and the implementation of on-the-ground management activities that have the potential to benefit breeding bird populations. The degree to which a land manager is willing or able to manage for bird habitat is a decision based on many factors which are beyond the scope of the Guide. We assume users of the Guide already have an interest in managing for bird habitat as one of several objectives that land managers must typically balance. However, it is not our purpose in the Guide to discuss integration of bird habitat management with other management objectives. Our objective is simply to provide those interested in bird conservation with information and recommendations on: * the habitat conditions and features needed by breeding bird species, and * how breeding bird species respond to particular management activities. Much of the information on breeding bird habitat is presented in tabular format in the appendices. Because the latitudinal and elevational coverage of the Guide is extensive, there can be considerable variation in the habitat types and conditions with which bird species are associated. Thus, it is important to recognize that the habitat relationships of a species may vary throughout the Pacific Northwest. Information presented in the appendices that categorizes bird-habitat relationships should not be regarded as absolute, but should be used as a tool to help prioritize conservation efforts toward species that have a significant degree of association with habitat parameters, such as forest type or successional stage. An underlying premise of the Guide is that forest management has a direct and significant influence on bird populations. Consequently, manipulation of forest conditions as part of forest management can be designed and implemented to achieve bird conservation objectives (Busing and Garman, 2002; Lehmkuhl and others, 2002). It is not our intent to describe all the potential forest management activities that could be conducted to achieve the desired habitat conditions for birds. Those need to be determined locally by assessing the most ecologically appropriate management at each site. However, to assist land managers, the Guide offers some basic forest management activities that are widely accepted for achieving habitat conditions and features which benefit breeding birds.

  5. Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea home range and habitat use during the non-breeding season in Assam, India

    Namgail, T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Sivananinthaperumal, B.; Areendran, G.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Mundkur, T.; Mccracken, T.; Newman, S.

    2011-01-01

    India is an important non-breeding ground for migratory waterfowl in the Central Asian Flyway. Millions of birds visit wetlands across the country, yet information on their distribution, abundance, and use of resources is rudimentary at best. Limited information suggests that populations of several species of migratory ducks are declining due to encroachment of wetland habitats largely by agriculture and industry. The development of conservation strategies is stymied by a lack of ecological information on these species. We conducted a preliminary assessment of the home range and habitat use of Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea in the northeast Indian state of Assam. Seven Ruddy Shelducks were fitted with solar-powered Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite transmitters, and were tracked on a daily basis during the winter of 2009-2010. Locations from all seven were used to describe habitat use, while locations from four were used to quantify their home range, as the other three had too few locations (2 (range = 22-87 km2) and an average home range (95% contour) of 610 km2 (range = 222-1,550 km2). Resource Selection Functions (RSF), used to describe habitat use, showed that the birds frequented riverine wetlands more than expected, occurred on grasslands and shrublands in proportion to their availability, and avoided woods and cropland habitats. The core use areas for three individuals (75%) were on the Brahmaputra River, indicating their preference for riverine habitats. Management and protection of riverine habitats and nearby grasslands may benefit conservation efforts for the Ruddy Shelduck and waterfowl species that share these habitats during the non-breeding season.

  6. Effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation on sea ice breeding habitats of harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus) across the North Atlantic

    Friedlaender, Ari S.; Johnston, David W.; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2010-07-01

    Harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus) are an abundant and commercially exploited species of phocid seal in the North Atlantic. Harp seals are entirely dependent on annual sea ice for breeding purposes and the distribution, abundance, and constitution of sea ice in this region are subject to tremendous interannual variability. As such, harp seal population dynamics are likely intimately tied to climate variability and global change. We used satellite-derived images of sea ice cover to determine trends in available habitat at the four major harp seal breeding areas in the North Atlantic, and assessed linkages amongst sea ice conditions and variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during 1978-2006. The White Sea breeding area had the highest annual ice concentrations, while the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Front regions were the most variable over time. We confirmed a consistent positive correlation between the NAO index and the amount of sea ice cover in Western North Atlantic breeding areas off Canada. Furthermore, we found an opposite and consistent negative correlation between the NAO and sea ice cover in the eastern-most breeding areas, leading to an out-of-phase signal between the Western and Eastern (particularly the White Sea) North Atlantic. These results indicate that sea ice dynamics in the breeding regions of harp seals are controlled, to some extent, by the phase of the NAO and its effects on weather across the North Atlantic. Previous studies indicate that poor ice conditions can have negative effects on harp seal survival and the consistent relationships between breeding habitat and NAO conditions that are described here have implications for both the biology and management of harp seal populations.

  7. Present and Future Projections of Habitat Suitability of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, a Vector of Viral Pathogens, from Global Climate Simulations.

    Proestos, Y.; Christophides, G.; Erguler, K.; Tanarhte, M.; Waldock, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can influence the transmission of vector borne diseases (VBDs) through altering the habitat suitability of insect vectors. Here we present global climate model simulations and evaluate the associated uncertainties in view of the main meteorological factors that may affect the distribution of the Asian Tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), which can transmit pathogens that cause Chikungunya, Dengue fever, yellow fever and various encephalitides. Using a general circulation model (GCM) at 50 km horizontal resolution to simulate mosquito survival variables including temperature, precipitation and relative humidity, we present both global and regional projections of the habitat suitability up to the middle of the 21st century. The model resolution of 50 km allows evaluation against previous projections for Europe and provides a basis for comparative analyses with other regions. Model uncertainties and performance are addressed in light of the recent CMIP5 ensemble climate model simulations for the RCP8.5 concentration pathway and using meteorological re-analysis data (ERA-Interim/ECMWF) for the recent past. Uncertainty ranges associated with the thresholds of meteorological variables that may affect the distribution of Ae. albopictus are diagnosed using fuzzy-logic methodology, notably to assess the influence of selected meteorological criteria and combinations of criteria that influence mosquito habitat suitability. From the climate projections for 2050, and adopting a habitat suitability index larger than 70%, we estimate that about 2.4 billion individuals in a land area of nearly 20 million square kilometres will potentially be exposed to Ae. albopictus. The synthesis of fuzzy-logic based on mosquito biology and climate change analysis provides new insights into the regional and global spreading of VBDs to support disease control and policy making.

  8. Present and future projections of habitat suitability of the Asian tiger mosquito, a vector of viral pathogens, from global climate simulation.

    Proestos, Y; Christophides, G K; Ergüler, K; Tanarhte, M; Waldock, J; Lelieveld, J

    2015-04-01

    Climate change can influence the transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) through altering the habitat suitability of insect vectors. Here we present global climate model simulations and evaluate the associated uncertainties in view of the main meteorological factors that may affect the distribution of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), which can transmit pathogens that cause chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever and various encephalitides. Using a general circulation model at 50 km horizontal resolution to simulate mosquito survival variables including temperature, precipitation and relative humidity, we present both global and regional projections of the habitat suitability up to the middle of the twenty-first century. The model resolution of 50 km allows evaluation against previous projections for Europe and provides a basis for comparative analyses with other regions. Model uncertainties and performance are addressed in light of the recent CMIP5 ensemble climate model simulations for the RCP8.5 concentration pathway and using meteorological re-analysis data (ERA-Interim/ECMWF) for the recent past. Uncertainty ranges associated with the thresholds of meteorological variables that may affect the distribution of Ae. albopictus are diagnosed using fuzzy-logic methodology, notably to assess the influence of selected meteorological criteria and combinations of criteria that influence mosquito habitat suitability. From the climate projections for 2050, and adopting a habitat suitability index larger than 70%, we estimate that approximately 2.4 billion individuals in a land area of nearly 20 million km(2) will potentially be exposed to Ae. albopictus. The synthesis of fuzzy-logic based on mosquito biology and climate change analysis provides new insights into the regional and global spreading of VBDs to support disease control and policy making. PMID:25688015

  9. Effects of breeding versus winter habitat loss and fragmentation on the population dynamics of a migratory songbird.

    Taylor, Caz M; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2016-03-01

    Many migratory species are in decline and understanding these declines is challenging because individuals occupy widely divergent and geographically distant habitats during a single year and therefore populations across the range are interconnected in complex ways. Network modeling has been used to show, theoretically, that shifts in migratory connectivity patterns can occur in response to habitat or climate changes and that habitat loss in one region can affect sub-populations in regions that are not directly connected. Here, we use a network model, parameterized by integrating long-term monitoring data with direct tracking of -100 individuals, to explain population trends in the rapidly declining Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and to predict future trends. Our model suggests that species-level declines in Wood Thrush are driven primarily by tropical deforestation in Central America but that protection of breeding habitat in some regions is necessary to prevent shifts in migratory connectivity and to sustain populations in all breeding regions. The model illustrates how shifts in migratory connectivity may lead to unexpected population declines in key regions. We highlight current knowledge gaps that make modeling full life-cycle population demographics in migratory species challenging but also demonstrate that modeling can inform conservation while these gaps are being filled. PMID:27209785

  10. Effect of habitat type and nest-site characteristics on the breeding performance of Great and Blue Tits (Parus major and P. caeruleus) in a Mediterranean landscape

    Sanz, Juan José; García-Navas, Vicente; Ruiz-Peinado, Juan V.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to coniferous forests, deciduous woodlands have often been considered a more suitable habitat for Blue and Great Tits. We compared reproductive parameters of both species in oak woodland and pine plantation patches within a Mediterranean landscape. We found no inter-habitat differences in breeding traits of Blue Tits, but clutches of Great Tits were larger and were laid earlier in the oak woodland than in the pine plantations. However, the breeding success of Great Tit...

  11. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  12. Breeding habitat preference of preimaginal black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Pramual, Pairot; Low, Van Lun; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the breeding habitat preference of black flies, a comprehensive black fly survey was conducted for the first time in Peninsular Malaysia. Preimaginal black flies (pupae and larvae) were collected manually from 180 stream points encompassing northern, southern, central and east coast of the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 47 black fly species were recorded in this study. The predominant species were Simulium trangense (36.7%) and Simulium angulistylum (33.3%). Relatively common species were Simulium cheongi (29.4%), Simulium tani (25.6%), Simulium nobile (16.2%), Simulium sheilae (14.5%) and Simulium bishopi (10.6%). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of all stream variables revealed four PCs that accounted for 69.3% of the total intersite variance. Regression analysis revealed that high species richness is associated with larger, deeper, faster and higher discharge streams with larger streambed particles, more riparian vegetation and low pH (F=22.7, d.f.=1, 173; P10% of the sampling sites) was assessed. Forward logistic regression analysis indicated that four species were significantly related to the stream variables. S. nobile and S. tani prefer large, fast flowing streams with higher pH, large streambed particles and riparian trees. S. bishopi was commonly found at high elevation with cooler stream, low conductivity, higher conductivity and more riparian trees. In contrast, S. sheilae was negatively correlated with PC-2, thus, this species commonly found at low elevation, warmer stream with low conductivity and less riparian trees. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies from other geographic regions, which indicated that both physical and chemical stream conditions are the key factors for black fly ecology. PMID:26476394

  13. Aquatic insects of New York salt marsh associated with mosquito larval habitat and their potential utility as bioindicators.

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonomic survey of salt marsh aquatic insects on Long Island, New York, USA and to evaluate their utility for non-target pesticide impacts and environmental biomonitoring. A total of 18 species from 11 families and five orders were collected repeatedly during the five month study period. Diptera was the most diverse order with nine species from four families, followed by Coleoptera with four species from two families, Heteroptera with three species from three families, then Odonata and the hexapod Collembola with one species each. Water boatmen, Trichocorixa verticalis Fieber (Heteroptera: Corixidae) and a shore fly, Ephydra subopaca Loew (Diptera: Ephydridae), were the two most commonly encountered species. An additional six species; Anurida maritima Guérin-Méneville (Collembola: Neanuridae), Mesovelia mulsanti White (Heteroptera: Mesovelidae), Enochrus hamiltoni Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Tropisternus quadristriatus Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Dasyhelea pseudocincta Waugh and Wirth (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and Brachydeutera argentata Walker (Diptera: Ephydridae), were found regularly. Together with the less common Erythrodiplax berenice Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae), these nine species were identified as the most suitable candidates for pesticide and environmental impact monitoring due to abundance, position in the food chain, and extended seasonal occurrence. This study represents a first step towards developing an insect-based index of biological integrity for salt marsh health assessment. PMID:22957707

  14. Vigilancia y control en criaderos temporales y permanentes de culícidos en Villa Clara (Vigilance and control in temporal and permanent breeding ground of mosquitoes in Villa Clara

    Janhad L. Rodríguez Mendieta

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la Unidad Provincial de Vigilancia y Lucha Antivectorial de la provincia de Villa Clara, en el período comprendido entre el primero de julio al primero de noviembre del 2005. Para el mismo se representaron gráficamente los 304 criaderos permanentes y 218 temporales de culícidos; distribuidos en los 13 municipios de dicha provincia. Se tomaron muestras de cuerpos de agua (28 criaderos existentes en los 13 municipios de la provincia para detectar la Densidad Larvaria según la metodología del cucharón. Se determinaron las principales especies de culícidos que habitan en la provincia y se compararon dos métodos (Temephos al 2% y peces de control para estos vectores, determinándose el costo – riesgo del Temephos al 2%, el Bacillus thurigiensis y los peces como métodos de control de mosquitos mediante una ponderización. Los datos primarios se procesaron en el sistema computarizado Excel del paquete Office XP y para el procesamiento estadístico de la efectividad de cada tratamiento se empleó la prueba de comparación de proporciones del paquete Statgraphics plus 4.1, ambos sistemas sustentados en WindowsÒ. Los resultados muestran que las especies de mosquitos más difundidas en la provincia son: el Anopheles albimanus, el Aedes mediovitatus, el Aedes scapularis, el Aedes confinis, el Culex quinquefasciatus, el Culex nigripalpus y el Culex corniger; además, los resultados demuestran la superioridad del control con peces sobre el control con Temephos ya que es más eficiente (99% versus 87% para p < 0.01 en el control de culícidos. La vigilancia con peces (no gastos en divisas y $ 1 035.08 MN es más económica que el Temephos (847 500 CUC y $ 12 490.96 MN y que el Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc y $ 8 280.64 MN. Se concluye que los peces constituyen un efectivo control para las poblaciones de culícidos, recomendando el uso de los mismos por todos los beneficios que estos representan. This work was developed in the Provincial Unit of Vigilance and Vectors Against fight in Villa Clara province, between the first July to first November 2005. For the same was graphically represented the 304 permanent and 218 temporal breeding ground of mosquitoes; distributed in the 13 municipalities of this province. Were taken shows of water body (28 breeding ground existence in the 13 municipalities of the province that to detect the Density of Larva according the methodology of ladle. Were determined the species main of mosquitoes that habitat in the province and were compared two methods (Temephos 2% and fish of control for this vectors, determining the cost – risk of Temephos 2%, the Bacillus thurigiensis and fish as mosquitoes control thorough a consideration. Were primary dates process in the computerized system Excel of packet Office XP and that statistic process of effectively of each treatment was use the test of proportions comparison of packet Statgraphics plus 4.1, both systems sustained in WindowsÒ. The results showing that the mosquitoes species more disseminated in the province are: Anopheles albimanus, Aedes mediovitatus, Aedes scapularis, Aedes confinis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex nigripalpus and Culex corniger; besides, the results demonstrating the superiority of control with fish on the Temephos control, already that is more efficient (99% versus 87% that p < 0.01 in the mosquitoes control. The fish control (no spending in CUC and $ 1 035.08 MN is more economic than Temephos (847 500 CUC and $ 12 490.96 MN and than Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc and $ 8 280.64 MN. Was conclude that the fish constitute a control effective that the mosquitoes people, recommended the use of fish for all benefice that this represent.

  15. USFWS/Xerces Society Western Milkweed and Monarch Breeding Habitat Suitability Models

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To better understand the distribution of key breeding areas for the declining western population of monarch butterflies, the USFWS, in collaboration with the Xerces...

  16. Integrating Shrubland and Grassland breeding bird habitat management at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2005

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a series of reports and emails that attempt to answer the question Is it possible to integrate grassland breeding bird and shrub land bird management in the...

  17. Habitat, breeding performance, diet and individual age in Swiss barn owls (Tyto alba)

    Frey C; Sonnay C.; Dreiss A.; Roulin A.

    2011-01-01

    Intensification of farming over the past 50 years has homogenised the landscape structure and contributed to the decline of bird populations in Europe. To better target the conservation of the Barn Owl Tyto alba, we assessed the influence of the landscape structure on breeding performance in western Switzerland. The analyses considered a 23-year data set of breeding parameters collected in an area dominated by intensive agriculture. Using a Geographic Information System approach, landscape ch...

  18. Species Composition and Relative Abundance of Mosquitoes in Swat, Pakistan

    Ikram Ilahi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae was conducted in Swat Pakistan, from April to September during 2000. The survey involved the sampling of both, adult and immature stages of mosquitoes, and recovered a total of 21 species in five genera. Sampling of adult mosquitoes involved Pyrethrum spray collections, Man-biting collections, and Animal-biting collection. Immature stages of mosquitoes were collected from variety of habitats including springs, irrigation channels, rice fields, marshes, temporary pools, construction pools, agriculture pools, river margins, ditches, waste water drains, wells and tree holes. During the study most of the species built up their populations in June, July and August, while a few increased their populations in September. During the survey of immature stages, from a total of 138 samples taken, Cx. quinquefasciatus showed maximum frequency of occurrence (recovered from 48 samples followed by An. maculatus (17 samples, Cx. pseudovishnui (14 samples, An. annularis and An. stephensi (13 samples each, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus (11 samples, An. splendidus (5 samples and Cx. theileri (4 samples. The rest of the species occurred infrequently. The observations on habitat specificity of different species of mosquitoes showed the rice fields as the most favorable site for mosquito breeding (harboring 12 species followed by river margins (five species and temporary pools and springs (four species each. During this study Ae. aegypti was recovered from tyres in Mingora; it was not reported earlier from Swat.

  19. Web mapping GIS: GPS under the GIS umbrella for Aedes species dengue and chikungunya vector mosquito surveillance and control

    M. Palaniyandi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito nuisance and the mosquito borne diseases have become major important challenging public health problems in India especially in the fast developing city like Pondicherry urban agglomeration. The Pondicherry government has been implemented full-fledged mosquito control measures, however, dengue and chikungunya epidemics was accelerating trend in Pondicherry for the recent years, and therefore, the directorate of public health, Pondicherry was requested vector control research centre (VCRC, to conduct a mosquito control evaluation survey. A team of field staff of VCRC headed by the author, Pondicherry, have conducted a detailed reconnaissance survey for collecting the site specifications of houses and the streetwise mosquito data for analyzing the density of vector mosquitoes in the wards / blocks and delineating the areas vulnerable to disease epidemics in the urban areas. The GPS GARMIN 12 XL was used to collect the field data. The ARC GIS 10.0 software was used to map the site locations (houses with mosquito’s data. The digital map of block boundary of Pondicherry was used for mapping purpose. A systematic grid sampling was applied to conduct a rapid survey for mapping Aedes species mosquito genic condition in the urban areas and the coordinates of sites of house information with breeding habitats positive in the grid sectors was collected using GPS, and the mean value of positive habitats was analyzed by quintiles method for mapping. The four blocks were selected for Aedes mosquito survey where the mosquito problem was identified as comparatively high, four numbers of wards were selected from each block, and the 40 number of houses was selected with 100 meter interval distance for mosquito breeding survey in the domestic and peripheral domestic areas in each wards. The problematic areas were identified, highlighted and recommended for web mapping GIS for Aedes mosquito surveillance continuously for monitoring the mosquito control measures in the Pondicherry urban areas and the other parts of the urban areas in the country.

  20. Comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies: importance of habitat preference and breeding behavior on genetic structure in China.

    Zhang, Ruiying; Song, Gang; Qu, Yanhua; Alström, Per; Ramos, Raül; Xing, Xiaoying; Ericson, Per G P; Fjeldså, Jon; Wang, Haitao; Yang, Xiaojun; Kristin, Anton; Shestopalov, Alexander M; Choe, Jae Chun; Lei, Fumin

    2012-11-01

    Historical geological events and climatic changes are believed to have played important roles in shaping the current distribution of species. However, sympatric species may have responded in different ways to such climatic fluctuations. Here we compared genetic structures of two corvid species, the Azure-winged Magpie Cyanopica cyanus and the Eurasian Magpie Pica pica, both widespread but with different habitat dependence and some aspects of breeding behavior. Three mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns were used to examine their co-distributed populations in East China and the Iberian Peninsula. Both species showed deep divergences between these two regions that were dated to the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene. In the East Chinese clade of C. cyanus, populations were subdivided between Northeast China and Central China, probably since the early to mid-Pleistocene, and the Central subclade showed a significant pattern of isolation by distance. In contrast, no genetic structure was found in the East China populations of P. pica. We suggest that the different patterns in the two species are at least partly explained by ecological differences between them, especially in habitat preference and perhaps also breeding behavior. These dissimilarities in life history traits might have affected the dispersal and survival abilities of these two species differently during environmental fluctuations. PMID:22842292

  1. Climate change, breeding date and nestling diet: how temperature differentially affects seasonal changes in pied flycatcher diet depending on habitat variation.

    Burger, Claudia; Belskii, Eugen; Eeva, Tapio; Laaksonen, Toni; Mägi, Marko; Mänd, Raivo; Qvarnström, Anna; Slagsvold, Tore; Veen, Thor; Visser, Marcel E; Wiebe, Karen L; Wiley, Chris; Wright, Jonathan; Both, Christiaan

    2012-07-01

    1. Climate warming has led to shifts in the seasonal timing of species. These shifts can differ across trophic levels, and as a result, predator phenology can get out of synchrony with prey phenology. This can have major consequences for predators such as population declines owing to low reproductive success. However, such trophic interactions are likely to differ between habitats, resulting in differential susceptibility of populations to increases in spring temperatures. A mismatch between breeding phenology and food abundance might be mitigated by dietary changes, but few studies have investigated this phenomenon. Here, we present data on nestling diets of nine different populations of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca, across their breeding range. This species has been shown to adjust its breeding phenology to local climate change, but sometimes insufficiently relative to the phenology of their presumed major prey: Lepidoptera larvae. In spring, such larvae have a pronounced peak in oak habitats, but to a much lesser extent in coniferous and other deciduous habitats. 2. We found strong seasonal declines in the proportions of caterpillars in the diet only for oak habitats, and not for the other forest types. The seasonal decline in oak habitats was most strongly observed in warmer years, indicating that potential mismatches were stronger in warmer years. However, in coniferous and other habitats, no such effect of spring temperature was found. 3. Chicks reached somewhat higher weights in broods provided with higher proportions of caterpillars, supporting the notion that caterpillars are an important food source and that the temporal match with the caterpillar peak may represent an important component of reproductive success. 4. We suggest that pied flycatchers breeding in oak habitats have greater need to adjust timing of breeding to rising spring temperatures, because of the strong seasonality in their food. Such between-habitat differences can have important consequences for population dynamics and should be taken into account in studies on phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to climate change. PMID:22356622

  2. Unravelling the annual cycle in a migratory animal: breeding-season habitat loss drives population declines of monarch butterflies.

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Norris, D Ryan; Martin, Tara G

    2015-01-01

    Threats to migratory animals can occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. Populations of the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America have declined over the last 21 years. Three hypotheses have been posed to explain the decline: habitat loss on the overwintering grounds in Mexico, habitat loss on the breeding grounds in the United States and Canada, and extreme weather events. Our objectives were to assess population viability, determine which life stage, season and geographical region are contributing the most to population dynamics and test the three hypotheses that explain the observed population decline. We developed a spatially structured, stochastic and density-dependent periodic projection matrix model that integrates patterns of migratory connectivity and demographic vital rates across the annual cycle. We used perturbation analysis to determine the sensitivity of population abundance to changes in vital rate among life stages, seasons and geographical regions. Next, we compared the singular effects of each threat to the full model where all factors operate concurrently. Finally, we generated predictions to assess the risk of host plant loss as a result of genetically modified crops on current and future monarch butterfly population size and extinction probability. Our year-round population model predicted population declines of 14% and a quasi-extinction probability (5% within a century. Monarch abundance was more than four times more sensitive to perturbations of vital rates on the breeding grounds than on the wintering grounds. Simulations that considered only forest loss or climate change in Mexico predicted higher population sizes compared to milkweed declines on the breeding grounds. Our model predictions also suggest that mitigating the negative effects of genetically modified crops results in higher population size and lower extinction risk. Recent population declines stem from reduction in milkweed host plants in the United States that arise from increasing adoption of genetically modified crops and land-use change, not from climate change or degradation of forest habitats in Mexico. Therefore, reducing the negative effects of host plant loss on the breeding grounds is the top conservation priority to slow or halt future population declines of monarch butterflies in North America. PMID:24903085

  3. Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for Marine Protected Areas

    L Oviedo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006. Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP. Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA, where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (Las ballenas jorobadas viajan a aguas tropicales para reproducirse y criar a sus ballenatos. Es importante entender las características oceanográficas que influencian su distribución para lograr una planificación efectiva de áreas marinas protegidas con hábitats críticos para estos cetáceos. Este estudio examina la relación entre la profundidad, la pendiente del suelo oceánico y la distribución de estas ballenas, usando avistamientos del 2005 y 2006 en la costa Pacífica de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica (temporada de reproducción del sur y norte en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Usamos Análisis de Factores de Nicho Ecológico (ENFA por sus siglas en inglés, donde los índices de Marginalidad y Tolerancia ilustran las restricciones en uso de hábitat. En una escala local, factores físicos como la profundidad y la pendiente definen el hábitat crítico de reproducción y cría de M. novaeangliae. Las divergencias entre las medias de las sub-muestras y la media global del área de estudio en ambas variables eco-geográficas, determinan las limitaciones en requerimientos de hábitat en aspectos topográficos como la profundidad (>100 m y la pendiente del fondo (>10%, localizando los hábitat críticos para reproducción y cría dentro de la plataforma continental. Los planes y propuestas para un sistema de áreas marinas protegidas deben de considerar la conectividad de la isla del Caño y la Bahía de Drake, así como la extensión de los límites marinos del Parque Nacional Corcovado.

  4. Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for Marine Protected Areas

    L, Oviedo; M, Solís.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Las ballenas jorobadas viajan a aguas tropicales para reproducirse y criar a sus ballenatos. Es importante entender las características oceanográficas que influencian su distribución para lograr una planificación efectiva de áreas marinas protegidas con hábitats críticos para estos cetáceos. Este es [...] tudio examina la relación entre la profundidad, la pendiente del suelo oceánico y la distribución de estas ballenas, usando avistamientos del 2005 y 2006 en la costa Pacífica de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica (temporada de reproducción del sur y norte en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental). Usamos Análisis de Factores de Nicho Ecológico (ENFA por sus siglas en inglés), donde los índices de Marginalidad y Tolerancia ilustran las restricciones en uso de hábitat. En una escala local, factores físicos como la profundidad y la pendiente definen el hábitat crítico de reproducción y cría de M. novaeangliae. Las divergencias entre las medias de las sub-muestras y la media global del área de estudio en ambas variables eco-geográficas, determinan las limitaciones en requerimientos de hábitat en aspectos topográficos como la profundidad (>100 m) y la pendiente del fondo (>10%), localizando los hábitat críticos para reproducción y cría dentro de la plataforma continental. Los planes y propuestas para un sistema de áreas marinas protegidas deben de considerar la conectividad de la isla del Caño y la Bahía de Drake, así como la extensión de los límites marinos del Parque Nacional Corcovado. Abstract in english Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic [...] features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006). Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA), where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (

  5. Effects of breeding habitat (woodland versus urban) and metal pollution on the egg characteristics of great tits (Parus major).

    Hargitai, Rita; Nagy, Gergely; Nyiri, Zoltán; Bervoets, Lieven; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2016-02-15

    In an urban environment, birds are exposed to metals, which may accumulate in their tissues and cause oxidative stress. Female birds may eliminate these pollutants through depositing them into eggs, thus eggs become suitable bioindicators of pollution. In this study, we aimed to analyse whether eggshell spotting pattern, egg volume, eggshell thickness and egg yolk antioxidant (lutein, tocopherol, retinol and selenium) levels were related to the breeding area (woodland versus urban) and the metal levels in the eggshell of a small passerine species, the great tit (Parus major). In the urban habitat, soil and eggshells contained higher concentrations of metals, and soil calcium level was also higher than that in the woodland. Eggshell spotting intensity and egg volume did not differ between eggs laid in the woodland and the urban park, and these traits were not related to the metal levels of the eggshell, suggesting that these egg characteristics are not sensitive indicators of metal pollution. A more aggregated eggshell spotting distribution indicated a higher Cu concentration of the eggshell. We found that eggshells were thinner in the less polluted woodland habitat, which is likely due to the limited Ca availability of the woodland area. Great tit eggs laid in the urban environment had lower yolk lutein, retinol and selenium concentrations, however, as a possible compensation for these lower antioxidant levels, urban females deposited more tocopherol into the egg yolk. It appears that females from different breeding habitats may provide similar antioxidant protection for their offspring against oxidative damage by depositing different specific dietary antioxidants. Egg yolk lutein and retinol levels showed a negative relationship with lead concentration of the eggshell, which may suggest that lead had a negative impact on the amount of antioxidants available for embryos during development in great tits. PMID:26657247

  6. Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Habitat Selection in Female-Calf Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Pairs on the Hawaiian Breeding Grounds

    Cartwright, Rachel; Gillespie, Blake; LaBonte, Kristen; Mangold, Terence; Venema, Amy; Eden, Kevin; Sullivan, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-tourism and whale watching industry. Our aim was to establish current trends in habitat preference in female-calf humpback whale pairs within this region, focusing specifically on the busy, eastern portions of the channel. We used an equally-spaced zigzag transect survey design, compiled our results in a GIS model to identify spatial trends and calculated Neu's Indices to quantify levels of habitat use. Our study revealed that while mysticete female-calf pairs on breeding grounds typically favor shallow, inshore waters, female-calf pairs in the Au'au Channel avoided shallow waters (humpback whale breeding grounds, there was only minimal evidence of typical patterns of stratification or segregation according to group composition. A review of habitat use by maternal females across Hawaiian waters indicates that maternal habitat choice varies between localities within the Hawaiian Islands, suggesting that maternal females alter their use of habitat according to locally varying pressures. This ability to respond to varying environments may be the key that allows wildlife species to persist in regions where human activity and critical habitat overlap. PMID:22666432

  7. Breeding loggerhead marine turtles Caretta caretta in Dry Tortugas National Park, USA, show high fidelity to diverse habitats near nesting beaches

    Hart, Kristen M.; Zawada, David G.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Fujisaki, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to identify in-water habitat used by individuals in the smallest North-west Atlantic subpopulation of adult nesting loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta during the breeding season. During 2010, 2011 and 2012 breeding periods, a total of 20 adult females used habitats proximal to nesting beaches with various levels of protection within Dry Tortugas National Park. We then used a rapid, high-resolution, digital imaging system to map habitat adjacent to nesting beaches, revealing the diversity and distribution of available benthic cover. Turtle behaviour showing measurable site-fidelity to these diverse habitats has implications for managing protected areas and human activities within them. Protecting diverse benthic areas adjacent to loggerhead turtle nesting beaches here and elsewhere could provide benefits for overall biodiversity conservation.

  8. The spatial distribution and size of rook (Corvus frugilegus) breeding colonies is affected by both the distribution of foraging habitat and by intercolony competition.

    Griffin, L R; Thomas, C J

    2000-01-01

    Explanations for the variation in the number of nests at bird colonies have focused on competitive or habitat effects without considering potential interactions between the two. For the rook, a colonial corvid which breeds seasonally but forages around the colony throughout the year, both the amount of foraging habitat and its interaction with the number of competitors from surrounding colonies are important predictors of colony size. The distance over which these effects are strongest indica...

  9. PREDICTING HABITAT SUITABILITY FOR TWO BREEDS OF CATTLE (ENGLISH AND SPANISH) IN NORTHEASTERN OREGON PRAIRIE ECOSYSTEMS

    Eastern Oregon cattle distribution was studied with global positioning (GPS) collars for 2 years on the Zumwalt prairie in the spring and fall and Hells Canyon during the winter to determine distribution and habitat selection differences between Spanish bred (Corriente X Longhorn) and English bred c...

  10. Mosquito Control

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Mosquito Control About Mosquitoes General Information Life Cycle Information from ... is Right for You DEET Pesticides for Mosquito Control Larvicides Adulticides Misting Systems Getting Help with Mosquito ...

  11. Population Densities of Birds Breeding in Urbanized Habitats in the Grabiszyn District in the City of Wroc?aw

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in 2010 by mean of simplified version of the mapping method. The study area (395 ha was located close to the city centre. It comprised a mosaic of urbanized habitats, with a clear dominance of green areas, such as parks (41.1 ha, gardens, cemeteries and tree clumps. A total of 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the whole study area. The most common (<25 pairs/100 ha were Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Apus apus and Columba livia. Numerous (7-15 pairs/100 ha were also the following species: Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Serinus serinus, Turdus merula and Pica pica. Insectivorous birds were the most common birds constituting 63.3%, and granivorous -32.6% of all pairs recorded. Most birds nested in tree holes (39.3%, in/on buildings (30.2% and in trees/shrubs (25.6%. Distribution of breeding pairs of 23 bird species was presented on maps. Population trends for 17 species were documented. Rapid increase in numbers of Turdus pilaris, Corvus cornix and Phoenicurus phoenicurus and decrease of Pica pica were recorded.

  12. Human residential status and habitat quality affect the likelihood but not the success of lapwing breeding in an urban matrix.

    Roche, Dylan V; Cardilini, Adam P A; Lees, Daniel; Maguire, Grainne S; Dann, Peter; Sherman, Craig D H; Weston, Michael A

    2016-06-15

    Wildlife living in the suburbs faces the challenge of dealing with human presence and yard management (including the occurrence of pets) which vary at the scale of the house block. This study examined the influence of ecological factors (e.g. extent of grass and food availability) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. human activity and garden usage) on breeding site choice and reproductive success of the ground-nesting masked lapwing Vanellus miles on Phillip Island, Australia. Lapwings nested less frequently in residential properties (high levels of human usage) compared with vacant blocks and holiday houses. They were also more likely to breed on properties with high food availability and larger areas of grass. None of these variables influenced clutch size or the probability of eggs hatching, although larger clutches and higher hatching rates tended to be associated with more food. This study shows that, for an urban exploiting species, habitat quality is not homogenous at the scale of the house block, and that human activity is avoided by a species generally considered highly tolerant of people. PMID:26971220

  13. Diet and foraging habitats of non-breeding white storks (Ciconia ciconia) in Bulgaria

    Milchev Boyan; Chobanov Dragan; Simov Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    The diet of non-breeding White Storks was studied by pellet analysis and included mainly insects (99.9%, n=28947) with a predominance of grasshoppers (Orthoptera, 76.1%), and beetles (Coleoptera, 26.1%). The bush crickets Decticus albifrons/verrucivorus were the most numerous prey (29.9% by items), occurring in almost all pellets (98% occurrence in pellets, n=147) and predominating in half of them (49.7%). The grasshopper associations in the pellets specify foraging mainly in mesophytic...

  14. Laboratory evaluation of Mesocyclops annulatus (Wierzejski, 1892 (Copepoda: Cyclopidea as a predator of container-breeding mosquitoes in Argentina

    María V Micieli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In laboratory bioassays we tested the predatory capacity of the copepod Mesocyclops annulatus on Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens larvae. A single adult female of M. annulatus caused 51.6% and 52.3% mortality of 50 first instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively, in a 72 h test period. When alternative food was added to the containers, mortality rates declined to 16% and 10.3% for Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively. When 50 first instar larvae of each of the two mosquito species tested were placed together with a single adult female of M. annulatus, mortality rates were 75.5% for Ae. aegypti larvae and 23.5% for Cx. pipiens larvae in a three day test period. Different density of adult females of M. annulatus ranged from 5 to 25 females produced mortality rates of Ae. aegypti first instar larvae from 50% to 100% respectively. When a single adult female of M. annulatus was exposed to an increasing number of first-instar Ae. aegypti larvae ranging from 10 to 100, 100% mortality was recorded from 1 to 25 larvae, then mortality declined to 30% with 100 larvae. The average larvae killed per 24 h period by a single copepod were 29.

  15. Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae, a predator of container breeding mosquitoes

    D Dominic Amalraj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

  16. Climate and habitat interact to shape the thermal reaction norms of breeding phenology across lizard populations.

    Rutschmann, Alexis; Miles, Donald B; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Richard, Murielle; Moulherat, Sylvain; Sinervo, Barry; Clobert, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Substantial plastic variation in phenology in response to environmental heterogeneity through time in the same population has been uncovered in many species. However, our understanding of differences in reaction norms of phenology among populations from a given species remains limited. As the plasticity of phenological traits is often influenced by local thermal conditions, we expect local temperature to generate variation in the reaction norms between populations. Here, we explored temporal variation in parturition date across 11 populations of the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) from four mountain chains as a function of air temperatures during mid-gestation. We characterized among-population variation to assess how local weather conditions (mean and variance of ambient temperatures during mid-gestation) and habitat openness (an index of anthropogenic disturbance) influence the thermal reaction norms of the parturition date. Our results provide evidence of interactive effects of anthropogenic disturbance and thermal conditions, with earlier parturition dates in warmer years on average especially in closed habitats. Variation in the reaction norms for parturition date was correlated with mean local thermal conditions at a broad geographical scale. However, populations exposed to variable thermal conditions had flatter thermal reaction norms. Assessing whether environmental heterogeneity drives differentiation among reaction norms is crucial to estimate the capacity of different populations to contend with projected climatic and anthropogenic challenges. PMID:26589962

  17. The Importance of Maintaining Upland Forest Habitat Surrounding Salamander Breeding Ponds: Case Study of the Eastern Tiger Salamander in New York, USA

    Valorie Titus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most amphibians use both wetland and upland habitats, but the extent of their movement in forested habitats is poorly known. We used radiotelemetry to observe the movements of adult and juvenile eastern tiger salamanders over a 4-year period. Females tended to move farther from the breeding ponds into upland forested habitat than males, while the distance a juvenile moved appeared to be related to body size, with the largest individuals moving as far as the adult females. Individuals chose refugia in native pitch pine—oak forested habitat and avoided open fields, roads, and developed areas. We also observed a difference in potential predation pressures in relation to the distance an individual moved from the edge of the pond. Our results support delineating forested wetland buffer zones on a case-by-case basis to reduce the impacts of concentrated predation, to increase and protect the availability of pitch pine—oak forests near the breeding pond, and to focus primarily on the habitat needs of the adult females and larger juveniles, which in turn will encompass habitat needs of adult males and smaller juveniles.

  18. Anopheline (Diptera:Culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central Sri Lanka

    Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T; Amerasinghe, P H

    1997-01-01

    A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank....... A clear progression in breeding habitat use from stream bed to tank bed and drainage area pools was seen in An. culicifacies during the premonsoon period. Environmental management measures to reduce or modify these habitats could potentially decrease malaria. transmission....

  19. Breeding ecology and nesting habitat associations of five marsh bird species in western New York

    Lor, S.; Malecki, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Nesting habitats and nest success of five species of marsh birds were studied during 1997 and 1998 at the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and the adjacent Oak Orchard and Tonawanda State Wildlife Management Areas (WMA) located in western New York. Nest searches located 18 American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), 117 Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), 189 Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), 23 Sora (Porzana carolina), and 72 Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola) nests. Average nest densities in 1998, our best nest searching year, ranged from 0.01/ha for Soras (N = 8) to 0.28/ha for Pied-billed Grebes (N = 160). Mayfield nest success estimates for Least Bittern were 80% (N = 16) in 1997 and 46% (N = 37) in 1998. Nest success estimates were 72% (N = 55) for Pied-billed Grebe, 43% (N = 6) for Sora, and 38% (N = 20) for Virginia Rail. Nests of all five species were located in ???70% emergent vegetation with a mean water depth of 24-56 cm and an average vegetation height that ranged from 69-133 cm. Logistic regression models were developed for each species using habitat variables at nest and random site locations. Each model was ranked with Akaike's Information Criterion for small sample size (AICc). In general, our best models indicated that increased emergent vegetation and horizontal cover with shallow water depths improved the odds of encountering marsh bird nests in the wetlands of western New York. We suggest that managing wetlands as a complex, at different stages of succession, would best benefit marsh bird species.

  20. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Márcio Goulart Mocellin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07% and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18% were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  1. Analysis of humpback whale sounds in shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea: An indication of breeding habitat.

    Mahanty, Madan M; Latha, G; Thirunavukkarasu, A

    2015-06-01

    The primary objective of this work was to present the acoustical identification of humpback whales, detected by using an autonomous ambient noise measurement system, deployed in the shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the period January to May 2011. Seven types of sounds were detected. These were characteristically upsweeps and downsweeps along with harmonics. Sounds produced repeatedly in a specific pattern were referred to as phrases (PQRS and ABC). Repeated phrases in a particular pattern were referred to as themes, and from the spectrographic analysis, two themes (I and II) were identified. The variation in the acoustic characteristics such as fundamental frequency, range, duration of the sound unit, and the structure of the phrases and themes are discussed. Sound units were recorded from mid-January to mid-March, with a peak in February, when the mean SST is approx. 28 degree C, and no presence was recorded after mid-March. The temporal and thematic structures strongly determine the functions of the humpback whale song form. Given the use of song in the SEAS, this area is possibly used as an active breeding habitat by humpback whales during the winter season. PMID:25963267

  2. Analysis of humpback whale sounds in shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea: An indication of breeding habitat

    Madan M Mahanty; Latha G; Thirunavukkarasu A

    2015-06-01

    The primary objective of this work was to present the acoustical identification of humpback whales, detected by using an autonomous ambient noise measurement system, deployed in the shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the period January to May 2011. Seven types of sounds were detected. These were characteristically upsweeps and downsweeps along with harmonics. Sounds produced repeatedly in a specific pattern were referred to as phrases (PQRS and ABC). Repeated phrases in a particular pattern were referred to as themes, and from the spectrographic analysis, two themes (I and II) were identified. The variation in the acoustic characteristics such as fundamental frequency, range, duration of the sound unit, and the structure of the phrases and themes are discussed. Sound units were recorded from mid-January to mid-March, with a peak in February, when the mean SST is ∼ 28°C, and no presence was recorded after mid-March. The temporal and thematic structures strongly determine the functions of the humpback whale song form. Given the use of song in the SEAS, this area is possibly used as an active breeding habitat by humpback whales during the winter season.

  3. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Holyoak, Marcel; Meese, Robert J; Graves, Emily E

    2014-01-01

    In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent investigation. The method we employ should be useful in other metapopulation studies for calculating time-averaged reproductive output for different sites. PMID:24817307

  4. Finding Aedes aegypti in a natural breeding site in an urban zone, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the description of how nine Aedes aegypti larvae were found in a natural breeding site in the Pinheiros neighborhood, city of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The record was conducted in December 2014, during an entomological surveillance program of dengue virus vectors, with an active search of potential breeding sites, either artificial or natural. Finding Ae. aegypti larvae in a tree hole shows this species’ ability to use both artificial and natural environments as breeding sites and habitats, which points towards the importance of maintaining continuous surveillance on this mosquito in all kinds of water-holding containers. PMID:26982959

  5. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs. PMID:26517655

  6. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs. PMID:26517655

  7. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    Jordi Sánchez-Ribas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  8. Eco-virological survey of Aedes mosquito larvae in selected dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia

    A. Rohani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectivesi: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus in the Aedes vectors is now a well-documented phenomenon reported from many parts of the endemic areas in the world, which played an important role in initiating and maintaining the outbreak in human populations. This study investigated the factors affecting breeding habitats and the relationship with transovarial dengue virus in larvae of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Methods: Larval surveillance was conducted in dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia from 2008 until 2009. Sampling was carried out based on habitat type, water condition (substrate type, canopy coverage, temperature and pH at breeding habitats. RT-PCR was performed to detect presence of transovarial dengue virus in larvae collected in the study areas. Results: A total of 789 breeding habitats were identified during this study and the majority of these breeding sites were plastic containers (57.46%. Aedes albopictus dominated most of the water condition surveyed, while Ae. aegypti indicated preference toward habitats with clear water. Aedes aegypti was selective in selecting ovipositional sites compared to Ae. albopictus where shaded areas were shown to be the most preferred. From a total of 363 mosquito larvae pools, 23 (6.3% pools were positive for dengue virus where 18 of them were from Ae. albopictus and five were from Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae pools. Interpretation & conclusion: This study indicated the presence of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the field. This study also showed that combination of water conditions, canopy coverage, temperature and pH of breeding habitats were the factors affecting the larval population. The study suggested that larval survey programme could serve as a tool not only to monitor the local dengue vector distribution but also to provide objective information for taking appropriate action by the community against dengue vectors.

  9. Fish breeding and habitat

    Ramaiah, N.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.11_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.11_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content...-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  10. Leaf-Associated Bacterial and Fungal Taxa Shifts in Response to Larvae of the Tree Hole Mosquito, Ochlerotatus triseriatus

    Kaufman, Michael G.; Chen, Shicheng; Walker, Edward D

    2008-01-01

    Larvae of the eastern tree hole mosquito, Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say), and related container-breeding species are known to feed upon substrate-associated microorganisms. Although the importance of these microbial resources to larval growth has been established, almost nothing is known about the taxonomic composition and dynamics of these critical microbial food sources. We examined bacterial and fungal community compositional changes on oak leaves tethered in natural tree hole habitats of ...

  11. Habitat use by the Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps (Gruiformes: Otididae in breeding and non-breeding seasons in Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    S.B. Munjpara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps, a threatened and endemic species of the Indian subcontinent, is declining in its natural habitats. The Great Indian Bustard is a bird of open land and was observed using the grasslands habitat (73%, followed by areas covered with Prosopis (11%. In the grasslands, the communities dominated with Cymbopogon martinii were utilized the highest, while those dominated by Aristida adenemsoidis were least utilized. As Cymbopogon martinii is non-palatable, we infer that it does not attract livestock and herdsmen resulting in minimum movement and trampling that favors the Great Indian Bustard.

  12. Changes in the distribution of the grey mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) using large scale aerial color infrared photographs: are the changes related to habitat modification for mosquito control?

    Jones, J.; Dale, P. E. R.; Chandica, A. L.; Breitfuss, M. J.

    2004-09-01

    Runnelling, a method of habitat modification used for mosquito management in intertidal saltmarshes in Australia, alters marsh hydrology. The objective of this research was to assess if runnelling had affected the distribution of the grey mangrove ( Avicennia marina (Forsk.)) at a study site in southeast Queensland. Since runnelling is carried out in diverse marshes a second aim was to assess differences in mangrove colonisation in the two main saltmarsh species in the area. These are marine couch [ Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth.] and samphire [ Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex Ung.-Stern.)]. Runnels at the study site were in an area dominated by Sporobolus. The mangrove area was measured by classifying digital color infrared (CIR) data obtained from aerial photographs acquired in 1982, which was 3 years before runnelling, and in 1987, 1991 and 1999, 2-14 years after. Changes in the spatial extent of A. marina were identified using difference images produced from post-classification change detection. The results showed that runnels did not significantly influence the distribution of A. marina at the study site. At a more detailed level differences in A. marina establishment in the Sporobolus and Sarcocornia areas were determined from counts of trees on the aerial photographs. There was a greater proportion of mangroves in Sarcocornia than Sporobolus and this increased over time. This may be related to differences in density between the plant species, to grapsid crab activity or to other edaphic conditions. There may be implications for runnelling in Sarcocornia marshes. The large increase observed in A. marina in the area generally is likely to be related to factors such as catchment modification or tidal/sea-level changes. It is concluded that runnelling has not led to mangrove establishment in the Sporobolus dominated saltmarsh.

  13. Persistent oscillations and backward bifurcation in a malaria model with varying human and mosquito populations: implications for control.

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Teboh-Ewungkem, Miranda I; Ngwa, Gideon A

    2015-06-01

    We derive and study a deterministic compartmental model for malaria transmission with varying human and mosquito populations. Our model considers disease-related deaths, asymptomatic immune humans who are also infectious, as well as mosquito demography, reproduction and feeding habits. Analysis of the model reveals the existence of a backward bifurcation and persistent limit cycles whose period and size is determined by two threshold parameters: the vectorial basic reproduction number Rm, and the disease basic reproduction number R0, whose size can be reduced by reducing Rm. We conclude that malaria dynamics are indeed oscillatory when the methodology of explicitly incorporating the mosquito's demography, feeding and reproductive patterns is considered in modeling the mosquito population dynamics. A sensitivity analysis reveals important control parameters that can affect the magnitudes of Rm and R0, threshold quantities to be taken into consideration when designing control strategies. Both Rm and the intrinsic period of oscillation are shown to be highly sensitive to the mosquito's birth constant λm and the mosquito's feeding success probability pw. Control of λm can be achieved by spraying, eliminating breeding sites or moving them away from human habitats, while pw can be controlled via the use of mosquito repellant and insecticide-treated bed-nets. The disease threshold parameter R0 is shown to be highly sensitive to pw, and the intrinsic period of oscillation is also sensitive to the rate at which reproducing mosquitoes return to breeding sites. A global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveals that the ability of the mosquito to reproduce and uncertainties in the estimations of the rates at which exposed humans become infectious and infectious humans recover from malaria are critical in generating uncertainties in the disease classes. PMID:24992885

  14. Influence of resource levels, organic compounds, and laboratory colonization on interspecific competition between the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) and the southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    Allgood, David W.; Yee, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    The mosquitoes Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera:Culicidae) are common inhabitants of tyres and other artificial containers, which constitute important peridomestic mosquito breeding habitats. We tested the hypotheses that interspecific resource competition between the larvae of these species is asymmetrical, that the concentration of chemicals associated with decomposing detritus affects their competitive outcome, and that wild and colonized strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus are affected differently by competition with Ae. albopictus. We conducted two laboratory competition experiments wherein we measured survivorship and estimated population growth (λ’) of both species under multiple mixed-species densities. Under varying resource levels, competition was asymmetrical with Ae. albopictus causing competitive reductions or exclusions of Cx. quinquefasciatus under limited resources. In a second experiment, which used both wild and colonized strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus, organic chemical compounds associated with decomposing detritus did not affect the competitive outcome. The colonized strain of Cx. quinquefasciatus had greater survivorship, adult mass, and faster development times than the wild strain, but both strains were similarly affected by competition with Ae. albopictus. Competition between these species may have important consequences for vector population dynamics, especially in areas where tyres and artificial containers constitute the majority of mosquito breeding habitats. PMID:24444185

  15. Habitat Use, Spatial Relationships, and Censusing Techniques of Breeding Eastern Black Rails (Laterallus jamaicensis jamaicensis) in Northern Florida

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project proposed this report will provide data on the habitats of the eastern black rail through the use of radio telemetry, vegetative samples, and weekly...

  16. Global climate change and its potential impact on disease transmission by salinity-tolerant mosquito vectors in coastal zones

    RanjanRamasamy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5–30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish and saline respectively will also take place as a result of global warming causing a rise in sea levels in coastal zones. Its possible impact on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases has, however, not been adequately appreciated. The relevant impacts of global climate change on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones are discussed with reference to the Ross-McDonald equation and modeling studies. Evidence is presented to show that an expansion of brackish water bodies in coastal zones can increase densities of salinity-tolerant mosquitoes like Anopheles sundaicus and Culex sitiens, and lead to the adaptation of fresh water mosquito vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to salinity. Rising sea levels may therefore act synergistically with global climate change to increase the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones. Greater attention therefore needs to be devoted to monitoring disease incidence and preimaginal development of vector mosquitoes in artificial and natural coastal brackish/saline habitats. It is important that national and international health agencies are aware of the increased risk of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones and develop preventive and mitigating strategies. Application of appropriate counter measures can greatly reduce the potential for increased coastal

  17. Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Shoo Bryson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae in areas with and without larviciding. Potential environmental and programmatic determinants of habitat detection coverage and detection sensitivity of mosquito larvae were recorded during guided walks with 64 different CORPs to assess the accuracy of data each had collected the previous day. Results CORPs reported the presence of 66.2% of all aquatic habitats (1,963/2,965, but only detected Anopheles larvae in 12.6% (29/230 of habitats that contained them. Detection sensitivity was particularly low for late-stage Anopheles (2.7%, 3/111, the most direct programmatic indicator of malaria vector productivity. Whether a CORP found a wet habitat or not was associated with his/her unfamiliarity with the area (Odds Ratio (OR [95% confidence interval (CI] = 0.16 [0.130, 0.203], P Conclusions Accessibility of habitats in urban settings presents a major challenge because the majority of compounds are fenced for security reasons. Furthermore, CORPs under-reported larvae especially where larvicides were applied. This UMCP system for larval surveillance in cities must be urgently revised to improve access to enclosed compounds and the sensitivity with which habitats are searched for larvae.

  18. Opposing effects on glutathione and reactive oxygen metabolites of sex, habitat, and spring date, but no effect of increased breeding density in great tits (Parus major).

    Isaksson, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative stress (i.e., more oxidants than antioxidants) has been proposed as a proximate currency in life-history trade-offs, which if studied in an ecological setting allow a more realistic perspective on the origin and evolution of trade-offs. Therefore, the aim here was to investigate the impact of ecological and individual factors for variation in markers of oxidative stress using both experimental and correlational data. Total glutathione (tGSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), plasma antioxidant capacity (OXY), and plasma-reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were measured in more than 700 breeding great tits (Parus major). The main results revealed a pronounced sex difference, with females having lower ROM and OXY, but higher tGSH compared with males. In addition, birds breeding in the evergreen areas had higher tGSH compared with those in the deciduous habitat, but the experimentally manipulated breeding density had no significant effect on any of the redox markers. Independent of the sex differences, the larger the reproductive investment the lower the ROM of both males and females. Taken together, the extracellular markers - ROM and OXY - revealed similar results and were highly correlated. Interestingly, the direction of their effects was in the opposite direction to the endogenously synthesized tGSH and GSSG. This highlights the need to combine extracellular markers with endogenously synthesized antioxidants to understand its implications for the origin and evolution of trade-offs in an ecological setting. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a proximate currency in life-history trade-offs, which if studied in an ecological setting allow a more realistic perspective on the origin and evolution of trade-offs. Here multiple markers of oxidative stress were analysed in wild great tits. The results reveal that the endogenously synthesized antioxidant glutathione and markers of plasma oxidative stress are affected in opposing directions with regard to sex, habitat type, and spring date. Clutch size was negatively associated with oxidative damage, which suggests that those with high reproductive investment can combat physiological costs linked to oxidative stress. The experimentally manipulated breeding density did not influence oxidative stress physiology. The study highlights the need to measure multiple markers to understand the role of oxidative stress in limiting the expression of life-history traits and trajectories in different ecological contexts. PMID:24567835

  19. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    Tusting, L.S.; Thwing, J.; Sinclair, D.; Fillinger, U; Gimnig, J.; Bonner, K.E.; Bottomley, C.; Lindsay, S W

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. Thi...

  20. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.; Joe Berg; Sheila M. O'Connell; C. Roxanne Connelly; Roger J. Wolfe; Walton, William E.; REY, JORGE R.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced ...

  1. Hydrology and Mosquito Population Dynamics around a Hydropower Reservoir in Africa

    Endo, N.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Malaria is associated with dams because their reservoirs provide mosquitoes, the vector of malaria, with permanent breeding sites. The risk of contracting malaria is likely to be enhanced following the increasing trend of hydropower dam construction to satisfy the expanding energy needs in developing countries. A close examination of its adverse health impacts is critical in the design, construction, and operation phases. We will present results of extensive field studies in 2012 and 2013 around the Koka Reservoir, Ethiopia. The results uncover the importance of reservoir management especially after the rainy seasons. Furthermore, we show the capability of a newly modified hydrology, entomology and malaria transmission simulator, HYDREMATS (Bomblies et al, 2008), and its potential as a tool for evaluating environmental management strategies to control malaria. HYDREMATS was developed to represent how the hydrology in nearby villages is impacted by the reservoir system, and the role of different types of vector ecologies associated with different Anopheles mosquito species. The hydrology component of HYDREMATS simulates three different mosquito breeding habitats: rain-fed pools, groundwater pools, and shoreline water. The entomology component simulates the life cycles of An. funestus and An. arabiensis, the two main vectors around the reservoir. The model was calibrated over the 2012-2013 period. The impact of reservoir water level management on the mosquito population is explored based on numerical model simulations and field experiments.

  2. Spatial ecology and habitat selection of Little Owl Athene noctua during the breeding season in Central European farmland

    Šálek, Martin; Lövy, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2012), s. 328-338. ISSN 0959-2709 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Little Owl * home range size * habitat use * compositional analysis * grasslands * short-sward vegetation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2012

  3. Mosquitoes and their potential predators in rice agroecosystems of the Mekong Delta, southern Vietnam.

    Ohba, Shin-Ya; Huynh, T T Trang; Le, Loan Luu; Ngoc, Huu Tran; Hoang, San Le; Takagi, Masahiro

    2011-12-01

    Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. gelidus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, known vectors of Japanese encephalitis (JE), are distributed in rice agroecosystems in Asian countries. Very few integrated studies on the breeding habitats of rice-field mosquitoes, including JE vectors, have been conducted in Vietnam. We investigated the mosquito fauna and potential predators in 8 rice growing areas in the Mekong Delta region of southern Vietnam, during the wet and dry seasons of 2009. Mosquitoes and their predators were collected from a variety of aquatic habitats (rice fields, ponds, wetlands, shrimp ponds, ditches, canals, and rivers). We collected 936 Culex spp. (354 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 240 Cx. vishnui s.l., 189 Cx. fuscocephala, and 42 Cx. gelidus), 33 Uranotaenia, 25 Anopheles, and 9 Mimomyia (4 Mi. chamberlaini) in the dry season. During the rainy season, we collected 1,232 Culex spp. (132 Cx. vishnui s.l., 66 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 9 Cx. gelidus, 4 Cx. fuscocephala, and 2 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 236 Anopheles spp. (40 An. vagus and 1 An. sinensis), and 7 Uranotaenia (3 Ur. lateralis). Heteroptera such as Micronecta, Veliidae, and Pleidae were abundant and widely distributed in both seasons. Based on a stepwise generalized linear model, the abundance of mosquitoes and their predators in rice fields was high when the rice plant length was short and water depth was shallow. Therefore, the use of insecticides during the earlier stages of rice growth should be avoided in order to preserve the predator populations. PMID:22329270

  4. Effective autodissemination of pyriproxyfen to breeding sites by the exophilic malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in semi-field settings in Tanzania

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria vector control strategies that target adult female mosquitoes are challenged by the emergence of insecticide resistance and behavioural resilience. Conventional larviciding is restricted by high operational costs and inadequate knowledge of mosquito-breeding habitats in rural settings that might be overcome by the juvenile hormone analogue, Pyriproxyfen (PPF). This study assessed the potential for Anopheles arabiensis to pick up and transfer lethal doses of PPF from contamination sites to their breeding habitats (i.e. autodissemination of PPF). Methods A semi-field system (SFS) with four identical separate chambers was used to evaluate PPF-treated clay pots for delivering PPF to resting adult female mosquitoes for subsequent autodissemination to artificial breeding habitats within the chambers. In each chamber, a tethered cow provided blood meals to laboratory-reared, unfed female An. arabiensis released in the SFS. In PPF-treated chambers, clay pot linings were dusted with 0.2 – 0.3 g AI PPF per pot. Pupae were removed from the artificial habitats daily, and emergence rates calculated. Impact of PPF on emergence was determined by comparing treatment with an appropriate control group. Results Mean (95% CI) adult emergence rates were (0.21?±?0.299) and (0.95?±?0.39) from PPF-treated and controls respectively (p?habitats in these experiments resulted in significantly lower emergence rates in treated chambers (0.16?±?0.23) compared to controls 0.97?±?0.05) (p?mosquitoes introduced, there were no significant differences between control and treatment, indicating that transfer of PPF to breeding sites only occurred when mosquitoes were present; i.e. that autodissemination had occurred. Treatment of a single clay pot reduced adult emergence in six habitats to (0.34?±?0.13) compared to (0.98?±?0.02) in the controls (p?habitats coverage amplification of the autodissemination event. Conclusion The study provides proof of principle for the autodissemination of PPF to breeding habitats by malaria vectors. These findings highlight the potential for this technique for outdoor control of malaria vectors and call for the testing of this technique in field trials. PMID:24779515

  5. Resource selection and space use by sea ducks during the non-breeding season: implications for habitat conservation planning in urbanized estuaries

    De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Eadie, John M.; Miles, A. Keith; Yee, Julie; Spragens, Kyle A.; Palm, Eric C.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    Wide-ranging marine birds rely on multiple habitats for wintering, breeding, and migrating, and their conservation may be dependent on protecting networks of key areas. Urbanized estuaries are critical wintering and stopover areas for many declining sea ducks in North America; however, conservation measures within estuaries are difficult to establish given lack of knowledge about habitat use by these species and the variety of competing human interests. We applied hierarchical modeling to evaluate resource selection of sea ducks (surf scoters, Melanitta perspicillata) wintering in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, a large and highly urbanized estuary. We also examined their distribution, home range, and movements with respect to key habitat features and regions within the estuary. Herring roe was the strongest predictor of bird locations; however, eelgrass, water depth and salinity were also highly-ranked, with sea ducks using deeper areas of higher salinity associated with herring roe and eelgrass presence during mid-winter. Sea ducks were also strongly associated with ferry routes, suggesting these areas may contain resources that are too important to avoid and emphasizing the need to better understand water traffic effects. Movements and home range size differed between males and females in early winter but became more similar in late winter. Birds traveled farther and used several sub-bays in early winter compared to mid-winter when herring roe availability peaked in the Central Bay. Our findings identified key environmental variables, highlighted core use areas, and documented critical periods for consideration when developing conservation plans for sea ducks in urbanized estuaries.

  6. The importance of the ``Polar Front'' as a foraging habitat for guillemots Uria spp. breeding at Bjørnøya, Barents Sea

    Mehlum, Fridtjof; Nordlund, Nina; Isaksen, Kjell

    1998-01-01

    There are large breeding colonies of common guillemots Uria aalge and Brünnich's guillemots Uria lomvia at Bjørnøya in the Barents Sea. We studied the foraging ecology of these guillemot populations during the breeding season by ship surveys off the island. The guillemots foraged in all directions from the island, but the main aggregations of foraging birds were encountered south of Bjørnøya. Common guillemots tended to forage mainly on the southern side of the island. Most of the foraging aggregations were encountered 25-60 km from the island. These guillemot aggregations were located at the surface expression of the "Polar Front" and in the strongly stratified water on the offshore side of the front. The position of the surface "Polar Front", which roughly follows the 100 m isobath, seems to be relatively predictable and is probably dependent on bathymetry and strong tidal currents. The euphausiid Thysanoessa inermis predominated in the diet of adult Brünnich's guillemots collected during the study, whereas fish were brought back to their young. Capelin Mallotus villosus is an important prey for guillemots in the Barents Sea, but in years when capelin is scarce in the region, guillemots may rely more on euphausiids for subsistence.

  7. Species Composition and Relative Abundance of Mosquitoes in Swat, Pakistan

    Ikram Ilahi; Muhammad Suleman

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) was conducted in Swat Pakistan, from April to September during 2000. The survey involved the sampling of both, adult and immature stages of mosquitoes, and recovered a total of 21 species in five genera. Sampling of adult mosquitoes involved Pyrethrum spray collections, Man-biting collections, and Animal-biting collection. Immature stages of mosquitoes were collected from variety of habitats including springs, irrigation channels, rice...

  8. Mosquito population regulation and larval source management in heterogeneous environments.

    Smith, DL; Perkins, TA; Tusting, LS; Scott, TW; Lindsay, SW

    2013-01-01

    An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM). We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and sh...

  9. The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control

    Adrias Araceli Q

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently transported in the absence of water in the form of hibernating embryos. Once introduced either as embryos or juveniles in ponds, the annual killifish can effectively reduce the larval population because of its aggressive predatory activity.

  10. The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control

    2010-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently transported in the absence of water in the form of hibernating embryos. Once introduced either as embryos or juveniles in ponds, the annual killifish can effectively reduce the larval population because of its aggressive predatory activity. PMID:20492714

  11. The effect of water physical quality and water level changes on the occurrence and density of larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes around the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, Central Ethiopia

    S. Kibret

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae and on the spatial and temporal formation of larval breeding habitats were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is in close proximity to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data from the weekly larval collections showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of A. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitats than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitats (F=16.97, pF=6.03, pA. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation (F=15.75, pF=10.56, pAnopheles larvae with water temperature of the breeding habitat and daily minimum atmospheric temperature (r=0.541, pr=0.604, pr=0.605, pAnopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes in the vicinity. The proliferation of suitable breeding habitats around the reservoir villages is strongly associated with reservoir water level changes. This is particularly important for A. pharoensis and A. arabiensis which are important vectors of malaria in the area. Further investigation on the species diversity, physical and chemical habitat characteristics and impact of water holding capacity of the soil need to be done to generate detailed baseline data which will serve as a basis for proper water management activities for malaria risk mitigation.

  12. Community-based surveillance of malaria vector larval habitats: a baseline study in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Fillinger Ulrike

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes it may be possible to protect large populations from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Here we present a baseline evaluation of the ability of community members to detect mosquito larval habitats with minimal training and supervision in the first weeks of an operational urban malaria control program. Methods The Urban Malaria Control Programme of Dar es Salaam recruited and provided preliminary training to teams of Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs who performed weekly surveys of mosquito breeding sites. Two trained mosquito biologists accompanied each of these teams for one week and evaluated the sensitivity of this system for detecting potential Anopheles habitats. Results Overall, 42.4% of 986 habitats surveyed by an inspection team had previously been identified by CORPs. Agricultural habitats were detected less often than other habitats (30.8% detected, Odds Ratio [95%CI] = 0.46 [0.29–0.73], P = 0.001. Non-agricultural artificial habitats were less suitable than other habitats (29.3% occupancy, OR = 0.69 [0.46–1.03], P = 0.066 but still constituted 45% (169/289 of occupied habitats because of their abundance (51 % of all habitats. Conclusion The levels of coverage achieved by modestly trained and supported CORPs at the start of the Dar es Salaam UMCP were insufficient to enable effective suppression of malaria transmission through larval control. Further operational research is required to develop surveillance systems that are practical, affordable, effective and acceptable so that community-based integrated vector management can be implemented in cities across Africa.

  13. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

  14. Spatially targeting Culex quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats on modified land cover for implementing an Integrated Vector Management (IVM) program in three villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya

    Githure John; Funes Jose; Muriu Simon M; Mwangangi Joseph M; Muturi Ephantus J; Shililu Josephat; Jacob Benjamin G; Regens James L; Novak Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Continuous land cover modification is an important part of spatial epidemiology because it can help identify environmental factors and Culex mosquitoes associated with arbovirus transmission and thus guide control intervention. The aim of this study was to determine whether remotely sensed data could be used to identify rice-related Culex quinquefasciatus breeding habitats in three rice-villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya. We examined whether a land use land cover ...

  15. Mathematical model in controlling dengue transmission with sterile mosquito strategies

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose a mathematical model for controlling dengue disease transmission with sterile mosquito techniques (SIT). Sterile male introduced from lab in to habitat to compete with wild male mosquito for mating with female mosquito. Our aim is to displace gradually the natural mosquito from the habitat. Mathematical model analysis for steady states and the basic reproductive ratio are performed analytically. Numerical simulation are shown in some different scenarios. We find that SIT intervention is potential to controlling dengue spread among humans population

  16. New Non-Toxic Weapon Against Mosquitoes

    Strachan, Graham George

    2015-01-01

    Aquatain AMF is a unique silicone-based liquid for mosquito control. It spreads across the surface of standing water, forming a very thin film which lasts for at least 4 weeks. As the silicone polymer has a low surface tension, mosquito larvae and pupae cannot attach to the surface to breathe - causing them to drown. Trials have been conducted in sixteen countries, covering a wide range of mosquito-breeding situations and climatic conditions. All of the trials have been undertaken by independ...

  17. Impacts of the creation, expansion and management of English wetlands on mosquito presence and abundance - developing strategies for future disease mitigation.

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing in Europe, partly due to the incursion of a number of invasive species known to be vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, but also due to the involvement of native species in the transmission of West Nile virus and malaria. For some of these pathogens, there is a risk of the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases that were once widespread in Europe, but declined partly due to large-scale land-drainage projects. Some mosquito species exploit container habitats as breeding sites in urban areas; an adaptation to human-made micro-habitats resulting from increased urbanisation. However, many species thrive in natural wetland ecosystems. Owing to the impacts of climate change there is an urgent need for environmental adaptation, such as the creation of new wetlands to mitigate coastal and inland flooding. In some cases, these initiatives can be coupled with environmental change strategies to protect a range of endangered flora and fauna species by enhancing and extending wetland landscapes, which may by driven by European legislation, particularly in urban areas. This paper reviews field studies conducted in England to assess the impact of newly created wetlands on mosquito colonisation in a) coastal, b) urban and c) arable reversion habitats. It also considers the impact of wetland management on mosquito populations and explores the implications of various water and vegetation management options on the range of British mosquito species. Understanding the impact of wetland creation and management strategies on mosquito prevalence and the potential risk of increasing the levels of nuisance or disease vector species will be crucial in informing health and well-being risk assessments, guiding targeted control, and anticipating the social effects of extreme weather and climate change. Although new wetlands will certainly extend aquatic habitats for mosquitoes, not all species will become a major nuisance or a vector concern as a result. Understanding how the design and management of wetlands might exacerbate mosquito densities is crucial if we are to manage nuisance mosquitoes and control vector species in the event of a disease outbreak. This entomological evidence-base will ensure that control strategies achieve optimal efficacy at minimal cost. PMID:25889666

  18. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Márcio Goulart Mocellin; Taynãna César Simões; Teresa Fernandes Silva do Nascimento; Maria Lucia França Teixeira; Leon Philip Lounibos; Ricardo Lourenço de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a d...

  19. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia

    Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew & Teshome Gebre-Michael

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia andelsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporalvariation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anophelinemosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course ofthe Ethiopian Rift Valley.Methods: Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables(water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables were measured, characterized andanalyzed.Results: Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV of anopheline larvae collected throughout thestudy period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus. Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis andAn. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logisticregression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vectorspecies. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquaticvegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly andpositively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies.Conclusion: Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintainedby perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vectorcontrol operations.

  20. Characterization of anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae larval habitats in Nouakchott, Mauritania

    O. Ahmedou Salem Mohamed Salem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Despite the increasing number of reported autochthonous malaria cases in Nouakchott and the identification of Anopheles arabiensis as the major malaria vector in this Saharan city, anopheline larval habitats have never been identified so far. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize anopheline larval habitats in Nouakchott. Methods: During September and October 2012, samples from pools of rainwater, water discharged from standpipes and household drinking water tanks in the districts of Dar Naim, Teyarett and Arafat were analyzed for the presence/absence of anopheline larvae and physicochemical characterization of breeding habitats. Results: Of the 51 prospected water bodies, eight consisting of seven water discharged from standpipes and one household drinking water tank were productive for Anopheles sp. All emerged anopheline mosquitoes from the positive dipping were morphologically identified as members of the An. gambiae complex. Multivariate regression analyses showed that a salinity up to 0.1 g/l and a shaded situation were respectively protective factors against high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI [0.44-0.87], p = 0.0052 and adjusted odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI [0.44-0.71, p <0.0001] and a pH up to 7.61 was a risk factor for high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56, 95% CI [1.25-1.95], p = 0.0001. Interpretation & conclusion: The study demonstrated in Nouakchott that despite an arid and dry climate, human practices have contributed to the establishment of favourable environmental conditions for the development of anopheline mosquitoes and, therefore, maintaining malaria transmission in this Saharan city. The core malaria vector control intervention as the use of long-lasting insecicidal nets (LLINs could be complemented in Nouakchott by larval source control. In this area, appropriate larval control measures may be recommended in line with an integrated vector management (IVM approach.

  1. Higher Mosquito Production in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: Understanding Ecological Drivers and Mosquito-Borne Disease Risk in Temperate Cities

    Danielle Bodner; Dawn Biehler; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Leisnham, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-vectored pathogens are responsible for devastating human diseases and are (re)emerging in many urban environments. Effective mosquito control in urban landscapes relies on improved understanding of the complex interactions between the ecological and social factors that define where mosquito populations can grow. We compared the density of mosquito habitat and pupae production across economically varying neighborhoods in two temperate U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC). Se...

  2. Ord River arboviruses--the study site and mosquitoes.

    Liehne, P F; Stanley, N F; Alpers, M P; Liehne, C G

    1976-10-01

    The Ord Valey of tropical Western Australia has been studied for arbovirus activity following the development of a man-made lake of considerable size, a diversion dam and an irrigation scheme. Kununurra, the largest town in the valley, is the focus for very large populations of birds and mosquitoes. The irrigation areas have not been important as mosquito breeding areas because of the excessive use of insecticides. Lake Argyle does not support high mosquito a bird population at present. However, this may change as the ecosystem stabilizes. The mosquito fauna of the Ord Valley is dominated by Culex annulirostris. PMID:14612

  3. Habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western Kenya highlands

    Atieli Harrysone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. Methods A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in hilltops and along the seasonal streams in the Sigalagala area of Kakamega district, western Kenya. Water availability in the habitats was followed up daily from August 3, 2006 to February 23, 2007. A habitat is defined as stable when it remains aquatic continuously for at least 12 d. Mosquito larvae were observed weekly. Frequencies of aquatic, stable and larvae positive habitats were compared between the hilltop and seasonal stream area using ?2-test. Factors affecting the presence/absence of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the highlands were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Topography significantly affected habitat availability and stability. The occurrence of aquatic habitats in the hilltop was more sporadic than in the stream area. The percentage of habitat occurrences that were classified as stable during the rainy season is 48.76% and 80.79% respectively for the hilltop and stream area. Corresponding frequencies of larvae positive habitats were 0% in the hilltop and 5.91% in the stream area. After the rainy season, only 23.42% of habitat occurrences were stable and 0.01% larvae positive habitats were found in the hilltops, whereas 89.75% of occurrences remained stable in the stream area resulting in a frequency of 12.21% larvae positive habitats. The logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between habitat stability and larval occurrence and indicated that habitat surface area was negatively affecting the occurrence of An. gambiae larvae. While An. gambiae and An. funestus larvae occurred throughout the study period along the streams, a total of only 15 An. gambiae larvae were counted in the hilltops, and no An. funestus were found. Moreover, no larvae managed to develop into adults in the hilltops, and the density of adult An. gambiae was consistently low, averaging at 0.06 females per house per survey. Conclusion The occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the hilltop area was uncommon as a result of the low availability and high instability of habitats. To optimize the cost-effectiveness of malaria interventions in the western Kenya highlands, larval control should be focused primarily along the streams, as these are likely the only productive habitats at high altitude.

  4. Mangrove distribution and mosquito control: transport of Avicennia marina propagules by mosquito-control runnels in southeast Queensland saltmarshes

    Breitfuss, M. J.; Connolly, R. M.; Dale, P. E. R.

    2003-03-01

    The saltmarsh-mangrove interface generally constitutes the landward boundary for the grey mangrove Avicennia marina var. australasica, the most widespread species on southeast Queensland shores. A. marina produces buoyant propagules, which are dispersed by tidal waters, only infrequently transported to saltmarsh by the highest spring tides. We predicted that runnelling, a form of habitat modification for mosquito control, transports and deposits mangrove propagules to saltmarsh because the runnels carry low-amplitude tides that would not normally inundate higher regions of the marsh. To test this, groups of marked A. marina propagules were released at three runnelled saltmarshes in southeast Queensland during high-amplitude, flooding and low-amplitude, non-flooding tidal events. The distance propagules were transported from their original starting positions on the saltmarsh-mangrove interface was measured and analysed to detect differences among groups at different distances from runnels. Groups of propagules released within 10 m of a runnel were always transported significantly further from the starting position and further up the saltmarsh shore after both flooding and non-flooding tides than any other groups. In addition, the pattern of stranding on saltmarsh for significantly different groups was closely associated with the path of runnel construction so that propagules were located either in the runnel or in depressions linked to the runnel that had been isolated mosquito-breeding pools prior to runnelling. Observations of A. marina plants at other runnelled sites suggest that propagules transported by runnels can establish and develop to maturity, at least in depressions and runnels, in saltmarsh. The fact that runnels transport propagules to regions of the saltmarsh beyond their normal limits of dispersion suggests a possible advantage for landward extension of the intertidal distribution of A. marina at runnelled sites and should be considered in saltmarsh management and mosquito control programmes in southeast Queensland.

  5. Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera) from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera) em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores

    Rafael Piovezan; Thiago Salomão de Azevedo; Cláudio José Von Zuben

    2012-01-01

    Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera) larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers as larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 s...

  6. Established Population of the Invasive Mosquito Species Aedes albopictus in Romania, 2012-14.

    Prioteasa, Liviu F; Dinu, Sorin; Fălcuţă, Elena; Ceianu, Cornelia S

    2015-06-01

    During an entomological investigation carried out in Bucharest and surroundings in fall of 2012, 45 adult mosquitoes (38 females and 7 males) of Aedes albopictus were collected in a neighborhood from the southern area of the city. The morphological identification of the species was further confirmed by sequencing 2 mitochondrial DNA markers: the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes. Aedes albopictus was collected again in 2013 in the same area from July until October. During late summer the species was found also in another location in the city, downtown Bucharest. Larvae were found in water barrels and other types of household containers, as well as in rain catch basins. In 2014, following a nuisance complaint of a Bucharest inhabitant, the entomological investigation found aggressive Ae. albopictus adults on his property that harbored many mosquito larvae in container-type breeding habitats. These findings are the 1st records of this invasive species and of its breeding population in Romania, and show maintenance of the species over 2 winter seasons. Surveillance of the species outside the area of the capital city was not performed, therefore it is not known whether Ae. albopictus has been introduced in other regions of the country. The presence of Ae. albopictus has been reported every year (2012-14) to competent public health authorities, stressing on the importance of surveillance and of implementation of control measures. PMID:26181695

  7. Dynamics of Bacterial Community Composition in the Malaria Mosquito's Epithelia.

    Tchioffo, Majoline T; Boissière, Anne; Abate, Luc; Nsango, Sandrine E; Bayibéki, Albert N; Awono-Ambéné, Parfait H; Christen, Richard; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Morlais, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The Anopheles midgut hosts diverse bacterial communities and represents a complex ecosystem. Several evidences indicate that mosquito midgut microbiota interferes with malaria parasite transmission. However, the bacterial composition of salivary glands and ovaries, two other biologically important tissues, has not been described so far. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the bacterial communities in the mosquito tissues from emerging mosquitoes until 8 days after a blood meal containing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and described the temporal colonization of the mosquito epithelia. Bacterial communities were identified in the midgut, ovaries, and salivary glands of individual mosquitoes using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that the mosquito epithelia share a core microbiota, but some bacteria taxa were more associated with one or another tissue at a particular time point. The bacterial composition in the tissues of emerging mosquitoes varied according to the breeding site, indicating that some bacteria are acquired from the environment. Our results revealed temporal variations in the bacterial community structure, possibly as a result of the mosquito physiological changes. The abundance of Serratia significantly correlated with P. falciparum infection both in the midgut and salivary glands of malaria challenged mosquitoes, which suggests that interactions occur between microbes and parasites. These bacteria may represent promising targets for vector control strategies. Overall, this study points out the importance of characterizing bacterial communities in malaria mosquito vectors. PMID:26779155

  8. Dynamics of Bacterial Community Composition in the Malaria Mosquito's Epithelia

    Tchioffo, Majoline T.; Boissière, Anne; Abate, Luc; Nsango, Sandrine E.; Bayibéki, Albert N.; Awono-Ambéné, Parfait H.; Christen, Richard; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Morlais, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The Anopheles midgut hosts diverse bacterial communities and represents a complex ecosystem. Several evidences indicate that mosquito midgut microbiota interferes with malaria parasite transmission. However, the bacterial composition of salivary glands and ovaries, two other biologically important tissues, has not been described so far. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the bacterial communities in the mosquito tissues from emerging mosquitoes until 8 days after a blood meal containing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and described the temporal colonization of the mosquito epithelia. Bacterial communities were identified in the midgut, ovaries, and salivary glands of individual mosquitoes using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that the mosquito epithelia share a core microbiota, but some bacteria taxa were more associated with one or another tissue at a particular time point. The bacterial composition in the tissues of emerging mosquitoes varied according to the breeding site, indicating that some bacteria are acquired from the environment. Our results revealed temporal variations in the bacterial community structure, possibly as a result of the mosquito physiological changes. The abundance of Serratia significantly correlated with P. falciparum infection both in the midgut and salivary glands of malaria challenged mosquitoes, which suggests that interactions occur between microbes and parasites. These bacteria may represent promising targets for vector control strategies. Overall, this study points out the importance of characterizing bacterial communities in malaria mosquito vectors. PMID:26779155

  9. Environmental predictors of the occurrence of ground water mosquito immatures in the Paraná Lower Delta, Argentina.

    Cardo, M V; Vezzani, D; Carbajo, A E

    2011-09-01

    Characterizing mosquito larval habitats is essential for understanding the complex interactions between immatures and the biotic and abiotic components of their environment. Using generalized linear mixed models, we studied the environmental predictors of the presence of three ubiquitous mosquito species breeding in ground water habitats in the Paraná Lower Delta, Argentina. During a year-round survey, 34.1% of the 419 ground water habitats inspected were positive for either Culex dolosus s.l. (Lynch Arribálzaga 1891), Aedes crinifer (Theobald 1903), or Culex intrincatus Brèthes 1916. Univariate analysis showed that the former two occurred throughout the year, whereas the latter during the summer and fall. Ae. crinifer and Cx. intrincatus were more frequently collected in secondary forests, whereas Cx. dolosus s.l. was homogeneously distributed among land uses. Best generalized linear mixed models included the sampling period and landscape variables in different combinations for each species. Spatial dependence of the data was evident for Cx. dolosus s.l. and Ae. crinifer. Our results showed that the most widespread species presented different spatio-temporal distribution patterns, related with land use, anthropic intervention, and seasonality, highlighting the complexity of the wetland under study. This methodological approach could aid in the selection of priority areas for vector control and disease risk management. PMID:21936317

  10. Characterisation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in Córdoba, Argentina

    Marta Grech

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in Córdoba city. Every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. Data regarding the water depth, temperature and pH, permanence, the presence of aquatic vegetation and the density of collected mosquito larvae were recorded. Data on the average air temperatures and accumulated precipitation during the 15 days prior to each sampling date were also obtained. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected throughout the study period and were generally most abundant in the summer season. Generalised linear mixed models indicated the average air temperature and presence of dicotyledonous aquatic vegetation as variables that served as important predictors of larval densities. Additionally, permanent breeding sites supported high larval densities. In Córdoba city and possibly in other highly populated cities at the same latitude with the same environmental conditions, control programs should focus on permanent larval habitats with aquatic vegetation during the early spring, when the Cx. quinquefasciatus population begins to increase.

  11. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  12. Habitat Appraisal by Vermont Electric Power Company

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Declines in habitat availability have been associated with population declines in bird species breeding in early successional forest and shrubland habitats....

  13. Mosquito, adult (image)

    ... illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

  14. Aqueous neem extract versus neem powder on Culex quinquefasciatus: implications for control in anthropogenic habitats.

    Kudom, Andreas A; Mensah, Ben A; Botchey, Mary A

    2011-01-01

    Control programs using conventional insecticides to target anthropogenic mosquito habitats are very expensive because these habitats are widespread, particularly in cities of most African countries. Additionally, there are serious environmental concerns regarding large-scale application of most conventional insecticides. Clearly there is a need for alternative methods that are more effective, less expensive, and environmentally friendly. One such method would be the application of preparations made from parts of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Jussieu (Sapindales: Meliaceae). In this study, aqueous crude extracts and crude powder were prepared from different parts of neem, and the efficacies of the preparations on juvenile stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) were evaluated in the laboratory. When larvae were exposed to a concentration of 0.1 g/mL extract for 24 hours, percent mean mortality (± SE) was 72.7 plusmn; 1.8 for the bark, 68.7 ± 1.6 for fruits and 60 ± 1.6 for leaves. These means were not significantly different (χ(2) = 4.12; df = 2; p = 0.127). At a concentration of 0.01 g/mL, > 95% of the larvae died within 24 hours of exposure to powdered neem leaf, but it took 120 hours to reach the same level of larval mortality in aqueous leaf extract. The crude extract slowly inhibited the growth and development of mosquitoes while the crude powder acted more as a barrier; the mosquitoes probably died from suffocation. However, both types of preparations can be made and used by local people to control mosquito breeding in anthropogenic habitats, especially in urbanized areas. PMID:22233153

  15. The impact of vegetation characteristics and prey availability on breeding habitat use and diet of Little Owls Athene noctua in Central European farmland

    Šálek, Martin; Riegert, J.; Křivan, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 57 (2010), s. 495-503. ISSN 0006-3657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Central Europe * diet composition * habitat choice * insect prey Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2010

  16. MAN, MOSQUITOES AND MICROBES.

    SCHOONOVER, ROBERT A.

    THE CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES IS A MATTER OF INCREASING CONCERN IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE LIFE CYCLE, VARIOUS SPECIES, CONTROL, AND DESCRIPTION OF DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY THE MOSQUITO WAS PRESENTED. THE ARTICLE CONCLUDED THAT MOSQUITO CONTROL IS NOT ONLY A HEALTH PROBLEM, BUT ALSO A MATTER OF IMPROVED ECONOMICS IN RELATION TO…

  17. Role of the repartition of wetland breeding sites on the spatial distribution of Anopheles and Culex, human disease vectors in Southern France

    Fontenille Didier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, carried out in the Camargue region (France, we combined entomological data with geomatic and modelling tools to assess whether the location of breeding sites may explain the spatial distribution of adult mosquitoes. The species studied are important and competent disease vectors in Europe: Culex modestus Ficalbi and Cx. pipiens Linnaeus (West Nile virus, Anopheles atroparvus Van Thiel, a former Plasmodium vector, and An. melanoon Hackett, competent to transmit Plasmodium. Using a logistic regression model, we first evaluated which land cover variables determined the presence of Culex and Anopheles larva. The resulting probability map of larval presence then was used to project the average probability of finding adults in a buffer area. This was compared to the actual number of adults collected, providing a quantitative assessment of adult dispersal ability for each species. Results The distribution of Cx. modestus and An. melanoon is mainly driven by the repartition of irrigated farm fields and reed beds, their specific breeding habitats. The presence of breeding sites explained the distribution of adults of both species. The buffer size, reflecting the adult dispersal ability, was 700 m for Cx. modestus and 1000 m for An. melanoon. The comparatively stronger correlation observed for Cx. modestus suggested that other factors may affect the distribution of adult An. melanoon. We did not find any association between Cx. pipiens larval presence and the biotope due to the species' ubiquist character. Conclusion By applying the same method to different species, we highlighted different strengths of association between land cover (irrigated farm fields and reed beds, larval presence and adult population distribution. This paper demonstrates the power of geomatic tools to quantify the spatial organization of mosquito populations, and allows a better understanding of links between landcover, breeding habitats, presence of immature mosquito populations and adult distributions for different species.

  18. Microhabitats de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em internódios de taquara na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Mosquitoes microhabitats (Diptera, Culicidae in bamboo internodes in Atlantic forest, Paraná, Brazil

    Ana Leuch Lozovei

    Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from January 1985 to December 1986, a comparative study of mosquitoes preferences for breeding habitat was carried out in the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar, Paraná State, Brazil. To achieve it, 1875 bamboo internodes aligned vertically in live green, bamboo plants Merostachys speciosa Munro and Merostachys sp. were used, in which metabolic water was exuded from the plant itself, and presenting different size/pattern holes at their lateral walls, bored by the local sylvan fauna. Another group of 1200 individual internode traps was used as comparative element, carved out with a transversal cut by a saw, filled with local stream water and held in branches at different heights in the vegetal strata nearby. At both microhabitat types, a total of 17 culicid species was registered. Culex (Microculex neglectus Lutz, 1904, Cx. (Carrollia soperi Antunes & Lane, 1937, Sabethes (Sabethes batesi Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 and Sa. (Sabethinus melanonymphe (Dyar, 1924colonized exclusively live plant internodes, while Culex (Microculex elongatus Rozeboom & Lane, 1950, Cx. (Carrollia iridescens (Lutz, 1905, Cx. (Carrollia kompi Valencia,1973and Trichoprosopon (Trichoprosopon soaresi Dyar & Knab, 1907 bred only in internode traps. The remaining nine species colonized both habitats indistinctly. Quantitatively, was detected the abundance of 60.1% at live green internodes, against 39.9% for internode traps. Concerning the different patterns of bored live internode holes, 40.3% of the total computed specimens were collected in square or rectangular holes, 31.9% in two hole internodes, one minute circular, the other wider, and the remaining 28.8% of specimens distributed in other pattern type internodes. The mosquitoes breeding at these microhabitats fall in the culicid entomofauna specialized at locating and detecting peculiar and propitious mesogen conditions for breeding purposes.

  19. Mutation breeding

    Twenty years have passed since the establishment of gamma field as a major facility for irradiation in a radiation breeding field, and the duration of the accumulated irradiation was 100,000 hours as of 1980. New 50 varieties or more were grown by mutation breeding. This book deals with the outcome of mutation breeding for 20 years in view of seed breeding and methods for inducing mutation and breeding of vegetatively propagated plants and tree crops. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    Jordi Sánchez-Ribas; Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira; Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas; Lluís Trilla; Teresa Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112...

  1. A Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in Relation to Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Disease in Western Australia

    Potter, Abbey; Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    On average, more than 1,000 individuals will acquire a mosquito-borne disease in Western Australia (WA) each year. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in relation to mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease have not yet been investigated within Australia. A randomized telephone survey of 2,500 households across 12 regions in WA was undertaken between February and May 2014. The aim of the survey was to obtain baseline KAP data surrounding mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in different regions of WA, across a range of age groups and between males and females. The results of this survey indicate that the majority of respondents are aware of the potential for mosquitoes in WA to transmit Ross River virus, while awareness of other endemic mosquito-borne diseases remains limited. Common misconceptions exist in relation to exotic mosquito-borne diseases, with respondents incorrectly identifying malaria and dengue as endemic diseases in WA. The survey also highlighted a range of important issues, such as limited awareness of the potential for backyard breeding in domestic containers, occupational exposure to mosquitoes in regions with a large employment base in the mining and resources sector, increased exposure to mosquitoes as a result of participation in outdoor recreational activities in the north of the State, and reduced awareness of mosquito-borne disease in individuals aged 18–34 years. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of a new communication strategy by the Department of Health, to further raise awareness of mosquito-borne disease in WA. The data will then provide a baseline against which to compare future survey results, facilitating the rigorous evaluation of new communication efforts. PMID:26973827

  2. Reproduction of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Santa Cruz, Santiago island, Cape Verde Islands

    Duarte, Elves Heleno; Correia, Edson Eugénio; Varela, Caetano Eane; Varela, António

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are dipterous insects with an important role in the transmission of diseases like malaria and dengue. During a dengue fever outbreak in the Cape Verde Islands in 2009, several studies were undertaken to support vector control. The present study was carried out in the district of Santa Cruz, Santiago island, to evaluate previous measures taken to control mosquito populations. Results show that mosquitoes use domestic water containers to breed. Barrels, drums and pots were all used. ...

  3. Potential for Loss of Breeding Habitat for Imperiled Mountain Yellow-legged Frog ( Rana muscosa) in High Sierra Nevada Mountain Water Bodies due to Reduced Snowpack: Interaction of Climate Change and an Introduced Predator

    Lacan, I.; Matthews, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    Year to year variation in snowpack (20-200% average) and summer rain create large fluctuations in the volume of water in ponds and small lakes of the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada. These water bodies are critical habitat for the imperiled mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa, which has decreased in abundance by 90% during the past century, due in part to the loss of suitable habitat and introduction of a fish predator (trout, Oncorhynchus spp.). Climate change is predicted to reduce the amount of snowpack, potentially impacting amphibian habitats throughout the Sierra Nevada by further reducing the lake and pond water levels and resulting in drying of small lakes during the summer. Mountain yellow-legged frogs are closely tied to water during all life stages, and are unique in having a three- to four-year tadpole phase. Thus, tadpole survival and future recruitment of adult frogs requires adequate water in lakes and ponds throughout the year, but larger lakes are populated with fish that prey on frogs and tadpoles. Thus, most successful frog breeding occurs in warm, shallow, fishless ponds that undergo wide fluctuations in volume. These water bodies would be most susceptible to the potential climate change effects of reduced snowpack, possibly resulting in lower tadpole survival. This study explores the link between the changes in water availability -- including complete pond drying -- and the abundance and recruitment of mountain yellow-legged frog in Dusy Basin, Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA. We propose using the low-snowpack years (1999, 2002, 2004) as comparative case studies to predict future effects of climate change on aquatic habitat availability and amphibian abundance and survival. To quantify the year to year variation and changes in water volume available to amphibians, we initiated GPS lake mapping in 2002 to quantify water volumes, water surface area, and shoreline length. We tracked these changes by repeated mapping of water surface and volume (bathymetry) during the summer, and concurrently counting all the life stages (adults, subadults, tadpoles) of frogs. As a baseline in this analysis, we present 2002 data when pond volume declined 40-100% during summer in three breeding lakes. The lakes that completely dried up in 2002 were repopulated by adults in 2003 but showed no recruitment of metamorphosed frogs from previous year's tadpoles. The lakes that retained water -- even if they underwent a large reduction in water volume (-60%), surface area (-70%) and shoreline length (-70%) during the summer -- show consistent tadpole-to-subadult recruitment in the following year (2003). Similar results are obtained using frog counts from 1999-2000 and 2004-2005 and estimates of water volume in those years. Our results suggest that more frequent summer drying of small ponds -- as may be induced by climate change -- will severely reduce frog recruitment. When combined with the invasive fish that prevent frog breeding in larger lakes, such effect of climate change may cause loss of local frog populations, and push the entire species towards extinction.

  4. Do the Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged Warbler Exhibit Species-specific Differences in their Breeding Habitat Use?

    David S. Maehr

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elevations and with greater percentages of grass and canopy cover. Mean territory size (minimum convex polygon was 1.3 ha (se = 0.1 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 1.7 ha (se = 0.3 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 2.1 ha (se = 0.3 for Blue-winged Warbler. Territory overlap occurred within and between species (18 of n = 73 territories, 24.7%. All Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers established territories that included an edge between reclaimed mine land and mature forest, as opposed to establishing territories in open grassland/shrubland habitat. The mean distance territories extended from a forest edge was 28.0 m (se = 3.8 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 44.7 m (se = 5.7 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 33.1 m (se = 6.1 for Blue-winged Warbler. Neither territory size nor distances to forest edges differed significantly between Golden-winged Warbler in presence or absence of Blue-winged Warbler. According to Monte Carlo analyses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings and saplings, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia saplings were indicative of sites with only Golden-winged Warblers. Sericea lespedeza, goldenrod (Solidago spp., clematis vine (Clematis spp., and blackberry (Rubus spp. were indicative of sites where both species occurred. Our findings complement recent genetic studies and add another factor for examining Golden-winged Warbler population decline. Further, information from our study will aid land managers in manipulating habitat for the Golden-winged Warbler.

  5. Registros de mayor altitud para mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae en Venezuela

    Juan-Carlos Navarro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae. Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera Kerteszia- with the upper limit of 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2 550 m were the highest records in the Central- Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2 252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2 000 m. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 245-254. Epub 2010 March 01.

  6. Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs

    Smith, Todd G; Laura V. Ferguson

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciproc...

  7. Mosquito Immunity against Arboviruses

    Shuzhen Sim; Natapong Jupatanakul; George Dimopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundam...

  8. Efecto de la calidad del agua de criaderos de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) sobre la patogenicidad e infectividad de las zoosporas del hongo Leptolegnia chapmanii (Straminipila: Peronosporomycetes)

    Sebastian A. Pelizza; López Lastra, Claudia C.; Arnaldo Maciá; Vilma Bisaro; Juan J García

    2009-01-01

    Effect of water quality in mosquito breeding sites on the pathogenicity and infectivity of zoospores from the fungus Leptolegnia chapmanii (Straminipila: Peronosporomycetes). The fungus Leptolegnia chapmanii is highly pathogenic to mosquito larvae in Argentina. We studied if physical and chemical characteristics of the water from mosquito breeding sites affect pathogenicity, and the infectivity of zoospores of L. chapmanii. Water samples were taken from pools filled by rains, urban ditches wi...

  9. The use of remote sensing in mosquito control

    1973-01-01

    The technology of remote sensing, developed by the space program for identification of surface features from the vantage point of an aircraft or satellite, has substantial application in precisely locating mosquito breeding grounds. Preliminary results of the NASA technology working cooperatively with a city government agency in solving this problem are discussed.

  10. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1995

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  11. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1985

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1985. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  12. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1989

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1989. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  13. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1975

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1975. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  14. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1987

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1987. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  15. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1978

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1978. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  16. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1979

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1979. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  17. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1973

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1973. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1981

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  19. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1986

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1984

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1984. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1976

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1976. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  2. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1983

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  3. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1982

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1982. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  4. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1990

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  5. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1977

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1977. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  6. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1988

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1988. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  7. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1971

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1971. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  8. Final Performance Report : Snowy Plover Breeding Distribution

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of breeding populations and nesting habitat of the snowy plover were conducted from January to August, 1989 along the Gulf Coast of Florida and Alabama....

  9. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1999

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1999. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  10. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 2001

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 2001. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  11. Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection

    David Durrheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas.Results: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30 cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms.Discussion: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.

  12. The Knowledge and Experience of Dengue Mosquitoes among Housewives.

    Atik Triratnawati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF prevention programs in Semarang, were focused through controlling mosquito breeding sites (PSN, but the implementation of PSN was not become a habit in every household. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and experience of dengue mosquitoes among housewives in the endemic villages.The research was using qualitative methods. Subjects of the study were 17 housewives which selected by purposive sampling. The data collection was carried in Sendangmulyo village, Semarang, through observation, focus groups discussions, and indepth interviews. The techniques used to test data validity were triangulation and member checking method. Data were analyzed using content analysis approached. The results showed that housewives classifying mosquito based on time occurrence whether the presence of mosquito in environment was perceived naturally. Unoptimalized PSN behavior was based on the lack of housewives knowledge on larvae development stages. Mosquito was not considered as a threatening because night mosquito biting was directly more disturbing rather than day mosquitoes’. Health promotion program could increase dasa wisma cadres knowledge and skill, particularly on mosquito life cycle and the correct stages of PSN behavior. This study did not distinguish the demographic characteristics of informants. Further reserch could explore it or develop media based on local knowledge and experience.

  13. UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Tetreau, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.tetreau@gmail.com [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France); Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud’homme, Sophie M.; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Mosquito tolerance to temephos is induced by PAHs and UV exposure. •Toxicity of fluoranthene for mosquito Malpighian tubules cells is induced by UV. •Fluoranthene crystallizes in mosquito Malpighian tubules upon UV exposure. •Mixture of two PAHs is less toxic for mosquitoes than each PAHs separately. •Combination of abiotic parameters (PAHs and UV) affect mosquito physiology. -- Abstract: Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species–ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis–Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further investigation to know in which condition they can affect the efficacy of insecticide-based vector control strategies in the field.

  14. UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Highlights: •Mosquito tolerance to temephos is induced by PAHs and UV exposure. •Toxicity of fluoranthene for mosquito Malpighian tubules cells is induced by UV. •Fluoranthene crystallizes in mosquito Malpighian tubules upon UV exposure. •Mixture of two PAHs is less toxic for mosquitoes than each PAHs separately. •Combination of abiotic parameters (PAHs and UV) affect mosquito physiology. -- Abstract: Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species–ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis–Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further investigation to know in which condition they can affect the efficacy of insecticide-based vector control strategies in the field

  15. Natural and engineered mosquito immunity

    Alphey, Luke

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper in BMC Microbiology shows how suppression of mosquito innate immunity against a virus that the mosquito can normally tolerate increases mosquito mortality. This is just one of several approaches that may soon bring genetics-based mosquito control methods from the laboratory into the field.

  16. Global Climate Change and Its Potential Impact on Disease Transmission by Salinity-Tolerant Mosquito Vectors in Coastal Zones

    RanjanRamasamy

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water...

  17. Mosquito fauna in the Federated States of Micronesia: a discussion of the vector species of the Dengue Virus

    Noda, Shinichi; ノダ, シンイチ; 野田, 伸一

    2014-01-01

    Several investigations of mosquito fauna in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) have been conducted, but there is currently little information on the mosquito species, which may be the vector to dengue fever. This review is a summary of the geographical distribution and breeding sites of the mosquito species on four states: Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae, the FSM. Major vectors for dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in urban are...

  18. Culicinae mosquitoes in Sanandaj county, Kurdistan province, western Iran

    S.H. Moosa Kazemi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: This study aims at studying mosquito-borne diseases as the major publichealth threat in Iran. Sanandaj outskirts are considered suitable habitats for mosquito larvae. Inview of scanty reports on mosquito-borne disease implementation in this area, a study was undertakento determine the mosquito fauna and frequency of mosquito larvae at Sanandaj City.Methods: In order to study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae fauna, the samples were collectedfrom May to July 2009 using dipping and night catch methods in Sanandaj district, Kurdistanprovince, western Iran.Results: Three genera and 11 species of the Culicinae subfamily were identified—Aedes vexansMeigen, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l. Pallas (indicating new occurrence records for the province,Culex hortensis Ficalbi, Cx. pipiens Linnaeus, Cx. mimeticus Noe, Cx. theileri Theobald, Culisetalongiareolata Macquart, and Cs. subochrea Edwards.Interpretation & conclusion: Present study revealed that Ae. vexans and Ochlerotatus caspius s.lcaught had not been previously recorded in Kurdistan province, highlighting the deficient knowledgeof the fauna and distribution of Culicinae mosquitoes of this part of Iran

  19. UV light and urban pollution: bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species-ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further investigation to know in which condition they can affect the efficacy of insecticide-based vector control strategies in the field. PMID:24275062

  20. WNV Mosquito Test Results

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — List of locations and test results for pools of mosquitoes tested through the Chicago Department of Public Health Environmental Health program. The Chicago...

  1. Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions

    Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Stephen Higgs; Kate McElroy Horne; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key...

  2. Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs

    Todd G. Smith

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciprocal nature of this relationship is exploited by various blood parasites that use mechanical, salivary or trophic transmission to pass from mosquitoes to frogs. It is important to investigate the involvement of mosquitoes, frogs and parasites in this interaction in order to understand the consequences of anthropogenic actions, such as implementing biocontrol efforts against mosquitoes, and to determine potential causes of the global decline of amphibian species.

  3. PERCEPTIONS REGARDING MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASES IN AN URBAN AREA OF RAJKOT CITY

    Amul B. Patel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquito borne diseases is a growing urban problem because of unplanned urbanization, industrialization and excessive population growth coupled with rural to urban migration. For developing a suitable and effective health education strategy, it is inevitable to understand the level of knowledge of the community, their attitude and practices regarding mosquito borne diseases. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in an urban field practice area of Urban Health Centre in Rajkot city. Total 500 houses were selected for study by systematic random sampling. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire during transmission season of vector borne diseases. The results were analyzed using the SPSS 17 software. Results: 90% respondents agreed that mosquitoes are a problem. 30.4% didn’t know breeding sites of mosquitoes. Only 11.6% of people associated clean water collections with mosquito breeding. Regarding diseases transmitted by mosquito, 62% answered malaria, 37.4% were not aware and 8.8% people mentioned about Filariasis, Dengue or Japanese encephalitis. 4.7% granted mosquito control as responsibility of community. 61.4 % were using repellents for prevention against mosquito bites and 39% not taking any preventive measure. 67.8% consulted private practitioner for treatment. Conclusion: Intensified efforts towards creating public awareness and mobilizing the community regarding the preventive measures they can take are needed. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 45-47

  4. The distribution of Culex mosquitoes in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

    A. Naresh Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is an infection with the filarial worms, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori. These parasites are transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected Culex mosquito and develop into adult worms in the lymphatic vessels, causing severe damage and swelling (lymphoedema. Mosquito control, in view of their medical as well as economical importance, assumes global importance. Geographic information system (GIS is a powerful tool to analyse the distribution of mosquitoes and their relationship to different environmental factors, and can substantially improve our ability to quantify the impacts of demographic, climatic and ecological changes in vector distribution. In the present study Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus were recorded in the study area. Few other factors such as larval mosquito density, number of breeding sites, human population, etc. were also analysed for its impact on the distribution of Culex mosquitoes. Distribution of Culex in the present study affirmed that C. quinquefasciatus is predominant in the entire focal area, which explains the behavioural response and capability of the species in varied zones. Information gathered from this study is being used to construct a GIS-based mapping system for distribution of Culex mosquitoes in the Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India.

  5. Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Shoo Bryson; Govella Nicodem J; Chaki Prosper P; Hemed Abdullah; Tanner Marcel; Fillinger Ulrike; Killeen Gerry F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP) in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs) to detect mosquito...

  6. Toxicity and effects of microbial mosquito larvicides and larvicidal oil on the development and fecundity of the tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae).

    Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S

    2005-06-01

    Tadpole shrimp (TPS), Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae), is a predatory agent for immature mosquitoes breeding in aquatic habitats. This biological control agent could be used with other larvicides in mosquito control programs. In order to elucidate compatibility of the TPS and commonly used mosquito larvicides, studies were initiated to investigate effects of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (B.t.i.) de Barjac, Bacillus sphaericus Neide and Golden Bear-1111 larvicidal oil on growth, longevity, and fecundity of TPS in laboratory and field. The exposure of TPS to high dosages of B.t.i. and B. sphaericus in the laboratory or in the field did not have significant adverse effects on growth, longevity, and fecundity. These results indicate that TPS are compatible with microbial larvicides and can be used jointly in practical mosquito control programs. The larvicidal oil GB-1111, on the other hand, caused almost 100% mortality within 48 h after treatment in the laboratory even at the low dosage of 0.38 gallons/ac. The impact of oil in the field was less severe, as significant adverse impact on population density was noted at 1 gallon/ac when water temperatures were warmer, or 2 gallons/ac when water temperatures were cooler. Almost 100% mortality within 48 h was noted at 2 gallons/ac when water temperatures were warmer or at 4 gallons/ac when the water temperatures were cooler. These results indicate incompatibility between this larvicidal oil and TPS at the higher rates of the label range, and joint use of TPS and larvicidal oil at dosages of 1-2 gallons/ac or greater, depending on water temperatures, should be avoided. PMID:16007963

  7. Mosquito repellents in frog skin

    Williams, C. R.; Smith, B.P.C; Best, S. M.; Tyler, M.J

    2006-01-01

    The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin secretions to confirm the existence of mosquito repellent properties. Litoria caerulea secretions were assessed for mosquito repellency by topical a...

  8. Sensory and behavioural responses of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae to human odours

    Qiu, Y.T.

    2005-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious human diseases, affecting between 300 and 600 million people per year and killing, on average, two children per minute. In tropicalAfricathe mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto is responsible for much of the transmission of malaria parasites between humans. This mosquito species preferably feeds on human blood, rests inside human houses and breeds close to human dwellings, making it an effective malaria vector. The major cues guiding Anopheles gam...

  9. "MOSQUITO FAUNA OF IRAN 2- CULEX (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE "

    M. Aaim

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the mosquito fauna of Iran, and to prepare the temporal as well as the spatial distribution of the Iranian mosquitoes, a comprehensive study has started since 1981. In this program in which more than 60.000 mosquito larvae, from different breeding sites has been studied, 15 species of Culex are reported. These are;Cx. arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. laticinctus, Cx.mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx.pusillus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. sitiens, Cx. territans, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. univittatus. Culex antennatus Cx. impudicus, Cx. modestus. Cx. torrentium and Cx. vegans which have been reported previously by other workers form Iran have not been found. Since the report on Cx. torrentium and Cx. vegans from Iran has been based solely on larvae, their presence can not be regarded certain due to the great overlap of morphological characters with Cx. pipiens.

  10. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Stefan Dongus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2 was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92. Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  11. [Effectiveness of aerial application of VectoBac G larvicide granules against mosquitoes in the Olomouc region in spring 2006].

    Chmela, J; Mazánek, L; Nakládal, Z; Pesáková, L; Halirová, R

    2007-04-01

    In the spring 2006, a flood emergency occurred in the Olomouc region after a rapid snow thaw, with the formation of multiple periodic pools and overflows persisting for long periods. In the floodplain forests, as expected, mass occurrence of adult mosquitoes was observed, infesting the nearby villages. The mosquito emergency continued until August and mosquitoes of both the spring species, in particular, Ochlerotatus cantans, and summer species were implicated in it. To control this emergency, aerial application of VectoBac G larvicide granules based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (BTI) at a dose of 6.4 kg/ha was used for the first time in the Olomouc region. Its efficacy was close to 100 % for the treated water areas. The effect was clearly evident in the communities situated in the vicinity of the treated breeding grounds. Nevertheless, not all breeding grounds and blind stream meanders could be treated aerially. As a result, mosquitoes from the untreated breeding grounds caused an emergency in the nearby communities where insecticide aerosols had to be applied on a large scale, even repeatedly in some cases. The treatment of the mosquito breeding grounds with BTI based larvicide granules proved to be an effective and fully selective approach to controlling mosquitoes. Although the technology is exacting and requires professional and organizational skills, it is expected that, in the Czech Republic, this environmentally friendly approach to mosquito control will replace the large scale use of non-selective chemical aerosol insecticides. The public health protection, administrative and legislative authorities should be active in promoting the use of specific BTI based larvicides for the treatment of mosquito breeding grounds, even if located in protected areas, whenever it is needed for mosquito control in emergencies. PMID:17593805

  12. Transfer of toxin genes to alternate bacterial hosts for mosquito control

    Sergio Orduz

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vector of serious human and animal diseases, such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, among others. The use of biological control agents has provide an environmentally safe and highly specific alternative to the use of chemical insecticides in the control of vector borne diseases. Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus produce toxic proteins to mosquito larvae. Great progress has been made on the biochemical and molecular characterization of such proteins and the genes encoding them. Nevertheless, the low residuality of these biological insecticides is one of the major drawbacks. This article present some interesting aspects of the mosquito larvae feeding habits and review the attempts that have been made to genetically engineer microorganisms that while are used by mosquito larvae as a food source should express the Bacillus toxin genes in order to improve the residuality and stability in the mosquito breeding ponds.

  13. Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions

    Yan-Jang S. Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations.

  14. Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2013-09-15

    Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes. PMID:23911355

  15. Origin of the Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in California

    Gloria-Soria, Andrea; BROWN, JULIA E.; Kramer, Vicki; Hardstone Yoshimizu, Melissa; POWELL, JEFFREY R.

    2014-01-01

    Author Summary Dengue fever is a vector-borne disease that has dramatically increased in frequency and severity in recent decades, affecting over half of the world's population. The primary vector of dengue is Aedes aegypti. Breeding populations of this mosquito were reported for the first time in California in summer 2013, and the origin of these populations was unknown. We genotyped Ae. aegypti from California and compared their genetic composition and diversity against reference population...

  16. Isolation and Abundance of Unicellular Cyanobacteria From Mosquito Development Sites

    ÇETİNKAYA-DÖNMEZ, Gönül; Ayşe ELMACI; OBALI, Olcay

    1999-01-01

    The genus composition of cyanobacteria (particularly Chroococcus sp.) and their abundance in mosquito breeding sites at Lake Mogan (Ankara, Turkey) increased from August to September. Six unicellular cyanobacteria that had different morphological properties were isolated and succesfully cultivated. According to the mode of division, these six strain were classified as the represantatives of subgroup 1 (order Choroococcales). One of the isolates was identified as Synechococcus sp. and one ...

  17. Estructura y fenología reproductiva de una población remanente de Adesmia bijuga Phil., Fabaceae, en un hábitat costero mediterráneo perturbado de Chile central / Structure and breeding phenology of a remaining population of Adesmia bijuga Phil., Fabaceae, in a mediterranean coastal habitat disturbed of central Chile

    PERSY, GÓMEZ; STEFFEN, HAHN; JOSÉ, SAN MARTÍN.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english In this note we examine the population structure and breeding phenology of Adesmia bijuga Phil. The area of development of the study was Curepto, Maule Región, central Chile. Our results indicate a high vulnerability of local extinction of the studied population due low population size and disturbed [...] habitat. Flowering and fructification of individuals exists, nevertheless absence of seedlings suggesting restrictions to the regeneration in the population of A. bijuga. It is recommended to continue with the research. Actions of conservation ex situ for the species are realized by the botanical garden of the Talca University.

  18. Progress report: Waterfowl breeding ground aerial surveys in southern Saskatchewan: 1960

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey and Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1960. The...

  19. Progress report: Waterfowl breeding ground count aerial surveys in southern Saskatchewan: 1959

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey and Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1959. The...

  20. Progress report: Waterfowl breeding ground aerial surveys in southern Saskatchewan: 1958

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey and Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1958. The...

  1. Progress report: Waterfowl breeding ground aerial surveys in southern Saskatchewan: 1961

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey and Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1961. The...

  2. Diversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses.

    Boukraa, Slimane; de La Grandiere, Maria A; Bawin, Thomas; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Thiry, Etienne; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011-2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants. PMID:26775817

  3. Mosquito community structure in phytotelmata from a South American temperate wetland.

    Albicócco, Andrea Paola; Carbajo, Aníbal Eduardo; Vezzani, Darío

    2011-12-01

    Phytotelmata, or plant-held waters, are considered to be good model systems for the study of community ecology. The fauna of these natural container habitats, particularly the mosquitoes, have been extensively investigated in tropical regions, but there is little known about them in temperate South America. We assessed the structure of immature mosquito communities in leaf axils, tree holes, and bamboo stumps from a temperate wetland of Argentina. A total of 4,330 immature mosquitoes were collected among the 2,606 phytotelmata inspected. Leaf axils of eight plant species and tree holes were larval habitats for nine mosquito species belonging to the genus Culex, Wyeomyia, Isostomyia, and Toxorhynchites. The mosquito communities showed richness ranging from one to four species. Marked differences were detected in the plant specificity for the species collected. Some of them were exclusively found in one plant species (Isostomyia paranensis in Scirpus giganteus), whereas others were collected in up to five plant species but belonging to the same phytotelm class, the leaf axils. Those from tree holes are well-known dwellers of artificial containers and ground water habitats, such as Culex pipiens. Our results support the idea of low mosquito richness in phytotelmata from temperate regions in comparison with tropical areas, but the observed specificity patterns echo the findings of tropical forests. PMID:22129416

  4. Awareness and practice about preventive method against mosquito bite in Gujarat

    Niraj Pandit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito borne diseases are major public health problems in India. Gujarat is endemic for malaria and other mosquito borne diseases. Anopheles, Aedes and Culex are commonly seen in Gujarat. Therefore the efforts have been consistently made to educate the citizens of State on danger of mosquito bites. The present study was conducted to assess the awareness and practices of mosquito bite prevention methods among households of Central Gujarat district Vadodara. Total 311 families have participated in the study from UHTC area of the Medical college. Door to door visit was conducted to visit the all households. The study was conducted in the month of June 2009, which is observed as Anti-Malaria month in Gujarat. The pilot pre-tested structure questionnaire was used to collect the data. Study respondents were 57% male and 43% female. Almost 99% had knowledge about breeding places of mosquito, but poor knowledge about biting time (20%. 71% of participants knew that mosquito bite causes malaria. 39% 0f households were using mosquito net as protection against the bite, but only 10% were using insecticide treated bed net. There is need of increasing use of insecticide treated bed nets and continuous updating of knowledge about various aspects of mosquito bite.

  5. Occurrence of Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Halmahela villages, Indonesia

    Syafruddin D

    1996-01-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes breeding in containers in and around human houses were surveyed in Halmahela villages, the North Moluccas, Indonesia. Adults reared from larvae found in containers and those reared from eggs collected by ovitraps revealed the dominance of Aedes scutellaris (Walker) in residential areas. Breeding of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was confirmed in a few coastal villages with high human densities.

  6. Waterfowl breeding population survey: May 1995: Southern Manitoba

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  7. 1980 waterfowl breeding population survey for North and South Dakota

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for North and South Dakota during 1980. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  8. Western and Central Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Western and Central Ontario during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  9. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Alberta: May 1985

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1985. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  10. Mosquito Surveillance for Prevention and Control of Emerging Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Portugal — 2008–2014

    Osório, Hugo C.; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program—REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)—has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes—collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2—and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs. PMID:25396768

  11. Source Reduction Behavior as an Independent Measurement of the Impact of a Public Health Education Campaign in an Integrated Vector Management Program for the Asian Tiger Mosquito

    Daniel Strickman; Clark, Gary G; Randy Gaugler; Dina Fonseca; Isik Unlu; Ary Farajollahi; George Hamilton; Sean Healy; Taryn Crepeau; Kristen Bartlett-Healy

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a public health educational campaign to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats. Three communities each, within two New Jersey counties, were randomly selected to receive: (1) both education and mosquito control, (2) education only, and (3) no education or mosquito control. Four separate educational events included a 5-day elementary school curriculum in the spring, and three door to door distributions of educational brochures. Befo...

  12. Knowledge of mosquitos in relation to public and domestic control activities in the cities of Dar es Salaam and Tanga.

    Stephens, C.; Masamu, E. T.; Kiama, M. G.; Keto, A. J.; Kinenekejo, M.; Ichimori, K.; Lines, J.

    1995-01-01

    A study of community awareness of mosquitos and related subjects in the residential areas of two Tanzanian cities (Dar es Salaam and Tanga) showed that residents were well aware of mosquitos. Almost all claimed to use some form of domestic mosquito control product for their personal protection, and many spend a significant portion of the household income on this. The problems of nuisance-biting and malaria transmission are usually not separated and are considered to be the result of poor environmental hygiene, for which both residents and local authorities are responsible. Although Culex mosquitos are not a primary target of the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP), the persistence of nuisance-biting has made residents sceptical and dissatisfied with insecticide spraying. The residents' priorities are evidently not the same as those of the health authorities, yet mutual cooperation is essential. In order to maintain community support, campaigns aimed at malaria vectors should consider the need for additional measures to control Culex mosquitos, such as those now being tried by the UMCP. Mosquito breeding sites are non-specifically associated with rubbish and standing water of all kinds, and so the actions that the community considers necessary for mosquito source reduction tend to be poorly targeted. Residents do not recognize that some sources produce malaria mosquitos while others produce nuisance mosquitos. The environmental anti-mosquito measures currently promoted by health education and other forms of propaganda are also poorly targeted. While some of them are directed at important Culex breeding sites, others are aimed at sites of little importance for mosquitos of any kind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7704932

  13. Competition and Habitat Quality Influence Age and Sex Distribution in Wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B.; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal Jr., Theodore J.; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds...

  14. Pyriproxyfen for mosquito control: female sterilization or horizontal transfer to oviposition substrates by Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Culex quinquefasciatus

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of gravid mosquitoes as vehicles to auto-disseminate larvicides was recently demonstrated for the transfer of pyriproxyfen (PPF) by container-breeding Aedes mosquitoes and presents an appealing idea to explore for other disease vectors. The success of this approach depends on the female’s behaviour, the time of exposure and the amount of PPF that can be carried by an individual. We explore the effect of PPF exposure at seven time points around blood feeding on individual Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Culex quinquefasciatus fecundity and ability to transfer in laboratory assays. Method Mosquitoes were exposed to 2.6 mg PPF per m2 at 48, 24 and 0.5 hours before and after a blood meal and on the day of egg-laying. The proportion of exposed females (N?=?80-100) laying eggs, the number of eggs laid and hatched was studied. Transfer of PPF to oviposition cups was assessed by introducing 10 late instar insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. larvae into all the cups and monitored for adult emergence inhibition. Results Exposure to PPF between 24 hours before and after a blood meal had significant sterilizing effects: females of both species were 6 times less likely (Odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.26) to lay eggs than unexposed females. Of the few eggs laid, the odds of an egg hatching was reduced 17 times (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.08) in Anopheles but only 1.2 times (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73-0.93) in Culex. Adult emergence inhibition from larvae introduced in the oviposition cups was observed only from cups in which eggs were laid. When females were exposed to PPF close to egg laying they transferred enough PPF to reduce emergence by 65-71% (95% CI 62-74%). Conclusion PPF exposure within a day before and after blood feeding affects egg-development in An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus and presents a promising opportunity for integrated control of vectors and nuisance mosquitoes. However, sterilized females are unlikely to visit an oviposition site and therefore do not transfer lethal concentrations of PPF to aquatic habitats. This suggests that for successful auto-dissemination the optimum contamination time is close to oviposition. PMID:24954695

  15. Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna breeding water in a dry zone stream in Sri Lanka

    M.K. Piyaratne, F.P. Amerasinghe, P.H. Amerasinghe & F. Konradsen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Selected physico-chemical characteristics of flowing and pooled water ina stream that generated two malaria vectors, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. Giles and Anopheles varunaIyengar, were investigated during August–September 1997 and July 1998 at the Upper Yan Oyawatershed in north-central Sri Lanka.Methods: The physico-chemical parameters measured were: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity,total dissolved solids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, calcium, magnesium,carbondioxide, ferrous iron, phosphate, colour and turbidity. In total, 75.5% of 151 samples analysedwere mosquito-positive. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis.Results: Among physico-chemical parameters, An. culicifacies (the major malaria vector in the countrywas positively related only to temperature, and An. varuna (a secondary malaria vector tocalcium. Among habitat characteristics, An. culicifacies was associated with light and vegetation, andnegatively associated with the presence of potential predators. An. varuna was positively associatedwith other aquatic fauna.Interpretation & conclusion: Surprisingly this detailed study did not find an association betweenAn. culicifacies and dissolved oxygen as previously found in the few studies that have looked atphysico-chemical characteristics of malaria vector breeding habitats in south Asia. This study, alongwith existing information from other studies indicate that most of the physico-chemical parametersmeasured under natural conditions within the same habitat type is insufficient to explain the distributionof vectors within such habitats. However, it seems likely that both An. culicifacies and An.varuna follow a strategy whereby ovipositing females scatter their eggs over most of or all of a highlytemporary and only transiently available stream bed pool habitat, in order to optimise breedingsuccess.

  16. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! Print A A A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Flea Bit Me! Hey! A Scorpion Stung ...

  17. Abiotic and biotic factors associated with the presence of Anopheles arabiensis immatures and their abundance in naturally occurring and man-made aquatic habitats

    Gouagna Louis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae is a potential malaria vector commonly present at low altitudes in remote areas in Reunion Island. Little attention has been paid to the environmental conditions driving larval development and abundance patterns in potential habitats. Two field surveys were designed to determine whether factors that discriminate between aquatic habitats with and without An. arabiensis larvae also drive larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats. Methods In an initial preliminary survey, a representative sample of aquatic habitats that would be amenable to an intensive long-term study were selected and divided into positive and negative sites based on the presence or absence of Anopheles arabiensis larvae. Subsequently, a second survey was prompted to gain a better understanding of biotic and abiotic drivers of larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats in the two studied locations. In both surveys, weekly sampling was performed to record mosquito species composition and larval density within individual habitats, as well as in situ biological characteristics and physico-chemical properties. Results Whilst virtually any stagnant water body could be a potential breeding ground for An. arabiensis, habitats occupied by their immatures had different structural and biological characteristics when compared to those where larvae were absent. Larval occurrence seemed to be influenced by flow velocity, macrofauna diversity and predation pressure. Interestingly, the relative abundance of larvae in man-made habitats (average: 0.55 larvae per dip, 95%CI [0.3–0.7] was significantly lower than that recorded in naturally occurring ones (0.74, 95%CI [0.5–0.8]. Such differences may be accounted for in part by varying pressures that could be linked to a specific habitat. Conclusions If the larval ecology of An. arabiensis is in general very complex and factors affecting breeding site productivity sometimes not easy to highlight, our results, however, highlight lower populations of An. arabiensis immatures compared to those reported in comparable studies conducted in the African continent. Overall, this low larval abundance, resulting from both abiotic and biotic factors, suggests that vector control measures targeting larval habitats are likely to be successful in Reunion, but these could be better implemented by taking environmental variability into account.

  18. Seasonal mosquito larval abundance and composition in Kibwezi, lower eastern Kenya

    Joseph M. Mwangangi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Changes in weather patterns especially rainfall affects the distribution and densities of mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to describe mosquito aquatic habitats, to determine larval abundance, species composition, and habitat types found in Kasayani village of Kibwezi division.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted in Kasayani village in Kibwezi division to determine species composition, larval abundance, and habitat types found in this village. This survey was conducted during the rainy season in November and December 2006 and during the dry season in February and March 2007. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique and a total of 24 habitats were sampled. The primary habitats identified were water reservoir tanks, puddles, temporary pools, and tyre tracks. Results: A total of 2660 mosquito larvae were collected of which 2140 (80.45% were culicines, 503 (18.91% were Anopheles and 17 (0.64% were pupae. For culicines, 1787 (83.5% were categorized as early instars and 353 (16.5% were as late instars while in the Anopheles, 425 (84.49% were classified as early instars and 78 (15.51% were late instars. Morphological identification of the III and IV instar larvae by use of microscopy yielded 16.24% (n = 70 Anopheles gambiae complex, 1.16% (n = 5 An. funestus, 0.70% (n = 3 An. coustani, 42.46% (n = 183 Culex quinquefasciatus, 6.26% (n = 27 Cx. duttoni, and 33.18% (n = 143 Ae. aegypti. Puddles, tyre tracks and pools had highly turbid water while water reservoir tanks had clear water. Anopheles gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus were found in all habitat categories while Ae. aegypti were found only in water storage tanks. Interpretation & conclusion: The mosquito larval densities indicate that the inhabitants of this village are at risk of mosquito-borne diseases including malaria, which is one of the greatest causes of morbidity and mortality in this area. Furthermore, mosquito control measures targeting both the mosquito immatures and adults should be enhanced especially during the rainy season to ensure maximum protection of the inhabitants.

  19. Evidence for regular ongoing introductions of mosquito disease vectors into the Galápagos Islands

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Cedeño, Virna; Cruz, Marilyn; Eastwood, Gillian; Fonseca, Dina M.; Causton, Charlotte E.; Azuero, Ronal; Loayza, Jose; Martinez, Jose D. Cruz; Goodman, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    Wildlife on isolated oceanic islands is highly susceptible to the introduction of pathogens. The recent establishment in the Galápagos Islands of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector for diseases such as avian malaria and West Nile fever, is considered a serious risk factor for the archipelago's endemic fauna. Here we present evidence from the monitoring of aeroplanes and genetic analysis that C. quinquefasciatus is regularly introduced via aircraft into the Galápagos Archipelago. Genetic population structure and admixture analysis demonstrates that these mosquitoes breed with, and integrate successfully into, already-established populations of C. quinquefasciatus in the Galápagos, and that there is ongoing movement of mosquitoes between islands. Tourist cruise boats and inter-island boat services are the most likely mechanism for transporting Culex mosquitoes between islands. Such anthropogenic mosquito movements increase the risk of the introduction of mosquito-borne diseases novel to Galápagos and their subsequent widespread dissemination across the archipelago. Failure to implement and maintain measures to prevent the human-assisted transport of mosquitoes to and among the islands could have catastrophic consequences for the endemic wildlife of Galápagos. PMID:19675009

  20. Distribution of mosquitoes in relation to urban landscape characteristics.

    Gleiser, R M; Zalazar, L P

    2010-04-01

    The current global increase in prevalence of vector borne diseases, as well as an expansion of tropical infections to more temperate zones, justifies further studies on vector populations. Urban areas may favour viral transmission to humans through close contacts between the vectors and the vertebrate hosts, and also affecting mosquito populations by offering larval habitat, refuges and adequate microclimates to survive the winter. This work analyses the spatial distribution of potential vector mosquitoes in relation to landscape characteristics in an urban environment in a temperate climate region. Mosquitoes were trapped monthly from October 2005 to March 2006 in 25 sites within Córdoba city and suburbs with miniature light traps+CO2. Nine species were collected, and the most abundant were Culex quinquefasciatus (37.1%), C. apicinus (26.6%) and Aedes aegypti (13.9%). Species that may be involved in SLEv transmission were recorded throughout the sampling. C. quinquefasciatus was detected in 92% of the sites; however, only two sites showed consistently larger collections. The site of highest C. quinquefasciatus abundance was located within an area of high Saint Louis Encefalitis virus prevalence and risk of infection, further supporting this species involvement as a vector. Significant correlations were detected between land cover characteristics and abundance of C. apicinus, C. interfor and C. maxi that were consistent with previous knowledge about their larval habitat and domestic preferences, which may be useful for targeting vector control operations. PMID:19413916

  1. Tidal circulation alteration for salt marsh mosquito control

    Resh, Vincent H.; Balling, Steven S.

    1983-01-01

    Mosquito control ditches designed to increase tidal circulation are widely used as a physical control alternative to insecticidal applications The impact of such ditching on Pacific Coast marshlands was largely unknown before this five-year study of impact in two types of San Francisco Bay salt marshes, a Salicornia virginica (pickleweed) monoculure and a mixed vegetation marsh Results of our studies suggest that ditches cause less environmental disturbance than insecticidal applications The article describes the following environmental consequences of ditching for mosquito control: increased tidal flushing of soils occurs adjacent to ditches compared with that in the open marsh, thereby reducing ground water and soil surface salinities and water table height; primary productivity of S. virginica, as determined by both the harvest method and infrared photographic analysis, is higher directly adjacent to ditches than in the open marsh, distribution of selected arthropod populations is similar at ditches and natural channels, although arthropod community response differs seasonally; aquatic invertebrate biomass is similar within ditched and natural ponds, but diversity is lower in ditched habitats, ditching increases fish diversity and density by improving fish access from tidal channels; ditches provide additional salt marsh song sparrow habitat, although ditches are less preferred than natural channels or sloughs. Management criteria can be used to design ditches that provide effective mosquito control and reduced environmental impact

  2. Mosquitoes as a Part of Wetland Biodiversity

    Schäfer, Martina

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands contain both aquatic and terrestrial environments which generates high biodiversity. However, they are commonly associated with mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), and mosquitoes are usually regarded as negative by humans because they can cause nuisance and transmit diseases. This thesis aimed to clarify the association between mosquitoes and wetlands and to achieve a more balanced view of biodiversity in wetlands by including mosquito diversity. Studies on adult mosquito diversity and ...

  3. Native Argentinean cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda as predators of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae mosquitoes

    María C Tranchida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cyclopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus. Female copepods presented the highest predatory capacity. No predatory preference for mosquito species was found. According to overall predation potential, copepods were ranked as follows: D. uruguayensis Se hizo una prospección de copépodos en La Plata, Argentina, con los objetivos de caracterizar la comunidad local de copépodos larvívoros en sitios de cría de mosquitos, e identificar nuevas especies depredadoras de los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens. La diversidad de ciclopoides larvívoros fue máxima en charcos permanentes. Se examinó la depredación por sexos y edad, la selectividad por especies de mosquito, y la tasa de depredación diaria durante cinco días en Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus y Mesocyclops longisetus. Los copépodos hembra presentaron la capacidad depredadora más alta. No se encontró preferencia por alguna especie de mosquito. De acuerdo al potencial de depredación en general, los copépodos se ordenan así: D. uruguayensis < A. robustus < M. albidus < M. longisetus. También se evaluó la tolerancia a la desecación del hábitat y la capacidad de resistir en agua de contenedores artificiales. D. uruguayensis y A. robustus sobrevivieron en condiciones de sequía, pero D. uruguayensis presentó menor supervivencia en agua de floreros de cementerio. M. albidus no sobrevivió condiciones de sequía y no toleró el agua extraída de contenedores artificiales. Los ciclopoides neotropicales D. uruguayensis and A. robustus son buenos candidatos y merecen investigación ulterior como agentes de control biológico de mosquitos.

  4. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary - 2006

    Durst, Scott L.; Sogge, Mark K.; Stump, Shay D.; Williams, Sartor O.; Kus, Barbara E.; Sferra, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered bird that breeds only in dense riparian habitats in six southwestern states (southern California, extreme southern Nevada, southern Utah, southwestern Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico). Since 1993, hundreds of Southwestern Willow Flycatcher surveys have been conducted each year, and many new flycatcher breeding sites located. This document synthesizes information on all known Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites. This rangewide data synthesis was designed to meet these objectives: * identify all known Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites, and * assemble data on population size, location, habitat, and other information for all breeding sites, for as many years as possible, from 1993 through 2006. This report provides data summaries in terms of the number of flycatcher sites and the number of territories.

  5. Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control

    Famenini Shannon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically-modified (GM mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. Methods The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. Results Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was preferred; however a transgenic release that satisfied certain requirements was usually acceptable. Conclusions Although there were some dissenters, the majority of participants were pragmatic towards a release of GM mosquitoes. An array of social and cultural issues associated with malaria, mosquitoes and genetic engineering became apparent. If these can be successfully addressed, then social acceptance among the populations surveyed seems promising.

  6. Genetic methods for control of mosquitoes and biting flies

    The earliest research efforts on using genetic methods for the control of mosquitoes and biting flies concentrated on the evaluation of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Several successful, but generally small scale, research efforts with mosquitoes clearly documented that either chemosterilized or radiation sterilized males were effective in causing a level of genetic load that would be sufficient for the reduction or eradication of natural populations of several species. Genetic sexing strains of several species of mosquitoes have been assembled, and this aspect of breeding specialty strains is not a limiting factor in the implementation of SIT. In the largest field experiment, conducted with Anopheles albimanus in El Salvador during the 1970s, a genetic sexing strain was used operationally in a factory that produced one million sterile males per day over a one year period. Technical problems that would require extensive research of a practical nature before the implementation of SIT for mosquito control involve primarily better means for the rearing, sterilization and distribution of the insects. A successful experiment was conducted to eliminate the stable fly on the island of St. Croix, the United States Virgin Islands, and since this work in the 1970s, genetic sexing strains have been developed. A considerable amount of effort was expended on the synthesis of chromosome aberrations for the control of mosquitoes. Although the results of experimental trials indicated that aberration bearing insects could effectively inject a genetic load into the natural population, no large scale tests have ever been conducted to evaluate fully the real effectiveness of induced chromosomal aberrations. More recently, most of the research work in genetic control has been aimed at the use of recombinant DNA techniques for the development of new technology. All of these topics and an assessment of their value are discussed. (author). 30 refs

  7. Land Use Influences Mosquito Communities and Disease Risk on Remote Tropical Islands: A Case Study Using a Novel Sampling Technique.

    Meyer Steiger, Dagmar B; Ritchie, Scott Alex; Laurance, Susan G W

    2016-02-01

    Land use changes, such as deforestation and urbanization, can influence interactions between vectors, hosts, and pathogens. The consequences may result in the appearance and rise of mosquito-borne diseases, especially in remote tropical regions. Tropical regions can be the hotspots for the emergence of diseases due to high biological diversity and complex species interactions. Furthermore, frontier areas are often haphazardly surveyed as a result of inadequate or expensive sampling techniques, which limit early detection and medical intervention. We trialed a novel sampling technique of nonpowered traps and a carbon dioxide attractant derived from yeast and sugar to explore how land use influences mosquito communities on four remote, tropical islands in the Australian Torres Strait. Using this technique, we collected > 11,000 mosquitoes from urban and sylvan habitats. We found that human land use significantly affected mosquito communities. Mosquito abundances and diversity were higher in sylvan habitats compared with urban areas, resulting in significantly different community compositions between the two habitats. An important outcome of our study was determining that there were greater numbers of disease-vectoring species associated with human habitations. On the basis of these findings, we believe that our novel sampling technique is a realistic tool for assessing mosquito communities in remote regions. PMID:26711512

  8. HERBAL CONTROL OF MOSQUITO LARVAE

    Chaudhari Priyanka S, Chaudhari SV* Jangam Sampada, Shinde JS, Wankhede Sneha

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the vectors for the dreadful diseases of mankind. For control of larval stages of mosquito, herbal plant extracts/ botanical insecticides are being tried. In the present study aqueous extract of some traditional medicinal herbal plants i.e. Neem (Azadirechta indica), Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Tulasi (Ocimum santum), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) were tested for their Larvicidal activity. The successful attempt is made to kill the larvae, the prem...

  9. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes

    Dua Virendra K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding sites under natural field conditions provided 98.1% reduction of Anopheles larvae on day 1; thereafter 100% reduction was recorded up to week 1 and more than 80% reduction up to week 3, while percent reduction against Culex larvae was 95.5% on day 1, and thereafter 80% reduction was achieved up to week 3. The formulation also showed 95.1% and, 99.7% reduction of Aedes larvae on day 1 and day 2 respectively; thereafter 100% larval control was observed up to day 7. Conclusion The neem oil formulation was found effective in controlling mosquito larvae in different breeding sites under natural field conditions. As neem trees are widely distributed in India, their formulations may prove to be an effective and eco-friendly larvicide, which could be used as an alternative for malaria control.

  10. Review: Improving our knowledge of male mosquito biology in relation to genetic control programmes.

    Lees, Rosemary Susan; Knols, Bart; Bellini, Romeo; Benedict, Mark Q; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Bossin, Hervé Christophe; Chadee, Dave D; Charlwood, Jacques; Dabiré, Roch K; Djogbenou, Luc; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Gato, René; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Lemperiere, Guy; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Pitts, R Jason; Simard, Frederic; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-04-01

    The enormous burden placed on populations worldwide by mosquito-borne diseases, most notably malaria and dengue, is currently being tackled by the use of insecticides sprayed in residences or applied to bednets, and in the case of dengue vectors through reduction of larval breeding sites or larviciding with insecticides thereof. However, these methods are under threat from, amongst other issues, the development of insecticide resistance and the practical difficulty of maintaining long-term community-wide efforts. The sterile insect technique (SIT), whose success hinges on having a good understanding of the biology and behaviour of the male mosquito, is an additional weapon in the limited arsenal against mosquito vectors. The successful production and release of sterile males, which is the mechanism of population suppression by SIT, relies on the release of mass-reared sterile males able to confer sterility in the target population by mating with wild females. A five year Joint FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project brought together researchers from around the world to investigate the pre-mating conditions of male mosquitoes (physiology and behaviour, resource acquisition and allocation, and dispersal), the mosquito mating systems and the contribution of molecular or chemical approaches to the understanding of male mosquito mating behaviour. A summary of the existing knowledge and the main novel findings of this group is reviewed here, and further presented in the reviews and research articles that form this Acta Tropica special issue. PMID:24252487

  11. Mosquito Defense Strategies against Viral Infection.

    Cheng, Gong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Penghua; Xiao, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne viral diseases are a major concern of global health and result in significant economic losses in many countries. As natural vectors, mosquitoes are very permissive to and allow systemic and persistent arbovirus infection. Intriguingly, persistent viral propagation in mosquito tissues neither results in dramatic pathological sequelae nor impairs the vectorial behavior or lifespan, indicating that mosquitoes have evolved mechanisms to tolerate persistent infection and developed efficient antiviral strategies to restrict viral replication to nonpathogenic levels. Here we provide an overview of recent progress in understanding mosquito antiviral immunity and advances in the strategies by which mosquitoes control viral infection in specific tissues. PMID:26626596

  12. Fluctuaciones estacionales y temporales de la densidad larvaria de Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) y familias de insectos asociados al hábitat en El Granzón, Parroquia San Isidro, municipio Sifontes del estado Bolívar, Venezuela / Seasonal and temporal fluctuations of larval densites of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) and insects associated to the habitat in San Isidro Parish, Sifontes municipality, Bolívar state, Venezuela

    Jesús, Berti-Moser; Julio, González-Rivas; Edith, Navarro.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles darlingi Root ha sido considerado en condiciones naturales como el principal vector de la malaria humana en América del sur y también en Venezuela, principalmente en los estados Bolívar y Amazonas, donde se produce el 90% de la malaria del país. Durante un mes (Junio de 1999) se realizaron [...] muestreos en criaderos de mosquitos en siete localidades del área minera de San Isidro municipio Sifontes, estado Bolívar. Los sitios de muestreo fueron clasificados a priori en cuatro tipos de hábitat larvario: quebradas, lagunas, ríos, pantanos (herbáceo o arbóreo). En cada criadero se tomaron 30 muestras con un cucharón para colectar larvas de Anopheles. Simultáneamente al muestreo de larvas se midieron cuatro variables físico-químicas del criadero: pH, oxígeno disuelto, temperatura y profundidad del criadero. Asimismo, en un criadero de An. darlingi (quebrada con sombra), ubicado en la localidad de El Granzón, se llevó a cabo un estudio longitudinal, durante un año entre Julio de 1999 y Junio del 2000. En dicho criadero, se colectaron mensualmente larvas de An. darlingi e insectos acuáticos asociados. Las correlaciones entre la precipitación acumulada, la abundancia de estos insectos y la abundancia de larvas de An. darlingi, se establecieron mediante el análisis no paramétrico de correlación de Spearman (Spearman rank correlation). En el hábitat seleccionado, los resultados del análisis revelaron la presencia de una correlación negativa y significativa entre la abundancia de larvas de An. darlingi y la precipitación acumulada el mes anterior a la colecta. En esa misma localidad, la precipitación acumulada el mes anterior a la colecta, se correlacionó positivamente con la abundancia de la familia Naucoridae (Hemiptera). Asimismo, la abundancia de larvas de An. darlingi presentó una correlación negativa y significativa con la abundancia de la familia Naucoridae. En este hábitat (quebrada del Granzón), la densidad de larvas An. darlingi fue mayor en los meses de menor precipitación, aunque tanto en la época de menor precipitación como en la temporada lluviosa, hubo presencia de larvas de esta especie. Por otro lado, el criadero típico de An. darlingi, donde éste presentó su mayor abundancia y hubo presencia de larvas durante todo el año, fue clasificado como “Quebrada con sombra”. Esta presentó mucha sombra (90-100%), abundante materia orgánica sumergida o flotante (hojarasca, palitos, hojas, semillas), profundidad promedio de 65,22 cm, un pH promedio de 6,16, contenido medio de oxigeno disuelto de 6,40 g/L y una temperatura promedio del agua de 26ºC. Abstract in english Anopheles darlingi Root has been considered under natural conditions as human malaria’s principal vector in South America. In Venezuela, Amazonas and Bolivar States, it is responsible for 90 % of malaria cases reported in the country. Field surveys and mosquito larvae sampling of mosquito breeding s [...] ites in mining areas, were carried out in seven localities of Sifontes county, Bolívar state during one month, between 2 and 29 June 1999. The breeding sites were a priori classified into four larval habitat categories: lagoons, streams, rivers and herbaceous swamps. At each breeding site, 30 dips for mosquito larvae samples were made. Simultaneously with mosquito larvae sampling, four selected variables of water were measured: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and water depth. On the other hand, a longitudinal study was carried out in the typical An. darlingi breeding site (shaded streams) in El Granzón (Sifontes county). Field surveys of mosquito larvae and aquatic insects were carried out in the same breeding site over a one-year period (July, 1999 to June, 2000). At this breeding site, Anopheles larvae and aquatic insects were collected monthly. During the study, 12 samples were taken from this larval habitat of An. darlingi. Seasonal and temporal variations of An. darlingi larvae and aquatic insects were determined. Relationships among the rain in the previous month, abundanc

  13. Habitat availability is a more plausible explanation than insecticide acute toxicity for U.S. grassland bird species declines

    Grassland bird species have experienced substantial declines in North America. These declines have been largely attributed to habitat loss and degradation, especially from agricultural practices and intensification (the habitat-availability hypothesis). A recent analysis of North American Breeding B...

  14. Introduction and establishment of tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Notostraca: Triopsidae) in a date garden for biological control of mosquitoes in the Coachella Valley, Southern California.

    Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S

    2002-06-01

    Tadpole shrimp (TPS), Triops newberryi (Packard), has been reported to have a potential as a biocontrol agent for larval mosquitoes breeding in intermittently flooded habitats. To develop and promote this predator for controlling mosquitoes, a date garden devoid of preexisting TPS populations was chosen in the Coachella Valley, southern California in 2000 to receive introductions of TPS eggs and mature TPS. Mosquito control by TPS was assessed in the plots one year after their introductions. In a selected block on this ranch, 2 rows were stocked with TPS eggs, where soil containing approximately 2,000 eggs was spread over the surface of dry ground in each row before flooding. Another 2 rows were used for mature TPS introduction, where about 400 mature TPS were released into standing water in each row 1 day after flooding. After a single egg or mature TPS introduction, active TPS in water and viable eggs in dry surface soil were noted in increasing numbers during the 3-4 subsequent irrigations. Disking before irrigation, which turned the eggs over and mixed them into the soil column, reduced TPS egg populations at the soil surface and subsequent active TPS populations in standing water after irrigation. After one or two irrigations, viable eggs and active shrimp were found in centers adjacent to the introduced plots in the stocked rows. Ample evidence is presented to show that TPS populations were established after a single introduction of eggs or mature TPS. TPS eggs and/or newly hatched TPS were also carried into the neighboring rows across the borders by the overflowing irrigation water, and TPS populations became established there too, as active TPS were noted after each irrigation in the adjacent unstocked rows. Considering the ease and economical storage, transportation and handling, dessication--resistant eggs have advantages over mature TPS for field introductions. Mosquito control by TPS was assessed in rows with and without TPS in July 2001, one year after TPS introductions. Production of Psorophora columbiae Dyar and Knab and TPS populations were determined 4-5 days after each of 2 irrigations, when there was no or little vegetation inside the rows. As compared with the row without TPS, the presence of relatively high numbers of TPS reduced Ps. columbiae by 73 to 99% as based on the average numbers of larvae, pupae and exuviae per dip in the rows with versus without TPS. PMID:12125865

  15. Effects of insect growth regulators on the mosquito-parasitic nematode Romanomermis iyengari.

    Suman, Devi Shankar; Brey, Christopher W; Wang, Yi; Sanad, Manar; Shamseldean, Muhammed S M; Gaugler, Randy

    2013-02-01

    Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue, diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, and azadirachtin, an ecdysone agonist, are three insect growth regulators (IGRs) considered as selective and effective insecticides for mosquitoes. Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) is a mosquito-parasitic mermithid that can provide biological control against many medically important mosquito species. The compatibility of these two control tactics was tested by evaluating the sublethal effects of exposure to IGR on nematode developmental stages (preparasitic, parasitic, and preparasitic + parasitic) using Culex pipiens larvae as the host. Sublethal concentrations of IGRs were 90 % emergence inhibition of host mosquito. Preparasitic exposure to pyriproxyfen, azadirachtin, and diflurbenzuron had no effect on infectivity, parasite load, sex ratio, or male size but reduced nematode female length and increased male sex ratio at one parasite/larva. When IGRs treatments were made against the parasitic and preparasitic + parasitic stages, pyriproxyfen and azadirachtin reduced R. iyengari infectivity, parasite load, and male nematode length, whereas pyriproxyfen exposure increased male sex ratio and reduced the female R. iyengari length. Thus, IGRs have significant negative impacts on different stages of mosquito mermithid that can destabilize the balance of host-parasite population interaction. Therefore, IGRs should be used with caution in mosquito habitats where these parasites have established. PMID:23180130

  16. Diffusion Model On The Efficacy Of Larvicide In Antilarval Operation Of Mosquito Control

    Basker, P.; Kumar, T. Ramesh; Prabu, S. Milton; Hemalatha, S.; Elango, S.; Padmanabhan, P.; Asokan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Mosquito control is being performed under chemical, biological and genetic and altogether it is called integrated vector control. In developing countries like India, chemical control has been given priority. Chemicals used as adulticide is becoming resistance among mosquitoes compared to larvicide. Further, the destruction of immature (larvae) stages of mosquitoes is as effective as its distribution is limited whereas adult mosquitoes turned to terrestrial mode of life and its distribution is based on its flight range, habitat, aggregation of man and animals. In this research paper, selective spray treatment over larvae of mosquitoes of a semi-infinite pool is analyzed using diffusion model. Spray chemical is conceived to spread on the surface with time and in space. A critical concentration of spray chemical is envisaged for assumed death of mosquito larvae. Diffusion is modeled Fick' law. Spray losses are lumped into a first order term. Analytical solution of the resulting partial differential equation for various values of diffusivity and loss rate constant are plotted and interpreted. The model would be useful to appraise beforehand how far and for how long spray would be effective and how much of spray chemical is required for effectiveness within specified distance and time.

  17. TRANSMISSION OF FOWL-POX BY MOSQUITOES

    Kligler, I. J.; Muckenfuss, R. S.; Rivers, T. M.

    1929-01-01

    Culex and Aëdes mosquitoes are capable of transmitting fowl-pox from diseased to healthy susceptible chickens. The mosquitoes remain infectious for at least 14 days following a meal on diseased fowls. PMID:19869570

  18. Evolution of plant breeding

    Arnel R. Hallauer

    2011-01-01

    Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the e...

  19. Source Reduction Behavior as an Independent Measurement of the Impact of a Public Health Education Campaign in an Integrated Vector Management Program for the Asian Tiger Mosquito

    Daniel Strickman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a public health educational campaign to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats. Three communities each, within two New Jersey counties, were randomly selected to receive: (1 both education and mosquito control, (2 education only, and (3 no education or mosquito control. Four separate educational events included a 5-day elementary school curriculum in the spring, and three door to door distributions of educational brochures. Before and after each educational event, the numbers of mosquito-larval container habitats were counted in 50 randomly selected homes per study area. Container surveys allowed us to measure source reduction behavior. Although we saw reductions in container habitats in sites receiving education, they were not significantly different from the control. Our results suggest that traditional passive means of public education, which were often considered the gold standard for mosquito control programs, are not sufficient to motivate residents to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats.

  20. Molecular plant breeding

    Xu, Yunbi

    2015-01-01

    "Recent advances in plant genomics and molecular biology have revolutionized our understanding of plant genetics, providing new opportunities for more efficient and controllable plant breeding. Modern plant breeding involves development and utilization of various genetic populations, molecular tools, statistical methods, breeding informatics and decision support tools. Successful techniques therefore require a solid understanding of the underlying molecular biology as well as experience in ap...

  1. Inhibition of malaria parasite development in mosquitoes by anti-mosquito-midgut antibodies.

    Lal, A.A.; Schriefer, M E; Sacci, J B; Goldman, I.F.; Louis-Wileman, V; Collins, W.E.; Azad, A F

    1994-01-01

    The mosquito midgut plays a central role in the development and subsequent transmission of malaria parasites. Using a rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, and the mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi, we investigated the effect of anti-mosquito-midgut antibodies on the development of malaria parasites in the mosquito. In agreement with previous studies, we found that mosquitoes that ingested antimidgut antibodies along with infectious parasites had significantly fewer oocysts than mosq...

  2. New Innovations in Biological Control of Mosquitoes.

    Biological control of mosquitoes is a component of an integrated pest management strategy and includes general predators, parasites and pathogens. Pathogens of mosquitoes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and protists. The most successful group for applied mosquito control include the bacteria Baci...

  3. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  4. Accelerometers identify new behaviors and show little difference in the activity budgets of lactating northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) between breeding islands and foraging habitats in the eastern Bering Sea.

    Battaile, Brian C; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Nordstrom, Chad A; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    We tagged 82 lactating northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) with tri-axial accelerometers and magnetometers on two eastern Bering Sea islands (Bogoslof and St. Paul) with contrasting population trajectories. Using depth data, accelerometer data and spectral analysis we classified time spent diving (30%), resting (~7%), shaking and grooming their pelage (9%), swimming in the prone position (~10%) and two types of previously undocumented rolling behavior (29%), with the remaining time (~15%) unspecified. The reason for the extensive rolling behavior is not known. We ground-truthed the accelerometry signals for shaking and grooming and rolling behaviors--and identified the acceleration signal for porpoising--by filming tagged northern fur seals in captivity. Speeds from GPS interpolated data indicated that animals traveled fastest while in the prone position, suggesting that this behavior is indicative of destination-based swimming. Very little difference was found in the percentages of time spent in the categorical behaviors with respect to breeding islands (Bogoslof or St. Paul Island), forager type (cathemeral or nocturnal), and the region where the animals foraged (primarily on-shelf 200 m). The lack of significant differences between islands, regions and forager type may indicate that behaviors summarized over a trip are somewhat hardwired even though foraging trip length and when and where animals dive are known to vary with island, forager type and region. PMID:25807552

  5. A review of ultralow-volume aerial sprays of insecticide for mosquito control.

    Mount, G A; Biery, T L; Haile, D G

    1996-12-01

    This review of research on ultralow-volume (ULV) aerial sprays for mosquito control is a component of an Aerial SPray EXpert system (ASPEX). Topics include application volume, adulticiding, larviciding, droplet size, and meteorology. The review discusses the efficacy of ULV aerial sprays against many important pest and vector species of mosquitoes in a wide range of locations and habitats in the USA and in some countries of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Nine conclusions were drawn from this review. 1) ULV applications are as effective for mosquito control as highly-diluted, water-based sprays. 2) More acres can be sprayed per aircraft load with the ULV method than with dilute sprays. 3) High-altitude ULV sprays using wide or stacked swaths could be used in emergencies if wind speed and direction data at appropriate altitudes are available to accurately place the spray. 4) Successful adult mosquito control can be achieved in dense foliage or open housing with ULV aerial sprays, but doses of insecticide must be increased. 5) ULV aerial application of mosquito larvicides can be used successfully in large areas. 6) The optimum droplet size for adult mosquito control is 5-25 microns volume median diameter (VMD). 7) For mosquito adulticiding, near optimum atomization of ULV sprays is achieved with flat-fan nozzles oriented straight down or slightly forward for high-speed aircraft (> or = 150 mph) or rotary atomizers on slow-speed aircraft (< 150 mph). 8) Optimum atomization minimizes paint spotting. 9) Maximum adult mosquito control is achieved just after sunrise and just before sunset with 2-10-mph crosswinds. PMID:9046465

  6. Dissecting gene expression in mosquito

    Parsch John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gene expression is known to vary extensively among tissues and between sexes. However, detailed descriptions of tissue- and sex-specific gene expression are available for only a few model organisms. A new study published in BMC Genomics presents such a data set for the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, which is the vector of human malaria. In addition to providing a valuable resource for the community of mosquito researchers, the study allows comparative transcriptomic studies of dipteran insects to be extended over 250 million years of evolution, since the divergence of A. gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster.

  7. Historical applications of induced sterilisation in field populations of mosquitoes

    Knols Bart GJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on sterile mosquito technology from 1955 to the 1980s provided a substantial body of knowledge on propagation and release of sterile mosquitoes. Radiation sterilisation and chemosterilisation have been used effectively to induce dominant lethality and thereby sterilise important mosquito vectors in the laboratory. Experimental releases of chemosterilised males provided complete control of Anopheles albimanus in a small breeding population (14-15 sq km in El Salvador. Releases of radiation sterilised males failed to control either Aedes aegypti or Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the USA. Releases of radiation-sterilised and chemosterilised male Culex quinquefasciatus in the USA and India were successful in some instances. Development of genetic sexing systems for Anopheles and improved physical separation methods for Culex have made it possible to rear and release males almost exclusively (> 99% minimizing the release of potential vectors, the females. Factors that affected efficacy in some field programmes included reduction of competitiveness by radiation, immigration of fertilized females from outside the release zones, and inability of laboratory-bred males to perform in the wild. Despite significant progress, institutional commitments to carry the process further were generally lacking in the late 1970s and until recently. Now, with renewed interest and support for further assessment of this technology, this paper summarizes the current knowledge base, prioritizes some areas of investigation, and challenges scientists and administrators to maintain an awareness of progress, remain realistic about the interpretation of new findings, and make decisions about the sterile insect technique on the basis of informed scientific documentation. Areas recommended for priority research status include the establishment of genetic sexing mechanisms that can be transferred to other mosquito species, re-examination of radiation sterilisation, aerial release technology and mass rearing.

  8. Admixture and Local Breed Marginalization Threaten Algerian Sheep Diversity

    Ciani, Elena; Kdidi, Samia; Aouissat, Miloud; Dhimi, Laziz; Lafri, Mohamed; Maftah, Abderrahman; Mehtar, Nadhira

    2015-01-01

    Due to its geo-climatic conditions, Algeria represents a biodiversity hotspot, with sheep breeds well adapted to a patchwork of extremely heterogeneous harsh habitats. The importance of this peculiar genetic reservoir increases as climate change drives the demand for new adaptations. However, the expansion of a single breed (Ouled-Djellal) which occurred in the last decades has generated a critical situation for the other breeds; some of them are being subjected to uncontrolled cross-breeding with the favored breed and/or to marginalization (effective size contraction). This study investigated genetic diversity within and among six of the nine Algerian breeds, by use of 30 microsatellite markers. Our results showed that, in spite of the census contraction experienced by most of the considered breeds, genetic diversity is still substantial (average gene diversity ranging 0.68 to 0.76) and inbreeding was not identified as a problem. However, two breeds (Rembi and Taâdmit) appeared to have lost most of their genetic originality because of intensive cross-breeding with Ouled-Djellal. Based on the above evidence, we suggest Hamra, Sidaoun, and D’man as breeds deserving the highest priority for conservation in Algeria. PMID:25875832

  9. Results of a survey to detect the mosquito Aedes albopictus in the French Riviera.

    Fauran, P; Marty, P; Izri, M A; Le Fichoux, Y

    1998-09-01

    A programme of surveillance was initiated in 1992, in the French Riviera, to detect a possible introduction of Aedes albopictus from Italy and to prevent nuisances caused by mosquitoes in the touristic localities of the Côte d'Azur. In five years, numerous mosquito breeding places have been located. Nine species have been collected: Anopheles claviger, An. plumbeus, Aedes geniculatus, Ae. vittatus, Culex hortensis, Cx. impudicus, Cx. pipiens, Culiseta fumipennis, Cs. longiareolata but no Ae. albopictus was found. Nuisances were mainly due to hypogean populations of Cx. pipiens. Breeding places in urban sites have been controlled or suppressed. The discovery of an important larval population of An. plumbeus in an urban area might further stress the importance of this species already suspected to transmit indigenous malaria in cities. PMID:10376290

  10. Techniques to assist conservation breeding of the babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis)

    Ogle, Sharron

    2010-01-01

    With the current rate of loss of biological diversity worldwide estimated at 100- 1000x the natural background rate, solutions are urgently needed to avoid a catastrophic and irreversible loss of species. Conservation breeding is a tool now widely used to assist in maintaining populations in a safe environment until such time as they can be released back into their natural habitat. The babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis) is a threatened species for which conservation breeding is...

  11. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    D. MEHTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. That is why it has been necessary to understand the various aspects of selected rural areas and consumption pattern for such a fast growing market i.e. mosquito repellants and rural buyers’ perception towards such urban products. The present paper aims to find out the factors influencing the purchase decisions of rural buyers for mosquito repellants and to study the perceptions of present and potential rural buyers' of selected mosquito repellant brands.

  12. Mapping of zones potentially occupied by Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes, the main vectors of Rift Valley fever in Senegal

    Yves M. Tourre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A necessary condition for Rift Valley fever (RVF emergence is the presence of Aedes (Aedimorphus vexans and Culex (Culex poicilipes mosquitoes carrying the arbovirus and responsible for the infection. This paper presents a detailed mapping in the Sahelian region of Senegal of zones potentially occupied by these mosquitoes (ZPOMs whose population density is directly linked to ecozones in the vicinity of small ponds. The vectors habitats and breeding sites have been characterized through an integrated approach combining remote sensing technology, geographical information systems, geographical positioning systems and field observations for proper geo-referencing. From five SPOT-5 images (~10 m spatial resolution with appropriate channels, a meridional composite transect of 290 x 60 km was first constructed at the height of the summer monsoon. Subsequent ZPOMs covered major ecozones from north to south with different hydrological environments and different patterns pond distributions. It was found that an overall area of 12,817 ha ± 10% (about 0.8% of the transect is occupied by ponds with an average ZPOM 17 times larger than this (212,813 ha ± 10% or about 14% of the transect. By comparing the very humid year of 2003 with 2006 which had just below normal rainfall, the ZPOMs inter-annual variability was analyzed in a sandy-clayey ecozone with an important hydrofossil riverbed within the Ferlo region of Senegal. Very probably contributing to an increased abundance of vectors by the end of August 2003, it was shown that the aggregate pond area was already about 22 times larger than in August 2006, corresponding to an approximately five times larger total ZPOM. The results show the importance of pin-pointing small ponds (sizes down to 0.1 ha and their geographical distribution in order to assess animal exposure to the RVF vectors.

  13. [Quantitative distribution of malaria (Anopheles maculipennis Meigen, 1818 species complex) mosquito larvae in different microhabitat types].

    Kolpakov, A D

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles mosquito larvae very much demand the environmental conditions of the water reserves that are their habitat. Aquatic plant communities play an environment-forming role, by acting as a microhabitat and leveling or enhancing the influence of external factors; there is a clear topical arrangement of malaria mosquito preimaginal hemipopulations to the aquatic plant communities. The largest number of malaria mosquito larvae is found in the phytocenoses, the mandatory components of which are elodeids and amphibiids, the latter being occupied by the larvae to a greater extent than elodeids. Larval abundance center motion is to a greater degree characteristic for natural conditions. Under urbanized conditions, the larval abundance center becomes more dispersed and stable. Moreover, its more or less close arrangement to amphibiids is observed. PMID:20614527

  14. A Mosquito Survey of the Twin-Island Caribbean Nation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, 2010.

    Mohammed, Hamish; Evanson, Jessica; Revan, Floyd; Lee, Elise; Krecek, Rosina C; Smith, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    Adult mosquito surveys of Saint Kitts and Nevis (SKN) were performed in the dry season (March 16-23, 2010) in Saint Kitts, and the rainy season (October 18-25, 2010) in SKN. Biogents (BG) Sentinel Traps were set with CO2 and BG Lure in urban, rural, mangrove, and dry forest habitats. Mosquitoes were identified to species, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on potential vector species for dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV). The most abundant species during both seasons in St. Kitts were Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes taeniorhynchus, and Aedes aegypti. There were 3 new records for Saint Kitts: Aedes tortilis, Anopheles albimanus, and Culex nigripalpus. Traps were also set in Nevis. No mosquito pool tested positive for DENV, CHIKV, or WNV. PMID:26675458

  15. Oviposition strategies of temporary pool mosquitoes in relation to weather, tidal regime and land use in a temperate wetland.

    Cardo, M V; Vezzani, D; Carbajo, A E

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands have traditionally been associated with harbouring mosquitoes, a well-known nuisance and vectors of diseases. Within mosquito life cycle, oviposition is a determinant event by shaping their individual fitness and vectorial capacity. The study was conducted in one of the main temperate wetlands in South America. We used Generalized Linear Models to study the relation between temperature, precipitation, tidal regime, land use, microenvironment, and the occurrence of floodwater (Ochlerotatus and Psorophora spp.) and raft-laying (Culex and Uranotaenia spp.) mosquitoes using temporary pools as larval habitats. Pool occurrence was negatively associated with temperature, and positively related to precipitation and high tides. As regards the land use, it was lowest in domestic areas and plantations, intermediate in secondary forests, and highest in marshes. Each oviposition strategy was best modelled as a function of different environmental factors. The occurrence of floodwater mosquitoes was positively associated with high cumulative precipitation and low tide records. Raft-laying mosquitoes were related to low temperature records, while the effect of flooding varied with the land use. In view of these results, physical (water inputs and movement), chemical, and biological (egg and larval flushing, and predatory interactions) considerations are given to provide insight in the oviposition patterns of mosquitoes occurring in this complex wetland. We finally propose the generation of a tidal flow as a control measure against floodwater mosquitoes, which are the most anthropophilic in the study area. PMID:22647341

  16. Breeding bird survey of the Delair Division of the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge, Annada District

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to inventory the breeding birds, both game and nongame, present within the boundaries of the Mark Twain NWR, and to identify habitat...

  17. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: 1978

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories...

  18. 2000 waterfowl breeding population survey for South Dakota and North Dakota

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for North and South Dakota during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  19. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: May 9 to 24, 1968

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1968. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: May 11 to May 30, 1967

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1967. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: May 8 to May 23, 1966

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1966. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  2. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: 1990

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  3. Report: Waterfowl populations and breeding conditions in southern Saskatchewan: May 1959

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1959. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  4. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: May 9 to May 23, 1963

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1963. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  5. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba and western Ontario: May-June 1959

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and western Ontario during 1959. The...

  6. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: May 6 - May 20, 1969

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1969. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  7. Report: Waterfowl populations and breeding conditions in southern Saskatchewan: May 1962

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1962. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  8. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: May 8 to May 29, 1965

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1965. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  9. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: May 8 - May 29, 1970

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1970. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  10. Waterfowl Breeding Pair Survey for southern Saskatchewan: May 7 - May 23, 1972

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1972. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  11. Alaska-Yukon waterfowl breeding pair survey, May 17 to June 7, 1969

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Alaska during 1969. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  12. Pilot study: Waterfowl breeding population survey: Ontario, Quebec, and New York: May 1995

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Ontario, Quebec, and New York during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  13. Experimental waterfowl breeding population survey Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec: 1997

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec during 1997. The primary purpose...

  14. Alaska-Yukon: Waterfowl breeding population survey: May 24 to June 21, 1992

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for AlaskaYukon during 1992. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information...

  15. Breeding Canada geese of the Port Etches area, Hinchinbrook Island, Alaska

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the breeding of Canada geese of the Port Etches area in Hinchinbrook Island, Alaska. Nesting habits and habitat, broods, predators are...

  16. Alaska-Yukon: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 22 to June 13, 1975

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for AlaskaYukon during 1975. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information...

  17. Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat

    Shive, J.P.; Pilliod, D.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  18. Fish Breeding in Nigeria

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish breeding is a very important activity ensuring availability of fingerlings for the stocking of ponds, pens, tanks and cages. The breeding habits of fishes in nature differ from specie to specie Different species of fish choose different places in the aquatic environment for breeding. Most species do not breed when in captivity due to a number of factors. In Nigeria, induced breeding of African mud catfish through injection of ova prim hormone or pituitary gland is the main practice. This article reviews the wild sources of fish seeds, some cultivable fishes. carp breeding, relationship between the endocrine system and gonad development, function of the Central Nervous System (CNS in propagation, influence of ecological conditions on gonad development, artificial propagation of common carp, natural induced spawning, salmon culture and an innovation in the sea to educate fish breeders, fish genetics and fish culturist in other to facilitate their productivity.

  19. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the...... thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  20. Determining habitat quality for species that demonstrate dynamic habitat selection.

    Beerens, James M; Frederick, Peter C; Noonburg, Erik G; Gawlik, Dale E

    2015-12-01

    Determining habitat quality for wildlife populations requires relating a species' habitat to its survival and reproduction. Within a season, species occurrence and density can be disconnected from measures of habitat quality when resources are highly seasonal, unpredictable over time, and patchy. Here we establish an explicit link among dynamic selection of changing resources, spatio-temporal species distributions, and fitness for predictive abundance and occurrence models that are used for short-term water management and long-term restoration planning. We used the wading bird distribution and evaluation models (WADEM) that estimate (1) daily changes in selection across resource gradients, (2) landscape abundance of flocks and individuals, (3) conspecific foraging aggregation, and (4) resource unit occurrence (at fixed 400 m cells) to quantify habitat quality and its consequences on reproduction for wetland indicator species. We linked maximum annual numbers of nests detected across the study area and nesting success of Great Egrets (Ardea alba), White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), and Wood Storks (Mycteria americana) over a 20-year period to estimated daily dynamics of food resources produced by WADEM over a 7490 km(2) area. For all species, increases in predicted species abundance in March and high abundance in April were strongly linked to breeding responses. Great Egret nesting effort and success were higher when birds also showed greater conspecific foraging aggregation. Synthesis and applications: This study provides the first empirical evidence that dynamic habitat selection processes and distributions of wading birds over environmental gradients are linked with reproductive measures over periods of decades. Further, predictor variables at a variety of temporal (daily-multiannual) resolutions and spatial (400 m to regional) scales effectively explained variation in ecological processes that change habitat quality. The process used here allows managers to develop short- and long-term conservation strategies that (1) consider flexible behavioral patterns and (2) are robust to environmental variation over time. PMID:27069617

  1. Breeding Biology of Grassland Birds in Western New York: Conservation and Management Implications

    Christopher J. Norment; Michael C. Runge; Michael R. Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Declining grassland breeding bird populations have led to increased efforts to assess habitat quality, typically by estimating density or relative abundance. Because some grassland habitats may function as ecological traps, a more appropriate metric for determining quality may be breeding success. Between 1994 and 2003 we gathered data on the nest fates of Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna), Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorous), and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) in a series o...

  2. Mosquito larval productivity in rice-fields infested with Azolla in Mvomero District, Tanzania.

    Mwingira, V S; Mayala, B K; Senkoro, K P; Rumisha, S F; Shayo, E H; Mlozi, M R S; Mboera, L E G

    2009-01-01

    Azolla (Salviniales: Azollaceae) is known to reduce oviposition and adult emergence of a number of mosquito species. Several species of Azolla are reportedly indigenous to Tanzania. However, the potential of Azolla as a biocontrol agent against malaria mosquitoes has not been evaluated in the country. This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess mosquito larval productivity in irrigated rice-fields infested with Azolla in Mvomero District, Tanzania. A systematic larval sampling covering all open water bodies along designed transect was carried in rice-fields. Larval density was estimated by dipping water bodies with or without Azolla. The degree of Azolla coverage was categorized as 0%, 80%. Larvae densities were categorised as low ( or = 500/m2) productivity. A total of 120 water bodies were surveyed and 105 (87.5%) had Azolla microphyla and A. pinnata at varying degrees of coverage. Of the total 105 water bodies with Azolla, 80 (76.2%) had a green Azolla mat, and 25 (23.8%) a brown Azolla mat. Eighty-eight (73.3%) of the sites were infested with anophelines and 109 (90.8%) with culicine larvae. Seventy percent of all water bodies contained anophelines and culicines in sympatric breeding, while 20.8% and 3.3% had only culicines and anophelines, respectively. The majority (82%) of mosquito breeding sites were found in area with Azolla substrate. Mosquito larva productivity was low in sites with highest (>80%) Azolla coverage. Seventy-two (81.8%) of the anopheline and 90 (82.6%) culicine breeding sites were infested with Azolla. Water bodies infested with green Azolla were more productive than those covered by brown coloured Azolla substrates for both culicines (13%) and anophelines (8%). Of the 1537 field collected larvae that hatched to adult stage, 646 (42.03%) were Anopheles gambiae s.l., 42 (2.73%) were An. funestus and 769 (50.03%) were Culex quinquefasciatus. These findings suggest that the mosquito productivity is low when the Azolla coverage is high (>80%). The promotion of Azolla in mosquito control should take into consideration the degree of Azolla coverage. PMID:19445100

  3. A five-year integrated mosquito control project in Kavala (N. Greece)

    Full text: The plain of the Nestos River is a coastal area of 25,000 ha of agricultural land irrigated by the day-regulated waters of the Nestos River. Rice fields (600 individual parcels of 1,900 ha of total surface) represent the most important breeding sites during summer (five larvicide applications on average). Abandoned agricultural land (over 200 fields of 900 ha) receiving occasionally irrigation water constitutes the second most productive mosquito-breeding site (1-2 applications). Approximately 1-2% of the total surface of 6,500 ha of corn cultivation fields is poorly drained and thus about 100 ha produce at least one generation of mosquitoes during the summer. Along its 25 kilometers of seashore, the area of Nestos comprises the lagoons of Kavala (extensive aquaculture), and the last part of the delta of the Nestos River, 11,500 ha of protected wetlands under the Ramsar convention. About 2,000 ha of these wetlands harbours plants such as Arthr. fruticosum, Sal. europea, Ael. littoralis, Ju. maritimus, Sc. maritimus, representing highly productive mosquito breeding sites (1-2 generations during the summer). Ecological mapping involved 3,200 individual vegetation polygons organised in 311 different sampling stations. Larvae sampling protocol was followed on a weekly basis for the individual and/or groups of parcels in the agricultural and natural environment. All the above information was systematically monitored and transferred to an ArcView (8.3)-GIS (Geographical Information System) database for further exploitation. In addition, mosquito breeding sites were recorded in the urban environment: within 9 villages, 2,300 individual residences were monitored and 1,070 cesspools were recorded, out of which more than 50% were producing mosquitoes (1-2 applications). In total 8,500 ha were treated with larvicides by using temephos and diflubenzuron (agricultural land), Bti (natural environment) and MMF-Agnique (urban environment). 70% of the applications were made by air using a spraying helicopter (Hiller) and a specially modified ultra-light motorized (Delta type) equipped with GPS (Geographical Positioning System). During the five years of application of the project, 17 species of mosquitoes have been identified, the most important being Ochlerotatus caspius and Anopheles spp. (human bait and CO2 traps). Nuisance has been considerably reduced since the beginning of the operations, when 1,000 bites/hour were not unusual. Evaluation of the project was made twice through 200 questionnaires in year 2000 and 180 questionnaires in year 2004. Local community is fully supporting the project: 90% of the people are willing to participate financially for the continuation of the project. (author)

  4. Avian Plasmodium lineages found in spot surveys of mosquitoes from 2007 to 2010 at Sakata wetland, Japan: do dominant lineages persist for multiple years?

    Kim, K S; Tsuda, Y

    2012-11-01

    The ecology and geographical distribution of disease vectors are major determinants of spatial and temporal variations in the transmission dynamics of vector-borne pathogens. However, there are limited studies on the ecology of vectors that contribute to the natural transmission of most vector-borne pathogens. Avian Plasmodium parasites are multihost mosquito-borne pathogens transmitted by multiple mosquito species, which might regulate the diversity and persistence of these parasites. From 2007 to 2010, we conducted entomological surveys at Sakata wetland in central Japan, to investigate temporal variation in mosquito occurrence and prevalence of avian Plasmodium lineages in the mosquito populations. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was used to detect Plasmodium parasites and identify the blood sources of mosquitoes. Culex inatomii and C. pipiens pallens represented 60.0% and 34.8% of 11 mosquito species collected, respectively. Our results showed that the two dominant mosquito species most likely serve as principal vectors of avian Plasmodium parasites during June, which coincides with the breeding season of bird species nesting in the wetland reed beds. Fourteen animal species were identified as blood sources of mosquitoes, with the oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) being the commonest blood source. Although there was significant temporal variation in the occurrence of mosquitoes and prevalence of Plasmodium lineages in the mosquitoes, the dominant Plasmodium lineages shared by the two dominant mosquito species were consistently found at the same time during transmission seasons. Because vector competence cannot be confirmed solely by PCR approaches, experimental demonstration is required to provide definitive evidence of transmission suggested in this study. PMID:23036191

  5. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    N. Lukwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.

  6. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  7. Invasive leaf resources alleviate density dependence in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Reiskind, Michael H.; Zarrabi, Ali A.; LOUNIBOS, L. PHILIP

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between invasive species can have important consequences for the speed and impact of biological invasions. Containers occupied by the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse, may be sensitive to invasive plants whose leaves fall into this larval habitat. To examine the potential for interactions between invasive leaf species and larval A. albopictus, we conducted a field survey of leaf material found with A. albopictus in containers in Palm Beach County, Florida and measured de...

  8. Distribution of Mosquito Larvae on Kosrae Island, Kosrae State, the Federated States of Micronesia

    Noda, Shinichi; YAMAMOTO, Sota; Toma, Takako; Taulung, Livinson

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of mosquito larvae were carried out in six areas of Kosrae Island, Kosrae State, the Federated States of Micronesia in December 2009 and June 2012. A total of 962 larvae of six species were collected from 106 natural and artificial habitats. They were identified as Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. marshallensis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. annulirostris, and Cx. kusaiensis. This is the first report from Kosrae Island for three of these species—Ae. marshallensis, Cx. quinquefasciatus...

  9. On speed and aerodynamic forces of mosquito.

    Ahmad, A; Rao, V R; Krishna, P R

    2000-08-01

    In the present investigation, speed of mosquitoes A. aegyptii (Linnè) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) is measured by designing and constructing a low speed wind tunnel in the laboratory. The velocity of mosquitoes is less than the other myogenic and neurogenic insects. Lift, one of the important aerodynamic forces that a flier has to develop for its efficient flight, is studied in mosquitoes by developing a simple technique using digital single pan balance. Lift, drag and their coefficients of hovering mosquito are calculated from the knowledge of body parameters by considering the wings of mosquito as harmonic oscillator. The calculated value of lift is verified with the experimental. The study throws light on morphophysiological adaptation of mosquitoes for the generation of aerodynamic forces in hovering, tethered and forward flights. PMID:12557907

  10. Improvised microinjection technique for mosquito vectors

    Sampath, Kumar S.; Puttaraju, H. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Bio-manipulation technique is of primary importance during the development of transgenic mosquitoes. The study describes the variable factors that influence the viability of medically important mosquito vectors during microinjection. Methods: Three mosquito vectors belonging to the genus Aedes, Anopheles and Culex were microinjected at different developmental stages of their life cycle viz., egg, larvae, pupae and adult. Results: The improvisations revealed an increased survivability of biomanipulated mosquitoes during the embryonic and adult microinjection. The study of injecting larvae and pupae resulted in poor survivability. Interpretation & conclusions: The microinjection protocol was successfully tested on three important mosquito vectors. The critical period after biomanipulation which contributes heavily for the survivability factor was evaluated. The results provide a common protocol for biomanipulation of three mosquito vectors with enhanced survivability. PMID:23391792

  11. Genetic control of Aedes mosquitoes

    Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew; Nimmo, Derric; Neira Oviedo, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Matzen, Kelly; Beech, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. Genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. In this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. We focus particularly on those methods that are already ...

  12. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    Namita Soni; Soam Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquef...

  13. Native bird breeding in a chronosequence of revegetated sites.

    Selwood, Katherine; Mac Nally, Ralph; Thomson, James R

    2009-03-01

    Restoration of degraded landscapes through replantings of native vegetation has been proceeding in response to habitat loss and fragmentation and plummeting biodiversity. Little is known about whether the investments in ecological restoration have resulted in biodiversity benefits. We evaluated the potential of restored sites to support populations by assessing bird breeding activity. We surveyed 21 revegetated sites of various ages (9-111 years) in the box-ironbark region of Victoria, Australia. Sites differed in landscape context, patch features and in-site characteristics. The latter, including whether sites were grazed, amounts of fallen timber and numbers of remnant trees, were most important in affecting overall bird breeding activity. Patch-configuration (e.g., shape, area) was of secondary importance. Landscape context appeared to have little effect on bird breeding except for one species. While these results suggest that in-site habitat structure is the predominant driver, we caution against dismissing the importance of patch characteristics and landscape context for two reasons. First, the available sites covered a relatively small range of areas (areas or of the open countryside. We show that there is very little breeding activity in replantings by species that have declined dramatically in rank abundance between large 'reference' areas and fragmented landscapes. It seems likely that most replantings provide habitat configurations unsuited for dealing with declines of species most vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:19023600

  14. Tritium breeding materials

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  15. Blackberry breeding and genetics

    Blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) improvement has made substantial progress with over 400 cultivars named originating from wild selections to many releases from breeding efforts. Public breeding has been ongoing for over 100 years. The result of these improvements is commercial production ...

  16. Biotechnology and mutation breeding

    Mutation breeding has been successful. New biotechnological techniques such as in vitro mutagenesis, in vitro selection, and haploidy may assist in, or improve mutation breeding where applicable. In vitro mutagenesis will increase the specificity of the mutation process. In vitro selection and haploidy will improve mutation identification and selection capabilities. These techniques, their uses, and their limitations are discussed. (author). 20 refs

  17. Free flight of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Iams, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    High speed video observations of free flying male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the dengue and yellow fever vector, along with custom measurement methods, enable measurement of wingbeat frequency, body position and body orientation of mosquitoes during flight. We find these mosquitoes flap their wings at approximately 850 Hz. We also generate body yaw, body pitch and wing deviation measurements with standard deviations of less than 1 degree and find that sideways velocity and acceleration are imp...

  18. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    Ernst-Jan Scholte; Bart G.J. Knols; Samson, Robert A; Willem Takken

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito...

  19. Genetically Modified Mosquito: Myth and Reality

    Teh Su Yean

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been applied successfully in some agricultural pest control programs in the past, but in many cases, success has not been sustainable in the long run. Various attempts have been made to duplicate this limited success SIT application in agriculture to other areas of applications, particularly in vector control. For example, a recent mosquito control program has been initiated in Malaysia to eliminate dengue-mosquitoes Aedes aegypti by releasing large amount of genetically modified GM male mosquitoes into the field to outcompete the wild male mosquitoes. Field experimental data that has been made available in the literature is limited, rendering it difficult to make independent assessment on its short-term efficacy and long-term sustainability of this GM control strategy. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of GM mosquito in controlling dengue mosquito population by means of model simulations via DEER (Dengue Encephalitis Eradication Routines. Preliminary results indicate negative conclusion regarding the effectiveness of GM mosquitoes in controlling wild A. aegypti population over the long-term. Essentially, significant reduction of wild mosquito population is possible only if large over-flooding ratios are applied. Further, repeated releases must be maintained over an infinite time horizon to continue to sustain low population of mosquitoes. Major difficulty remains to be resolved. In particular, in-depth costbenefit analysis on this control program is essential to ensure long-term institutional and social support.

  20. Mine-associated wetlands as avian habitat

    Surveys for interior wetland birds at mine-associated emergent wetlands on coal surface mines in southern Illinois detected one state threatened and two state endangered species. Breeding by least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) and common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) was confirmed. Regional assessment of potential wetland bird habitat south of Illinois Interstate 64 identified a total of 8,109 ha of emergent stable water wetlands; 10% were associated with mining. Mine-associated wetlands with persistent hydrology and large expanses of emergent vegetation provide habitat that could potentially compensate for loss of natural wetlands in Illinois

  1. Nest site selection and breeding success in three Turdus thrush species coexisting in an urban environment

    Mikula, P.; Hromada, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Tryjanowski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 83-92. ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : breeding success * coexistence * nest-habitat partitioning * nest site selection * predation * synurbization * urban habitat * thrushes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2014

  2. Cytochrome B Analysis of Mosquito Blood Meals: Identifying Wildlife Hosts of West Nile Virus Mosquito Vectors in Wyoming, USA

    Female mosquitoes commonly exhibit patterns of blood feeding from vertebrate hosts, a behavior that strongly influences mosquito pathogen infection and transmission. The vertebrate host dynamics of the mosquito transmitted arbovirus, West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in sa...

  3. Septic tank mosquitoes: competition between species in central Nigeria.

    Irving-Bell, R J; Okoli, E I; Diyelong, D Y; Lyimo, E O; Onyia, O C

    1987-07-01

    Exit traps, placed over the air vents of septic tanks, were used to examine species diversity and relative abundance of mosquitoes breeding in ammonia-rich waters of septic tanks. Of the six species found, Culex decens Theobald and Culex cinereus Theobald appeared to be competing successfully with Culex quinquefasciatus Say during the wet season but not during the long dry season. The seasonal timing of their displacement by Cx quinquefasciatus was variable and did not correlate well with climatic factors. The three other species present, generally during the wet season and early dry season, were Culex tigripes G. & C., Culex horridus Edwards and Aedes aegypt (L.). Experimental bucket ovitraps were used to assess preference towards covered (dark) septic tank water in comparison with sunlit septic tank water, covered and sunlit compost water. These were colonized by Cx quinquefasciatus, Cx decens, Ae. aegypti and Ae. vittatus Bigot. The covered septic tank water was more abundantly colonized by Cx quinquefasciatus and marginally so by the two Aedes species. Cx decens appeared to colonize the exposed compost water more readily in the dry season, but changed to the covered septic tank water in the wet season. The discussion centres around competition between these mosquitos species and concludes that it would be useful to know what environmental factors, or what aspects of competition, lead to severe natural reductions in the abundance of the major pest species Cx quinquefasciatus. PMID:2979537

  4. Louisiana ESI: HABITATS (Habitat and Plant Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal habitats in Louisiana. Vector polygons represent various habitats, including marsh types,...

  5. Mutation breeding in Japan

    The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  6. Welfare in horse breeding

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal...

  7. Into the environment of mosquito-borne disease: A spatial analysis of vector distribution using traditional and remotely sensed methods

    Brown, Heidi E.

    Spatially explicit information is increasingly available for infectious disease modeling. However, such information is reluctantly or inappropriately incorporated. My dissertation research uses spatially explicit data to assess relationships between landscape and mosquito species distribution and discusses challenges regarding accurate predictive risk modeling. The goal of my research is to use remotely sensed environmental information and spatial statistical methods to better understand mosquito-borne disease epidemiology for improvement of public health responses. In addition to reviewing the progress of spatial infectious disease modeling, I present four research projects. I begin by evaluating the biases in surveillance data and build up to predictive modeling of mosquito species presence. In the first study I explore how mosquito surveillance trap types influence estimations of mosquito populations. Then. I use county-based human surveillance data and landscape variables to identify risk factors for West Nile virus disease. The third study uses satellite-based vegetation indices to identify spatial variation among West Nile virus vectors in an urban area and relates the variability to virus transmission dynamics. Finally, I explore how information from three satellite sensors of differing spatial and spectral resolution can be used to identify and distinguish mosquito habitat across central Connecticut wetlands. Analyses presented here constitute improvements to the prediction of mosquito distribution and therefore identification of disease risk factors. Current methods for mosquito surveillance data collection are labor intensive and provide an extremely limited, incomplete picture of the species composition and abundance. Human surveillance data offers additional challenges with respect to reporting bias and resolution, but is nonetheless informative in identifying environmental risk factors and disease transmission dynamics. Remotely sensed imagery supports mosquito and human disease surveillance data by providing spatially explicit, line resolution information about environmental factors relevant to vector-borne disease processes. Together, surveillance and remotely sensed environmental data facilitate improved description and modeling of disease transmission. Remote sensing can be used to develop predictive maps of mosquito distribution in relation to disease risk. This has implications for increased accuracy of mosquito control efforts. The projects presented in this dissertation enhance current public health capacities by examining the applications of spatial modeling with respect to mosquito-borne disease.

  8. EcologicHabitat_WLH

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage habitats (WLH)...

  9. Landscape Analysis of Adult Florida Panther Habitat.

    Frakes, Robert A; Belden, Robert C; Wood, Barry E; James, Frederick E

    2015-01-01

    Historically occurring throughout the southeastern United States, the Florida panther is now restricted to less than 5% of its historic range in one breeding population located in southern Florida. Using radio-telemetry data from 87 prime-aged (?3 years old) adult panthers (35 males and 52 females) during the period 2004 through 2013 (28,720 radio-locations), we analyzed the characteristics of the occupied area and used those attributes in a random forest model to develop a predictive distribution map for resident breeding panthers in southern Florida. Using 10-fold cross validation, the model was 87.5 % accurate in predicting presence or absence of panthers in the 16,678 km2 study area. Analysis of variable importance indicated that the amount of forests and forest edge, hydrology, and human population density were the most important factors determining presence or absence of panthers. Sensitivity analysis showed that the presence of human populations, roads, and agriculture (other than pasture) had strong negative effects on the probability of panther presence. Forest cover and forest edge had strong positive effects. The median model-predicted probability of presence for panther home ranges was 0.81 (0.82 for females and 0.74 for males). The model identified 5579 km2 of suitable breeding habitat remaining in southern Florida; 1399 km2 (25%) of this habitat is in non-protected private ownership. Because there is less panther habitat remaining than previously thought, we recommend that all remaining breeding habitat in south Florida should be maintained, and the current panther range should be expanded into south-central Florida. This model should be useful for evaluating the impacts of future development projects, in prioritizing areas for panther conservation, and in evaluating the potential impacts of sea-level rise and changes in hydrology. PMID:26222526

  10. Terrestrial vegetation and aquatic chemistry influence larval mosquito abundance in catch basins, Chicago, USA

    Gardner Allison M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important determinant of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission is the spatial distribution of vectors. The primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV in Illinois are Culex pipiens Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae and Culex restuans Theobald. In urban environments, these mosquitoes commonly oviposit in roadside storm water catch basins. However, use of this habitat is inconsistent, with abundance of larvae varying significantly across catch basins at a fine spatial scale. Methods We tested the hypothesis that attributes of the biotic and abiotic environment contribute to spatial and temporal variation in production of mosquito vectors, characterizing the relationship between terrestrial vegetation and aquatic chemistry and Culex abundance in Chicago, Illinois. Larvae were sampled from 60 catch basins from June 14 to October 3, 2009. Density of shrubs and 14 tree genera surrounding the basins were quantified, as well as aquatic chemistry content of each basin. Results We demonstrate that the spatial pattern of Culex abundance in catch basins is strongly influenced by environmental characteristics, resulting in significant variation across the urban landscape. Using regression and machine learning techniques, we described landscape features and microhabitat characteristics of four Chicago neighborhoods and examined the implications of these measures for larval abundance in adjacent catch basins. The important positive predictors of high larval abundance were aquatic ammonia, nitrates, and area of shrubs of height Culex during the fruit-bearing periods and early senescent periods in August and September. Conclusions This study identifies environmental predictors of mosquito production in urban environments. Because an abundance of adult Culex is integral to efficient WNV transmission and mosquitoes are found in especially high densities near larval habitats, identifying aquatic sites for Culex and landscape features that promote larval production are important in predicting the spatial pattern of cases of human and veterinary illness. Thus, these data enable accurate assessment of regions at risk for exposure to WNV and aid in the prevention of vector-borne disease transmission.

  11. Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae in Europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria vector?

    Schaffner Francis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles plumbeus has been recognized as a minor vector for human malaria in Europe since the beginning of the 20th century. In recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited novel breeding sites, including large and organically rich man-made containers, with consequently larger mosquito populations in close vicinity to humans. This lead to investigate whether current populations of An. plumbeus would be able to efficiently transmit Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most deadly form of malaria. Methods Anopheles plumbeus immatures were collected from a liquid manure pit in Switzerland and transferred as adults to the CEPIA (Institut Pasteur, France where they were fed on P. falciparum gametocytes produced in vitro. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes served as controls. Development of P. falciparum in both mosquito species was followed by microscopical detection of oocysts on mosquito midguts and by sporozoite detection in the head/thorax by PCR and microscopy. Results A total of 293 wild An. plumbeus females from four independent collections successfully fed through a membrane on blood containing P. falciparum gametocytes. Oocysts were observed in mosquito midguts and P. falciparum DNA was detected in head-thorax samples in all four experiments, demonstrating, on a large mosquito sample, that An. plumbeus is indeed receptive to P. falciparum NF54 and able to produce sporozoites. Importantly, the proportion of sporozoites-infected An. plumbeus was almost similar to that of An. gambiae (31 to 88% An. plumbeus versus 67 to 97% An. gambiae. However, the number of sporozoites produced was significantly lower in infected An. plumbeus. Conclusion The results show that a sample of field-caught An. plumbeus has a moderate to high receptivity towards P. falciparum. Considering the increased mobility of humans between Europe and malaria endemic countries and changes in environment and climate, these data strongly suggest that An. plumbeus could act as a vector for malaria and thus significantly contribute to increasing the malaria transmission risk in Central-Western Europe. In locations showing high vulnerability to the presence of gametocyte carriers, the risk of transmission of malaria by An. plumbeus should be considered.

  12. Spatial occurrence and hatch of field eggs of the tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Notostraca: Triopsidae), a potential biological control agent of immature mosquitoes.

    Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S

    2002-06-01

    The tadpole shrimp (TPS), Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae) is a potential biological control agent for immature mosquitoes breeding in ephemeral habitats. The occurrence of TPS eggs in soil and their hatch were investigated in 11 flood-irrigated date gardens in the Coachella Valley of southern California in 1999. Each garden was sampled several times after the rows were recently irrigated. All these date gardens harbored from very few to a large number of eggs in the soil. Overall, the average density of total eggs on ranches with clay loam soil was significantly higher than that on ranches with silt loam soil. The average densities of total eggs were significantly lower on the ranches that were disked compared to those on the ranches that were undisked before sampling. Two types of eggs were found and designated as "fresh" (yellowish to brownish) and "old" (blackish) eggs. This is the first time that these dimorphic eggs have been reported. The density of fresh eggs was lower than that of old eggs in most soil samples. The date gardens with high egg densities were sampled for determination of vertical occurrence, where soil was sampled up to 38.5 cm deep. Fresh eggs were recovered from soil in depths up to 25.6 cm, but the densities progressively declined with depth. The old eggs, however, were recovered from all soil depths studied, and there was no obvious relationship between soil depth and their density. This pattern of vertical occurrence of TPS eggs is the result of frequent disking for weed control and fruit harvest. Hatch of TPS eggs in surface soil samples ranged from 0 to 7.2 per 100 g dried soil. Hatch of viable eggs had an inverse relationship with soil depth. No TPS hatched out from the soil samples taken deeper than 15.4 cm. Fresh and old eggs distinguished by color were subjected to hatching tests. Fresh eggs exhibited high hatch, with hatching rates of 35.5-45.0% and 40.2-60.3% for the 1st and 1st plus the 2nd hydrations respectively. The old eggs, however, did not hatch at all. These findings provide quantitative information with regard to occurrence of natural TPS populations in flood irrigated agricultural fields, which could serve as a potential regulatory force of immature mosquito populations sharing ephemeral habitats with TPS. PMID:12125864

  13. Terrestrial bird populations and habitat use on coastal plain tundra of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Presents results of four breeding season and three postbreeding season bird surveys conducted on 45 10ha plots representing seven habitat types study sites on the...

  14. BREEDING ECOLOGY OF HOODED CROW (CORVUS CORNIX L. POPULATIONS IN TRANSFORMED LANDSCAPES

    Matsyura A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of hooded crow breeding ecology was performed for Zhitomir region in 2010-2011 in terms of rural and urban distinctions. Height of trees, tree species diversity in breeding biotopes, nest size, and breeding success of hooded crows were considered for agricultural and urban landscapes. Definite patterns of breeding ecology were estimated for urban and rural populations of hooded crows. On average, the breeding density of hooded crows was 7-8 individuals/km2in Zhitomir region.Positive correlation was found between the breeding density of hooded crows and degree of transformation and urbanization of landscape of Zhytomyr region. The main breeding habitats of hooded crows in the Zhitomir region were the wetland sites. Communities of urban birds were characterized by earlier terms of nest building, more higher position of nests in the trees and high diversity of tree breeding habitats. In urbanized landscape we determined high proportion of large (6 eggs and small clutches of hooded crow (3 eggs. On average the breeding success of crows in Zhytomyr region is 51.1%. We suggested that the main factor was high level of elimination of embryos and chicks of hooded crow. In urbanized landscapes the breeding success (50% is somewhat higher than that in rural areas (43.5%. This can be explained by specific features of ecological niches - in cities the bird communities have few natural predators that kill chicks and destroy clutches, and potentially have more available food resources.

  15. Microsporidian isolates from mosquitoes of Argentina

    Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...

  16. Neuropeptidomics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Neuropeptidomic data were collected on the mosquito Ae. aegypti which is considered the most tractable mosquito species for physiological and endocrine studies. The data were solely obtained by direct mass spectrometric profiling, including tandem fragmentation, of selected tissues from single speci...

  17. Novel Methods for Mosquito Control using RNAi.

    The discovery and development of novel insecticides for vector control is a primary focus of toxicology research conducted at the Mosquito and Fly Research Unit, Gainesville, FL. Targeting critical genes/proteins in mosquitoes using RNA interference (RNAi) is being investigated as a method to devel...

  18. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  19. Free flight of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Iams, S M

    2012-01-01

    High speed video observations of free flying male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the dengue and yellow fever vector, along with custom measurement methods, enable measurement of wingbeat frequency, body position and body orientation of mosquitoes during flight. We find these mosquitoes flap their wings at approximately 850 Hz. We also generate body yaw, body pitch and wing deviation measurements with standard deviations of less than 1 degree and find that sideways velocity and acceleration are important components of mosquito motion. Rapid turns involving changes in flight direction often involve large sideways accelerations. These do not correspond to commensurate changes in body heading, and the insect's flight direction and body heading are decoupled during flight. These findings call in to question the role of yaw control in mosquito flight. In addition, using orientation data, we find that sideways accelerations are well explained by roll-based rotation of the lift vector. In contrast, the insect's body pitch...

  20. Asymptomatic humans transmit dengue virus to mosquitoes.

    Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-11-24

    Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable symptoms or before the onset of symptoms are significantly more infectious to mosquitoes than people with symptomatic infections. Because DENV viremic people without clinical symptoms may be exposed to more mosquitoes through their undisrupted daily routines than sick people and represent the bulk of DENV infections, our data indicate that they have the potential to contribute significantly more to virus transmission to mosquitoes than previously recognized. PMID:26553981

  1. Asymptomatic humans transmit dengue virus to mosquitoes

    Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E.; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C.; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W.; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable symptoms or before the onset of symptoms are significantly more infectious to mosquitoes than people with symptomatic infections. Because DENV viremic people without clinical symptoms may be exposed to more mosquitoes through their undisrupted daily routines than sick people and represent the bulk of DENV infections, our data indicate that they have the potential to contribute significantly more to virus transmission to mosquitoes than previously recognized. PMID:26553981

  2. Altered mangrove wetlands as habitat for estuarine nekton: are dredged channels and tidal creeks equivalent?

    Krebs, Justin M.; Brame, Adam B.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2007-01-01

    Hasty decisions are often made regarding the restoration of "altered" habitats, when in fact the ecological value of these habitats may be comparable to natural ones. To assess the "value" of altered mangrove-lined habitats for nekton, we sampled for 1 yr within three Tampa Bay wetlands. Species composition, abundance, and spatial distribution of nekton assemblages in permanent subtidal portions of natural tidal creeks and wetlands altered by construction of mosquito-control ditches and stormwater-drainage ditches were quantified through seasonal seine sampling. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance and ordination of nekton community data suggested differences in species composition and abundance between natural and altered habitat, though not consistently among the three wetlands. In many cases, mosquito ditches were more similar in assemblage structure to tidal creeks than to stormwater ditches. In general, mosquito ditches and stormwater ditches were the most dissimilar in terms of nekton community structure. These dissimilarities were likely due to differences in design between the two types of ditches. Mosquito ditches tend to fill in over time and are thus more ephemeral features in the landscape. In contrast, stormwater ditches are a more permanent altered habitat that remain open due to periodic flushing from heavy runoff. Results indicate that environmental conditions (e.g., salinity, current velocity, vegetative structure) may provide a more useful indication of potential habitat "value" for nekton than whether the habitat has been altered. The type of ditching is therefore more important than ditching per se when judging the habitat quality of these altered channels for fishes, shrimps and crabs. Planning should entail careful consideration of environmental conditions rather than simply restoring for restoration's sake.

  3. Breeding for disease resistance

    Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Helene

    2013-01-01

    In the context of intensification and specialization of poultry production, next to welfare regulation on animal breeding, animal health issues are of increasing importance to the breeding sector because of the huge related production losses. But animal health and welfare issues are also of importance to the consumers because of potential effects on their own health and their lifestyle choices. Most effective disease control strategies should be developed in an integrated animal health manage...

  4. Breeding programme and infrastructure

    Zonabend König, Emelie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study potential breeding strategies for indigenous livestock in Eastern and Southern Africa under low input production systems. The thesis covered a study of the status of supportive infrastructure for use of animal genetic resources. The case of Red Maasai sheep was studied as a model for design of strategies for improvement of an indigenous breed under threat. Studies [I-II] were performed through participatory approaches by use of structured interviews, while ...

  5. Agricultural ponds as alternative habitat for waterbirds: spatial and temporal patterns of abundance and management strategies

    Sebastián-González, Esther; Sánchez-Zapata, José Antonio; Botella, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The progressive lost of natural wetlands as a consequence of human activities has lead to the use of new habitats by the species linked to water presence. In Southeast Spain, thousands of irrigation ponds have been lately constructed to store water for agriculture and are used by waterbirds as an alternative habitat. For this study, breeding and wintering waterbirds were counted in a subset of irrigation ponds between 2002 and 2007. Breeding communities were more abundant ...

  6. Jute breeding in Bangladesh

    The evolution, domestication, variability and adaptation of fibre jutes in Bangladesh are described. Domestication of fibre jutes, in evolutionary terms, is recent and the spectrum of variability within them is narrow. Yield improvement by breeding has been minimal and the reasons for this are suggested. Recent germplasm collecting expeditions to the eastern hill tracts of Bangladesh have revealed wide-spectrum diversity among the vegetable jutes grown there. Variability among the vegetable types can be utilized to improve the fibre types and to this end various hybridization schemes have now been initiated by the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute. The initial breeding priority is yield per se but ideotype characteristics have been delineated. The objectives of the breeding programme are likely to become more specific as the agronomic worth of these characteristics becomes more clearly defined. The rationale for mutation breeding in jute has been the narrow-spectrum diversity within the fibre types; the wide-spectrum diversity among the hill tract vegetable jutes should, however, be exploited in imaginative hybridization programmes before resorting to large-scale mutation breeding programmes. Mutation breeding may, however, be a valuable tool for inducing changes in fibre quality characteristics when technologists identify new uses for jute and specify their requirements. At present, however, quality is assessed subjectively. (author)

  7. Toxicity and effects of mosquito larvicides methoprene and surface film (Agnique® MMF) on the development and fecundity of the tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae).

    Su, Tianyun; Jiang, Yonxing; Mulla, Mir S

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the interactions of tadpole shrimp, a mosquito biological control agent, with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene and a monomolecular surface film. In laboratory assays, the tadpole shrimp (TPS) Triops newberryi (Packard) was able to tolerate high concentrations of methoprene without negative impacts on its growth, longevity, and fecundity when exposed to 1 to 10 mg/liter, or 90-900 fold, of the IE(90) levels against a laboratory colony of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The same held true in field trials when the habitats were treated with Altosid(®) Liquid Larvicide (Altosid(®) LL, 5% methoprene) at 0.3-1.2 liters/ha. or 1-4 fold of the label rates for mosquito control. However, some significant impacts on the TPS occurred when they were exposed to Agnique(®) Monomolecular Film (Agnique(®) MMF) at the label rates for mosquito control ranging from 1.89-9.45 liters/ha. under laboratory and field conditions. To avoid the negative impact of Agnique MMF on tadpole shrimp, it appears that 1.89 liters/ha. would be the maximum rate when Agnique MMF is used to control mosquitoes in the habitats where the TPS is employed as a biological control agent, or prevailing in the aquatic habitats with potential for suppressing mosquito larval populations. PMID:25424263

  8. California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) movement and habitat use: Implications for conservation

    Fellers, G.M.; Kleeman, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Nonbreeding habitats are critically important for Rana draytonii, especially for individuals that breed in temporary bodies of water. We radiotracked 123 frogs to evaluate seasonal habitat use. Individual frogs were continuously tracked for up to 16 months. Some individuals remained at breeding ponds all year, but 66% of female and 25% of male frogs moved to nonbreeding areas, even when the breeding site retained water. Frogs at our main study site moved 150 m (median), roughly the distance to the nearest suitable nonbreeding area. The greatest straight-line distance traveled was 1.4 km, although the presumed distance traveled was 2.8 km. Females were more likely than males to move from permanent ponds (38% of females, 16% of males), but among dispersing frogs, males and females did not differ in distance moved. Some frogs left breeding sites shortly after oviposition (median = 12 days for females, 42.5 days for males), but many individuals remained until the site was nearly dry. Fog provided moisture for dispersal or migration throughout the summer. Our data demonstrate that maintaining populations of pond-breeding amphibians requires that all essential habitat components be protected; these include (1) breeding habitat, (2) nonbreeding habitat, and (3) migration corridors. In addition, a buffer is needed around all three areas to ensure that outside activities do not degrade any of the three habitat components. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  9. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: May 13 - June 12, 1975

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  10. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: May 13-June 5, 1976

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  11. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 12 - June 3, 1981

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  12. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 8 - June 3, 1985

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  13. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 12 - June 9, 1983

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  14. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 9 - June 9, 1988

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  15. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 7 - June 9, 1987

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  16. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 7 - June 14, 1986

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  17. Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 12 - June 10, 1978

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  18. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 14 - June 10, 1982

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  19. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: May 14 - June 10, 1973

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  20. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: May 12 - June 12, 1977

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  1. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: May 14 - June 12, 1974

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  2. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 10 - June 13, 1984

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  3. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 7 - June 9, 1989

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  4. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 15 - June 12, 1979

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  5. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 14 - June 8, 1980

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  6. Yukon Delta Alaska: Helicopter/fixed wing comparative waterfowl breeding population survey: Progress report II: July 1990

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Yukon Delta, Alaska during 1990. The study area, methods, a comparison of the...

  7. Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores

    Rafael Piovezan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers as larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores. Este estudo investiga a distribuição espacial da fauna urbana e de Culicidae e informa o monitoramento entomológico de espécies que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval. Coletas de larvas de mosquitos foram realizadas no município paulista de Santa Bárbara d' Oeste entre os anos de 2004 e 2006, durante visitas casa-a-casa. Um total de 1.891 amostras foi considerado, com nove espécies diferentes coletadas. A distribuição das espécies foi avaliada através do método de krigagem estatística extrapolando as divisões administrativas do município. O método de coleta adotado no presente estudo está de acordo com os métodos sugeridos aos serviços de saúde municipais pelo Ministério da Saúde e pode, portanto, ser adotado pelas autoridades públicas de saúde no controle da doença e delimitação das áreas de risco. Além disso, este tipo de levantamento e análise pode ser empregado como vigilância entomológica de espécies de mosquitos vetores que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval em áreas urbanas.

  8. Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water level of Lake Victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. This study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors. Methods The recent and past shorelines were estimated using landmarks and a satellite image. The locations of breeding habitats were recorded using a GPS unit during the high and low lake water periods. GIS was used to determine whether the breeding habitats were located on newly emerged land between the new and old shorelines. Results Over half of the breeding habitats existed on newly emerged land. Fewer habitats for the Anopheles gambiae complex were found during the low water level period compared to the high water period. However, more habitats for Anopheles funestus were found during the high water level period, and they were all located on the newly emerged land. Conclusion The recent reduction in water level of Lake Victoria has increased the amount of available habitat for A. funestus. The results suggest that the water drop has substantially affected the population of this malaria vector in the Lake Victoria basin, particularly because the lake has a long shoreline that may harbour many new breeding habitats.

  9. EFFECTS OF MOSQUITO REPELLENTS ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS

    Venkatesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito bite transmits diseases like Malaria, Filaria, Dengue etc. and usage of repellents is very common and has been in use for a long time. The smoke contains Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons, Aldehydes and Ketones. Review of literature has shown ill effects of this smoke. Hence we intended to study the effect of mosquito repellents on lung functions. This study would be important to create awareness regarding usage of mosquito repellent and to adapt to non-harmful methods of preventing mosquito bites. PFT parameters FVC, FEV1, FEV1/ FVC %, FEF 25-75 and PEFR were recorded in mosquito coil users, liquidator’s users and controls that used neither. It was found that FVC and FEV1 were significantly less in coil and liquidators users compared to controls (P < 0.05. Also it was found that in both coil users and liquidator users FVC, FEV1, FEF 25 -75 and PEFR and showed progressive decline with increased duration of usage (P < 0.05. Hence it was concluded that mosquito coils and liquidators can cause progressive decline in lung functions. Alternative methods to combat mosquito menace, like personal and environmental hygiene and non-chemical methods of protection are therefore recommended.

  10. Immunology and treatment of mosquito bites.

    Reunala, T; Brummer-Korvenkontio, H; Lappalainen, P; Räsänen, L; Palosuo, T

    1990-11-01

    Cutaneous reactions to mosquito bites are usually pruritic weals and delayed papules. Arthus-type local and systemic symptoms can also occur but anaphylactic reactions are very rare. Both clinical and experimental evidence suggest that the various bite reactions result from sensitization to the mosquito saliva injected into the skin during feeding. Recent immunoblot studies have shown both IgG- and IgE-class anti-mosquito antibodies, but their species-specificity and clinical importance is at present unknown. In addition to an Arthus-type mechanism, both cutaneous late-phase reactivity and cell-mediated immunity may be involved in the pathophysiology of delayed mosquito-bite lesions. Cutaneous sensitization to mosquito bites can be divided into five different stages ranging from the stages of immediate wealing and delayed bite papules, to the stage of non-reactivity. No desensitization treatment is generally available for mosquito allergy but it has recently been shown that cetirizine, a potent non-sedating antihistamine, is effective against the wealing and pruritus caused by mosquito bites. PMID:1980855

  11. A malaria transmission-directed model of mosquito life cycle and ecology

    Eckhoff Philip A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health issue in much of the world, and the mosquito vectors which drive transmission are key targets for interventions. Mathematical models for planning malaria eradication benefit from detailed representations of local mosquito populations, their natural dynamics and their response to campaign pressures. Methods A new model is presented for mosquito population dynamics, effects of weather, and impacts of multiple simultaneous interventions. This model is then embedded in a large-scale individual-based simulation and results for local elimination of malaria are discussed. Mosquito population behaviours, such as anthropophily and indoor feeding, are included to study their effect upon the efficacy of vector control-based elimination campaigns. Results Results for vector control tools, such as bed nets, indoor spraying, larval control and space spraying, both alone and in combination, are displayed for a single-location simulation with vector species and seasonality characteristic of central Tanzania, varying baseline transmission intensity and vector bionomics. The sensitivities to habitat type, anthropophily, indoor feeding, and baseline transmission intensity are explored. Conclusions The ability to model a spectrum of local vector species with different ecologies and behaviours allows local customization of packages of interventions and exploration of the effect of proposed new tools.

  12. THE MINAB DAM AND ITS POSSIBLE HAZARDS IN INCREASING MOSQUITO TRANSMITTED DISEASES

    M.Zaim

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available A one year faunistic study was carried out in Minab area, starting January 1982, to investigate the possible hazards of the newly constructed Minab Dam in increasing the mosquito transmitted diseases. In view of this, a baseline data was gathered by sampling 4th instar mosquito larvae from different kinds of breeding sites, present in Minab area as well as the 4 districts surrounding it. In this program total of 4000 mosquito larvae, from 164 breeding sites, representing 17 species in 4 genera, were collected. Among these species, there were not only those which are of great nuisance due to their biting activity but as well as species which are of great medical and veterinary importance due to their ability to transmit pathogens. The presence of important malaria vector such as Anopheles stephensi, An. dthali, An.superpictus An. Fluviatilis in this area where malaria is still the major public health problem, is of great importance. Also presence of species such as Culex univittatus, Cx. bitaenior hynchus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Aedes caspius can have great consequences due to their role in transmitting arboviriuses present in the area or those brought in by migrating birds, flying from Africa. As a result, any kind of change in species composition, population density, spatial distribution, and mosquito behavior taking place due to the construction and utilization of the Minab Dam can have a major health impact on the human population living in that area and only well planned studies, preferably started before utilization of the Dam, would prevent the possible health hazards associated with it.

  13. Influence of breeding site availability on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes aegypti

    Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in the transmission of arboviruses, such as yellow fever, Chikungunya fever and dengue fever, some aspects of their behaviour remain unknown. In the present study, the oviposition behaviour of Ae. aegypti females that were exposed to different densities of breeding sites (2, 4, 8 and 16 was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field conditions. The number of breeding sites that were used was proportional to the number available, but tended towards stabilisation. Females used four-six breeding sites on average, with a maximum of 11. A high percentage of eggs was observed in the water, along with the presence of a breeding site termed “favourite”, which received at least 40% of the eggs. The results are discussed in ecological, evolutionary and epidemiological approaches.

  14. Influence of breeding site availability on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes aegypti.

    Abreu, Filipe Vieira Santos de; Morais, Maira Moreira; Ribeiro, Sérvio Pontes; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2015-08-01

    Despite the importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in the transmission of arboviruses, such as yellow fever, Chikungunya fever and dengue fever, some aspects of their behaviour remain unknown. In the present study, the oviposition behaviour of Ae. aegypti females that were exposed to different densities of breeding sites (2, 4, 8 and 16) was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field conditions. The number of breeding sites that were used was proportional to the number available, but tended towards stabilisation. Females used four-six breeding sites on average, with a maximum of 11. A high percentage of eggs was observed in the water, along with the presence of a breeding site termed "favourite", which received at least 40% of the eggs. The results are discussed in ecological, evolutionary and epidemiological approaches. PMID:26154742

  15. Rodent malaria-resistant strains of the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, have slower population growth than -susceptible strains

    Taylor Pam J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trade-offs between anti-parasite defence mechanisms and other life history traits limit the evolution of host resistance to parasites and have important implications for understanding diseases such as malaria. Mosquitoes have not evolved complete resistance to malaria parasites and one hypothesis is that anti-malaria defence mechanisms are costly. Results We used matrix population models to compare the population growth rates among lines of Anopheles gambiae that had been selected for resistance or high susceptibility to the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. The population growth rate of the resistant line was significantly lower than that of the highly susceptible and the unselected control lines, regardless of whether mosquitoes were infected with Plasmodium or not. The lower population growth of malaria-resistant mosquitoes was caused by reduced post blood-feeding survival of females and poor egg hatching. Conclusion With respect to eradicating malaria, the strategy of releasing Plasmodium-resistant Anopheles mosquitoes is unlikely to be successful if the costs of Plasmodium-resistance in the field are as great as the ones measured in this study. High densities of malaria-resistant mosquitoes would have to be maintained by continuous release from captive breeding facilities.

  16. Inhibition of malaria parasite development in mosquitoes by anti-mosquito-midgut antibodies.

    Lal, A A; Schriefer, M E; Sacci, J B; Goldman, I F; Louis-Wileman, V; Collins, W E; Azad, A F

    1994-01-01

    The mosquito midgut plays a central role in the development and subsequent transmission of malaria parasites. Using a rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, and the mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi, we investigated the effect of anti-mosquito-midgut antibodies on the development of malaria parasites in the mosquito. In agreement with previous studies, we found that mosquitoes that ingested antimidgut antibodies along with infectious parasites had significantly fewer oocysts than mosquitoes in the control group. We also found that the antimidgut antibodies inhibit the development and/or translocation of the sporozoites. Together, these observations open an avenue for research toward the development of a vector-based malaria parasite transmission-blocking vaccine. PMID:8262645

  17. Influence of climate change on mosquito development and mosquito-borne diseases in Europe.

    Becker, Norbert

    2008-12-01

    Mass occurrence of mosquitoes can have an immense impact on the quality of life in areas such as the Upper Rhine Valley. Therefore, biological and environmental measures are applied to prevent mass development in many regions of Europe. Despite successful prevention measures, the risk of contracting mosquito-borne viral diseases, such as West Nile fever, should be discounted in Central Europe. The transport of mosquitoes (e.g., through tire trade or within containers) into Germany has to be prevented. Individuals (tourists and immigrants) infected with imported vector-borne pathogens and parasites must be diagnosed and treated immediately. Mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases know no borders, and their spread is also a consequence of high mobility and globalization. Therefore, mosquito control requires international cooperation. People's increased mobility and international trade play a more important role in the dissemination of the vectors and their pathogens/parasites than increasing temperatures. PMID:19030883

  18. Can mosquitoes fly in the rain?

    Dickerson, Andrew; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

    2011-01-01

    Collisions with raindrops are one of many obstacles insects face during flight. In this fluid dynamics video, we present a series of high-speed films of impacts between mosquitoes and raindrops. We also present drop impacts upon insect mimics, which are unsupported styrofoam balls of the same mass as mosquitoes. High-speed videography and particle tracking during collision are employed to determine the insect position versus time. We determine the magnitude of acceleration by considering the momentum transfer and impact duration. Experiments with live mosquitoes indicate a surprising ability to quickly recover flight post-collision, despite accelerations of 30-300 gravities over durations of 1 ms.

  19. The microbiome modulates arbovirus transmission in mosquitoes.

    Hegde, Shivanand; Rasgon, Jason L; Hughes, Grant L

    2015-12-01

    Mosquito-transmitted arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as dengue virus, chikungunya virus, and West Nile virus constitute a major public health burden and are increasing in severity and frequency worldwide. The microbiota associated with mosquitoes (comprised of viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa) can profoundly influence many host phenotypes including vector competence, which can either be enhanced or suppressed. Thus, the tripartite interactions between the mosquito vector, its microbiota and the pathogens they transmit offer novel possibilities to control arthropod-borne diseases. PMID:26363996

  20. The Impact of Transgenic Mosquitoes on Dengue Virulence to Humans and Mosquitoes

    Medlock, Jan; Luz, Paula M; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is a major public health concern in the tropics and subtropics. Innovative transgenic strategies to render Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the primary vector of dengue, incompetent for dengue transmission are under development. We modeled the evolutionary impact of different transgenic mosquito strategies on dengue-induced mortality, that is, dengue virulence, to both humans and mosquitoes. This model incorporates various evolutionary trade-offs in dengue virus epidemiological traits, for ex...

  1. The Effects of Larval Habitat Quality on Aedes albopictus Skip Oviposition.

    Davis, Timothy J; Kaufman, Phillip E; Hogsette, Jerome A; Kline, Daniel L

    2015-12-01

    Aedes albopictus is an invasive mosquito species that transmits human-disease-causing pathogens. It is a container-inhabiting species that oviposits in resource-limited habitats. To mitigate larval competition, Ae. albopictus females may choose to distribute eggs from a single gonotrophic cycle among multiple containers through skip oviposition. With the use of individual females released in indoor and outdoor caged trials, we evaluated the oviposition choices made by gravid Ae. albopictus offered larval habitats with different qualities. Our results demonstrate that Ae. albopictus performs skip oviposition and that the degree of egg distribution is related to the quality of the larval habitat. In a 4-choice arena, individual Ae. albopictus oviposited in fewer containers when presented with ovisites of high-quality larval habitat (uncrowded conditions) compared with oviposition in low-quality (crowded conditions) larval habitats. Additionally, the females selectively oviposited in high-quality habitats when offered both low- and high-quality habitats, but distributed eggs more evenly among multiple high-quality habitats. Our results have important implications for mosquito management plans that include the use of lethal ovitraps, as well as the role of this behavior in distribution of disease-causing pathogens. PMID:26675453

  2. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  3. Efficacy of Mosquito Traps for Collecting Potential West Nile Mosquito Vectors in a Natural Mediterranean Wetland

    Roiz, D.; Roussel, M.; Munoz, J.; Ruiz, S.; SORIGUER, R; Figuerola, J.

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance, research, and control of mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile virus require efficient methods for sampling mosquitoes. We compared the efficacy of BG-Sentinel and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-CO2 traps in terms of the abundances of host-seeking and blood-fed female mosquitoes and the origin of mosquito bloodmeals. Our results indicate that BG-Sentinel traps that use CO2 and attractants are as effective as CDC-CO2 traps for Cule...

  4. Identification of Essential Containers for Aedes Larval Breeding to Control Dengue in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Ferdousi, Farhana; Yoshimatsu, Shoji; Ma, Enbo; Sohel, Nazmul; Wagatsuma, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF), one of the most important emerging arboviral diseases, is transmitted through the bite of container breeding mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A household entomological survey was conducted in Dhaka from August through October 2000 to inspect water-holding containers in indoor, outdoor, and rooftop locations for Aedes larvae. The objective of this study was to determine mosquito productivity of each container type and to identify some risk factors of households infested with Aedes larvae. Of 9,222 households inspected, 1,306 (14.2%) were positive for Aedes larvae. Of 38,777 wet containers examined, 2,272 (5.8%) were infested with Aedes larvae. Containers used to hold water, such as earthen jars, tanks, and drums were the most common containers for larval breeding. Tires in outdoor and rooftop locations of the households were also important for larval breeding. Although present in abundance, buckets were of less importance. Factors such as independent household, presence of a water storage system in the house, and fully/partly shaded outdoors were found to be significantly associated with household infestation of Aedes larvae. Identification and subsequent elimination of the most productive containers in a given area may potentially reduce mosquito density to below a level at which dengue transmission may be halted. PMID:26865829

  5. Identification of Essential Containers for Aedes Larval Breeding to Control Dengue in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Ferdousi, Farhana; Yoshimatsu, Shoji; Ma, Enbo; Sohel, Nazmul; Wagatsuma, Yukiko

    2015-12-01

    Dengue fever (DF), one of the most important emerging arboviral diseases, is transmitted through the bite of container breeding mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A household entomological survey was conducted in Dhaka from August through October 2000 to inspect water-holding containers in indoor, outdoor, and rooftop locations for Aedes larvae. The objective of this study was to determine mosquito productivity of each container type and to identify some risk factors of households infested with Aedes larvae. Of 9,222 households inspected, 1,306 (14.2%) were positive for Aedes larvae. Of 38,777 wet containers examined, 2,272 (5.8%) were infested with Aedes larvae. Containers used to hold water, such as earthen jars, tanks, and drums were the most common containers for larval breeding. Tires in outdoor and rooftop locations of the households were also important for larval breeding. Although present in abundance, buckets were of less importance. Factors such as independent household, presence of a water storage system in the house, and fully/partly shaded outdoors were found to be significantly associated with household infestation of Aedes larvae. Identification and subsequent elimination of the most productive containers in a given area may potentially reduce mosquito density to below a level at which dengue transmission may be halted. PMID:26865829

  6. Risk and Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Southeast Asian Rubber Plantations.

    Tangena, Julie-Anne A; Thammavong, Phoutmany; Wilson, Anne L; Brey, Paul T; Lindsay, Steve W

    2016-05-01

    Unprecedented economic growth in Southeast Asia (SEA) has encouraged the expansion of rubber plantations. This land-use transformation is changing the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. Mature plantations provide ideal habitats for the mosquito vectors of malaria, dengue, and chikungunya. Migrant workers may introduce pathogens into plantation areas, most worryingly artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites. The close proximity of rubber plantations to natural forest also increases the threat from zoonoses, where new vector-borne pathogens spill over from wild animals into humans. There is therefore an urgent need to scale up vector control and access to health care for rubber workers. This requires an intersectoral approach with strong collaboration between the health sector, rubber industry, and local communities. PMID:26907494

  7. Asymptomatic humans transmit dengue virus to mosquitoes

    Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable sy...

  8. Aedes Mosquito Species in Western Saudi Arabia

    Alikhan, Masroor; Ghamdi, Khalid Al; Mahyoub, Jazem Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The Aedes Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito species populations in the western region of Saudi Arabia, especially in and around Jeddah, are increasing, therefore increasing susceptibility of humans to the dengue virus. An extensive survey was carried out for one year, and four species were identified with the help of different pictorial keys available. The identification was based on morphological characteristics of adult female Aedes mosquitoes.

  9. Mosquito immune responses to arbovirus infections

    Carol D. Blair; Olson, Ken E

    2014-01-01

    The principal mosquito innate immune response to virus infections, RNA interference (RNAi), differs substantially from the immune response to bacterial and fungal infections. The exo-siRNA pathway constitutes the major anti-arboviral RNAi response and its essential genetic components have been identified. Recent research has also implicated the Piwi-interacting RNA pathway in mosquito anti-arboviral immunity, but Piwi gene-family components involved are not well-defined. Arboviruses must evad...

  10. MODELING AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES

    LORD, CYNTHIA C.

    2007-01-01

    Models can be useful at many different levels when considering complex issues such as biological control of mosquitoes. At an early stage, exploratory models are valuable in exploring the characteristics of an ideal biological control agent and for guidance in data collection. When more data are available, models can be used to explore alternative control strategies and the likelihood of success. There are few modeling studies that explicitly consider biological control in mosquitoes; however...

  11. Forkhead transcription factors regulate mosquito reproduction

    Hansen, Immo A; Sieglaff, Douglas H.; Munro, James B; Shiao, Shin-Hong; Cruz, Josefa; Lee, Iris W.; Heraty, John M.; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2007-01-01

    Forkhead box (Fox) genes encode a family of transcription factors defined by a ‘winged helix’ DNA-binding domain. In this study we aimed to identify Fox factors that are expressed within the fat body of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, and determine whether any of these are involved in the regulation of mosquito yolk protein gene expression. The Ae. aegypti genome contains eighteen loci that encode putative Fox factors. Our stringent cladistic analysis has profound implications for th...

  12. A novel video-tracking system to quantify the behaviour of nocturnal mosquitoes attacking human hosts in the field

    Abe, M.; Mashauri, F.; Martine, J.

    2016-01-01

    Many vectors of malaria and other infections spend most of their adult life within human homes, the environment where they bloodfeed and rest, and where control has been most successful. Yet, knowledge of peri-domestic mosquito behaviour is limited, particularly how mosquitoes find and attack human hosts or how insecticides impact on behaviour. This is partly because technology for tracking mosquitoes in their natural habitats, traditional dwellings in disease-endemic countries, has never been available. We describe a sensing device that enables observation and recording of nocturnal mosquitoes attacking humans with or without a bed net, in the laboratory and in rural Africa. The device addresses requirements for sub-millimetre resolution over a 2.0 × 1.2 × 2.0 m volume while using minimum irradiance. Data processing strategies to extract individual mosquito trajectories and algorithms to describe behaviour during host/net interactions are introduced. Results from UK laboratory and Tanzanian field tests showed that Culex quinquefasciatus activity was higher and focused on the bed net roof when a human host was present, in colonized and wild populations. Both C. quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae exhibited similar behavioural modes, with average flight velocities varying by less than 10%. The system offers considerable potential for investigations in vector biology and many other fields. PMID:27075002

  13. Breeding Cold Hardy Begonias

    Hardy begonia cultivars have potential as a new crop for Southern nurseries. Current begonia breeding efforts are focused on sections Begonia and Pritzelia. Diverse begonia germplasm has been collected to study fertility and hardiness.To date cold hardy germplasm which has produced viable seeds inc...

  14. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  15. Rana iberica (Boulenger, 1879) goes underground: subterranean habitat usage and new insights on natural history

    Gonçalo Rosa; Andreia Penado

    2013-01-01

    Reports of amphibians exploiting subterranean habitats are common, with salamanders being the most frequent and studied inhabitants. Anurans can occasionally be observed in caves and other subterranean habitats, but in contrast to salamanders, breeding had never been reported in a cave or similar subterranean habitat in Western Europe. Based on observations during visits to a drainage gallery in Serra da Estrela, Portugal, from May 2010 to December 2012, here we document: (i) first report of ...

  16. Repelentes electrónicos contra mosquitos: propaganda y realidad

    Frank Coro

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica acerca del uso de dispositivos electroacústicos con supuesta acción repelente sobre las hembras de diferentes especies de mosquitos hematófagos. Se dan 15 referencias directas y 2 indirectas, en todas se concluye que estos dispositivos no protegen a quienes los portan de las picadas de los mosquitos. Se dan los nombres de 9 de los dispositivos probados, así como de 16 de las principales especies de mosquitos presentes en las pruebas de campo. Estas pruebas de campo se han realizado en condiciones ecológicas muy diferentes, que van desde alaska hasta el África Ecuatorial. También se menciona el efecto potencialmente dañino al hombre de los dispositivos que emiten frecuencias a alta intensidad.A bibliographic review about the use of electroacustic devices with a supposed repellent action on the females of different species of hematophagous mosquitoes is presented. 15 direct references and 2 indirect ones are given, in which it is concluded that these devices do not protect those who have them from the stings of mosquitoes. The names of 9 of the tested devices as well as of 16 of the main species of mosquitoes present in the field tests are mentioned. These tests have been carried out in very different ecological conditions from Alaska to Equatorial Africa. It is also stressed that the high intensity ultrasonic frequencies emitted by these devices produces a potentially harmful effect on man.

  17. Chikungunya virus and its mosquito vectors.

    Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus of increasing public health significance, has caused large epidemics in Africa and the Indian Ocean basin; now it is spreading throughout the Americas. The primary vectors of CHIKV are Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and, after the introduction of a mutation in the E1 envelope protein gene, the highly anthropophilic and geographically widespread Ae. albopictus mosquito. We review here research efforts to characterize the viral genetic basis of mosquito-vector interactions, the use of RNA interference and other strategies for the control of CHIKV in mosquitoes, and the potentiation of CHIKV infection by mosquito saliva. Over the past decade, CHIKV has emerged on a truly global scale. Since 2013, CHIKV transmission has been reported throughout the Caribbean region, in North America, and in Central and South American countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, and Venezuela. Closing the gaps in our knowledge of driving factors behind the rapid geographic expansion of CHIKV should be considered a research priority. The abundance of multiple primate species in many of these countries, together with species of mosquito that have never been exposed to CHIKV, may provide opportunities for this highly adaptable virus to establish sylvatic cycles that to date have not been seen outside of Africa. The short-term and long-term ecological consequences of such transmission cycles, including the impact on wildlife and people living in these areas, are completely unknown. PMID:25674945

  18. Mosquitoes collected on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (Diptera : Culicidae)

    Noda, Shinichi; ノダ, シンイチ; 野田, 伸一

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito larval surveys were carried out on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island in August 2011. Larvae were collected from 133 natural and artificial habitats. A total of 1,761 larvae belonging to nine species including one unidentified species were collected. On Weno Island, eight species, Aedes hensilli, Ae. albopictus, Ae. lamelliferus, Aedes sp., Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. carolinensis, Cx. annulirostris and Lutzia vorax, were collected. On Romonum Island,  four sp...

  19. California Condor Critical Habitat

    California Department of Resources — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  20. EcologicHabitat_WCV

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — WCV describes the value of the Wildlife Habitat Suitability as it approaches the state highway system. This analysis was designed to use the Wildlife Habitat...

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  2. The Potential Use of Wolbachia-Based Mosquito Biocontrol Strategies for Japanese Encephalitis.

    Jeffries, Claire L; Walker, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic pathogen transmitted by the infectious bite of Culex mosquitoes. The virus causes the development of the disease Japanese encephalitis (JE) in a small proportion of those infected, predominantly affecting children in eastern and southern Asia. Annual JE incidence estimates range from 50,000-175,000, with 25%-30% of cases resulting in mortality. It is estimated that 3 billion people live in countries in which JEV is endemic. The virus exists in an enzootic transmission cycle, with mosquitoes transmitting JEV between birds as reservoir hosts and pigs as amplifying hosts. Zoonotic infection occurs as a result of spillover events from the main transmission cycle. The reservoir avian hosts include cattle egrets, pond herons, and other species of water birds belonging to the family Ardeidae. Irrigated rice fields provide an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes and attract migratory birds, maintaining the transmission of JEV. Although multiple vaccines have been developed for JEV, they are expensive and require multiple doses to maintain efficacy and immunity. As humans are a "dead-end" host for the virus, vaccination of the human population is unlikely to result in eradication. Therefore, vector control of the principal mosquito vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, represents a more promising strategy for reducing transmission. Current vector control strategies include intermittent irrigation of rice fields and space spraying of insecticides during outbreaks. However, Cx. Tritaeniorhynchus is subject to heavy exposure to pesticides in rice fields, and as a result, insecticide resistance has developed. In recent years, significant advancements have been made in the potential use of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia for mosquito biocontrol. The successful transinfection of Wolbachia strains from Drosophila flies to Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes has resulted in the generation of "dengue-refractory" mosquito lines. The successful establishment of Wolbachia in wild Aedes aegypti populations has recently been demonstrated, and open releases in dengue-endemic countries are ongoing. This review outlines the current control methods for JEV in addition to highlighting the potential use of Wolbachia-based biocontrol strategies to impact transmission. JEV and dengue virus are both members of the Flavivirus genus, and the successful establishment of Drosophila Wolbachia strains in Cx. Tritaeniorhynchus, as the principal vector of JEV, is predicted to significantly impact JEV transmission. PMID:26086337

  3. Cubiertas de auto abandonadas como sitios de cría de Culex eduardoi (Diptera: Culicidae en el Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola, Provincia de Buenos Aires Discarded car tires as breeding sites of Culex eduardoi (Diptera: Culicidae in the Pereyra Iraola Provincial Park, Buenos Aires Province

    Alejandra Rubio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento sobre la fauna de mosquitos que se cría en cubiertas de auto es realmente escaso en Argentina. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar una población de inmaduros de Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia en una acumulación de cubiertas abandonadas en un bosque suburbano de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Entre noviembre 2009 y mayo 2010, se recolectaron mensualmente larvas de mosquitos en 27 cubiertas de auto abandonadas en un sector boscoso del Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola. Se recolectaron en total 1.009 larvas del tercer y cuarto estadio de Cx. eduardoi, y el índice de contenedores (IC global fue 66,3% (106/160. Culex eduardoi estuvo presente durante todos los meses, aunque el IC difirió significativamente (x²(6 = 15,11; p The knowledge about tire-breeding mosquitoes is truly scarce in Argentina. The objective of this study was to characterize a population of immatures of Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia, from a pile of abandoned tires located in a suburban forest of Buenos Aires Province. Between November 2009 and May 2010, mosquito larvae were monthly collected in 27 abandoned tires within a woody area of the Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola. A total of 1009 third and fourth instar larvae of Cx. eduardoi were collected, and the overall container index (CI was 66.3% (106/160. Culex eduardoi was collected every month but the CI differed significantly (x²(6 = 15.11; p < 0.05, reaching maximum values in November and December (76 and 92.5% respectively. In spring, the relative abundance of larvae was also the highest, and the mean number of larvae collected per habitat was 9.5 (min. 3.5 in March; max.15.1 in November. Other mosquito species such as Cx. pipiens Linneo and Toxorhynchites theobaldi Dyar & Knab were also found in the studied containers. The present findings contribute with novel knowledge on culicids of tires in Argentina.

  4. Why are anopheline mosquitoes not present in the Seychelles?

    Goodman Steven M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of anopheline mosquitoes are largely distributed over emerged lands around the world and, within the tropics, few areas are without these insects, which are vectors of malaria parasites. Among the exceptions is the Seychelles archipelago in the western Indian Ocean. However, in the Aldabra island group, located in the extreme western portion of the archipelago, Anopheles gambiae s.l. was introduced, leading to massive proliferation and then elimination, with the most recent autochthonous malaria cases recorded in 1931. Methods In order to re-examine the absence of anopheline mosquitoes in the Seychelles, an entomological field survey was conducted in December 2008 at 17 sites on four granitic islands, including Mahé and Praslin, and ten sites on coralline atolls in the extreme west, including Aldabra. Results No evidence of larval or adult anophelines was found at the surveyed sites, which supports their absence in the Seychelles. Conclusions In the granitic islands of the Seychelles, the climate is favourable for anophelines. However, these islands are protected by their remoteness and prevailing seasonal winds. In addition, stagnant freshwater, required in anopheline larval development, is relatively uncommon on the granitic islands because of the steep slopes. In the southwestern atolls (Aldabra and Providence-Farquhar groups, the presence of a long dry season of up to nine months and the total absence of permanent natural freshwater prevents the breeding of anophelines and their successful colonization. The Seychelles does not have any native land mammals and like in other parts of the world (Antarctica, Iceland, New Caledonia, Central Pacific islands their absence is associated with the lack of anophelines. This suggests an obligatory relationship for anophelines to feed on terrestrial mammals, without alternative for blood-feeding sources, such as bats, birds and reptiles.

  5. Biodiversity: Habitat Suitability

    Habitat suitability quantifies the relationship between species and habitat, and is evaluated according to the species’ fitness (i.e. proportion of birth rate to death rate). Even though it might maximize evolutionary success, species are not always in habitat that optimizes fit...

  6. Habitat fragmentation and reproductive success: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Le Tortorec, Eric; Helle, Samuli; Käyhkö, Niina; Suorsa, Petri; Huhta, Esa; Hakkarainen, Harri

    2013-09-01

    1. There is great interest on the effects of habitat fragmentation, whereby habitat is lost and the spatial configuration of remaining habitat patches is altered, on individual breeding performance. However, we still lack consensus of how this important process affects reproductive success, and whether its effects are mainly due to reduced fecundity or nestling survival. 2. The main reason for this may be the way that habitat fragmentation has been previously modelled. Studies have treated habitat loss and altered spatial configuration as two independent processes instead of as one hierarchical and interdependent process, and therefore have not been able to consider the relative direct and indirect effects of habitat loss and altered spatial configuration. 3. We investigated how habitat (i.e. old forest) fragmentation, caused by intense forest harvesting at the territory and landscape scales, is associated with the number of fledged offspring of an area-sensitive passerine, the Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris). We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine the complex hierarchical associations between habitat loss and altered spatial configuration on the number of fledged offspring, by controlling for individual condition and weather conditions during incubation. 4. Against generally held expectations, treecreeper reproductive success did not show a significant association with habitat fragmentation measured at the territory scale. Instead, our analyses suggested that an increasing amount of habitat at the landscape scale caused a significant increase in nest predation rates, leading to reduced reproductive success. This effect operated directly on nest predation rates, instead of acting indirectly through altered spatial configuration. 5. Because habitat amount and configuration are inherently strongly collinear, particularly when multiple scales are considered, our study demonstrates the usefulness of a SEM approach for hierarchical partitioning of habitat amount vs. habitat configuration in landscape ecology that may have bearing on biological conclusions. PMID:23550698

  7. Cutaneous reactivity to mosquito bites: effect of cetirizine and development of anti-mosquito antibodies.

    Reunala, T; Lappalainen, P; Brummer-Korvenkontio, H; Coulie, P; Palosuo, T

    1991-09-01

    Cutaneous reactivity to mosquito bites was examined in 27 adult volunteers exposed to Aedes communis mosquitoes. Twenty-three subjects showed a combination of immediate wealing and delayed bite-papules, two subjects each experienced only immediate or delayed cutaneous reactions and two were non-responsive to the bites. The mean size of wealing and the mean score of pruritus was similar in 19 non-atopic and in eight atopic volunteers. These results confirm that normal subjects exhibit different stages of sensitization to mosquito bites. At the onset of the mosquito season, immunoblotting showed that four of 21 subjects (19%) had IgG-class antibodies to a recently described 21.5 kD Aedes communis mosquito antigen. After a 10-day exposure to a mean of 47 mosquito bites, these antibodies were found in 10 subjects (48%) who exhibited both strong and weak cutaneous bite-lesions. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study with cetirizine 10 mg was performed to examine the effect of this non-sedating antihistamine on mosquito bites. The bite lesions were measured and pruritus scored at 15 min, 60 min, 12 hr, and 24 hr. Cetirizine decreased significantly immediate wealing and pruritus (P less than 0.01), but had no effect on the delayed symptoms. This result supports the view that immediate mosquito-bite reactions are histamine-mediated. PMID:1683811

  8. Rice breeding problems in Korea

    This paper deals with general rice production in Korea and the problems encountered. The history of rice growing and breeding in Korea is outlined and a description of recent advances in rice breeding is given, including a discussion of some uses of radiation treatments in the breeding programme during the last few years. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Nesting ecology and habitat requirements of geese at Kokechik Bay, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska: Annual report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper summarizes the results of the third of a fiveyear study on the breeding biology and habitat requirements of geese nesting at Kokechik Bay, Alaska. Data...

  10. Using the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI within a Geographic Information System to Detect Swimming Pools for Mosquito Abatement: A Practical Approach

    Stuart K. McFeeters

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases affect millions of people worldwide. In the United States, since 1999, West Nile Virus (WNV has infected 36,801 people and has caused the deaths of 1,580. In California, since 2002, nearly 3,600 people have been infected with WNV with an additional 124 fatalities. Analyses of remotely- and spatially-based data have proven to facilitate the study of mosquito-borne diseases, including WNV. This study proposes an efficient procedure to identify swimming pools that may serve as potential mosquito habitat. The procedure derives the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI from high resolution, multi-spectral imagery to detect the presence of surface water, and then incorporates vector-based data layers within a GIS to identify residential land parcels with detectable water. This study compared the parcels identified as having water (535 with parcels known to have swimming pools (682 resulting in an accuracy of 78.4%. Nineteen of the 147 land parcels with swimming pools had backyards with enough vegetation to obscure the presence of a swimming pool from the satellite. The remaining 128 parcels lacked enough surface water for the NDWI to indicate them as actually having surface water. It is likely then that swimming pools, associated with such parcels, may have enough water in them to provide adequate habitat for mosquitoes, and so field inspection by mosquito abatement personnel would be justified.

  11. How much habitat management is needed to meet mallard production objectives?

    Cowardin, L.M.; Shaffer, T.L.; Kraft, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    We used results from simulation models to demonstrate the benefit-cost ratios of habitat management to increase the number of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) recruits produced. The models were applied to hypothetical 2-habitat landscapes comprised of managed and unmanaged habitat. Managed habitats were predator barrier fencing and CRP cover; unmanaged habitat was grassland. As the amount of managed cover increased, the production curve rose rapidly and leveled off. If 2 managed habitats are added to a landscape, the cover can compete for available nesting hens, thus negating the benefits of 1 of the covers. After converting benefits and costs to dollars, we determined the point at which maximum net benefit occurs. We present an equation that can be used to determine the maximum net benefit of a management treatment given the size of the breeding population and the values of costs and benefits. Our examples demonstrate that, on local areas, it is inefficient to spend money for habitat management once maximum net benefit has been attained. If desired production can not be attained efficiently on an area, the manager can invest effort on alternative areas with greater management potential. If recruitment is inadequate to maintain a stable population, managers should manage to increase recruitment before attempting to attract additional breeding pairs. If recruitment more than maintains the breeding population, managers should attempt to attract additional breeding pairs to the area.

  12. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  13. Breeding waterbirds in relation to artificial pond attributes: implications for the design of irrigation facilities.

    Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Anadón, J. D.; Carrete, Martina; Gimenez, A.; Navarro, A.(fotógrafo); Villacorta, Carlos; Botella, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    The growth of inter-basin water transfers and the development of new irrigation facilities in southeastern Spain are responsible for a variety of ecological impacts. In spite of this, the construction of artificial ponds to keep water for intensive agriculture may also provide new habitats for breeding waterbirds. We counted waterbirds during the breeding season in artificial ponds that had been built up using different materials and measured their abiotic and biotic attributes. We found that...

  14. The Neighbor Effect in Bachelor and Breeding Groups of Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)

    GRAND, ALISON P.; Leighty, Katherine A.; Cory, Linda J.; Maloney, Margaret A.; Phillips, Rebecca S.; Bettinger, Tamara L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral monitoring is an essential tool for understanding how animal management decisions, including exhibit design choices, impact animal behavior and welfare. The purpose of this study was to use behavioral monitoring techniques to determine the interaction between 2 groups (bachelor and breeding groups) of western lowland gorillas that are housed in separate habitats that partially face one another. We performed simultaneous, 30-minute group observations on the breeding and bachelor gro...

  15. Free housing for declining populations: optimizing the provision of arti?cial breeding structures

    D'amico, Marcello; Tablado, Zulima; Revilla, Eloy; Palomares, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of habitat quality and reproductive success through the implementation of artificial breeding structures is one of the most widespread in situ conservation strategies applied to the recovery of declining wildlife populations. Several past studies have monitored the use of artificial breeding structures in the wild, but virtually none of them have investigated which demographic and environmental factors actually determine their effectiveness in facilitating reproductive success...

  16. Observations on the breeding biology of the Seychelles Fody on Cousine Island

    Kraaijeveld, K.; Komdeur, J.; Dean, W.R.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Seychelles Fody, Foudia sechellarum, is a ploceid weaver occurring naturally on three islands in the Seychelles group in the Indian Ocean. The population on Cousine Island was studied between 30 June and 25 August 1997. The size of the population on the island was estimated at 458-614 individuals and densities varied in different habitat types. As Seychelles Fodies in non-breeding plumage are difficult to sex, we provide sexing criteria based on wing length. Breeding pairs form small, pro...

  17. Mutation breeding in peas

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  18. Assessing the sustainability of individual behavior change against mosquitoes after the outbreak of a vector-borne disease in Mauritius: a case study

    Smita Goorah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The island of Mauritius had not experienced any mosquito-borne diseases since the last malaria outbreak in the early 1980s. When the chikungunya fever epidemic affected the island in 2005-2006, the local population was unprepared against this mosquito-borne infection and officially 11, 000 people were affected. Authorities promptly set up public health campaigns and actively encouraged the public to take preventive actions against the mosquito vector. This study has been carried out to investigate whether the individual preventive interventions adopted to combat mosquitoes during the outbreak have been sustained two years following the outbreak in a specific rural locality. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Mauritius. Data was collected using a door-to-door household survey in a small rural locality of Mauritius in December 2008 and January 2009. One person per household was interviewed and the sample size was 172. Sustainability of individual preventive interventions was determined by assessing the preventive measures adopted by people against mosquitoes prior to, during, and two years following the outbreak. Elimination of mosquito breeding places was the most practiced preventive measure adopted by people in all outbreak periods as compared to preventive measures against mosquito bites within and outside the house. An increase in all individual preventive measures was observed during the outbreak followed by a slow decline two years following the outbreak. An important finding was that all post-outbreak preventive measures were sustained above the pre-outbreak levels, especially so in the case of source reduction interventions. Individual efforts in the inter-epidemic period are important to mitigate the spread of a mosquito-borne infection and it is encouraging to observe in this case study that although individual preventive measures decline with time after an outbreak they are still being sustained above the pre-outbreak levels.

  19. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary - 2007

    Durst, Scott L.; Sogge, Mark K.; Stump, Shay D.; Walker, Hira A.; Kus, Barbara E.; Sferra, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The Southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter references to willow flycatcher and flycatcher refer to E.t. extimus, except where specifically noted) is an endangered bird that breeds only in dense riparian habitats in parts of six Southwestern states (Arizona, New Mexico, southern California, extreme southern Nevada, southern Utah, and southwestern Colorado). Since 1993, hundreds of Southwestern willow flycatcher surveys have been conducted each year, and many new flycatcher breeding sites located. This document synthesizes the most current information available on all known Southwestern willow flycatcher breeding sites. This rangewide data synthesis was designed to meet two objectives: (1) identify all known Southwestern willow flycatcher breeding sites and (2) assemble data to estimate population size, location, habitat, and other information for all breeding sites, for as many years as possible, from 1993 through 2007. This report provides data summaries in terms of the number of flycatcher sites and the number of territories. When interpreting and using this information, it must be kept in mind that a 'site' is a geographic location where one or more willow flycatchers establishes a territory. Sites with unpaired territorial males are considered breeding sites, even if no nesting attempts were documented. A site is often a discrete patch of riparian habitat but may also be a cluster of riparian patches; there is no standardized definition for site, and its use varies within and among states. For example, five occupied habitat patches along a 10-km stretch of river might be considered five different sites in one state but only a single site in another state. This lack of standardization makes comparisons based on site numbers problematic. Researchers for this report generally deferred to statewide summary documents or to local managers and researchers when delineating a site for inclusion in the database. However, to avoid inflating the number of sites and to establish more consistent definitions of the term 'site', adjacent and nearby sites from statewide reports were sometimes considered as a single site for the purposes of the rangewide data summary. Any combining or splitting of sites at the rangewide level was done on a case-by-case basis. Because of differences in site definitions, one should not evaluate the relative importance of a geographic region (such as drainage, watershed, or state) simply according to the number of flycatcher sites. A 'territory' is an exclusive defended area within a breeding site. Although detailed monitoring studies have identified unpaired territorial males and polygynous males at some flycatcher breeding sites, for the purposes of this report a territory is equivalent to the exclusive breeding area of a pair of flycatchers. In general, the concept of territory is more similar among states and different investigators than site; thus, it is a more robust unit to use for summaries and comparisons. However, note that the definition of a polygynous territory is not consistent among states; a male polygynously paired with two females would be considered one territory in some states and two territories in other states. For each site, we referred to reports or spoke directly with researchers and managers to gather information such as management entity/agency, location (state, drainage, elevation), gross habitat type (native, exotic, or mixed; dominant tree species), and number of flycatcher territories. Synthesizing the information on more than 200 breeding sites is challenging because annual data-collection and survey-reporting requirements are not standardized rangewide, and the nature and degree of readily available information varies widely from state to state. This is particularly true for areas such as California, where there are many flycatcher sites but surveyors are not required to submit standardized flycatcher survey forms. The lack of c

  20. Development of management objectives for breeding birds in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Mueller, A.J.; Twedt, D.J.; Loesch, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    We used a six-step process to set habitat objectives and population goals for breeding birds in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Specifically, we used existing empirical studies and mathematically derived viable population estimates to define habitat objectives and population goals for bottomland hardwood forest, the most important habitat type in this physiographic area. Although habitat objectives must address both quality and quantity, we concentrate here on the size and number of forest patches in this highly fragmented landscape. To support source populations of all forest breeding birds we recommend the protection/restoration of 52 forest patches that are 4,000-8,000 ha in size, 36 patches of 8,000-40,000 ha, and 13 patches greater than 40,000 ha. Although every physiographic area is unique, the methodology applied here should be applicable in other situations.

  1. Induced immunity against the mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae): effects on mosquito survival and fecundity.

    Almeida, A P; Billingsley, P F

    1998-11-01

    Mice were immunised three to five times with extracts of Anopheles stephensi heads, midguts, ovaries or fat bodies. At each immunisation the effects of feeding An. stephensi on the mice was determined, and changes in mosquito longevity and fecundity examined as the immune response developed. Although variability was common between control cages, significant and consistent reductions in mosquito longevity were observed when midguts were used as immunogens. Other extracts caused transient reductions in mortality. Fecundity was reduced significantly in mosquitoes fed upon mice immunised with each extract in at least one experiment. Mosquitoes fed upon fat-body-immunised mice showed delayed egg-laying as well as overall reduction in fecundity. The results confirm the feasibility of targeting mosquito antigens for novel vaccine development, but the "shotgun" approach used probably fails to successfully hit a suitable target antigen with any consistency. The natural variation in mosquito mortality can be countered by rigorous statistical analysis which can identify subtle effects in a very "noisy" experimental system. The midgut is the obvious target organ for anti-mosquito vaccine development and future work will focus on targeting components of this tissue for further immunisations. PMID:9846609

  2. Avian Distribution and Habitat, Distribution of Bird Species in Rhode Island; s44nbs96; Breeding season species distribution of birds nesting in Rhode Island as documented in 1982-1987 delineated by kilometer grid cells areas., Published in 1996, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Avian Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1996. It is...

  3. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal g...

  4. The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

    Ryan C Smith; Joel Vega-Rodríguez; Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers tha...

  5. Host-Seeking Behavior and Arbovirus Detection in Mosquitoes of Habahe County, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China.

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zheng, Zhong; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Xing, Dan; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes in Habahe County of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region in China are considered a serious nuisance problem to local residents, but little is known of their role in enzootic disease. Therefore, host-seeking behavior and virus detection in mosquitoes were investigated in this study. Adult host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps operated at three locations in June through August 2008. Nine traps were used at each location at 3 different heights (1 m, 3 m, and 5 m). Seven mosquito species from 4 genera were collected by CDC light traps in different habitats. In total, 90,055 mosquitoes were captured, of which Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, comprising 88.02% of all mosquitoes collected. The second most abundant species was Anopheles messese, which comprised about 5.86%. Other species caught were Culex modestus (2.89%), Aedes caspius (1.11%), Coquillettidia richiardii (0.61%), Ae. dorsalis (1.36%), and An. hyrcanus (0.14%). About 93.5% of Ae. vexans individuals were caught in CO2-baited CDC light traps at 1 m above the ground. The highest numbers of Cx. modestus were caught at the highest trap level, 5 m above ground. Overall, significantly more mosquitoes of all species were collected at dusk than at dawn. Based on blood-meal analyses, Ae. vexans and An. messese fed on various vertebrate hosts, whereas Cx. modestus fed on ducks only. From a total of 335 mosquito pools tested, 10 pools of Ae. vexans were found positive for alphavirus. Comparison with the gene database revealed that the alphavirus deoxyribonucleic acid fragment obtained (GenBank accession no. HM160530) was 100% homologous at the nucleotide level to chikungunya virus isolate LK (PB) chik3408, chikungunya virus isolate SGEHICHD122508, and chikungunya virus strain FD080231. The results of this study suggest that ongoing, integrated mosquito and arbovirus surveillance is necessary in this river wetland. PMID:26675454

  6. Molecular Perspectives on the Genetics of Mosquitoes

    Mosquitoes have been a focus of scientific study since the turn of the century, when they were first linked with human diseases. This review concentrates on the three most intensely studied genera, Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes. These genera include the principal vectors of three major groups of human pathogens: malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium, filarial worms of the genera Wuchereria and Brugia, and numerous arboviruses. Anophelines are the only mosquitoes known to transmit human malaria parasites, a group of organisms that may be responsible for more morbidity and mortality worldwide than any other human pathogen. Anophelines also transmit filarial worms, as do Culex and Aedes species. Among the 14 or more different mosquito genera known to harbor arboviruses (Mattingly, 1973), the most important are Culex and Aedes, which include the principal vectors of yellow fever, dengue, and most encephalitis-causing arboviruses.

  7. Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes

    N.G. Das, I. Baruah, P.K. Talukdar & S.C. Das

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Repellent properties of three plant extracts—essential oil (steam distillate of Zanthoxylumlimonella (fruits, Citrus aurantifolia (leaf and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruitswere evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S. albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara and coconut(Parachute oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations—10, 20 and 30% of therepellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against thebites of Aedes (S. albopictus mosquitoes than those in coconut oil. At 30% concentration, 296–304 min protection time was achieved by the test repellents in mustard oil base while repellents incoconut oil exhibited 223.5–245 min protection time at the same concentration. Oil of Z. limonellagave the highest protection time against the bites of Aedes (S. albopictus mosquitoes at all theconcentrations than other herbal repellents tested both in mustard and coconut oil.

  8. Remote Sensing Assessment of Soil Moisture, Soil Mineralogy and other Environmental Factors Influencing Mosquito-borne Infection Risks in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, U.S. - Mexico Border (Invited)

    Hubbard, B. E.; Folger, H. W.; Page, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    A dengue fever outbreak occurred near Matamoros, Mexico along the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the summer of 2005 following heavy rainfall from Tropical Storm Gert and Hurricane Emily. This outbreak exemplifies the need for monitoring soil moisture and mapping soil permeability factors affecting the breeding and distribution of mosquito species capable of spreading disease. For example, the Rio Grande delta of South Texas and North Tamaulipas Mexico is inhabited by over 50 native and invasive species of mosquitoes capable of hosting Malaria, West Nile Virus and other types of human and livestock infecting Encephalitis. They range in ecological habitats from coastal salt marshes to freshwater riparian wetlands, tree holes and/or urban containers, flooded agricultural fields, and the many irrigation canals and ditches present throughout our study area. For this study, water-saturated and flooded soils were mapped using a “soil moisture availability” index (Mo) based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images and surface radiant and/or kinetic temperature images derived from multi-temporal Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER imagery. In particular, the Landsat-7 imagery covers ten cloud-free or minimal cloud cover acquisition dates during drought and wet periods of 2002, prior to the scan-line corrector failure in 2003. This includes one date (August 18, 2002) of co-orbital swath coverage between Landsat and ASTER, acquired after the land fall and dissipation of Tropical Storm Bertha (August 09, 2002). ASTER image dates used include those before and after the land fall of Hurricane Emily on July 20, 2005. The resulting maps show the distribution of relatively permeable (i.e. sandier) and impermeable soil types, the latter of which are dominated by clay-rich soils deposited in remnant interdistributary channels as channel-fill, and overbank flood deposits along the modern Rio Grande delta and portions of the (remapped) Pleistocene Beaumont coastal deltaic plain. Pools of standing rain water on impermeable soils can become ideal habitats for mosquito ovipositing and larval development between storms, which in turn can pose a higher risk for infection to humans and livestock animals. Because clay and other fine-grained minerals strongly affect a soil’s physical and chemical properties such as porosity, permeability and surface sealing/crusting upon saturation, 211 soil samples were collected at approximately 3-5 km sample spacing. The mineralogy of both the < 2 mm- and the < 2 micron-grain size fractions were then analyzed. The results show the distribution and relative abundance of kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite, for which we compare to ASTER remote sensing derived mineral maps based on drought period imagery (March 15, 2001), and airborne geophyisical data showing the distribution of radiometric K-bearing minerals (e.g. mainly illite/mica and orthoclase feldspar). The ASTER mineral maps show areas of clay-rich impermeable soils that are prone to ponding of standing water after storms. Our results show the utility of using remote sensing observations for mapping flood prone areas that may pose mosquito related health threats to both people and livestock on both sides of the border.

  9. Wolbachia and the biological control of mosquito-borne disease

    Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Walker, Thomas; O'Neill, Scott L

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are an increasing problem in many regions of the world, and control options are limited. Mosquito infection with the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia—which reduces lifespan, affects mosquito reproduction and interferes with pathogen replication—is a promising new biocontrol strategy.

  10. Surveillance of Aedes albopictus Skuse breeding preference in selected dengue outbreak localities, peninsular Malaysia.

    Rozilawati, H; Tanaselvi, K; Nazni, W A; Mohd Masri, S; Zairi, J; Adanan, C R; Lee, H L

    2015-03-01

    Entomological surveillance was conducted in order to determine the abundance and to evaluate any changes of biological vectors or ecology, especially in the dengue outbreak areas. The abundance and breeding preference of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were conducted in selected dengue outbreak localities in three states of peninsular Malaysia namely Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, and Penang Island using ovitraps and larval survey method. It was determined that Ae. albopictus was predominant in most of the localities and found to breed more outdoor than indoor. A wide range of breeding foci were recorded in this study. It was also determined that ovitrap method was more effective to detect the presence of Aedes mosquitoes when the larval survey was at low rate of infestation. The abundance of Ae. albopictus in dengue outbreak localities emphasis that the vector control programme should also target this species together with the primary dengue vector, Ae. aegypti. PMID:25801254

  11. A Breeding Bird Survey of the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to: 1 Create a list of birds occurring in the study area during the breeding season; 2. Identify species and habitats of...

  12. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    Dirks, R.; Dun, K.P.M., van; Snoo, B., de; Berg, M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, J.P.C., de; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, J.H.S.G.M., de; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chro...

  13. Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies

    André Barretto Bruno Wilke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  14. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MALARIAL MOSQUITOES KHARKIV REGION. NATURAL FACTORS OF MALARIA TRANSMISSION

    Gazzawi - Rogozin? L. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article describes the species composition of the dominant Anopheles mosquitoes in the Kharkiv region, the season of their possible effective infection, as well as ongoing anti-malaria activities . Key words: malaria , mosquitoes, p . Anopheles, epidemiology, census, hydraulic events. Material & methods. The analysis of entomological and meteorological situation in Ukraine and in the Kharkiv region according to data of the Ukrainian Center of control and monitoring of diseases of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine and Kharkiv regional laboratory center. Collection of material (imaginal and larval was carried out on the territory of natural and artificial water bodies of Kharkiv region in the period 2013 - 2014. When collecting the material used conventional accounting methods mosquito populations. On the territory of the region under study, we have found 30 species of mosquitoes three genera: Anopheles, Culex, Aedes. Results & discussion. Epidemiological role of each species of mosquitoes depends on several conditions. Dangerous vector species can only be found in large numbers, a significant percentage of individuals in a population that feeds on the blood of man, having a sufficiently long season activity and a sufficient number of females surviving to age possible maturation of sporozoites in their body. In Ukraine, the major carriers - Anopheles maculipennis, An. m. messeae, An. m. atroparvus, An. claviger, An. plumbeus, An. hyrcanus. Mosquito species registered in the territory of the Kharkiv region are susceptible to currently known types of human malaria parasites . Moreover, the dominant species in terms of urban landscapes are An.maculipennis and An.messeae . These species possess all the qualities necessary to be considered dangerous malaria vector control. They are well infected with the three main types of human parasites. In the study area , in terms of urban landscapes, gonoaktivnye females occurs within 3.5-4 months, and Preimaginal stages in reservoirs - about 4.5 months. The maximum number of species observed in mid-July. Due to the high number of attacks and activity in the summer , as well as the confinement of breeding sites to human settlements , An.maculipennis, An. messeae pose the greatest epidemiological risk. Conclusion. All of the above demonstrates the improvement of environmental conditions for the spread of malaria : growth of the transporter , the increase in precipitation , temperature longer transmission period of invasion .

  15. Invaded habitats. Chapter 4

    Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde; Milka Glavendekić; Maria Rosa Paiva

    2010-01-01

    More than 65% (1040 species) of arthropod species alien to Europe are associated with human-made habitats, especially parks and gardens, human settlements and agricultural lands, whereas woodlands are yet colonized by less than 20% of the alien fauna, which still has a negligible representation in the other natural and semi-natural habitats. Large diff erences in habitat affi nity are observed between alien taxonomic groups. Phytophagous species are predominant among aliens, representing 47.2...

  16. Mosquitoes meet microfluidics: High-throughput microfluidic tools for insect-parasite ecology in field conditions

    Prakash, Manu; Mukundarajan, Haripriya

    2013-11-01

    A simple bite from an insect is the transmission mechanism for many deadly diseases worldwide--including malaria, yellow fever, west nile and dengue. Very little is known about how populations of numerous insect species and disease-causing parasites interact in their natural habitats due to a lack of measurement techniques. At present, vector surveillance techniques involve manual capture by using humans as live bait, which is hard to justify on ethical grounds. Individual mosquitoes are manually dissected to isolate salivary glands to detect sporozites. With typical vector infection rates being very low even in endemic areas, it is almost impossible to get an accurate picture of disease distribution, in both space and time. Here we present novel high-throughput microfluidic tools for vector surveillance, specifically mosquitoes. A two-dimensional high density array with baits provide an integrated platform for multiplex PCR for detection of both vector and parasite species. Combining techniques from engineering and field ecology, methods and tools developed here will enable high-throughput measurement of infection rates for a number of diseases in mosquito populations in field conditions. Pew Foundation.

  17. Multi-agency perspectives on managing mangrove wetlands and the mosquitoes they produce.

    Dale, Pat E; Knight, Jon M; Griffin, Lachlan; Beidler, John; Brockmeyer, Ron; Carlson, Doug; Cox, David; David, Jim; Encomio, Vincent; Gilmore, Grant; Haydt, Paul; Lewis, Robin; McNelly, James; O'Connell, Sheila M; Peery, Bruce; Rey, Jorge; Tucker, John

    2014-06-01

    A group of researchers, mosquito and coastal managers, and consultants joined together to explore issues of concern to coastal and mosquito management in mangrove forests. At a 1-day workshop in Florida, participants identified issues that are important for their roles. The issues were subsequently compiled into a matrix and the participants were asked to individually assess the importance and urgency of each. The most important issues for everyone included habitat responses to management, community attitude, public education, interaction between agencies, local connectivity, sea-level rise (SLR) loss of wetlands, and conservation. Most urgent were public education, conservation easements, local connectivity, SLR, loss of wetland, restoration, and conservation. There were differing viewpoints among the roles that appeared to be related to responsibility for and ability to influence on-ground outcomes. This is reflected in mosquito and coastal managers who viewed issues broadly and ascribed higher levels of importance and urgency to them than did researchers and consultants. We concluded that collaboration is a key issue. Barriers to collaboration include knowledge differences between agencies. Facilitators of collaboration include interaction, trust, and shared goals. PMID:25102593

  18. Breeding tropical forages

    L Jank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.

  19. FIELD EVALUATION OF CDC AND MOSQUITO MAGNET® X TRAPS BAITED WITH DRY ICE, CO2 SACHET, AND OCTENOL AGAINST MOSQUITOES

    CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnet® X (MMX) traps baited with dry ice, octenol, and a new formulation of CO2 (granular) were evaluated against mosquitoes in the field. The results showed that the MMX traps (68.6%) baited with dry ice collected more mosquitoes, compared to the CDC light traps (32.4%...

  20. Shorebird Habitat Suitability Indicies

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This dataset consists of predicted habitat suitability indices and species richness for eight shorebird species (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola],...

  1. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America.

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Martin, Tara G; Hobson, Keith A; Wunder, Michael B; Norris, D Ryan

    2013-10-01

    Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km(2) that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America. PMID:23926146

  2. Towards a risk map of malaria for Sri Lanka: the importance of house location relative to vector breeding sites

    Van Der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Perera, Devika; Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, Felix P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Sri Lanka, the major malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies breeds in pools formed in streams and river beds and it is likely that people living close to such breeding sites are at higher risk of malaria than people living further away. This study was done to quantify the importance...... central Sri Lanka, malaria cases were compared with community controls for distance from house to breeding sites and a number of other variables, including type of housing construction and use of anti-mosquito measures. The presence of An. culicifacies in bedrooms was determined by indoor insecticide...... also had more adult An. culicifacies in the bedrooms. Poor housing construction was an independent risk factor for malaria. CONCLUSIONS: Risk maps of malaria in Sri Lanka can be based on the location of houses relative to streams and rivers that are potential breeding sites for the malaria vector An...

  3. Surface Habitat Systems

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2009-01-01

    The Surface Habitat Systems (SHS) Focused Investment Group (FIG) is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) effort to provide a focused direction and funding to the various projects that are working on human surface habitat designs and technologies for the planetary exploration missions. The overall SHS-FIG effort focuses on directing and guiding those projects that: 1) develop and demonstrate new surface habitat system concepts, innovations, and technologies to support human exploration missions, 2) improve environmental systems that interact with human habitats, 3) handle and emplace human surface habitats, and 4) focus on supporting humans living and working in habitats on planetary surfaces. The activity areas of the SHS FIG described herein are focused on the surface habitat project near-term objectives as described in this document. The SHS-FIG effort focuses on mitigating surface habitat risks (as identified by the Lunar Surface Systems Project Office (LSSPO) Surface Habitat Element Team; and concentrates on developing surface habitat technologies as identified in the FY08 gap analysis. The surface habitat gap assessment will be updated annually as the surface architecture and surface habitat definition continues to mature. These technologies are mapped to the SHS-FIG Strategic Development Roadmap. The Roadmap will bring to light the areas where additional innovative efforts are needed to support the development of habitat concepts and designs and the development of new technologies to support of the LSSPO Habitation Element development plan. Three specific areas of development that address Lunar Architecture Team (LAT)-2 and Constellation Architecture Team (CxAT) Lunar habitat design issues or risks will be focused on by the SHS-FIG. The SHS-FIG will establish four areas of development that will help the projects prepare in their planning for surface habitat systems development. Those development areas are the 1) surface habitat concept definition, 2) inflatable surface habitat development, and 3) autonomous habitat operations, and 4) cross-cutting / systems engineering. In subsequent years, the SHS-FIG will solicit a call for innovations and technologies that will support the development of these four development areas. The other development areas will be assessed yearly and identified on the SHS-FIG s Strategic Development Roadmap. Initial investment projects that are funded by the Constellation Program Office (CxPO), LSSPO, or the Exploration Technology Development Projects (ETDP) will also be included on the Roadmap. For example, in one or two years from now, the autonomous habitat operations and testbed would collaborations with the Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) and Automation for Operations ETDP projects, which will give the surface habitat projects an integrated habitat autonomy testbed to test software and systems. The SHS-FIG scope is to provide focused direction for multiple innovations, technologies and subsystems that are needed to support humans at a remote planetary surface habitat during the concept development, design definition, and integration phases of that project. Subsystems include: habitability, lightweight structures, power management, communications, autonomy, deployment, outfitting, life support, wireless connectivity, lighting, thermal and more.

  4. Eco-virological survey of Aedes mosquito larvae in selected dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia

    A. Rohani; A.R. Aidil Azahary; M. Malinda; M.N. Zurainee; H. Rozilawati; W.M.A. Wan Najdah; Lee, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectivesi: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus in the Aedes vectors is now a well-documented phenomenon reported from many parts of the endemic areas in the world, which played an important role in initiating and maintaining the outbreak in human populations. This study investigated the factors affecting breeding habitats and the relationship with transovarial dengue virus in larvae of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Methods: Larval surveillance was conducted in den...

  5. Modelling releases of sterile mosquitoes with different strategies.

    Li, Jia; Yuan, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    To prevent the transmissions of malaria, dengue fever, or other mosquito-borne diseases, one effective weapon is the sterile insect technique in which sterile mosquitoes are released to reduce or eradicate the wild mosquito population. To study the impact of the sterile insect technique on disease transmission, we formulate discrete-time mathematical models, based on difference equations, for the interactive dynamics of the wild and sterile mosquitoes, incorporating different strategies in releasing sterile mosquitoes. We investigate the model dynamics and compare the impact of the different release strategies. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate rich dynamical features of the models. PMID:25377433

  6. Induced mutations in plant breeding

    Studies are reported on plant breeding using ionizing radiation which induces mutations. The notions are explained of radiostimulation, mutation, the nature of mutations, plant breeding and a survey is given of the uses of mutations in plant breeding. The types of radiation inducing mutations are given as are radiation doses, application, the interaction of ionizing radiation with the biological material, a survey of chemical mutagens, a comparison of physical and chemical mutagens and the results of mutation breeding and future prospects. (J.P.)

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43

    This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions

  8. Radiation mutation breeding

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  9. Mutation Breeding in Sugarcane

    The present position of sugar industry particularly cane sugar production in the world has been discussed. The role of African Countries which can contribute more than the present 11% to world cane sugar production is presented. The breeding methods employed in cane growing court-tries indicate the biparental crossing and selection in F1 has been the major method used to develop varieties. Due to cytogenetical peculiarities, thousands of seedlings are grown to select the desirable genotype. Mutations or sports has been a source of variation for selection in nature. Induced mutations have only enhanced the mutation rate and has enabled the plant breeders to get better variation for selection. Though many mutagens have been used gamma rays have been most effective. Induced mutations for nonflowering, spineless leaf-sheath, higher sugar content, yield md resistance to diseases like smut and downy mildew have been reported. The methods of making mutated tissues express itself have been indicated. Mutation breeding holds out promise in sugarcane in that the basic variety or genotype can be kept intact and a few characters changed as desired by the plant breeder provided proper selection methods are employed. (author)

  10. Modelling the requirements and benefits of mosquito control interventions in the presence of mosquito dispersal

    Lutambi Angelina M; Chitnis Nakul; Smith Tom; Penny Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Vector control methods are widely used as a means to control malaria, however, the role of spatial arrangement when deploying these interventions is not well known. Understanding the effects of spatial distribution and clustering of interventions on mosquito populations can provide a guide to strategically deploying interventions to effectively maximize benefits. A recently developed discrete-space continuous-time mathematical model of mosquito population dynamics and dispersal was extended t...

  11. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  12. The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes

    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI. Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with cow urine in both laboratory and field conditions have shown that cow urine left to age from 1-7 days has an influence on oviposition behavioural response in mosquitoes. The analysis of microbial colonies for decaying urine should be investigated along with its associated by-products.

  13. Nota sobre o encontro de Aedes aegypti em bromélias Finding of Aedes aegypti breeding in bromeliad

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini; Gisela Rita Alvarenga Monteiro Marques

    2000-01-01

    Descreve-se o encontro de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti em bromélia domesticada para fins decorativos. São feitas considerações sobre as implicações desse encontro para o controle desse mosquito.A breeding place of Aedes aegypti immature forms were found in bromeliads domesticated for decorative purposes. Implications for the control measures were considered.

  14. Eco-bio-social determinants of dengue vector breeding: a multicountry study in urban and periurban Asia

    Natarajan Arunachalam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study dengue vector breeding patterns under a variety of conditions in public and private spaces; to explore the ecological, biological and social (eco-bio-social factors involved in vector breeding and viral transmission, and to define the main implications for vector control. METHODS: In each of six Asian cities or periurban areas, a team randomly selected urban clusters for conducting standardized household surveys, neighbourhood background surveys and entomological surveys. They collected information on vector breeding sites, people's knowledge, attitudes and practices surrounding dengue, and the characteristics of the study areas. All premises were inspected; larval indices were used to quantify vector breeding sites, and pupal counts were used to identify productive water container types and as a proxy measure for adult vector abundance. FINDINGS: The most productive vector breeding sites were outdoor water containers, particularly if uncovered, beneath shrubbery and unused for at least one week. Peridomestic and intradomestic areas were much more important for pupal production than commercial and public spaces other than schools and religious facilities. A complex but non-significant association was found between water supply and pupal counts, and lack of waste disposal services was associated with higher vector abundance in only one site. Greater knowledge about dengue and its transmission was associated with lower mosquito breeding and production. Vector control measures (mainly larviciding in one site substantially reduced larval and pupal counts and "pushed" mosquito breeding to alternative containers. CONCLUSION: Vector breeding and the production of adult Aedes aegypti are influenced by a complex interplay of factors. Thus, to achieve effective vector management, a public health response beyond routine larviciding or focal spraying is essential.

  15. Provisions for cost reduction in breeding horse breeding in Ukraine ??????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????

    Kukla Oleg L.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article reserves to reduce the cost justified by the content breeding of horses on farms in Ukraine. Determined the total cost per head of their structure. When milking breed mares manufacturing cost per head of young stock will amount to 22183 UAH , which in 9000 will be lower compared to the option, when the mares are not milked.? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????. ?????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????, ?? ?????????. ??? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? 22183 ???, ??? ?? 9 ???. ???? ?? ????????? ? ?????????, ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????.

  16. Influence of trap construction on mosquito capture

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Peško, Juraj; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2012), s. 209-215. ISSN 1934-7391 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : CDC miniature light traps * baited lard-can traps * mosquitoes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  17. Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets

    2014-09-23

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets about the art of James Whistler and the transmission of vector borne diseases.  Created: 9/23/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2014.

  18. Malaria Mosquitoes Attracted by Fatal Fungus

    George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

  19. Responses of salt marsh ecosystems to mosquito control management practices along the Atlantic Coast (U.S.A.)

    James-Pirri, Mary-Jane; Erwin, R. Michael; Prosser, Diann J.; Taylor, Janith D.

    2012-01-01

    Open marsh water management (OMWM) of salt marshes modifies grid-ditched marshes by creating permanent ponds and radial ditches in the high marsh that reduce mosquito production and enhance fish predation on mosquitoes. It is preferable to using pesticides to control salt marsh mosquito production and is commonly presented as a restoration or habitat enhancement tool for grid-ditched salt marshes. Monitoring of nekton, vegetation, groundwater level, soil salinity, and bird communities before and after OMWM at 11 (six treatment and five reference sites) Atlantic Coast (U.S.A.) salt marshes revealed high variability within and among differing OMWM techniques (ditch-plugging, reengineering of sill ditches, and the creation of ponds and radial ditches). At three marshes, the dominant nekton shifted from fish (primarily Fundulidae species) to shrimp (Palaemonidae species) after manipulations and shrimp density increased at other treatment sites. Vegetation changed at only two sites, one with construction equipment impacts (not desired) and one with a decrease in woody vegetation along existing ditches (desired). One marsh had lower groundwater level and soil salinity, and bird use, although variable, was often unrelated to OMWM manipulations. The potential effects of OMWM manipulations on non-target salt marsh resources need to be carefully considered by resource planners when managing marshes for mosquito control.

  20. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  1. Predicting Scenarios for Successful Autodissemination of Pyriproxyfen by Malaria Vectors from Their Resting Sites to Aquatic Habitats; Description and Simulation Analysis of a Field-Parameterizable Model

    Kiware, Samson S.; Corliss, George; Merrill, Stephen; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Devine, Gregor; Majambere, Silas; Killeen, Gerry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Large-cage experiments indicate pyriproxifen (PPF) can be transferred from resting sites to aquatic habitats by Anopheles arabiensis - malaria vector mosquitoes to inhibit emergence of their own offspring. PPF coverage is amplified twice: (1) partial coverage of resting sites with PPF contamination results in far higher contamination coverage of adult mosquitoes because they are mobile and use numerous resting sites per gonotrophic cycle, and (2) even greater contamination coverage of aquatic habitats results from accumulation of PPF from multiple oviposition events. Methods and Findings Deterministic mathematical models are described that use only field-measurable input parameters and capture the biological processes that mediate PPF autodissemination. Recent successes in large cages can be rationalized, and the plausibility of success under full field conditions can be evaluated a priori. The model also defines measurable properties of PPF delivery prototypes that may be optimized under controlled experimental conditions to maximize chances of success in full field trials. The most obvious flaw in this model is the endogenous relationship that inevitably occurs between the larval habitat coverage and the measured rate of oviposition into those habitats if the target mosquito species is used to mediate PPF transfer. However, this inconsistency also illustrates the potential advantages of using a different, non-target mosquito species for contamination at selected resting sites that shares the same aquatic habitats as the primary target. For autodissemination interventions to eliminate malaria transmission or vector populations during the dry season window of opportunity will require comprehensive contamination of the most challenging subset of aquatic habitats (Clx) that persist or retain PPF activity (Ux) for only one week (Clx?1, where Ux = 7 days). To achieve >99% contamination coverage of these habitats will necessitate values for the product of the proportional coverage of the ovipositing mosquito population with PPF contamination (CM) by the ovitrap-detectable rates of oviposition by wild mosquitoes into this subset of habitats (mlx,z,d), divided by the titre of contaminated mosquitoes required to render them unproductive (Tlx,z,d), that approximately approach unity (CMmlx,z,d/Tlx,z,d?1). Conclusions The simple multiplicative relationship between CM and mlx,z,d/Tlx,z,d, and the simple exponential decay effect they have upon uncontaminated aquatic habitats, allows application of this model by theoreticians and field biologists alike. PMID:26186730

  2. To breed, or not to breed? Predation risk induces breeding suppression in common voles.

    Jochym, Mateusz; Halle, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Breeding suppression hypothesis (BSH) predicts that, in several vole species, females will suppress breeding in response to high risk of mustelid predation; compared to breeding females, suppressing females would gain higher chances of survival. Seminal evidence for BSH was obtained in the laboratory, but attempts to replicate breeding suppression under field conditions were less conclusive. We tested whether breeding suppression occurs in common voles (Microtus arvalis), and how population density and predation risk combined affect voles' reproductive activity. We found that, in contrast to males, female common voles suppress reproductive activity when faced with high predation risk. Population size was not reduced despite breeding suppression. A model of the interaction between predation risk and population density revealed that predator-induced breeding suppression depends on the density of conspecifics. We concluded that breeding suppression is a viable adaptation only at low vole densities, when per capita predation risk is high. Finally, we identified the key issues of experimental design required for the consistency of future studies on breeding suppression. PMID:22700062

  3. Avian malaria infections in western European mosquitoes.

    Ventim, Rita; Ramos, Jaime A; Osório, Hugo; Lopes, Ricardo J; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Mendes, Luísa

    2012-08-01

    In the complex life cycle of avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium sp.), we still have a poor understanding on the vector-parasite relationships. This study described the community of potential avian malaria vectors in four Portuguese reedbeds. We tested if their geographical distribution differed, and investigated on their Plasmodium infections. The mosquitoes' feeding preferences were evaluated using CO(2), mice, and birds as baits. The most abundant species were Culex pipiens, Culex theileri, and Ochlerotatus caspius (and, in one site, Coquillettidia richiardii). Plasmodium lineages SGS1 and SYAT05 were found in unengorged Cx. pipiens and Cx. theileri, respectively, suggesting that these mosquitoes were competent vectors of those lineages. The species' abundance was significantly different among sites, which may help to explain the observed differences in the prevalence of SGS1. At the study sites, SGS1 was detected in the most abundant mosquito species and reached a high prevalence in the most abundant passerine species. Probably, this parasite needs abundant hosts in all phases of its cycle to keep a good reservoir of infection in all its stages. Cq. richiardii showed an opportunistic feeding behavior, while Cx. pipiens appeared to be more mammophilic than previously described, perhaps because the used avian bait was not its preferential target. In one of the study sites, mosquitoes seem to be attracted to the Spotless Starling Sturnus unicolor, an abundant bird species that may be an important local reservoir of avian malaria infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report of detection of avian Plasmodium DNA from European mosquitoes. PMID:22427023

  4. Competition and Habitat Quality Influence Age and Sex Distribution in Wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B.; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal Jr., Theodore J.; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes. PMID:25946335

  5. Tamarix as habitat for birds: Implications for riparian restoration in the Southwestern United States

    Sogge, M.K.; Sferra, S.J.; Paxton, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Exotic vegetation has become a major habitat component in many ecosystems around the world, sometimes dramatically changing the vegetation community structure and composition. In the southwestern United States, riparian ecosystems are undergoing major changes in part due to the establishment and spread of the exotic Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk). There are concerns about the suitability of Tamarix as habitat for birds. Although Tamarix habitats tend to support fewer species and individuals than native habitats, Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas data and Birds of North America accounts show that 49 species use Tamarix as breeding habitat. Importantly, the relative use of Tamarix and its quality as habitat vary substantially by geographic location and bird species. Few studies have examined how breeding in Tamarix actually affects bird survivorship and productivity; recent research on Southwestern Willow Flycatchers has found no negative effects from breeding in Tamarix habitats. Therefore, the ecological benefits and costs of Tamarix control are difficult to predict and are likely to be species specific and site specific. Given the likelihood that high-quality native riparian vegetation will not develop at all Tamarix control sites, restoration projects that remove Tamarix but do not assure replacement by high-quality native habitat have the potential to reduce the net riparian habitat value for some local or regional bird populations. Therefore, an assessment of potential negative impacts is important in deciding if exotic control should be conducted. In addition, measurable project objectives, appropriate control and restoration techniques, and robust monitoring are all critical to effective restoration planning and execution. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  6. Breeding Behavior of Copsychus saularis in Indian-Sub-Continent: A Personal Experience

    Yasir Hasan Siddique

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copsychus saularis is a small passerine bird that was earlier classified as a member of the thrush family turdidae, but now placed in a family muscicapidae. The present study deals with the breeding behaviour of magpie robin in an Indian sub-continent, based on personal experience in a natural habitat.

  7. CONTROL OF THE BREEDING OF CULEX LARVAE IN SEWAGE WELLS BY THE USE OF ABATE, 5c

    P.Sanajian

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the control of breeding sources of Culex larvae in sewage wells by the larvicide Abate, some studies were performed in the summer and autumn of 1972. In general, it was noticed in these studies that:1. The wells chosen as a control (5 wells were active throughout the study periods and adult mosquitoes were captured plentifully. 2 In 4 sewage wells which were controlled by kerosene, after the distribution of kerosene the number of adults diminished and in some cases reached zero or near zero. These studies showed that the use of kerosene at ½ to one liter for each well is able to control the production source of mosquitoes for 10 to 12 days.3. Abate capsules were investigated at various quantities. In a number of wells, one capsule was used at the beginning; it was observed that, in some cases, there were not many effects on the mosquito population. The next time, 2 capsules were used and it was noticed that the density of adult mosquitoes decreased considerably and reached zero. In some cases, some of these wells had no activity for mosquito production for 30 days. In some of the other wells, 2 capsules were used initially and it was observed that the density reached zero after 6-7 days, and they then remain zero for 20 to 22 days. In general, these studies showed that the Abate capsule is a larvicide in sewage wells and that can control larvae.

  8. Industry comments on accelerator breeding

    A brief discussion is given on the relative merits of accelerator breeding of fissile materials. Spallation breeding is believed to be easier than fusion-fission hybrids. Technological and economic issues of the accelerator breeder should be considered rather than using nonproliferation as a justification

  9. Mutation breeding of ornamental plants

    The outline of registered ornamental cultivars bred up by mutation breeding, the applied methods, and the radiosensitivity of air-dried seeds among ornamental plants are described. The mutation breeding of ornamental plants has not yet become a familiar means like cross breeding or line separation. But the number of the cultivars bred up by mutation breeding reached more than 270, and took a relatively large proportion of about 40 % of the agronomic cultivars bred up by mutation breeding in the world. The number of the species to which those improved cultivars belong is only 22. Considering the abundance of ornamental plant species and the successful results of mutation breeding in this field, mutation breeding techniques will be applied to many species which remain in the rudimentary stage or have never tried them. It is hoped that the information presented in this paper contributes to the promising future of ornamental plant breeding as the suggestion. Especially in ornamental plants, many spontaneously occurred novel mutants have been sought and treasured for a long time. Such mutants actually enriched the variety of flower colors, shapes and many other important characters required for being ornamentally valuable. (Kako, I.)

  10. Mutation breeding of ornamental plants

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1988-03-01

    The outline of registered ornamental cultivars bred up by mutation breeding, the applied methods, and the radiosensitivity of air-dried seeds among ornamental plants are described. The mutation breeding of ornamental plants has not yet become a familiar means like cross breeding or line separation. But the number of the cultivars bred up by mutation breeding reached more than 270, and took a relatively large proportion of about 40 % of the agronomic cultivars bred up by mutation breeding in the world. The number of the species to which those improved cultivars belong is only 22. Considering the abundance of ornamental plant species and the successful results of mutation breeding in this field, mutation breeding techniques will be applied to many species which remain in the rudimentary stage or have never tried them. It is hoped that the information presented in this paper contributes to the promising future of ornamental plant breeding as the suggestion. Especially in ornamental plants, many spontaneously occurred novel mutants have been sought and treasured for a long time. Such mutants actually enriched the variety of flower colors, shapes and many other important characters required for being ornamentally valuable. (Kako, I.).

  11. Costs of Reproduction in Breeding Female Mallards: Predation Risk during Incubation Drives Annual Mortality

    David W. Howerter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effort expended on reproduction may entail future costs, such as reduced survival or fecundity, and these costs can have an important influence on life-history optimization. For birds with precocial offspring, hypothesized costs of reproduction have typically emphasized nutritional and energetic investments in egg formation and incubation. We measured seasonal survival of 3856 radio-marked female Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos from arrival on the breeding grounds through brood-rearing or cessation of breeding. There was a 2.5-fold direct increase in mortality risk associated with incubating nests in terrestrial habitats, whereas during brood-rearing when breeding females occupy aquatic habitats, mortality risk reached seasonal lows. Mortality risk also varied with calendar date and was highest during periods when large numbers of Mallards were nesting, suggesting that prey-switching behaviors by common predators may exacerbate risks to adults in all breeding stages. Although prior investments in egg laying and incubation affected mortality risk, most relationships were not consistent with the cost of reproduction hypothesis; birds with extensive prior investments in egg production or incubation typically survived better, suggesting that variation in individual quality drove both relationships. We conclude that for breeding female Mallards, the primary cost of reproduction is a fixed cost associated with placing oneself at risk to predators while incubating nests in terrestrial habitats.

  12. Breeding for eradication

    A long-term campaign to eradicate the medfly is being carried out in southern Japanese islands with the financial aid of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, arid Fisheries. In 1984, a mass-breeding facility was built for applying the sterile insect technique, in which controlled doses of radiation are used to sterilize flies to prevent reproduction. The campaign itself started in the Miyako islands in September 1984 to protect melon crops from the pest. After 2 years of extensive efforts, medflies there have almost been eliminated. It is expected that by 1992 the melon medfly will be eradicated from Japan. The accompanying photos illustrate some of the work involved in this extensive and promising campaign

  13. Over-breeding

    The Greenhouse Effect has fuzzy parameters, as do the consequences of acid rain, accidental nuclear fallout, deforestation, even the depletion of oil and natural gas reserves, and other threatening calamities. But the consequences of human over-breeding do not fall within fuzzy parameters. Reliable demographic studies predict a world population by the year 2020 of twice the present four billion or so living human beings. Some of us will see that year. But the population will again have doubled by the year 2090: sixteen billion people. The author suggests in this paper some morally permissible steps that might be taken to circumvent what otherwise is most assuredly an impending world tragedy. We have an ethical obligation to future generations. They have the moral right to a qualitatively fulfilling life, not just on allotted number of years. Some of my suggestions will not be palatable to some readers. But I urge those readers seriously to consider and if possible, hopefully, to propose alternatives

  14. ITER breeding blanket design

    A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R ampersand D data are identified during the development of the design

  15. Local impact of temperature and precipitation on West Nile virus infection in Culex species mosquitoes in northeast Illinois, USA

    Haramis Linn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of the effects of environmental factors on West Nile virus disease risk have yielded conflicting outcomes. The role of precipitation has been especially difficult to discern from existing studies, due in part to habitat and behavior characteristics of specific vector species and because of differences in the temporal and spatial scales of the published studies. We used spatial and statistical modeling techniques to analyze and forecast fine scale spatial (2000 m grid and temporal (weekly patterns of West Nile virus mosquito infection relative to changing weather conditions in the urban landscape of the greater Chicago, Illinois, region for the years from 2004 to 2008. Results Increased air temperature was the strongest temporal predictor of increased infection in Culex pipiens and Culex restuans mosquitoes, with cumulative high temperature differences being a key factor distinguishing years with higher mosquito infection and higher human illness rates from those with lower rates. Drier conditions in the spring followed by wetter conditions just prior to an increase in infection were factors in some but not all years. Overall, 80% of the weekly variation in mosquito infection was explained by prior weather conditions. Spatially, lower precipitation was the most important variable predicting stronger mosquito infection; precipitation and temperature alone could explain the pattern of spatial variability better than could other environmental variables (79% explained in the best model. Variables related to impervious surfaces and elevation differences were of modest importance in the spatial model. Conclusion Finely grained temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation and air temperature have a consistent and significant impact on the timing and location of increased mosquito infection in the northeastern Illinois study area. The use of local weather data at multiple monitoring locations and the integration of mosquito infection data from numerous sources across several years are important to the strength of the models presented. The other spatial environmental factors that tended to be important, including impervious surfaces and elevation measures, would mediate the effect of rainfall on soils and in urban catch basins. Changes in weather patterns with global climate change make it especially important to improve our ability to predict how inter-related local weather and environmental factors affect vectors and vector-borne disease risk. Local impact of temperature and precipitation on West Nile virus infection in Culex species mosquitoes in northeast Illinois, USA.

  16. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  17. Seasonal and habitat effects on dengue and West Nile virus vectors in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Smith, Joshua; Amador, Manuel; Barrera, Roberto

    2009-03-01

    The presence of West Nile (WNV) and dengue viruses and the lack of recent mosquito surveys in Puerto Rico prompted an investigation on the distribution and abundance of potential arbovirus vectors in the San Juan Metropolitan Area, and their variation with seasons and habitats. We sampled mosquitoes in early and late 2005 in 58 sites from forests, nonforest vegetation, wetlands, and high- and low-density housing areas using ovijars, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light/CO2 traps, and gravid traps. A total of 28 mosquito species was found. San Juan had potential WNV enzooticvectors (Culex nigripalpus) within and around the city in wetlands and forests, but few were captured in residential areas. A potential WNV bridge vector (Cx. quinquefasciatus) was abundant in urbanized areas, and it was positively correlated with the main dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. High-density housing areas harbored more Ae. aegypti. Container mosquitoes, including Aedes mediovittatus, were more abundant during the climax of the rainy season when most dengue occurs in Puerto Rico. The greatest risk for contracting WNV would be visiting forests and swamps at night. Culex (Culex) and Culex (Melanoconion) mosquito species were more abundant during the transition dry-wet seasons (March-May). PMID:19432067

  18. Cerulean Warbler occurrence and habitat use of Oklahoma

    Leslie, David M., Jr.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Cavalieri, Vincent S.

    2011-01-01

    Dendroica cerulea (Cerulean Warbler) is a migrant songbird that has declined rangewide in recent decades. We surveyed 150 sites in 2006–2007 to determine if this species still occupied its former breeding range in Oklahoma. We located Cerulean Warblers at 5 sites and confirmed breeding on north slopes of two heavily forested ridges in the Ouachita Mountains. We did not encounter Cerulean Warblers in any bottomland hardwoods, despite the former widespread distribution and abundance of the species in such habitats. While habitat loss and degradation may limit occurrence of Cerulean Warbler in some areas, the pattern of decline for this species at the edge of its range in Oklahoma is also consistent with abandonment of peripheral range as the range-wide population declines.

  19. Anti-mosquito antibodies and their effects on feeding, fecundity and mortality of Aedes aegypti.

    Hatfield, P R

    1988-10-01

    Anti-mosquito antibodies, produced in mice inoculated with mosquito homogenates or exposed to mosquito bites, reacted with a variety of mosquito antigens including muscle, gut, fat body and nervous tissue; those in anti-mosquito bite sera reacted solely with salivary glands. Mosquitoes fed on restrained immunized mice showed a significant increase in mortality correlated to both the titre and specificity of the anti-mosquito antibodies ingested. No changes in their fecundity or feeding success were noted. Mosquitoes exposed to unrestrained immunized mice or mosquito-bitten mice, however, showed a significant reduction in feeding success, possibly reflecting enhanced host grooming. PMID:2980191

  20. Captive breeding and reintroduction of the endangered masked bobwhite

    Carpenter, J.W.; Gabel, R.R.; Goodwin, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Efforts to restore the endangered masked bobwhite (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi) to its former range have required 1) habitat acquisition, restoration, and preservation; 2) captive propagation; and 3) reintroduction .bf captive-bred stock. In its role to recover the masked bobwhite, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (U.S. Fish and Wildli e Service) has refined captive breeding techniques; provided captive-produced stock for release; conducted field research on the distribution, limiting factors, and habitat characteristics of this species; and developed release methods. Techniques for the husbandry and captive management, breeding, artificial incubation and hatching of eggs, and rearing of young of the masked bobwhite have been developed. Successful reintroduction techniques for the masked bobwhite have included prerelease conditioning and/or cross-fostering of captive-reared masked bobwhite chicks to a wild-caught, related, vasectomized bobwhite species and their release to the wild as family units. In addition, the establishment by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in 1985 has further enhanced the potential for establishing a self-sustaining population of the masked bobwhite in the U. S. Through continued releases and active management of habitat, therefore, it is believed that the masked bobwhite can become permanently established at the refuge to ensure its continued survival in the wild.